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Sample records for industrial workers exposed

  1. Liver function in workers exposed of the cosmetics industry.

    PubMed

    Casale, T; Caciari, T; Rosati, M V; Biagi, M; De Sio, S; Andreozzi, G; Schifano, M P; Capozzella, A; Pimpinella, B; Tomei, G; Tomei, F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether occupational exposure to substances used in the cosmetic factories may cause effects on the liver and blood counts in exposed workers. The study included 48 exposed workers and 86 unexposed controls. All workers included in the study underwent blood count, white blood count, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and cholinesterase. The differences between the means and frequencies were compared using the Student's t-test and chi-square test with Yates correction and were considered significant when the p value was <0.05. The analysis of the results shows that 35.4% of workers in the cosmetics industry had liver test values above the range. We noted a statistically significant higher prevalence of GPT (p <0.05) and total bilirubin (p <0.05) in the workers of the cosmetics industry compared with the control group. The results obtained suggest that occupational exposure to low doses of substances used in the cosmetic industry is able to influence some liver parameters in occupationally exposed workers.

  2. Upper airway problems in industrial workers exposed to oil mist.

    PubMed

    Irander, K; Hellquist, H B; Edling, C; Odkvist, L M

    1980-01-01

    Exposure to oil mist used in metal work sometimes gives symptoms from skin and airways. This study was performed to evaluate histological and functional respiratory tract disorders. Six male lathe workers aged 31-64 years exposed to oil mist for 4-29 years were examined and compared with matched controls. The investigation included case history, ENT examination, nasal mucociliary function, routine blood tests, IgE, RAST, X-ray of sinus and lungs and biopsy of the nasal mucosa. The mucociliary test showed no difference between the groups. However, all 6 exposed workers had pathological histology findings in the nasal mucosa including lack of cilia, basal cell hyperplasia, goblet cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia and subepithelial hyalinization. The biopsies from the controls were mainly normal. The remainder of the investigations revealed no pathology. The study shows that exposure to oil mist--even below the permitted threshold limit--may cause airway symptoms and histological signs comparable to a premature ageing.

  3. [An epidemiological survey of malignant tumors among fluoride-exposed workers in aluminum industry].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-ping; Duan, Peng; Li, Bao-xiu; Qin, Li-lin; Lu, Ji-pei; Wei, Jia-xing; Wei, Xiao-min

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the incidence of malignant tumors among fluoride-exposed workers in aluminum industry. Sampling points were set in the working positions at different radii around an workshop for treating the waste gas from aluminum electrolysis, and the concentrations of fluoride ions, aluminum, and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in air were measured by electrode method, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The incidence of tumors among the workers in the aluminum plant from 1995 to 2009 was investigated by questionnaires and medical records and then statistically analyzed. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of fluoride and aluminum and the radius around the fluoride source at each sampling point. B[a]P was not detected at each sampling point. The crude incidence rate of tumors among factory workers was 117.95/100 000 (standardized rate = 58.81/100 000); the standardized incidence rate of tumors was higher in female workers than in male workers (male-to-female ratio = 1:2.64). The peak age of onset of tumors was 40 ∼ 49 years. The most and second most common tumors were liver cancer and lung cancer in male workers and breast cancer and lung cancer in female workers. Compared with the unexposed population in the city where the aluminum plant was located, the female fluoride-exposed workers had an increased tumor incidence, 2.14 times that of the city's average level, and the fluoride-exposed workers had a younger age of onset of tumors and approximately the same types of tumors. Fluoride exposure may lead to an increasing trend in tumor incidence among female workers in aluminum industry.

  4. Tooth abrasion in workers exposed to noise in the Montenegrin textile industry.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Milorad; Belojevic, Goran

    2006-07-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed on 225 textile workers from a wool production company in Montenegro to test the hypothesis of a relationship between exposure to intense industrial noise and tooth abrasion. The group exposed to intense noise (104 dB (A) Leq) consisted of 111 weavers (82 males and 29 females), while the control group (81 dB (A) Leq) consisted of 114 blue-collar workers (32 males and 82 females) in preparation departments. A specialist in dental prosthetics clinically examined all the subjects and additionally analyzed tooth statuses on hard plaster models. Gender, age, socioeconomic status and tooth brushing habits of workers were controlled as confounding factors. Significantly high adjusted odds ratios for tooth abrasion of 3.74 (95% CI = 1.42-7.85; p < 0.01) were found among female workers exposed to intense noise in comparison with the control group. The analysis of the subclass of male workers with severe tooth abrasion (grades III-IV) revealed significantly high adjusted odds ratios for tooth abrasion of 5.48 (95% CI = 1.76-14.50; p < 0.01) among the noise exposed group compared to the control group. This study suggests that extremely high levels of occupational noise might be related to tooth abrasion in exposed textile workers.

  5. Cancer incidence among asbestos-exposed chemical industry workers: An extended observation period

    SciTech Connect

    Hilt, B.; Andersen, A.; Rosenberg, J.; Langard, S. )

    1991-01-01

    A previous study on the incidence of cancer in a cohort of 286 asbestos-exposed electrochemical industry workers observed from 1953 through 1980 has been extended with another 8 years of follow-up. The incidence of cancer was derived from the Cancer Registry of Norway, and the expected figures were calculated by a life table method. During the extended follow-up period from 1981 through 1988, among the cohort members there were 12 new cancer cases versus 14.2 expected (SIR 85, 95% CI 44-158). In a lightly exposed sub-cohort, the extended follow-up revealed 4 cases of lung cancer or pleural mesothelioma (ICD, 7th revision 162-163) versus 1.6 cases expected (SIR 256, 95% CI71-654). In a heavily exposed sub-cohort, the corresponding figures were 3 and 0.5 (SIR 588, 95% CI 118-1,725).

  6. AREA FACTOR DETERMINATIONS FOR AN INDUSTRIAL WORKER EXPOSED TO A CONCRETE SLAB END-STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, T; Patricia Lee, P; Eduardo Farfan, E; Jesse Roach, J

    2007-02-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is decommissioning many of its excess facilities through removal of the facility structures leaving only the concrete-slab foundations in place. Site-specific, risk-based derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for radionuclides have been determined for a future industrial worker potentially exposed to residual contamination on these concrete slabs as described in Jannik [1]. These risk-based DCGLs were estimated for an exposure area of 100 m{sup 2}. During deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) operations at SRS, the need for area factors for larger and smaller contaminated areas arose. This paper compares the area factors determined for an industrial worker exposed to a concrete slab end-state for several radionuclides of concern at SRS with (1) the illustrative area factors provided in MARSSIM [2], (2) the area correction factors provided in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Soil Screening Guidance [3], and (3) the hot spot criterion for field application provided in the RESRAD User's Manual [4].

  7. [Liver function of workers occupationally exposed to mixed organic solvents in a petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Fernández-D'Pool, J; Oroño-Osorio, A

    2001-06-01

    A descriptive and cross sectional study was conducted to determine whether hepatic function changes in workers occupationally exposed to a mixture of organic solvents, were due to the exposure or confusing factors. A non random sample of 77 workers, operators and supervisors of the Olefin Plant I and II of a petrochemical industry in Maracaibo, Venezuela, was used. Their mean age was 29 +/- 7 years, and had at least one year of exposure to the solvents. This sample was compared with a group of employees of the administrative offices or control panel workers, with a mean age of 36 +/- 8 year and with similar anthropometric characteristics. Workers with a known history of liver disease, blood transfusions and diabetes mellitus were excluded of the study. In addition to a complete occupational disease medical history and a physical examination, serum samples were obtained to determine the activity of the aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamiltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AF), the concentration of the total bile acids (BAS), the surface antigen of hepatitis B(HbsAg) and the hepatitis A virus antibodies: AntiHAV-IgG and the AntiHAV-IgM. An urine sample was taken and analyzed by standard methodology to determine urinary phenols. The air concentrations of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene were analyzed by gas chromathography. The serum activities of the liver enzymes, the concentration of bile acids and urinary phenols were not influenced by the exposure to the solvents. The increase of the activity of GGT was associated with obesity and alcohol consumption. The antibodies of the surface antigen of hepatitis A-IgM were normal in both groups and the antibodies for the antigen of hepatitis A-IgG presented a prevalence of 6% in the exposed group and 9% in the non exposed not being associated with liver abnormalities. The individual air concentrations of the solvents were below the environmentally permissible

  8. Self-reported hearing loss among workers potentially exposed to industrial noise-United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-15

    Noise-induced loss of hearing has been recognized as an occupational health problem since the 18th century. Occupational deafness is an irreversible, sensorineural condition that results from damage to the nerve cells of the inner ear. Recent estimates from surveys indicate that between 7.4 and 10.2 million people work at sites where the level of noise presents an increased risk of hearing loss (85 decibels (dBA) or higher). During the period of 1978-1987, an estimated $835 million was paid in workers' compensation claims for occupationally induced hearing impairment. To assess the prevalence of hearing-loss symptoms among adult workers in the United States, investigators from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recently analyzed data collected during the 1971 and 1977 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). For this study, the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss was obtained for all persons over 17 years of age who were in the labor force at the time of interview. Data from the 1972-1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS) were used to classify worksites by noise level. NOHS was conducted by NIOSH from 1972 to 1974 on a probability sample of approximately 5000 workplaces across the United States. The survey provides information on potential exposures of workers to chemical and physical agents. These data identified industries and occupations in which employees are exposed to continuous noise.

  9. Visual functions of workers exposed to organic solvents in petrochemical industries

    PubMed Central

    Indhushree, R.; Monica, R.; Coral, K.; Angayarkanni, Narayanasamy; Punitham, R.; Subburathinam, B. M.; Krishnakumar, R.; Santanam, P. P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual functions of workers exposed to organic solvents in petrochemical industries. Materials and Methods: Thirty workers from the petroleum refinery and 30 age-matched controls (mean age) were recruited. Visual functions and occupational exposure levels were assessed among both the groups. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision, and visual fields were evaluated at the workplace. The biological samples, namely blood and urine, were collected at the workplace and transported to the laboratory for analysis. The urinary excretion of hippuric and methylhippuric acid as well as creatinine was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The mean age of the workers and controls were 39.7 ± 7.6 years and 38.6 ± 8.1, years respectively. The mean years of experience of the workers were 15.6 ± 6.8 years. Visual acuity was >0.01 LogMAR among both the control and case groups. The contrast sensitivity was reduced at 12cpd among workers. Comparison between groups was done using independent sample t-test. The mean difference in color confusion index was 0.11 ± 0.05 (P = 0.037*). The mean difference in visual fields was −0.31 ± 0.36 dB (P = 0.933). The mean difference in urinary hippuric acid level (urinary metabolite of toluene) between the groups was 0.19 ± 0.96 g/g creatinine (P = 0.049FNx01). The mean difference in the excretion of methylhippuric acid (urinary metabolite of xylene) was 0.06 ± 0.04g/g creatinine (P = 0.154). We also found that exposure was a significant risk factor for color vision defect with an odds ratio of 4.43 (95% CI: 1.36–14.4); P = 0.013. Conclusion: The study results showed that contrast sensitivity and color vision were affected among workers in petrochemical industry. PMID:28446838

  10. Prevalence of rhinitis symptoms among textile industry workers exposed to cotton dust

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Ivan de Picoli; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira; Zappelini, Carlos Eduardo Monteiro; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The respiratory tract is one of the main points of entry of foreign substances into the body. Because of its location, the respiratory tract is heavily exposed to harmful agents, such as gases, vapors, or aerosols. Aim: Our objective was to evaluate the symptoms of occupational rhinitis in workers exposed to cotton dust. Method: The prospective study population consisted of workers from the “Nova Esperança” Cooperative of Nova Odessa (Sao Paulo), who were studied between September and December 2008. Data were collected through an individually and privately answered questionnaire designed by the author considering the clinical criteria for rhinitis. Results: Using the questionnaire, we evaluated a total of 124 workers. Among these patients, 63.7% complained of nasal obstruction, 57.2% of nasal itching, 46.7% of rhinorrhea, and 66.1% of sneezing. Of the patients considered to have very serious symptoms, 9% had nasal obstruction; 9%, itching; 4%, rhinorrhea; and 6.4%, sneezing. Discussion: Aerosol agents in the environment can clearly aggravate and even initiate rhinitis. From the standpoint of pathogenesis, the mechanisms of classical allergic airway inflammation involving mast cells, IgE, histamine, eosinophils, and lymphocytes may be responsible for the development of rhinitis after exposure to high molecular weight allergens such as proteins derived from animals and plants. This study showed a strong relationship between the occupational exposures associated with work in the cotton textile industry and the symptoms of rhinitis. Conclusion: Analysis of the data clearly showed the occurrence of rhinitis symptoms in these patients, demonstrating that the prevention and treatment of this condition in the workplace is extremely important. PMID:25991990

  11. Prevalence of rhinitis symptoms among textile industry workers exposed to cotton dust.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Ivan de Picoli; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira; Zappelini, Carlos Eduardo Monteiro; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha

    2013-01-01

     The respiratory tract is one of the main points of entry of foreign substances into the body. Because of its location, the respiratory tract is heavily exposed to harmful agents, such as gases, vapors, or aerosols.  Our objective was to evaluate the symptoms of occupational rhinitis in workers exposed to cotton dust.  The prospective study population consisted of workers from the "Nova Esperança" Cooperative of Nova Odessa (Sao Paulo), who were studied between September and December 2008. Data were collected through an individually and privately answered questionnaire designed by the author considering the clinical criteria for rhinitis.  Using the questionnaire, we evaluated a total of 124 workers. Among these patients, 63.7% complained of nasal obstruction, 57.2% of nasal itching, 46.7% of rhinorrhea, and 66.1% of sneezing. Of the patients considered to have very serious symptoms, 9% had nasal obstruction; 9%, itching; 4%, rhinorrhea; and 6.4%, sneezing.  Aerosol agents in the environment can clearly aggravate and even initiate rhinitis. From the standpoint of pathogenesis, the mechanisms of classical allergic airway inflammation involving mast cells, IgE, histamine, eosinophils, and lymphocytes may be responsible for the development of rhinitis after exposure to high molecular weight allergens such as proteins derived from animals and plants. This study showed a strong relationship between the occupational exposures associated with work in the cotton textile industry and the symptoms of rhinitis.  Analysis of the data clearly showed the occurrence of rhinitis symptoms in these patients, demonstrating that the prevention and treatment of this condition in the workplace is extremely important.

  12. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to benzene in the coke oven industry.

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, L; Luck, R; Afacan, A S; Wilson, H K

    1988-01-01

    Workers in the coke oven industry are potentially exposed to low concentrations of benzene. There is a need to establish a well validated biological monitoring procedure for low level benzene exposure. The use of breath and blood benzene and urinary phenol has been explored in conjunction with personal monitoring data. At exposures of about 1 ppm benzene, urinary phenol is of no value as an indicator of uptake/exposure. Benzene in blood was measured by head space gas chromatography but the concentrations were only just above the detection limit. The determination of breath benzene collected before the next shift is non-specific in the case of smokers. The most useful monitor at low concentrations appears to be breath benzene measured at the end-of-shift. PMID:3378002

  13. Mortality of workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate in the polyurethane foam industry.

    PubMed Central

    Schnorr, T M; Steenland, K; Egeland, G M; Boeniger, M; Egilman, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cancer mortality among United States workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in the manufacture of polyurethane foam. METHODS: This cohort mortality study included 4611 men and women employed in four polyurethane foam plants for at least three months between the late 1950s and 1987. The mortality experience of the cohort was then compared with that of the general United States population. RESULTS: Current and past industrial hygiene data indicated that air concentrations in 1984-5 were below the current United States standard of 0.04 mg/m3 but exceeded the standard before 1980. Mortality ratio (SMR) 2.78, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.57-8.13) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SMR 1.54, 95% CI 0.42-3.95) were increased, but not significantly. There was one male breast cancer. However, breast cancer was not increased in women (SMR 0.74). No other cancer category had an increased number of deaths compared with the general population. Only non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease showed a possible relation with time since first employment and no cancer death category showed a strong relation with duration of employment. Mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease was not increased (SMR 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: This young cohort has few deaths and short follow up. The findings are therefore not conclusive. Further years of follow up will enable better evaluation of mortality. PMID:8943836

  14. Immunological pattern alteration in shoe, hide, and leather industry workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Mignini, Fiorenzo; Tomassoni, Daniele; Traini, Enea; Vitali, Mario; Scuri, Stefania; Baldoni, Emilia; Grappasonni, Iolanda; Cocchioni, Mario

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effects of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] on shoe, leather, and hide industry workers, based on the assumption that Cr(VI) can behave as an environmental immunological "stressor." The immunological patterns of 84 male subjects were studied in relation to Cr(VI) hematic and urinary levels. Cr(VI) was measured through atomic absorption. Lymphocyte subsets, mitogen-mediated lymphocyte-proliferation, cytokine levels, and natural killer (NK) cytotoxic activity were also assayed. The urinary levels of the total amount of Cr(VI) were significantly higher in a subgroup of exposed subjects (group B) than in the control or in the lower exposed (group A). In group B, Cr(VI) caused a decrease in the density of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and a increase of IL-6. Cr(VI) did not modify NK-mediated cytotoxicity, the plasmatic levels of inflammatory cytokines and related soluble receptors, and prostaglandin levels, while it tended to increase lymphocyte sensitivity to mitogens and the production of immunomodulant cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-2). The experimental addition of Cr(VI) to the in vitro lymphocyte culture determined a significant inhibition of phagocytosis percentage, index, and killing percentage. These effects were neutralized by exogenous IFN-gamma. Cr(VI) could represent an environmental immunological stressor whose effects can be evaluated through laboratory surveys. The lymphocyte mitogen-induced proliferation, GR receptor on PBMC, and IL-6 plasma levels may represent a discriminating element between Cr(VI)-induced stress and other kinds of stress.

  15. Effect of different exposure compounds on urinary kinetics of aluminium and fluoride in industrially exposed workers.

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, F; Baruthio, F; Diebold, F; Biette, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To conduct a field study to obtain information on the urinary concentrations of aluminium (Al) and fluoride (F-) depending on the different compounds exposed to in the aluminum industry. METHODS--16 workers from one plant that produced aluminium fluoride (AlF3), and from two plants that produced aluminium electrolytically by two different processes participated in the study for one working week. Pollutants were monitored by eight hour personal sampling every day, and urine samples were collected during the week. Al and F- were analysed in both atmospheric and urine samples by atomic absorption spectrometry and an ion selective electrode. RESULTS--The principal results show different characteristics of kinetic curves of Al and F- excretion in workers with different exposures. Some characteristics of excretory peaks were linked to specific exposures--for instance, after exposure to AlF3 there was one delayed Al peak associated with one delayed F- peak about eight hours after the end of the daily shift, and after mixed exposure to HF and AlF3, two F- peaks were noted, one fast peak at the end of the shift and another delayed peak at 10 hours synchronised with an Al peak. In one of the electrolysis plants, the exposure to Al and F- compounds led to the simultaneous excretion of Al and F- peaks, either as a single peak or two individual ones depending on the type of technology used on site (open or enclosed potlines). The average estimated half life of Al was 7.5 hours, and of F- about nine hours. Quantitative relations between excretion and exposure showed an association between the F- atmospheric limit value of 2.5 mg/m3 with a urinary F- concentration of 6.4 mg/g creatinine at the end of the shift, a peak of 7.4 mg/g creatinine, and 7.4 mg excreted a day. For Al, the exposure to 1.36 mg/m3 during the shift corresponded to a urinary concentration at the end of the shift of 200 microgram/g creatinine. Daily excretion of 200 micrograms corresponded to an

  16. Oxidative toxic stress in workers occupationally exposed to ceramic dust: A study in a ceramic manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Shad, Mehri Keshvari; Barkhordari, Abolfaz; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Dehghani, Ali; Ranjbar, Akram; Moghadam, Rashid Heidari

    2016-09-27

    Exposure to compounds used in ceramic industries appears to be associated with induction of oxidative toxic stress. This cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the oxidative toxic stress parameters associated with occupational exposure to ceramic dust. Forty ceramic-exposed workers from a ceramic manufacturing industry and 40 unexposed referent subjects were studied. A questionnaire containing information regarding demographic variables, occupational history, history of any chronic disease, antioxidant consumption, and use of therapeutic drugs was administrated to them. Oxidative toxic stress biomarkers including lipid peroxidation (LPO), total antioxidant power (TAP), levels of total Thiol groups (TTG) and catalase (CAT) activity were measured. Significant increments in blood LPO levels, CAT activity and concomitant lower TAP were observed in ceramic exposed workers in comparison to referent group. No statistically significant difference was noted between the means of TTG levels between the groups. Findings of the study indicate that occupational exposure to ceramic dust induces oxidative toxic stress. Supplementation of workers with antioxidants may have beneficial effects on oxidative damages in ceramic industries.

  17. Mortality patterns among workers exposed to styrene in the reinforced plastic boatbuilding industry: an update.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Avima M; Ward, Elizabeth M; Dong, Maxia; Okun, Andrea H; Davis-King, Karen

    2004-02-01

    Mortality was updated through 1998 for 5,204 workers exposed to styrene between 1959 and 1978 at two reinforced plastic boatbuilding plants. The a priori hypothesis: leukemia and lymphoma excesses would be found. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) used Washington State and U.S. rates. Overall, 860 deaths occurred (SMR 1.09, CI 1.02-1.17), with excess mortality for esophageal cancer (n = 12, SMR 2.30, CI 1.19-4.02), prostate cancer (n = 24, SMR 1.71, CI 1.09-2.54), and accidents (n = 99, SMR 1.26, CI 1.02-1.53). Among 2,062 highly exposed workers, urinary tract cancer (n = 6, SMR 3.44, CI 1.26-7.50) and respiratory disease (n = 12, SMR 2.54, CI 1.31-4.44) rates were elevated. Urinary tract cancer SMR increased with duration of employment. We found no excess leukemia or lymphoma mortality. Unanticipated excess urinary tract cancer and respiratory disease mortality, possibly associated with styrene exposure, are difficult to interpret and could be chance findings.

  18. Kinetics of styrene in workers from a plastics industry after controlled exposure: a comparison with subjects not previously exposed.

    PubMed Central

    Löf, A; Lundgren, E; Nordqvist, M B

    1986-01-01

    Eight male workers from a glass reinforced plastics industry were experimentally exposed for 2 hours to 2.84 mmol/m3 (296 mg/m3) styrene during light physical exercise (50 W). About 63% of the amount supplied (4.6 mmol styrene) was taken up in the body. The arterial blood concentration of styrene reached a relatively stable level of 15 mumol/l at the end of exposure which was about 70% of the blood concentration in a group of volunteers with no previous exposure to solvents. The apparent blood clearance was significantly higher in the occupationally exposed subjects 2.01/h X kg compared with 1.51/h X kg. Contrary to the relatively stable level of styrene at the end of exposure the concentration of non-conjugated styrene glycol increased throughout the exposure and reached about 3 mumol/l in both groups. Like styrene, the non-conjugated styrene glycol seemed to be eliminated faster from the occupationally exposed workers. The blood concentration of styrene-7,8-oxide was low and seldom exceeded the detection limit of 0.02 mumol/l. The results show that long term exposure in a glass reinforced plastics industry may facilitate the metabolism of styrene. PMID:3730303

  19. Urinary mutagenicity and N-acetylation phenotype in textile industry workers exposed to arylamines

    SciTech Connect

    Sinues, B.; Perez, J.; Bernal, M.L.; Saenz, M.A.; Lanuza, J.; Bartolome, M. )

    1992-09-15

    Primary aromatic amines have been identified epidemiologically as human carcinogens. It has been suggested that the target organ affected by aromatic amines is dependent on the rate of metabolic activation. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between low acetyl transferase activity and bladder cancer risk. On this basis, our working hypothesis was that the slow acetylators could follow in a higher extent the metabolic pathway independent of N-acetylation, leading to the excretion of conjugates of electrophyles with glucuronic acid. The instability of these glucuronides could be responsible for the association between arylamine-induced bladder cancer and slow acetylator phenotype. A total of 153 individuals were included in this study: 70 exposed to arylamines (working in textile industry) and 83 nonexposed. The following parameters were determined in urine: mutagenic index in the absence of metabolic activation, S9; mutagenic index in the presence of S9; and the mutagenic index after incubation of the urine with beta-glucuronidase. All individuals were phenotyped according to their capacity of N-acetylation by using isoniazid as drug test. The results show that the mutagenic index after incubation of the urine with beta-glucuronidase is statistically higher in exposed subjects when compared with nonexposed individuals (P less than 0.001), this parameter being statistically higher among exposed subjects who were slow acetylators than among rapid metabolizers, independent of the fact that they were smokers or nonsmokers. There were no significant differences between groups for the mutagenicity in urine not incubated with beta-glucuronidase.

  20. Mortality among styrene-exposed workers in the reinforced plastic boatbuilding industry.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Avima M; Meyers, Alysha R; Bertke, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    We updated mortality through 2011 for 5203 boat-building workers potentially exposed to styrene, and analysed mortality among 1678 employed a year or more between 1959 and 1978. The a priori hypotheses: excess leukaemia and lymphoma would be found. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs and standardised rate ratios (SRRs) used Washington State rates and a person-years analysis programme, LTAS.NET. The SRR analysis compared outcomes among tertiles of estimated cumulative potential styrene exposure. Overall, 598 deaths (SMR=0.96, CI 0.89 to 1.04) included excess lung (SMR=1.23, CI 0.95 to 1.56) and ovarian cancer (SMR 3.08, CI 1.00 to 7.19), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (SMR=1.15, CI 0.81 to 1.58). Among 580 workers with potential high-styrene exposure, COPD mortality increased 2-fold (SMR=2.02, CI 1.08 to 3.46). COPD was more pronounced among those with potential high-styrene exposure. However, no outcome was related to estimated cumulative styrene exposure, and there was no change when latency was taken into account. We found no excess leukaemia or lymphoma mortality. As in most occupational cohort studies, lack of information on lifestyle factors or other employment was a substantial limitation although we excluded from the analyses those (n=3525) who worked <1 year. Unanticipated excess ovarian cancer mortality could be a chance finding. Comparing subcohorts with potential high-styrene and low-styrene exposure, COPD mortality SRR was elevated while lung cancer SRR was not, suggesting that smoking was not the only cause for excess COPD mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Evaluating levels and health risk of heavy metals in exposed workers from surgical instrument manufacturing industries of Sialkot, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Junaid, Muhammad; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to monitor heavy metal (chromium, Cr; cadmium, Cd; nickel, Ni; copper, Cu; lead, Pb; iron, Fe; manganese, Mn; and zinc, Zn) footprints in biological matrices (urine, whole blood, saliva, and hair), as well as in indoor industrial dust samples, and their toxic effects on oxidative stress and health risks in exposed workers. Overall, blood, urine, and saliva samples exhibited significantly higher concentrations of toxic metals in exposed workers (Cr; blood 16.30 μg/L, urine 58.15 μg/L, saliva 5.28 μg/L) than the control samples (Cr; blood 5.48 μg/L, urine 4.47 μg/L, saliva 2.46 μg/L). Indoor industrial dust samples also reported to have elevated heavy metal concentrations, as an example, Cr quantified with concentration of 299 mg/kg of dust, i.e., more than twice the level of Cr in household dust (136 mg/kg). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) level presented significant positive correlation (p ≤ 0.01) with Cr, Zn, and Cd (Cr > Zn > Cd) which is an indication of heavy metal's associated raised oxidative stress in exposed workers. Elevated average daily intake (ADI) of heavy metals resulted in cumulative hazard quotient (HQ) range of 2.97-18.88 in workers of different surgical units; this is an alarming situation of health risk implications. Principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR)-based pie charts represent that polishing and cutting sections exhibited highest metal inputs to the biological and environmental matrices than other sources. Heavy metal concentrations in biological matrices and dust samples showed a significant positive correlation between Cr in dust, urine, and saliva samples. Current study will help to generate comprehensive base line data of heavy metal status in biomatrices and dust from scientifically ignored industrial sector. Our findings can play vital role for health departments and industrial environmental management system (EMS) authorities in policy making and implementation.

  2. Clinical, Toxicological, Biochemical, and Hematologic Parameters in Lead Exposed Workers of a Car Battery Industry

    PubMed Central

    Kianoush, Sina; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Dadpour, Bita; Moradi, Valiollah; Sadeghi, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lead is a toxic element which causes acute, subacute or chronic poisoning through environmental and occupational exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and laboratory abnormalities of chronic lead poisoning among workers of a car battery industry. Methods: Questionnaires and forms were designed and used to record demographic data, past medical histories and clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. Blood samples were taken to determine biochemical (using Auto Analyzer; Model BT3000) and hematologic (using Cell Counter Sysmex; Model KX21N) parameters. An atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin-Elmer, Model 3030, USA) was used to determine lead concentration in blood and urine by heated graphite atomization technique. Results: A total of 112 men mean age 28.78±5.17 years, who worked in a car battery industry were recruited in the present study. The most common signs/symptoms of lead poisoning included increased excitability 41.9%, arthralgia 41.0%, fatigue 40.1%, dental grey discoloration 44.6%, lead line 24.1%, increased deep tendon reflexes (DTR) 22.3%, and decreased DTR (18.7%). Blood lead concentration (BLC) was 398.95 µg/L±177.40, which was significantly correlated with duration of work (P=0.044) but not with the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. However, BLC was significantly correlated with urine lead concentration (83.67 µg/L±49.78; r2=0.711; P<0.001), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (r=-0.280; P=0.011), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (r=-0.304; P=0.006) and fasting blood sugar or FBS (r=-0.258; P=0.010). Conclusion: Neuropsychiatric and skeletal findings were common manifestations of chronic occupational lead poisoning. BLC was significantly correlated with duration of work, urine lead concentration, two hemoglobin indices and FBS. PMID:23645955

  3. An updated cohort mortality study of workers exposed to styrene in the reinforced plastics and composites industry.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, O; Trent, L S; Whorton, M D

    1994-01-01

    Mortality data have been updated for a further 12 years for a cohort of workers in the reinforced plastics and composites industry with exposures to styrene monomer and other chemicals. The cohort consisted of 15,826 male and female employees who were exposed to styrene for at least six months between 1948 and 1977 at 30 participating manufacturing plants in the United States. A total of 1628 deaths were reported during the extended observation period, 1948-89. Mortality from several causes showed significant increases--namely, all causes, all cancers, oesophageal cancer, lung cancer, cancer of the cervix uteri, cancer of other female genital organs, hypertensive heart disease, certain non-malignant respiratory diseases, motor vehicle accidents, and homicides. When, however, mortality data were examined in terms of duration of employment, durations of styrene exposure, and cumulative styrene exposure no upward trend was detected in any of these causes of death. Most of the increases in mortality were among workers who were employed for only six months to a year or who had very low cumulative exposure (< 10 ppm-years). Therefore, the increased mortality was not likely to be related to exposure to styrene. Several explanations for the increased mortality are offered, including low socioeconomic class, smoking, and lifestyle factors characteristic of short term workers. There was no increased mortality from lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers overall or from any specific haematological malignancies. In particular, no increase in mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, or leukaemia was found. Furthermore, detailed exposure-response analyses did not show any relation between exposure to styrene and any of these haematological malignancies. The lack of an exposure-response relation further supports the conclusion that workers in the reinforced plastics industry in this study did not experience any increased risk of lymphatic and

  4. [Prevalence and characterization of hearing loss in workers exposed to industrial noise of the turbogenerated electric plant of a petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Montiel-López, María; Corzo-Alvarez, Gilbert; Chacín-Almarza, Betulio; Rojas-González, Liliana; Quevedo, Ana; Rendiles, Hernando

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of occupational exposure to noise and its relationship with other factors that can induce hearing loss in the electric plant workers of a petrochemical industry of the west of Venezuela. A cross-sectional study was conducted that included sonometry tests, carried out according to the established methodology by COVENIN rules, and the occupational medical evaluation and liminal tonal audiometrics test in 75 workers. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) was quantified in different workplaces. It was found out that most of the workers are exposed to high noise levels [>85 dB(A)] and during more time than the recommended. All workers use hearing protectors appropriately. The hearing loss prevalence in workers was 16.0%, there were not noise-induced hearing losses. The hearing threshold registered in the audiometrics test was diminished, but inside the normal threshold values. We diagnosed 12 cases of conductive hearing loss, all grade I; there were not sensorial or mixed hearing losses. There was not a relationship between the equivalent noise level and hearing loss. It is suggested the design and implantation of a program of auditory conservation to protect the health and security of the workers and to conduct a longitudinal study considering the findings of the present study as it basis.

  5. Relationships between blood lead concentration and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in alcoholics and workers industrially exposed to lead

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoli, A.; Fazzin, G.; Marin, V.; Trabuio, G.; Zotti, S.

    1986-07-01

    Blood lead concentration (Pb-B), aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and gamma-GT were measured in 265 workers industrially exposed to lead and in 184 patients with liver disease resulting from alcohol consumption. The first group was divided according to alcohol use, i.e., nondrinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers. The second group was divided according to the following criteria: hepatopatic without cirrhosis, hepatopatic with compensated cirrhosis, and hepatopatic with decompensated cirrhosis. Heavy drinkers who were industrially exposed had the highest Pb-B (40.4 +/- 14.6 micrograms/dl) and the lowest ALAD (22.2 +/- 9.1 U/L). The correlations between Pb-B and ALAD show no significant change with the increase of Pb-B. In the alcoholic group, 76 patients with alcoholic liver disease without cirrhosis had the highest Pb-B (40.3-9.1 micrograms/dl) and ALAD the lowest (18.6 +/- 7.7 U/L). The negative correlation between Pb-B and log ALAD disappeared completely in individuals with Pb-B that exceeded 50 micrograms/dl, independent from the seriousness of illness.

  6. Proportionate mortality study of workers in the garment industry exposed to formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Stayner, L.; Smith, A.B.; Reeve, G.; Blade, L.; Elliott, L.; Keenlyside, R.; Halperin, W.

    1985-01-01

    In order to evaluate the human carcinogenicity of formaldehyde, the authors conducted a proportionate mortality study of garment workers engaged in the production of shirts from formaldehyde-treated cloth. This study included three plants, and was based upon 256 deaths identified from a death-benefit insurance fund. No deaths due to nasal cancer were observed, and the mortality from respiratory cancer (11 cases, PMR = 95) was slightly less than expected. Statistically significant (p less than . 05) elevations in proportionate mortality were observed for malignant neoplasms of the ''buccal cavity'' (three cases, PMR = 750), for ''biliary passages and liver'' (four cases, PMR = 313) and for ''other lymphatic and hematopoietic sites'' (four cases, PMR = 400). A proportionate cancer mortality (PCMR) analysis also was conducted, and cancer of the ''buccal cavity'' (three cases, PCMR = 682), and other ''lymphatic and hematopoietic sites'' (four cases, PCMR = 342) were still significantly elevated. The observed excesses in cancer mortality were primarily experienced by white females, who made up the major portion of the workforce, and workers with more than 10 years of latency and duration of exposure, a criterion for inclusion for most workers in the study group. The neoplasms observed were not equally distributed among the three facilities included in the study. Because of the small number of deaths involved and the lack of consistency with other studies, the authors believe that these findings should be viewed cautiously, pending the outcome of more definitive studies.

  7. Evaluation of Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAEs) among workers at an Industrial Company exposed to different industrial noise levels in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Sajad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is usually one of the main problems in industrial settings. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in different DPOAE are caused by exposure to different levels of noise at different time intervals among workers exposed to noise. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in the autumn of 2014 on 45 workers at Gol Gohar Mining and Industrial Company, which is located in Sirjan in southeast Iran. The workers were divided into three groups based on their noise exposure, i.e., 1) 15 office workers as a control group with exposure to low levels of noise, 2) 15 workers from manufacturing departments who were exposed to a medium level of noise, and 3) 15 workers from manufacturing departments who were exposed to high levels of noise. The SNRs at the frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz were measured in both ears at three different time intervals during the shift work. SNRs of 6 or greater were considered as inclusion criterion. Repeated measures, the Spearman rank-order correlation test, and paired t-test analyses were used with α = 0.05 being the level of significance. Results: For all frequencies in the right and left ears, the SNR values were more than 6, thus all SNR values were considered as acceptable responses. The effects of time and sound pressure level (SPL) on SNR were significant for the right and left ears (p = 0.027 and < 0.001, respectively). There was a statistically significant correlation between the SNR values in the right and left ears for the time intervals 7:30–8:00 A.M. and 13:30–14:00 P.M., which implied that an increase in the duration of exposure led to reduced SNR values (p = 0.024, r = 0.948). Conclusions: The comparison of the SNR values in the right and left ears (for all frequencies and the three different SPLs) indicated that the values decreased during the shift work. PMID:26388979

  8. Assessment of lipid peroxidation and p53 as a biomarker of carcinogenesis among workers exposed to formaldehyde in the cosmetic industry.

    PubMed

    Attia, Dalia; Mansour, Neveen; Taha, Fatma; Seif El Dein, Aisha

    2016-06-01

    Despite the wide use of cosmetic products, they exert a number of health effects on tissues ranging from irritation to cancer. Our study aimed at assessing the effect of formaldehyde on lipid peroxidation and verifying the susceptibility to carcinogenesis using p53 as a biomarker among workers exposed to formaldehyde in cosmetic industry. Our entire exposed group (n = 40) and the controls (n = 20) were subjected to estimation of formate in urine, serum malondialdehyde (MDA), and p53. Also, complete blood picture, liver, and kidney function tests were carried out. The study revealed significant increase in the levels of formate, MDA, and p53 in the exposed group compared with their control group. Our results showed that workers in cosmetic industry had significant exposure to formaldehyde. Furthermore, the study pointed to the negative impact of formaldehyde as a cause of oxidative stress and suspicious carcinogen. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Beryllium: an etiologic agent in the induction of lung cancer, nonneoplastic respiratory disease, and heart disease among industrially exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.K.; Infante, P.F.; Bayliss, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    An epidemiologic study of workers exposed to beryllium at one production facility was undertaken. The study demonstrated a statistically significant increased risk of respiratory disease (neoplastic and nonneoplastic) and of heart disease mortality. A possible explanation other than in terms of beryllium was sought for this excessive risk of cause specific mortality among beryllium-exposed workers. The excessive risk of lung cancer mortality could not be related to an effect of age, chance, self-selection, study group selection, exposure to other agents in the study facility, or place of residence. On the basis of the frequency of cigarette smoking among those cohort members employed in 1967 to 1968 and the distribution of histologic types of lung cancer among deceased cohort members, it seems unlikely that cigarette smoking per se could have accounted for the increased risk of lung cancer among beryllium-exposed workers in the study cohort. Lifetime employment histories for members of the study cohort were not available, so that definitive statements about the role of other occupational exposures cannot be made. However, information on usual occupations as indicated on death certificates suggests that it is unlikely that some undefined occupational or environmental exposure other than to beryllium could account per se for the excessive lung cancer mortality. This interpretation is further supported by the residential stability of the study cohort in a county having a lung cancer rate significantly lower than that of the entire United States. The findings are supportive of the hypothesis that beryllium is carcinogenic to man.

  10. Reaction time of industrial workers exposed to organic solvents: relationship to degree of exposure and psychological performance

    SciTech Connect

    Gregersen, P.; Stigsby, B.

    1981-01-01

    Auditory reaction time (RT) was examined on a day free from work and on a working day in 54 workers exposed to organic solvents and in 28 unexposed workers. Medical and occupational history was recorded and neurological examination and psychological testing carried out to establish quantitative parameters of exposure and cerebral function. There was a wider 95% range of the RT in the exposed group compared to the control group on the working day and a tendency in the same direction on the day free from work. There was no difference in the means of the RT, or within the groups between the examinations on the two days. The increased RT 95% range is interpreted as indicating an impaired ability in the exposed workers to maintain their attention during the experimental period, owing to chronic exposure of organic solvents. RT measurements did not correlate with exposure or psychological performance. RT would seem to be a means of measuring subclinical effects of exposure to organic solvents.

  11. DNA methylation differences in exposed workers and nearby residents of the Ma Ta Phut industrial estate, Rayong, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Marco; Bollati, Valentina; Munnia, Armelle; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Piro, Sara; Ceppi, Marcello; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Boffetta, Paolo; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2012-01-01

    Background Adverse biological effects from airborne pollutants are a primary environmental concern in highly industrialized areas. Recent studies linked air pollution exposures with altered blood Deoxyribo-nucleic acid (DNA) methylation, but effects from industrial sources and underlying biological mechanisms are still largely unexplored. Methods The Ma Ta Phut industrial estate (MIE) in Rayong, Thailand hosts one of the largest steel, oil refinery and petrochemical complexes in south-eastern Asia. We measured a panel of blood DNA methylation markers previously associated with air pollution exposures, including repeated elements [long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) and Alu] and genes [p53, hypermethylated-in-cancer-1 (HIC1), p16 and interleukin-6 (IL-6)], in 67 MIE workers, 65 Ma Ta Phut residents and 45 rural controls. To evaluate the role of DNA damage and oxidation, we correlated DNA methylation measures with bulky DNA and 3-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentafuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one deoxyguanosine (M1dG) adducts. Results In covariate-adjusted models, MIE workers, compared with rural residents, showed lower LINE-1 (74.8% vs 78.0%; P < 0.001), p53 (8.0% vs 15.7%; P < 0.001) and IL-6 methylation (39.2% vs 45.0%; P = 0.027) and higher HIC1 methylation (22.2% vs 15.3%, P < 0.001). For all four markers, Ma Ta Phut residents exhibited methylation levels intermediate between MIE workers and rural controls (LINE-1, 75.7%, P < 0.001; p53, 9.0%, P < 0.001; IL-6, 39.8%, P = 0.041; HIC1, 17.8%, P = 0.05; all P-values vs rural controls). Bulky DNA adducts showed negative correlation with p53 methylation (P = 0.01). M1dG showed negative correlations with LINE-1 (P = 0.003) and IL-6 methylation (P = 0.05). Conclusions Our findings indicate that industrial exposures may induce alterations of DNA methylation patterns detectable in blood leucocyte DNA. Correlation of DNA adducts with DNA hypomethylation suggests potential mediation by DNA damage. PMID:23064502

  12. Modeling Signal-to-Noise Ratio of Otoacoustic Emissions in Workers Exposed to Different Industrial Noise Levels

    PubMed Central

    Nassiri, Parvin; Zare, Sajad; Monazzam, Mohammad R.; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Noise is considered as the most common cause of harmful physical effects in the workplace. A sound that is generated from within the inner ear is known as an otoacoustic emission (OAE). Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) assess evoked emission and hearing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the signal-to-noise ratio in different frequencies and at different times of the shift work in workers exposed to various levels of noise. It was also aimed to provide a statistical model for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of OAEs in different frequencies based on the two variables of sound pressure level (SPL) and exposure time. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 45 workers during autumn 2014. The workers were divided into three groups based on the level of noise exposure. The SNR was measured in frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz in both ears, and in three different time intervals during the shift work. According to the inclusion criterion, SNR of 6 dB or greater was included in the study. The analysis was performed using repeated measurements of analysis of variance, spearman correlation coefficient, and paired samples t-test. Results: The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the three exposed groups in terms of the mean values of SNR (P > 0.05). Only in signal pressure levels of 88 dBA with an interval time of 10:30–11:00 AM, there was a statistically significant difference between the right and left ears with the mean SNR values of 3000 frequency (P = 0.038). The SPL had a significant effect on the SNR in both the right and left ears (P = 0.023, P = 0.041). The effect of the duration of measurement on the SNR was statistically significant in both the right and left ears (P = 0.027, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that after noise exposure during the shift, SNR of OAEs reduced from the beginning to the end of the shift

  13. Diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rate among workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate in the polyurethane foam manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Phoon, W H

    1992-06-01

    The diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was studied in 26 mixers from eight factories making polyurethane foam, who were exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI), and 26 unexposed controls matched for age, race, and smoking. They were all men. The mean diurnal variation in PEFR of the mixers was 6.2%, which was significantly higher than the 4.3% for controls. Six mixers had a diurnal variation of greater than 15% on at least one day compared with none among the controls. There was, however, no overt cause of occupational asthma. All but one of the 24 environmental samples taken exceeded the short term exposure limit of 0.02 ppm for TDI. This accounted for the high prevalence (50%) of irritative symptoms such as cough and eye irritation. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (%) was negatively correlated with duration of exposure to TDI. Foam workers may still have high exposure to TDI, high prevalence of irritative symptoms, increased diurnal variation in PEFR and evidence of chronic airway obstruction, particularly in those with greater than or equal to 10 years of exposure.

  14. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (<0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications.

  15. Lipid abnormalities in workers exposed to dioxin.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J V

    1984-01-01

    Ten years after an incident in which workers were exposed to tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) a controlled biochemical study showed statistically significant increases in the serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations of workers both with and without chloracne. Urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid was significantly higher for all workers. PMID:6232943

  16. [Anemia in workers exposed to lead: update on differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, L; Soleo, L; Cassano, F; Elia, G; Schiavulli, N; Martino, M G; Corfiati, M; Bulfaro, D; Apostoli, P

    2005-01-01

    Occupational lead exposure can cause anemia at blood lead levels >50 microg/dl, as high as rarely occurs in industrialized countries nowadays. Whereas other forms of anemia are fairly probable to be found in lead exposed workers, especially in areas highly endemicfor extraoccupational anemias, such as beta thalassemia and iron deficiency anemia. The etiology of anemias has to be correctly defined in order to assess suitable therapeutical approaches and medicolegal consequences. The objective of this study is to verify in male lead exposed workers whether an accurate evaluation of hemocromocytometric parameters and of usual biological indices of lead exposure and effect on heme can differentiate the most common forms of anemia in Southern Italy. 68 workers occupationally exposed to low to moderate lead doses were studied and 59 workers of an alimentary plant have been taken as control group. On venous blood samples collected from these workers a complete hemocromocytometric test was performed and blood lead and erythrocytic zincoprotoporphyrin were determined. Anemia (Hb exposed workers and in a nonexposed worker. The reasoned evaluation of laboratory parameters led to identify among lead exposed workers four subjects with high probability of beta-thalassemic trait and two with lead poisoning anemia. Moreover a diagnostic algorithm was developed based on literature that seems to be able to discriminate lead poisoning from other causes of anemia in lead exposed workers in this study.

  17. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  18. Respiratory Morbidity among Indian Tea Industry Workers.

    PubMed

    Moitra, S; Thapa, P; Das, P; Das, J; Debnath, S; Singh, Mahipal; Datta, A; Sen, S; Moitra, S

    2016-07-01

    Indian tea industry workers are exposed to various exposures at their workplace. To investigate the respiratory health of Indian tea industry workers. We administered a respiratory questionnaire to and measured lung function in workers of 34 tea gardens and 46 tea factories. We used correlation matrices to test the association between their respiratory symptoms and lung functions. The garden workers complained of shortness of breath 3 times higher than the factory workers. However, nasal allergy was more predominant among the factory workers compared to garden workers (69.6% vs 41.2%, p=0.02). The factory workers had higher total (median 107.3% vs 92.9%, p=0.05, as measured by R at 5 Hz) and peripheral airway resistance (143.8% vs 61.1%, p=0.005, as measured by R at 5-20 Hz) than the garden workers. Respiratory symptoms were inversely associated with airway obstruction as measured by the ratio between forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and positively correlated with increased overall airway reactance among the workers. Respiratory symptoms and increased allergen susceptibility of Indian tea industry workers due to occupational exposures warrant routine systematic surveillance of their workplace air quality and health monitoring.

  19. Ambient monitoring and biomonitoring of workers exposed to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone in an industrial facility.

    PubMed

    Bader, Michael; Rosenberger, Wolfgang; Rebe, Thomas; Keener, Stephen A; Brock, Thomas H; Hemmerling, Hans-Jürgen; Wrbitzky, Renate

    2006-05-01

    The exposure of seven workers and three on-site study examiners to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was studied in an adhesive bonding compound and glue production facility. Airborne NMP was analysed by personal and stationary sampling on activated charcoal tubes. NMP and its main metabolites, 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNMP) and 2-hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide (2-HMSI), were analysed in pre-shift and post-shift spot urine samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The workers were examined with respect to irritation of the eyes, the mucous membranes and the skin, and health complaints before and after the work-shift were recorded. The time-weighted average concentration of NMP in most work areas varied between 0.2 and 3.0 mg/m3. During the manual cleaning of stirring vessels, valves and tools, 8-h TWA exposures of up to 15.5 mg/m3 and single peak exposures of up to 85 mg/m3) were observed. NMP and its metabolites were detected in two pre-shift urine specimens. NMP and 5-HNMP concentrations in post-shift urine samples of five workers and three on-site study examiners were below 125 microg/g creatinine and 15 mg/g creatinine, respectively, while two vessel-cleaning workers showed significantly higher urinary NMP concentrations of 472 and 711 microg/g creatinine and 5-HNMP concentrations of 33.5 and 124 mg/g creatinine. 2-HMSI was detectable in four post-shift samples (range: 1.6-14.7 mg/g creatinine). The vessel cleaner with the highest NMP exposure reported irritation of the eyes, the upper respiratory tract and headaches. The results of this study indicate a relatively low overall exposure to NMP in the facility. An increased uptake of NMP occurred only during extensive manual vessel cleaning. Health complaints associated with NMP exposure were recorded in one case and might be related to an excessive dermal exposure due to infrequent and inadequate use of personal protective equipment.

  20. Risk-Based Radionuclide Derived Concentration Guideline Levels For An Industrial Worker Exposed To Concrete-Slab End States At The Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    GERALD, JANNIK

    2005-04-25

    Dose and risk assessments are an integral part of decommissioning activities. Most human health risk assessments are performed for a reasonable maximum exposure to an individual with assumed intake and exposure parameters that depend on the end state of the decommissioning activities and the likely future use of the site. Regardless of how the potentially exposed individual is defined, the subsequent calculated human health risk is not a measurable quantity. To demonstrate compliance with risk-based acceptance or cleanliness criteria, facility-specific risk assessments usually are performed after final-verification sampling and analysis. Alternatively, conservative, a priori, guideline concentrations for residual contaminants can be calculated and rapidly compared to the subsequently measured contaminant concentrations to demonstrate compliance. In response to the request for accelerated cleanup at U.S. Department of Energy facilities, the Savannah River Site (SRS) is decommissioning its excess facilities through removal of the facility structures leaving only the concrete-slab foundations in place. Site-specific, risk-based derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for radionuclides have been determined for a future industrial worker potentially exposed to residual contamination on these concrete slabs. When appropriate, these conservative DCGLs will be used at SRS in lieu of facility-specific risk assessments to further accelerate the decommissioning process. This paper discusses and describes the methods and scenario-specific parameters used to estimate the risk-based DCGLs for the SRS decommissioning end state.

  1. [Observations of neurobehavior in lead exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Zhang, X Q

    1991-09-01

    A neurobehavioral test of lead-exposed workers and the correlations between test scores and certain biochemical indices was made. The results showed that the scores of digit span, mental arithmetic, block design, digit symbol, Santa-Ana dexterity, Benton visual retention and pursuit aiming of lead-exposed workers tests were significantly lower than those of control groups. The scores of Santa-Ana dexterity, block design and digit span tests of lead-exposed workers were highly negatively correlated with levels of ZPP in blood.

  2. [State of vegetative regulation in workers exposed to vibration at work during industrial implementation of hi-tech pneumoinstruments].

    PubMed

    Drobyshev, V A; Shpagina, L A; Panacheva, L A; Gerasimenko, O N; Abramovich, S G; Smirnova, I N

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted on aircraft-building enterprise during production microcycle (before working shift start, during last working hour and in an hour after the shift end)--spectral analysis covered variability of heart rhythm in 70 male assembler riveters aged 25-59, divided into 2 groups in accordance with industrial equipment used. The group 1 used standard vibroinstrument, the group 2--pneumoinstruments with low vibration velocity parameters. Triple study during the working shift revealed in group 2 an adequate reaction of vegetative nervous system to vibration, in group 1 a negative trend was seen with centralization of regulatory processes and absence of adequate recovery in an hour after work.

  3. Assessment  of  Genotoxicity  Among  Rubber  Industry Workers  Occupationally  Exposed  to  Toxic  Agents  Using Micronucleus  Assay

    PubMed Central

    Gemitha, Gem; Sudha, Sellappa

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational and environmental exposures mostly represent complexmixture of genotoxic agents, however there is a wide variation in the specificity of biomarkers. Exploration of correlations among biomarkers contributes to the further progress of molecular cancer epidemiology and to the selection of the optimal biomarkers for the investigation of human exposure to carcinogens. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to toxic agents among rubber industry workers by using Micronucleus (MN) assay. Methods In the present study 35 occupationally exposed rubber industry workers and 30 controls were investigated for genetic damage. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from rural areas of South India. Exfoliated Buccal cells were collected from the study population and examined for the presence of MN. Results Rubber industry workers showed a significant increase in micronucleated cells when compared to controls with respect to their smoking and drinking habits (P< 0.05). The present study suggested that occupational exposure to toxic chemicals in rubber industry can cause genetic damage. Conclusion MN formation reflects genetic changes and/or events associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore the results of this study indicate that rubber industry workers may be at the risk of cancer. Therefore, it is important to take appropriate measures to protect the workers from occupational hazards. PMID:25250114

  4. [Results of risk and impairment assessment in groups of workers exposed to repetitive strain and movement of the upper limbs in various sectors of industry].

    PubMed

    Colombini, Daniela; Occhipinti, E

    2004-01-01

    This presents study the results of a number of investigations regarding risks associated with biomechanical overload of the upper limbs and the consequent health effects (UL-WMSDs) in a large sample of workers in various different jobs. Risk assessment regarded 15 different working environments in which 4044 subjects were employed. Most were metalworking factories in which the workers performed assembly tasks (3015 workers). Some made motors for electrical appliances (714 workers), others assembled miniature components (shock absorbers and remote controls: 259 workers), while others handled larger sized parts such as components of large domestic appliances (refrigerators, freezers, ovens: 2037 workers). The sample also included workers in the meat processing industry (chicken and turkey, 969 workers) and hotel room cleaners (60). Exposure assessment was performed using the OCRA checklist for quantifying the risk attributable intrinsically to each individual workstation, as if used for the entire shift. The values thus obtained were entered into a special software program that, for each working area, produced mean weighted values for the results of the checklist and their percentage distribution over four categories: no risk (green), low risk (yellow), moderate risk (red) and high risk (purple). In 11 of the 15 working environments considered, a total of 3511 workers (2221 women and 1290 men) underwent a complete and standardized clinical examination of the upper limbs. Comparisons of the results of exposure evaluation and of the clinical surveys were made between the different types of jobs and between males and females.

  5. Is it useful to combine sputum cytology and low-dose spiral computed tomography for early detection of lung cancer in formerly asbestos-exposed power industry workers?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDSCT) in comparison to conventional chest X-ray proved to be a highly sensitive method of diagnosing early stage lung cancer. However, centrally located early stage lung tumours remain a diagnostic challenge. We determined the practicability and efficacy of early detection of lung cancer when combining LDSCT and sputum cytology. Methods Of a cohort of 4446 formerly asbestos exposed power industry workers, we examined a subgroup of 187 (4.2%) high risk participants for lung cancer at least once with both LDSCT and sputum cytology. After the examination period the participants were followed-up for more than three years. Results The examinations resulted in the diagnosis of lung cancer in 12 participants (6.4%). Six were in clinical stage I. We found 10 non-small cell lung carcinomas and one small cell lung carcinoma. Sputum specimens showed suspicious pathological findings in seven cases and in 11 cases the results of LDSCT indicated malignancies. The overall sensitivity and specificity of sputum cytology was 58.0% and 98% with positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of 70% and 97%. For LDSCT we calculated the sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 97%. The PPV and NPV were 65% and 99% respectively. Conclusions Our results confirmed that in surveillance programmes a combination of sputum cytology and LDSCT is well feasible and accepted by the participants. Sputum examination alone is not effective enough for the detection of lung cancer, especially at early stage. Even in well- defined risk groups highly exposed to asbestos, we cannot recommend the use of combined LDSCT and sputum cytology examinations as long as no survival benefit has been proved for the combination of both methods. For ensuring low rates of false-positive and false-negative results, programme planners must closely cooperate with experienced medical practitioners and pathologists in a well-functioning interdisciplinary network. PMID

  6. A cohort mortality study and a case-control study of workers potentially exposed to styrene in the reinforced plastics and composites industry.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, O

    1990-01-01

    The cohort consisted of 15,908 men and women who worked for at least six months between 1948 and 1977 in 30 participating manufacturing plants in the reinforced plastics and composites industry. These workers were occupationally exposed to the working environment in the industry, which included exposure to styrene. Cause specific mortality analyses were performed based on the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) with the United States population as a comparison. No significant excess of cause specific mortality was found for the total cohort. Mortality from cancer was slightly less than expected (SMR = 88.1). For cancer of the respiratory system, a small non-significant excess was detected (SMR = 116.1). For lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer, a non-significant deficit was found (SMR = 73.3). The observed mortality from leukaemia was similar to that expected (five observed v 4.76 expected deaths). The plants with hot processes (injection moulding, centrifugal casting, compression moulding, continuous lamination, and pultrusion) experienced a significantly increased SMR (177.9) for respiratory cancer, which was more than twice that (78.3) for those with cold processes (resin mixing, lay up and spray up, bag moulding, and filament winding). As potential exposure to styrene from hot processes is considerably less than that from the cold processes, this finding could not be attributed to occupational exposures. A subsequent nested case-control study consisting of 40 cases of deaths from respiratory cancer was conducted. Further information on detailed work history, occupational exposures, and smoking history was collected. The case-control study did not show any significant association between respiratory cancer and direct exposure to styrene (contained in polyester resins), duration of exposure to styrene, the type of process (hot or cold), or whether a resin was used. A statistically significant association (relative risk = 7.33) was found between cigarette smoking

  7. Hormonal Perturbations in Occupationally Exposed Nickel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Beshir, Safia; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah; Shaheen, Weam; Shahy, Eman M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel exposure is recognized as an endocrine disruptor because of its adverse effects on reproduction. AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations on workers occupationally exposed to nickel and to assess its effects on human male sexual function. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparative study, comprising 105 electroplating male non-smoker, non-alcoholic workers exposed to soluble nickel and 60 controls was done. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone levels and urinary nickel concentrations were determined for the studied groups. RESULTS: Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, urinary nickel and the simultaneous incidence of more than one sexual disorder were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to controls. The occurrence of various types of sexual disorders (decreased libido, impotence and premature ejaculation) in the exposed workers was 9.5, 5.1 and 4.4 folds respectively than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to nickel produces possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations in those exposed workers. PMID:27335607

  8. Ocular disorders among workers exposed to mercury.

    PubMed

    Gabal, M S; Raslan, O A

    1995-01-01

    Mercury vapor exposed workers may show ocular changes, as well as other systems affection. A sample of 84 workers in preparing mercury fulminate were examined for conjunctival corneal and lenticular manifestation of long duration exposure, together with mercury urinary output. Lens changes were found in 50% of the involved workers while keratopathy as recorded in 34.5% of them. No statistically significant association was found between the occurrence of eye lesions and levels of urinary elimination of mercury. These results suggest local absorption of this element is most probably the underlying cause of ocular affection.

  9. Radiological surveillance of formerly asbestos-exposed power industry workers: rates and risk factors of benign changes on chest X-ray and MDCT

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of asbestos-related changes on chest X-ray (CXR) and low-dose multidetector-row CT (MDCT) of the thorax in a cohort of formerly asbestos-exposed power industry workers and to assess the importance of common risk factors associated with specific radiological changes. Methods To assess the influence of selected risk factors (age, time since first exposure, exposure duration, cumulative exposure and pack years) on typical asbestos-related radiographic changes, we employed multiple logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results On CXR, pleural changes and asbestosis were strongly associated with age, years since first exposure and exposure duration. The MDCT results showed an association between asbestosis and age and between plaques and exposure duration, years since first exposure and cumulative exposure. Parenchymal changes on CXR and MDCT, and diffuse pleural thickening on CXR were both associated with smoking. Using a cut-off of 55 years for age, 17 years for exposure duration and 28 years for latency, benign radiological changes in the cohort with CXR could be predicted with a sensitivity of 82.0% for all of the three variables and a specificity of 47.4%, 39.0% and 40.6%, respectively. Conclusions Participants aged 55 years and older and those with an asbestos exposure of at least 17 years or 28 years since first exposure should be seen as having an increased risk of abnormal radiological findings. For implementing a more focused approach the routine use of low-dose MDCT rather than CXR at least for initial examinations would be justified. PMID:24808921

  10. Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers

    PubMed Central

    Pennisi, Manuela; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Puglisi, Valentina; Vinciguerra, Luisa; Vacante, Marco; Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies. PMID:23985770

  11. Industry's Struggle for Skilled Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Don

    1979-01-01

    The growing shortage of skilled workers in industrial maintenance, the growing complexity of equipment, and the automation of production processes call for improved and increased employee training and retraining. A General Motors training supervisor notes how education and industry can cooperate to provide this education and training. (MF)

  12. [Morbidity patterns of workers employed in pharmaceutical-chemical industry].

    PubMed

    Milovanović, Aleksandar; Jakovljević, Branko; Milovanović, Jovica; Paunović, Katarina; Ilić, Dragan; Torbica, Nikola; Corac, Aleksandar; Samardzic, Svetomir; Blagojević, Tatjana

    2007-01-01

    Work in pharmaceutical-chemical industry is characterized by exposure to numerous hazards, both physical (microclimate, illumination, noise) and chemical (organic solvents). Organic solvents can cause damage to many organic systems and have carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects. The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of chronic morbidity of workers employed in pharmaceutical-chemical industry during 2002. The study was conducted in the pharmaceutical-chemical industry "Zdravlje" Leskovac in 2002. A total of 143 workers in workplaces with special working conditions exposed to chemical hazards as well as 40 workers from control group took part in the study. The physical examinations of the participants were performed at the Department of Occupational Health in Health Center, Leskovac. Heart diseases were the most frequent both among exposed workers (17.8%) and in control group (33.3%). Respiratory diseases were at the second place (16.9% in the exposed group, and 7.4% in control group). Arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 14.7% workers occupationally exposed to hazards, and in 12.5% workers from control group (p > 0.05). Chronic bronchitis was diagnosed in 175% of the exposed workers and in only 5.0% of controls (p > 0.05). The highest prevalence of diseases in both groups was observed among workers aged 40-49 years, with 20-29 years of exposure working time. 73.4% of the exposed workers and 85% of control workers were capable of work (p > 0.05). Workers occupationally exposed to hazards in pharmaceutical-chemical industry have higher prevalence of various diseases compared to non-exposed workers, which can be the result of work, working conditions and work activity. Preventive measures should be directed towards the decrease of occupational hazards and unfavorable working conditions and increase of work protection. Regular physical examinations of workers are of prime importance for the prevention of occupational morbidity, traumatism and

  13. Occupational risk assessment of paint industry workers

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Hugo M.; Dagostim, Gracilene P.; da Silva, Arielle Mota; Tavares, Priscila; da Rosa, Luiz A. Z. C.; de Andrade, Vanessa M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Thousands of chemical compounds are used in paint products, like pigments, extenders, binders, additives, and solvents (toluene, xylene, ketones, alcohols, esters, and glycol ethers). Paint manufacture workers are potentially exposed to the chemicals present in paint products although the patterns and levels of exposure to individual agents may differ from those of painters. The aim of the present study was to evaluate genome damage induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells of paint industry workers. Materials and Methods: Genotoxicity was evaluated using the alkaline Comet assay in blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells, and the Micronucleus test in oral mucosa cells. For the micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells, no significant difference was detected between the control and paint industry workers. Results: The Comet assay in epithelia buccal cells showed that the damage index (DI) and damage frequency (DF) observed in the exposed group were significantly higher relative to the control group (P≤0.05). In the same way, the Comet assay data in peripheral blood leukocytes showed that both analysis parameters (DI and DF) were significantly greater than that for the control group (P≤0.05). Conclusions: Chronic occupational exposure to paints may lead to a slightly increased risk of genetic damage among paint industry workers. PMID:22223950

  14. Work ability in vibration-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Gerhardsson, L; Hagberg, M

    2014-12-01

    Hand-arm vibration exposure may cause hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) including sensorineural disturbances. To investigate which factors had the strongest impact on work ability in vibration-exposed workers. A cross-sectional study in which vibration-exposed workers referred to a department of occupational and environmental medicine were compared with a randomized sample of unexposed subjects from the general population of the city of Gothenburg. All participants underwent a structured interview, answered several questionnaires and had a physical examination including measurements of hand and finger muscle strength and vibrotactile and thermal perception thresholds. The vibration-exposed group (47 subjects) showed significantly reduced sensitivity to cold and warmth in digit 2 bilaterally (P < 0.01) and in digit 5 in the left hand (P < 0.05) and to warmth in digit 5 in the right hand (P < 0.01), compared with the 18 referents. Similarly, tactilometry showed significantly raised vibration perception thresholds among the workers (P < 0.05). A strong relationship was found for the following multiple regression model: estimated work ability = 11.4 - 0.1 × age - 2.3 × current stress level - 2.5 × current pain in hands/arms (multiple r = 0.68; P < 0.001). Vibration-exposed workers showed raised vibrotactile and thermal perception thresholds, compared with unexposed referents. Multiple regression analysis indicated that stress disorders and muscle pain in hands/arms must also be considered when evaluating work ability among subjects with HAVS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  15. Health of workers exposed to electric fields.

    PubMed Central

    Broadbent, D E; Broadbent, M H; Male, J C; Jones, M R

    1985-01-01

    The results of health questionnaire interviews with 390 electrical power transmission and distribution workers, together with long term estimates of their exposure to 50 Hz electric fields, and short term measurements of the actual exposure for 287 of them are reported. Twenty eight workers received measurable exposures, averaging about 30 kVm-1h over the two week measurement period. Estimated exposure rates were considerably greater, but showed fair correlation with the measurements. Although the general level of health was higher than we have found in manual workers in other industries, there were significant differences in the health measures between different categories of job, different parts of the country, and in association with factors such as overtime, working alone, or frequently changing shift. After allowing for the effects of job and location, however, we found no significant correlations of health with either measured or estimated exposure to electric fields. PMID:3970875

  16. Mortality study of beryllium industry workers' occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, T.F.

    1980-02-01

    A cohort of 3685 white males employed during 1937 to 1948 in two major industries manufacturing beryllium was followed to the end of 1976 to evaluate lung cancer mortality experience. Lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers was contrasted with that of workers employed in the viscose rayon industry. Study results demonstrated that lung cancer mortality among berylliumm-exposed workers was significantly greater than that expected on the basis of lung cancer mortality experience of workers in the viscose rayon industry having similar employment patterns. The results of the present study are consistent with earlier animal bioassay studies and recent epidemiologic studies indicating that beryllium is carcinogenic. The results of the present study are not consistent with speculation attributing the excessive lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers to personal characteristics of individuals having unstable employment patterns.

  17. Assessing inhalatory and dermal exposures and their resultant health-risks for workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in oil mists in a fastener manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Ru; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Wang, Ying-Fang

    2008-10-01

    This study first assessed workers' inhalatory and dermal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in oil mists. Then, their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were estimated. Finally, control strategies were initiated from the health-risk management aspect. All threading workers in a fastener manufacturing plant were included. 16 inhalatory and 88 dermal PAH exposure samples were collected. Results show that the inhalatory gas phase total PAH exposure level (8.60 x 10(4) ng/m3) was much higher than that of particle phase (2.30 x 10(3) ng/m3). Workers' mean inhalatory exposure level (8.83 x 10(4) ng/m3) was lower, but its corresponding 1-sided upper 95% confidence level (UCL1,95% = 1.02 x 10(5) ng/m3) was higher than the time-weighted average permissible exposure level (PEL-TWA) regulated in Taiwan for PAHs (1.00 x 10(5) ng/m3). The mean whole body total PAHs dermal exposure levels was 5.44 x 10(6) ng/day and the top five exposed surface areas were lower arm, hand, upper arm, neck, and head/front. The estimated lifetime skin cancer risk (9.72 x 10(-3)) was lower than that of lung cancer risk (1.64 x 10(-2)), but both were higher than the significant risk level (10(-3)) defined by the US Supreme Court in 1980. The installation of a local exhaust ventilation system at the threading machine should be considered as the first priority measurement because both lung and skin cancer risks can be reduced simultaneously. If the personal protection equipment would be adopted in the future, both respiratory protection equipment and protective clothing should be used simultaneously.

  18. Plasma prolactin concentrations in lead exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Govoni, S; Battaini, F; Fernicola, C; Castelletti, L; Trabucchi, M

    1987-01-01

    Plasma Prolactin (Prl) Zinc protoporphyrin (Zpp) and blood lead concentrations (PbB) were measured in 76 exposed male workers. All of them were employed in small (not more than 30 persons) pewter factories and were randomly selected from those regularly controlled by the National Health Service, Occupational Health Unit of Brescia (USSL 41). Although all plasma Prl values were within the normal range, the mean value of the subgroup having Zpp and PbB higher than 40 micrograms/dl was significantly higher (+47%) than that observed in the group of workers having Zpp and PbB less than 40 micrograms/dl. The data indicate the possibility of a lead-induced Prl secretion dysfunction, probably mediated by a decrease in dopaminergic inhibitory control.

  19. Mortality patterns among workers exposed to acrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Swaen, G.M.; Marsh, G.M.; Utidjian, H.M.; Caporossi, J.C.; Lucas, L.J. )

    1989-07-01

    A cohort of 8854 men, 2293 of whom were exposed to acrylamide, was examined from 1925 to 1983 for mortality. This cohort consisted of four plant populations in two countries: the United States and The Netherlands. No statistically significant excess of all-cause or cause-specific mortality was found among acrylamide workers. Analysis by acrylamide exposure levels showed no trend of increased risk of mortality from several cancer sites. These results do not support the hypothesis that acrylamide is a human carcinogen.

  20. Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

  1. Cancer occurrence among workers exposed to acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Rothman, K J

    1994-10-01

    A MEDLINE search identified 12 published epidemiologic studies that have reported incidence or mortality experience among workers exposed to acrylonitrile. Many of the studies contain scanty descriptions of subject ascertainment, and most do not have good information on exposure assessment. Many also may have suffered from incomplete follow-up, as evinced by an overall deficit in the number of deaths observed, compared with the number expected from general population mortality rates. Such problems are not unique to studies on acrylonitrile, and to some extent they reflect the difficulties of conducting retrospective cohort studies. Despite these drawbacks, a simplified meta-analysis of the mortality experience reported for these cohorts revealed little evidence for carcinogenicity. Approximately the same number of cancer deaths was observed as was expected according to general population mortality rates (standardized mortality ratio 1.03, 90% confidence interval 0.92-1.15). The combined information from these studies is insufficient to support confidence about a lack of carcinogenicity at all sites. Nevertheless, despite the flaws in some of the individual studies, the summarized findings offer reassurance that workers exposed to acrylonitrile face no striking increases in mortality for all cancers or for respiratory cancer.

  2. Lung cancer of radiochemical industry workers

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhryakov, V.F.; Romanov, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    The frequency of lung cancers among 2346 radiochemical industry workers exposed to combined external {beta}-{gamma} and internal incorporated plutonium irradiation has been investigated. The results of observation were analyzed assuming the linear relative risk model taking into account prolongation of exposure. On the basis of the obtained data it was shown that life span incidence, of radiation-induced lung cancer is several times greater than 8.5 x 10{sup -3}Sv{sup -1}, which is recommended by ICRP Publication 60 to estimate the carcinogenic risk of organ exposure.

  3. Behavioural evaluation of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents.

    PubMed Central

    Maizlish, N A; Langolf, G D; Whitehead, L W; Fine, L J; Albers, J W; Goldberg, J; Smith, P

    1985-01-01

    Reports from Scandinavia have suggested behavioural impairment among long term workers exposed to solvents below regulatory standards. A cross sectional study of behavioural performance was conducted among printers and spray painters exposed to mixtures of organic solvents to replicate the Scandinavian studies and to examine dose-response relationships. Eligible subjects consisted of 640 hourly workers from four midwestern United States companies. Of these, 269 responded to requests to participate and 240 were selected for study based on restrictions for age, sex, education, and other potentially confounding variables. The subjects tested had been employed on average for six years. Each subject completed an occupational history, underwent a medical examination, and completed a battery of behavioural tests. These included the Fitts law psychomotor task, the Stroop colour-word test, the Sternberg short term memory scanning test, the short term memory span test, and the continuous recognition memory test. Solvent exposure for each subject was defined as an exposed or non-exposed category based on a plant industrial hygiene walk-through and the concentration of solvents based on an analysis of full shift personal air samples by gas chromatography. The first definition was used to maintain consistency with Scandinavian studies, but the second was considered to be more accurate. The average full shift solvent concentration was 302 ppm for the printing plant workers and 6-13 ppm for the workers at other plants. Isopropanol and hexane were the major components, compared with toluene in Scandinavian studies. Performance on behavioural tests was analysed using multiple linear regression with solvent concentration as an independent variable. Other relevant demographic variables were also considered for inclusion. No significant (p greater than 0.05) relation between solvent concentration and impairment on any of the 10 behavioural variables was observed after controlling for

  4. Behavioural evaluation of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Maizlish, N A; Langolf, G D; Whitehead, L W; Fine, L J; Albers, J W; Goldberg, J; Smith, P

    1985-09-01

    Reports from Scandinavia have suggested behavioural impairment among long term workers exposed to solvents below regulatory standards. A cross sectional study of behavioural performance was conducted among printers and spray painters exposed to mixtures of organic solvents to replicate the Scandinavian studies and to examine dose-response relationships. Eligible subjects consisted of 640 hourly workers from four midwestern United States companies. Of these, 269 responded to requests to participate and 240 were selected for study based on restrictions for age, sex, education, and other potentially confounding variables. The subjects tested had been employed on average for six years. Each subject completed an occupational history, underwent a medical examination, and completed a battery of behavioural tests. These included the Fitts law psychomotor task, the Stroop colour-word test, the Sternberg short term memory scanning test, the short term memory span test, and the continuous recognition memory test. Solvent exposure for each subject was defined as an exposed or non-exposed category based on a plant industrial hygiene walk-through and the concentration of solvents based on an analysis of full shift personal air samples by gas chromatography. The first definition was used to maintain consistency with Scandinavian studies, but the second was considered to be more accurate. The average full shift solvent concentration was 302 ppm for the printing plant workers and 6-13 ppm for the workers at other plants. Isopropanol and hexane were the major components, compared with toluene in Scandinavian studies. Performance on behavioural tests was analysed using multiple linear regression with solvent concentration as an independent variable. Other relevant demographic variables were also considered for inclusion. No significant (p greater than 0.05) relation between solvent concentration and impairment on any of the 10 behavioural variables was observed after controlling for

  5. Biomonitoring of a population of Portuguese workers exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    García-Lestón, Julia; Roma-Torres, Joana; Vilares, Maria; Pinto, Rui; Cunha, Luís M; Prista, João; Teixeira, Joao Paulo; Mayan, Olga; Pásaro, Eduardo; Méndez, Josefina; Laffon, Blanca

    2011-03-18

    Lead is a heavy metal that has been used for many centuries and it is still used for various industrial purposes thanks to its physical and chemical characteristics. Human exposure to lead can result in a wide range of biological effects depending upon the level and duration of exposure. Despite the fact that lead has been found capable of eliciting genotoxic responses in a wide range of tests, not all studies have been conclusive. Although several experimental studies have shown that lead may modulate immune responses, data in exposed humans are still preliminary. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the genotoxic and immunotoxic effects of lead exposure in a group of 70 male workers from two Portuguese factories. The control group comprised 38 healthy males. The exposed individuals showed significantly higher levels of lead in blood and zinc protoporphyrin, and significantly lower δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity than the controls, suggesting a relatively high lead exposure. Nevertheless, the limit of 70 μg/dl for lead in blood established by the Portuguese regulation was never reached. Results of the comet assay were not modified by the exposure, but a significant increase in the mutation frequency in the exposed workers was obtained in the T-cell receptor mutation assay. Furthermore, data obtained in the analysis of the different lymphocyte subsets showed a significant decrease in %CD8+ cells and a significant increase in the %CD4+/%CD8+ ratio in exposed individuals with regard to the controls. No clear effect was observed for vitamin D receptor genetic polymorphism on the parameters evaluated. In view of our results showing mutagenic and immunotoxic effects related to lead exposure in occupational settings, it seems that the Portuguese biological exposure limit for lead needs to be revised in order to increase the safety of exposed workers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Heart disease in workers exposed to dinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.J.; Andjelkovich, D.A.; Kersteter, S.L.; Arp, E.W. Jr.; Balogh, S.A.; Blunden, P.B.; Stanley, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    To determine whether the carcinogenicity of dinitrotoluene (DNT) in rodent bioassays was predictive for humans, we examined the mortality experience of exposed workers at two ammunition plants. Cohorts of 156 and 301 men who had worked a month or more during the 1940s and 1950s at jobs with opportunity for substantial DNT exposure were followed through the end of 1980. Numbers of expected deaths and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed, using mortality rates of US white males as the standard. No evidence of a carcinogenic effect was found, but unsuspected excesses of mortality from ischemic heart disease were noted at both plants (SMRs) 131 and 143; 95% confidence limits 65 to 234 and 107 to 187, respectively). Deaths from ischemic heart disease remained high even when compared with expected numbers derived using mortality rates of the counties in which the plants were located. Additional analyses revealed evidence of a 15-year latent period and suggested a relationship with duration and intensity of exposure. Epidemiologic investigations of other heavily exposed populations are needed to confirm the etiologic significance of the association between DNT and heart disease described here.

  7. Mortality among workers exposed to ethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Steenland, K; Stayner, L; Greife, A; Halperin, W; Hayes, R; Hornung, R; Nowlin, S

    1991-05-16

    Ethylene oxide is a sterilant gas that causes leukemia and other cancers in animals. Studies in Sweden have shown an excess of leukemia and stomach cancer in humans exposed to ethylene oxide, but other studies have generally failed to confirm these findings. We conducted a study of mortality in 18,254 U.S. workers exposed to ethylene oxide at 14 plants producing sterilized medical supplies and spices. The subjects averaged 4.9 years of exposure to the gas and 16 years of follow-up. The exposure levels in recent years averaged 4.3 ppm (eight-hour time-weighted adjusted exposure) for sterilizer operators and 2.0 ppm for other workers. The levels in earlier years are likely to have been several times higher. Mortality in this cohort was compared with that in the general U.S. population. Overall there was no significant increase in mortality from any cause in the study cohort. The standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were 0.97 for leukemia (95 percent confidence interval, 0.52 to 1.67; 13 deaths observed), 1.06 for all hematopoietic cancers (95 percent confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.47; 36 deaths), and 0.94 for stomach cancer (95 percent confidence interval, 0.45 to 1.70; 11 deaths). Analyses according to job category and according to the duration of exposure showed no excess in cancers, as compared with the rate in the general population, but there was a significant trend toward increased mortality with increasing lengths of time since the first exposure for all hematopoietic cancers. The rate of death from hematopoietic cancer (especially non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) was significantly increased among men (SMR, 1.55; 27 deaths). Mortality from leukemia in recent years (1985 through 1987) was significantly increased among men (SMR, 3.45; 5 deaths). For the entire cohort, there was no increase in mortality from hematopoietic cancer. There was a slight but significant increase among men, however. Among men and women combined, there was a trend toward an increased risk of

  8. Lung Cancer in Railroad Workers Exposed to Diesel Exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Rosner, Bernard; Smith, Thomas J.; Dockery, Douglas W.; Speizer, Frank E.

    2004-01-01

    Diesel exhaust has been suspected to be a lung carcinogen. The assessment of this lung cancer risk has been limited by lack of studies of exposed workers followed for many years. In this study, we assessed lung cancer mortality in 54,973 U.S. railroad workers between 1959 and 1996 (38 years). By 1959, the U.S. railroad industry had largely converted from coal-fired to diesel-powered locomotives. We obtained work histories from the U.S. Railroad Retirement Board, and ascertained mortality using Railroad Retirement Board, Social Security, and Health Care Financing Administration records. Cause of death was obtained from the National Death Index and death certificates. There were 43,593 total deaths including 4,351 lung cancer deaths. Adjusting for a healthy worker survivor effect and age, railroad workers in jobs associated with operating trains had a relative risk of lung cancer mortality of 1.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.30–1.51). Lung cancer mortality did not increase with increasing years of work in these jobs. Lung cancer mortality was elevated in jobs associated with work on trains powered by diesel locomotives. Although a contribution from exposure to coal combustion products before 1959 cannot be excluded, these results suggest that exposure to diesel exhaust contributed to lung cancer mortality in this cohort. PMID:15531439

  9. Assessment of genotoxic effects of lead in occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Chinde, Srinivas; Kumari, Monika; Devi, Kanapuram Rudrama; Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana; Rahman, Mohammed Fazlur; Kumari, Srinivas Indu; Mahboob, Mohammed; Grover, Paramjit

    2014-10-01

    The genotoxicological effects in 200 lead acid storage battery recycling and manufacturing industry workers in Hyderabad along with matched 200 controls were studied. The genetic damage was determined by comet, micronucleus (MN), and chromosomal aberration (CA) test in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The MN test was also carried out in buccal epithelial cells (BECs). Pb in ambient air, blood Pb (B-Pb) concentrations, and hematological parameters were measured. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) formed were also studied. The results of the present study showed that there was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) increase in mean percent tail DNA, frequency of CA, and MN in PBL as well as in BEC as compared to controls. Pb in ambient air and B-Pb concentrations were found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01). The hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell values were significantly lowered in Pb-exposed workers in comparison to controls. SOD, GPx, and CAT levels were significantly decreased while GSH and MDA levels increased in exposed group when compared to control group. The present study suggests that environmental health standards should be enforced to control Pb contamination from battery industries to reduce human health risk.

  10. Asymmetric Hearing Loss in Chinese Workers Exposed to Complex Noise

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Nan; Zeng, Lin; Tao, Liyuan; Zhang, Hua; Yang, Qiuling; Qiu, Wei; Zhu, Liangliang; Zhao, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate audiometric asymmetry in Chinese industrial workers and investigate the effects of noise exposure, sex, and binaural average thresholds on audiometric asymmetry. Design Data collected from Chinese industrial workers during a cross-sectional study were re-analyzed. Of the 1388 workers, 266 met the inclusion criteria for this study. Each subject underwent a physical examination and an otologic examination and completed a health-related questionnaire. χ2 and t tests were used to examine the differences between the asymmetric and symmetric hearing loss groups. Results One hundred thirty-one (49.2%) subjects had a binaural hearing threshold difference of 15 dB or more for at least one frequency, and there was no statistically significant difference between the left and right ears. The asymmetric hearing loss group was not exposed to higher cumulative noise levels (t = 0.522, p = 0.602), and there was no dose-response relationship between asymmetry and cumulative noise levels (χ2 = 6.502, p = 0.165). Men were 1.849 times more likely to have asymmetry than women were [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.051–3.253]. Among the workers with higher high-frequency hearing thresholds (HFHTs), audiometric asymmetry was 1.024 times more prevalent than that among those with lower HFHTs (95% CI, 1.004–1.044). Conclusions The results indicated that occupational noise exposure contributed minimally to asymmetry, while sex and binaural average thresholds significantly affected audiometric asymmetry. There was no evidence that the left ears were worse than the right ears. PMID:26502292

  11. Epidemiologic Study of One Million American Workers and Military Veterans Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, John D.

    2015-02-27

    A pilot study was completed demonstrating the feasibility of conducting an epidemiologic study assessing cancer and other disease mortality among nearly one million US veterans and workers exposed to ionizing radiation, a population 10 times larger than atomic bomb survivor study with high statistical power to evaluate low dose rate effects. Among the groups enumerated and/or studied were: (1) 194,000 Department of Energy Uranium Workers; (2) 6,700 Rocketdyne Radiation Workers; (3) 7,000 Mound Radiation Workers; (4) 156,000 DOE Plutonium Workers; (5) 212,000 Nuclear Power Plant Workers; (6) 130,000 Industrial Radiography Workers; (7) 1.7 million Medical Workers and (8) 135,000 Atomic Veterans.

  12. Ventilatory function in workers exposed to tea and wood dust.

    PubMed

    Al Zuhair, Y S; Whitaker, C J; Cinkotai, F F

    1981-11-01

    Changes in ventilatory capacity during the work shift were studied in workers exposed to tea dust in tea-packing plants, wood dust in two furniture factories, and virtually no dust in an inoperational power station. The FEV1 and FVC in workers exposed to dust were found to decline during the work shift by a small but significant volume. The MMFR, Vmax 50% and Vmax 75% were to variable to display any trend. No dose-response relationship could be discerned between the fall in workers' ventilatory capacity and the concentrations of airborne dust or microbes to which they were exposed. Bronchodilators could reverse the fall in FEV1.

  13. Pulmonary impairment in workers exposed to silicon carbide.

    PubMed Central

    Marcer, G; Bernardi, G; Bartolucci, G B; Mastrangelo, G; Belluco, U; Camposampiero, A; Saia, B

    1992-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty seven workers employed in the manufacture of silicon carbide (SiC) were examined to determine the effects of exposure to contaminants (SiC, quartz, and SO2) in the workplace on pulmonary function. No exposure concentrations exceeded the current permissible limits. Ten subjects (3.7%) showed rounded opacities (profusion greater than or equal to 1/0). Two subjects employed only in the final stages of the production process and not exposed to crystalline silica showed opacities (profusion q1/0 and q2/1) on x ray film suggesting a role of SiC in the genesis of interstitial lung disease. Chest abnormalities on x ray film were correlated with cumulative exposure to dust and pulmonary function was affected by cumulative dust exposure, profusion of opacities, and smoking. It is concluded that the current standards do not provide adequate protection against pneumoconiosis and chronic pulmonary disease in this industry. PMID:1637708

  14. Chlorophenol exposure in harbor workers exposed to river silt aerosols.

    PubMed

    Radon, Katja; Wegner, Ralf; Heinrich-Ramm, Regine; Baur, Xaver; Poschadel, Bernd; Szadkowski, Dieter

    2004-05-01

    While dredging the river Elbe in the harbor of Hamburg, workers are potentially exposed to river silt aerosols containing organic compounds. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the internal load of chlorophenols in exposed workers. Eighty-four exposed workers and eighty-four unexposed office workers were examined. Urinary samples were analyzed for dichlorophenols, trichlorophenols, tetrachlorophenols, and pentachlorophenol (PCP). For exposed workers, more than 2/3 of the urinary samples were above detection limit for 2,5-dichlorophenol, 2,4/3,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and PCP. Harbor workers had significantly higher median levels of 2,5-dichlorophenol (0.6 vs. 0.4 microg/g creatinine) and PCP (1.4 vs. 1.0 microg/g creatinine) as compared to unexposed subjects. These differences remained statistically significant after adjustment for age, smoking habits, and fish consumption. Harbor workers in the harbor of Hamburg have a statistically significant higher internal load of chlorophenols than the general population. However, the internal load is within the range of exposure reported from the general population. Therefore, even though chlorophenols are found in the river silt these exposures do not seem to be the major source of the internal load among workers in the harbor of Hamburg. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. [Health maintenance strategy for construction industry workers].

    PubMed

    Perminova, I Iu; Logvinenko, I I

    2011-01-01

    The authors analyzed work conditions and health state of workers engaged into construction industry in Kemerovo city. Findings are that complex approach to carrying out the strategy "Health for all in XXI century" causes health preservation.

  16. [Occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers of West Siberia].

    PubMed

    Pomytkina, T E; Pershin, A N

    2010-01-01

    The high incidence of chronic digestive diseases is recorded in chemical industry workers exposed to the isolated action of noxious substances. The aim of the investigation was to make a hygienic assessment of the risk for occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers exposed to a combination of noxious drugs. The working conditions and the prevalence of digestive diseases were studied in 4120 workers engaged in chemical and auxiliary processes. Under the isolated action of noxious substances, the workers had an average of 35% increase in the incidence of digestive diseases than unexposed ones (p < 0.05). Under the combined action of hazardous substances, the incidence of digestive diseases was 1.7-fold greater (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects and 1.2-fold greater in those under isolated action. The odd ratio and relative risk for digestive diseases in the workers exposed to a combination of noxious substances were 4.0-11.1 and 3.5-10.7 times higher, respectively (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects.

  17. [Results of bronchodilation tests in workers exposed to occupation respiratory noxae].

    PubMed

    Popović, V; Jovanović, J; Todorović, R; Arandelović, M; Momcilović, O; Dordević, D

    1990-01-01

    In order to detect and assess the spastic components in airway obstruction of workers exposed to inhalation of different nonorganic and organic dusts, 129 workers of metal industry and 135 workers of textile industry were examined. The workers of metal industry were exposed to the following respiratory noxa: toluol, paint aerosol, mineral dusts (SiO2 up to 10%), asbestos dust, metalic dust and several chemical noxa (acetone, CO, CO2, ZnO, FeO and petrol). In textile industry the dust of vegetal origin was detected with unfavourable micro climatic factors. In both groups the similar results were found with very high percent of spastic components. After bronhodilatatory testing the most significant differences were found in the following tests: Raw, FMF25-75, FEF75-85, components. Several significant spastic components were present in workers of metal industry which are due to the polluted working area. In relation to the mean values of tests, the greatest number of different results was found in FEF75-85 and Raw tests. It is suggested that the workers with these results should be tested as well.

  18. Cardiovascular effects in viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide.

    PubMed

    Kotseva, K; Braeckman, L; De Bacquer, D; Bulat, P; Vanhoorne, M

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the cardiovascular effects in workers currently exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) below the threshold limit value (TLV) of 31 mg/m3 and to determine the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) after long-term exposure. 172 men (91 workers exposed to CS2 in a viscose rayon factory and 81 referent workers) were examined using a medical and job history questionnaire, Rose's questionnaire, and electrocardiography at rest, and by measuring blood pressure and serum lipids and lipoproteins. Personal exposures were monitored simultaneously with active sampling and findings were analyzed according to the NIOSH 1600 method. As a result of technical and organizational improvements, personal CS2 exposures were well below the TLV (5.4-13.02 mg/m3). No significant effect of CS2 on blood pressure or lipids (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins AI and B) was found, even after allowance for confounding factors. The prevalence of CHD (ECG abnormalities and chest pain) was higher in the viscose rayon workers than in the workers with no exposure but reached statistical significance for men with exposure histories often years and more only (cumulative CS9 index > or = 150 mg/m3, the most highly exposed group). The findings suggest that the coronary risk is increased in workers previously exposed to high CS2 concentrations but not in those exposed to CS2 levels below the current TLV.

  19. Mortality in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Milham, S

    1985-01-01

    In an occupational mortality analysis of 486,000 adult male death records filed in Washington State in the years 1950-1982, leukemia and the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas show increased proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) in workers employed in occupations with intuitive exposures to electromagnetic fields. Nine occupations of 219 were considered to have electric or magnetic field exposures. These were: electrical and electronic technicians, radio and telegraph operators, radio and television repairmen, telephone and power linemen, power station operators, welders, aluminum reduction workers, motion picture projectionists and electricians. There were 12,714 total deaths in these occupations. Eight of the nine occupations had PMR increases for leukemia [International Classification of Diseases (ICD), seventh revision 204] and seven of the nine occupations had PMR increases for the other lymphoma category (7th ICD 200.2, 202). The highest PMRs were seen for acute leukemia: (67 deaths observed, 41 deaths expected; PMR 162), and in the other lymphomas (51 deaths observed, 31 deaths expected; PMR 164). No increase in mortality was seen for Hodgkin's disease or multiple myeloma. These findings offer some support for the hypothesis that electric and magnetic fields may be carcinogenic. PMID:4085433

  20. Mortality in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Milham, S. Jr.

    1985-10-01

    In an occupational mortality analysis of 486,000 adult male death records filed in Washington State in the years 1950-1982, leukemia and the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas show increased proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) in workers employed in occupations with intuitive exposures to electromagnetic fields. Nine occupations of 219 were considered to have electric or magnetic field exposures. These were: electrical and electronic technicians, radio and telegraph operators, radio and television repairmen, telephone and power linemen, power station operators, welders, aluminum reduction workers, motion picture projectionists and electricians. There were 12,714 total deaths in these occupations. Eight of the nine occupations had PMR increases for leukemia (International Classification of Diseases (ICD), seventh revision 204) and seven of the nine occupations had PMR increases for the other lymphoma category (7th ICD 200.2, 202). The highest PMRs were seen for acute leukemia: (67 deaths observed, 41 deaths expected; PMR 162), and in the other lymphomas (51 deaths observed, 31 deaths expected; PMR 164). No increase in mortality was seen for Hodgkin's disease or multiple myeloma. These findings offer some support for the hypothesis that electric and magnetic fields may be carcinogenic.

  1. Why do workers behave unsafely at work? Determinants of safe work practices in industrial workers

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, A; Boix, P; Canosa, C

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To explore the relation between safety climate (workers' perceptions regarding management's attitudes towards occupational safety and health) and workers' behaviour at work. Methods: Cross sectional survey of workers at the pottery industry in Castellon, Spain. Sampling was stratified by plant size and workers' gender, according to data on the working population at this setting. A total of 734 production workers were interviewed. Information was collected on safety climate and workers' behaviour towards occupational risks with a specific questionnaire. A safety climate index (SCI, scale 0–100) was constructed adding scores for each item measuring safety climate in the questionnaire. Workers' unsafe behaviour was analysed for the different safety climate index levels. Results: Mean score for SCI was 71.90 (SD 19.19). There were no differences in SCI scores according to age, gender, education, children at charge, seniority at work, or type of employment. Small workplaces (<50 workers) showed significantly worse SCI (mean 67.23, SD 19.73) than the largest factories (>200 workers). Lower levels of SCI (SCI <50) were related to workers' unsafe behaviours (full/high accord with the statement "I excessively expose myself to hazards in my work", adjusted odds ratio ORa 2.79, 95% CI 1.60 to 4.88), and to lack of compliance with safety rules (ORa 12.83, 95% CI 5.92 to 27.80). Conclusions: Safety climate measures workers' perception of organisational factors related to occupational health and safety (for example, management commitment to risk prevention or priorities of safety versus production). In this study these factors are strongly associated with workers' attitudes towards safety at work. Longitudinal studies can further clarify the relation between safety climate and workers' behaviour regarding occupational safety and health. PMID:14985519

  2. Cancer mortality among electric utility workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, D; Browning, S R; Schenck, A P; Gregory, E; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether excess mortality from cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin, and cancers of the brain and liver in particular, is associated with long term occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). METHODS: An epidemiological study of mortality was conducted among 138,905 men employed for at least six months between 1950 and 1986 at five electrical power companies in the United States. Exposures were assessed by panels composed of workers, hygienists, and managers at each company, who considered tasks performed by workers in 28 job categories and estimated weekly exposures in hours for each job. Poisson regression was used to examine mortality in relation to exposure to electrical insulating fluids containing PCBs, controlling for demographic and occupational factors. RESULTS: Neither all cause nor total cancer mortality was related to cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids. Mortality from malignant melanoma increased with exposure; rate ratios (RRs) relative to unexposed men for melanoma were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.56 to 2.52), 1.71 (0.68 to 4.28) and 1.93 (0.52 to 7.14) for men with < 2000, > 2000-10,000, and > 10,000 hours of cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids, respectively, without consideration of latency. Lagging exposure by 20 years yielded RRs of 1.29 (0.76 to 2.18), 2.56 (1.09 to 5.97), and 4.81 (1.49 to 15.50) for the same exposure levels. Mortality from brain cancer was modestly increased among men with < 2000 hours (RR 1.61, 95% CI 0.86 to 3.01) and > 2000-10,000 hours exposure (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.95), but there were no deaths from brain cancer among the most highly exposed men. A lag of five years yielded slightly increased RRs. Mortality from liver cancer was not associated with exposure to PCB insulating fluids. CONCLUSIONS: This study was larger and provided more detailed information on exposure than past investigations of workers exposed to PCBs. The results suggest that PCBs

  3. [The results of cytogenetic studies of workers in industrial enterprises].

    PubMed

    Baryliak, I R; Frolov, V M; Peresadin, M O; Vytrishchak, V Ia; Koval'chuk, L Ie

    1995-01-01

    Cytogenetic monitoring of workers of large industrial enterprizes showed the presence of chromatide aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes, which were more manifest in workers of chemical and byproduct cokeplants, and somewhat less apparent in metallurgists. The frequency of metaphases involving chromosomal aberrations is dependent upon the duration of occupational exposure to chemical mutagens. However, the number of chromosomal abberrations does not appear to be influenced by chemical factors remaining essantially the same. The human embrion genome sensitivity to the chemical mutagen action was found to be much higher than that of somatic cells of the adults occupationally exposed to alterating factors. Use of complexes of antioxidants (tocopheroli acetas, quercetin, splenin) makes for reduction in the number of chromosomal aberrations in workers engaged in chemical industry.

  4. Estimates of the Number of Workers Exposed to Diesel Engine Exhaust in South Korea from 1993 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sangjun; Park, Donguk; Kim, Seung Won; Ha, Kwonchul; Jung, Hyejung; Yi, Gwangyong; Koh, Dong-Hee; Park, Deokmook; Sun, Oknam; Uuksulainen, Sanni

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the number of workers exposed to diesel engine exhaust (DEE) by industry and year in the Republic of Korea. The estimates of workers potentially exposed to DEE in the Republic of Korea were calculated by industry on the basis of the carcinogen exposure (CAREX) surveillance system. The data on the labor force employed in DEE exposure industries were obtained from the Census on Establishments conducted by the Korea National Statistical Office from 1993 to 2013. The mean values of prevalence rates adopted by EU15 countries were used as the primary exposure prevalence rates. We also investigated the exposure prevalence rates and exposure characteristics of DEE in 359 workplaces representing 11 industries. The total number of workers exposed to DEE were estimated as 270,014 in 1993 and 417,034 in 2013 (2.2% of the total labor force). As of 2013, the industry categorized as "Land transport" showed the highest number of workers exposed to DEE with 174,359, followed by "Personal and household services" with 70,298, "Construction" with 45,555, "Wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels" with 44,005, and "Sanitation and similar services" with 12,584. These five industries, with more than 10,000 workers exposed to DEE, accounted for 83% of the total DEE-exposed workers. Comparing primary prevalence rates used for preliminary estimation among 49 industries, "Metal ore mining" had the highest rate at 52.6%, followed by "Other mining" with 50.0%, and "Land transport" with 23.6%. The DEE prevalence rates we surveyed (1.3-19.8%) were higher than the primary prevalence rates. The most common emission sources of DEE were diesel engine vehicles such as forklifts, trucks, and vans. Our estimated numbers of workers exposed to DEE can be used to identify industries with workers requiring protection from potential exposure to DEE in the Republic of Korea.

  5. Serum beta2-microglobulin in cadmium exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Piscator, M

    1978-09-01

    In cadmium exposed workers with renal tubular dysfunction the determination of beta2m in urine is an important diagnostic test. Cadmium exposure's influence on serum beta2m levels and its relationship to urinary excretion of beta2m were studied in 24 cadmium exposed workers with normal serum creatinine levels (less than 10 mg/l)) and no obvious tubular dysfunction. With increasing blood levels of cadmium beta2m was found to increase in serum. There was no concomitant increase in the urinary excretion of beta2m. Serum beta2m was not dependent on serum creatinine within the range studied. The results suggest that for evaluating renal glomerular function in cadmium exposed workers, it might be better to use the serum creatinine level, creatinine clearance or inulin clearance since beta2m might give some false positive results.

  6. Epidemiological survey of workers exposed to inorganic germanium compounds

    PubMed Central

    Swennen, B; Mallants, A; Roels, H; Buchet, J; Bernard, A; Lauwerys, R; Lison, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess occupational exposure to inorganic germanium (Ge) in workers from a producing plant, and to assess the health of these workers, with a special focus on respiratory, kidney, and liver functions.
METHODS—Cross sectional study of 75 workers exposed to Ge and 79 matched referents. Exposure was characterised by measuring air and urine concentrations of the element during a typical working week, and health was assessed by a questionnaire, clinical examination, lung function testing, chest radiography, and clinical chemistry in serum and urine, including high and low molecular weight urinary proteins.
RESULTS—Airborne concentrations of Ge (inhalable fraction) ranged from 0.03 to 300 µg/m, which was reflected by increased urinary excretion of Ge (0.12-200 µg/g creatinine, after the shift at the end of the working week). Lung, liver, and haematological variables were not significantly different between referents and workers exposed to Ge. A slightly higher urinary concentration of high molecular weight proteins (albumin and transferrin) was found in workers exposed to Ge, possibly reflecting subclinical glomerular changes. No relation was found between the intensity or duration of exposure and the urinary concentration of albumin. No difference between referents and workers exposed to Ge was found for other renal variables.
CONCLUSIONS—Measurement of urinary Ge can detect occupational exposure to inorganic Ge and its compounds. It is prudent to recommend the monitoring of renal variables in workers exposed to Ge.


Keywords: inorganic germanium; occupational exposure; biological monitoring PMID:10810110

  7. Occupational skin diseases in automotive industry workers.

    PubMed

    Yakut, Yunus; Uçmak, Derya; Akkurt, Zeynep Meltem; Akdeniz, Sedat; Palanci, Yilmaz; Sula, Bilal

    2014-03-01

    Studies on occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry are few. To investigate the prevalence of occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry. Between September and December 2011, a total of 405 workers from the automotive repair industry in Diyarbakır were interviewed. They were active workers in the repair industry who had been employed for at least six months. Business owners, sellers of spare parts and accounting officers were not included. The employees were examined at their workplaces and the working conditions were observed. Detailed dermatological examination was performed. The mean age of the 405 workers who participated in the study was 27.7 ± 10.3. The mean working time of employees was 13.3 ± 10.4 years. All of the employees were male. Dermatological diseases were not detected in 144 out of 405 workers (35.6%) and at least one condition was diagnosed in 261 (64.4%). The most frequent diagnosis was callus, hyperkeratosis, clavus (27.7%), followed by nail changes (16.8%) and superficial mycoses (12.1%). Contact dermatitis was seen at a rate of 5.9%. Traumatic lesions such as hyperkeratotic lesions and nail changes were found most frequently. Traumatic lesions were common among individuals who did not use gloves. Most nail changes were localized leuconychia, a finding not reported in the studies on automotive industry workers. In accordance with the literature, irritant contact dermatitis was observed in patients with a history of atopy and who had been working for a long time. Occupational skin diseases comprise an important field in dermatology, deserving much attention. Further studies on occupational dermatology are necessary.

  8. The Healthy Worker Effect and Nuclear Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Fornalski, Krzysztof W.; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2010-01-01

    The linear no-threshold (LNT) dose-effect relationship has been consistently used by most radiation epidemiologists to estimate cancer mortality risk. The large scattering of data by International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC (Vrijheid et al. 2007; Therry-Chef et al. 2007; Cardis et al. 2007), interpreted in accordance with LNT, has been previously demonstrated (Fornalski and Dobrzyński 2009). Using conventional and Bayesian methods the present paper demonstrates that the standard mortality ratios (SMRs), lower in the IARC cohort of exposed nuclear workers than in the non exposed group, should be considered as a hormetic effect, rather than a healthy worker effect (HWE) as claimed by the IARC group. PMID:20585442

  9. Decreasing the aging velocity in industry workers.

    PubMed

    Kristjuhan, Ulo

    2010-06-01

    We carried out physiological and ergonomic studies in industry from 1965 to 2000. Participants (2147) were workers in different jobs, such as light industry and the dairy, automotive, and building materials industries. Most of the groups studied included 30-50 male and female workers. In the studies we used a combination of methods and paid much attention to the quantitative assessment of discomfort during working hours. One of the aims was to avoid or postpone various age-related diseases (cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, etc.) of workers. We provided recommendations to managers and individuals: changing the technology, work organization, corrective measures of ergonomics, self-care procedures or doctor visits, correct diet, preventive exercises, and improving labor productivity. Changes based on our studies postponed age-related changes up to 20 years and pointed to close connections between the environment and aging peculiarities in the human organism.

  10. Prevalence of tinnitus in workers exposed to noise and organophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Delecrode, Camila Ribas; de Freitas, Thais Domingues; Frizzo, Ana Claúdia Figueiredo; Cardoso, Ana Claúdia Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Research on the workplace has emphasized the effects of noise exposure on workers' hearing, but has not considered the effects of agrochemicals. Aim: To evaluate and correlate the hearing level and tinnitus of workers exposed simultaneously to noise and organophosphates in their workplace and to measure tinnitus distress on their quality of life. Method: A retrospective clinical study. We evaluated 82 organophosphate sprinklers from the São Paulo State Regional Superintendence who were active in the fight against dengue and who were exposed to noise and organophosphates. We performed pure tone audiometry and applied the translated THI (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory) questionnaire. Results: Of the sample, 28.05% reported current tinnitus or had presented tinnitus, and the workers with tinnitus had an increased incidence of abnormal audiometry. The average hearing threshold for the 4–8-kHz frequency range of the workers with current tinnitus was higher than that of the others, and was most affected at the 4-kHz frequency. The THI score ranged 0–84, with an average score of 13.1. Twelve (52.17%) workers had THI scores consistent with discrete handicap. Conclusion: There is an increased incidence of abnormal pure tone audiometry in workers with tinnitus, and its impact on the workers' quality of life was discrete. The correlation between average hearing threshold and tinnitus distress was weak. PMID:25991953

  11. A Look into the Temporary Employment Industry and Its Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James J.; Belovics, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a brief overview of the contingent worker industry and its employees. In addition to defining temporary worker, the authors describe the importance of the temporary worker industry to the U.S. economy and the forces that have driven this industry's rapid growth. The changing profile of temporary workers, the benefits and…

  12. Chromosome aberration and lipid peroxidation in chromium-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Maeng, S H; Chung, H W; Kim, K J; Lee, B M; Shin, Y C; Kim, S J; Yu, I J

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency and lipid peroxidation levels were analyzed to investigate their efficacy as biological markers for monitoring the genotoxicity and oxidative damage in Korean chromium (Cr)-exposed workers. Fifty-one Cr-exposed workers and 31 age-matched controls in ten chrome-plating plants were sampled. The Cr level was measured in the workers' blood and urine, and in the ambient air at the workplaces. The conventional Giemsa staining method and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique were used for chromosome aberration analysis. Spectrum green whole chromosome paint specific for chromosome 4 was used in the FISH procedure. As for lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured in the blood plasma as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The blood Cr concentration was statistically correlated with both the frequency of chromatid exchange and the total frequency of chromosome/chromatid breaks and exchanges, as detected by the Giemsa staining. Meanwhile, the frequency of translocation, as detected by the FISH technique, was significantly higher in the Cr-exposed workers than in the controls and it correlated with the blood Cr concentration. Although the concentration of MDA, the metabolite of lipid peroxidation, in the exposed workers was higher than that of the controls, no statistically significant correlation between the MDA level and the blood or urine Cr levels was observed. Accordingly, the genotoxicity and oxidative damage (plasma lipid peroxidation) in the Korean Cr-exposed workers were consequential at quite low exposure levels, plus chromosome rearrangement, especially translocation, was clearly evident as a biological response marker for Cr exposure based on a significant positive correlation between the translocations detected by FISH and the Cr in the blood.

  13. Respiratory findings in gun factory workers exposed to solvents.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Aytül; Ekici, Aydanur; Ekici, Mehmet; Arslan, Mesut; Iteginli, Ahmet; Kurtipek, Ercan; Kara, Türkan

    2004-01-01

    Gun factory workers are exposed to many solvents (toluene, acetone, butanol, xylene, benzene, trichloroethylene). We investigated whether chronic exposure to solvents had adverse effect on respiratory system. The workers were questionnaired by modified Medical Research Council's respiratory questionnaire before morning start shift. Then physical examination and measurement of pulmonary functions by portable dry rolling spirometer were performed. The study group consisted of 1091 gun factory workers. The workers were grouped according to their smoking habits (smokers, [exposed n: 353 vs. unexposed n: 339] and non-smokers [exposed n: 58 vs. unexposed n: 341]). Asthma-related symptoms were defined as either definite asthma, probable asthma, and possible asthma. In non-smokers, the report of asthma-related symptoms was more prevalent in exposed workers than unexposed (39.7% vs. 21.7% OR 2.4[1.3-4.3], respectively P = 0.003). In smokers, the report of asthma-related symptoms was more common in exposed group than unexposed (50.7% vs. 42.5% OR 1.4[1.0-1.9], respectively P = 0.03). Logistic regression analysis showed that smoking (OR 2.8[2.0-3.8] P = 0.00001) and exposure to solvents (OR 1.4[1.1-1.9] P = 0.01) were independent risk factors for asthma-related symptoms, after adjusting for age. Logistic regression analysis identified that smoking (OR 3.3[2.3-4.6] P = 0.00001) was independent risk factors for chronic bronchitis. Multiple linear regression analysis of lung-function parameters (% forced expiratory volume (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity, FEF(25-75)) indicated significant effects of smoking. Present study indicated significant effects of smoking and exposure to solvents, with the smoking effect being the most important on asthma-related symptoms of gun factory workers.

  14. Cancer incidence among creosote-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Karlehagen, S; Andersen, A; Ohlson, C G

    1992-02-01

    Cancer incidence was studied among 922 creosote-exposed impregnators at 13 plants in Sweden and Norway. The subjects had been impregnating wood (eg, railroad cross-ties and telegraph poles), but no data on individual exposures were available. The study population was restricted to men employed during the period 1950-1975, and their cancer morbidity was checked through the cancer registries. The total cancer incidence was somewhat lower than expected, 129 cases versus 137 expected [standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 0.94]. Increased risks in both countries combined were observed for lip cancer (SIR 2.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81-5.83), skin cancer (SIR 2.37, 95% CI 1.08-4.50), and malignant lymphoma (SIR 1.9, 95% CI 0.83-3.78). Exposure to sunlight may have contributed to the risk of lip and skin cancer. The small number of cancer cases does not permit valid conclusions. The findings indicate that impregnating wood with creosote in earlier decades increased the risk of skin cancer.

  15. Health risk assessment of workers exposed to metals from an aluminium production plant.

    PubMed

    Buranatrevedh, Surasak

    2010-12-01

    Foundry is an industry involved various kinds of metals and chemicals. Workers who work in foundry industry are at risk of exposure to these metals and chemicals. Objective of this study was to conduct quantitative health risk assessment for workers who exposed to metals from an aluminium production industry. The U.S. National Academy of Sciences' four steps of health risk assessment were used to conduct quantitative health risk assessment in this study. This study showed that there were 6 types of metals involved in the aluminium foundry in this study. These metals could cause various health effects but not cancers. Workers were mostly exposed to these metals by inhalation. Calculated reference dose (RfD) for inhalation of aluminium used in this assessment was 0.000015 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of manganese used in this assessment was 0.000002 mg/kg/day. Calculated RfD for inhalation of copper used in this assessment was 0.000028 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of zinc used in this assessment was 0.000083 mg/ kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of magnesium used in this assessment was 0.949833 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of iron used in this assessment was 10.6219 mg/kg/day. Maximum daily doses (MDDs) for workers who exposed to metals measured in this foundry were 0, 0, 0.000463, 0.0000927, 0.000162 and 0 mg/kg/day for manganese, zinc, aluminium, iron, magnesium and copper, respectively. Finally, risk characterization for workers exposed to metals in this aluminium foundry showed that workers in this foundry had 31 times higher risk of developing diseases from aluminium than persons who were not exposed to aluminium. These workers had the same risk of developing diseases from other metals and chemicals as persons who were not exposed to those metals and chemicals. Workers who exposed to aluminium in this aluminium production plant had 31 times risk of developing non-carcinogenic effects from aluminium compared with normal

  16. Critical organ concentration of cadmium in occupationally-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, K.J.; Morgan, W.D.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Zanzi, I.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the present Brookhaven facility for in vivo measurements of cadmium in man and provides a comparison with other portable systems. The cadmium detection limits are 2.2 mg in the kidney and 1.5 ppM in the liver for the Brookhaven system. In a recent field study, the cadmium content of the left kidney and concentration in the liver were measured in 82 occupationally exposed workers and 10 control subjects. Organ content ranged up to 57 mg in the kidney and up to 120 ppM in the liver for the industrial group. By contrast, the values for the control group ranged from 0.4 to 11.8 mg for the kidney and 0.7 to 7.9 ppM for the liver. The geometric means were 3.7 mg for the kidney and 2.7 ppM for the liver in the control group. When the data were analyzed to provide an estimate of the critical concentration for the kidney, a range of 300 to 400 ..mu..g/g for the renal cortex was calculated. The corresponding cadmium concentrations in the liver and urine were 30 to 42 ppM (liver) and 22 to 28 ..mu..g/g creatinine (urine), respectively. Blood and urine levels of cadmium and ..beta../sub 2/-microgloubin were also evaluated as possible biological indicators of organ content.

  17. Hearing loss in workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Epoxy adhesives contain organic solvents and are widely used in industry. The hazardous effects of epoxy adhesives remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 182 stone workers who were exposed to both epoxy adhesives and noise, 89 stone workers who were exposed to noise only, and 43 workers from the administrative staff who had not been exposed to adhesives or noise. We obtained demographic data, occupational history and medical history through face-to-face interviews and arranged physical examinations and pure-tone audiometric tests. We also conducted walk-through surveys in the stone industry. A total of 40 representative noise assessments were conducted in 15 workplaces. Air sampling was conducted at 40 workplaces, and volatile organic compounds were analysed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) TO-15 method. Results The mean sound pressure level was 87.7 dBA (SD 9.9). The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was considerably increased in the stone workers exposed to epoxy adhesives (42%) compared with the stone workers who were not exposed to epoxy adhesives (21%) and the administrative staff group (9.3%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to epoxy adhesives significantly increased the risk of hearing loss between 2 and 6 kHz after adjusting for age. Significant interactions between epoxy adhesives and noise and hearing impairment were observed at 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Conclusions Epoxy adhesives exacerbate hearing impairment in noisy environments, with the main impacts occurring in the middle and high frequencies. PMID:26892792

  18. Biological monitoring of foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Sherson, D; Sabro, P; Sigsgaard, T; Johansen, F; Autrup, H

    1990-01-01

    This investigation describes benzo(a)pyrene (BP) serum protein adduct concentrations in 45 foundry workers and 45 matched non-occupationally exposed controls. High and low BP exposure groups were defined using breathing zone hygienic samples for both quartz and BP exposures. A newly developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay detected benzo(a)pyrenediolepoxide-I binding to serum protein. Mean BP protein adduct concentrations (SD) for non-smoking (24.0 BP equivalents/100 micrograms protein (21.0] and smoking (28.0 (18.2] foundry workers were significantly higher than mean values for non-smoking (7.23 (8.72] and smoking (14.2 (24.4] controls. Foundry workers with high exposures to either quartz (28.4 (15.5] or BP (30.7 (19.3] had slightly raised mean adduct concentrations compared with foundry workers with low exposure for quartz (23.9 (23.1] or BP (24.5 (19.4). Highest mean adduct concentrations were found among a small group of workers with simultaneous high exposures to both quartz and BP (39.2 (6.5] suggesting an additive effect. These data support the ideas of a possible aetiological connection between an increased risk of lung cancer and BP exposure among foundry workers, and an additive effect between BP and quartz. Measurement of BP serum protein adduct concentrations appears to be a useful method by which groups exposed to BP may be biologically monitored. PMID:2383513

  19. [Morbidity of textile industry workers in Kaunas].

    PubMed

    Ustinaviciene, Rūta; Piesine, Loreta

    2007-01-01

    According to the Department of Statistics at the beginning of 2003, 551 textile industry and garment enterprises operated in Lithuania. The purpose of the study was to evaluate morbidity among workers in textile industry enterprises in Kaunas and analyze the data obtained in relation to sex, age, profession, and occupational health hazards. A sick-leave-based case-control study was conducted in the units of four textile enterprises where 1842 workers were employed. Data were categorized in relation to sex, profession, and kind of sickness. Age was grouped in the following way: under 29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, and over 50 years. In the period of survey, 1482 cases of sick leave were reported in the enterprises where 1842 workers were employed. The main cause of absence because of sickness was respiratory diseases--37.3% (30.27 cases per 100 workers), nursing took the second place--17.0% (13.76 cases per 100 workers). Accidents and injuries made up 9.3% (7.5 cases per 100 workers), musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders--7.9% (6.4 cases per 100 workers). Data were analyzed using statistical programs SPSS 97, Epi-Info 6.0. Main morbidities reported included respiratory diseases (37.3%), nursing (17.0%), accidents and injuries (9.3%), musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders (7.9%). The incidence of morbidity among workers engaged in workplace where occupational risk factors exceeded hygienic standards was higher. The rate of morbidity also increased with age and sex; morbidity among women was 1.5 higher than among men.

  20. Level of DNA damage in lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Olewińska, Elżbieta; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Kapka, Lucyna; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Pawlas, Natalia; Dobrakowski, Michał; Birkner, Ewa; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2010-01-01

    Lead plays a significant role in modern industry. This metal is related to a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioural dysfunctions. The genotoxic effects of lead have been studied both in animals and humans in in vitro systems but results were contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between DNA damage and occupational exposure to lead in workers. The study population consisted of 62 employees of metalworks exposed to lead in the southern region of Poland. The control group consisted of 26 office workers with no history of occupational exposure to lead. The concentration of lead (PbB) and zincprotoporphyrin (ZPP) in blood samples were measured. The DNA damage was analyzed in blood lymphocytes using alkaline comet assay. The level of DNA damage was determined as the percentage of DNA in the tail, tail length and tail moment. The lead exposure indicators were significantly higher in lead exposed group: PbB about 8.5 times and ZPP 3.3 times. Also, the percentage of DNA in the tail (60.3 ± 14 vs. 37.1 ± 17.6), comet tail length (86.9 ± 15.49 vs. 73.8 ± 19.12) and TM (57.8 ± 17.82 vs. 33.2 ± 19.13) were significantly higher in the study group when compared with the controls; however, the difference between the subgroups was only 5-10%. Years of lead exposure positively correlated with all comet assay parameters (R = 0.21-0.41). Both mean and current PbB and ZPP were correlated with tail DNA % and TM (R = 0.32; R = 0.33; R = 0.24; R = 0.26 and R = 0.34; R = 0.33; R = 0.28 and R = 0.28, respectively). This study shows that occupational exposure to lead is associated with DNA damage and confirmed that comet assay is a rapid, sensitive method suitable for biomonitoring studies.

  1. Hepatic function in workers occupationally exposed to carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed Central

    Tomenson, J A; Baron, C E; O'Sullivan, J J; Edwards, J C; Stonard, M D; Walker, R J; Fearnley, D M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To identify any differences in hepatic function between workers exposed to carbon tetrachloride and controls, and to identify the best variable with which to examine any effects. METHODS--In a cross sectional study of hepatic function in workers occupationally exposed to carbon tetrachloride, 135 exposed employees were compared with 276 non-exposed controls. The exposed group was taken from three sites in the north west of England and the control group included non-exposed workers from one of these sites and another site located nearby. Demographic and alcohol consumption data were collected from both groups by questionnaire. Each member of the study group was allotted a notional estimated exposure to carbon tetrachloride, calculated from historic personal monitoring data and job category. A fasting sample of blood was taken from all participants and analysed for a variety of biochemical and haematological variables. The techniques of univariate and multivariate analysis of variance were used to investigate the effect on biochemical and haematological indices of a range of factors. RESULTS--Multivariate analysis of variance of four core liver function variables, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase, showed a significant difference between exposed and non-exposed workers. The univariate analyses identified increases in only alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase within the exposed group and these did not show a significant dose-response relation. Univariate analysis of variance did show effects of alcohol and age on several variables. Significant differences between exposed and control groups for three haematological variables, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, and red blood count, were thought not to be due to the effects of exposure. Clinical review of exposed subjects with abnormal results did not show clinically evident disease that could have been associated with exposure to

  2. Measurement of DNA repair deficiency in workers exposed to benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Hallberg, L.M.; Au, W.W.; El Zein, R.; Grossman, L.

    1996-05-01

    We hypothesize that chronic exposure to environmental toxicants can induce genetic damage causing DNA repair deficiencies and leading to the postulated mutator phenotype of carcinogenesis. To test our hypothesis, a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay was used in which pCMVcat plasmids were damaged with UV light (175, 350 J/m{sup 2} UV light), inactivating the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene, and then transfected into lymphocytes. Transfected lymphocytes were therefore challenged to repair the damaged plasmids, reactivating the reporter gene. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Gaucher cell lines were used as positive and negative controls for the HCR assay. The Gaucher cell line repaired normally but XP cell lines demonstrated lower repair activity. Additionally, the repair activity of the XP heterozygous cell line showed intermediate repair compared to the homozygous XP and Gaucher cells. We used HCR to measure the effects of benzene exposure on 12 exposed and 8 nonexposed workers from a local benzene plant. Plasmids 175 J/m{sup 2} and 350 J/m{sup 2} were repaired with a mean frequency of 66% and 58%, respectively, in control workers compared to 71% and 62% in exposed workers. Conversely, more of the exposed workers were grouped into the reduced repair category than controls. These differences in repair capacity between exposed and control workers were, however, not statistically significant. The lack of significant differences between the exposed and control groups may be due to extremely low exposure to benzene (<0.3 ppm), small population size, or a lack of benzene genotoxicity at these concentrations. These results are consistent with a parallel hprt gene mutation assay. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. [Organization of nutrition and nutritional status in major jobs workers engaged in gas-processing industry].

    PubMed

    Beĭlin, S M; Fateeva, T A

    2009-01-01

    The workers of gas-processing industry are exposed to a complex of industrial factors throughout their labor activity. Curative diet is in full measure unable to neutralize reactants and to optimize metabolic processes so there is a need for warranting, designing, and introducing a functional diet. The nutrition of major jobs workers engaged in gas-processing industry is inadequate, improper, and unbalanced, which leads to an excess nutritional status in the majority of workers. It is necessary to develop a functional nutrition concept that makes it possible to correct the intake of essential nutrients and to normalize the nutritional status of the workers, by including functional foods into their diet.

  4. Epistaxis in a low level hydrogen fluoride exposed industrial staff.

    PubMed

    Graff, Pål; Bozhkov, Georgi; Hedenlöf, Karin; Johannesson, Olof; Flodin, Ulf

    2009-03-01

    To assess the effect of exposure to hydrogen fluoride (HF) on the airway mucosa in an industrial setting. A cross-sectional study encompassing 33 industrial workers in a flame soldering plant and 44 assembly workers unexposed to HF was performed by means of a questionnaire on symptoms and diagnosis regarding upper and lower airways as well as through conduct of a clinical examination of the exposed group. Air concentrations of HF that were monitored in winter amounted to 1.0 mg/m(3) and in summer time to 0.15 mg/m(3). A threefold risk for epistaxis (RR = 3.6, 95% confidence interval 1.1-11.0) was observed in the exposed group. Time from the start of exposure to HF until debut of a nose bleeding period varied from 1 month to 6 years. Mean induction (latency) time was 42 months. Mean duration of symptoms was 26 months, range 3-72 months, indicating that the exposure level in summer time was sufficient to maintain the propensity of almost daily nose bleeding. HF is an irritating vapor, even at relatively low air concentrations. We recommend an 8 hr TLV lower than 1.0 mg/m(3).

  5. Results of sputum, cytology among workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer and to poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed Central

    Maltoni, C; Lodi, P

    1981-01-01

    The results of systematic cytological sputum examinations of 3,380 Italian VC-PVC industry workers and of 2,287 workers in other industries at different potential risk and chosen as control groups are reported. The results indicate an increase in cellular abnormalities and dysplasias in the epithelium of the respiratory tract among VC-PVC workers. These data are in line with experimental results showing that VC produces lung tumors in mice and with early epidemiological evidence among exposed workers. PMID:7333246

  6. Cytogenetic study in workers occupationally exposed to mercury fulminate.

    PubMed

    Anwar, W A; Gabal, M S

    1991-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cytogenetic effects in male workers exposed to mercury fulminate. A total of 29 male workers and 29 age- and sex-matched controls were examined. The mean mercury level in urine from the exposed workers was 123.2 +/- 54.1 micrograms/l compared with 39.2 +/- 11.1 micrograms/l in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001). Metaphase chromosomes were studied. Micronucleated peripheral blood lymphocytes were also analyzed in cytochalasin B blocked binucleated lymphocytes. The percentage of metaphases with chromosomal aberrations was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) in the exposed group (6.1 +/- 2.3) compared to the control group (2.8 +/- 0.7). The chromosomal aberrations detected were in the form of gaps, breaks and fragments. A significant increase in the incidence of micronucleated lymphocytes was found among the exposed group (7.1 +/- 4.2) compared to the control group (5.4 +/- 2.2) (P less than 0.01). The detected chromosomal damage correlated neither with the duration of exposure nor with the urinary mercury level.

  7. Peripheral blood counts in workers exposed to synthetic fibres.

    PubMed

    Caciari, Tiziana; Casale, Teodorico; Loreti, Beatrice; Schifano, Maria P; Capozzella, Assunta; Scala, Barbara; De Sio, Simone; Tomei, Gianfranco; Rosati, Maria V; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Acrylonitrile is an intermediary with possible adverse health effects in the synthesis of organic products, such as acrylic fibres. This investigation was undertaken to determine the possible changes in the peripheral blood counts in workers of a polyacrylic fibres plant. The study involved 218 workers exposed to acrylonitrile at low doses and a control group of 200 unexposed workers. The chosen subjects underwent blood tests in order to check their haematological parameters. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the red blood cells, haemoglobin and total number of leukocytes. An increase in the neutrophils associated with a reduction of lymphocytes, both statistically significant, was observed. The authors hypothesized that the neutrophils are influenced by the exposure to acrylonitrile at low doses.

  8. Assessment of renal function in workers previously exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Elinder, C G; Edling, C; Lindberg, E; Kågedal, B; Vesterberg, O

    1985-01-01

    Cadmium induced renal effects were examined in 60 workers (58 men, 2 women) previously exposed to cadmium. Tubular damage in the form of beta 2-microglobulinuria was found in 40%, and urinary albumin and orosomucoid increased significantly with increasing urinary cadmium and increasing relative clearance of beta 2-microglobulin. It is suggested that increased albumin excretion is secondary to the tubular damage. In no case was typical glomerular proteinuria found that could be related to cadmium. Histories of renal stones were more common among the workers with high urinary cadmium concentrations. The glomerular filtration rate was measured in 17 of the workers who had pronounced tubular dysfunction. The average glomerular filtration rate for these men was less than the age adjusted predicted value (mean = 84%). Furthermore, there was a significant (p less than 0.05) correlation (r = -0.47) between tubular reabsorption loss and a decreased glomerular filtration rate. PMID:3904816

  9. Reproductive toxicity in boron exposed workers in Bandirma, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Başaran, Nurşen; Duydu, Yalçin; Bolt, Hermann M

    2012-06-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates have been considered as being "toxic to reproduction and development", following results of animal studies with high doses. However unfavorable effects of boron exposure on reproduction and development have not been proved in epidemiological studies so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproductive toxicity indicators in highly exposed workers employed in a boric acid production plant in Bandırma, Turkey. Two hundred and four workers participated in this study. The mean blood boron concentration of the high exposure group of workers was 223.89 ± 69.49 (152.82-454.02)ng/g. Unfavorable effects of boron exposure on the reproductive toxicity indicators were not observed.

  10. Nasal manifestations in chromium industry workers.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, R G; Kumar, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    People working in mines, plating factories, cement industries are mainly exposed to chrome substances, IIexavalent chromium has been implicated for its toxic effect on the nasal mucosa. Hereby we present a rare study of 28 patients who attended out patient department of Otorhinolaryngology at SSG Hospital, Baroda from a nearby chromium industry. This study aims to present various nasal manifestations of toxic effects of prolonged chromium exposure.

  11. [Biochemical evaluation on rural workers exposed to pesticides].

    PubMed

    Simoniello, María Fernanda; Kleinsorge, Elisa C; Carballo, Marta A

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops but may represent a potential risk to farmers and the environment. The aim of this work was to evaluate horticultural workers exposed to pesticide, categorized by: direct exposure (n = 45), indirect exposure (n = 50) and controls (n = 50) using exposure and effect biomarkers: cholinesterase (ChE), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (TBARS), Damage Index Comet Assay (IDEC) and Damage Index Repair Assay (IDER). Our results show: a) an AChE inhibition in directly and indirectly exposed population (p < 0.001), b) significant increase in the levels of TBARS in direct exposure (p < 0.001), c) the CAT reduction was significant (p < 0.01), d) a significant increase in IDEC and IDER in both exposed groups (p < 0.001). Our results evidence variations in oxidative balance and DNA damage in exposed workers. These findings represent a contribution to the sub-clinical evaluation of subjects exposed to agrochemicals in our country.

  12. Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust

    PubMed Central

    Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables. PMID:12771392

  13. Lipid peroxidation in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y L; Chen, C Y; Sheu, J Y; Chuang, I C; Pan, J H; Lin, T H

    1999-02-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to hexavalent chromium induces lipid peroxidation in human. This study involved 25 chrome-plating factory workers and a reference group of 28 control subjects. The whole-blood and urinary chromium concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA), the product of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the activities of protective enzymes were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. In the chrome-plating workers, the mean concentrations of chromium in blood and urine were 5.98 microg/L and 5.25 microg/g creatinine, respectively; the mean concentrations of MDA in blood and urine were 1.7 micromol/L and 2.24 micromol/g creatinine. The concentrations of both chromium and MDA in blood and urine were significantly higher in the chromium-exposed workers. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) were not markedly different between control and exposed workers. Data suggest that MDA may be used as a biomarker for occupational chromium exposure. Antioxidant enzymic activities are not a suitable marker for chromium exposure.

  14. The healthy worker effect in US chemical industry workers.

    PubMed

    Burns, C J; Bodner, K M; Jammer, B L; Collins, J J; Swaen, G M H

    2011-01-01

    Occupational studies typically observe a 20% deficit in overall mortality, broadly characterized as the healthy worker effect (HWE). Components of the HWE may be addressed by various analytical approaches. To explore the HWE in a modern industrial cohort. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for 114,683 US chemical industry employees, who worked at least 3 days between 1960 and 2005. SMRs were 79 (95% confidence interval 78-80) for all causes, 81 (95% confidence interval 79-82) for heart disease, 70 (95% confidence interval 67-73) for non-malignant respiratory disease, 83 (95% confidence interval 81-85) for smoking-related cancers (buccal, cervix, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, lung, larynx, bladder and kidney) combined and 97 (95% confidence interval 95-100) for other cancers. The low SMRs observed in this study are likely due to differential smoking between the cohort and the background population. Future considerations to control for the HWE should take this into account.

  15. Hearing protector use in noise-exposed workers: a retrospective look at 1983.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rickie R; Sieber, W Karl

    2002-01-01

    Although hearing protectors have been available for more than 60 years, little field surveillance has been done to assess their appropriate wear in noisy occupational environments. This study examined historical field survey data to determine whether workers use hearing protection when exposed to loud noise. Data from the 1981-83 NIOSH National Occupational Exposure Survey were analyzed to determine whether workers in noise greater than or equal to 85 dBA were using hearing protection. The study also looked at the effect of company personal protective equipment (PPE) policies on hearing protector compliance. This study found that, in 1981-83, an estimated 4.1 million industrial workers were exposed to noise greater than or equal to 85 dBA. Of these, 41% were wearing some form of hearing protection. This percentage varied from 79% of workers exposed in SIC 76 (Miscellaneous Repair Service) to less than 1% in Communications (SIC 48), Wholesale Trade Nondurable Goods (SIC 51), and Automotive Dealers & Service Stations (SIC 55). Whether an establishment had a written policy on wearing PPE seemed to make no difference, because there appeared to be no tie between the percentage of workers wearing of hearing protection and presence of a PPE policy.

  16. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme.

  17. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  18. Urinary kallikrein activity of workers exposed to lead.

    PubMed Central

    Boscolo, P; Porcelli, G; Cecchetti, G; Salimei, E; Iannaccone, A

    1978-01-01

    Two groups of men of different age ranges and with the same period of lead exposure were selected for study in a recently opened car-battery factory. Two other groups of age-matched men, not exposed to heavy metals in their work, were used as controls. Morning urines were collected from control and exposed groups for determination of urinary kallikrein activity, urinary delta-amino-levulinic acid (ALA) and lead levels. The environmental lead levels and the urinary ALA and lead values indicated that exposure in the factory was not heavy. The older group of lead-exposed workers showed greatly reduced urinary kallikrein activity compared with that of the age-matched controls. In contrast, the younger group did not show any significant alteration in urinary kallikrein excretion. PMID:698136

  19. Subclinical interstitial lung damage in workers exposed to indium compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present study was designed to determine whether there is a relationship between indium compound exposure and interstitial lung damage in workers employed at indium tin oxide manufacturing and reclaiming factories in Korea. Methods In 2012, we conducted a study for the prevention of indium induced lung damage in Korea and identified 78 workers who had serum indium or Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) levels that were higher than the reference values set in Japan (3 μg/L and 500 U/mL, respectively). Thirty-four of the 78 workers underwent chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and their data were used for statistical analysis. Results Geometric means (geometric standard deviations) for serum indium, KL-6, and surfactant protein D (SP-D) were 10.9 (6.65) μg/L, 859.0 (1.85) U/mL, and 179.27 (1.81) ng/mL, respectively. HRCT showed intralobular interstitial thickening in 9 workers. A dose–response trend was statistically significant for blood KL-6 levels. All workers who had indium levels ≥50 μg/L had KL-6 levels that exceeded the reference values. However, dose–response trends for blood SP-D levels, KL-6 levels, SP-D levels, and interstitial changes on the HRCT scans were not significantly different. Conclusions Our findings suggest that interstitial lung changes could be present in workers with indium exposure. Further studies are required and health risk information regarding indium exposure should be communicated to workers and employers in industries where indium compounds are used to prevent indium induced lung damage in Korea. PMID:24472147

  20. Lung cancer and elemental carbon exposure in trucking industry workers.

    PubMed

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E; Davis, Mary E; Eisen, Ellen A; Smith, Thomas J

    2012-09-01

    Diesel exhaust has been considered to be a probable lung carcinogen based on studies of occupationally exposed workers. Efforts to define lung cancer risk in these studies have been limited in part by lack of quantitative exposure estimates. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess lung cancer mortality risk among U.S. trucking industry workers. Elemental carbon (EC) was used as a surrogate of exposure to engine exhaust from diesel vehicles, traffic, and loading dock operations. Work records were available for 31,135 male workers employed in the unionized U.S. trucking industry in 1985. A statistical model based on a national exposure assessment was used to estimate historical work-related exposures to EC. Lung cancer mortality was ascertained through the year 2000, and associations with cumulative and average EC were estimated using proportional hazards models. Duration of employment was inversely associated with lung cancer risk consistent with a healthy worker survivor effect and a cohort composed of prevalent hires. After adjusting for employment duration, we noted a suggestion of a linear exposure-response relationship. For each 1,000-µg/m³ months of cumulative EC, based on a 5-year exposure lag, the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.07 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.15] with a similar association for a 10-year exposure lag [HR = 1.09 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.20)]. Average exposure was not associated with relative risk. Lung cancer mortality in trucking industry workers increased in association with cumulative exposure to EC after adjusting for negative confounding by employment duration.

  1. Lung Cancer and Elemental Carbon Exposure in Trucking Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Davis, Mary E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diesel exhaust has been considered to be a probable lung carcinogen based on studies of occupationally exposed workers. Efforts to define lung cancer risk in these studies have been limited in part by lack of quantitative exposure estimates. Objective: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess lung cancer mortality risk among U.S. trucking industry workers. Elemental carbon (EC) was used as a surrogate of exposure to engine exhaust from diesel vehicles, traffic, and loading dock operations. Methods: Work records were available for 31,135 male workers employed in the unionized U.S. trucking industry in 1985. A statistical model based on a national exposure assessment was used to estimate historical work-related exposures to EC. Lung cancer mortality was ascertained through the year 2000, and associations with cumulative and average EC were estimated using proportional hazards models. Results: Duration of employment was inversely associated with lung cancer risk consistent with a healthy worker survivor effect and a cohort composed of prevalent hires. After adjusting for employment duration, we noted a suggestion of a linear exposure–response relationship. For each 1,000-µg/m3 months of cumulative EC, based on a 5-year exposure lag, the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.07 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.15] with a similar association for a 10-year exposure lag [HR = 1.09 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.20)]. Average exposure was not associated with relative risk. Conclusions: Lung cancer mortality in trucking industry workers increased in association with cumulative exposure to EC after adjusting for negative confounding by employment duration. PMID:22739103

  2. Workers of the printing industry and hepatic damage.

    PubMed

    Sancini, A; Caciari, T; Chighine, A; Gioffrè, P A; Andreozzi, G; Sacchi, L; Giubilati, R; Tomei, G; Suppi, A; Sacco, C; Tomei, F; Rosati, M V

    2014-01-01

    Typesetting industry is still the primary instrument of communication, despite the development of new technological systems. This study focuses on the analysis of the hepatic effects induced by the use of some organic solvents employed in the printing industry. We studied a group of 194 workers: 93 exposed and 101 not exposed. The level of the exposure to chemical pollutants were assessed through the environmental monitoring of blood concentrations and the analysis of airborne substances. The health survey was performed through the collection of the medical history and the use of hepatic tests, which were evaluated by calculating Mean, Standard Deviation, Student's t-test and X² test with Yates Correction, to investigate statistically significant differences in some hepatic parameters: AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, fractional and total bilirubin. The environmental data sometimes exceeded the TLV-TWA. The clinical evaluation of the hepatic parameters showed statistically significant differences as to the hematic concentrations of AST, ALT, GGT. The results we obtained support the hypothesis of a risk among the printing industrial workers attributable to the hepatotoxic solvents. This risk seems to be related to the use of a mixture of solvents, although at low doses, and the analysis of the results obtained confirms the validity of the investigation for the health screening protocol adopted in order to identify subjects and/or population at risk of hepatotoxicity.

  3. Optimization of Routine Monitoring of Workers Exposed to Plutonium Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Davesne, Estelle; Quesne, Benoit; De Vita, Antoine; Chojnacki, Eric; Blanchardon, Eric; Franck, Didier

    2016-10-01

    In case of incidental confinement failure, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel preparation may expose workers to plutonium aerosols. Due to its potential toxicity, occupational exposure to plutonium compounds should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To ensure the absence of significant intake of radionuclides, workers at risk of internal contamination are monitored by periodic bioassay planned in a routine monitoring programme. From bioassay results, internal dose may be estimated. However, accurate dose calculation relies on known exposure conditions, which are rarely available when the exposure is demonstrated by routine monitoring only. Therefore, internal dose calculation is subject to uncertainty from unknown exposure conditions and from activity measurement variability. The present study calculates the minimum detectable dose (MDD) for a routine monitoring programme by considering all plausible conditions of exposure and measurement uncertainty. The MDD evaluates the monitoring quality and can be used for optimization. Here, MDDs were calculated for the monitoring of workers preparing MOX fuel. Uncertain parameters were modelled by probability distributions defined according to information provided by experts of routine monitoring, of workplace radiological protection and of bioassay analysis. Results show that the current monitoring is well adapted to potential exposure. A sensitivity study of MDD highlights high dependence on exposure condition modelling. Integrating all expert knowledge is therefore crucial to obtain reliable MDD estimates, stressing the value of a holistic approach to worker monitoring.

  4. Cancer occurrence in shipyard workers exposed to asbestos in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Kolonel, L N; Yoshizawa, C N; Hirohata, T; Myers, B C

    1985-08-01

    Because large numbers of persons were employed in United States shipyards during World War II, the long-term risks for cancer associated with asbestos exposure in this setting are of great concern. We report here on the mortality findings after up to 29 years of follow-up on a retrospective cohort of 7971 male Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard workers, which included more than 3000 men whose employment period spanned the World War II years. Compared with the general population of Hawaii, workers in the shipyard cohort had no increase in total mortality or in total cancer mortality irrespective of the duration of their exposure. However, the risk ratio for lung cancer among workers with at least 15 years of asbestos exposure was 1.4 overall (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.0) and 1.7 for those with a latency interval of 30 or more years (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.5). In addition, seven mesotheliomas occurred between 1977 and 1982 in a subset of the cohort, consisting of 7029 Hawaii residents who are being followed prospectively for cancer incidence. This represented an incidence of 67.3 per million men per year, compared with a rate of 5.8 for the state as a whole. These results suggest that the long-term relative increase in risk for mesothelioma may be even greater than that for bronchogenic carcinoma in this and other cohorts of United States shipyard workers exposed to asbestos.

  5. A study of rope workers exposed to hemp and flax

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. F.; Coles, G. V.; Schilling, R. S. F.; Walford, Joan

    1969-01-01

    Smith, G. F., Coles, G. V., Schilling, R. S. F., and Walford, Joan (1969).Brit. J. industr. Med.,26, 109-114. A study of rope workers exposed to hemp and flax. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacities were studied in 54 men and 22 women exposed to the mixed dusts of hemp and flax in an English rope factory. The preparers and most of the spinners were exposed on average to concentrations of 1·7 mg./m.3 total dust and 0·5 mg./m.3 fine dust. Those employed on subsequent processes had lower exposures at concentrations of 0·5 mg./m.3 total dust and 0·1 mg./m.3 fine dust. Six men, all in the high exposure group, had symptoms of byssinosis. After adjustment for age and standing height there was no statistically significant difference in the forced expiratory volume (F.E.V.1·0) between those in high dust concentrations and those in low concentrations; neither was there a significant difference between the ventilatory capacities of men with and without byssinosis. This study shows that byssinosis is an occupational hazard confined to male workers in this factory. It does not appear to be a very serious problem and will diminish with the increasing use of synthetic materials instead of natural fibres. Images PMID:5780101

  6. Occupational health risks among trichloroethylene-exposed workers in a clock manufacturing factory.

    PubMed

    Singthong, Siriporn; Pakkong, Pannee; Choosang, Kantima; Wongsanit, Sarinya

    2014-08-22

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an important volatile organic compound once widely used in industry throughout the world. Occupational exposure to TCE can cause a number of health hazards such as allergic reactions and genetic damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to TCE, by analysis of the air in the breathing zone and of urine from workers employed in a clock manufacturing factory. A subjective symptom survey was conducted by using a self-administered questionnaire to evaluate the health hazards. Micronucleus (MN) frequency, based on the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes, (PBLs) was used as a biomarker for chromosome damage. A total of 244 participants, including 171 workers occupationally exposed to TCE and 73 non-exposed control employees, working mainly in office jobs in the same factory, were enrolled in this study. Analyses of airborne TCE concentrations in the workplace, and of urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCA) of the workers and controls, were performed by Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) using the modified headspace technique. The average concentration of TCE in the workplace breathing zone was 27.83 ± 6.02 ppm. The average level of urinary TCA of the exposed workers and controls was 14.84 ± 1.62, 2.95 ± 0.28 mg/L. The frequency of MN/1000BN was 7.029 ± 0.39, significantly higher than for those in the control group (3.57 ± 0.31, p = 0.001). According to multiple linear regression analysis, the results indicated that urinary TCA levels correlated with the increased MN in exposed workers (r = 0.285, p < 0.001). The prevalence rate of subjective symptoms in the exposed group was 9.61-11.76 times higher than the rate of the non-exposed group (p < 0.001). It was found that skin (29.6%) and respiratory symptoms (21.1%) were the most frequent among the exposed workers. In conclusion, these results indicate that increased micronucleus frequency is associated with

  7. Hepatitis A in workers exposed to sewage: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Glas, C; Hotz, P; Steffen, R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess whether the scientific literature supports the hypothesis that workers exposed to sewage are at higher risk of hepatitis A (HA).
METHODS—All original papers reporting epidemiological studies published in English, French, or German which reported on the risk of HA infection in workers exposed to sewage were eligible. They were identified by several methods and each original paper was assessed independently with a checklist by two people. Studies were classified according to the strength of their design. Non-eligible studies were also examined to assess the impact of publication bias. If the risk estimates diverged widely, causes for heterogeneity were assessed. A distinction was made between seroprevalence studies based on subclinical HA (defined only by the presence of anti-HA antibodies) and clinical HA.
RESULTS—17 eligible studies were identified. No indication of an increased risk of clinical HA could be found. For seroprevalence the studies with the strongest design suggested a slightly increased risk of subclinical HA with an odds ratio (OR) <2.5. Heterogeneity was considerable and precluded a meta-analysis. Considering non-eligible studies would still decrease the OR.
CONCLUSIONS—The systematic review does not confirm an increased risk of clinical HA in workers exposed to sewage. An increased risk of subclinical HA cannot be excluded but the association between seropositivity and exposure to sewage was not strong and became still weaker if publication bias was taken into account.


Keywords: hepatitis A; sewage; systematic review PMID:11706141

  8. Respiratory symptoms and airway responsiveness in apparently healthy workers exposed to flour dust.

    PubMed

    Bohadana, A B; Massin, N; Wild, P; Kolopp, M N; Toamain, J P

    1994-06-01

    Our aim was to measure the levels of exposure to wheat flour dust in a modern industrial bakery, and to assess the relationship between respiratory symptoms, sensitization to wheat flour antigens and airway responsiveness in the workforce. Forty four flour-exposed male workers and 164 unexposed controls were examined. Inspirable dust concentrations were measured using personal samplers. Respiratory symptoms were assessed by questionnaire, sensitization to wheat flour antigens by skin-prick tests, and methacholine airway challenge (MAC) test using an abbreviated method. Subjects were labelled MAC+ if forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) fell by 20% or more. The linear dose-response slope (DRS) was calculated as the percentage fall in FEV1 at last dose divided by the total dose administered. Inspirable dust concentrations were within acceptable limits in all working areas but one. The proportion of subjects with one or more symptoms and with airway hyperresponsiveness was significantly greater among flour-exposed workers than among controls. Using logistic or linear regression analysis, airway responsiveness was found to be strongly related to working at the bakery and to the baseline level of lung function. A positive skin-prick test was found in only 11% of flour-exposed workers and 6% of controls. In conclusion, our data show that despite exposure to relatively low concentration levels of inspirable flour dust, subjects working in the baking industry are at risk of developing both respiratory symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness.

  9. Respiratory Abnormalities among Occupationally Exposed, Non-Smoking Brick Kiln Workers from Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Supriya; Gupta, Sharat; Singh, Sharanjeet; Kumar, Avnish

    2017-07-01

    Brick manufacturing industry is one of the oldest and fast-growing industries in India that employs a large section of people. Brick kiln workers are occupationally exposed to air pollutants. Nonetheless, only a few studies have so far been conducted on their respiratory health. To investigate the extent of respiratory impairment in brick kiln workers and to correlate it with the duration of exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Spirometric parameters of 110 non-smoking male brick kiln workers aged 18-35 years in Patiala district, Punjab, India, were compared with an age-matched comparison group of 90 unexposed individuals. Brick kiln workers showed a significant (p<0.05) decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF25-75%) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) compared with those of the comparison group. The extent of deterioration in lung function of brick kiln workers was associated with the duration of exposure. In workers with >8 years of exposure, the mean values of FEV1 (1.92 L), FVC (2.01 L), FEF25-75% (2.19 L/s) and PEFR (4.81 L/s) were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those recorded in workers with <8 years of exposure in whom the values were 2.01 L, 2.68 L, 2.71 L/s, and 5.76 L/s, respectively. There is a significant association between exposure to workplace pollutants and lung function deterioration among brick kiln workers.

  10. [Effect of pollutants of press-pack industry on antioxidants level of worker].

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-li; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Shu-hua; Wang, Yi-min

    2005-11-01

    To study the differences in antioxidants level (SOD, GSH-PX, LPO, VC, VE) between the male workers who worked to volatile benzene compounds in printing factory and the male workers who were not for evaluating the effect of pollution of volatile benzene compounds in printing industry. SOD, GSH-PX, VC were measured as ultraviolet visible spetrophotometry (UV). LPO, V(E) were measured as molecular fluorescence spectroscopy. Data of 43 male workers exposed to benzene toluene and xylene and control group of 50 were analyzed by SPSS 11.0. The exposed workers were significantly different with controls in SOD, GSH-PX/LPO, VC (P < 0.05) but not in VE (P > 0.05). The Antioxidants level of male printing workers could be affected by exposure to pollution of volatile benzene compounds in printing industry.

  11. Health hazards among workers in plastic industry.

    PubMed

    Helal, Sawsan Farouk; Elshafy, Wessam Sabry

    2013-10-01

    Styrene is a basic building block for manufacturing thousands of products throughout the world. The present study aimed to (1) detect the presence of styrene and/or its metabolites in the workers in one of the Egyptian plastic factories; (2) demonstrate some common health effects of styrene exposure among the same group by some laboratory investigations and compare them with the unexposed healthy individuals; and (3) correlate the duration of styrene exposure and its level in the blood with the severity of the demonstrated health effects. This study was conducted in one of Egyptian plastic factories. The exposed group was 40 male workers, ranging in age from 18 to 33 years (23.20 ± 4.09), working 12 h/day with 1 day off, and working without any protective equipment. A control group of 50 unexposed healthy males matched with the exposed group for age (21-35 yrs (23.40 ± 4.05)), sex, socioeconomic status, and smoking habit is selected. Written individual consent is obtained from all participants followed by (a) a full medical and occupational history and full clinical examination; (b) ventilatory function tests: forced vital capacity (FVC), slow vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV₁)%, FEV₁/FVC%, peak expiratory flow, and mid-expiratory flow 25-75%; (c) analyses of β₂ microglobulin; blood styrene level; and urinary mandelic acid; and (d) cytogenetic study. The study results showed a statistically significant difference between the exposed and the control groups as regard the blood styrene level, urinary mandelic acid level, β₂ microgloblin in urine, and chromosomal study. The study also showed a statistically significant correlation between the duration of styrene exposure and ventilatory function parameters, also between the duration of styrene exposure and some detectable chromosomal aberrations. Our study recommends the implementation of preemployment and periodic medical examinations and health education programs using

  12. Flock worker's lung disease: natural history of cases and exposed workers in Kingston, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Scott E; Chee, Alex; Walsh, Ronald; Grant, F Curry; Liss, Gary M; Boag, Alexander; Forkert, Lutz; Munt, Peter W; Lougheed, M Diane

    2013-06-01

    The natural history of flock worker's lung (FWL) and longitudinal lung function changes in nylon flock-exposed workers have not been well characterized. Symptoms, pulmonary function testing, and chest radiographs from five index cases, subsequent case referrals, and screened employees of a flocking plant in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, were compared and analyzed for changes over time (variable follow-up intervals between 1991 and 2011). Nine cases and 30 flock-exposed workers without FWL were identified. Four cases had persistent interstitial lung disease despite three having left the workplace. Two developed hypoxemic respiratory failure and secondary pulmonary hypertension and died of complications 18 and 20 years after diagnosis, respectively. Five cases resolved after leaving the workplace. Compared with resolved cases, persistent cases had lower diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide at presentation (P < .05) and follow-up (P < .05). Among exposed workers employed for 14.5 ± 4.7 years, five had abnormal chest radiographs vs none at baseline (P = .001) over 14.8 ± 4.6 years of follow-up. The prevalence of wheeze increased (P = .001), and FEV₁/FVC decreased (P < .001). FEV₁% predicted was significantly lower at follow-up (P = .05). Average FEV₁ decline was 46 mL/year (range, -27 to 151 mL/y). Seventy-seven percent of exposed workers were current or former smokers. The natural history of FWL includes the following patterns: complete resolution of symptoms; radiographic and pulmonary function abnormalities; permanent, but stable symptoms and restrictive pulmonary function deficits; and progressive decline in pulmonary function, causing death from respiratory failure and secondary pulmonary hypertension. A low baseline diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide is associated with the persistence and progression of FWL.

  13. Micronucleus, Nucleoplasmic Bridge, and Nuclear Budding in Peripheral Blood Cells of Workers Exposed to Low Level Benzene.

    PubMed

    Jamebozorgi, I; Mahjoubi, F; Pouryaghoub, G; Mehrdad, R; Majidzadeh, T; Saltanatpour, Z; Nasiri, F

    2016-10-01

    Benzene is one of the important occupational pollutants. There are some reports about the leukemogenic effects related to low-level exposure to benzene. To study the frequency of micronucleus (MN), nucleoplasmic bridge (NB), and nuclear budding (NBUD) in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of petrochemical workers with low level exposure to benzene. We enrolled 50 workers exposed to low-level benzene and 31 unexposed workers of a petrochemical industry. After exclusion of 3 samples, peripheral blood lymphocytes of the remaining 47 exposed and 31 unexposed workers were analyzed for the frequency of MN, NB, and NBUD by cytochalasin-blocked MN technique. MN was present in 28 (60%) exposed and 18 (58%) unexposed workers. NB was observed in 6 (13%), and 2 (7%) exposed and unexposed workers, respectively; the frequency for NBUD was 20 (43%), and 13 (42%), respectively. No significant difference was found in the observed frequencies of MN, NB, and NBUD in the peripheral blood lymphocytes between the exposed and unexposed group workers. Occupational exposure to low-level benzene does not increase the frequency of MN, NB, and NBUD in the peripheral blood lymphocytes, biomarkers for DNA damage.

  14. Trends in worker hearing loss by industry sector, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Elizabeth A; Deddens, James A; Themann, Christa L; Bertke, Stephen; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of hearing loss for noise-exposed U.S. workers by industry sector and 5-year time period, covering 30 years. Audiograms for 1.8 million workers from 1981-2010 were examined. Incidence and prevalence were estimated by industry sector and time period. The adjusted risk of incident hearing loss within each time period and industry sector as compared with a reference time period was also estimated. The adjusted risk for incident hearing loss decreased over time when all industry sectors were combined. However, the risk remained high for workers in Healthcare and Social Assistance, and the prevalence was consistently high for Mining and Construction workers. While progress has been made in reducing the risk of incident hearing loss within most industry sectors, additional efforts are needed within Mining, Construction and Healthcare and Social Assistance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Trends in Worker Hearing Loss by Industry Sector, 1981–2010

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Elizabeth A.; Deddens, James A.; Themann, Christa L.; Bertke, Stephen; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of hearing loss for noise-exposed U.S. workers by industry sector and 5-year time period, covering 30 years. Methods Audiograms for 1.8 million workers from 1981–2010 were examined. Incidence and prevalence were estimated by industry sector and time period. The adjusted risk of incident hearing loss within each time period and industry sector as compared with a reference time period was also estimated. Results The adjusted risk for incident hearing loss decreased over time when all industry sectors were combined. However, the risk remained high for workers in Healthcare and Social Assistance, and the prevalence was consistently high for Mining and Construction workers. Conclusions While progress has been made in reducing the risk of incident hearing loss within most industry sectors, additional efforts are needed within Mining, Construction and Healthcare and Social Assistance. PMID:25690583

  16. [Pulmonary disease due to asbestos in steel industry workers].

    PubMed

    Zurbriggen, Rita; Capone, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos-related diseases are caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers in their variety chrysotile or white asbestos. Although the ban in Argentina dates from 2003, there are numerous industries where work continues with this mineral, including iron and steel industries. It is currently known the high pathogenicity of this material, so that in many countries there are programs to monitoring the exposed workers. Here we describe the general characteristics and pulmonary manifestations in 27 patients who had worked in a very huge steel factory in South America. The diagnosis of asbestos-related diseases was made by a medical-occupational record, history of asbestos exposure, additional studies of lung function and chest images. Then the sources of exposure (occupational, domestic and environmental), exposure time and latency period were analyzed, in those patients in whom a related disease was detected. Smoking history was also taken into account. Twenty-two patients had benigns pathologies (81.4%), sixteen of them with lesions localyzed in pleura, and other six pulmonary asbestosis. The malignant pathologies occurred in five patients (18.5%), in four of them mesothelioma and in other one lung cancer. The problem of asbestos exposure has contemporary relevance. Hence the need for a surveillance program in workers exposed to asbestos in the past or currently, to detect, report, record and investigate the characteristics of these pathologies.

  17. Exposure and airway effects of seafood industry workers in northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Bang, Berit; Aasmoe, Lisbeth; Aamodt, Beate Hustad; Aardal, Laila; Andorsen, Gerd Sissel; Bolle, Roald; Bøe, Roald; Van Do, Thien; Evans, Rosalie; Florvåg, Erik; Gram, Inger Torill; Huser, Per Ole; Kramvik, Eva; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Pedersen, Bodil; Rasmussen, Tine

    2005-05-01

    In this study, we explored airway symptoms and exposure to bioaerosols and exhaust gases in seafood industry plants. The study details the results from personal and environmental exposure measurements (17 plants), a questionnaire (n = 984), and clinical examinations (n = 225). The workers were exposed to allergens, endotoxins, molds, and exhaust. The 1-year prevalence of work-related airway symptoms was 42.8% for production workers and 25.9% for administrative workers. Mean levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were less than the predicted values in all exposed nonsmoker groups. A total of 20.5% had increased levels of total IgE (>/=100 kU/L). Specific IgE-mediated reactions seemed to be relevant only in the shrimp industry. Seafood industry workers showed a high prevalence of work-related airway symptoms. Further research on the relationship between exposure and effects is necessary.

  18. Low back pain among Iranian industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Mostafa; Alipour, Akbar; Jensen, Irene; Farshad, Ali Asghar; Vingard, Eva

    2006-10-01

    Most epidemiological data concerning low back pain (LBP) are from high-income countries and there is very little information about LBP in the working population in developing countries. To determine the prevalence of LBP in Iranian industrial workers. To explore associations between LBP and physical and psychosocial factors at work, as well as lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional study of the largest car-manufacturing group in Iran. The prevalence of LBP, work exposures and lifestyle factors were recorded using the standardized Nordic questionnaire for analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms. Demographic data and lifestyle factors (age, sex, education, weight, work experience, smoking and fitness training) were also collected. Of the 18,031 employees, 78% participated. The majority of subjects in this study population were young males (<30 years) and a small proportion was female (4%). The 1-year prevalence of self-reported LBP in this Iranian industrial population was 21% (20% males and 27% females). The prevalence rate of absence due to LBP was 5% per annum. The multiple logistic regression models indicated that the following remained risk indicators for LBP in the previous 12 months: increasing age, no regular exercise, heavy lifting, repetitive work and monotonous work. LPB is a common problem in the working population even in a developing country. Age and gender as well as certain work-related physical and psychosocial factors influenced the prevalence of LBP but the differences between different categories of workers were small.

  19. Cytogenetic monitoring of nuclear workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Gricienė, B; Slapšytė, G; Mierauskienė, J

    2014-06-01

    Chromosome aberration (CA) analysis using Giemsa techniques was performed in blood lymphocytes of 84 nuclear workers with cumulative doses of 1-632 mSv during employment periods of 1-25 y. The control group comprised 82 healthy male donors. An estimated CA frequency in the total radiation-exposed group was significantly higher when compared with the controls (2.27 vs. 1.76 CA/100 cells, p < 0.05). CA analyses revealed no significant differences between workers with external gamma radiation exposure and the controls (1.60 vs. 1.76 CA/100 cells, p > 0.05). However, significant increase in the total CA frequency was determined in workers with additional internal exposure (2.54 CA/100 cells, p < 0.05) and those with registered neutron doses (2.95 CA/100 cells, p < 0.01). No correlation was found between CA frequency and occupational exposure dose. Borderline significant correlation was found between duration of employment and total CA (r = 0.218, p = 0.046, Fig. 2) and chromosome-type aberration (r = 0.265, p = 0.015) frequency.

  20. Evoked otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to noise: A review

    PubMed Central

    Alcarás, Patrícia Arruda de Souza; Lüders, Débora; França, Denise Maria Vaz Romano; Klas, Regina Maria; Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira de; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The otoacoustic emissions test is an essential tool in the evaluation of auditory function, since it allows the early detection of cochlear damage of occupational origin. Objective: To present a review of the literature and analyze the effectiveness of the clinical application of the otoacoustic emissions test in workers exposed to noise. Methods: A bibliographical search covering a period of 10 years was performed in the Virtual Health Library including published articles in national and international journals indexed in the internationally recognized databases for the health sciences, LILACS, SCIELO, and MEDLINE, using the terms “otoacoustic emissions” and “occupational exposure.” The type of published article (national/international), the type and intensity of the stimulus most commonly used for the evoked otoacoustic emissions, the gender and age of the subjects, and the conclusions from the retrospective studies were all taken into consideration. Results and Conclusions: A total of 19 articles were analyzed, 7 national and 12 international, covering subjects from 17 to 77 years of age, mostly men. The type of stimulus most commonly used for the evoked otoacoustic emissions was the distortion method (12). Through this review, we have concluded that testing of evoked otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to noise is an important tool in the early diagnosis of noise-induced cochlear hearing disorders. PMID:25991982

  1. Occupational Health Risks Among Trichloroethylene-Exposed Workers in a Clock Manufacturing Factory

    PubMed Central

    Singthong, Siriporn; Pakkong, Pannee; Choosang, Kantima; Wongsanit, Sarinya

    2015-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an important volatile organic compound once widely used in industry throughout the world. Occupational exposure to TCE can cause a number of health hazards such as allergic reactions and genetic damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to TCE, by analysis of the air in the breathing zone and of urine from workers employed in a clock manufacturing factory. A subjective symptom survey was conducted by using a self-administered questionnaire to evaluate the health hazards. Micronucleus (MN) frequency, based on the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes, (PBLs) was used as a biomarker for chromosome damage. A total of 244 participants, including 171 workers occupationally exposed to TCE and 73 non-exposed control employees, working mainly in office jobs in the same factory, were enrolled in this study. Analyses of airborne TCE concentrations in the workplace, and of urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCA) of the workers and controls, were performed by Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) using the modified headspace technique. The average concentration of TCE in the workplace breathing zone was 27.83 ± 6.02 ppm. The average level of urinary TCA of the exposed workers and controls was 14.84 ± 1.62, 2.95 ± 0.28 mg/L. The frequency of MN/1000BN was 7.029 ± 0.39, significantly higher than for those in the control group (3.57 ± 0.31, p = 0.001). According to multiple linear regression analysis, the results indicated that urinary TCA levels correlated with the increased MN in exposed workers (r = 0.285, p < 0.001). The prevalence rate of subjective symptoms in the exposed group was 9.61-11.76 times higher than the rate of the non-exposed group (p < 0.001). It was found that skin (29.6%) and respiratory symptoms (21.1%) were the most frequent among the exposed workers. In conclusion, these results indicate that increased micronucleus frequency is associated with

  2. Chromosome aberrations in pesticide-exposed greenhouse workers.

    PubMed

    Lander, B F; Knudsen, L E; Gamborg, M O; Järventaus, H; Norppa, H

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of subtoxic exposure to pesticides causing chromosome aberrations in greenhouse workers. In a cross-sectional and prospective study design chromosome aberration frequencies in cultured lymphocytes were examined for 116 greenhouse workers exposed to a complex mixture of almost 50 insecticides, fungicides, and growth regulators and also for 29 nonsmoking, nonpesticide-exposed referents. The preseason frequencies of chromosome aberrations were slightly but not statistically significantly elevated for the greenhouse workers when they were compared with the referents. After a summer season of pesticide spraying in the greenhouses, the total frequencies of cells with chromosome aberrations were significantly higher than in the preseason samples (P=0.02) and also higher than for the referents (P=0.05). This finding was especially due to an increased number of cells with chromatid gaps between the first and second samples (P=0.001). The results may reflect an additive genotoxic effect of the spraying season, for which the use of insecticides and growth regulators (but not fungicides) culminates. The highest elevation in the risk of chromatid gaps was observed for persons who did not use gloves during re-entry activities such as nipping, cutting, pricking, and potting (risk ratio 2.88, 95% confidence interval 1.63-5.11). The present results suggest a genotoxic effect from a complex subtoxic occupational pesticide exposure. In general, the findings indicate the importance of personal protection, during high-exposure re-entry activities, in preventing pesticide uptake and genetic damage.

  3. Predictors of lung cancer among former asbestos-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szubert, Zuzanna; Sobala, Wojciech; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila

    2015-09-01

    Despite extensive literature concerning the risk of lung cancer incidence among asbestos workers there is still lack of data specifying the association between the level of exposure and the frequency of cancer occurrence. The aim of the analysis was to assess the influence of smoking and selected factors related to occupational exposure on the risk of the incidence of lung cancer among the workers who were exposed to asbestos dust in the past. The assessment was performed based on the case-control studies carried out within a cohort including 7,374 former workers of asbestos processing plants, examined over the years 2000-2013. Analysis of the material was based on the calculation of the odds ratio (OR) using conditional logistic regression modeling, adjusted for cigarette smoking, cumulative exposure, branch and time since last exposure. During the survey period there were 165 cases of lung cancer. Among the individuals who smoked, the relative risk of lung cancer incidence was twice as high in the persons smoking more than 20 pack-years (OR=2.23; 95% CI: 1.45-3.46) than it was in the case of the non-smokers. Analysis revealed that the risk of lung cancer in the group with the highest exposure was two times higher in comparison with the low cumulative asbestos exposure (OR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.22-3.25). The risk continued to increase until 30 years after cessation of asbestos exposure and started to decline many years after the last exposure. Influence of the mentioned above characteristics is particularly visible for tumors located in the lower parts of the lungs. Our findings confirm the strong evidence that the lung cancer risk is associated with asbestos exposure and it increases along with the increasing exposure. A strategy of smoking cessation among the individuals exposed to asbestos dust would potentially have health promoting effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of isocyanate specific albumin-adducts in workers exposed to toluene diisocyanates.

    PubMed

    Sabbioni, Gabriele; Gu, Qi; Vanimireddy, Lakshiminiranjan Reddy

    2012-03-01

    Toluene diisocyanates (2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI) are important intermediates in the chemical industry. Among the main damages after low levels of TDI exposure are lung sensitization and asthma. It is therefore necessary to have sensitive and specific methods to monitor isocyanate exposure of workers. Urinary metabolites or protein adducts have been used as biomarkers in workers exposed to TDI. However, with these methods it was not possible to determine if the biomarkers result from exposure to TDI or to the corresponding toluene diamines (TDA). This work presents a new procedure for the determination of isocyanate-specific albumin adducts. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used to measure the adducts in albumin present in workers exposed to TDI. 2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI formed adducts with lysine: N(ϵ)-[({3-amino-4-methylphenyl}amino)carbonyl]-lysine, N(ϵ)-[({5-amino-2-methylphenyl}amino)carbonyl]-lysine, and N(ϵ)- [({3-amino-2-methylphenyl}amino)carbonyl]-lysine. In future studies, this new method can be applied to measure TDI-exposures in workers.

  5. Hearing Impairment Among Noise-Exposed Workers - United States, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Elizabeth A; Bushnell, P Timothy; Themann, Christa L; Morata, Thais C

    2016-04-22

    Hearing loss is the third most common chronic physical condition in the United States, and is more prevalent than diabetes or cancer (1). Occupational hearing loss, primarily caused by high noise exposure, is the most common U.S. work-related illness (2). Approximately 22 million U.S. workers are exposed to hazardous occupational noise (3). CDC compared the prevalence of hearing impairment within nine U.S. industry sectors using 1,413,789 noise-exposed worker audiograms from CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Occupational Hearing Loss Surveillance Project (4). CDC estimated the prevalence at six hearing impairment levels, measured in the better ear, and the impact on quality of life expressed as annual disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), as defined by the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study (5). The mining sector had the highest prevalence of workers with any hearing impairment, and with moderate or worse impairment, followed by the construction and manufacturing sectors. Hearing loss prevention, and early detection and intervention to avoid additional hearing loss, are critical to preserve worker quality of life.

  6. Immunomodulatory effects in workers exposed to naturally occurring asbestos fibers.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Caterina; Costa, Chiara; Matera, Serena; Puglisi, Beatrice; Costanzo, Valentina; Bracci, Massimo; Fenga, Concettina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Loreto, Carla

    2017-05-01

    Natural asbestiform fibers are defined 'naturally occurring asbestos' (NOA) and refer to the mineral as a natural component of soils or rocks. The release of NOA fibers into the air from rocks or soils by routine human activities or natural weathering processes represents a risk for human beings. Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a NOA fiber detected in the benmoreitic lava in the area of Biancavilla, South-west slope of Mt. Etna. The aim of the present study was to investigate FE immunotoxicity pathways in a group of 38 occupationally exposed construction workers, in order to find any biological markers of its effect. Subjects underwent respiratory function tests and HRCT total chest scanning. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were measured. The presence of PPs was significantly greater in subjects exposed than in the control (25 vs. 2). In subjects exposed to FE, IL-1β and TNF-α values were significantly higher than the controls. The previously observed increase of IL-1β and IL-18 showed a probable involvement of the proteic complex defined inflammosome by FE fibers.

  7. Cytogenetic analysis of Pakistani individuals occupationally exposed to pesticides in a pesticide production industry.

    PubMed

    Bhalli, Javed A; Khan, Q M; Haq, M A; Khalid, A M; Nasim, A

    2006-03-01

    Although several cytogenetic biomonitoring studies on workers exposed to pesticides have been reported, there is only limited information on this topic from developing countries where pesticides have been widely used over the years. People in developing countries are at higher risk from exposure, due to poor working conditions and a lack of awareness of the potential hazards during manufacturing and application of the pesticides. The present study has assessed the genotoxic effects of pesticides on workers involved in the pesticide manufacturing industry. Subjects in the exposed group (29) were drawn from workers at a pesticide production plant in district Multan (Pakistan). The control group (unexposed) composed of 35 individuals from the same area but was not involved in pesticide production. Liver enzymes, serum cholinesterase (SChE), micronucleus assay and some haematological parameters were used as biomarkers in this study. A statistically significant (P < 0.001) increase in levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase was detected in exposed workers with respect to the control group. There was a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in the level of SChE in the exposed group. Exposed individuals exhibited cytogenetic damage with increased frequencies (P < 0.001) of binucleated cells with micronuclei and total number of micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes in comparison with subjects of the control group. A decrease (P < 0.001) in cytokinesis block proliferation index similarly demonstrates a genotoxic effect due to pesticide exposure. The results indicate that the pesticide industry workers have experienced significant genotoxic exposure. This study highlights the risk to workers in the pesticide manufacturing industries of developing countries such as Pakistan and the need for implementation of suitable safety measures to prevent/limit exposure to harmful toxins.

  8. Higher leukocyte subpopulation counts in healthy smoker industrial workers than in nonsmoker industrial workers: possible health consequences.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, M Azam; Stakkestad, Jacob A; Drabløs, Per Arne

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains free radicals, which cause injury to endothelial cells and oxidize bioactive components in the blood. Neutrophils, a subpopulation of leukocytes, contain the enzyme myeloperoxidase that mediates production of hypochlorous acid during oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether smoker industrial workers had significantly higher neutrophil counts than nonsmoker industrial workers. We collected blood samples from 183 apparently healthy male and 30 female industrial workers. We obtained blood cell counts, measured the concentration of plasma aminothiols and determined the concentration of serum and erythrocyte folate and serum vitamin B12 in the samples. Smoker industrial workers had significantly higher neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts than nonsmoker industrial workers (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.01, respectively). Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in smoker industrial workers were higher than in nonsmoker industrial workers (p = 0.001 and p = 0.03). Our study demonstrates that smoker industrial workers have higher neutrophil counts than nonsmoker industrial workers. Therefore, our observations suggest that smokers may become more easily prone to chronic inflammation than nonsmokers. About 84% of the study participants were male subjects; therefore, our findings may be more representative for men than women. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Morbidity and mortality in talc-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Wergeland, E; Andersen, A; Baerheim, A

    1990-01-01

    Cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality were studied in a male cohort of 94 talc miners and 295 talc millers, exposed to non-asbestiform talc with low quartz content. No excess risk was found compared with national age-specific incidence. Six cases of lung cancer occurred versus 6.49 expected (miners: observed 2, expected 1.27; millers: observed 4, expected 5.22). There were 3 deaths due to non-malignant respiratory disease against 10.9 expected (miners: observed 1, expected 2.5; millers: observed 2, expected 8.4). Mesothelioma, tuberculosis, or pneumoconiosis were not recorded as causes of death. Pneumoconiosis was noted as a contributory cause in three cases (silicosis two, talcosis one). Further follow-up will reduce any potential impact of "healthy worker" selection.

  10. [Appraisal of occupational stressor in petrochemical industry workers].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-ping; Tian, Hong-er; Huang, Tong; Li, Zhi-yuan; Hu, Ke-ming; Ge, Xi-yong; Jin, Lei; Gao, Qi; Zhang, Jing-jing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Wen-he

    2009-12-01

    To discuss the origin of occupational stress among petrochemical industry workers and to access the main occupational stressors that impact job satisfaction and mental health of petrochemical industry workers. A survey on occupational stressor was carried out by Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI) in 532 petrochemical industry workers (345 chemical and 187 logistic workers). The environment in workplace of chemical group was worse than that of contrast. The chemical workers had less control over job and they experienced more hazards, monotonous as well as role stressors than the logistic group. The scores of job satisfaction and mental health of chemical group (36.867 +/- 0.656, 43.734 +/- 0.542, respectively) were higher than that of contrast (40.321 +/- 0.901, 46.714 +/- 0.745, respectively) (P < 0.05). The occupational stressors exist in chemical workers which affect chemical workers' job satisfaction and mental health with different levels.

  11. Hearing Loss in Workers Exposed to Toluene and Noise

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shu-Ju; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Lien, Chih-Hui; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to both toluene and noise. We recruited 58 workers at an adhesive materials manufacturing plant who were exposured to both toluene and noise [78.6–87.1 A-weighted decibels; dB(A)], 58 workers exposed to noise only [83.5–90.1 dB(A)], and 58 administrative clerks [67.9–72.6 dB(A)] at the same company. We interviewed participants to obtain sociodemographic and employment information and performed physical examinations, including pure-tone audiometry tests between 0.5 and 6 kHz. A contracted laboratory certified by the Council of Labor in Taiwan conducted on-site toluene and noise exposure measurements. The prevalence of hearing loss of ≥25 dB in the toluene plus noise group (86.2%) was much greater than that in the noise-only group (44.8%) and the administrative clerks (5.0%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence rates were 67.2, 32.8, and 8.3% (p < 0.001), respectively, when 0.5 kHz was excluded from the estimation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the toluene plus noise group had an estimated risk for hearing loss ≥25 dB, 10.9 times higher than that of the noise–only group. The risk ratio dropped to 5.8 when 0.5 kHz was excluded from the risk estimation. Hearing impairment was greater for the pure-tone frequency of 1 kHz than for that of 2 kHz. However, the mean hearing threshold was the poorest for 6 kHz, and the least effect was observed for 2 kHz. Our results suggest that toluene exacerbates hearing loss in a noisy environment, with the main impact on the lower frequencies. PMID:16882540

  12. The risk of hospitalisation for infectious pneumonia in mineral dust exposed industries.

    PubMed

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Moon, Ki-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Youn; Choe, Seong-Weon

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to elucidate the relationship between industries characterised by mineral dust exposure and infectious pneumonia. The authors applied a retrospective record linkage design and used the nationwide specific health examination database and identified industries where mineral dust exposure occurs and a control group composed of workers who had been exposed to noise-only during a 2000-2004 period. The database was matched with National Health Insurance claim records to identify pneumonia admissions from 2000 to 2005. The indirectly standardised admission ratios (SARs) for pneumonia admissions were estimated by comparing mineral dust exposed industry workers with noise-only exposed workers. The authors found significantly elevated SARs in both men (1.54, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.05) and women (3.23, 95% CI 1.40 to 6.37) working in the cement, lime, plaster and plaster products industries, and only in men working in the cast-metals industry (foundry) (1.64, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.11). These results support the association between mineral dust exposure, as well as metal fumes, and infectious pneumonia.

  13. Mortality patterns among workers exposed to acrylamide: 1994 follow up

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, G. M.; Lucas, L. J.; Youk, A. O.; Schall, L. C.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update the mortality experience of a cohort of 8508 workers with potential exposure to acrylamide at three plants in the United States from 1984-94. METHODS: Analyses of standardised mortality ratios (SMR) with national and local rates and relative risk (RR) regression modelling were performed to assess site specific cancer risks by demographic and work history factors, and exposure indicators for acrylamide and muriatic acid. RESULTS: For the 1925-94 study period, excess and deficit overall mortality risks were found for cancer sites of interest: brain and other central nervous system (CNS) (SMR 0.65, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.36 to 1.09), thyroid gland (SMR 2.11, 95% CI 0.44 to 6.17), testis and other male genital organs (SMR 0.28, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.59), and cancer of the respiratory system (SMR 1.10, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.22); however, none was significant or associated with exposure to acrylamide. A previously reported excess mortality risk of cancer of the respiratory system at one plant remained increased among workers with potential exposure to muriatic acid (RR 1.50, 95% CI 0.86 to 2.59), but was only slightly increased among workers exposed or unexposed to acrylamide. In an exploratory exposure-response analysis of rectal, oesophageal, pancreatic, and kidney cancer, we found increased SMRs for some categories of exposure to acrylamide, but little evidence of an exposure-response relation. A significant 2.26-fold risk (95% CI 1.03 to 4.29) was found for pancreatic cancer among workers with cumulative exposure to acrylamide > 0.30 mg/m3.years; however, no consistent exposure-response relations were detected with the exposure measures considered when RR regression models were adjusted for time since first exposure to acrylamide. CONCLUSION: The contribution of 1115 additional deaths and nearly 60,000 person-years over the 11 year follow up period corroborate the original cohort study findings of little evidence for a causal relation between

  14. DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticide mixtures.

    PubMed

    Simoniello, M F; Kleinsorge, E C; Scagnetti, J A; Grigolato, R A; Poletta, G L; Carballo, M A

    2008-11-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops but represent at the same time a potential risk to farmers and environment. The aim of this work is the evaluation of 54 subjects occupationally exposed to pesticides and 30 subjects as a control group using the quantification of DNA damage level by means of the alkaline Comet assay and the evaluation of repair processes. Damage index Comet assay (DICA) and damage index repair assay (DIRA) were studied in 27 pesticide applicator workers, 27 non-pesticide applicators and controls. Our results show that both exposed groups revealed significant increase in DICA when compared with controls (P < 0.0001), as well as in DIRA (P < 0.0001). However, the spraying group exhibited a marginally significant difference in DICA (P = 0.05) when years of exposure are considered and a significant difference (P < 0.05) when the personal protective equipment used by individuals was taken as a comparison factor. The influence of confounding factors on the genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to pesticides was investigated and no significant differences were observed considering age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption in relation to DICA and DIRA. Since DNA damage is an important step in events leading from carcinogen exposure to cancer disease, our study highlights the potential health risk associated with agrochemical exposure in developing countries with vast cultivated areas, such as Argentina.

  15. An update of mortality among chemical workers exposed to benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Bond, G G; McLaren, E A; Baldwin, C L; Cook, R R

    1986-01-01

    Mortality was updated to the end of 1982 for 594 employees exposed to benzene who had been studied previously and for an additional 362 exposed workers not studied previously. Cause specific mortality comparisons were made using United States white male, age, and calendar year adjusted rates. Total mortality was observed to have been significantly below expectation, and this was particularly evident for deaths from accidental causes. Mortality from skin cancer was significantly raised, although there were no unusual or common characteristics among the affected individuals which would suggest a link with exposure to benzene. A non-significant excess of total deaths from leukaemia was noted based on four observed cases; however, all four were myelogenous leukaemias and this represented a significant excess in that subcategory. These and other deaths of possible interest are reviewed in detail. Analyses by work area, duration of exposure, and cumulative dose index did not show patterns suggestive of a causal association between exposure to benzene and any particular cause of death. PMID:3465366

  16. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in workers exposed to PCDD/Fs of metal recovery plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Hsu, Ching-Yi; Hung, Dong-Zong; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2006-12-15

    Secondary copper smelters, which primarily utilize the waste materials that contain organic impurities, and the zinc recovery plant, which handles mostly fly ash and slag from the iron and steel industry, are major emission sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Taiwan. In this study, we compared the levels of erythrocyte glutathione (GSH), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) in workers at a secondary copper smelting plant and a zinc recovery plant who may have been exposed to PCDD/Fs. Though the PCDD/F levels were higher in workers of zinc recovery plant than those of secondary copper smelting plant, no significant difference was found for serum PCDD/F levels between the two kinds of plants. We observed a significant difference in plasma MDA levels between workers at the zinc recovery plant (2.54 microM) and those at the copper smelting plant (1.79 microM). There was and a significant positive correlation between plasma MDA levels and the PCDD/Fs levels. In addition, we observed that the MDA levels were not affected by smoking and exercise status. Therefore, the data suggest that the MDA levels of the metal recovery workers are influenced by their PCDD/F exposure. The erythrocyte SOD activity in workers from the zinc recovery plant was marginally higher than that from the secondary copper plant (196 vs. 146 units/ml, p<0.06). In both plants, large variations in the MDA and SOD levels were found, especially in the high-PCDD/Fs-exposure group, which may be attributed, at least partially, to the differences in smoking status and the number of cigarettes smoked. Overall, our results indicate a higher oxidative stress in workers of the zinc recovery plant than in workers of the secondary copper smelting plant in Taiwan.

  17. Comparison of knee gait kinematics of workers exposed to knee straining posture to those of non-knee straining workers.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Nathaly; Hagemeister, Nicola; Poitras, Stéphane; de Guise, Jacques A

    2013-06-01

    Workers exposed to knee straining postures, such as kneeling and squatting, may present modifications in knee gait kinematics that can make them vulnerable to osteoarthritis. In this study, knee kinematics of workers exposed to occupational knee straining postures (KS workers) were compared to those of non-knee straining (non-KS) workers. Eighteen KS workers and 20 non-KS workers participated in the study. Three-dimensional gait kinematic data were recorded at the knee using an electromagnetic motion tracking system. The following parameters were extracted from flexion/extension, adduction/abduction and internal/external rotation angle data and used for group comparisons: knee angle at initial foot contact, peak angles, minimal angles and angle range during the entire gait cycle. Group comparisons were performed with Student t-tests. In the sagittal plane, KS workers had a greater knee flexion angle at initial foot contact, a lower peak knee flexion angle during the swing phase and a lower angle range than non-KS workers (p<0.05). In the frontal plane, all parameters indicated that KS workers had their knees more adducted than non-KS workers. External/internal rotation range was greater for KS workers. This study provides new knowledge on work related to KS postures and knee kinematics. The results support the concept that KS workers might exhibit knee kinematics that are different from those of non-KS workers.

  18. Identification of workers exposed concomitantly to heat stress and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bourbonnais, Robert; Zayed, Joseph; Lévesque, Martine; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Duguay, Patrice; Truchon, Ginette

    2013-01-01

    In the context of climate change, concomitant exposure to heat stress and chemicals takes on great importance. However, little information is available in this regard. The purpose of this research, therefore, was to develop an approach aimed at identifying worker groups that would be potentially most at risk. The approach comprises 5 consecutive steps: - Establishment of a list of occupations for all industry sectors - Determination of heat stress parameters - Identification of occupations at risk of heat stress - Determination of exposure to chemicals - Identification of occupations potentially most at risk. Overall, 1,010 occupations were selected due to their representativeness of employment sectors in Québec. Using a rating matrix, the risk stemming from exposure to heat stress was judged "critical" or "significant" for 257 occupations. Among these, 136 occupations were identified as showing a high potential of simultaneous exposure to heat stress and chemicals. Lastly, a consultation with thirteen experts made it possible to establish a list of 22 priority occupations, that is, 20 occupations in the metal manufacturing sector, as well as roofers and firefighters. These occupations would merit special attention for an investigation and evaluation of the potential effects on workers' health.

  19. A survey of occupational health hazards among 7,610 female workers in China's electronics industry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.

  20. Noise and cardiovascular effects in workers of the sanitary fixtures industry.

    PubMed

    Assunta, Capozzella; Ilaria, Samperi; Simone, De Sio; Gianfranco, Tomei; Teodorico, Casale; Carmina, Sacco; Anastasia, Suppi; Roberto, Giubilati; Francesco, Tomei; Valeria, Rosati Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether workers in the sanitary fixtures industry are a category at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, and in particular, whether chronic noise exposure may play a role in cardiovascular effects in exposed workers. Seventy-five employees engaged in sanitation fixtures production and a control group of sixty-four office workers, who were not exposed to agents that could damage the cardiovascular system, participated in our study. The selected workers completed a clinical-anamnestic questionnaire, and underwent a medical examination, blood pressure test, electrocardiogram (ECG), blood tests, and audiometry. Measurements of environmental noise, dust, and lead were also carried out. The exposed workers, in comparison to the control group, showed a higher frequency of hypertension, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.05, p<0.05), as well as electrocardiographic abnormalities (p<0.05). There was also a higher frequency of hypertension and electrocardiographic abnormalities among subjects with audiometric deficit compared to normoacoustic subjects (p<0.05 and p<0.05). from our study suggest that work activity in the sanitary fixtures industry can have an influence on the cardiovascular system, and noise can be the main cause of damage for the cardiovascular system in exposed workers, as cardiovascular damage seems to be linked to hearing loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. [Medical examination of workers exposed to lead in the Philippines].

    PubMed

    Makino, S; Matsuno, K; Hisanaga, N; Seki, Y; Ortega, V S; Villanueva, M B; Cucueco, M T; Yu-Sison, S; Castro, F T

    1994-03-01

    The medical examination of workers exposed to lead was conducted as part of the activity of the Occupational Safety and Health Center (OSHC) Project in the Philippines (JICA Project). The subjects of the medical examination were 21 male and 193 female workers of a semi-conductor plant (abbreviated A company), 59 male and 6 female workers of a refrigerator manufacture (B company); 199 male workers of a storage battery manufacturer (C company); and 107 male and 6 female workers of a lead smelter (D company). Among the examination items were questions regarding occupational history, subjective complaints and objective signs, determination of blood lead levels, urine delta aminolevulinic acid levels, and examination for anemia. The survey was conducted from June to September in 1990. The following results were obtained: 1) The mean age of the workers ranged from 21.8 to 33.8 years. Those of companies A and B were younger than those of companies C and D. The mean employment duration of males at C company was 10.7 yr, and the longest among the four companies. That in both sexes for A company was 1.8 yr and the shortest among the above mentioned companies. 2) The blood lead geometric mean levels of companies C and D showed the highest concentration. The level in males of C company was 64.5 micrograms/dl and that of D company was 80.8 micrograms/dl. The level in females of A company was 9.9 micrograms/dl and the lowest in concentration. The urine delta aminolevulinic acid geometric mean levels were less than 6.0 mg/l in the four companies. There was no company having hemoglobin mean values less than 14.0 g/dl in males or less than 12.0 g/dl in females. 3) The proportion of blood lead levels of 60 micrograms/dl or more was 67.3% in males of C company, and 89.7% in males and 16.7% in females of D company. The proportion of urine delta aminolevulinic acid levels of 6 mg/l or more was 1.0% in females of A company, 20.1% in males of C company, and 43.0% in males of D company

  2. Biomonitoring of a worker population exposed to platinum dust in a catalyst production plant

    PubMed Central

    Petrucci, F; Violante, N; Senofonte, O; Cristaudo, A; Di, G; Forte, G; Alimonti, A

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the occupational exposure to platinum in an industrial plant engaged in the production, recovery, and recycling of catalytic converters for the automotive traction and chemical industries. Methods: Pt was determined in airborne particulate matter, and blood, urine, and hair of 106 exposed workers, 21 controls from the plant's administrative offices, and 25 unexposed subjects. Results: The highest air Pt level was found in the department of the plant in which supports are coated with acid metal solutions, where values of 2.39 and 4.83 µg/m3 respectively were found in environmental airborne particulate matter and in air collected using personal sampler devices. The percentage of soluble Pt was also highest in this area, varying from 24% to 44% of the total. The biological data confirmed this trend, with mean concentrations in this site being higher than in other working areas: 1.86 µg/l (urine), 0.38 µg/l (blood), and 2.26 µg/kg (hair). The workers employed in the administrative sector, who were not directly exposed to Pt, had levels of contaminant lower than those of other workers, albeit 2–20 times higher than those of external controls. High correlations were obtained between Pt levels detected in airborne samples using personal devices and those found in urine and hair, but not in blood. Conclusions: The background level of Pt in all areas of the factory implies widespread exposure for the workers. The most reliable biomarker was urine. Hair cannot be considered a good index of time related exposure, at least until more reliable methods of washing can be found that are able to remove exogenous Pt completely. PMID:15613605

  3. Psychophysical Evaluation of Achromatic and Chromatic Vision of Workers Chronically Exposed to Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Eliza Maria da Costa Brito; Lima, Monica Gomes; Rodrigues, Anderson Raiol; Teixeira, Cláudio Eduardo Correa; de Lima, Lauro José Barata; Ventura, Dora Fix; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate achromatic and chromatic vision of workers chronically exposed to organic solvents through psychophysical methods. Thirty-one gas station workers (31.5 ± 8.4 years old) were evaluated. Psychophysical tests were achromatic tests (Snellen chart, spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity, and visual perimetry) and chromatic tests (Ishihara's test, color discrimination ellipses, and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test—FM100). Spatial contrast sensitivities of exposed workers were lower than the control at spatial frequencies of 20 and 30 cpd whilst the temporal contrast sensitivity was preserved. Visual field losses were found in 10–30 degrees of eccentricity in the solvent exposed workers. The exposed workers group had higher error values of FM100 and wider color discrimination ellipses area compared to the controls. Workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents had abnormal visual functions, mainly color vision losses and visual field constriction. PMID:22220188

  4. Adverse health effects in workers exposed to trace/toxic metals at workplace.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Rita; Juneja, Meenu

    2003-04-01

    Widespread use of metals in industrial activities has enhanced the occupational exposure to toxic metals as well as the health risks of metal hazards to humans. Elemental analysis in human tissues is the most common application of biological monitoring for screening, diagnosis and assessment of such exposures and risk. Among various biopsy materials, blood, hair, nail, teeth and body fluids may be used as bioindicators for this purpose. The present paper deals with the determination of Pb, Cr, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn elemental concentration in workers exposed to these metals at workplace by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, with adequate quality control measures using hair as biopsy material. The study group includes the male workers such as welders, foundry man, fitter, hammer man, machine man, cupola man etc., besides office workers of locomotive workshop in Ajmer and surrounding areas exposed to different metals. Age and sex matched controls of persons working in the same area of work in offices etc. and not exposed to metal pollution were selected for valid comparison. It is proposed to validate the use of hair as a biological marker for assessing metal body burden of workers. In our study significant correlations have been found between skin disease and Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu; chest pain and Pb; hypertension and Cu, Mn; mental stress and Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn; liver problem and Ni; indigestion and Cr; Ni, diabetes and Cr, Mn, Ni; tuberculosis and Zn; breathing trouble and Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn. The advantages of choosing hair as a biopsy material are also given.

  5. Incidence of leukaemia and brain tumours in Finnish workers exposed to ELF magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Juutilainen, J; Läärä, E; Pukkala, E

    1990-01-01

    The relative incidence of leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and central nervous system (CNS) tumours among workers presumably exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MFs) was studied. The study population consisted of all male industrial workers in Finland aged 25 to 64 years during 1971-1980 according to the Population Census in 1970. The occupations were grouped into three exposure categories according to the probability of exposure. The category of "probable" exposure included electrical occupations and the category of "possible" exposure included occupations where electric motors or welding are common. All other occupations were included to the category of "no exposure". Cancer incidence rates in different occupational groups during 1971-1980 were obtained after linking the census records with the national death certificates and the files of the Finnish Cancer Registry. The adjusted relative risks (with 95% confidence limits) in the categories of "probable" and "possible" exposure were for all leukaemia 1.9 (1.0-3.5) and 1.4 (1.1-1.8), for AML 1.5 (0.5-4.7) and 1.4 (0.9-2.1), and for CNS tumours 1.3 (0.7-2.3) and 1.3 (1.0-1.6), respectively. The results are concordant with earlier studies suggesting elevated risk among workers exposed to ELF magnetic fields.

  6. Cancer incidence in Swedish sterilant workers exposed to ethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Hagmar, L; Mikoczy, Z; Welinder, H

    1995-03-01

    To assess the risk of cancer, especially leukaemia, in a cohort of sterilant workers exposed to ethylene oxide (EtO). A cohort of 2170 workers employed for at least one year in two plants that produce disposable medical equipment sterilised with EtO has previously been established. The results of an update with four more years of observation are presented. The cancer incidence was assessed for the periods 1976 to 1990 and 1972 to 1990 and cause specific standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated. Individual cumulative exposure to EtO, expressed as ppm-years, was estimated and used in exposure-response analyses. Six lymphohaematopoietic tumours were observed (SIR 1.78, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.65-3.88), of which two were leukaemias (SIR 2.44; 95% CI 0.30-8.81). When those with cumulative exposures to EtO below the median value (0.13 ppm-years) were excluded, and a minimum of 10 years induction latency period was applied, the incidence ratio for leukaemia increased further (SIR 7.14, 95% CI 0.87-25.8), but was still not significantly enhanced. The risk estimate for leukaemia increased, but non-significantly, with time since start of exposure, and with cumulative exposures to EtO above the median value. The subjects with leukaemia had, however, only slightly higher cumulative exposure estimates for EtO than the average cohort member. Nevertheless, the present results may add some minor evidence for an association between EtO and an increased risk of leukaemia.

  7. Nickel and blood counts in workers exposed to urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Maria Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Capozzella, Assunta; Schifano, Maria Pia; Tomei, Francesco; Nieto, Hector Alberto; Marrocco, Mariasilvia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Sancini, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Nickel (Ni) and Ni compounds are widely present in the urban air. The purpose of this study is to estimate exposure of individuals to Ni and the correlation between this exposure and the values of blood counts in outdoor workers. This study focused on a sample of 101 outdoor workers (55 male and 46 female; 65 nonsmokers and 36 smokers), all employed in the municipal police in a large Italian city. The personal levels of exposure to Ni were assessed through (a) environmental monitoring of Ni present in the urban air obtained from individual samples and (b) biological monitoring of urinary and blood Ni. The blood count parameters were obtained from the hemochromocytometric tests. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to assess the association between the blood and urinary Ni and the complete blood count. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the associations between the complete blood count and the independent variables (age, gender, years of work for current tasks, cigarette smoking habit (current and never smoker), values of airborne Ni, and blood and urinary Ni). Multiple linear regression analysis performed on the total group of 101 subjects confirms the association among the red blood cells count, the hematocrit, and the urinary Ni (R(2) = 0.520, p = 0.025 and R(2) = 0.530, p = 0.030). These results should lead to further studies on the effects of Ni in working populations exposed to urban pollutants. The possibility that the associations found in our study may be partially explained by other urban pollutants (such as benzene, toluene, and other heavy metals) not taken into consideration in this study cannot be ruled out.

  8. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function among Greek Cotton Industry Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Anyfantis, Ioannis D; Rachiotis, Georgios; Hadjichristodoulou, Cristos; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I

    2017-01-01

    Workers in cotton industry are occupationally exposed to various dust-related hazards. The nature of these agents and the respective exposure levels depend on the cotton industry specific sector. These exposures could be associated with respiratory symptoms and changes in lung function parameters. To evaluate associations between occupational exposure and respiratory function as well as reported symptoms in several groups of workers at different stages of the cotton industry in a vertical approach that covers all the major sectors-from cotton ginning to weaving and fabric production. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and individual as well as workplace characteristics was completed by 256 workers at the cotton industry and 148 office workers (control group). Both groups underwent spirometry. Workers in cotton industry reported a higher prevalence of severe dyspnea (p=0.002) and wheezing (p=0.004) compared to the control group. Also they were found to have a lower predicted FEV1% (p<0.029) and lower FEV1/FVC (p<0.001) values. In addition, a higher prevalence of FEV1% <80% (p<0.001) and FEV1/FVC <70% (p=0.041) were found among textile workers. Similar results were found for non-smoker textile workers compared to non-smoker control group workers. Those working in cotton ginning mills recorded the highest decrease of spirometric values. Duration of employment in cotton industry and smoking use were found to be predictors of lung function decline for cotton industry workers. Occupational exposure to cotton dust was associated with increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms and obstructive pattern in pulmonary function test.

  9. Pulmonary nodules in workers exposed to urban stressor

    SciTech Connect

    Sancini, A.; Fioravanti, M.; Ciarrocca, M.; Palermo, P.; Fiaschetti, M.; Schifano, M.P.; Tomei, G.; Tomei, F.

    2010-07-15

    By multilayer spiral low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) of the chest this study assesses the early detection of lung lesions on a sample of 100 traffic policemen of a big Italian city professionally exposed to urban pollutants and 100 controls non-occupationally exposed to urban pollutants matched by sex, age, length of service and cigarette smoking habit. Exposure to urban pollutants in traffic policemen was characterized using the annual average concentrations of PM{sub 10}, NO{sub 2} and benzene in the period 1998-2008 measured by fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city. A significant and increasing number of suspicious lung nodules with diameters between 5 and 10 mm was observed: in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) vs. controls (including smokers and non-smokers); in total smokers (including traffic policemen and controls) vs. total non-smokers (traffic policemen and controls); in smoker traffic policemen vs. smoker controls and vs. non-smoker traffic policemen; in non-smoker traffic policemen vs. non-smoker controls. The RR of finding cases with at least one lung nodule with diameters between 5 and 10 mm in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) compared to controls (including smokers and non-smokers) is 1.94 (CI 1.13-3.31); in total smokers vs. non-smokers the RR is 1.96 (CI 1.20-3.19). The comparison between the interaction exposure and smoking shows an increase in smoker traffic policemen than in smoker controls (RR=2.14; CI 1.02-4.52). The RR for smoker traffic policemen was higher than in non-smoker traffic policemen (RR=2.09; CI 1.19-3.66). The results of our study show that: (1) while smoker workers have a higher risk for developing solid suspicious lung nodules, the simple routinely exposure to urban pollutants is unable to produce the same kind of increased risk; (2) the interaction of smoking and exposure to urban pollutants greatly increases the risk for the development of solid

  10. Retrospective exposure assessment to airborne asbestos among power industry workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A method of individually assessing former exposure to asbestos fibres is a precondition of risk-differentiated health surveillance. The main aims of our study were to assess former levels of airborne asbestos exposure in the power industry in Germany and to propose a basic strategy for health surveillance and the early detection of asbestos related diseases. Methods Between March 2002 and the end of 2006, we conducted a retrospective questionnaire based survey of occupational tasks and exposures with airborne asbestos fibres in a cohort of 8632 formerly asbestos exposed power industry workers. The data on exposure and occupation were entered into a specially designed computer programme, based on ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos fibre concentrations. The cumulative asbestos exposure was expressed as the product of the eight-hour time weighted average and the total duration of exposure in fibre years (fibres/cubic centimetre-years). Results Data of 7775 (90% of the total) participants working in installations for power generation, power distribution or gas supply could be evaluated. The power generation group (n = 5284) had a mean age of 56 years, were exposed for 20 years and had an average cumulative asbestos exposure of 42 fibre years. The occupational group of "metalworkers" (n = 1600) had the highest mean value of 79 fibre years. The corresponding results for the power distribution group (n = 2491) were a mean age of 45 years, a mean exposure duration of 12 years and an average cumulative asbestos exposure of only 2.5 fibre years. The gas supply workers (n = 512) had a mean age of 54 years and a mean duration of exposure of 15 years. Conclusions While the surveyed cohort as a whole was heavily exposed to asbestos dust, the power distribution group had a mean cumulative exposure of only 6% of that found in the power generation group. Based on the presented data, risk-differentiated disease surveillance focusing on metalworkers and electricians

  11. Environmental and biological monitoring of workers exposed to inorganic lead.

    PubMed

    De Medinilla, J; Espigares, M

    1991-01-01

    A total of 20 workers who were exposed to inorganic lead in two local firms (M and N) were studied. Lead concentrations in the air (PbA) at firm M exceeded the threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.150 mg/m3 established by Spanish and EC legislation, while atmospheric lead at firm N exceeded the action level of 0.075 mg/m3. In the same population, biological exposure indices (BEI) were also determined; these included lead in whole blood (PbB), erythrocyte activity of aminolevulinic acid (ALA-D), urinary excretion of aminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). The relationship between the exposure parameters (PbA, PbB) and the biological activity indices (ALA-D, ALA-U, ZPP) were analysed statistically in order to obtain levels of significance, coefficients of correlation and regression equations. The high coefficients of correlation found confirm the usefulness of BEI in evaluating exposure to lead fumes and lead dust.

  12. Mortality of workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls--an update

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.

    1987-11-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study of workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in two plants manufacturing electrical capacitors was reported in 1981. The study was conducted primarily to examine the risk of cancer mortality associated with exposure to PCBs. Based on animal data, liver cancer was the disease of most interest. Due to the small number of deaths and a relatively short observation period, the study was considered inconclusive. This study has been updated by adding 7 yr of observation. The number of deaths in the study cohort has increased from 163 to 295. Mortality from all causes was found to be lower than expected (295 observed vs. 318 expected deaths) as well as mortality from all cancers (62 observed vs. 80 expected deaths). A statistically significant excess in deaths was observed in the disease category that includes cancer of the liver (primary and unspecified), gall bladder, and biliary tract (5 observed vs. 1.9 expected; p less than .05). Most of this excess was observed in women employed in one plant. Due to the small number of deaths and the variability of specific cause of death within this category, it remains difficult to interpret these findings in regard to PCB exposure.

  13. [Occupational deafness in workers of gas-processing industry].

    PubMed

    Raĭtselis, I V

    2009-01-01

    A total of 1121 workers serving processing unit operators, including operators (n = 673), drivers (n = 201), and fitters (n = 247), were examined at a gas-processing plant (GPP). A complex of negative industrial factors in the gas-processing industry workers was ascertained to be formed due to their exposure to high noise along with class 3.2 hard work. The total rate of the working conditions at the GPP in terms of the intensity of negative industrial factors corresponds to Class 3.3-3.4, which determines the increased likelihood of occupational deafness in the workers.

  14. Biomonitoring for chromium and arsenic in timber treatment plant workers exposed to CCA wood Preservatives.

    PubMed

    Cocker, J; Morton, J; Warren, N; Wheeler, J P; Garrod, A N I

    2006-07-01

    This study reports a survey of occupational exposure to copper chrome arsenic (CCA) based wood preservatives during vacuum pressure timber impregnation. The survey involved biological monitoring based on analysis of chromium and arsenic in urine samples collected from UK workers. The aim of the study was to determine the extent of occupational exposure to arsenic and chromium in the UK timber treatment industry. The objectives were to collect and analyse urine samples from as many workers as possible, where CCA wood preservatives might be used, at 6 monthly intervals for 2 years. In addition, to investigate day-to-day variations in urinary excretion of chrome and arsenic by collecting and analysing three samples a week for 3 weeks in subsets of workers and controls (people not occupationally exposed). All urine samples were analysed for chromium and inorganic arsenic. To investigate any residual interference every sample was accompanied by a short questionnaire about recent consumption of seafood and smoking. The analytical methods for arsenic used a hydride generation technique to reduce interference from dietary sources of arsenic and also a technique that would measure total arsenic concentration in urine. The main findings show that workers exposed to CCA wood preservatives have concentrations of inorganic arsenic and chromium in urine that are significantly higher than those from non-occupationally exposed people but below biological monitoring guidance values that would indicate inhalation exposure at UK occupational exposure limits for chromium and arsenic. The effects of consumption of seafood on urinary arsenic were not significant using the hydride generation method for inorganic arsenic but were significant if 'total' arsenic was measured. The 'total' arsenic method could not distinguish CCA workers from controls and is clearly unsuitable for assessment of occupational exposure to arsenic. There was a significant increase in the urinary concentration of

  15. Serum hepatic biochemical activity in two populations of workers exposed to styrene

    PubMed Central

    Brodkin, C; Moon, J; Camp, J; Echeverria, D; Redlich, C; Willson, R; Checkoway, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether hepatic biochemical changes, as measured by routinely available tests indicative of hepatocellular necrosis, cholestasis, or altered hepatic clearance of bilirubin, occur in association with low to moderate exposure to styrene commonly experienced in industrial production.
METHODS—Two independent cross sectional studies were performed comparing serum hepatic transaminases (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), cholestatic enzymes (alkaline phosphatase (AP) and γ glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)), and bilirubin in (a) 47 workers of fibreglass reinforced plastics who were exposed to styrene and (b) 21 boat and tank fabricators, with separate referent groups of unexposed workers. Exposure to styrene was assessed in air by dosimetry, and in venous blood by headspace analysis. Hepatic biochemical variables were assessed across strata of exposure to styrene defined as 25 ppm in air, or 0.275 mg/l in blood, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and ethanol consumption.
RESULTS—A consistent and significant linear trend for increasing direct bilirubin and direct/total bilirubin ratio was found in association with increasing exposure to styrene, by both air and blood monitoring, in both studies. Mean direct bilirubin concentrations increased from 0.05-0.08 mg% in referents to 0.12-0.19 in workers exposed above 25 ppm, with a significant exposure-response trend (p<0.005). Significantly increased direct/total bilirubin ratios, ranging from 0.22 to 0.35 were associated with exposure to styrene (p<0.001), indicating diminished hepatic clearance of conjugated bilirubin. Also, a significant linear association between the hepatic transaminases ALT and AST and exposure to styrene was found in pooled regression analyses, with an increase in AP of about 10 IU/ml in workers exposed above 25 ppm air or 0.275 mg/l blood styrene in pooled analyses from both studies.
CONCLUSIONS—The consistent finding

  16. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in flour processing workers in the baking industry.

    PubMed

    Shamssain, M H

    1995-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity were studied in 63 flour processing male bakery workers in Umtata, Transkei, Southern Africa. The controls were from a bottling plant in the same city. Both groups were black Africans from the Xhosa-speaking population. The studied population was nonsmoking and no significant difference was noted in age, race, sex, or height between the groups. The exposed workers had significantly lower forced expiratory indices than the control group. Mean percent predicted values of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC x 100), forced mid-expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FMF), forced expiratory flow between the first 200 ml and 1,200 ml of FVC (FEF 200-1,200), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) were, respectively, 11.2%, 20.0%, 31.0%, 27.4%, and 36.1% lower in the exposed group compared with the controls. The prevalence of forced expiratory ratio less than 70% in the exposed group was 37% while in the controls it was 8%. The prevalence of PEF rate less than 5 1/s in the exposed group was 32% while in the controls it was 11%. The exposed workers reported a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms compared to the controls. The prevalence of nasal symptoms, phlegm, and cough in the exposed workers was 53.9%, 30.1%, and 25.4%, respectively. The present study demonstrated that exposure to flour dust in flour processing workers in the baking industry is associated with significantly lower pulmonary functions and a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and that these workers show signs of airway obstruction, compared to workers not exposed to flour.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Absenteeism and mortality of workers exposed to electromagnetic fields in the French Electricity Company.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, A; Souques, M; Coing, F; Dab, W; Lambrozo, J

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the health status of electricity workers exposed to electromagnetic fields during their job. Two groups of exposed workers were studied from 1978 to 1993: the live line workers (n = 121) and the substation workers (n = 232.7) of the French Electricity Company (EDF). A control group was randomly selected from all the company non-management male employees; one control for each exposed subject was matched for the first year of employment. Absenteeism indices and mortality rates were computed and compared in the exposed and control groups. The absence rates were 1.98% in the substation workers and 2.5% in the control group (p < 0.001) and 2.7% in the live-line workers and 2.8% in the control group (NS). No effect of the length of exposure was found. However the medical causes of sickness absence were different: exposed employees had less psychiatric and respiratory diseases but more accidents at work than their control group. Relative risks of accidents at work were 1.2 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.33[ for substation workers and 3.22 (CI = 1.78-5.88) for live line workers. EDF electromagnetic field exposed workers seemed not to be affected by any specific health problems except for an excess of accidents at work.

  18. A survey into process and worker's characteristics in the wood furniture industry in Songkhla Province, southern region of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tuntiseranee, P; Chongsuvivatwong, V

    1998-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the wood furniture industry was conducted in southern Thailand in February 1993. The aim was to examine the manufacturing process, occupational hazards at the workplace, workers' demographic characteristics, period of employment, incidence rate of work related injury and some reproductive history of workers. Altogether 69 managers and 1,000 workers participated in the study. There are 2 main types of wood industry, rubberwood and hardwood. The rubberwood industry is semi-automated with advanced technology, has a female-dominated workforce of 200-300 workers per factory and overseas-market orientation. The hardwood industry is based in small-scale workplaces ranging from 20 to 60 workers, domestic-market orientation and has a male-dominated workforce. Most of the workers were young, single, of low education and were high turnover rate laborforce, with arduous work and long working hours per week. Solvent was the most frequent chemical exposure. The person-year incidence of chemical exposure in female workers was higher than in male workers for every group of chemicals. The incidence of accidents was twice as high as the official rate. The standardized fertility ratio of female wood workers was only 51.6% of that of the Thai female population. There was a high abortion rate among women who became pregnant inside the wood industry compared to that among pregnancies outside the wood factory. Wood industry workers were exposed to occupational hazards and accident-prone work conditions.

  19. Method for monitoring the fertility of workers. 2. Validation of the method among workers exposed to dibromochloropropane

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.J.; Symons, M.J.; Balogh, S.A.; Milby, T.H.; Whorton, M.D.

    1981-03-01

    A method has been developed for monitoring industrial workers and others exposed to environmental agents which may impair fertility. National birth probabilities specific for maternal birth cohort, age, parity, and race are used to derive expected fertility. Observed fertility is obtained by questionnaire. Standardized fertility ratios are computed for exposure and non-exposure periods and compared. The analytic techniques have been validated by applying the method to a group of 36 male factory employees working in an agricultural chemical division (ACD) where pesticides including the nematocide dibromochloropropane were formulated. Twelve of these employees in mid-1977 had been discovered to have severely depressed sperm counts related to occupational exposure. The standardized fertility ratio (SFR) computed from data available in mid-1977 for the period at risk from employment in the ACD (SFR = 0.75) was significantly lower than those derived for the entire not-at-risk period (SFR = 1.88) and the portion related to employment in other areas of the factory (SFR = 2.16). Similar differences also were evident from data available several years earlier, demonstrating that the surveillance technique would have been capable of detecting occupationally induced infertility among these workers in advance of the actual discovery date.

  20. Mortality among workers in the diatomaceous earth industry.

    PubMed Central

    Checkoway, H; Heyer, N J; Demers, P A; Breslow, N E

    1993-01-01

    A cohort mortality study was conducted among workers from two plants in the diatomaceous earth mining and processing industry in California. Diatomaceous earth consists of the skeletal remains of diatoms. Exposure to amorphous (non-crystalline) and crystalline silica in the form of quartz results from open pit mining and exposure to crystalline silica (principally cristobalite) occurs in the processing of the material. Lung cancer and non-malignant respiratory diseases have been the health outcomes of greatest concern. The main study cohort included 2570 white men (533 Hispanic and 2017 non-Hispanic workers) who were employed for at least 12 months cumulative service in the industry and who had worked for at least one day during the follow up period, 1942-87. Vital status was ascertained for 91% of the cohort and death certificate information was retrieved for 591 of 628 (94%) identified deaths. The all causes combined standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was slightly increased (SMR = 1.12; 628 observed) compared with rates among US white males. The principal contributors to this excess were increased risks from lung cancer (SMR = 1.43; 59 observed) and non-malignant respiratory disease (NMRD) excluding infectious diseases and pneumonia (SMR = 2.59; 56 observed). The excess of lung cancer persisted when local county rates were used for comparison (SMR = 1.59). Internal rate comparisons by Poisson regression analysis were conducted to assess potential dose-response relations for lung cancer and NMRDs. Mortality trends were examined in relation to duration of employment in dust exposed jobs and with respect to an index of cumulative exposure to crystalline silica. The crystalline silica index was a semiquantitative measure that combined information on duration of exposure, differences in exposure intensity between jobs and calendar periods, the crystalline content of the various product mixes, and the use of respiratory protection devices. Increasing gradients of risk

  1. Stress and work ability in oil industry workers.

    PubMed

    Bresić, Jozo; Knezević, Bojana; Milosević, Milan; Tomljanović, Tomislav; Golubić, Rajna; Golubović, Rajna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2007-12-01

    This cross-sectional study conducted between March and June 2006 examined stress at work and work ability of 180 people with different workplaces within an oil company. Office, laboratory, and oil-field workers were invited to complete the "Occupational Stress Assessment Questionnaire--the Oil Industry Version and Work Ability Index (WAI) Questionnaire". The overall response rate was 69.4%, and the final sample size was 125 workers who completed the questionnaires (57 office, 41 laboratory, 27 oil-field workers). Office, laboratory, and oil-field workers differed significantly with respect to age (P<0.001). The oldest were oil-field workers and the youngest were office workers. The average WAI score for office workers was 44.9, for laboratory workers 43.2 and for field workers 39.7, indicating satisfying work ability. After adjusting for age, the difference in WAI score between the groups of workers was still significant (P<0.001). Over 75% of all workers believed their job was stressful, but the perception of specific stressors depended on the workplace.

  2. DNA adduct formation among workers in a Thai industrial estate and nearby residents.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Marco; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Munnia, Armelle; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Meunier, Aurelie; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Piro, Sara; Ceppi, Marcello; Boffetta, Paolo

    2008-01-25

    The genotoxic effects of air pollutant exposures have been studied in people living and working in Map Ta Phut, Rayong province, Thailand, a site where is located the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate (MIE) one of the largest steel, refinery and petrochemical complex in the South-Eastern Asia. This was done by the conduction of a transversal study aimed to compare the prevalence of bulky DNA adducts in groups of subjects experiencing various degree of air pollution. DNA adduct analysis was performed in the leukocytes of 201 volunteers by the (32)P-postlabelling assay: 79 were workers in the MIE complex, including 24 refinery workers, 40 steel workers and 15 tinplate workers, 72 were people residing downwind in the MIE area and 50 were residents in a control district of the same Rayong province but without industrial exposures. The groups of workers were analyzed separately to evaluate if DNA adduct formation differs by the type of industry. The levels of bulky DNA adducts were 1.17+/-0.17 (SE) adducts/10(8) nucleotides in refinery workers, 1.19+/-0.19 (SE) in steel workers, 0.87+/-0.17 (SE) in tinplate workers, 0.85+/-0.07 (SE) in MIE residents and 0.53+/-0.05 (SE) in district controls. No effects of smoking habits on DNA adducts was found. The multivariate regression analysis shows that the levels of DNA adducts were significantly increased among the individuals living near the MIE industrial complex in respect to those resident in a control district (p<0.05). In the groups of occupationally exposed workers, the highest levels of DNA adducts were found among the workers experiencing an occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. the steel factory and refinery workers. When we have evaluated if the levels of DNA adducts of the PAH exposed workers were different from those of the MIE residents, a statistical significantly difference was found (p<0.05). Our present study indicates that people living near point sources of industrial air pollution can

  3. What encourages sun protection among outdoor workers from four industries?

    PubMed

    Janda, Monika; Stoneham, Melissa; Youl, Philippa; Crane, Phil; Sendall, Marguerite C; Tenkate, Thomas; Kimlin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to identify current practice of sun protection and factors associated with effective use in four outdoor worker industries in Queensland, Australia. Workplaces in four industries with a high proportion of outdoor workers (building/construction, rural/farming, local government, and public sector industries) were identified using an online telephone directory, screened for eligibility, and invited to participant via mail (n=15, recruitment rate 37%). A convenience sample of workers were recruited within each workplace (n=162). Workplaces' sun protective policies and procedures were identified using interviews and policy analysis with workplace representatives, and discussion groups and computer-assisted telephone interviews with workers. Personal characteristics and sun protection knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were collated and analysed. Just over half the workplaces had an existing policy which referred to sun protection (58%), and most provided at least some personal protective equipment (PPE), but few scheduled work outside peak sun hours (43%) or provided skin checks (21%). Several worker and workplace characteristics were associated with greater sun protection behaviour among workers, including having received education on the use of PPE (p<0.001), being concerned about being in the sun (p=0.002); and working in a smaller workplace (p=0.035). Uptake of sun protection by outdoor workers is affected by a complex interplay of both workplace and personal factors, and there is a need for effective strategies targeting both the workplace environment and workers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviors to decrease harmful sun exposure further.

  4. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Final report. Volume 2. Shale workers' pneumoconiosis and skin conditions: epidemiological surveys of surviving ex-shale workers

    SciTech Connect

    Louw, S.J.; Cowie, H.; Seaton, A.

    1985-03-01

    This report (in 3 volumes) describes the now defunct Scottish oil shale industry and its effects on the health of its workers. This volume investigates the prevalence of skin disease and pneumoconiosis in Scottish ex-oil shale workers. A cross sectional epidemiological survey has been carried base on a population enrolled in the 1950 Scottish Oils Ltd Provident Fund. Investigation of the Fund indicated that it would have included almost all industrial workers employed in the oil shale industry between 1950 and its closure in 1962. It is concluded that workers in the Scottish shale oil industry in its latter years were not at excess risk of skin disease, perhaps because of steps taken within the industry to reduce the known hazards of dermatitis and skin cancer. However, pneumoconiosis was a definite hazard of miners and retort workers and its presence was associated with an impairment of lung function suggestive of fibrosis and possibly emphysema as well. It is suggested that prevention of this hazard might sensibly be based on the strategy used in the coalmining industry and, in the absence of further information on dust and fume exposures of shale workers, standards as applied in coalmining should be appropriate. Radiological surveillance of dust-exposed workers, whether in mines or at retorts or tips, is recommended. 39 refs., 10 figs., 48 tabs.

  5. Future directions in epidemiologic studies of 1,3-butadiene-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Acquavella, J.F. )

    1990-06-01

    To date, epidemiologic research on 1,3-butadiene has consisted of cohort mortality studies of workers in the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and butadiene monomer industries. These studies have been extremely useful both in defining the focus on human health effects to the lymphopoietic cancers and in providing a perspective on which to evaluate the available animal models for human risk assessment. The next step for epidemiologic research will involve a lymphopoietic cancer case control approach to enable a more precise assessment of whether there is a relationship between 1,3-butadiene exposure and lymphopoietic cancer. In addition, periodic mortality updates of the 1,3-butadiene-exposed worker cohorts will be important to monitor trends in lymphopoietic cancer rates and to ensure that other cancers with long latency do not begin to show elevated rates. This paper describes an industry-sponsored program of case-control and cohort mortality update studies along with the critical elements in research design and analysis for each study. Epidemiological studies will play an important role in testing hypotheses developed from toxicological studies about potential biological mechanisms of 1,3-butadiene carcinogenesis in humans.

  6. Future directions in epidemiologic studies of 1,3-butadiene-exposed workers.

    PubMed Central

    Acquavella, J F

    1990-01-01

    To date, epidemiologic research on 1,3-butadiene has consisted of cohort mortality studies of workers in the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and butadiene monomer industries. These studies have been extremely useful both in defining the focus on human health effects to the lymphopoietic cancers and in providing a perspective on which to evaluate the available animal models for human risk assessment. The next step for epidemiologic research will involve a lymphopoietic cancer case control approach to enable a more precise assessment of whether there is a relationship between 1,3-butadiene exposure and lymphopoietic cancer. In addition, periodic mortality updates of the 1,3-butadiene-exposed worker cohorts will be important to monitor trends in lymphopoietic cancer rates and to ensure that other cancers with long latency do not begin to show elevated rates. This paper describes an industry-sponsored program of case-control and cohort mortality update studies along with the critical elements in research design and analysis for each study. Epidemiological studies will play an important role in testing hypotheses developed from toxicological studies about potential biological mechanisms of 1,3-butadiene carcinogenesis in humans. PMID:2401253

  7. Incidence of renal stones among cadmium exposed battery workers.

    PubMed Central

    Järup, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-01-01

    The health effects of occupational exposure to cadmium were studied in a group of 902 workers employed for at least one year in a Swedish battery factory between 1931 and 1982. Data on air cadmium concentrations for different periods were combined with company employment records to obtain individual cumulative exposure estimates. A questionnaire including questions on the occurrence of kidney stones was sent to all 601 living workers and to the next of kin of 267 of the deceased workers. The response rate was 88%. 73 workers reported renal calculi that appeared after initial employment. A dose-response relation was found between cumulative exposure to cadmium and age standardised cumulative incidence. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were then computed for three exposure categories (< 250, 250- < 5000, and 5000 micrograms/m3 x years) standardised for calendar time, age, and smoking with the low exposure group as reference level. The IRRs were 1.0, 1.6 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.7-3.4], and 3.0 (95% CI 1.3-6.8) respectively. beta 2 Microglobulin measurements were available for 33 workers who formed stones; 13 of these workers had tubular proteinuria (beta 2 microglobulin > or = 34 micrograms/mmole creatinine)--that is, a prevalence of 39%. There was also an indication of a steeper dose-response relation among workers with tubular proteinuria. PMID:8343420

  8. [Osteopenia in workers engaged into mining industry].

    PubMed

    Kudasheva, A R; Iakupov, R R

    2011-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate prevalence of osteopenia in miners engaged into deep-mined output of copper-zinc pyrite. The examinees were 130 males with clinical manifestations of bone and joint disorders, including 85 drifters engaged into underground mining (main group) and 45 individuals of surface occupations. Hazardous work conditions (4 degree of 3 class) cause in workers engaged into deep-mined output of copper-zinc pyrite risk of osteopenia that is more prevalent than in the surface occupations workers and is highly related with the occupation.

  9. Industrial distributions of severe occupational injuries among workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Michiyo; Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Yorifuji, Takashi; Hengpraprom, Sarunya; Hiransuthikul, Narin; Doi, Hiroyuki; Takao, Soshi

    2014-01-01

    In industrializing countries, occupational safety and health have been affected by globalization. However, a lack of reliable data prevents evaluation of this situation. Therefore, we examined industrial distributions and risks of severe occupational injuries among workers in Thailand, which is one of the few industrializing countries that compiles nationwide data. Data on workers who made claims for occupational injuries from 2007 to 2009 were extracted from the Workmen's Compensation Fund records in Thailand. Among 501,334 claimants, we evaluated the industrial distributions of severe occupational injuries (i.e., permanent disability and death). We then examined the associations between industry and those injuries, using proportionate ratios (PRs) between each industrial category and the overall distribution of occupational injuries. The number of workers in manufacturing making claims for severe occupational injuries was the largest among all industrial categories (319,114/501,334 injuries), although the total number of occupational injuries recently declined. Additionally, workers in manufacturing experienced severe occupational injuries more often compared with the overall distribution of occupational injuries. The PRs (95% confidence interval) for manufacturing were 1.17 (1.14-1.20) in men and 1.33 (1.27-1.38) in women. After adjusting for individual characteristics, the results did not substantially change. Manufacturing seems to have the largest burden of occupational injuries in industrializing countries like Thailand.

  10. Hepatitis E, Helicobacter pylori, and gastrointestinal symptoms in workers exposed to waste water

    PubMed Central

    Jeggli, S; Steiner, D; Joller, H; Tschopp, A; Steffen, R; Hotz, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: Workers exposed to sewage may have an increased risk of infection by Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Aims: To assess the prevalence of clinical hepatitis E (HE) and peptic ulcer disease as well as the seroprevalence of antibodies to H pylori and HEV in workers with and without sewage exposure and to look for symptoms due to exposure to endotoxin. Methods: In the first year of a prospective cohort study 349 sewage exposed workers and 429 municipal manual workers (participation: 61%) underwent a complete medical examination. Travelling to endemic areas, socioeconomic level, age, country in which childhood was spent, and number of siblings were considered as the main confounding factors. Results: Peptic ulcer disease and clinical HE did not occur more often in workers exposed to sewage. Prevalence of antibodies to HEV was 3.3% and overall prevalence of IgG antibodies to H pylori was 42% with large differences between subgroups. Logistic regression did not show an increased risk of seropositivity or antibodies to parietal cells in sewage exposed workers, but disentangling the effect of exposure from that of confounders was extremely difficult. No increase of symptoms due to exposure to endotoxin was found in sewage workers, with the exception of diarrhoea. Conclusions: No clear increased risk of infection by H pylori or by HEV in workers exposed to sewage was found in this cross-sectional study, but these results need to be confirmed by follow up. PMID:15208379

  11. Detecting the hypersusceptible worker: genetics and politics in industrial medicine.

    PubMed

    Green, J

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the development of the concept of the hypersusceptible worker, as advanced by H. E. Stokinger and his associates. It is argued that this concept enabled industrial toxicologists to organize knowledge about workers' reactions to toxicity so as to sustain a professional and methodological ideology which reflects the relationship between industrial toxicology and capitalist industry. Moreover, it is argued that it is this aspect of hypersusceptibility, rather than its practical utility to specific corporations, that is most important. Constraints on implementation of screening programs based on the ideas of genetic hypersusceptibility are also discussed.

  12. Artificial stone dust-induced functional and inflammatory abnormalities in exposed workers monitored quantitatively by biometrics.

    PubMed

    Ophir, Noa; Shai, Amir Bar; Alkalay, Yifat; Israeli, Shani; Korenstein, Rafi; Kramer, Mordechai R; Fireman, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The manufacture of kitchen and bath countertops in Israel is based mainly on artificial stone that contains 93% silica as natural quartz, and ∼3500 workers are involved in cutting and processing it. Artificial stone produces high concentrations of silica dust. Exposure to crystalline silica may cause silicosis, an irreversible lung disease. Our aim was to screen exposed workers by quantitative biometric monitoring of functional and inflammatory parameters. 68 exposed artificial stone workers were compared to 48 nonexposed individuals (controls). Exposed workers filled in questionnaires, and all participants underwent pulmonary function tests and induced sputum analyses. Silica was quantitated by a Niton XL3 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Pulmonary function test results of exposed workers were significantly lower and induced sputa showed significantly higher neutrophilic inflammation compared to controls; both processes were slowed down by the use of protective measures in the workplace. Particle size distribution in induced sputum samples of exposed workers was similar to that of artificial stone dust, which contained aluminium, zirconium and titanium in addition to silica. In conclusion, the quantitation of biometric parameters is useful for monitoring workers exposed to artificial stone in order to avoid deterioration over time.

  13. Artificial stone dust-induced functional and inflammatory abnormalities in exposed workers monitored quantitatively by biometrics

    PubMed Central

    Ophir, Noa; Shai, Amir Bar; Alkalay, Yifat; Israeli, Shani; Korenstein, Rafi; Kramer, Mordechai R.

    2016-01-01

    The manufacture of kitchen and bath countertops in Israel is based mainly on artificial stone that contains 93% silica as natural quartz, and ∼3500 workers are involved in cutting and processing it. Artificial stone produces high concentrations of silica dust. Exposure to crystalline silica may cause silicosis, an irreversible lung disease. Our aim was to screen exposed workers by quantitative biometric monitoring of functional and inflammatory parameters. 68 exposed artificial stone workers were compared to 48 nonexposed individuals (controls). Exposed workers filled in questionnaires, and all participants underwent pulmonary function tests and induced sputum analyses. Silica was quantitated by a Niton XL3 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Pulmonary function test results of exposed workers were significantly lower and induced sputa showed significantly higher neutrophilic inflammation compared to controls; both processes were slowed down by the use of protective measures in the workplace. Particle size distribution in induced sputum samples of exposed workers was similar to that of artificial stone dust, which contained aluminium, zirconium and titanium in addition to silica. In conclusion, the quantitation of biometric parameters is useful for monitoring workers exposed to artificial stone in order to avoid deterioration over time. PMID:27730180

  14. Normal serum activities of liver enzymes in Swedish paint industry workers with heavy exposure to organic solvents.

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, I; Håkansson, M

    1985-01-01

    The serum activities of the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, ornithine carbamyl transferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase were examined in 47 paint industry workers and unexposed age matched referents. The workers were exposed to a mixture of industrial solvents, of which xylene was the main component in most cases. The median total exposure was about 50% of Swedish 1981 threshold limit values according to measurements of individual solvent exposure performed at the same time. No differences in enzyme activities were shown either when the whole exposed and referent groups were compared or when the five workers with outstanding solvent exposures of five times the TLV or more were compared with their referents. It is concluded that in most workers the liver seems to remain largely undamaged from inhalation exposure to a commonly used mixture of non-chlorinated solvents. In many workers this seems to hold true even for high exposures for limited periods. PMID:2864077

  15. Analysis of nicotine and cotinine in the hair of hospitality workers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Dimich-Ward, H; Gee, H; Brauer, M; Leung, V

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if hair nicotine and cotinine levels reflect relative exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in subjects who worked in the hospitality industry, where public smoking was permitted. Hair samples from 26 subjects were analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry techniques for nicotine and cotinine. An exposure gradient was shown for nicotine but not cotinine. Among nonsmokers, those working in bars where there are no public smoking restrictions had the highest hair nicotine levels, which were close to levels found in smokers. Nicotine measured in hair is useful as a biological marker for exposure to ETS from multiple sources. Bar workers in particular are exposed to high levels of ETS, which may adversely affect the health of nonsmokers.

  16. Low-Dose N,N-Dimethylformamide Exposure and Liver Injuries in a Cohort of Chinese Leather Industry Workers.

    PubMed

    Qi, Cong; Gu, Yiyang; Sun, Qing; Gu, Hongliang; Xu, Bo; Gu, Qing; Xiao, Jing; Lian, Yulong

    2017-05-01

    We assessed the risk of liver injuries following low doses of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) below threshold limit values (20 mg/m) among leather industry workers and comparison groups. A cohort of 429 workers from a leather factory and 466 non-exposed subjects in China were followed for 4 years. Poisson regression and piece-wise linear regression were used to examine the relationship between DMF and liver injury. Workers exposed to a cumulative dose of DMF were significantly more likely than non-exposed workers to develop liver injury. A nonlinear relationship between DMF and liver injury was observed, and a threshold of the cumulative DMF dose for liver injury was 7.30 (mg/m) year. The findings indicate the importance of taking action to reduce DMF occupational exposure limits for promoting worker health.

  17. Health profile of workers in a ship building and repair industry

    PubMed Central

    Lokhande, Vaishali R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The modern ship building industry, which encompasses the ship yards and marine equipment manufacturing, is an important and strategic industry. The various activities in modern ship building, maintenance, and repair have to be carried out at heights, or in closed confined spaces along with the added risk of exposure to chemicals and metal fumes. These activities expose the workers to various health hazards. Aims: This study was carried out with an aim to assess the health profile of workers in the ship building industry and to assess the occupational health issues related to ship building. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study carried out on 100 randomly selected workers in a ship building yard in Mumbai, and their health profile was studied. Materials and Methods: The workers were enquired for history of co-morbidities, addictions and personal protective equipment use, health-related complaints, and were examined systemically as well as for bedside tests for hearing and detailed systemic examination as per the history or co-morbidity. Results: The important observations were those of prevalence of addictions (69%), irregular use of personal protective equipments (PPEs) among 50% of paint workers, presence of hypertension (20%), overweight (53%), osteoarthritis (10%), hearing loss (25%), and poor self-care. Conclusions: Health education to the workers regarding occupational hazards and lifestyle diseases along with more emphasis on the use of PPEs with regular health examination needs reinforcement. PMID:25568604

  18. Forest Industry Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for forest industry occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders…

  19. Evaluation of Dynamic Disulphide/Thiol Homeostasis in Silica Exposed Workers

    PubMed Central

    Gündüzöz, Meşide; Bal, Ceylan; Büyükşekerci, Murat; Neşelioğlu, Salim; Nadir Öziş, Türkan; İritaş, Servet; Kara, Halil; Erel, Özcan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress is implicated as one of the main molecular mechanism underlying silicosis. Aims: In this study, our aim was to asses the redox status in occupationally silica-exposed workers, by evaluating the dynamic thiol-disulphide homeostasis. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Thirty-six male workers occupationally exposed to silica particles and 30 healthy volunteers, working as office workers were included to the study. Posteroanterior chest radiographs and pulmonary function tests of both groups were evaluated. Also serum thiol disulphide levels were measured using the spectrophotometric method described by Erel and Neşelioğlu. Results: Among the 36 workers that underwent pulmonary function tests 6 (17%) had obstructive, 7 (19%) had restrictive, 6 (17%) had obstructive and restrictive signs whereas 17 (47%) had no signs. The mean PFTs results of silica-exposed workers were significantly lower than control subjects. The serum disulphide levels of silica-exposed workers were significantly higher than control subjects (23.84±5.89 μmol/L and 21.18±3.44 μmol/L, respectively p=0.02). Conclusion: The serum disulphide levels, a biomarker of oxidative stress, are found to be higher in silica-exposed workers. PMID:28418335

  20. Communication to workers of epidemiology study results: an industry approach.

    PubMed

    Collins, J J; Conner, P R

    1994-02-01

    Communication to workers of epidemiology study results is gaining increasing emphasis because of the need to notify study subjects and the responsibility to warn workers of potential workplace hazards. Industry has a unique responsibility in this regard both for ethical reasons and for gains in improving workers' knowledge of workplace hazards. We describe our recent efforts to notify 9648 workers potentially interested in the results of an epidemiology study that found increased rates for cancer. We found that both study and nonstudy subjects were equally interested the findings. We conclude that most workers view the notification as evidence of the company's commitment to maintain a safe workplace, and are pleased that the company undertook the study and reported the results to them. Unfavorable comments comprised less than 1% of the responses.

  1. Cigarette smoking and lead levels in occupationally exposed lead workers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.P.; Spivey, G.H.; Valentine, J.L.; Browdy, B.L.

    1980-07-01

    One hundred eleven workers at a secondary Pb smelter were surveyed to determine smoking and personal hygiene habits. Fifty-three percent of the smokers had blood Pb levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl, compared to 31% of nonsmokers (p = 0.02). Among smokers, 66% of heavy smokers (greater than or equal to 1 pack a day) had blood Pb levels over 60 ..mu..g/dl, compared to 39% of the light smokers (p = O.05). Those who kept their cigarettes on their person had a higher proportion of blood Pb greater than 60 ..mu..g/dl than workers who kept their cigarettes elsewhere (63 vs 36%, respectively; p = 0.08). The difference in blood Pb levels between smokers and nonsmokers may be due in part to direct environmental contamination of cigarettes or impaired lung clearance mechanisms, and could be important in workers with already elevated blood Pb levels.

  2. [Risk communication in analysis of occupational health risk for industrial workers].

    PubMed

    Barg, A O; Lebedeva-Nesevrya, N A

    2015-01-01

    The article covers problems of risk communication system function on industrial enterprise. Sociologic study in machinery construction enterprise of Perm area helped to consider main procedures of informing on occupational risk for health of workers exposed to occupational hazards, to describe features and mechanisms of risk communication, to specify its model. The authors proved that main obstacles for efficient system of occupational risks communication are insufficiently thorough legal basis, low corporative social responsibility of the enterprise and low social value of health for workers. This article was prepared with the support of the Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation (Project No. 14-16-59011).

  3. Correlates of suicide in building industry workers.

    PubMed

    Heller, Travis S; Hawgood, Jacinta L; Leo, Diego De

    2007-01-01

    Suicide within the construction industry in Queensland, Australia was reportedly high in a recent Royal Commission report. The current study examined the incidence and causes of suicide in this industry using psychological autopsy and focus group investigations. A total of 64 male suicides occurred over the seven-year period, representing a crude suicide rate of 40.3 per 100,000, significantly greater than the working age Australian male rate. Young employees were at excessive risk with separation/divorce, relationship problems, and untreated psychiatric conditions the major contributors. Focus groups emphasized the importance of work/home interface factors and industry-specific factors preceding suicide.

  4. Rheumatic complaints and musculoskeletal disorders in workers of a meat processing industry.

    PubMed

    Krapac, L; Sladoljev, M; Saćer, D; Sakić, D

    1997-06-01

    The effects of unsatisfactory microclimatic conditions and forced body position on the occurrence of fatigue and pain at work and disorders of the musculoskeletal system were evaluated in 90 female workers employed in the meat processing industry. The control group consisted of 95 workers whose work did not involve repetitive operation patterns and took place in a satisfactory microclimate. The mean age of both groups was 35 years. The data on symptoms were collected through a questionnaire. Further medical and functional examination of the locomotor system was carried out in both groups. Compared to the control, a significantly higher percentage of the exposed workers complained of fatigue and pain during work and manifested marked disorders. Most of degenerative rheumatic diseases of the spine were diagnosed in both groups. Other disorders found in the exposed workers in higher prevalence than in the control were: extraarticular rheumatic diseases as fibromyalgia, humeroscapular periarthritis, and epicondylitis. This paper proposes primary and secondary prevention of rheumatic diseases for workers in the meat processing industry.

  5. 75 FR 28297 - Rexnord Industries, LLC Industrial Chain and Conveyor Division Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration Rexnord Industries, LLC Industrial Chain and Conveyor Division... Industries, LLC, Industrial Chain and Conveyor Division, including on-site leased workers from Stivers, West... adjustment assistance was issued for all workers of Rexnord Industries, LLC, Industrial Chain and...

  6. Zinc toxicity among galvanization workers in the iron and steel industry.

    PubMed

    El Safty, Amal; El Mahgoub, Khalid; Helal, Sawsan; Abdel Maksoud, Neveen

    2008-10-01

    Galvanization is the process of coating steel or cast iron pieces with zinc, allowing complete protection against corrosion. The ultimate goal of this work was to assess the effect of occupational exposure to zinc in the galvanization process on different metals in the human body and to detect the association between zinc exposure and its effect on the respiratory system. This study was conducted in 111 subjects in one of the major companies in the iron and steel industry. There were 61 subjects (workers) who were involved in the galvanization process. Fifty adult men were chosen as a matched reference group from other departments of the company. All workers were interviewed using a special questionnaire on occupational history and chest diseases. Ventilatory functions and chest X rays were assessed in all examined workers. Also, complete blood counts were performed, and serum zinc, iron, copper, calcium, and magnesium levels were tested. This study illustrated the relation between zinc exposure in the galvanization process and high zinc levels among exposed workers, which was associated with a high prevalence rate of metal fume fever (MFF) and low blood copper and calcium levels. There was no statistically significant difference between the exposed and control groups with regards to the magnesium level. No long-term effect of metals exposure was detected on ventilatory functions or chest X rays among the exposed workers.

  7. Blood chromium and nickel in relation to respiratory symptoms among industrial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, A.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Mathur, N.; Rastogi, S.K.; Garg, N.; Chandra, S.V. )

    1992-06-01

    Seventy-eight workers exposed to fumes and dust of nickel and chromium in their occupation in the glass industry were studied for respiratory symptoms in relation to nickel and chromium concentrations in their blood. A significant (p less than 0.01) association was observed between respiratory symptoms and elevated blood nickel and chromium. An interaction between nickel and chromium was found in relation to the prevalence of respiratory symptoms.

  8. Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining

    PubMed Central

    Kvitko, Katia; Bandinelli, Eliane; Henriques, João A.P.; Heuser, Vanina D.; Rohr, Paula; da Silva, Fernanda R.; Schneider, Naye Balzan; Fernandes, Simone; Ancines, Camile; da Silva, Juliana

    2012-01-01

    Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the foot-wear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals exposed to pesticides (p < 0.001). In addition, some effects of genetic polymorphisms in the modulation of MN results were observed in this group. Tobacco farmers were also evaluated at different crop times. The results showed a significant increase in the Damage index and frequency in tobacco farmers compared to the non-exposed group, for all crop times. The results for footwear and tannery workers showed a significant increase in the mean ID for the solvent-based adhesive (p < 0.001) group in comparison to the water-based adhesive group and control (p < 0.05). For open-cast coal mine workers, the EBCyt indicated a significant increase in nuclear bud frequency and cytokinetic defects in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group (p < 0.0001). We were able to associate specific genetic susceptibility with each type of exposure and with the non-use or improper use of personal protection equipment and diet adequacy. These results show how important the continuous education of exposed workers is to minimizing the effect of the occupational exposure and the risk of disease associated with the work. PMID:23413045

  9. Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining.

    PubMed

    Kvitko, Katia; Bandinelli, Eliane; Henriques, João A P; Heuser, Vanina D; Rohr, Paula; da Silva, Fernanda R; Schneider, Naye Balzan; Fernandes, Simone; Ancines, Camile; da Silva, Juliana

    2012-12-01

    Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the foot-wear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals exposed to pesticides (p < 0.001). In addition, some effects of genetic polymorphisms in the modulation of MN results were observed in this group. Tobacco farmers were also evaluated at different crop times. The results showed a significant increase in the Damage index and frequency in tobacco farmers compared to the non-exposed group, for all crop times. The results for footwear and tannery workers showed a significant increase in the mean ID for the solvent-based adhesive (p < 0.001) group in comparison to the water-based adhesive group and control (p < 0.05). For open-cast coal mine workers, the EBCyt indicated a significant increase in nuclear bud frequency and cytokinetic defects in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group (p < 0.0001). We were able to associate specific genetic susceptibility with each type of exposure and with the non-use or improper use of personal protection equipment and diet adequacy. These results show how important the continuous education of exposed workers is to minimizing the effect of the occupational exposure and the risk of disease associated with the work.

  10. Further evidence of human silica nephrotoxicity in occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Ng, T P; Lee, H S; Phoon, W H

    1993-10-01

    It has previously been shown that granite workers with heavy exposure to silica had glomerular and proximal tubular dysfunction evidenced by increased urinary excretions of albumin, alpha-1-microglobulin (AMG), and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG). The investigation was replicated in another group of granite workers to further elucidate the exposure effect relation. The urinary excretion of albumin, alpha-1-microglobulin (AMG), beta-2-microglobulin (BMG), and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) was determined in two groups of granite workers with low and high exposure to silica. Low molecular weight proteinuria and enzymuria were significantly correlated with duration of exposure in the high but not the low exposure group. These increases were most pronounced in those with 10 or more years of heavy exposure, and in those with radiological evidence of pulmonary fibrosis, particularly those with rounded small opacities denoting classical silicosis. These results provide further evidence that prolonged and heavy exposure to silica is associated with nephrotoxic effects in granite workers.

  11. [Psychosocial Factors and Burnout Syndrome Found in Workers in the Dough Processing Industry, Tepic, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Carolina Aranda; Gónzalez, José Luis López; Barraza Salas, José Horacio

    2013-06-01

    The workers in the dough processing industry are a population exposed to psychosocial risk factors due to the conditions in the workplace; therefore, they are likely to suffer from one of the consequences of chronic stress to which a worker is exposed daily: burnout syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between psychosocial factors and the burnout syndrome in workers in the dough processing industry in the city of Tepic, Mexico. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in five companies from the dough processing industry. The total population consisted of 122 workers who were administered the scale of Psychosocial Factors Identification of the Mexican Social Security Institute and the Maslach Burnout Inventory scale, in order to gather information. The presence of adverse psychosocial factors was reported in 18.3%, and 79.8% with the syndrome. There were several variables that behaved as risk factors, specifically, the system of working with the emotional exhaustion. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Circulating immune/inflammation markers in Chinese workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Wei Jie; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Tang, Xiaojiang; Hu, Wei; Bassig, Bryan A.; Ji, Zhiying; Shiels, Meredith S.; Kemp, Troy J.; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Reiss, Boris; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Blair, Aaron; Kim, Christopher; Guo, Weihong; Wen, Cuiju; Li, Laiyu; Pinto, Ligia A.; Huang, Hanlin; Smith, Martyn T.; Hildesheim, Allan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background. Formaldehyde has been classified as a human myeloid leukemogen. However, the mechanistic basis for this association is still debated. Objectives. We aimed to evaluate whether circulating immune/inflammation markers were altered in workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde. Methods. Using a multiplexed bead-based assay, we measured serum levels of 38 immune/inflammation markers in a cross-sectional study of 43 formaldehyde-exposed and 51 unexposed factory workers in Guangdong, China. Linear regression models adjusting for potential confounders were used to compare marker levels in exposed and unexposed workers. Results. We found significantly lower circulating levels of two markers among exposed factory workers compared with unexposed controls that remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders and multiple comparisons using a false discovery rate of 10%, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (36.2 pg/ml in exposed versus 48.4 pg/ml in controls, P = 0.0008) and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (52.7 pg/ml in exposed versus 75.0 pg/ml in controls, P = 0.0028), suggesting immunosuppression among formaldehyde-exposed workers. Conclusions. Our findings are consistent with recently emerging understanding that immunosuppression might be associated with myeloid diseases. These findings, if replicated in a larger study, may provide insights into the mechanisms by which formaldehyde promotes leukemogenesis. PMID:25908645

  13. Prevalence of hepatitis E virus antibodies in workers occupationally exposed to swine in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, J; Mesquita, J R; Pereira, S S; Oliveira, R M S; Abreu-Silva, J; Rodrigues, A; Myrmel, M; Stene-Johansen, K; Øverbø, J; Gonçalves, G; Nascimento, M S J

    2017-02-01

    The concept of zoonotic hepatitis E in industrialized countries has emerged with the discovery of swine strains of hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3, closely related to human HEV. Different routes of zoonotic HEV transmission have been recognized, including contact with infected pigs. Workers occupationally exposed to swine (WOES) have been considered a risk group for HEV infection, but contradictory results have been reported. In the present study, we searched for anti-HEV IgG in WOES (butchers, slaughterhouse workers, veterinarians and pig farmers; n = 114) and in the general population (n = 804) in order to investigate the potential occupational risk of zoonotic HEV infection in this work group. A significantly higher (p = 0.008) anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence was found in WOES (30.7 %) when compared with the general population (19.9 %). Multivariate analysis showed that having professions with exposure to pigs for more than 16.5 years was a risk factor for being positive for anti-HEV IgG (aOR of 5.4, 95 % CI 1.9-15.6, p = 0.002). To our knowledge, this is the first study on the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in WOES in Portugal, also showing increased probability for infection in this group.

  14. Cancer risk evaluation of brick kiln workers exposed to dust bound PAHs in Punjab province (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Kamal, Atif; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Martellini, Tania; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2014-09-15

    Principal objective of this study was to evaluate the health risks of brick kiln workers to dust bound PAHs exposure in Punjab province (Pakistan). To this aim, surface dust samples were collected from brick kiln units located in Chung Khurd (Lahore city), Gujranwala city and Sohra village (in the vicinity of Gujranwala). The highest ΣPAH levels were measured in the dust samples collected in Sohdra village (mean 2578 ng g(-1) d.w., range 302-6757 ng g(-1) d.w.) followed by Gujranwala city (mean 957, range 16.1-1963 ng g(-1) d.w.) and Chung Khurd (mean 882, range 692-1007 ng g(-1) d.w.). Source identification using diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis identified coal and wood combustion as the major PAHs sources. The cancer risk model (CR-Model 1) and the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk model (ILCR-Model 2) were used to evaluate the cancer risk assessment via ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact pathways. Both models suggested that brick kiln workers (including adults and children) were exposed to high-potential carcinogenic risk via both ingestion and dermal contact pathways during the brick making process. This study also emphasizes the need for pollution control in the brick kiln industry of Pakistan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mortality of workers exposed to dieldrin and aldrin: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, G; Swaen, G M; Slangen, J J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of long term health effects in humans exposed to aldrin and dieldrin, with an update of an earlier retrospective cohort mortality study. METHODS: A group of 570 workers employed between 1 January 1954 and 1 January 1970 either in a production or formulation plant were followed up for mortality until 1 January 1993. There were extensive industrial hygiene data available and biological monitoring data of aldrin and dieldrin for most of the workers. From these data individual estimates were made of the total intake of dieldrin. A total number of 2539.37 person-years at risk was added to the original study. RESULTS: 118 deaths were observed compared with 156 expected. No increase in mortality from liver cancer was found. However, there was an excess in mortality from rectal cancer. This excess was inversely related to the dose gradient. An analysis by job title did not show any excess cancer in any particular job. CONCLUSION: The study does not support a carcinogenic effect of dieldrin and aldrin in humans. PMID:9404316

  16. Trace metal contamination study on scalp hair of occupationally exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, W.; Jaffar, M. ); Mohammad, D. )

    1994-10-01

    Scalp hair is a metabolic end product that incorporates metals into its structure during the growth process. The levels of trace elements in the hair are considered to be influenced in particular by food, air and occupational exposure, and in general by race, age, sex, metabolism, hygienic condition and geographical location of individuals. Recently, trace metal content of human hair has been explored as a tool for monitoring the impact of environmental pollution on the inhabitants of a community. In this respect, the endogenous and exogenous contents of metals in hair are understood to play important role towards exposure assessment. The exogenous metal content of hair reflects exposure to the occupational, domestic and recreational environments, provided the donor is not suffering from heavy metal poisoning and depressed endogenous levels arising from dietary deficiencies. Keeping this in view, the exogenous and endogenous metal contents of scalp hair of occupationally exposed workers from various workshops were determined in the present study, both in unwashed and washed hair samples to assess the extent of metal contamination. All donors, within the age group of 6-45 years, were full-time workers of various autoworkshops situated in the densely populated and industrialized city of Lahore. ICP atomic emission and atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods were used for determining the levels of five non-essential and three essential elements in the scalp hair. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. An anthropometric study of Serbian metal industry workers.

    PubMed

    Omić, S; Brkić, V K Spasojevic; Golubović, T A; Brkić, A D; Klarin, M M

    2017-01-01

    There are recent studies using new industrial workers' anthropometric data in different countries, but for Serbia such data are not available. This study is the first anthropometric study of Serbian metal industry workers in the country, whose labor force is increasingly employed both on local and international markets. The metal industry is one of Serbia's most important economic sectors. To this end, we collected the basic static anthropometric dimensions of 122 industrial workers and used principal components analysis (PCA) to obtain multivariate anthropometric models. To confirm the results, the dimensions of an additional 50 workers were collected. The PCA methodology was also compared with the percentile method. Comparing both data samples, we found that 96% of the participants are within the tolerance ellipsoid. According to this study, multivariate modeling covers a larger extent of the intended population proportion compared to percentiles. The results of this research are useful for the designers of metal industry workstations. This information can be used in dimensioning the workplace, thus increasing job satisfaction, reducing the risk of injuries and fatalities, and consequently increasing productivity and safety.

  18. Survey of reproductive hazards among oil, chemical, and atomic workers exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; Harley, B.; Krekel, S.; Marshall, J.; Bondy, J.; Orleans, M.

    1984-01-01

    Several halogenated hydrocarbons are suspected of causing adverse reproductive effects. Because of such concerns, the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union surveyed the reproductive histories of two groups of workers. One group worked at plants engaged in the production or use of halogenated hydrocarbons (exposed) whereas the others had no such opportunity for exposure (nonexposed). Although a low response rate precludes firm conclusions, the 1,280 completed questionnaires provide useful data for generating hypotheses in this developing field of interest. A history of diagnosed cancer was reported more frequently among exposed workers. The infant mortality rate was also significantly elevated among the offspring of exposed workers. No risk gradient was observed for episodes of infertility, fetal loss, congenital defects, or low-birthweight offspring. Concerns with nonresponse, exposure characterization, possible confounding factors, and limited statistical power are addressed. The results provide further suggestions which help to direct studies of occupational reproductive risks.

  19. Survey of reproductive hazards among oil, chemical, and atomic workers exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Savitz, D A; Harley, B; Krekel, S; Marshall, J; Bondy, J; Orleans, M

    1984-01-01

    Several halogenated hydrocarbons are suspected of causing adverse reproductive effects. Because of such concerns, the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union surveyed the reproductive histories of two groups of workers. One group worked at plants engaged in the production or use of halogenated hydrocarbons (exposed) whereas the others had no such opportunity for exposure (nonexposed). Although a low response rate precludes firm conclusions, the 1,280 completed questionnaires provide useful data for generating hypotheses in this developing field of interest. A history of diagnosed cancer was reported more frequently among exposed workers. The infant mortality rate was also significantly elevated among the offspring of exposed workers. No risk gradient was observed for episodes of infertility, fetal loss, congenital defects, or low-birthweight offspring. Concerns with nonresponse, exposure characterization, possible confounding factors, and limited statistical power are addressed. The results provide further suggestions which help to direct studies of occupational reproductive risks.

  20. Acute and long-term airway hyperreactivity in aluminium-salt exposed workers with nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed

    Simonsson, B G; Sjöberg, A; Rolf, C; Haeger-Aronsen, B

    1985-02-01

    Nineteen young male workers exposed occupationally from 1975-1977 to inhaled particles of aluminium fluoride or sulphate at 2 plants, developed nocturnal wheezing and breathlessness with reversible airways obstruction after an average of 4 months employment. At standardized methacholine provocation tests (MPT), 17 of 19 workers with normal spirometry showed airway hyperreactivity with a fall of FEV1 of greater than or equal to 15% after 0.1% methacholine. We followed 15 initially asthmatic workers for 2-5 years with MPT. Mean TD 15% FEV1 in 11 workers did not change significantly after an average of 41 months of non-exposure. Six workers continuously exposed for 48 months also failed to change their TD 15% FEV1 MCh. In 1983, only one subject had returned to normal airway reactivity. We have no reason to suspect inducing agents other than aluminium salts.

  1. Private Industry and the Disadvantaged Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly (E.F.) and Co., New York, NY.

    Although publicized figures indicate that private industry has hired over 100,000 "hard-core" nationally, this study identified less than 10,000 persons who were receiving special training. Data on the successes, failures and problems of training programs were obtained by questionnaire from 224 companies with a total work force of over…

  2. [Comparison on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations between coke oven workers and non-occupational exposed individuals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Hu, Yun-ping; Zheng, Li-xing; Wang, Qiang-yi; Zhou, Yuan-fen; Jin, Tai-yi

    2005-11-01

    To compare the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentrations between coke oven workers and non-occupational exposed individuals and to investigate the possible impact factors. Spot end-of-shift urine samples were collected in 265 coke oven workers and spot morning urine samples in 226 non-occupational exposed individuals. External exposure levels and possible confounding factors were assessed by environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) monitoring and uniform questionnaire, and the urinary 1-OHP concentrations determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were used to compare the different urinary 1-OHP levels between different research populations and to explore the effects of several factors such as external exposure levels, smoking habits, alcohol consumptions, age and body mass index (BMI). The urinary 1-OHP concentrations in coke oven workers were significantly higher than those in non-occupational exposed individuals (13.49, 6.56, 1.38 and 0.35 micromol/mol creatinine for topside workers, side-oven workers, bottom side workers and references, respectively, P < 0.001; the same trends for the percentage of the level over 2.3 micromol/mol creatinine: 94.81%, 84.73%, 35.09% and 0.88%, P < 0.001). The control individuals who smoked over 20 cigarettes per day possessed higher urinary 1-OHP concentrations than the non-smokers (adjusted geometric mean: 0.47 and 0.31 micromol/mol creatinine, respectively, P < 0.05). Alcohol drinking references possessed lower urinary 1-OHP levels than the non-drinkers (adjusted geometric mean: 0.33 and 0.47 micromol/mol creatinine, respectively, P < 0.05). Coke oven workers should be exposed to a high level of urinary 1-OHP, especially for topside workers and side-oven workers. Background urinary 1-OHP levels in non-occupational exposed individuals should be related to smoking habits and alcohol consumptions.

  3. [Blood and urine chromium: compared values between chromium exposed workers and common people].

    PubMed

    Provenzani, A; Verso, M G; Picciotto, D

    2008-01-01

    Aim of present study is the valutation and quantification of chromium in blood and urine. We compared 3 groups of persons formed by building workers, in particular masons, because cement contains potassium chromate that is dangerous for health, and by common people: urban population and outside the town population. In fact, exposure to CrVI risk is high for people who live near chromate industries. We maked a medical examination, blood and instrumental tests, chromium measuring in blood (recent exposure indicator) and urine (recent and previous indicator). Then we used statistical methods to estimate obtained values of blood and urine chromium among professional exposed people and common people. At the end we think that preventive measures in working environment reduced exposure to CrVI but environmental exposure (for example road dust from catalytic converter erosion, from brake lining erosion, cement dust and tobacco smoke), in the last years, has increased. So there are no difference between urban population and outside the town population and there are also no difference with professional exposed people for work prevention according to law in force, that let down professional risk using safe limits.

  4. [Expression of protein p53 in workers occupationally exposed to benzidine and bladder cancer patients.].

    PubMed

    Shen, Chun-lin; Xiang, Cui-qin; Zhang, Yun-ying; Qin, Yi-qiu; Liu, Cha-qin; Chen, Ji-gang; Zhang, Sheng-nian

    2005-02-01

    To study expression of mutant p53 protein in workers occupationally exposed to benzidine and bladder cancer patients. Mutant p53 protein in serum from the workers occupationally exposed to benzidine and bladder cancer patients were determined with Immuno-PCR, while exfoliated urothelial cells in the urine samples were classified with Papanicolau grading. Positive rate of mutant p53 protein increased with the exposed intensity index in workers occupationally exposed to benzidine. The positive rate of mutant p53 protein in bladder cancer patients (83.3%) was significantly higher than that in the group 1 of exposed intensity index. The average scanning integrals of PCR amplified band in the group of bladder cancer patients and group 2 of exposed intensity index were both higher than that in the group 1 significantly. Workers in the groups of different exposed intensity indices were further stratified according to Papanicolau grades. In the group 2 of exposed intensity index, the average scanning integrals of PCR amplified band in the stratum of Papanicolau grade II and III were significantly higher than that in the strata of Papanicolau grade I. And in the group 3 of exposed intensity index, the positive rate of mutant p53 protein in the strata of Papanicolau grade III was higher than that in the strata of Papanicolau grade I significantly. The increase of exposed intensity may not only result in the positive rate of mutant p53 protein, but also the quantity of mutant p53 protein in serum within the low range of benzidine exposure. Once the exposed intensity was beyond that spectrum, the positive rate of mutant p53 protein in serum and the average scanning integrals of PCR amplified band were no longer enhanced with the increase of exposed intensity. There was tight correlation between Papanicolau grade of exfoliated urothelial cells and the positive rate or the quantity of mutant p53 protein for the higher benzidine exposure intensity.

  5. [Alcohol consumption among industrial workers in Monterrey, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Campa Magallón, Teresita de Jesús; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to describe alcohol consumption among 129 industrial workers. Data were collected by means of the instruments called AUDIT and CECA. The highest consumption rates were for 31-year old male workers, with 9.8 years of education, 5 years of work experience and married. The average consumption per occasion was between 3 and 4 drinks for 38.5%. 32.7% of the workers consumed 6 or more glasses per month. Consumption frequency per month was 2 or 4 times, 46.5% were dependent and damage had occurred in 55% of the workers and employees. The workers mentioned alcohol consumption during social meetings with friends (63.6%). Consequences of consumption were: physical fatigue (44.2%), physical problems (29.5%), decreased work performance (29.5%) and decreased reflexes (21.7%). The higher the alcohol consumption levels, the smaller the consequences of this consumption perceived by workers. Those workers mentioning that they did not consume alcohol were in the pre-contemplation stage.

  6. Effect of cigarette smoking on noise-induced hearing loss in workers exposed to occupational noise in China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Liyuan; Davis, Robert; Heyer, Nicholas; Yang, Qiuling; Qiu, Wei; Zhu, Liangliang; Li, Nan; Zhang, Hua; Zeng, Lin; Zhao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    Excessive exposure to high noise level environments has the potential to cause noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and cigarette smoking has also been shown to have a potential adverse effect on hearing. The aim of this study was to determine whether smoking interacts with noise in the development of hearing loss, and if so, the extent of the contribution from smoking on NIHL. A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the effect of smoking on NIHL in 517 male workers (non-smokers: N = 199; smokers: N = 318) exposed to a high-level industrial noise environment in China. Shift-long temporal waveforms of the noise that workers were exposed to for evaluation of noise exposures, and audiometric threshold measures were obtained on all selected subjects. The subjects used hearing protection devices only within the last 1-2 years. The results suggest that smoking has an adverse effect on NIHL in workers exposed to high level industrial noise, i.e., the median high frequency hearing thresholds were significantly greater in smokers than non-smokers exposed to noise for more than 10 years. This effect was observed at 4.0 and 6.0 kHz. Smoking did not have an adverse effect on NIHL in workers exposed to noise less than 10 years. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) for high frequency hearing loss (i.e., hearing threshold greater than 40 dB at 4.0 kHz) were 1.94 for smokers in comparison to non-smokers. The results suggest that: (1) smokers have a higher risk of developing high frequency hearing loss than non-smokers with a similar occupational noise exposure, and (2) the interaction between cigarette smoking and high-level noise exposure may be additive. There is a need to develop and analyze a larger database of workers with well-documented exposures and smoking histories for better understanding of the effect of smoking on NIHL incurred from high-level industrial noise exposures. A better understanding of the role of smoking may lead to its

  7. Study on workers exposed to cadmium in alkaline storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding.

    PubMed

    Chan, O Y; Tan, K T; Kwok, S F; Chio, L F

    1982-01-01

    The extent of cadmium exposure was studied in a cadmium-nickel battery factory and 8 PVC factories using cadmium stabilisers in the compounding of PVC. A total of 101 cadmium-exposed workers and 21 control subjects matched by sex, age, ethnic group and smoking history was investigated. Blood and urine cadmium levels were considerably elevated in the battery workers but were not raised in the PVC workers. These findings were consistent with the results of cadmium-in-air assessments. Among the female battery workers, urine cadmium excretion increased significantly with employment time. There was good correlation between blood and urine cadmium levels among the female subjects. A significant association between blood cadmium levels and prevalence of chest pain was also noted among the females. No low molecular weight proteinuria was detected, but two female battery workers had slight albuminuria and one male PVC worker had glucosuria but had abnormal GTT results.

  8. Older Workers' Workplace Learning in Manufacturing Industries: Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliore, Maria-Cristina Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to older workers (OWs)' subjective engagement in working and learning in the manufacturing industry. Workplace learning (WPL) literature rarely considers the subjective side of learning from a cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) account. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts a…

  9. Clerical Workers on Flexitime: A Survey of Three Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, J. Carroll

    1985-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of flexitime programs in three industries: banking, insurance, and public utilities. It addresses these questions: To what extent is flexitime in use among clerical workers? What are flexitime's effects on employee and organizational performance? Survey results concern work quality, absenteeism, overtime, job…

  10. The High-Tech Industry and Its Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James; Belovics, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide counselors, academic advisers, and career coaches with a basic understanding of the current state of the high-technology (high-tech) industry in the United States and the people who work in it. A profile of a high-tech worker is presented, several high-tech career developments are described, and selected…

  11. Stress and musculoskeletal discomfort among hydrocarbon industry workers in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Avila-Chaurand, R; Prado-León, L R; González-Muñoz, E L

    2012-01-01

    This study of 114 workers in the hydrocarbon industry was conducted to identify the relationship between stress and musculoskeletal discomfort, and to view the roles played by such factors as age, schooling, obesity, workplace and job seniority. All factors except seniority were found to affect the presence of musculoskeletal discomfort in some area of the body.

  12. Older Workers' Workplace Learning in Manufacturing Industries: Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliore, Maria-Cristina Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to older workers (OWs)' subjective engagement in working and learning in the manufacturing industry. Workplace learning (WPL) literature rarely considers the subjective side of learning from a cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) account. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts a…

  13. Dislocated Workers and Midcareer Retraining in Other Industrial Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendick, Marc, Jr.

    Market-oriented industrial nations other than the United States have experienced rapid structural changes in their economies and reemployment problems among dislocated midcareer workers. The Swedish active labor market approach is a socialized one. This system has been criticized for excessive reliance on microeconomic labor market programs to…

  14. Clerical Workers on Flexitime: A Survey of Three Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, J. Carroll

    1985-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of flexitime programs in three industries: banking, insurance, and public utilities. It addresses these questions: To what extent is flexitime in use among clerical workers? What are flexitime's effects on employee and organizational performance? Survey results concern work quality, absenteeism, overtime, job…

  15. [Influence of smoking and industrial air pollutants on respiratory health of nickel industry workers].

    PubMed

    Shilov, V V; Siurin, S A

    2015-01-01

    Studies covered respiratory health of 1530 workers of nickel industry, among which were 796 (52.0%) smokers. Findings are that tobacco smoke combined with nickel industry hazards cause potentized negative effects in respiratory organs, with earlier and more frequent chronic bronchitis. For isolated influence of these factors, chronic bronchitis risk is higher from exposure to tobacco smoke vs. occupational hazards (OR = 2.48; DI 1.49-4.13). Chronic obstructive lung disease development in nickel industry workers is caused by smoking. Industrial air pollutants appeared to have no potentizing effect on COLD formation, as well as on toxic pneumosclerosis formation.

  16. [Risk factors of gastropathy development in workers exposed to dust].

    PubMed

    Dorn, O Iu; Peskov, S A; Poteriaeva, E L; Tsikalenko, E A; Maslennikov, A B; Smirnova, E L; Poliakov, A Ia; Gerasimova, E V

    2011-01-01

    Systemic leucocyte-induced oxidative stress in prolonged occupational exposure to dust modifies oxidative metabolism of neutrophils and RBC, causes inflammatory and destructive, autoimmune processes in gastric lining and possible subsequent occupational gastropathies. To verify gastropathies caused by technogenic dust aerosols, search of preclinical biologic markers of gastric lining damage is essential. The article presents main steps in occupational gastropathies formation, trigger mechanisms, leading pathogenetic factors of gastric lining damage and of atrophic fundus gastritis. Using the mentioned complex of biomarkers in gastric lining state monitoring among workers at periodic and thorough medical examination is main item in forecasting individual risk of occupational gastropathies and in possible approach to their prevention and treatment.

  17. Increased leukemia-associated gene expression in benzene-exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Keqiu; Jing, Yaqing; Yang, Caihong; Liu, Shasha; Zhao, Yuxia; He, Xiaobo; Li, Fei; Han, Jiayi; Li, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Long-term exposure to benzene causes several adverse health effects, including an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia. This study was to identify genetic alternations involved in pathogenesis of leukemia in benzene-exposed workers without clinical symptoms of leukemia. This study included 33 shoe-factory workers exposed to benzene at levels from 1 ppm to 10 ppm. These workers were divided into 3 groups based on the benzene exposure time, 1- < 7, 7- < 12, and 12- < 24 years. 17 individuals without benzene exposure history were recruited as controls. Cytogenetic analysis using Affymetrix Cytogenetics Array found copy-number variations (CNVs) in several chromosomes of benzene-exposed workers. Expression of targeted genes in these altered chromosomes, NOTCH1 and BSG, which play roles in leukemia pathogenesis, was further examined using real-time PCR. The NOTCH1 mRNA level was significantly increased in all 3 groups of workers, and the NOTCH1 mRNA level in the 12- < 24 years group was significantly higher than that in 1- < 7 and 7- < 12 years groups. Compared to the controls, the BSG mRNA level was significantly increased in 7- < 12 and 12- < 24 years groups, but not in the 1- < 7 years group. These results suggest that CNVs and leukemia-related gene expression might play roles in leukemia development in benzene-exposed workers. PMID:24993241

  18. Mental stress in the workers exposed to humidity in a cheese processing factory.

    PubMed

    Shushtarian, Sm; Hajipour, Ah; Rastegari, Y

    2008-04-01

    Certain inevitable physical factors in working environment can damage the workers in related fields. Sea sickness and white finger due to ship movement and vibration respectively are two examples in this regard. Humidity in working area can also bring discomfort of the workers in humid area. Cheese processing factories are such places where there is high humidity in the working space.Mental stress is a psychological complication which can arise due to some physical factors in certain occupational activities, therefore an attempt was made to have a search on mental stress in the laborers working in a cheese factory in Orumieheh, a city in north of Iran, with a cold climate throughout the year.For the purpose of the present study, a cheese processing factory with 100 workers was selected. The workers were divided in to two groups. One group was exposed to high humidity and the other exposed to normal humidity level. A standard questionnaire was given to two groups to check the mental stress.The results obtained from both groups were compared.. The result showed severe mental stress in workers exposed to high humidity whereas moderate stress level in other workers.The conclusion of the present work is a proof of the adverse effect of humidity in working environments which reflect in mental stress in workers which will be discussed in detail in full paper.

  19. Urinary mutagenic activity in workers exposed to diesel exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Kado, N.Y. ); Hammond, S.K.; Woskie, S.R.; Smith, T.J. )

    1992-04-01

    The authors measured postshift urinary mutagenicity on a population of railroad workers with a range of diesel exhaust exposures. Postshift urinary mutagenicity was determined by a sensitive microsuspension procedure using Salmonella strain TA 98 {plus minus} S9. Number of cigarettes smoked on the study day and urinary cotinine were highly correlated with postshift urinary mutagenicity. Diesel exhaust exposure was measured over the work shift by constant-flow personal sampling pumps. The relative ranking of jobs by this adjusted respirable particle concentration (ARP) was correlated with relative contact the job groups have with operating diesel locomotives. After adjustment for cigarette smoking in multiple regressions, there was no independent association of diesel exhaust exposure, as estimated by ARP, with postshift urinary mutagenicity among smokers or nonsmokers. An important finding is the detection of baseline mutagenicity in most of the nonsmoking workers. Despite the use of individual measurements of diesel exhaust exposure, the absence of a significant association in this study may be due to the low levels of diesel exposure, the lack of a specific marker for diesel exhaust exposure, and/or urinary mutagenicity levels from diesel exposure below the limit of sensitivity for the mutagenicity assay.

  20. Do workers' compensation laws protect industrial hygienists from lawsuits by injured workers?

    PubMed

    Stout, N C

    1993-11-01

    Workers' compensation laws provide injured employees with a swifter, more certain, and less litigious system of compensation than existed under the common law. Although workers' compensation is almost always an injured employee's exclusive remedy against the employer, the employee may bring a common-law tort action against a "third party" who may be liable in whole or in part for the employee's injury. This article investigates whether industrial hygienists are "third parties" and therefore subject to suit by injured employees who claim that industrial hygienists negligently caused their injuries. The author concludes that in most states, where the industrial hygienist and the injured worker are fellow employees, the industrial hygienist shares the employer's immunity from suit. As to the consultant who performs industrial hygiene services as an independent contractor, the author concludes that the employer's nondelegable duty to provide a safe workplace offers industrial hygiene consultants an argument that they share the employer's immunity from suit. Countervailing arguments, however, leave the industrial hygiene consultant vulnerable to negligence claims in many jurisdictions. There is a trend among the states to extend the employer's immunity to those who provide safety and health services to the employer.

  1. Four-year evaluation of workers exposed to trimellitic anhydride. A brief report

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, K.G.; Roach, D.; Zeiss, C.R.; Patterson, R.

    1984-09-01

    In a four-year clinical, immunologic, and environmental study of trimellitic anhydride (TMA) exposure in a single plant, 20 workers exposed to TMA powder were evaluated in 1979 and a total of 32 workers were evaluated from 1979 to 1983. Two distinct groups emerged before and after workplace control improvements were made in 1979. Seventeen of the original 20 workers were available for longitudinal study through 1983. Annual clinical evaluations and serum radioimmunoassays for total antibody binding and specific IgE binding to 125I TM-HSA (human serum albumin) were performed on all 32 workers. In 1979, six workers had antibody against TM-HSA, three had the late respiratory systemic syndrome, and two had TMA-induced allergic rhinitis or allergic rhinitis and asthma. One worker had antibody against TM-HSA without illness. Fifteen additional workers were evaluated longitudinally after institution of several workplace control measures. Four of these 15 workers had TMA exposure prior to environmental improvement and joined the study in 1982. The remaining 11 workers joined the study in 1982 and had at least two years of TMA exposure in the modified workplace. None of these 11 workers developed a TMA-induced immunologic syndrome or significant total or specific IgE antibody binding to 125I TM-HSA.

  2. Chemical exposures of women workers in the plastics industry with particular reference to breast cancer and reproductive hazards.

    PubMed

    DeMatteo, Robert; Keith, Margaret M; Brophy, James T; Wordsworth, Anne; Watterson, Andrew E; Beck, Matthias; Ford, Anne Rochon; Gilbertson, Michael; Pharityal, Jyoti; Rootham, Magali; Scott, Dayna Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Despite concern about the harmful effects of substances contained in various plastic consumer products, little attention has focused on the more heavily exposed women working in the plastics industry. Through a review of the toxicology, industrial hygiene, and epidemiology literatures in conjunction with qualitative research, this article explores occupational exposures in producing plastics and health risks to workers, particularly women, who make up a large part of the workforce. The review demonstrates that workers are exposed to chemicals that have been identified as mammary carcinogens and endocrine disrupting chemicals, and that the work environment is heavily contaminated with dust and fumes. Consequently, plastics workers have a body burden that far exceeds that found in the general public. The nature of these exposures in the plastics industry places women at disproportionate risk, underlining the importance of gender. Measures for eliminating these exposures and the need for regulatory action are discussed.

  3. 32P-post-labelling of 7-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)guanine in white blood cells of workers occupationally exposed to epichlorohydrin.

    PubMed

    Plna, K; Osterman-Golkar, S; Nogradi, E; Segerbäck, D

    2000-02-01

    Epichlorohydrin (ECH) is a simple 3-carbon epoxide of industrial importance. It has been shown to be genotoxic in several systems and carcinogenic in experimental animals. The aim of the present investigation was to study DNA adducts of ECH as a biomarker of occupational exposure to this chemical. 7-(3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)guanine (7-CHP-guanine) was analysed in DNA from white blood cells using an anion exchange-based adduct enrichment protocol of the (32)P-post-labelling/HPLC-based assay. Blood samples were collected from seven workers handling ECH (exposed), nine workers not handling ECH but normally present in the premises where this chemical is used (potentially exposed) and 13 office and factory workers from locations in the plant where ECH is not handled (controls). 7-CHP-guanine was detected in five of the seven workers exposed to ECH (1.6-7.1 mol/10(9) mol nucleotides) and in two of the nine workers potentially exposed to ECH (0.8-1.5 mol/10(9) mol nucleotides). This adduct was not detected in any of the 13 controls. The difference in adduct levels between exposed workers and controls was statistically significant (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.001), as was the difference between exposed workers and potentially exposed workers (P = 0.017). The recovery of 7-CHP-guanine in the (32)P-post-labelling assay was on average 48 +/- 7%, which is considerably higher than previously reported for other 7-alkylguanines. The method used had a limit of detection of approximately 0.4 mol adduct/10(9) mol nucleotides using 20 microg DNA. This study shows for the first time ECH-induced DNA adducts in humans and suggests that 7-CHP-guanine may be used as a biomarker of occupational exposure to ECH.

  4. Warfarin binding to plasma of workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, K; Shapiro, R; Forney, R B

    1982-02-01

    The extent of [14]C-warfarin binding to plasma proteins was evaluated in a group of normal, healthy volunteers and in two groups of individuals occupationally exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Plasma binding was assessed by ultrafiltration after the addition of racemic [14]C-warfarin to a final concentration of 0.8 microgram/ml. Chronic occupational exposure to TDI did not affect the extent of warfarin binding since warfarin free fractions (normalized to an albumin concentration of 4.5 g/dl) were 1.09 +/- 0.23 (mean +/- SD), 0.98 +/- 0.19, and 0.97 +/- 0.15 for controls and the two groups of TDI-exposed individuals, respectively.

  5. Asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis in workers exposed to reactive dyes.

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R; Wass, U; Meding, B; Belin, L

    1993-01-01

    A survey was conducted at 15 textile plants with dyehouses in western Sweden. Employees with a history of work related rhinitis, asthma, or skin symptoms were offered a clinical and immunological investigation including skin prick tests, skin patch tests, and radioallergosorbent tests (RASTs) to detect specific allergy to reactive dyes. Among the 1142 employees, 162 were exposed to reactive dyes and 10 of these (6%) reported work related respiratory or nasal symptoms. An allergy to reactive dyes could be confirmed in five (3%, 95% confidence interval 1-7%). All but one had been exposed to reactive dyes for one year or less before the onset of symptoms. Positive RASTs could be detected in four of the five patients. All of the RAST positive patients were positive to remazol black B, but six out of eight additional remazol dyes also elicited positive results. RAST and RAST inhibition showed a cross reactivity between some of the dyes. Seven persons with work related dermatitis and three with urticaria or Quincke oedema were found. In one patient contact dermatitis to a monoazo dye was shown, but no positive patch test reactions to reactive dyes. IgE-mediated allergy to reactive dyes seems to be an important cause of respiratory and nasal symptoms among dyehouse employees exposed to dust from reactive dyes. PMID:8431393

  6. Follow up study of haematological effects in workers exposed to 2-methoxyethanol

    PubMed Central

    Shih, T; Hsieh, A; Chen, Y; Liao, G; Chen, C; Chou, J; Liou, S

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To examine the association between 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME) exposure and haematological effects, as well as the recovery from these haematological effects with continuous reduction in exposure to 2-ME. Methods: Twenty nine exposed and 90 non-exposed workers were recruited. Haematological parameters, eight hour full shift personal exposure to 2-ME, and urinary 2-methoxyacetic acid (MAA) were repeatedly measured in three consecutive surveys within six months. Results: Results of haematological examination in the first exposure survey showed that haemoglobin, packed cell volume, and red blood cell count in the male exposed workers were significantly lower than those in the comparison workers. The frequency of anaemia in the exposed group (42%) was significantly higher than that in the comparison group (3%). The haematological effects were significantly associated with the urinary MAA of exposed workers. The haematological effects had returned to normal in the first follow up survey 2.5 months later, when a reduction in 2-ME exposure was noted. Haematological results of the second follow up examination six months later remained normal. The mean airborne exposure of 2-ME in the three surveys dropped from 35.7 to 2.65, then to 0.55 ppm. The mean urinary MAA of exposed workers in the three surveys was reduced from 57.7 to 24.6, then to 13.5 mg/g creatinine (n = 29). The reduction in exposure through both inhalation and potential dermal contact with 2-ME might account for the haematological recovery. Conclusion: 2-ME is a haematological toxin which leads to anaemia in exposed workers. However, the toxic haematological effects of 2-ME persist for only a short period of time after cessation or reduction of exposure. PMID:12554841

  7. Foundations for Excellence in the Chemical Process Industries. Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstader, Robert; Chapman, Kenneth

    This document discusses the Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers Project and issues of relevance to the education and employment of chemical laboratory technicians (CLTs) and process technicians (PTs). Section 1 consists of the following background information: overview of the chemical process industries,…

  8. Effect of aluminium on the levels of some essential elements in occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Fateheya M; Mazhar, Manal S

    2007-09-01

    The mechanism of aluminium-induced cytotoxicity has not yet been defined. This study investigated possible changes in essential elements in workers occupationally exposed to Al fumes. It included 60 exposed workers and a matching control group of 60 employees not occupationally exposed to Al. Mean serum copper, calcium, zinc and iron were significantly lower in the exposed group than in controls. In addition, mean plasma and urine levels of Al were significantly higher in the exposed employees than in the controls. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between plasma and urinary Al and the studied essential elements. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that Al exposure has an adverse effect on essential elements in humans, with subsequent impact on the cellular enzymatic and metabolic processes.

  9. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in oil mist-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Järvholm, B; Bake, B; Lavenius, B; Thiringer, G; Vokmann, R

    1982-06-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was registered and ventilatory function was determined in 164 men exposed to oil mist. The average exposure time was 16.2 years. One hundred fifty-nine office workers served as controls. The exposed men reported more respiratory symptoms: 14% of the exposed nonsmokers v. 2% of the non-smoking controls having cough at least three months a year. There were no significant differences between spirometric measurements and chest roentgenograms of the men exposed to oil mist and those of the office workers. The lung function of 25 nonsmoking exposed men was further examined with other lung function tests. The mean values for closing volume, slope of the alveolar plateau, total lung capacity, residual volume, elastic recoil at various lung volumes, and diffusion capacity did not differ significantly.

  10. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in oil mist-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvholm, B.; Bake, B.; Lavenius, B.; Thiringer, G.; Vokmann, R.

    1982-06-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was registered and ventilatory function was determined in 164 men exposed to oil mist. The average exposure time was 16.2 years. One hundred fifty-nine office workers served as controls. The exposed men reported more respiratory symptoms: 14% of the exposed nonsmokers v. 2% of the nonsmoking controls having cough at least three months a year. There were non significant differences between spirometric measurements and chest roentgenograms of the men exposed to oil mist and those of the office workers. The lung function of 25 nonsmoking exposed men was further examined with other lung function tests. The mean values for closing volume, slope of the alveolar plateau, total lung capacity, residual volume, elastic recoil at various lung volumes, and diffusion capacity did not differ significantly.

  11. Cataracts in retired actinide-exposed radiation workers.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Baruch S

    2005-01-01

    Radiation-induced cataracts are predominantly of the posterior sub-capsular (PSC) type, whereas about 90% of age-related cataracts are of other types. Retired workers, likely to have transuranic body burdens, from three DOE-supported installations were questioned regarding their eye-care history and asked for permission to contact their eye-care providers regarding any cataracts. In 97 cases with lifetime exposure records 20 cases (20.6%) were reported to have PSC cataracts. However, of 24 individuals with recorded lifetime doses of 200-600 mSv, nine (37.5%) had PSC cataracts, compared with 15.1% of 73 cases with doses of less than 200 mSv. This difference is statistically significant at the 5% level.

  12. Formation of 1,2:3,4-Diepoxybutane-Specific Hemoglobin Adducts in 1,3-Butadiene Exposed Workers

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Gunnar; Georgieva, Nadia I.; Bordeerat, Narisa K.; Šram, Radim J.; Vacek, Pamela; Albertini, Richard J.; Swenberg, James A.

    2012-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is an important industrial chemical that is classified as a human carcinogen. BD carcinogenicity has been attributed to its metabolism to several reactive epoxide metabolites and formation of the highly mutagenic 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) has been hypothesized to drive mutagenesis and carcinogenesis at exposures experienced in humans. We report herein the formation of DEB-specific N,N-(2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-butadiyl)valine (pyr-Val) in BD-exposed workers as a biomarker of DEB formation. pyr-Val was determined in BD monomer and polymer plant workers that had been previously analyzed for several other biomarkers of exposure and effect. pyr-Val was detected in 68 of 81 (84%) samples ranging from 0.08 to 0.86 pmol/g globin. Surprisingly, pyr-Val was observed in 19 of 23 administrative control subjects not known to be exposed to BD, suggesting exposure from environmental sources of BD. The mean ± SD amounts of pyr-Val were 0.11 ± 0.07, 0.16 ± 0.12, and 0.29 ± 0.20 pmol/g globin in the controls, monomer, and polymer workers, respectively, clearly demonstrating formation of DEB in humans. The amounts of pyr-Val found in this study suggest that humans are much less efficient in the formation of DEB than mice or rats at similar exposures. Formation of pyr-Val was more than 50-fold lower than has been associated with increased mutagenesis in rodents. The results further suggest that formation of DEB relative to other epoxides is significantly different in the highest exposed polymer workers compared with controls and BD monomer workers. Whether this is due to saturation of metabolic formation or increased GST-mediated detoxification could not be determined. PMID:22003190

  13. Changes in psychological performances of solvent-poisoned and solvent-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstroem, K.

    1980-01-01

    The changes in psychological performances associated with long-term exposure to organic solvents and solvent mixtures were studied in a group of 56 male workers diagnosed as having an occupational disease caused by solvents. Their mean duration of exposure was 9.1 +/- SD 8.3 years, and they were exposed mainly to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons and to mixtures of paint solvents. The psychological performances of these solvent-exposed patients were compared with those of 98 styrene-exposed workers and a nonexposed group of 43 construction workers. The applied psychological test variables were factor analyzed, before other statistical analysis, in order to clarify what they measured in the present study. The solvent-exposed group was characterized by a decline in visuomotor performance and decreased freedom from distractibility. The poor visuomotor performances were also related to the long duration of solvent exposure in this group of patients. The index applied for the exposure level revealed no significant relationships to psychological performances among the solvent-exposed patients. The psychological performances of the styrene-exposed group differed only very slightly from those of the nonexposed workers.

  14. Increased lung function decline in blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Thaon, Isabelle; Demange, Valérie; Herin, Fabrice; Touranchet, Annie; Paris, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    There is no consensus at the present time about the effect of welding on lung function decline. This study compared lung function decline between blue-collar workers exposed and not exposed to welding fumes in a French longitudinal cohort of 21,238 subjects aged 37 to 52 years at inclusion. Medical data, occupation, sector of activity, and spirometry were recorded twice by occupational physicians in 1990 and 1995. A job-exposure matrix was used to identify 503 male blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes and 709 control subjects and to define the weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes. Baseline lung function parameters were higher in workers exposed to welding fumes than in control subjects. After a 5-year follow-up, welding-fume exposure was associated with a nonsignificant decline in FVC (P = .06) and FEV(1) (P = .07) after adjustment for age, pack-years, BMI, and baseline value of the parameter. A significant accelerated decline in FEV(1) (P = .046) was also observed in never smokers exposed to welding fumes. An “exposure-response” relationship was observed between FEV(1) decline and weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes in nonsmokers but not in smokers. Blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes showed accelerated decline in lung function, which, in nonsmokers, was related to weekly duration of exposure.

  15. [Clinical and pathomorphological features of chronic prostatitis in chemical industry workers].

    PubMed

    Neimark, A I; Kiptilov, A V; Lapiy, G A

    2015-12-01

    During periodic screening on the chemical industry, an increased incidence of chronic prostatitis in workers at sulfuric acid section was revealed. Detailed examination has revealed features of the clinical picture of the pathological process that develops in the prostate gland of workers exposed to harmful labor conditions. Complex pathomorphologic analysis of prostate biopsies of workers with chronic abacterial prostatitis found fundamental differences of morphological manifestations observed in other forms of chronic prostatitis. They include the prevalence of dystrophic and atrophic changes of glandular components with the presence of focuses of simple and small acinar atrophy, reduction of the microvasculature vessels, progressive fibrosis of the stroma with the phenomena of periglandular and perivascular sclerosis, as a rule, in the absence of inflammatory cell infiltration. Doppler ultrasound data indicated a change in hemodynamics, accompanied by a decrease in blood flow in the prostate gland.

  16. Fixed obstructive lung disease among workers in the flavor-manufacturing industry--California, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    2007-04-27

    Bronchiolitis obliterans, a rare and life-threatening form of fixed obstructive lung disease, is known to be caused by exposure to noxious gases in occupational settings and has been described in workers in the microwave-popcorn industry who were exposed to artificial butter-flavoring chemicals, including diacetyl. In August 2004, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) and Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA) received the first report of a bronchiolitis obliterans diagnosis in a flavor-manufacturing worker in California. In April 2006, a second report was received of a case in a flavor-manufacturing worker from another company. Neither worker was employed in the microwave-popcorn industry; both were workers in the flavor-manufacturing industry, which produces artificial butter flavoring and other flavors such as cherry, almond, praline, jalapeno, and orange. Both workers had handled pure diacetyl, an ingredient in artificial butter and other flavorings, and additional chemicals involved in the manufacturing process. Studies have indicated that exposure to diacetyl causes severe respiratory epithelial injury in animals. Because the manufacture of flavorings involves more than 2,000 chemicals, workers in the general flavor-manufacturing industry are exposed to more chemicals than workers in the microwave-popcorn industry, which primarily uses butter flavorings. Food flavorings are designated "generally recognized as safe" when approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; flavorings are not known to put consumers at risk for lung disease. This report describes the first two cases of bronchiolitis obliterans in flavor-manufacturing workers in California, the findings of the public health investigation, and the actions taken by state and federal agencies to prevent future cases of occupational bronchiolitis obliterans. To identify cases and reduce risk for lung disease from occupational exposure to flavorings, a timely, effective

  17. Worker Attitudes, Worker Behavior, and Productivity in the U.S. Automobile Industry, 1959-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norsworthy, J. R.; Zabala, Craig A.

    1985-01-01

    This study tests a standard model of the production process and an augmented model that incorporates a linkage from worker attitudes to total factor productivity and the total unit cost of production. The authors estimate these models with data on the U.S. automobile industry for the years 1959-76. (Author/CT)

  18. Worker Attitudes, Worker Behavior, and Productivity in the U.S. Automobile Industry, 1959-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norsworthy, J. R.; Zabala, Craig A.

    1985-01-01

    This study tests a standard model of the production process and an augmented model that incorporates a linkage from worker attitudes to total factor productivity and the total unit cost of production. The authors estimate these models with data on the U.S. automobile industry for the years 1959-76. (Author/CT)

  19. Survey of Workers Exposed to Dusts Containing Derivatives of Bacillus Subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, M.; Milne, Judith F.; Watt, A.

    1970-01-01

    In a survey of 121 workers exposed to dusts containing derivatives of Bacillus subtilis, mainly proteolytic enzymes, skin tests showed evidence of sentiztation was higher among “atopic” subjects—16 out of tization was higher among “atopic” subjects—16 out of 25 (64%)—than among “non-atopic” subjects—32 out of 96 (33%). Reduced ventilatory capacity was found in 44% of sensitized workers compared with 14% of those not sensitized. PMID:4987928

  20. Biomonitoring of exposure to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone in workers of the automobile industry.

    PubMed

    Meier, Swetlana; Schindler, Birgit K; Koslitz, Stephan; Koch, Holger M; Weiss, Tobias; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is an important organic solvent for varnishes in industry. NMP has been previously shown to be a developmental toxicant in rodents. This study reports current exposures to NMP in the spraying department of an automobile plant using biological monitoring. Two specific metabolites, 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNMP) and 2-hydroxy-N-methyl-succinimide (2-HMSI), were analyzed in 69 urine samples of 14 workers exposed to NMP and 9 nonexposed controls. Three different working tasks ('loading' and 'cleaning' of the sprayer system and 'wiping/packing' of the sprayed materials) and three sampling times (preshift, postshift, and preshift of the following day) were studied in exposed workers. Median exposures of 5-HNMP and 2-HMSI in postshift urine of exposed workers were 0.91 and 0.52mg g(-1) creatinine, respectively, whereas median levels in controls were below the limit of detection. Decreased levels of 5-HNMP were observed in preshift urine samples on the following day (0.39mg g(-1) creatinine) in exposed workers, while the concentration of 2-HMSI did not change (0.49mg g(-1) creatinine). Highest exposures occurred during sprayer cleaning with a maximum level of 8.31mg g(-1) creatinine of 5-HNMP in postshift urine. In contrast to 'wipers/packers', no decrease in 5-HNMP could be observed in preshift urine samples on day 2 of the 'loaders' and 'cleaners'. Overall, exposure in terms of 5-HNMP postshift and 2-HMSI preshift of the following day were well below the current biological limit values of the European Union (70 and 20mg g(-1) creatinine). Our results provide initial data on NMP exposure in the automobile industry and suggest that the analysis of 5-HNMP in preshift samples also provides essential information, particularly in situations involving direct handling of liquid NMP-containing formulations.

  1. Alterations in leukocyte telomere length in workers occupationally exposed to benzene.

    PubMed

    Bassig, Bryan A; Zhang, Luoping; Cawthon, Richard M; Smith, Martyn T; Yin, Songnian; Li, Guilan; Hu, Wei; Shen, Min; Rappaport, Stephen; Barone-Adesi, Francesco; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Lan, Qing

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to benzene, a known leukemogen and probable lymphomagen, has been demonstrated to result in oxidative stress, which has previously been associated with altered telomere length (TL). TL specifically has been associated with several health outcomes in epidemiologic studies, including cancer risk, and has been demonstrated to be altered following exposure to a variety of chemical agents. To evaluate the association between benzene exposure and TL, we measured TL by monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR in 43 workers exposed to high levels of benzene and 43 age and sex-matched unexposed workers in Shanghai, China. Benzene exposure levels were monitored using organic vapor passive dosimetry badges before phlebotomy. The median benzene exposure level in exposed workers was 31 ppm. The mean TL in controls, workers exposed to levels of benzene below the median (≤31 ppm), and above the median (>31 ppm) was 1.26 ± 0.17, 1.25 ± 0.16, and 1.37 ± 0.23, respectively. Mean TL was significantly elevated in workers exposed to >31 ppm of benzene compared with controls (P = 0.03). Our findings provide evidence that high levels of occupational benzene exposure are associated with TL. Environ.

  2. Health hazard assessment of occupationally di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate-exposed workers in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxin; Xu, Xiaobing; Fan, Chinbay Q

    2015-02-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is a potential hazard to human health. The effects of occupational high level DEHP exposure on human health were evaluated by measuring the plasma cholinesterase, residues, renal and hepatic biochemical markers. The study was conducted in three representative polyvinyl chloride manufacturing facilities from large size (S1), medium side (S2) to small size (S3). Total 456 adult males including 352 exposed workers (occupational) and 104 control workers (background) were selected. The average DEHP concentrations in respirable particulate matter were 233, 291, and 707 μg m(-3) for S1-S3, respectively, compared with 0.26 μg m(-3) in the background atmosphere (labeled by S4). The results showed significant decreases in post exposure plasma cholinesterase (PChE) levels (<30%) from the exposed workers as compared to baseline. These exposed workers had been evaluated for plasma DEHP residues. Regression analyses explored that PChE decreased significantly with increasing plasma DEHP residues. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, urea, gamma glutamyltransferase, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant and C-reactive protein were significantly raised as compared to the controls. Of the 352 exposed workers, 116 (33.0%) had a daily DEHP intake 22.7 μg kg bw(-1)d(-1) , which is more than 20 μg kg bw(-1)d(-1) specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The study demonstrated that occupational phthalate exposure produces health hazards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pulmonary pathology in workers exposed to nonasbestiform talc.

    PubMed

    Vallyathan, N V; Craighead, J E

    1981-01-01

    We studied pulmonary tissue from seven men employed in the mining and milling of talc that contained minimal amounts of crystalline silica and asbestiform minerals. The lungs exhibited varying degrees of fibrosis, located either adjacent to the vessels and bronchi or diffusely. Semiquantitative estimations of talc in the lung tissue indicated that the extent of the pulmonary lesions corresponded to its concentration in the tissue. Histopathologic findings were evaluated with regard to duration of occupational exposure and radiographic changes in the chest. In three of the seven workers with exposures of 26, 27, and 27 years chest roentgenographic changes were consistent with pneumoconiosis. The lung tissues from four other patients with exposure histories of four, five, 13, and 19 years exhibited focal and diffuse fibrosis with accumulations of talc, but the chest x-ray films were negative. Crystallographic studies of digestates of lung tissue indicated that the talc contained few mineral impurities. An increase in dust load in the lungs was associated with duration of employment.

  4. n-Hexane metabolism in occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed Central

    Mutti, A; Falzoi, M; Lucertini, S; Arfini, G; Zignani, M; Lombardi, S; Franchini, I

    1984-01-01

    Lung uptake and excretion of n-hexane were studied in ten workers in a shoe factory. Simultaneous samples of inhaled and alveolar air were collected with the aid of a Rhan-Otis valve, personal samplers, and charcoal tubes. Alveolar excretion was monitored during a six hour postexposure period. Uptake was calculated from lung ventilation, the retention coefficient, and environmental concentrations. The amount of exhaled n-hexane was calculated from the decay curve. According to the experimental data, alveolar retention was about 25% of the inhaled n-hexane, corresponding to a lung uptake of about 17%. The postexposure alveolar excretion was about 10% of the total uptake. The main metabolites of n-hexane were identified and measured by capillary GC/MS in spot urine samples collected before, at the end, and 15 hours after the same working shift. Urinary concentrations were low, though related to n-hexane in the air. 2,5-Hexanedione in the end of shift samples gave the best estimate of overall exposure. About 3 mg/g creatinine of 2,5-hexanedione would correspond to about 50 ppm of n-hexane in the air (mean daily exposure). PMID:6498115

  5. Symptoms, spirometry, and serum antibody concentrations among compost workers exposed to organic dust.

    PubMed

    van Kampen, Vera; Deckert, Anja; Hoffmeyer, Frank; Taeger, Dirk; Brinkmann, Elmar; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Bünger, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Work-related symptoms and diseases of 190 currently exposed compost workers, 59 former compost workers, and 38 nonexposed control subjects were investigated in a cross-sectional study. Using a standardized questionnaire, participants were asked for work-related symptoms, exposures to bioaerosols, atopic diseases, and smoking habits. The subjects underwent a physical examination and a lung function test. In addition, total immunoglobulin (Ig) E, IgE specific to environmental allergens and moulds, and IgG specific to molds and actinomycetes were quantified. Compared to controls, compost workers suffered more often from cough and irritation of the eyes in terms of mucosal membrane irritation (MMI). Former compost workers reported similar work-related complaints, but most MMI symptoms had improved after termination of bioaerosol exposure. In contrast, cough and dyspnea persisted, indicating a chronic process. Lung function parameters of compost workers were within the reference ranges. Nevertheless, forced vital capacity (FVC) was significantly lower than for controls. Specific IgE to environmental allergens and molds was positive in 25.3% and 7.4%, respectively, of currently exposed compost workers. There were no marked differences in IgE and IgG concentrations among the three groups. Compost workers suffered with a higher frequency from cough and MMI symptoms. The findings that MMI symptoms improved in former compost workers after leaving the job confirmed the association with bioaerosol exposure. Further, the reduced FVC may be produced by this exposure. There was no higher frequency of mold sensitization in the group of compost workers compared to controls, which may be an indication of a healthy worker survivor effect.

  6. [Occupational risks of a shoe industry from the workers' perspective].

    PubMed

    Luz, Fernanda Reinher da; Loro, Marli Maria; Zeitoune, Regina Célia Gollner; Kolankiewicz, Adriane Cristina Bernat; Rosanelli, Cleci Schmidt Piovesan

    2013-01-01

    This is a qualitative and descriptive study, which aimed to identify the occupational risks of a shoe industry, as well as the preventive measures taken against those risks, from the workers' perspective. The sample consisted of fifteen workers. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed according to content analysis. The ethical aspects were respected and the research was approved by the Committee of Ethics in Research of the Northwest Regional University of Rio Grande do Sul. The results showed that the workers are aware of the risks of their work process, made use of safety measures for personal protection, and the company offers safety devices, informing and performing periodical visits to the sectors, aiming to develop educational actions.

  7. Change in peak expiratory flow over time among workers exposed to polyvinyl chloride dust.

    PubMed

    Lawin, H; Ayelo, P; Hinson, V; Kagima, J; Fayomi, B

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the variation of peak expiratory flow (PEF) over a working week among non-smoking workers without previous asthma who have been exposed to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dust. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 42 operators with exposure to PVC dust (filling hoppers to feed extrusion machines) and 23 employees without exposure to PVC dust in a plant producing PVC pipes in West Africa. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered and PEF was measured using a portable peak flow meter after a day off (day 1), on day 3 and at the end of the week (day 6). The two groups did not differ by age or body mass index. Dyspnoea was more prevalent in exposed workers than controls (52% vs. 13%, P = 0.002). PEF decreased more significantly in exposed workers than controls (-8% vs. -3% on day 3 and -10% vs. -5% on day 6, both P = 0.004). The duration of exposure did not affect PEF variability in the exposed groups. The decrease of PEF over the working week in workers exposed to PVC dust is consistent with occupational asthma, although standard measures to diagnose occupational asthma were not used. This result reinforces the need to prevent excessive exposure to PVC dust.

  8. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity in Battery Manufacturing Workers Occupationally Exposed to Lead

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Zorawar; Chadha, Pooja; Sharma, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Battery manufacturing workers are occupationally exposed to lead (Pb), which is a highly toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to investigate the blood lead levels (BLL) of 30 battery manufacturing workers and find the correlation between BLL, micronucleated cell (MNC) frequency, binucleated cell (BNC) frequency in buccal mucosal cells and malondialdehyde concentrations in serum. 30 subjects of the BMW group, exposed to lead, and 30 control subjects, matched with the exposed subjects with respect to age, socio-economic status, sex, diet, smoking and drinking habits, were monitored for this study. BLL was found to have highly significant difference between both the groups (P < 0.001). The serum MDA levels were observed at significantly higher levels (6.76 ± 3.26) for the exposed group as compared to the control group (2.10 ± 1.02; P < 0.001). Buccal micronucleus test showed that both MNC and BNC frequencies were higher among the workers, in comparison to the control subjects. A positive correlation has been found between BLL and all the parameters. Our results indicate an increased health associated risk for workers occupationally exposed to lead. PMID:23833444

  9. Evaluation of oxidative stress and genotoxicity in battery manufacturing workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Singh, Zorawar; Chadha, Pooja; Sharma, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Battery manufacturing workers are occupationally exposed to lead (Pb), which is a highly toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to investigate the blood lead levels (BLL) of 30 battery manufacturing workers and find the correlation between BLL, micronucleated cell (MNC) frequency, binucleated cell (BNC) frequency in buccal mucosal cells and malondialdehyde concentrations in serum. 30 subjects of the BMW group, exposed to lead, and 30 control subjects, matched with the exposed subjects with respect to age, socio-economic status, sex, diet, smoking and drinking habits, were monitored for this study. BLL was found to have highly significant difference between both the groups (P < 0.001). The serum MDA levels were observed at significantly higher levels (6.76 ± 3.26) for the exposed group as compared to the control group (2.10 ± 1.02; P < 0.001). Buccal micronucleus test showed that both MNC and BNC frequencies were higher among the workers, in comparison to the control subjects. A positive correlation has been found between BLL and all the parameters. Our results indicate an increased health associated risk for workers occupationally exposed to lead.

  10. Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness among cleaning and disinfecting workers in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Massin, N; Hecht, G; Ambroise, D; Héry, M; Toamain, J P; Hubert, G; Dorotte, M; Bianchi, B

    2007-02-01

    To measure the levels of exposure to nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) and aldehydes among cleaning and disinfecting workers in the atmosphere of food industry plants during cleaning and disinfecting operations, and to examine how they relate to irritant and chronic respiratory symptoms-which are indices of pulmonary function-and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine. 175 exposed workers (M = 149; F = 26) recruited from 17 enterprises of the food industry (8 cattle, pig, and ovine slaughterhouses, 8 fowl slaughterhouses, and 1 catering firm) and 70 non-exposed workers (M = 52; F = 18) were examined. Concentration levels of NCl3 and aldhehydes were measured by personal sampling. Symptoms were assessed by means of a questionnaire and the methacholine bronchial challenge (MBC) test using an abbreviated method. Subjects were labelled MBC+ if forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) fell by 20% or more. The linear dose-response slope (DRS) was calculated as the percentage fall in FEV1 at last dose divided by the total dose administered. 277 air samples were taken in the 17 food industry plants. For a given plant and in a given workshop, the actual concentrations of chloramines, aldehydes, and quaternary ammonium compounds were measured with personal samplers during the different steps of the procedures. For each cleaner, a total exposure index Sigma was calculated. A statistically significant concentration-response relationship was found between eye, nasal, and throat symptoms of irritation--but not chronic respiratory symptoms--and exposure levels or exposure duration. No relation was found between BHR and exposure. These data show that cleaning and disinfecting workers in the food industry are at risk of developing eye, nasal, and throat irritation symptoms. Although NCl3 exposure does not seem to carry a risk of developing permanent BHR, the possibility of transient BHR cannot be ruled out entirely.

  11. Glutathione transferases and glutathionylated hemoglobin in workers exposed to low doses of 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Primavera, Alessandra; Fustinoni, Silvia; Biroccio, Antonino; Ballerini, Sabrina; Urbani, Andrea; Bernardini, Sergio; Federici, Giorgio; Capucci, Enrico; Manno, Maurizio; Lo Bello, Mario

    2008-11-01

    We evaluated glutathione transferase (GST) activities and the levels of glutathionylated hemoglobin in the RBC of 42 workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene in a petrochemical plant, using 43 workers not exposed to 1,3-butadiene and 82 foresters as internal and external controls, respectively. Median 1,3-butadiene exposure levels were 1.5, 0.4, and 0.1 microg/m3 in 1,3-butadiene-exposed workers, in workers not directly exposed to 1,3-butadiene, and in foresters, respectively. In addition, we determined in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of the same individuals the presence of GST polymorphic genes GSTT1 and GSTM1 and the distribution of GSTP1 allelic variants. Comparing the mean values observed in petrochemical workers with those of control foresters, we found a marked decrease of GST enzymatic activity and a significant increase of glutathionylated hemoglobin in the petrochemical workers. A weak but significant negative correlation was found between levels of 1,3-butadiene exposure and GST activity, whereas a positive correlation was found between 1,3-butadiene exposure and glutathionylated hemoglobin. A negative correlation was also observed between GST activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin. No influence of confounders was observed. Using a multiple linear regression model, up to 50.6% and 41.9% of the variability observed in glutathionylated hemoglobin and GST activity, respectively, were explained by 1,3-butadiene exposure, working setting, and GSTT1 genotype. These results indicate that occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene induces an oxidative stress that impairs the GST balance in RBC, and suggest that GST activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin could be recommended as promising biomarkers of effect in petrochemical workers.

  12. Asthma Symptoms and Specific IgE Levels among Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI) Exposed Workers in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Laleh; Karimi, Akram; Shokouhi Shoormasti, Raheleh; Miri, Sara; Heydar Nazhad, Hassan; Bokaie, Saied; Fazlollahi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Khosro; Pourpak, Zahra; Moin, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is an imperative chemical substance used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, paints and coatings that cause a variety of health problems in workers who are exposed in work places. This study aimed to determine the asthma symptoms and serum specific IgE levels in TDI exposed workers and comparing the results with healthy control group. All the plants that use TDI in the manufacturing of paint and glue in the west of Tehran Province entered to the study and all the workers (550) completed modified initial questionnaire of the NIOSH, the questions were consisted of asthma symptoms. For each symptomatic exposed worker one healthy, sex and age matched control selected. Total IgE and Specific TDI IgE tests were done for each case and control groups. Among 550 TDI exposed workers, 26(4.7%) had asthma symptoms. Nine (34.6%) of symptomatic workers who were exposed to TDI were active cigarette consumer versus 3(11.5%) unexposed workers, P=0.049(CI= 0.953-17.29) OR=4.059. Nine (34.6%) workers had positive family history of atopy versus 1(3.8%) unexposed workers, P=0.0138 (CI= 1.45-305.41) OR=13.24. TDI specific IgE was found in 2 TDI exposed workers and 1 unexposed worker (P=0.5). Mean of total IgE was 339.05 in exposed workers (P=0.201). This study provides clinical and paraclinical data of workers exposed to TDI and points to a relation between atopy and smoking habit with asthma symptoms that offer preventing recommendations for TDI exposed workers and their heath administrators.

  13. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in electroplating workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Lai, Ching-Huang

    2017-01-25

    This study evaluates levels of biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in 105 male workers at 16 electroplating companies who had been exposed to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The study participants were 230 non-smoking male workers, comprising 105 electroplating workers who had been exposed to chromium and 125 control subjects who performed office tasks. Personal air samples, spot urine samples, hair samples, fingernail samples and questionnaires were used to quantify exposure to Cr(VI), oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and environmental pollutants. Both the geometric mean personal concentrations of Cr(VI) of the Cr-exposed workers and the total Cr concentrations in the air to which they were exposed significantly exceeded those for the control subjects. The geometric mean concentrations of Cr in urine, hair and fingernails, and the urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the Cr(VI) exposed workers exceeded those in the control subjects. Daily cumulative Cr(VI) exposure and urinary Cr were significantly correlated with urinary 8-OHdG levels following adjustments for covariates. A ten-fold increase in urinary Cr level was associated with a 1.73-fold increase in urinary 8-OHdG level. Daily cumulative Cr(VI) exposure and urinary Cr level were significantly correlated with urinary MDA level following adjustments for covariates. A ten-fold increase in urinary Cr was associated with a 1.45-fold increase in urinary MDA. Exposure to Cr(VI) increased oxidative DNA injury and the oxidative deterioration of lipids in electroplating workers.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 25 January 2017; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.85.

  14. Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Workers Exposed to Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Uccello, Mario; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Corriere, Thea; Biondi, Antonio; Basile, Francesco; Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Context Studies on experimental animals have shown liver is a common target of chemical carcinogens; this might suggest that occupational exposure to chemicals is another risk factor for HCC. However, the relationship between occupation and liver cancer has not been extensively studied, with the exception of the known association between vinyl chloride and angiosarcoma of the liver. Evidence Acquisition A MEDLINE and conventional search of the past 50 years of the medical literature was performed to identify relevant articles on incidence and mechanisms of HCC due to occupational exposure to chemicals. Several important edited books and monographs were also identified and reviewed. Results While laboratory data clearly indicate that the liver is an important target of chemical carcinogenesis, epidemiological studies provide very limited evidence on occupational risk factors for HCC. Nevertheless, we found some case reports and epidemiological data showing a moderately increased risk of HCC development in people exposed to vinyl chloride, organic solvents, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and arsenic. Conclusions Occupational exposure to chemicals may be another risk factor for HCC development, but the interpretation of currently available findings is limited by the small number of studies, questionable accuracy of the diagnosis of liver cancer, and potential confounding or modifying factors such as chronic hepatitis virus infection and alcohol consumption. Further relevant investigations are required for clarifying the actual contribution of occupational exposure to chemicals in HCC development. PMID:23162599

  15. An epidemiological study of workers potentially exposed to ethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Wong, O; Trent, L S

    1993-04-01

    This epidemiological study was of 18,728 employees at 14 United States facilities producing sterilised medical supplies and spices, who were potentially exposed to ethylene oxide (EO) for at least 90 days. The mortality of the cohort was studied to the end of 1988. A total of 1353 deaths was identified. The cohort had a significantly lower mortality than the general population from all causes, all cancers, and non-malignant diseases. In the entire cohort, mortality was not significantly increased from any of the cancer sites examined. In particular, no significant increase in mortality was found in the cancer sites of interest based on previous studies--namely, stomach, leukaemia (including major specific cell types), pancreas, and brain. The lack of an increased mortality for these cancer sites was further strengthened by the lack of a dose-response relation with duration of employment and latency. Among the men, a statistically significant increase in mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found. There was no indication for a dose-response relation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and no specific job categories seemed to be responsible for the increase. Among the women, a deficit of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found, which was not consistent with the finding in the men. Therefore, the increase among the men did not seem to be related to exposure to EO.

  16. An epidemiological study of workers potentially exposed to ethylene oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, O; Trent, L S

    1993-01-01

    This epidemiological study was of 18,728 employees at 14 United States facilities producing sterilised medical supplies and spices, who were potentially exposed to ethylene oxide (EO) for at least 90 days. The mortality of the cohort was studied to the end of 1988. A total of 1353 deaths was identified. The cohort had a significantly lower mortality than the general population from all causes, all cancers, and non-malignant diseases. In the entire cohort, mortality was not significantly increased from any of the cancer sites examined. In particular, no significant increase in mortality was found in the cancer sites of interest based on previous studies--namely, stomach, leukaemia (including major specific cell types), pancreas, and brain. The lack of an increased mortality for these cancer sites was further strengthened by the lack of a dose-response relation with duration of employment and latency. Among the men, a statistically significant increase in mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found. There was no indication for a dose-response relation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and no specific job categories seemed to be responsible for the increase. Among the women, a deficit of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found, which was not consistent with the finding in the men. Therefore, the increase among the men did not seem to be related to exposure to EO. PMID:8494770

  17. MENTAL MORBIDITY IN INDUSTRIAL WORKERS OF KHETRI COPPER COMPLEX1

    PubMed Central

    Satija, D.C.; Patni, S.K.; Nathawat, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY There is dearth of researches pertaining to prevalence of mental morbidity in Industrial setups, particularly in our country. They are important as psychological ill health of workers may adversely effect the productivity in developing country like India. Khetri Copper Complex in Rajasthan was selected for present study. Aims were to determine the period prevalence of mental morbidity among workers and role of sociodemographic, psychological variables in such disorders. 330 workers were randomly selected from various departments. Each worker was given specially designed proforma and Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire. Workers scoring 12 or more were given “A standardised psychiatric interview schedule” suspected cases were examined by senior consultants to assign them diagnostic categories (I.C.D.-9). Period Prevalence in this study was 186.66/1000. As regards diagnostic categories, 75% were neurotic and 12.5% psychotics. Role of socio demographic, psychological and psychiatric variables in the development of these disorders has been discussed. Findings of this study are in expected direction and results obtained can be easily explained in terms of formulations given by other researchers in this field. Recommendation and plans for further research are discussed. PMID:21965974

  18. Health survey on workers and residents near the municipal waste and industrial waste incinerators in Korea.

    PubMed

    Leem, Jong-Han; Hong, Yun-Cul; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Jang, Jae-Yeon

    2003-07-01

    industrial waste incinerator were the EDI within the tolerable daily intake range (1-4 pg I-TEQ/kg bw/day) suggested by WHO (1997). The oxidative stress of residents near the industrial waste incinerator was higher than that in workers and residents from the area around MSW incinerator. This oxidative stress may have been caused by hazardous substances, such as PCDD/Fs emitted by incinerators. The residents from the area around industrial waste incinerator were exposed to hazardous substances such as PCDD/ Fs. Proper protection strategies against these hazardous chemicals are needed.

  19. RADIOLOGICAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT FOR WORKERS IN CERAMIC INDUSTRY IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Todorovic, Nataša; Mrda, Dušan; Hansman, Jan; Todorovic, Slavko; Nikolov, Jovana; Krmar, Miodrag

    2017-03-03

    Studies have been carried out to determine the natural radioactivity in some materials used in ceramic industry (zircon, zirkosil, Zircobit MO/S, zircon silicate, zirklonil frit, hematite, bentonite, wollastonite, raw kaolin, kaolinized granite, sileks ball, feldspar, pigment, white base serigraphic, engobe) and their associated radiation hazard. The external hazard index, Hex, values, radium equivalent activity, Raeq, total absorbed dose rates, D and annual effective dose, De were derived for all measured materials and compared with the recommended values to assess the external radiation hazards to workers who worked in ceramic industries in Serbia.

  20. Biomarkers in Czech workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene: a transitional epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Albertini, Richard J; Srám, Radim J; Vacek, Pamela M; Lynch, Jeremiah; Nicklas, Janice A; van Sittert, Nico J; Boogaard, Peter J; Henderson, Rogene F; Swenberg, James A; Tates, Ad D; Ward, Jonathan B; Wright, Michael; Ammenheuser, Marinel M; Binkova, Blanka; Blackwell, Walter; de Zwart, Franz A; Krako, Dean; Krone, Jennifer; Megens, Hendricus; Musilová, Petra; Rajská, Gabriela; Ranasinghe, Asoka; Rosenblatt, Judah I; Rössner, Pavel; Rubes, Jiri; Sullivan, Linda; Upton, Patricia; Zwinderman, Ailko H

    2003-06-01

    A multiinstitutional, transitional epidemiologic study was conducted with a worker population in the Czech Republic to evaluate the utility of a continuum of non-disease biological responses as biomarkers of exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD)* in an industrial setting. The study site included two BD facilities in the Czech Republic. Institutions that collaborated in the study were the University of Vermont (Burlington, Vermont, USA); the Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology (Prague, the Czech Republic); Shell International Chemicals, BV (Amsterdam, The Netherlands); the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA); University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (Galveston, Texas, USA); Leiden University (Leiden, The Netherlands); and the Health and Safety Laboratory (Sheffield, United Kingdom). Male volunteer workers (83) participated in the study: 24 were engaged in BD monomer production, 34 in polymerization activities, and 25 plant administrative workers served as unexposed control subjects. The BD concentrations experienced by each exposed worker were measured by personal monitor on approximately ten separate occasions for 8-hour workshifts over a 60-day exposure assessment period before biological samples were collected. Coexposures to styrene, benzene, and toluene were also measured. The administrative control workers were considered to be a homogeneous, unexposed group for whom a series of 28 random BD measurements were taken during the exposure assessment period. Questionnaires were administered in Czech to all participants. At the end of the exposure assessment period, blood and urine samples were collected at the plant; samples were. fractionated, cryopreserved, and kept frozen in Prague until they were shipped to the appropriate laboratories for specific biomarker analysis. The following biomarkers were analyzed: * polymorphisms in genes involved in BD metabolism (Prague and Burlington); * urinary concentrations of 1-hydroxy

  1. [Early recognition of lung cancer in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Preiß, K; Rehbock, B

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that working with asbestos and placing it on the market have been banned in Germany since 1993 according to the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances, asbestos-related diseases of the lungs and pleura are still the leading cause of death in occupational diseases. The maximum industrial usage of asbestos was reached in former West Germany in the late 1970s and in former East Germany the late 1980s. Occupational diseases, mainly mesotheliomas and lung cancer emerging now are thus caused by asbestos exposure which occurred 30-40 years earlier. It is known that the combination of smoking and asbestos exposure results in a superadditive increase in the risk to develop lung cancer. No suitable screening methods for early detection of malignant mesothelioma are currently available and the therapeutic options are still very limited; however, the national lung screening trial (NLST) has shown for the first time that by employing low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in heavy smokers, lung cancer mortality can be significantly reduced. According to current knowledge the resulting survival benefits far outweigh the potential risks involved in the diagnostic work-up of suspicious lesions. These results in association with the recommendations of international medical societies and organizations were pivotal as the German statutory accident insurance (DGUV) decided to provide LDCT as a special occupational medical examination for workers previously exposed to asbestos and with a particularly high risk for developing lung cancer.

  2. Mortality in New Zealand workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides and dioxins

    PubMed Central

    't, M; McLean, D; Cheng, S; Boffetta, P; Colin, D; Pearce, N

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate mortality in New Zealand phenoxy herbicide producers and sprayers exposed to dioxins. Methods: Phenoxy herbicide producers (n = 1025) and sprayers (n = 703) were followed up from 1 January 1969 and 1 January 1973 respectively to 31 December 2000. A total of 813 producers and 699 sprayers were classified as exposed to dioxin and phenoxy herbicides. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated using national mortality rates. Results: At the end of follow up, 164 producers and 91 sprayers had died. Cancer mortality was reduced for sprayers (SMR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.14) and increased in exposed production workers (SMR = 1.24, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.67), especially for synthesis workers (SMR = 1.69), formulation and lab workers (SMR = 1.64), and maintenance/waste treatment/cleaning workers (SMR = 1.46). Lymphohaematopoietic cancer mortality was increased in exposed production workers (SMR = 1.65, 95% CI 0.53 to 3.85), especially for multiple myeloma (SMR = 5.51, 95% CI 1.14 to 16.1). Among sprayers, colon cancer (SMR = 1.94, 95% CI 0.84 to 3.83) showed increased mortality. Conclusions: Results showed 24% non-significant excess cancer mortality in phenoxy herbicide producers, with a significant excess for multiple myeloma. Associations were stronger for those exposed to multiple agents including dioxin during production. Overall cancer mortality was not increased for producers and sprayers mainly handling final technical products, although they were likely to have been exposed to TCDD levels far higher than those currently in the general New Zealand population. PMID:15613606

  3. Musculoskeletal disorders and stress among footwear industry workers.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Larissa Brentini; Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Zaia, José Eduardo; de Oliveira Santos, Branca Maria; Lourenço, Américo Riccardi Vaccari; Quemelo, Paulo Roberto Veiga

    2017-01-01

    Manufacturing footwear requires intense manual labor and high repetitions with low variability in function that may lead to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) symptoms and psychological stress. To evaluate a potential association between musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and perceived stress among footwear industry workers. The Nordic General Questionnaire (NGQ) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) were completed by 357 footwear industry workers. The association between MSD and perceived stress was evaluated using the Chi-Square test and Odds Ratios along with their 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were calculated. The twelve-month prevalence of MSD symptoms among the respondents was 66% (n = 236) and the symptoms were significantly associated with perceived stress (p = 0.002, OR: 10, 95% CI: 1.7 to 60.6). The seven-day prevalence of MSD symptoms was 33% and the symptoms were also significantly associated with perceived stress (p = 0.001, OR: 2.7, 95% CI:0.8 to 9.3). The association between perceived stress and MSD symptoms indicates a strong association between MSD symptoms and perceived stress levels. Considering that these problems are important determinants of worker's health, a combined approach to reduce both stress and MSD symptoms is necessary for prevention and health promotion in the footwear industry.

  4. Workers exposed to ethylene oxide: a follow up study.

    PubMed

    Gardner, M J; Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Harris, E C

    1989-12-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2876 men and women with potential exposure to ethylene oxide. Subjects were identified from employment records at four companies that have produced or used ethylene oxide since the 1950s and at eight hospitals which have had ethylene oxide sterilising units since the 1960s. The cohort represents a substantial proportion of the British workforce with a history of occupational exposure to ethylene oxide. Industrial hygiene data were not available before 1977, but since then time weighted average exposures have been less than 5 ppm in almost all jobs and less than 1 ppm in many. Past exposures were probably somewhat higher. In contrast to some previous studies, no clear excess of leukaemia (three deaths observed, 2.09 expected) and no increase in stomach cancer (five deaths observed, 5.95 expected) were found. This discrepancy with earlier reports may be due in part to differences in levels of exposure. Total cancer mortality was similar to that expected from national and local death rates. Some specific cancers showed small excesses but their relevance to ethylene oxide exposure is doubtful. Again, contrary to some earlier reports, no excess of cardiovascular disease was found. This study does not exclude the possibility that ethylene oxide is a human carcinogen but suggests that any risk of cancer from currently permitted occupational exposures is small.

  5. Workers exposed to ethylene oxide: a follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M J; Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Harris, E C

    1989-01-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2876 men and women with potential exposure to ethylene oxide. Subjects were identified from employment records at four companies that have produced or used ethylene oxide since the 1950s and at eight hospitals which have had ethylene oxide sterilising units since the 1960s. The cohort represents a substantial proportion of the British workforce with a history of occupational exposure to ethylene oxide. Industrial hygiene data were not available before 1977, but since then time weighted average exposures have been less than 5 ppm in almost all jobs and less than 1 ppm in many. Past exposures were probably somewhat higher. In contrast to some previous studies, no clear excess of leukaemia (three deaths observed, 2.09 expected) and no increase in stomach cancer (five deaths observed, 5.95 expected) were found. This discrepancy with earlier reports may be due in part to differences in levels of exposure. Total cancer mortality was similar to that expected from national and local death rates. Some specific cancers showed small excesses but their relevance to ethylene oxide exposure is doubtful. Again, contrary to some earlier reports, no excess of cardiovascular disease was found. This study does not exclude the possibility that ethylene oxide is a human carcinogen but suggests that any risk of cancer from currently permitted occupational exposures is small. PMID:2611160

  6. Lung function status of workers exposed to wood dust in timber markets in Calabar, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okwari, O O; Antai, A B; Owu, D U; Peters, E J; Osim, E E

    2005-06-01

    The effect of chronic exposure to dust from local woods such as ebony, achi, and iroko on lung function of timber market workers in Calabar - Nigeria, was studied. Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second, (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Volume as a percentage of forced vital capacity (FEV1 %), and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were measured in 221 workers (aged 20-25 years) exposed to wood dust to assess their lung function and compared with 200 age- and sex- matched control subjects who were not exposed to any known air pollutant. The concentration of respirable dust was significantly higher in the test (P<0.001) than in control site. The mean values of FVC, FEV1, FEV1% and PEFR of the timber workers were significantly lower (P<0.01) than in control subjects. Respiratory symptoms such as cough, chest pain and nasal irritation had higher prevalence in the test group than in the control group. Non-respiratory symptoms (skin and eye irritation) were prevalent in the test group but not found in the control group. Workers exposed to wood dust had restrictive pattern of ventilatory function impairment. The lung function indices of the timber workers decreased with their length of service. Chronic exposure to wood dust impairs lung function.

  7. Relationship between dose in vivo of ethylene oxide and exposure to ethene studied in exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Granath, F; Rohlén, O; Göransson, C; Hansson, L; Magnusson, A L; Törnqvist, M

    1996-10-01

    1. In vivo doses of ethylene oxide, arising from ethene exposure, in plastic industry workers were estimated through hemoglobin adducts. The ethene exposure was assessed through person-worn monitors. The metabolic conversion of ethene to ethylene oxide was estimated from the exposure dose/in vivo dose ratio. 2. Two studies were done: In the first study hemoglobin adducts were determined in samples collected on one occasion in exposed groups and exposure doses were estimated by using exposure data from the hygienic surveillance program. The second study applies a newly developed study design with repeated blood sampling in a few persons combined with a complete personal exposure monitoring during the study period. This makes it possible to relate adduct formation with individual short-time exposure doses, which in theory should overcome the problems with exposure history dependence of the adduct level in a single blood sample. The results of the second study shows that it is possible, through the proposed method, to utilize occupational exposure situations for this kind of studies even if the exposure pattern is irregular and highly variable. Both studies show a metabolic conversion of ethene to ethylene oxide of only 0.5%, which is unexpectedly low. 3. The cancer risk associated with the ethene exposure in the highly exposed group (3.6 p.p.m. 40 h/week) is estimated by applying the radiation-dose-equivalence approach. The result of this evaluation leads to a risk corresponding to a radiation dose of 4 mSv/year which is about a factor 3 below the current dose limit for radiological work recommended by ICRP.

  8. [Estimated number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy, within the context of the European study CAREX].

    PubMed

    Mirabelli, D

    1999-01-01

    CAREX is an international information system on occupational exposure to known or suspected carcinogens, built within the framework of the Europe Against Cancer Programme of the European Union. It provides estimates of the number of exposed workers by country, industry, and agent, including data about 139 agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (group 1 and 2A agents, plus selected group 2B ones), across 55 industries classified according to UN-ISIC revision 2. The 1990-3 occupational exposures to these agents were estimated for the fifteen countries of the European Union in two steps. At first, estimates were generated on the basis of the national workforce data, and of the exposure prevalence estimates from two reference countries: Finland and the USA. These estimates are adjusted by economic structure, but they do not take into account country specific patterns of exposure to carcinogens. For selected countries, among which Italy, it was possible to correct these estimates by national experts, who were invited to allow for the exposure patterns that they considered specific to their countries. According to the estimates for Italy, there were about 4.2 million workers, i.e. 24% of the work force, exposed to the agents included in CAREX, with some 5.5 million exposures. The most common exposures were: environmental tobacco smoke (770,000 exposed workers), solar radiation (550,000), diesel engine exhaust (550,000), asbestos (350,000), wood dust (300,000), crystalline silica (260,000), lead and inorganic lead compounds (220,000), benzene (180,000), hexavalent chromium and compounds (130,000) and PAHs (130,000).

  9. Comparison between required clothing insulation and that actually worn by workers exposed to artificial cold.

    PubMed

    Aptel, M

    1988-12-01

    Required Clothing Insulation (IREQ) is a new thermal index submitted to the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for discussion. It is designed to prevent general body cooling and is based on an analysis of heat exchanges. The thermal clothing insulation actually worn (lcl) is estimated using a new method, also submitted to ISO. IREQ of 54 workers exposed to artificial cold (air temperature between -30 degrees C and +10 degrees C) was compared with lcl actually worn by these workers. The results of the present study show that, on average, the workers choose accurately lcl they need if their IREQ is below and up to 1.5 clo. Moreover, these workers prefer to wear garments which provide them with thermal comfort. If IREQ of workers is higher than 1.5-2 clo (i e, workers exposed to -20 degrees C), it is difficult for them to increase their thermal insulation with additional garments. Although their lcl is not sufficient, there is no risk of gradual body cooling because of their continuous time exposure (CTE) which is shorter than the calculated Duration Limited Exposure (DLE). On the other hand, Wind Chill Index (WCI), which is proposed to prevent local cooling, is better adapted to prevent cold injuries than physiological thermal strain; for example, impairment of manual dexterity cannot be prevented with this index.

  10. Exposure assessment for epidemiologic study of nuclear workers potentially exposed to beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Tankersley, W.G.; Cragle, D.L.; Hicks, N.V.; Googin, J.M.; Bean, G.L.

    1992-10-01

    In response to increased concern about possible exposure of Department of Energy workers to beryllium in the past, a pilot study was initiated to determine if an exposed population at Y-12 could be defined and to test the sensitivity of experimental clinical methods for diagnosing beryllium hypersensitivity.

  11. Exposure assessment for epidemiologic study of nuclear workers potentially exposed to beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Tankersley, W.G.; Cragle, D.L.; Hicks, N.V. ); Googin, J.M.; Bean, G.L. )

    1992-01-01

    In response to increased concern about possible exposure of Department of Energy workers to beryllium in the past, a pilot study was initiated to determine if an exposed population at Y-12 could be defined and to test the sensitivity of experimental clinical methods for diagnosing beryllium hypersensitivity.

  12. The potential DNA toxic changes among workers exposed to antimony trioxide.

    PubMed

    El Shanawany, Safaa; Foda, Nermine; Hashad, Doaa I; Salama, Naglaa; Sobh, Zahraa

    2017-05-01

    Occupational exposure to antimony has gained much interest when specific toxic effects were noticed among workers processing antimony. Thus, the aim of the present work was to investigate the potential DNA oxidative damage occurring among Egyptian workers occupationally exposed to antimony trioxide. The study was conducted on 25 subjects exposed to antimony trioxide while working in the polymerization process of polyester in Misrayon and Polyester Fiber Company, KafrEldawwar, Beheira, Egypt. Urinary antimony levels were assessed using inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and considered as a biological exposure index. DNA damage and total oxidant capacity (TOC) were assessed using ELISA. DNA damage was detected in the form of increased apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites among antimony trioxide-exposed workers compared to control subjects, but it could not be explained by oxidative mechanisms due to lack of significant correlation between DNA damage and measured TOC. Antimony trioxide might have a genotoxic impact on occupationally exposed workers which could not be attributed to oxidative stress in the studied cases.

  13. Study of skin and mucous membrane disorders among workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Vijay Kumar; Deswal, Balbir Singh; Singh, Bachu Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of dusts and fumes arising during the manufacture of sodium dichromate from chrome ore, chromic acid mist emitted during electroplating, and skin contact with chromate produce hazards to workers. (1) To elucidate the prevalence of skin and mucous membrane disorders among the workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry. (2) To know the relationship of prevalence with the duration of exposure to chrome mist, dust, and fumes. A cross-sectional study was conducted among all the workers engaged in sodium dichromate manufacturing and chrome plating from several industries situated near the Delhi-Haryana border in the districts of Faridabad and Sonepat of Haryana, India from January 01, 2014 to December 31, 2014. All the workers available from the concerned industries for the study were interviewed and medically examined after obtaining their informed consent. A total of 130 workers comprising 66 workers from the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and 64 workers from the chrome plating industry were examined on a pretested schedule. Descriptive statistical methods (proportions, relative risk, and Chi-square test of significance with P value analyzed using Epi Info version 7). All the workers were found to be males and of the adult age group. Out of the total examined, 69.69% and 56.22% of the workers had disorders of the nasal mucous membrane in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and the chrome plating industry, respectively. 42.42% and 28.22% of the workers had perforation of the nasal septum in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. 6.06% and 3.12% workers had skin ulcers in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. Nasal irritation and rhinorrhea were the most commonly found symptoms in both the processes. 48.48% and 90.52% of the workers were using hand gloves in the sodium dichromate manufacturing

  14. Mortality of aircraft maintenance workers exposed to trichloroethylene and other hydrocarbons and chemicals: extended follow up

    PubMed Central

    Radican, Larry; Blair, Aaron; Stewart, Patricia; Wartenberg, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Objective To extend follow-up of 14,455 workers from 1990 to 2000, and evaluate mortality risk from exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chemicals. Methods Multivariable Cox models were used to estimate relative risk for exposed vs. unexposed workers based on previously developed exposure surrogates. Results Among TCE exposed workers, there was no statistically significant increased risk of all-cause mortality (RR=1.04) or death from all cancers (RR=1.03). Exposure-response gradients for TCE were relatively flat and did not materially change since 1990. Statistically significant excesses were found for several chemical exposure subgroups and causes, and were generally consistent with the previous follow up. Conclusions Patterns of mortality have not changed substantially since 1990. While positive associations with several cancers were observed, and are consistent with the published literature, interpretation is limited due to the small numbers of events for specific exposures. PMID:19001957

  15. Chromosome damage and aneuploidy detected by interphase multicolour FISH in benzene-exposed shale oil workers.

    PubMed

    Marcon, F; Zijno, A; Crebelli, R; Carere, A; Veidebaum, T; Peltonen, K; Parks, R; Schuler, M; Eastmond, D

    1999-09-30

    A multicolour tandem-labelling fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure was used to detect chromosome alterations in peripheral blood cells of a group of Estonian petrochemistry workers. Twelve workers employed in benzene production and five cokery workers, together with eight unexposed rural controls, were enrolled in the study. The methodology employed, based on the in situ hybridization of adjacent centromeric and pericentromeric regions, allowed the simultaneous detection of both chromosome breakage, involving damage-prone pericentromeric regions, and hyperploidy in interphase cells. Blood smears from all subjects were hybridized with chromosome 1 specific probes, in order to detect genotoxic damage in circulating lymphocytes and granulocytes. Moreover, lymphocyte cultures were established, harvested 48 h following mitogen stimulation and hybridized with the tandem chromosomes 1 and 9 probes. No significant difference in the incidence of breakage was detected in the nucleated cells of blood smears of exposed vs. control subjects. In contrast, modest but significantly increased frequencies of breakage affecting both chromosomes 1 and 9 were observed in the cultured lymphocytes of the benzene-exposed workers compared to the unexposed controls, suggesting an expression of premutagenic lesions during the S-phase in vitro. Across the entire study group, the frequencies of breakage affecting chromosomes 1 and 9 in the stimulated lymphocytes were highly intercorrelated (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found in the incidence of hyperploidy among the study groups, although a tendency to higher values was observed in benzene-exposed workers. Although the relatively small size of the study groups does not allow firm conclusions on the role of occupational exposure, the observed patterns are suggestive of effects in the benzene-exposed workers. This work also shows that tandem labelling FISH can be usefully applied in human biomonitoring, allowing the

  16. Five-year cohort study: emphysematous progression of indium-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Uchida, Kazuhiko; Michikawa, Takehiro; Yoshioka, Noriyuki; Hirata, Miyuki; Tanaka, Akiyo

    2014-11-01

    Dose-dependent adverse lung effects due to indium exposure have been reported in a cross-sectional study. This is a 5-year longitudinal cohort study of indium-exposed and unexposed workers, assessing indium exposure levels and its clinical lung effects. From 2008 to 2011, a 5-year follow-up study was conducted on 40 unexposed and 240 workers formerly or currently exposed to indium at 11 factories. Indium exposure was assessed by serum indium (In-S) (μg/L). Lung effects were assessed by subjective symptoms, serum biomarkers, spirometry, and chest high-resolution CT scan. Effect biomarkers used were Krebs von den Lungen and surfactant protein D. Mean values of In-S, Krebs von den Lungen, and surfactant protein D among the workers exposed to indium at baseline declined during the 5-year follow-up by 29.8%, 27.2%, and 27.5%, respectively. Of the exposed subjects with In-S levels > 20 μg/L, 26.3% experienced emphysematous progression on high-resolution CT scan. Ninety percent (18 of 20) of workers with emphysematous progression during follow-up were current smokers at baseline, and a trend of increasing incidence of emphysematous progression at higher In-S levels was observed among the smokers (P = .005). Emphysematous changes among subjects with In-S levels > 20 μg/L were likely to progress, after adjusting for age, mean duration since initial indium exposure, and smoking history (OR = 10.49, 95% CI = 1.54-71.36). Long-term adverse effects on emphysematous changes were observed. The results suggest workers exposed to indium with In-S levels > 20 μg/L should be immediately removed from exposure.

  17. Estimation of cytogenetic risk among coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Sureshkumar, Shanmugam; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Devi, Subramaniam Mohana; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Karthickkumar, Alagamuthu; Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanian; Sankar, Kathannan; Mustaqahamed, Shafi Ahammed Khan; Dharwadkar, Shanwaz N; Sasikala, Keshavarao; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) result from the incomplete combustion of natural or synthetic organic materials. The working environment at a coke plant can negatively affect the employed workers who were exposed to coke oven emissions containing PAHs, which formed and released into the environment by the process of pyrolysis of coke. This study aims to analyze the relationship between the exposure of PAHs and the risk of genetic damages such as chromosomal alteration (CA), micronucleus (MN), and DNA damage (PCR-RFLP) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 27 coke oven workers and equal number of control subjects. The exposed subjects and controls were divided into two groups based on their age (group I<35 years and group II ≥35 years). The exposed subjects were further classified into two groups based on the exposure period (<12 years and ≥12 years). The frequencies of CA and MN in exposed subjects are relatively high with respect to controls. The XRCC1 399 Arg/gln polymorphism showed a substantial smaller difference in allele frequencies between exposed and control subjects. Based on present data, it was concluded that coke oven workers under risk should be monitored for adverse effects of the any long-term exposure.

  18. Leukemia-related chromosomal loss detected in hematopoietic progenitor cells of benzene-exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; Lan, Qing; Ji, Zhiying; Li, Guilan; Shen, Min; Vermeulen, Roel; Guo, Weihong; Hubbard, Alan E.; McHale, Cliona M.; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Hayes, Richard B.; Linet, Martha S.; Yin, Songnian; Smith, Martyn T.; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Benzene exposure causes acute myeloid leukemia, and hematotoxicity, shown as suppression of mature blood and myeloid progenitor cell numbers. As the leukemia-related aneuploidies monosomy 7 and trisomy 8 previously had been detected in the mature peripheral blood cells of exposed workers, we hypothesized that benzene could cause leukemia through the induction of these aneuploidies in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. We measured loss and gain of chromosomes 7 and 8 by fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) cells cultured from otherwise healthy benzene-exposed (n=28) and unexposed (n=14) workers. CFU-GM monosomy 7 and 8 levels (but not trisomy) were significantly increased in subjects exposed to benzene overall, compared to levels in the control subjects (p=0.0055 and p=0.0034, respectively). Levels of monosomy 7 and 8 were significantly increased in subjects exposed to <10 ppm (20%, p=0.0419 and 28%, p=0.0056, respectively) and ≥10 ppm (48%, p=0.0045 and 32%, p=0.0354) benzene, compared with controls, and significant exposure-response trends were detected (ptrend=0.0033 and 0.0057). These data show that monosomies 7 and 8 are produced in a dose-dependent fashion in the blood progenitor cells of workers exposed to benzene and may be mechanistically relevant biomarkers of early effect for benzene and other leukemogens. PMID:22643707

  19. Common musculoskeletal problem experienced by fishing industry workers

    PubMed Central

    Dabholkar, Tejashree Ajit; Nakhawa, Priyanka; Yardi, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a common health problem throughout the world and a major cause of disability in the workplace. Awkward working posture is a main risk factor for developing WMSDs. Assessment of exposure level to WMSDs risks can be an appropriate base for planning and implementing interventional ergonomics program in the workplace. Fihing in India is a major industry in the coastal states employing over 14 million people. The job demand of fishermen make them vulnerable for various musculoskeletal problems This study was conducted among workers of fishing industry in Mumbai, India with the objective to determine WMSDs prevalence in fishing industry. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 110 randomly selected workers from fishing industry, India, Mumbai, Anonymous questionnaire was used to study prevalence of WMSDs.visual analogue scale used to assess intensity of pain. Results: The results of NMQ revealed that WMSDs occurrence was high. The highest rates of WMSDs prevalence were reported in Low back(92.4%), Shoulder (64.8%) and Knee(31%) and Hand (25%). Conclusion: This study showed that maximum of the fishermen have musculoskeletal problem with the most common joint involved is low back and then followed by shoulder, knee, and hand. Ergonomic risk factor involved were found to be repeated pulling and throwing of the net as well as repeated bending forward action to lift heavy load and transfer that heavy load. PMID:25568597

  20. Contribution of mental workload to job stress in industrial workers.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, Elvia Luz; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Rodolfo E

    2007-01-01

    This study's central objective is to determine how several individual, organizational and ergonomic factors influence the relationship between job stress and mental workload for workers in an electronics company. A cross-sectional study was made as a test of hypotheses regarding that relationship. The sample is composed of 95 workers, of both sexes, from the electronics industry in the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Ergonomic conditions were evaluated with the Ergonomic Evaluation List, stress was evaluated by administering the SWS-Survey to groups of subjects, and mental workload was evaluated with the NASA-TLX Workload Index. Using Cochran's and Mantel-Haenzsel statistics, the odds ratio for each of the independent variables was {e}stimated as a risk factor for job stress, and analysis was later conducted by means of logistic regression for those risks found to be significant. Of the 95 worker participants, 26.3% presented a high level of job stress and 17.9% of the workers were found to present high levels of mental workload. The results show that working hours, mental demand, temporal demand, and frustration when faced with a given task may be considered risk factors for job stress.

  1. Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Cement Industry Workers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woo; Jang, Seung Hee; Ryu, Hyang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Cement contains hexavalent chromium, which is a human carcinogen. However, its effect on cancer seems inconclusive in epidemiologic studies. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to elucidate the association between dust exposure in the cement industry and cancer occurrence. Methods The cohorts consisted of male workers in 6 Portland cement factories in Korea. Study subjects were classified into five groups by job: quarry, production, maintenance, laboratory, and office work. Cancer mortality and incidence in workers were observed from 1992 to 2007 and 1997-2005, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios and standardized incidence ratios were calculated according to the five job classifications. Results There was an increased standardized incidence ratio for stomach cancer of 1.56 (27/17.36, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.26) in production workers. The standardized mortality ratio for lung cancer increased in production workers. However, was not statistically significant. Conclusion Our result suggests a potential association between cement exposure and stomach cancer. Hexavalent chromium contained in cement might be a causative carcinogen. PMID:22953208

  2. Use of molecular epidemiological techniques in a pilot study on workers exposed to chromium.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, M; Levy, L S; Faux, S P; Aw, T C; Braithwaite, R A; Brown, S S

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Molecular epidemiological techniques, capable of detecting damage to DNA, were used to see if such damage occurred in the lymphocytes of a group of workers exposed to chromium. The two aims of this pilot study were to see if these new techniques might make useful biological monitoring tools for workers exposed to chromium and also, to help assess whether the current occupational exposure limit for chromium (VI) was sufficiently protective in this specific working situation. METHODS--Volunteer groups of 10 workers exposed to chromium and 10 non-exposed workers provided urine and blood samples towards the end of the working week. Chromium concentrations were measured in whole blood, plasma, lymphocytes, and urine. Lymphocytes were used to examine two forms of DNA damage in the two groups; these were the level of DNA strand breakage and, the production of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. RESULTS--Chromium concentration in whole blood, plasma, and urine of workers exposed to chromium was significantly raised (P < 0.01) compared with non-exposed controls, but in isolated lymphocytes, there was only a modest but significant (P < 0.05) increase in chromium in the group exposed to chromium. There was no difference in the levels of DNA strand breaks or 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine between the groups. Air monitoring for chromium was not undertaken but current levels for the group exposed to chromium were reported to be around 0.01 mg/m3, which is 20% of the current United Kingdom occupational exposure limit. CONCLUSIONS--We were unable to detect any damage in lymphocytic DNA due to exposure to chromium. This may have been due to the low chromium exposure (< 20% of the United Kingdom occupational exposure limit), the ability of plasma to detoxify chromium (VI) to chromium (III) before it reached the lymphocytes, or perhaps the insensitivity of the molecular techniques used. It is now important to test these and other such techniques on groups exposed to levels closer to the

  3. Alterations in serum immunoglobulin levels in workers occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; Bassig, Bryan A.; Huang, Hanlin; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been associated with a variety of immunotoxic effects and may be associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Altered serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels have been reported in NHL patients and in animals exposed to TCE. Recently, we reported that occupational exposure to TCE is associated with immunosuppressive effects and immune dysfunction, including suppression of B-cell counts and activation, even at relatively low levels. We hypothesized that TCE exposure would also affect Ig levels in humans. We measured serum levels of IgG, IgM and IgE, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in TCE-exposed workers (n = 80) and unexposed controls (n = 45), matched by age and gender, in a cross-sectional, molecular epidemiology study of occupational exposure to TCE in Guangdong, China. Exposed workers had about a 17.5% decline in serum levels of IgG compared with unexposed controls (P = 0.0002). Similarly, serum levels of IgM were reduced by about 38% in workers exposed to TCE compared with unexposed controls (P < 0.0001). Serum levels of both IgG and IgM were significantly decreased in workers exposed to TCE levels below 12 p.p.m., the median exposure level. Adjustment for B-cell counts had minimal impact on our findings. IgE levels were not significantly different between exposed and control subjects. These results provide further evidence that TCE is immunotoxic at relatively low exposure levels and provide additional biologic plausibility for the reported association of TCE with NHL. PMID:23276795

  4. [The life-style of the industrial enterprise workers].

    PubMed

    Gadzhiev, R S; Alieva, L A

    2009-01-01

    To develop the theoretically substantiated recommendations on the formation of healthy life-style and decrease of morbidity among the enterprise workers the public opinion poll on the sampling of 955 respondents was organized. The specially developed questionnaire was applied. The study was carried out in 2007 in the Republic of Dagestan, the city of Makhachkala, on the industrial enterprise "The Gadjiev Plant". The study revealed that among the respondents the stated average monthly income per family member accounted for 1200 rubles in 20%, up to 3000 rubles in 48%, from 3000 to 5000 in 23% and more than 5000 rubles in 9.35%. It is established that in 67% of respondents more than a half of family budget is spend on food stuff. More than 70% of workers drink alcohol, and 33% smoke tobacco. In the structure of causes of unfavorable family relationships first position is for material non-security, second position is for housing non-security and third position is for conjoint residence with parents. The study results permitted to develop the target program on health improvement of working and mode of life conditions, formation of healthy life-style of the industrial enterprise workers.

  5. n-Hexane-induced changes in visual evoked potentials and electroretinograms of industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Seppäläinen, A M; Raitta, C; Huuskonen, M S

    1979-10-01

    Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and averaged extraocular electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded from 15 workers occupationally exposed to n-hexane for 5-21 years and from 10 healthy control persons. The amplitude of the VEP components was clearly smaller among the exposed subjects with the exception of N0, which tended to be larger. In addition, the latencies of P1 and N1 were longer among the exposed workers, while that of P2 was slightly shorter. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the ERGs was also diministed among the exposed subjects. The changes were interpreted to indicate cerebral dysfunction, probably conduction block in intracerebral axons. n-Hexane is an aliphatic hydrocarbon found in gasoline and used in various industrial applications. It has been shown to cause axonal neuropathy of the dying-back type in both experimental animals and humans. According to the present findings the central nervous system is alos susceptible to the toxic effects of n-hexane.

  6. A nine year follow up study of renal effects in workers exposed to cadmium in a zinc ore refinery.

    PubMed Central

    van Sittert, N J; Ribbens, P H; Huisman, B; Lugtenburg, D

    1993-01-01

    Renal changes with time have been studied in 14 workers engaged in the production of cadmium (Cd) in a zinc ore refinery. These workers were examined once a year in the period 1980 to 1985 and 13 of them also in 1989. Four of the workers (group A) had been employed in an old Cd plant before 1973 and had received higher exposures to Cd than the other workers (group B). Average urinary Cd concentrations over the whole study period in workers of group A ranged from 6.9 to 9.2 micrograms/g creatinine (median 8.4 micrograms/g) and in workers of group B from 0.64 to 7.1 micrograms/g creatinine (median 1.9 micrograms/g). Renal effects were assessed by the determination of urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M), retinol binding protein, albumin, total protein, and serum creatinine concentrations and activity. Urinary beta 2-M concentrations in three of four workers of group A were close to or marginally above the upper normal limit during the study period. The beta 2-microglobinuria was not, however, progressive. No values outside normal limits were detected for any of the other renal tests in workers of groups A and B, related to exposure to Cd. Dose-response relations showed that urinary Cd correlated significantly with urinary NAG activity and total protein and beta 2-M. The earliest change induced by Cd was seen for urinary NAG activity within normal limits of NAG excretion. The regression lines were similar in the surveys between 1981 and 1989, indicative of no progression to higher values for any of the renal tests. The current biological exposure index (BEI) of 10 micrograms/g creatinine for workers exposed to Cd, set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), therefore seems justified, although the safety margin is small. The World Health Organisation recommended limit and ACGIH (1992-3) proposed limit of 5 micrograms/g creatinine would provide a much larger safety margin, and could be regarded

  7. Industrial Characteristics and Employment of Older Manufacturing Workers in the Early-Twentieth-Century United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how industry-specific technological, organizational, and managerial features affected the employment of old male manufacturing workers in the early twentieth-century United States. Industrial characteristics favorably related to the employment of old industrial workers include high labor productivity, less capital- and material-intensive production, short workdays, low intensity of work, high job flexibility, and formalized employment relationship. Results show that aged industrial workers were heavily concentrated in “unfavorable” industries, suggesting that the contemporary argument of “industrial scrap heap” was applicable for most of the manufacturing workers in the early twentieth century United States. PMID:26989273

  8. The effects of α-tocopherol administration in chronically lead exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Nogaj, Ewa; Boroń, Marta; Birkner, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether α-tocopherol supplementation for workers who are chronically exposed to lead would normalize/improve the values of parameters that are associated with the lead-induced oxidative stress. Study population included chronically lead exposed males who were divided into two groups. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not given any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (αT group) received supplementation with α-tocopherol. After treatment, the blood lead and leukocyte malondialdehyde levels decreased significantly in the αT group compared to the baseline levels and reference group. However, the erythrocyte malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, and lipofuscin levels significantly increased compared to the baseline levels. The glutathione level significantly increased compared with the baseline. Effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol on oxidative damage were not satisfactory. Therefore, there is no reason to administer α-tocopherol to workers chronically exposed to lead as a prophylaxis of lead poisoning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mortality and causes of death among workers exposed to phosgene in 1943-45

    SciTech Connect

    Polednak, A.P.; Hollis, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    Mortality and causes of death from death certificates were analyzed among workers exposed to phosgene while working at a uranium-processing plant in Tennessee in 1943-45. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated by using death rates for U.S. white males. As of 1979, SMRs for all causes and for various selected causes were similar in 694 male chemical workers chronically exposed to low levels of phosgene in 1943-45 and in 9280 male controls who worked at the same plant. SMRs for diseases of the respiratory system were 107 (14 observed vs. 13.07 expected) in the chemical workers and 119 (292 observed vs. 245.75 expected) in the controls. In a group of 106 males who were acutely exposed to high levels of phosgene, there were 41 deaths observed vs. 33.87 expected (SMR = 121; 95% confidence limits = 86 and 165). One death, occurring within 24 hours of exposure, was from pulmonary edema due to phosgene poisoning (coded to accidental causes). Five deaths were coded to diseases of the respiratory system (SMR = 266; 95% CL = 86 and 622); in 2 of these 5 deaths, bronchitis due to phosgene exposure had been reported in 1945. Among 91 female workers with acute high-level phosgene exposure, frequencies of symptoms and early health effects (pneumonitis and bronchitis) differed from those reported for the 106 male cases; preliminary data on vital status of these females are too incomplete for analysis, and further follow-up is needed.

  10. Smoking imputation and lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E; Smith, Thomas J; Rosner, Bernard

    2006-09-01

    An association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer mortality in a large retrospective cohort study of US railroad workers has previously been reported. However, specific information regarding cigarette smoking was unavailable. Birth cohort, age, job, and cause of death specific smoking histories from a companion case-control study were used to impute smoking behavior for 39,388 railroad workers who died 1959-1996. Mortality analyses incorporated the effect of smoking on lung cancer risk. The smoking adjusted relative risk of lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaust compared to unexposed workers was 1.22 (95% CI = 1.12-1.32), and unadjusted for smoking the relative risk was 1.35 (95% CI = 1.24-1.46). These analyses illustrate the use of imputation in record-based occupational health studies to assess potential confounding due to smoking. In this cohort, small differences in smoking behavior between diesel exposed and unexposed workers did not explain the elevated lung cancer risk.

  11. Smoking imputation and lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E; Smith, Thomas J; Rosner, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Background An association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer mortality in a large retrospective cohort study of US railroad workers has previously been reported. However, specific information regarding cigarette smoking was unavailable. Methods Birth cohort, age, job, and cause of death specific smoking histories from a companion case-control study were used to impute smoking behavior for 39,388 railroad workers who died 1959–1996. Mortality analyses incorporated the effect of smoking on lung cancer risk. Results The smoking adjusted relative risk of lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaust compared to unexposed workers was 1.22 (95% CI=1.12–1.32), and unadjusted for smoking the relative risk was 1.35 (95% CI=1.24–1.46). Conclusions These analyses illustrate the use of imputation in record-based occupational health studies to assess potential confounding due to smoking. In this cohort, small differences in smoking behavior between diesel exposed and unexposed workers did not explain the elevated lung cancer risk. PMID:16767725

  12. Sperm quality and DNA integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Chao, Mu-Rong; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Zhou, Guodong; Chou, Chon-Kit; Lin, Wen-Yi

    2016-11-18

    The objective of this study was to assess sperm quality and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as compared to control subjects. The coke oven workers (N = 52) and administrative staff (N = 35) of a steel plant served as the exposed and control groups, respectively. Exposure to PAHs was assessed by measuring 1-hydroxypyren. Analysis of sperm quality (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology) was performed simultaneously with sperm DNA integrity analysis, including DNA fragmentation, denaturation, bulky DNA adducts, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo). A questionnaire was conducted to collect demographic and potential confounding data. The coke oven workers had lower percentages of sperm motility, vitality and normal morphology than the control group, but the difference was not significant. For DNA integrity, the coke oven workers had significantly higher concentrations of bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-dGuo than the control subjects (p = 0.009 and p = 0.048, respectively). However, DNA fragmentation percentages did not significantly increase as compared to those in the subjects from the control group (p = 0.232). There was no correlation between sperm quality parameters and DNA integrity indicators. Occupational exposure of the coke oven workers to PAHs was associated with decreased sperm DNA integrity. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):915-926.

  13. Mortality of workers exposed to ionizing radiation at the French National Electricity Company.

    PubMed

    Rogel, Agnès; Carré, Nicolas; Amoros, Emmanuèle; Bonnet-Belfais, Monique; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen; Calvez, Thierry; Hill, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of cancer in humans. Nuclear workers receive low doses over a relatively long period of time. A mortality study of a cohort of workers exposed to ionizing radiation at Electricité de France (EDF) was conducted. The cohort consisted of 22,395 individuals monitored for radiation exposure between 1961 and 1994, and followed-up for an average of 11.7 years. Our study demonstrates a clear healthy worker effect (HWE) since mortality is less than half what is expected from National mortality statistics. The HWE is greater among workers who have spent most of their career in the nuclear sector. The analysis by cancer site shows no excess compared with the general population. No significant trend was observed according to level of exposure to ionizing radiation. The mortality of workers exposed to ionizing radiation at the French National Electricity company is very low compared to the French national mortality. Copyright (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Evaluation of the national health surveillance program of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain (2008).

    PubMed

    Gómez, Montserrat García; Castañeda, Rosario; López, Vega García; Vidal, Manuel Martínez; Villanueva, Vicent; Espinosa, Mercedes Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Although asbestos was banned in Spain in 2001, monitoring the health of previously-exposed workers is required. In 2002 the Ministry of Health and the autonomous regions of Spain planned a health surveillance program for workers exposed to asbestos (Programa de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores Expuestos al Amianto [PIVISTEA]) with employers' organizations, trade unions and scientific societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PIVISTEA to improve its effectiveness. A questionnaire with indicators for the year 2008 was sent to Spain's 17 autonomous regions, as well as to the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. The results were analyzed by evaluating the compliance of each program with the activities established by the PIVISTEA. In December 2008, a total of 22,158 workers from 14 autonomous regions and 306 companies were included in the program. The program had been started in 88% of the regions but surveillance activities remained scarce in 24%. Fifty-seven percent of the autonomous regions (69% of the total number of workers) provided the information requested. Seven autonomous regions provided data on the relationship between the diseases found and asbestos exposure. Only 5% of these diseases entitled affected individuals to receive compensation for occupational diseases. The health surveillance of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain, as well as medical-legal recognition of diseases caused by exposure at work, remain in adequate. Although the trend is positive, the effectiveness of many regional programs is limited, and inter-regional inequalities among affected workers have been detected. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of DNA damage in WBCs of workers occupationally exposed to fumes and aerosols of bitumen.

    PubMed

    Marczynski, Boleslaw; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Preuss, Ralf; Kappler, Martin; Schott, Klaus; Pesch, Beate; Zoubek, Gerd; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Mensing, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Brüning, Thomas

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a cross-shift study with 66 bitumen-exposed mastic asphalt workers and 49 construction workers without exposure to bitumen. Exposure was assessed using personal monitoring of airborne bitumen exposure, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and the sum of 1-, 2 + 9-,3-,4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH). Genotoxic effects in WBC were determined with nonspecific DNA adduct levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and the formation of DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites. Concentration of fumes and aerosols of bitumen correlated significantly with the concentrations of 1-OHP and OHPH after shift (r(s) = 0.27; P = 0.03 and r(s) = 0.55; P < 0.0001, respectively). Bitumen-exposed workers had more DNA strand breaks than the reference group (P < 0.0001) at both time points and a significant correlation with 1-OHP and OHPH in the postshift urines (r(s) = 0.32; P = 0.001 and r(s) = 0.27; P = 0.004, respectively). Paradoxically, we measured higher levels of DNA strand breaks, although not significant, in both study groups before shift. 8-OxodGuo adduct levels did not correlate with DNA strand breaks. Further, 8-oxodGuo levels were associated neither with personal exposure to bitumen nor with urinary metabolite concentrations. Significantly more DNA adducts were observed after shift not only in bitumen-exposed workers but also in the reference group. Only low-exposed workers had significantly elevated 8-oxodGuo adduct levels before as well as after shift (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.02, respectively). Our results show that exposure to fumes and aerosols of bitumen may contribute to an increased DNA damage assessed with strand breaks.

  16. National epidemiologic surveillance systems of asbestos-related disease and the exposed workers register.

    PubMed

    Marinaccio, A; Branchi, Claudia; Massari, Stefania; Scarselli, A

    2006-01-01

    Italy was the main European producer of asbestos for most of the 20th century and raw asbestos imports wee also significant until the 1990's; there was a mean delay of about ten years in the pattern of asbestos consumption in Italy compared with the USA, Australia, UK and Scandinavian countries. A national surveillance system (ReNaM) was implemented to identify cases of mesothelioma and investigate the modalities of asbestos exposure. A register of exposed workers and a database of companies presumably involved in the asbestos exposure problem was also developed. ReNaM has a regional structure and an operative centres (COR) have been established in 16 Italian regions. The ReNaM database currently contains more than 5,000 mesothelioma cases and for 3,500 of these exposure modalities have been defined. Cases of pleural mesothelioma represent 93% of the total but there were also 334 cases of peritoneal mesothelioma, 15 of the pericardium and 14 of the tunica vaginalis of the testicle. Cases with ascertained exposure are thus distributed: 67.4% occupational exposure (ascertained, probable, possible), 4.3% domestic, 4.2% environmental and 1.3% hobby-related exposure, totalling 77.2%; 22.8% had unlikely or unknown exposure. The latency period is very long: on average 43.6 years. The register of asbestos-exposed workers contains figures on exposed workers notified to ISPESL up to 2004 and refers to the exposure period 1993-2003. The data registered cover 160 firms and about 700 workers. A national, coordinated and uniform epidemiological surveillance system of cases of mesothelioma and the definition of asbestos exposure through active research is extremely important in identifying unexpected contaminating sources. The register of asbestos-exposed workers allows risk to be monitored and protection measures to be implemented.

  17. URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

  18. URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

  19. Paraoxonase-1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Thakur, Sachin; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Ichhpujani, Rattan Lal; Rai, Arvind

    2011-04-15

    Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a lipoprotein-associated enzyme involved in the detoxification of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) by hydrolyzing the bioactive oxons. Polymorphisms of the PON1 gene are responsible for variation in the expression and catalytic activity of PON1 enzyme. In the present study, we have determined (a) the prevalence of two common PON1 polymorphisms, (b) the activity of PON1 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes, and (c) the influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes variation on DNA damage in workers exposed to OPs. We examined 230 subjects including 115 workers exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The results revealed that PON1 activity toward paraoxon (179.19 {+-} 39.36 vs. 241.52 {+-} 42.32 nmol/min/ml in controls) and phenylacetate (112.74 {+-} 17.37 vs. 134.28 {+-} 25.49 {mu}mol/min/ml in controls) was significantly lower in workers than in control subjects (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the distribution of genotypes and allelic frequencies of PON1{sub 192}QR (Gln/Arg) and PON1{sub 55}LM (Leu/Met) in workers and control subjects (p > 0.05). The PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was found to be significantly higher in the R/R (Arg/Arg) genotypes than Q/R (Gln/Arg) and lowest in Q/Q (Gln/Gln) genotypes in both workers and control subjects (p < 0.001). For PON1{sub 55}LM (Leu/Met), PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was observed to be higher in individuals with L/L (Leu/Leu) genotypes and lowest in individuals with M/M (Met/Met) genotypes in both groups (p < 0.001). No influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes was seen on the activity of acetylcholinesterase and arylesterase. The DNA damage was observed to be significantly higher in workers than in control subjects (p < 0.05). Further, the individuals who showed least paraoxonase activity i.e., those with (Q/Q [Gln/Gln] and M/M [Met/Met]) genotypes showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to other isoforms in workers exposed to OPs (p < 0

  20. Cancer incidence among 41,000 offshore oil industry workers.

    PubMed

    Stenehjem, J S; Kjærheim, K; Rabanal, K S; Grimsrud, T K

    2014-10-01

    Cancer incidence among Norwegian offshore oil industry workers has been studied in two equally sized cohorts of 28000 workers, in a survey-based cohort study followed 1999-2005 and a register-based cohort study followed 1981-2003. To determine the overall cancer incidence in both cohorts merged, with an extended follow-up. The merged cohort yielded 41,140 individuals followed for cancer diagnoses 1999-2009. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed by gender and by period of first employment using cancer registry data. Among female workers, the total number of cancers was slightly higher than expected (SIR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.34), and excesses of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (SIR 5.29, 95% CI 1.72-12), malignant melanoma (SIR 2.13, 95% CI 1.41-3.08) and lung cancer (SIR 1.69, 95% CI 1.03-2.61) were observed. Among male workers, the total number of cancer cases was close to that expected (SIR 1.03, 95% CI 0.99-1.08), but cases of pleural cancer (SIR 2.56, 95% CI 1.58-3.91) and bladder cancer (SIR 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.49) were higher than expected. Among male workers first employed before 1986, the numbers of observed cancer cases were higher than expected for most sites, while this was not evident among those employed later. Further studies with exposure data and confounder control are needed to address whether the observed excesses of pleural cancer and AML can be attributed to offshore work. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Nasal cell micronuclei, cytology and clinical symptoms in stainless steel production workers exposed to chromium.

    PubMed

    Huvinen, Markku; Mäkitie, Antti; Järventaus, Hilkka; Wolff, Henrik; Stjernvall, Tuula; Hovi, Arja; Hirvonen, Ari; Ranta, Riikka; Nurminen, Markku; Norppa, Hannu

    2002-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether workers in stainless steel production with low exposure to various forms of chromium show an increase in micronucleated nasal cells or an excess of nasal symptoms or disease. Altogether, 48 workers employed in a stainless steel production chain were studied, 29 of them in the steel melting shop with exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)), 14 in the sintering and crushing departments of the ferrochromium plant with exposure to trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) and five in the mine with exposure to chromite ore (Cr(3+)). Thirty-nine workers from the cold rolling mill, with very low exposure to chromium, served as referents. All the subjects were never smokers with a minimum of 14 years employment in the same department. There were no significant differences between the exposure groups and the referents regarding the mean frequency of centromere-negative or centromere-positive micronuclei (studied by pancentromeric fluorescence in situ hybridization), nasal diseases and symptoms or mucociliary clearance of the nasal cavity. No statistically significant differences in the incidence of cell atypia or inflammatory cells were detected between the exposed workers and the reference group, except for an increase in lymphocytes among the chromite ore workers. Anterior rhinoscopy indicated slight inflammatory changes in nasal mucosa and secretion more often in the Cr(6+) and Cr(3+) groups than in the referents, the Cr(6+)-exposed workers showing more livid or oedemic epithelium. In conclusion, the stainless steel production workers, with low exposure to dusts or fumes containing hexavalent or trivalent chromium, did not show clinical changes in the nasal mucosa or an increase in nasal cell micronuclei or symptoms of nasal diseases, except for slight changes in the nasal epithelium and secretion.

  2. Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene Levels in Workers Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon from Rubber Wood Burning

    PubMed Central

    Choosong, Thitiworn; Phakthongsuk, Pitchaya; Tekasakul, Surajit; Tekasakul, Perapong

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was selected as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to explore the accumulation level in the bodies of workers at rubber smoke sheet factories in southern Thailand. Methods Spot urine samples were taken from four groups of workers from June 2006 to November 2007. The nonexposure or control groups included habitual cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. The other two groups were workers exposed to particle-bound PAHs from rubber wood smoke and they were nonsmokers. All spot urine samples were analyzed for 1-OHP and creatinine levels. Results The mean ± standard deviation urinary 1-OHP in the control group of habitual smokers and the nonsmokers was 0.24 ± 0.16 μmol/mol creatinine and not-detected to 0.14 μmol/mol creatinine, respectively. In the workers, the 1-OHP levels on workdays had no significant difference from the 1-OHP levels on the days off. The yearly average 1-OHP level was 0.76 ± 0.41 μmol/mol creatinine whereas the average 1-OHP level during 10 consecutive workdays was 1.06 ± 0.29 μmol/mol creatinine (p > 0.05). Conclusion The urinary 1-OHP levels of workers exposed to PAHs were high. The accumulation of 1-OHP in the body was not clear although the workers had long working hours with few days off during their working experience. Therefore, a regular day off schedule and rotation shift work during high productive RSS should be set for RSS workers. PMID:25180139

  3. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon from rubber wood burning.

    PubMed

    Choosong, Thitiworn; Phakthongsuk, Pitchaya; Tekasakul, Surajit; Tekasakul, Perapong

    2014-06-01

    Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was selected as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to explore the accumulation level in the bodies of workers at rubber smoke sheet factories in southern Thailand. Spot urine samples were taken from four groups of workers from June 2006 to November 2007. The nonexposure or control groups included habitual cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. The other two groups were workers exposed to particle-bound PAHs from rubber wood smoke and they were nonsmokers. All spot urine samples were analyzed for 1-OHP and creatinine levels. The mean ± standard deviation urinary 1-OHP in the control group of habitual smokers and the nonsmokers was 0.24 ± 0.16 μmol/mol creatinine and not-detected to 0.14 μmol/mol creatinine, respectively. In the workers, the 1-OHP levels on workdays had no significant difference from the 1-OHP levels on the days off. The yearly average 1-OHP level was 0.76 ± 0.41 μmol/mol creatinine whereas the average 1-OHP level during 10 consecutive workdays was 1.06 ± 0.29 μmol/mol creatinine (p > 0.05). The urinary 1-OHP levels of workers exposed to PAHs were high. The accumulation of 1-OHP in the body was not clear although the workers had long working hours with few days off during their working experience. Therefore, a regular day off schedule and rotation shift work during high productive RSS should be set for RSS workers.

  4. Exploring a new method for the biological monitoring of plastic workers exposed to the vinyl chloride monomer.

    PubMed

    Azari, Mansour Rezazadeh; Tayefeh-Rahimian, Raana; Jafari, Mohamad Javad; Souri, Hamid; Shokoohi, Yasser; Tavakol, Alaheh; Yazdanbakhsh, Zahra

    2016-12-01

    Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is widely used in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. VCM is recognized as a confirmed human and animal carcinogenic compound. Recent studies have reported poor health of plastic workers, even having exposure at concentrations below the permissible limit to VCM. There has not been any study regarding exposed workers to VCM in Iran. Similarly, no information exists as to the biological monitoring of such workers. The main purpose of this study was to conduct a thorough occupational and biological monitoring of Iranian plastic workers exposed to VCM.A total of 100 workers from two plastic manufacturing plants (A and B) in Tehran along with 25 unexposed workers as controls were studied. The personal monitoring of all nonsmoking workers exposed to VCM at two plastic manufacturing plants (A and B) was performed in the morning shift (8 a.m. to 4 p.m.) according to the National Institute For Occupational Safety And Health method no. 1007.Biological monitoring of workers was carried out through collection of exhaled breath of all exposed and control workers in Tedlar bags and with a subsequent analysis using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector.Not only the mean occupational exposure of workers to VCM at plant A was higher than the respective threshold limit value but also the statistical significance was higher than workers at plant B. Similarly, VCM concentration in exhaled breath of workers at plant A was also statistically significantly higher than at plant B. Correlation of occupational exposure of all workers to vinyl chloride with its concentration in exhaled breath was statistically significant.This is the first study on biological monitoring for exposed plastic workers to VCM using exhaled breath. On the basis of the results in this study, a novel method of biological monitoring of plastic workers was proposed.

  5. Environmental noise-exposed workers: event-related potentials, neuropsychological and mood assessment.

    PubMed

    Chiovenda, Paola; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Zappasodi, Filippo; Ercolani, Matilde; Milazzo, Daniele; Tomei, Gianfranco; Capozzella, Assuntina; Tomei, Francesco; Rossini, Paolo M; Tecchio, Franca

    2007-09-01

    Prolonged environmental noise exposure can induce pathogenic effects on various physical and psychosocial responses. The first aim of this study was to investigate whether long-term occupational noise exposure could affect neurophysiological, neuropsychological and emotional statuses, with particular respect to attention and working memory. The second aim was to evaluate the effects on the tactile P300 of a specific stressor (background traffic noise) vs a non-specific stress inductor (Stroop test). The comparison between a group of noise-exposed workers (traffic police officers), and a control group (office employees) did not show marked differences in cognitive and emotional profiles. The amplitude of the baseline cognitive potential (P300), recorded during a tactile (electric) discrimination task, resulted higher in noise-exposed workers than in controls, and this enhancement was associated with a lower level of trait anxiety and better mood profiles. Moreover, we found a wider P300 amplitude reduction in traffic police officers than in controls, under noisy conditions due to traffic. The effect of the Stroop test as a stress inductor was negligible and similar in the two groups. The wider amplitude of the non-auditory P300 in traffic police officers in the baseline condition could be a sign of cross-modal cerebral plasticity enhancing attentive processes in the 'stress-free' sensory channel. In addition, noise-exposed workers presented a higher cerebral sensitivity to stress selectively when they were exposed to the habitual environmental stressor.

  6. Dental health in workers previously exposed to mercury vapour at a chloralkali plant.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, R I; Ellingsen, D G; Olstad, M L; Kjuus, H

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The dental health of 73 workers previously exposed to mercury vapour at a chloralkali plant was studied and compared with that of 51 non-exposed referents. METHODS--A record of oral, periodontal, gingival and mucosal conditions, including teeth, restorations, prostheses, and oral hygiene, was established during a 30 min examination. The participants' periodontal conditions were assessed according to the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN). The results with the CPITN index were also compared with previously published data for another similar population. RESULTS--There was no significant difference between the exposed workers and the referents with respect to the number of remaining teeth, amount of amalgam restorations, crowns, bridges, or endodontically treated teeth. The oral hygiene among the exposed workers was significantly better than among the referents, but the periodontal health conditions did not significantly differ between the two groups, nor from those of another Norwegian population. DISCUSSION--The present results seem to contradict previous reports claiming tooth loss as a possible result of exposure to mercury vapour. PMID:8000488

  7. Increase of olfactory threshold in plating factory workers exposed to chromium in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Fumihiko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Araki, Shunichi; Nishikitani, Mariko; Choi, Jae-Wook; Yum, Youg-Tae; Park, Hee-Chan; Park, Sang-Hwoi; Sato, Hajime

    2003-07-01

    To disclose the effects of chromium (Cr) on olfactory function, olfactory threshold tests were conducted on 27 male plating workers (Cr workers) with signs and symptoms of olfactory irritation but without nasal septum perforation or ulcer and on 34 male control subjects in Korean plating factories. The Cr workers had been exposed to Cr fume for 0.9 to 18.2 (mean 7.9) years; their blood Cr concentrations (0.16-3.69, mean 1.29 microg/dl) were significantly higher than those of the 34 control subjects (0.04-1.95, mean 0.55 microg/dl). Scores on recognition thresholds among the Cr workers were significantly higher than those of the control subjects (p < 0.05) and related positively and significantly to the exposure periods of the 27 Cr workers (p < 0.05). Olfactory thresholds were not significantly different between the Cr workers with and without nasal signs or symptoms, except that the scores on the recognition threshold were significantly higher in those experiencing difficulty with smell (p < 0.05). It is suggested that olfactory threshold is affected by Cr without development of nasal septum perforation or ulceration.

  8. Injuries among electric power industry workers, 1995-2013.

    PubMed

    Volberg, Vitaly; Fordyce, Tiffani; Leonhard, Megan; Mezei, Gabor; Vergara, Ximena; Krishen, Lovely

    2017-02-01

    Workers in the electric power industry face many risks of injury due to the high diversity of work tasks performed in potentially hazardous and unpredictable work environments. We calculated injury rates by age, sex, occupational group, and injury type among workers in the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) Occupational Health and Safety Database (OHSD), which contains recordable injury, medical claims, and personnel data from 18 participating electric power companies from 1995 to 2013. The OHSD includes a total of 63,193 injuries over 1,977,436 employee-years of follow-up, for an overall injury rate of 3.20 injuries per 100 employee-years. Annual injury rates steadily decreased from 1995 to 2000, increased sharply in 2001, and subsequently decreased to their lowest rate of 1.31 injuries per 100 employee-years in 2013. Occupations with the highest injury rates were welders (13.56 per 100 employee-years, 95% CI 12.74-14.37), meter readers (12.04 per 100 employee-years, 95% CI 11.77-12.31), and line workers (10.37 per 100 employee-years, 95% CI 10.19-10.56). Males had an overall higher injury rate compared to females (2.74 vs. 1.61 per 100 employee-years) although some occupations, such as meter reader, had higher injury rates for females. For all workers, injury rates were highest for those in the 21 to 30 age group (3.70 per 100 employee-years) and decreased with age. Welders and machinists did not follow this trend and had higher injury rates in the 65+ age group. There were 63 fatalities over the 1995 to 2013 period, with 21 fatalities (33.3%) occurring among line workers. Although injury rates have decreased over time, certain high-risk groups remain (i.e., line workers, mechanics, young males, older welders and machinists, and female meter readers). Protective measures and targeted safety programs may be warranted to ensure the safety of electric power workers. Copyright © 2016 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the effects of occupational noise exposure on serum aldosterone and potassium among industrial workers

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Sajad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi

    2016-01-01

    The existing literature indicates that occupational exposure to noise may have adverse effects on workers’ health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of exposure to different sound pressure levels (SPLs) on serum aldosterone and potassium concentration among Iranian blue collar workers in Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company in Sirjan, Kerman Province, Iran. This case-control study was performed on 45 workers of Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company. The subjects consisted of 30 workers from manufacturing departments and 15 office employees of the mining company. The controls, mainly with administrative jobs were exposed to 72 dBA SPL. Cases, in two separate groups, were exposed to noise levels of 88 dBA and 103 dBA, respectively. Noise intensity was measured at the desired locations. Noise measurements were performed according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9612. To measure the serum aldosterone and potassium concentrations, a 5 mL blood sample was taken from each worker at the specified time intervals and aldosterone concentration was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test in the laboratory. Repeated measurement and Spearman's correlation coefficient analysis were used with α = 0.05. Exposure to the different levels of sound pressure resulted in different aldosterone concentrations and meanwhile an increase in the SPL did not affect the concentration of potassium. From 10:00 AM to 10:30 AM, as SPL increased, aldosterone concentrations did not increase significantly but from 13:30 PM to 14:00 PM, raised SPL led to a significant increase in aldosterone concentration. However, there was no correlation between the concentration of potassium and different factors. This study indicated that increases in SPLs affect aldosterone concentration but at the same time do not have significant effects on serum potassium level. PMID:26780955

  10. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Fry, D M

    1995-10-01

    Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological effects producing skeletal abnormalities and impaired differentiation of the reproductive and nervous systems through mechanisms of hormonal mimicking of estrogens. The range of chemical effects on adult birds covers acute mortality, sublethal stress, reduced fertility, suppression of egg formation, eggshell thinning, and impaired incubation and chick rearing behaviors. The types of pollutants shown to cause reproductive effects include organochlorine pesticides and industrial pollutants, organophosphate pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and in a fewer number of reports, herbicides, and fungicides. o,p'-DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mixtures of organochlorines have been identified as environmental estrogens affecting populations of gulls breeding in polluted "hot spots" in southern California, the Great Lakes, and Puget Sound. Estrogenic organochlorines represent an important class of toxicants to birds because differentiation of the avian reproductive system is estrogen dependent.

  11. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.M.

    1995-10-01

    Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological effects producing skeletal abnormalities and impaired differentiation of the reproductive and nervous systems through mechanisms of hormonal mimicking of estrogens. The range of chemical effects on adult birds covers acute mortality, sublethal stress, reduced fertility, suppression of egg formation, eggshell thinning, and impaired incubation and chick rearing behaviors. The types of pollutants shown to cause reproductive effects include organochlorine pesticides and industrial pollutants, organophosphate pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and in a fewer number of reports, herbicides, and fungicides. o,p`-DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mixtures of organochlorines have been identified as environmental estrogens affecting populations of gulls breeding in polluted {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} in southern California, the Great Lakes, and Puget Sound. Estrogenic organochlorines represent an important class of toxicants to birds because differentiation of the avian reproductive system is estrogen dependent. 85 refs.

  12. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Fry, D M

    1995-01-01

    Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological effects producing skeletal abnormalities and impaired differentiation of the reproductive and nervous systems through mechanisms of hormonal mimicking of estrogens. The range of chemical effects on adult birds covers acute mortality, sublethal stress, reduced fertility, suppression of egg formation, eggshell thinning, and impaired incubation and chick rearing behaviors. The types of pollutants shown to cause reproductive effects include organochlorine pesticides and industrial pollutants, organophosphate pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and in a fewer number of reports, herbicides, and fungicides. o,p'-DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mixtures of organochlorines have been identified as environmental estrogens affecting populations of gulls breeding in polluted "hot spots" in southern California, the Great Lakes, and Puget Sound. Estrogenic organochlorines represent an important class of toxicants to birds because differentiation of the avian reproductive system is estrogen dependent. PMID:8593865

  13. Metabolic Polymorphisms and Clinical Findings Related to Benzene Poisoning Detected in Exposed Brazilian Gas-Station Workers.

    PubMed

    Mitri, Simone; Fonseca, Antônio Sérgio Almeida; Otero, Ubirani Barros; Tabalipa, Marianne Medeiros; Moreira, Josino Costa; Sarcinelli, Paula de Novaes

    2015-07-21

    Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and an important industrial chemical present in both gasoline and motor vehicle emissions. Occupational human exposure to benzene occurs in the petrochemical and petroleum refining industries as well as in gas-station workers, where it can lead to benzene poisoning (BP), but the mechanisms of BP are not completely understood. In Brazil, a significant number of gas-station service workers are employed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate alterations related to BP and metabolic polymorphisms in gas-station service workers exposed to benzene in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Occupational exposure was based on clinical findings related to BP, and metabolic polymorphisms in 114 Brazilian gas-station attendants. These workers were divided into No Clinical Findings (NCF) and Clinical Findings (CF) groups. Neutrophil and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) showed a significant difference between the two study groups, and neutrophil has the greatest impact on the alterations suggestive of BP. The clinical findings revealed higher frequencies of symptoms in the CF group, although not all members presented statistical significance. The frequencies of alleles related to risk were higher in the CF group for GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP2E1 7632T > A, but lower for NQO1 and CYP2E1 1053C > T genotypes. Moreover, an association was found between GSTM1 null and alterations related to BP, but we did not observe any effects of other polymorphisms. Variations in benzene metabolizing genes may modify benzene toxicity and should be taken into consideration during risk assessment evaluations.

  14. Metabolic Polymorphisms and Clinical Findings Related to Benzene Poisoning Detected in Exposed Brazilian Gas-Station Workers

    PubMed Central

    Mitri, Simone; Fonseca, Antônio Sérgio Almeida; Otero, Ubirani Barros; Tabalipa, Marianne Medeiros; Moreira, Josino Costa; Sarcinelli, Paula de Novaes

    2015-01-01

    Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and an important industrial chemical present in both gasoline and motor vehicle emissions. Occupational human exposure to benzene occurs in the petrochemical and petroleum refining industries as well as in gas-station workers, where it can lead to benzene poisoning (BP), but the mechanisms of BP are not completely understood. In Brazil, a significant number of gas-station service workers are employed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate alterations related to BP and metabolic polymorphisms in gas-station service workers exposed to benzene in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Occupational exposure was based on clinical findings related to BP, and metabolic polymorphisms in 114 Brazilian gas-station attendants. These workers were divided into No Clinical Findings (NCF) and Clinical Findings (CF) groups. Neutrophil and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) showed a significant difference between the two study groups, and neutrophil has the greatest impact on the alterations suggestive of BP. The clinical findings revealed higher frequencies of symptoms in the CF group, although not all members presented statistical significance. The frequencies of alleles related to risk were higher in the CF group for GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP2E1 7632T > A, but lower for NQO1 and CYP2E1 1053C > T genotypes. Moreover, an association was found between GSTM1 null and alterations related to BP, but we did not observe any effects of other polymorphisms. Variations in benzene metabolizing genes may modify benzene toxicity and should be taken into consideration during risk assessment evaluations. PMID:26197327

  15. Industrial hygiene programs for workers' health protection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cecchetti, G; Peruzzo, G F; Sordelli, D

    1988-06-01

    The recent Health and Safety Act devolves the management of workers' health protection to new local authorities named "Local Sanitary Units." The specific program is framed in the existing state regulations and is in agreement with European community politics regarding health risks arising from the industrial use of particular substances like lead, asbestos, benzene, PCBs and others. The rapid industrial growth during recent years put into evidence completely new and numerous risks with the result of both qualitative and quantitative modifications of occupational diseases which existed in the years preceding the second world war. This rapid and remarkable change required a general adjustment in the country, which involved universities, government and industry. At the same time, the need of new relationships between occupational risks and insurance management rose. Beginning in the seventies, the Italian Industrial Hygiene Association [Associazione Italiana Degli Igienisti Industriali (A.I.D.I.I.)] promoted the progress of industrial hygiene in Italy through national and international conferences, continuous educational activities and participation with government standard-setting committees. The trend in A.I.D.I.I. future activities embraces the development of standard evaluation and control procedures and the improvement of research following European guidelines in strict cooperation with correlated European and American organizations.

  16. Lung cancer risk among workers in the construction industry: results from two case-control studies in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Lacourt, Aude; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Richardson, Lesley; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2015-09-22

    Given the large number of workers in the construction industry, it is important to derive accurate and valid estimates of cancer risk, and in particular lung cancer risk. In most previous studies, risks among construction workers were compared with general populations including blue and white collar workers. The main objectives of this study were to assess whether construction workers experience excess lung cancer risk, and whether exposure to selected construction industry exposures carries excess risks. We wished to address these objectives within the sub-population of blue collar workers. Two case-control studies were conducted in Montreal. Combined, they included 1593 lung cancer cases and 1427 controls, of whom 1304 cases and 1081 controls had been blue collar workers. Detailed lifetime job histories were obtained and translated by experts into histories of exposure to chemical agents. The two key analyses were to estimate odds ratio (OR) estimates of lung cancer risk: a) for all blue-collar construction workers compared with other blue-collar workers, and b) for construction workers exposed to each of 20 exposure agents found in the construction industry compared with construction workers unexposed to those agents. All analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for socio-demographic factors and smoking history. The OR for all construction workers combined was 1.11 (95 % CI: 0.90-1.38), based on 381 blue collar construction workers. Analyses of specific exposures were hampered by small numbers and imprecise estimates. While none of 20 occupational agents examined was significantly associated with lung cancer, the following agents manifested non-significantly elevated ORs: asbestos, silica, Portland cement, soil dust, calcium oxide and calcium sulfate. Compared with other blue collar workers, there was only a slight increased risk of lung cancer for subjects who ever held an occupation in the construction industry. The analyses of

  17. An expanded cohort study of cancer among benzene-exposed workers in China

    SciTech Connect

    Song-Nian Yin; Gui-Lan Li; Zhi-Nan Zhang

    1996-12-01

    An expanded cohort study of 74,828 benzene-exposed and 35,805 unexposed workers were followed during 1972 to 1987, based on a previous study in 12 cities in China. A small increase was observed in total cancer mortality among benzene-exposed compared with unexposed Workers (relative risk [RR] = 1-2). Statistically significant excesses were noted for leukemia (RR = 2.3), malignant lymphoma (RR = 4.5), and lung cancer (RR = 1.4). When risks were evaluated by leukemia subtype, only acute myelogenous leukemia was significantly elevated (RR = 3.1), although nonsignificant excesses were also noted for chronic myelogenous leukemia (RR = 2.6) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (RR = 2.3). A significant excess was also found for aplastic anemia. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Silicosis in Workers Exposed to Artificial Quartz Conglomerates: Does It Differ From Chronic Simple Silicosis?

    PubMed

    Paolucci, Valentina; Romeo, Riccardo; Sisinni, Antonietta Gerardina; Bartoli, Dusca; Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Sartorelli, Pietro

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a number of reports have been published on silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates containing high levels of crystalline silica particles (70-90%) used in the construction of kitchen and bathroom surfaces. Three cases of silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates are reported. The diagnosis was derived from both the International Labour Office and the International Classification of HRCT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) classifications and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In 2 cases, levels of respirable silica greatly in excess of recommended standards were measured in the workplace, and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid highlighted a prevalence of lymphocytes, meeting criteria for the diagnosis of accelerated silicosis. The prevention of pneumoconiosis caused by the use of innovative materials, such as artificial conglomerates with high crystalline silica content must be addressed.

  19. Biological monitoring of aromatic diisocyanates in workers exposed to thermal degradation products of polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Christina; Nikkilä, Kirsi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Peltonen, Kimmo; Engströrm, Kerstin

    2002-10-01

    Exposure to diisocyanates was assessed by biological monitoring among workers exposed to the thermal degradation products of polyurethanes (PURs) in five PUR-processing environments. The processes included grinding and welding in car repair shops, milling and turning of PUR-coated metal cylinders, injection moulding of thermoplastic PUR, welding and cutting of PUR-insulated district heating pipes during installation and joint welding, and heat-flexing of PUR floor covering. Isocyanate-derived amines in acid-hydrolysed urine samples were analysed as perfluoroacylated derivatives by gas chromatography mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionisation mode. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for the aromatic diamines 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine (2,4- and 2,6-TDA) and 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4'-MDA) were 0.25 nmol l(-1), 0.25 nmol l(-1) and 0.15 nmol l(-1), respectively. The LOQ for the aliphatic diamines hexamethylenediamine (HDA), isophoronediamine (IpDA) and 4,4'-diaminodicyclohexyl methane (4,4'-DDHM) was 5 nmol l(-1). TDA and MDA were detected in urine samples from workers in car repair shops and MDA in samples from workers welding district heating pipes. The 2,4-TDA isomer accounted for about 80% of the total TDA detected. No 2.6-TDA was found in the urine of non-exposed workers. The highest measured urinary TDA and MDA concentrations were 0.79 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine and 3.1 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine, respectively. The concentrations found among non-exposed workers were 0.08 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine for TDA and 0.05 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine for MDA (arithmetic means). Exposure to diisocyanates originating from the thermal degradation of PURs are often intermittent and of short duration. Nevertheless, exposure to aromatic diisocyanates can be identified by monitoring diisocyanate-derived amines in acid-hydrolysed urine samples.

  20. Thalamic GABA Predicts Fine Motor Performance in Manganese-Exposed Smelter Workers

    PubMed Central

    Long, Zaiyang; Li, Xiang-Rong; Xu, Jun; Edden, Richard A. E.; Qin, Wei-Ping; Long, Li-Ling; Murdoch, James B.; Zheng, Wei; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Dydak, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Overexposure to manganese (Mn) may lead to parkinsonian symptoms including motor deficits. The main inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is known to play a pivotal role in the regulation and performance of movement. Therefore this study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that an alteration of GABA following Mn exposure may be associated with fine motor performance in occupationally exposed workers and may underlie the mechanism of Mn-induced motor deficits. A cohort of nine Mn-exposed male smelter workers from an Mn-iron alloy factory and 23 gender- and age-matched controls were recruited and underwent neurological exams, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measurements, and Purdue pegboard motor testing. Short-echo-time MRS was used to measure N-Acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and myo-inositol (mI). GABA was detected with a MEGA-PRESS J-editing MRS sequence. The mean thalamic GABA level was significantly increased in smelter workers compared to controls (p = 0.009). Multiple linear regression analysis reveals (1) a significant association between the increase in GABA level and the duration of exposure (R2 = 0.660, p = 0.039), and (2) significant inverse associations between GABA levels and all Purdue pegboard test scores (for summation of all scores R2 = 0.902, p = 0.001) in the smelter workers. In addition, levels of mI were reduced significantly in the thalamus and PCC of smelter workers compared to controls (p = 0.030 and p = 0.009, respectively). In conclusion, our results show clear associations between thalamic GABA levels and fine motor performance. Thus in Mn-exposed subjects, increased thalamic GABA levels may serve as a biomarker for subtle deficits in motor control and may become valuable for early diagnosis of Mn poisoning. PMID:24505436

  1. Study of evoked otoacoustic emissions and suppression effect on workers exposed to pesticides and noise.

    PubMed

    Alcarás, Patricia Arruda de Souza; Larcerda, Adriana Bender Moreira de; Marques, Jair Mendes

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the findings for Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions (EOEA) and suppression effect in workers with normal hearing exposed to pesticides and noise . The sample consisted of 55 participants with normal hearing, with ages ranging from 18 to 35 years, divided into two groups: one group exposed to noise and pesticides (GRA) and a control group (CG). The GRA was composed of 25 participants exposed to a representative average level of daily occupational noise exposure of 86 dBA and organophosphate-type pesticides, whereas the GC was composed of 30 participants who were not exposed to noise or pesticides. All participants underwent Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions (TEOAE) and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAE) examinations and research of the suppression effect. The findings revealed differences between the results of TEOAE and DPOAE exams between GRA and GC groups. GRA participants showed worse results in EOAE findings. Regarding the suppression effect, lesser effects were observed in the GRA. The results suggest that the study of EOAE and suppression effect can be used in early identification of hearing damage to workers simultaneously exposed to pesticides and noise.

  2. Quantitative neurosensory findings, symptoms and signs in young vibration exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to hand-held vibrating tools may cause the hand arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) including vibration induced white fingers and sensorineural symptoms. The aim was to study early neurosensory effects by quantitative vibrotactile and monofilament tests in young workers with hand-held vibration exposure. Methods This cross-sectional study consisted of 142 young, male machine shop and construction workers with hand-held exposure to vibrating tools. They were compared with 41 non-vibration exposed subjects of the same age-group. All participants passed a structured interview, answered several questionnaires and had a physical examination including the determination of vibrotactile perception thresholds (VPTs) at two frequencies (31.5 and 125 Hz) and Semmes Weinstein’s Monofilament test. Results In the vibration exposed group 8% of the workers reported episodes of tingling sensations and 10% numbness in their fingers. Approximately 5–10% of the exposed population displayed abnormal results on monofilament tests. The vibrotactile testing showed significantly increased VPTs for 125 Hz in dig II bilaterally (right hand, p = 0.01; left hand, p = 0.024) in the vibration exposed group. A multiple regression analysis (VPT - dependent variable; age, height, examiner and five different vibration dose calculations – predictor variables) in dig II bilaterally showed rather low R2-values. None of the explanatory variables including five separately calculated vibration doses were included in the models, neither for the total vibration exposed group, nor for the highest exposed quartile. A logistic multiple regression analysis (result of monofilament testing - dependent variable; age, height, examiner and five vibration dose calculations – predictor variables) of the results of monofilament testing in dig II bilaterally gave a similar outcome. None of the independent variables including five calculated vibration doses were included in the

  3. Frequency of hearing loss among textile industry workers of weaving unit in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Hafiz Danish; Younus, Malik Aftab; Kumar, Pardeep; Siddiqui, M Talha; Ali, Syed Salman; Siddiqui, M Irfanullah

    2009-08-01

    To determine the frequency of hearing loss among textile industry workers of weaving department. To record the noise level in the weaving sections and to compare it with the international standards. To determine the awareness about the effects of noise on hearing amongst the workers and the protective measures adopted by them. A cross-sectional study was carried out at weaving department of five renowned textile industries of Karachi. The study included 248 workers exposed to noise, through non-probability convenient sampling technique. Equivalent sound pressure level Leq was measured with the help of a Class-1 type digital sound level meter. Hearing status of the workers was assessed through questionnaire and clinical tests (WHISPER, RINNE'S and WEBER). Results showed that noise level was in range of 88.4-104 dB(A). The questionnaire results showed that: (i) 92.7% of the workers were aware that high noise level cause speech interference. (ii) 57.2% were unaware about the effect of noise on health. (iii) 54.8% used ear protection devices. (iv) 22.5% did not respond well to whisper test while 16.9% were found to have defective hearing on the basis of Rinne's test and 17.4% through Weber's test. It was observed that hearing loss was significantly associated with working experience of more than 10 years (25%) and overtime (28.8%). The results of study establish the fact that noise level is more than acceptable limit of 85 dB(A) for 8 hours exposure stipulated by OSHA.There is an immediate need to develop and implement noise regulations in Pakistan.

  4. [Investigation about prevention behavior for dust workers in machinery, ceramic, and metallurgy industry].

    PubMed

    Shen, Fu-hai; Ma, Qing-kun; Xiao, Shu-yu; Cui, Feng-tao; Meng, Qing-di; Yang, Xiu-qing; Qi, Hui-sheng; Fan, Xue-yun; Yao, San-qiao

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this thesis were to study the behavior about workers exposed to dust and provide scientific basis for health promotion. We designed a questionnaire and carry it on the 746 dust workers in the 3 representative corporations of Machinery, Ceramic, and Metallurgy Industry. All data were input into computer. And a database was established with Excel. SPSS11.5 statistical analysis software was used to analyze the influence on protecting behavioral between the application of qualifications, different jobs, training or protection, and other aspects etc. The rates were 94.4% and 75.3% about the regular physical examination and requirements for protective equipment. The rate of choosing an effective way of protection was generally low (15.4%). There was significant difference for among different educational background workers (P < 0.01). The rates of choosing an effective way of protection (20.3%), the regular physical examination (98.3%) and requirements for protective equipment (86.4%) in the dust workers who participated in the training of dust protection were superior than those who did not participated in the training. There was the significant difference (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). There was the significant difference for the rate of effective way of protection, regular physical examination, and requirements for protective equipment among the different corporations (P < 0.05). Dust workers' using rate about the choosing an effective way of protection was generally low in Machinery, Ceramic, and Metallurgy Industry. Those who were not educated had a lower using rate about the protection behavior, regular physical examination, and requirements for protective equipment than those educated.

  5. [Current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry].

    PubMed

    Wu, S S; Yu, J N; He, C H; Mu, H X; Wang, C; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C Y; Yu, S F; Li, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Methods: From August 2015 to March 2016, the investigation method of collecting the data of past occupational health examinations and measuring noise in working environment was used to enroll 8 672 male workers. Results: Of all workers, 11.6% were diagnosed with hearing loss. There were significant differences in the distribution of hearing impairment among workers exposed to noise at different ages, device types and types of work (χ(2)=17.80, 77.80 and 30.53, all P<0.05) . The level of noise exposure≥85 dB (A) (OR=5.79, 95%CI 3.70-8.81) , working years with noise exposure (OR=1.57, 95%CI 1.05-2.43) , and 25 years (OR=3.29, 95%CI 2.08-5.71) were risk factors for hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Conclusion: The level of noise exposure and working years with noise exposure are main influencing factors for hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry.

  6. Post-9/11 sarcoidosis in WTC-exposed firefighters and emergency medical service workers.

    PubMed

    Webber, Mayris P; Yip, Jennifer; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Moir, William; Ungprasert, Patompong; Crowson, Cynthia S; Hall, Charles B; Jaber, Nadia; Weiden, Michael D; Matteson, Eric L; Prezant, David J

    2017-06-07

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster released a huge quantity and variety of toxicants into the environment. To-date, studies from each of the three major cohorts of WTC-exposed workers have suggested "greater than expected" numbers of post-9/11 cases in some workers. We undertook this study to estimate the incidence of post-9/11 sarcoidosis in ∼13,000 male firefighters and EMS workers enrolled in The Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) WTC Health Program; to compare FDNY incidence to rates from unexposed, demographically similar men in the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP); and, to examine rates by level of WTC exposure. We calculated incidence of sarcoidosis diagnosed from 9/12/2001 to 9/11/2015, and generated expected sex- and age-specific rates based on REP rates. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) based on REP rates, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. Two sensitivity analyses limited cases to those with intra-thoracic symptoms or biopsy confirmation. We identified 68 post-9/11 cases in the FDNY cohort. Overall, FDNY rates were significantly higher than expected rates (SIR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.2, 3.6). Including only symptomatic cases, the SIR decreased (SIR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.5, 3.0), but remained significantly elevated. SIRs ranged from 2.7 (95% CI = 2.0, 3.5) in the lower WTC exposure group to 4.2 (95% CI = 1.9, 8.0) in the most highly exposed. We found excess incident post-9/11 sarcoidosis in WTC-exposed workers. Continued surveillance, particularly of those most highly exposed, is necessary to identify those with sarcoidosis and to follow them for possible adverse effects including functional impairments and organ damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The mortality experience of workers exposed to tetrachlorodibenzodioxin in a trichlorophenol process accident.

    PubMed

    Zack, J A; Suskind, R R

    1980-01-01

    A standardized mortality analysis was conducted on workers exposed to tetrachlorodibenzodioxin in a trichlorophenol process accident at the Monsanto Company plant in Nitro, West Virginia. One hundred and twenty-one workers who developed chloracne resulting from this accident on March 8, 1949, were selected for study. Follow-up of this group was 100% complete. The standardized mortality ratio for all causes of death was shown to be 0.69, with 32 deaths observed and 46.41 expected. For the categories of malignant neoplasms and circulatory diseases, the standardized mortality ratios were 1.00 and 0.68, respectively. Because of the small size of the cohort and the relatively small number of deaths observed, the results of this study cannot be considered conclusive. However, it is important that no apparent excess in total mortality or in deaths from malignant neoplasms or diseases of the circulatory system was observed in a group of workers with a high peak exposure to tetrachlorodibenzodioxin who were followed over a period of nearly 30 years. The results of this study will be incorporated with those of a larger study which will include plant workers exposed in the course of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid production during the period 1948 to 1969.

  8. Ferruginous bodies and pulmonary fibrosis in dead low to moderately exposed asbestos cement workers: histological examination.

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, L G; Albin, M P; Jakobsson, K M; Welinder, H E; Ranstam, P J; Attewell, R G

    1987-01-01

    Histological slides from the lungs of 89 dead asbestos cement workers have been examined with respect to ferruginous bodies and fibrosis. The results have been compared with individually matched controls with no known exposure to asbestos, and related to asbestos exposure, expressed as duration of exposure and cumulative asbestos dose, and smoking habits. The asbestos cement workers studied had been employed for on average 15 years, with a mean cumulative dose of 26 fibre-years per ml (f-y/ml). Clear dose-response relations between exposure (duration of exposure and cumulative asbestos dose) and level of ferruginous bodies were found. An association was evident already at a low cumulative dose (1-10 f-y/ml). Fibrosis was more common and more pronounced among the exposed workers than among controls. An association between ferruginous bodies and fibrosis was also found. Among the controls, but not among exposed workers, there was an association between smoking history and fibrosis. Images PMID:3651354

  9. Medical surveillance, exposure registries, and epidemiologic research for workers exposed to nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Trout, Douglas B; Schulte, Paul A

    2010-03-10

    While there is a growing body of information about hazards of nanomaterials, little is known about the risks to workers exposed to them. However, workers are the first people in society that are being exposed to the growing inventory of "nano-enabled" products in commerce. The number of workers involved in the investigation, manufacture, production, and disposal of these types of products is growing. Although toxicologic research is still the highest priority, it is time to actively anticipate the health needs of workers. To date, precautionary risk management approaches have been widely advocated. Now there is a need to initiate an evolving process to identify the issues in medical surveillance, utilization of exposure registries, and the conduct of epidemiologic research. Each of these are related complex endeavors that build on the toxicologic evidence and extent of exposure. There is a need to assess the scientific basis and research needs for determining early functional changes, organ system and disease responses for use in targeted medical surveillance. There is also need for development of criteria for extrapolating toxicological data in biological systems to predict the risk of adverse outcomes in humans. In the meantime, exposure registries may be pivotal in helping societies act in the face of uncertainty in a precautionary manner, but legal, ethical, and logistical issues need resolution. Epidemiologic research will build on these efforts and may ultimately contribute critical definitive rationale for medical screening, risk assessment and management.

  10. Thyroid examination in highly radiation-exposed workers after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Bernhard O; Steinert, Marianna; Dietrich, Johannes W; Peter, Ralf U; Belyi, David; Wagemaker, Gerald; Rosinger, Silke; Fliedner, Theodor M; Weiss, Melanie

    2009-04-01

    Radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl nuclear accident that happened on the morning of 26th April 1986 had a major impact on thyroid health in the Belarus region. Observational study of a cohort of 99 adults, most strongly exposed to ionizing radioactivity. Observational study performed between 1998 and 2000. The cohort comprised 99 workers (92 male) of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Examination including physical examination, ultrasonography of the thyroid gland and measurement of serum free thyroxin (fT(4)), free triiodothyronine (fT(3)) and TSH. Anti-thyroperoxidase (anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg) antibodies and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin were also determined. The impact of exposure to high-dose radiation, including radioactive iodine, on the thyroid gland was examined. Levels of fT(4) in all probands were within the normal World Health Organization-defined range. Elevated levels of fT(3) were found in two workers (2%), high titres of anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies were present in four subjects (4%). Mild hypothyroidism was present in one patient. Enlargement of the thyroid gland was observed in 17 workers (17%). There was no evidence of clinically overt thyroid cancer. The Chernobyl accident showed surprisingly little impact on the thyroid in a cohort of workers strongly exposed to radiation. Our data suggest an age-dependent heterogeneity in response to the short-lived radioiodine isotopes and favours long-term follow-up analysis.

  11. Early Diagnosis of Respiratory Abnormalities in Asbestos-Exposed Workers by the Forced Oscillation Technique.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Paula Morisco; Castro, Hermano Albuquerque; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Melo, Pedro Lopes de

    2016-01-01

    The current reference test for the detection of respiratory abnormalities in asbestos-exposed workers is spirometry. However, spirometry has several shortcomings that greatly affect the efficacy of current asbestos control programs. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) represents the current state-of-the-art technique in the assessment of lung function. This method provides a detailed analysis of respiratory resistance and reactance at different oscillatory frequencies during tidal breathing. Here, we evaluate the FOT as an alternative method to standard spirometry for the early detection and quantification of respiratory abnormalities in asbestos-exposed workers. Seventy-two subjects were analyzed. The control group was composed of 33 subjects with a normal spirometric exam who had no history of smoking or pulmonary disease. Thirty-nine subjects exposed to asbestos were also studied, including 32 volunteers in radiological category 0/0 and 7 volunteers with radiological categories of 0/1 or 1/1. FOT data were interpreted using classical parameters as well as integer (InOr) and fractional-order (FrOr) modeling. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by investigating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Exposed workers presented increased obstruction (resistance p<0.001) and a reduced compliance (p<0.001), with a predominance of obstructive changes. The FOT parameter changes were correlated with the standard pulmonary function analysis methods (R = -0.52, p<0.001). Early respiratory abnormalities were identified with a high diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.987) using parameters obtained from the FrOr modeling. This accuracy was significantly better than those obtained with classical (p<0.001) and InOr (p<0.001) model parameters. The FOT improved our knowledge about the biomechanical abnormalities in workers exposed to asbestos. Additionally, a high diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of early respiratory abnormalities in asbestos-exposed

  12. Early Diagnosis of Respiratory Abnormalities in Asbestos-Exposed Workers by the Forced Oscillation Technique

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The current reference test for the detection of respiratory abnormalities in asbestos-exposed workers is spirometry. However, spirometry has several shortcomings that greatly affect the efficacy of current asbestos control programs. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) represents the current state-of-the-art technique in the assessment of lung function. This method provides a detailed analysis of respiratory resistance and reactance at different oscillatory frequencies during tidal breathing. Here, we evaluate the FOT as an alternative method to standard spirometry for the early detection and quantification of respiratory abnormalities in asbestos-exposed workers. Methodology/Principal findings Seventy-two subjects were analyzed. The control group was composed of 33 subjects with a normal spirometric exam who had no history of smoking or pulmonary disease. Thirty-nine subjects exposed to asbestos were also studied, including 32 volunteers in radiological category 0/0 and 7 volunteers with radiological categories of 0/1 or 1/1. FOT data were interpreted using classical parameters as well as integer (InOr) and fractional-order (FrOr) modeling. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by investigating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Exposed workers presented increased obstruction (resistance p<0.001) and a reduced compliance (p<0.001), with a predominance of obstructive changes. The FOT parameter changes were correlated with the standard pulmonary function analysis methods (R = -0.52, p<0.001). Early respiratory abnormalities were identified with a high diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.987) using parameters obtained from the FrOr modeling. This accuracy was significantly better than those obtained with classical (p<0.001) and InOr (p<0.001) model parameters. Conclusions The FOT improved our knowledge about the biomechanical abnormalities in workers exposed to asbestos. Additionally, a high diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of

  13. Demonstration of the healthy worker survivor effect in a cohort of workers in the construction industry

    PubMed Central

    Siebert, U; Rothenbacher, D; Daniel, U; Brenner, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the potential of a healthy worker survivor effect due to differential occupational mobility in a cohort of construction workers.
METHODS—A cohort of 10 809 male employees in the German construction industry aged 15-64 years was followed up for occupational mobility, early retirement due to permanent disability, and total mortality from 1986 to 1994. Using the Cox's proportional hazards model of relative rates (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of occupational mobility, early retirement and total mortality were estimated according to medical diagnoses at baseline after adjustment for various covariates.
RESULTS—During follow up, 2472 subjects changed employment, 359 employees were granted a disability pension for health reasons and 188 subjects died. A wide range of chronic diseases was associated with increased rates of early retirement and total mortality but not occupational mobility. However, a healthy worker survivor effect was identified related to disorders of the back and spine (ninth revision of the international classification of diseases, ICD-9, code 720-4), a common predictor of both occupational mobility (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.32) and early retirement (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.88). In total, there were about as many events of occupational changes (n = 41) as events of early retirement due to permanent disability (n = 39) significantly attributable to disorders of the back and spine. Differential occupational mobility preceded differential early retirement due to permanent disability by more than one decade.
CONCLUSIONS—These findings show the need to consider a healthy worker survivor effect due to occupational mobility in occupational epidemiological research. Furthermore these results underline the necessity of further health promotion targeting work related conditions in the construction industry.


Keywords: healthy worker survivor effect; construction workers; occupational

  14. Physical exercise and musculoskeletal pain among forest industry workers.

    PubMed

    Miranda, H; Viikari-Juntura, E; Martikainen, R; Takala, E P; Riihimäki, H

    2001-08-01

    The study investigated the relations between physical exercise and musculoskeletal pain among forest industry workers. We studied a population of 3312 Finnish forest industry workers, who replied to a questionnaire survey in 1994 (response rate 77%). The outcome variables in this cross-sectional study were the number of days with pain in the low back, neck, shoulder and knee during the preceding 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used in statistical analyses. Active walkers had more sciatic pain, active volleyball players had more shoulder pain and those who practiced trekking actively had more knee pain than those who practiced these activities less. The risk of shoulder pain was more than three times higher for those who played volleyball actively compared to those who played less. In addition, age, mental stress and work-related physical loading were strongly associated with musculoskeletal pain. When studying the relations between physical exercise and musculoskeletal pain in a working population, it is important to not only detect the general physical activity but also to specify the different modes of exercise. In addition, the other factors which are strongly related to pain (such as mental stress and work-related physical loading) should be taken into account.

  15. Mortality experience among Minnesota taconite mining industry workers.

    PubMed

    Allen, Elizabeth M; Alexander, Bruce H; MacLehose, Richard F; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the mortality experience of Minnesota taconite mining industry workers. Mortality was evaluated between 1960 and 2010 in a cohort of Minnesota taconite mining workers employed by any of the seven companies in operation in 1983. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were estimated by comparing observed deaths in the cohort with expected frequencies in the Minnesota population. Standardised rate ratios (SRR) were estimated using an internal analysis to compare mortality by employment duration. The cohort included 31,067 workers with at least 1 year of documented employment. Among those, there were 9094 deaths, of which 949 were from lung cancer, and 30 from mesothelioma. Mortality from all causes was greater than expected in the Minnesota population (SMR=1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.04). Mortality from lung cancer and mesothelioma was higher than expected with SMRs of 1.16 for lung cancer (95% CI 1.09 to 1.23) and 2.77 for mesothelioma (95% CI 1.87 to 3.96). Other elevated SMRs included those for cardiovascular disease (SMR=1.10, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.14), specifically for hypertensive heart disease (SMR=1.81, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.33) and ischemic heart disease (SMR=1.11, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.16). Results of the SRR analysis did not show variation in risk by duration of employment. This study provides evidence that taconite workers may be at increased risk for mortality from lung cancer, mesothelioma, and some cardiovascular disease. Occupational exposures during taconite mining operations may be associated with these increased risks, but non-occupational exposures may also be important contributors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. A health examination of railway high-voltage substation workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Baroncelli, P; Battisti, S; Checcucci, A; Comba, P; Grandolfo, M; Serio, A; Vecchia, P

    1986-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional survey on the health conditions of railways workers active in 258 interconnection and conversion substations all over Italy. Measurements performed in both kinds of substations operating at 220 kV have shown that maximum levels of the electric field strength and of the magnetic flux density at 50 Hz are of the order of 5 kV/m and 15 microT, respectively. Three subject groups, differently exposed (1, 10, 20 h/week), and an unexposed control group, for a total number of 627 workers, constitute the population at study. All subjects underwent a general medical examination, laboratory investigations, and a series of selected examinations relative to three systems (nervous, cardiovascular, and haematopoietic) considered at higher risk. No differences have been found between the exposed and the control groups. It is concluded that workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields of moderate strength do not show the presence of clear effects on their state of health.

  17. Metabolic profile in workers occupationally exposed to arsenic: role of GST polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ricardo; Martínez, Valeria; Hernández, Alba; Creus, Amadeu; Sekaran, Chandra; Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Quinteros, Domingo

    2006-03-01

    Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen with a ubiquitous distribution in the natural environment. Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic involves a biotransformation process that leds to the main excretion of organic methylated metabolites, such as monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), as well as the parental inorganic species. Interindividual variation in arsenic metabolism has been extensively reported, and polymorphisms in genes involved in such process could be related to changes in the arsenic excretion profile and the response to chronic exposures. Our analysis of the metabolic profiles in three groups of workers exposed to different arsenic exposure levels showed high amounts of inorganic arsenic and MMA in the most-exposed workers versus the least-exposed workers, in whom high amounts of DMA were observed. With respect to the role of different genetic polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in the modulation of the urinary profiles, for the overall population only a tendency was just observed between GSTM1 null and MMA excretion as well as between GSTP1 val/val and DMA excretion.

  18. Assessment of DNA damage in Brazilian workers occupationally exposed to pesticides: a study from Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Khayat, Carolinne Borges; Costa, Emília Oliveira Alves; Gonçalves, Macks Wendhell; da Cruz e Cunha, Damiana Mirian; da Cruz, Alex Silva; de Araújo Melo, Caroline Oliveira; Bastos, Rogério Pereira; da Cruz, Aparecido Divino; de Melo e Silva, Daniela

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated 41 rural workers occupationally exposed to pesticides and 32 subjects as a control group, using the micronucleus (MN) and the comet assay. For the comet assay, we evaluated the peripheral blood, and for the MN, we sampled cells from the oral epithelium. Damage to DNA was measured by tail length, % DNA in tail (% tail), olive tail moment (OTM), and tail moment (TM). The exposed group presented an 8× increase in MN frequency, when compared to the control group (p <0.05). When we contrasted the MN frequencies between the individuals that use and do not use personal protective equipment, we found a mean of 7.5 MN (57 % variance) and 12.1 MN (130 % variance), respectively. The binucleated cells were 0.04 and 0.005, in the exposed and control groups, respectively, indicating 8× increase in the number of binucleated cells, when comparing the groups (p <0.05). In the comet assay, we demonstrated statistically significant differences in three parameters (% DNA, OTM, and TM) indicating that the rural workers presented high levels of genomic damages. Our results indicate that occupational exposure to pesticides could cause genome damage in somatic cells, representing a potential health risk to Brazilian rural workers that deal constantly with agrochemicals without adequate personal protection equipment.

  19. Pulmonary fibrosis in cable plant workers exposed to mist and vapor of petroleum distillates.

    PubMed

    Skyberg, K; Rønneberg, A; Kamøy, J I; Dale, K; Borgersen, A

    1986-08-01

    Twenty-five cable plant workers exposed to mists and vapors of mineral oils and kerosene for 5-35 years have been investigated in a cross-sectional, matched pairs study. The exposed cohort and the referents were examined by radiology, pulmonary function measurements, and a questionnaire for symptoms of respiratory disease. Lung tissue from a deceased worker with 35 years of exposure was investigated by histopathologic methods and by scanning electron microscopy. Exposure measurements were performed by personal sampling. Previous employment and smoking habits were recorded for all subjects. An increased prevalence of slight basal lung fibrosis was found in chest films of the exposed workers. Pulmonary fibrosis was confirmed histopathologically. A moderately decreased vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV1) was found. Oil mist was measured to time-weighted average levels of 0.15-0.30 mg/m3 with short-term vapor exposure of up to 4000 mg/m3. It is concluded that mists and vapors from petroleum distillates are the most probable causes of the findings.

  20. Determination of nickel, copper, zinc and lead in human scalp hair in Syrian occupationally exposed workers by total reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Khuder, A; Bakir, M A; Hasan, R; Mohammad, A

    2008-08-01

    The concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb in human scalp hair of 281 individuals working in 10 Syrian industrial plants were determined using co-precipitation by ammoniumpyrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) method for total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis. The results were compared to data obtained for a control group consisted of individuals working at the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission and also to data reported in the literature. The results given by the group of workers in battery plant showed that Pb concentration in human scalp hair samples were higher than those for control group, while some abnormal concentrations were obtained for Cu, Zn and Ni in cables, printing and battery plants, respectively. Normal concentrations of these elements were obtained for hair workers in olive oil, power stations, textile, and iron industrial plants. The relationships of Pb-Pb/Ni and Cu-Cu/Ni were plotted with correlation coefficients of 0.9937 and 0.9014, respectively. In general, the results showed that, the workers who were occupationally exposed to battery industrial pollution are at risk, followed by individuals in printing and cables industries, while the rest of workers in other industries are considered occupationally unexposed.

  1. Chronic intermittent high altitude exposure, occupation, and body mass index in workers of mining industry.

    PubMed

    Esenamanova, Marina K; Kochkorova, Firuza A; Tsivinskaya, Tatyana A; Vinnikov, Denis; Aikimbaev, Kairgeldy

    2014-09-01

    The obesity and overweight rates in population exposed to chronic intermittent exposure to high altitudes are not well studied. The aim of the retrospective study was to evaluate whether there are differences in body mass index in different occupation groups working in intermittent shifts at mining industry at high altitude: 3800-4500 meters above sea level. Our study demonstrated that obesity and overweight are common in workers of high altitude mining industry exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia. The obesity rate was lowest among miners as compared to blue- and white-collar employees (9.5% vs. 15.6% and 14.7%, p=0.013). Obesity and overweight were associated with older age, higher rates of increased blood pressure (8.79% and 5.72% vs. 1.92%), cholesterol (45.8% and 45.6% vs. 32.8%) and glucose (4.3% and 1.26% vs. 0.57%) levels as compared to normal body mass index category (p<0.0001 for all). There were differences in patterns of cholesterol and glucose levels in men and women employees according to occupation type. In conclusion, obesity and overweight rates are prevalent and associated with increase in blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose levels in workers of mining industry exposed to intermittent high-altitude hypoxia. Therefore, assessment and monitoring of body mass index seems to be essential in those who live and work at high altitudes to supply the correct nutrition, modify risk factors, and prevent related disorders.

  2. Mortality among workers exposed to cutting oil mist: update of previous reports.

    PubMed

    Kazerouni, N; Thomas, T L; Petralia, S A; Hayes, R B

    2000-10-01

    Earlier reports of the mortality experience of this cohort of automotive workers followed from 1938 to 1967 who were exposed to cutting oil mist noted an excess of gastrointestinal cancer. The present report describes the mortality experience of these workers followed for mortality through 1980. Cause-specific standardized mortality ratios were calculated by comparing the observed number of deaths to the expected numbers based on rates for the U.S. male population. The SMRs for liver and biliary tract, and testicular cancers were significantly elevated. Among the subset of workers with heavy oil mist exposure, SMRs were significantly elevated for cancers of the lung and testis, and for Hodgkin's disease. The risk of death due to lung cancer was greatest among workers with heavy exposure to oil mist employed for 15 or more years. Mortality due to stomach cancer was in excess among workers with heavy exposure to oil mist who were employed for 5 or more years. There were significant excesses of deaths due to asthma and emphysema. Further studies with information on the presence of contaminants and additives in oil mists will help elucidate the relationship between oil mist exposure and cancer.

  3. Biological monitoring of young workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in engine repair workshops.

    PubMed

    Karahalil, B; Burgaz, S; Fişek, G; Karakaya, A E

    1998-02-13

    Several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic in rodents, while exposure to these compounds has been associated with various types of human cancer. Engine exhaust and used engine oils are major PAH sources in engine repair workshops. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels and some genotoxicity parameters (sister-chromatid exchange, SCE; micronucleus, MN) have been compared among engine repair workers (n = 61, age: between 13 and 18) and workers not occupationally exposed to PAH (n = 30, age: between 13 and 19). The mean value (+/- S.E.) of urinary 1-OHP excretions of workers was 4.71 +/- 0.53 micromol/mol creatinine and also mean urinary 1-OHP for controls was found to be as 1.55 +/- 0.28 micromol/mol creatinine. The mean values (+/- S.E.) of SCE frequency per cell in peripheral lymphocytes from the workers and controls were 4.47 +/- 0.09 and 4.06 +/- 0.16, respectively (p < 0.05). The mean (+/- S.E.) MN (per thousand) frequencies in peripheral lymphocytes from the workers and controls were 1.87 +/- 0.04 and 1.56 +/- 0.06, respectively (p < 0.0001). The effect of smoking for the above parameters were also evaluated.

  4. Urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Beate; Spickenheuer, Anne; Kendzia, Benjamin; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Welge, Peter; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Rihs, Hans-Peter; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Angerer, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Urinary hydroxylated metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated as potential biomarkers of bitumen exposure in a cross-shift study in 317 exposed and 117 non-exposed workers. Personal measurements of the airborne concentration of vapours and aerosols of bitumen during a working shift were weakly associated with post-shift concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 1-, 2+9-, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes (further referred to their sum as OHPHE), but not 1- and 2-hydroxynaphthalene (OHNA). Smoking showed a strong influence on the metabolite concentrations, in particular on OHNA. Pre-shift concentrations of 1-OHP and OHPHE did not differ between the study groups (P = 0.16 and P = 0.89, respectively). During shift, PAH metabolite concentrations increased in exposed workers and non-exposed smokers. Statistical modelling of post-shift concentrations revealed a small increase in 1-OHP by a factor of 1.02 per 1 mg/m(3) bitumen (P = 0.02) and 1.04 for OHPHE (P < 0.001). A group difference was observed that was diminished in non-smokers. Exposed non-smokers had a median post-shift 1-OHP concentration of 0.42 μg/l, and non-smoking referents 0.13 μg/l. Although post-shift concentrations of 1-OHP and OHPHE were slightly higher than those in the general population, they were much lower than in coke-oven workers. The small content of PAHs in vapours and aerosols of bitumen, the increasing use of additives to asphalt mixtures, the strong impact of smoking and their weak association with airborne bitumen limit the use of PAH metabolites as specific biomarkers of bitumen exposure.

  5. [Study on FM100-HUE color vision in male workers exposed to lower concentration of carbon disulfide].

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Tan, X; Bi, Y; Yan, J

    2001-05-01

    The effect of CS2 on color vision in workers exposed to CS2 was explored. The color discrimination in 191 exposed and 93 non-exposed male workers was studied by a Farnsworth Munsell 100-HUE (FM100-HUE) test. The results showed that the time weighted average (TWA) concentration of CS2, determined by Japan GC-17A gas chromatography, was (14.75 +/- 6.89) mg/m3 in a long rayon workshop and (16.30 +/- 5.42) mg/m3 in a short rayon workshop. Higher FM100-HUE color vision score was often in the exposed group (106.9) than in the controls (78.3). The discrimination to green and blue zone was also significantly impaired (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the color vision was disturbed in workers exposed to CS2. The workers should be followed by health surveillance.

  6. [Dynamics of vegetative indicators induced by low-frequency magnetotherapy and EHF-puncture in hypertensive workers exposed to vibration].

    PubMed

    Drobyshev, V A; Efremov, A V; Loseva, M I; Sukharevskaia, T M; Michurin, A I

    2002-01-01

    Low-frequency magnetic fields and EHF-therapy have been used in correction of autonomic homeostasis in workers exposed to vibration for different periods of time. The workers suffered from early arterial hypertension. Vegetative status and central hemodynamics improved best in workers exposed to vibration for less than 5 years. If the exposure was 6-15 years, a positive trend occurred in the tension of regulatory mechanisms. Workers with long exposure to vibration suffering from vagotonia showed an inadequate response of the autonomic parameters to treatment. This necessitates enhancement of therapeutic measures with medicines.

  7. Differential pattern of deposition of nanoparticles in the airways of exposed workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fireman, Elizabeth; Edelheit, Rinat; Stark, Moshe; Shai, Amir Bar

    2017-02-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) have been postulated to significantly contribute to the adverse health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM). Due to their extremely small size (aerodynamic diameter <100 nm), UFP are able to deposit deep within the lung after inhalation and evade many mechanisms responsible for the clearance of larger particles. There is a lack of biologically relevant personal exposure metrics for exposure to occupational- and environmental-related micro- and nano-sized PM. The aim of the present study is to assess UFP in induced sputum (IS) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as possible biomarkers for assessing lung function impairment. Sputum induction and EBC testing were performed by conventional methods. UFP particles were assessed with the NanoSight LM20 (NanoSight Ltd, London, UK). The subjects included 35 exposed and 25 non-exposed workers. There were no group differences in pulmonary function test results and differential cell counts, but 63.6% of the exposed subjects had a higher percentage of neutrophils (OR3.28 p = 0.03) compared to the non-exposed subjects. The exposed subjects had higher percentages of UFP between 10 and 50 nm (69.45 ± 18.70 vs 60.11 ± 17.52 for the non-exposed group, p = 0.004). No differences were found in the IS samples. Years of exposure correlated positively to UFP content ( r = 0.342 p = 0.01) and macrophage content ( r = -0.327 p = 0.03). The percentage of small fraction of UFP in EBC, but not IS, is higher in exposed workers, and EBC may be a sensitive biomarker to assess exposure to nanoparticles.

  8. Differential pattern of deposition of nanoparticles in the airways of exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Fireman, Elizabeth; Edelheit, Rinat; Stark, Moshe; Shai, Amir Bar

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) have been postulated to significantly contribute to the adverse health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM). Due to their extremely small size (aerodynamic diameter <100 nm), UFP are able to deposit deep within the lung after inhalation and evade many mechanisms responsible for the clearance of larger particles. There is a lack of biologically relevant personal exposure metrics for exposure to occupational- and environmental-related micro- and nano-sized PM. The aim of the present study is to assess UFP in induced sputum (IS) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as possible biomarkers for assessing lung function impairment. Sputum induction and EBC testing were performed by conventional methods. UFP particles were assessed with the NanoSight LM20 (NanoSight Ltd, London, UK). The subjects included 35 exposed and 25 non-exposed workers. There were no group differences in pulmonary function test results and differential cell counts, but 63.6% of the exposed subjects had a higher percentage of neutrophils (OR3.28 p = 0.03) compared to the non-exposed subjects. The exposed subjects had higher percentages of UFP between 10 and 50 nm (69.45 ± 18.70 vs 60.11 ± 17.52 for the non-exposed group, p = 0.004). No differences were found in the IS samples. Years of exposure correlated positively to UFP content (r = 0.342 p = 0.01) and macrophage content (r = -0.327 p = 0.03). The percentage of small fraction of UFP in EBC, but not IS, is higher in exposed workers, and EBC may be a sensitive biomarker to assess exposure to nanoparticles.

  9. Speech recognition index of workers with tinnitus exposed to environmental or occupational noise: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Tinnitus is considered the third worst symptom affecting humans. The aim of this article is to assess complaints by workers with tinnitus exposed to environmental and occupational noise. Methodology 495 workers went through an epidemiological survey at the Audiology Department of the Center for Studies on Workers’ Health and Human Ecology, from 2003 to 2007. The workers underwent tonal and vocal audiometry, preceded by a clinical and occupational history questionnaire. Two-factor ANOVA and Tukey were the statistical tests used. All the analysis set statistical significance at α=5%. Findings There was a higher prevalence of occupational tinnitus (73.7%), a predominance of female domestic workers (65.4%) in cases of environmental exposure, and predominance of male construction workers (71.5%) for occupational exposure. There was a significant difference in workers with hearing loss, who showed a mean speech recognition index (SRI) of 85%, as compared to healthy workers with a mean SRI greater than 93.5%. Signs and symptoms, speech perception, and interference in sound localization with the type of noise exposure (environmental versus occupational) comparisons found no significant differences. Conclusion Studied group’s high prevalence of tinnitus, major difficulties in speech recognition with hearing loss and the presence of individuals with normal hearing with both types of exposure justify the importance of measures in health promotion, prevention, and hearing surveillance. The findings highlight the importance of valuing the patients’ own perception as the first indication of tinnitus and hearing loss in order to help develop appropriate public policies within the Unified National Health System (SUS). PMID:23259813

  10. A case of azoospermia in a non-destructive testing worker exposed to radiation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaechan; Lee, Sanggil; Park, Chulyong; Eom, Huisu

    2017-01-01

    Interest in radiation-related health problems has been growing with the increase in the number of workers in radiation-related jobs. Although an occupational level of radiation exposure would not likely cause azoospermia, several studies have reported the relation between radiation exposure and azoospermia after accidental or therapeutic radiation exposure. We describe a case of azoospermia in a non-destructive testing (NDT) worker exposed to radiation and discuss the problems of the related monitoring system. A 39-year-old man who was childless after 8 years of marriage was diagnosed with azoospermia through medical evaluations, including testicular biopsy. He did not have any abnormal findings on biochemical evaluations, other risk factors, or evidence of congenital azoospermia. He had been working in an NDT facility from 2005 to 2013, attaching and arranging gamma-ray films on the structures and inner spaces of ships. The patient's thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badge recorded an exposure level of 0.01781 Gy for 80 months, whereas results of his florescence in situ hybridization (FISH) translocation assay showed an exposure level of up to 1.926 Gy of cumulative radiation, which was sufficient to cause azoospermia. Thus, we concluded that his azoospermia was caused by occupational radiation exposure. The difference between the exposure dose records measured through TLD badge and the actual exposure dose implies that the monitor used by the NDT worker did not work properly, and such a difference could threaten the health and safety of workers. Thus, to protect the safety and health of NDT workers, education of workers and strengthening of law enforcement are required to ensure that regulations are strictly followed, and if necessary, random sampling of NDT workers using a cytogenetic dosimeter, such as FISH, should be considered.

  11. Sleep disturbances and neurotoxicity in workers exposed to hydrocarbons. An observational study from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Sekkal, Samira; Casas, Lidia; Haddam, Nahida; Bouhacina, Linda; Scheers, Hans; Taleb, Abdesselam; Nemery, Benoit

    2016-02-01

    Occupational exposure to solvents may lead to neurotoxicity and sleep disturbances. We aimed to investigate the association of occupational exposure to petroleum-derived hydrocarbons with neurotoxicity and sleep disturbance symptoms. We included male workers handling/distributing petroleum products (exposed, n = 250) and electricians (non-exposed, n = 250) from two companies in Tlemcen (Algeria). Neurotoxicity was evaluated with the Q-16 questionnaire, and sleep disturbances with the Epworth and the Berlin questionnaires. Multivariable Poisson regression models with robust error variances were applied obtaining risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI). Overall, the prevalence of reported neurotoxicity and sleep disturbance symptoms was higher in exposed than in non-exposed workers. Significant adjusted associations were observed for neurotoxicity, snoring, and excessive sleepiness (RR = 2.2, CI: 1.7-2.8; RR = 1.4; CI: 1.1-1.7; RR = 1.3, CI: 1.2-1.5, respectively). No significant associations were observed with the Epworth score. Our questionnaire-based cross-sectional study suggests that exposure to petroleum-derived hydrocarbons is associated with self-reported sleep disturbances and neurotoxicity symptoms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Genotoxic biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticides in the north of Sinaloa State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Alvarez-Torres, Armando

    2009-11-01

    Genotoxic damage was evaluated in 70 agricultural workers, 25 women and 45 men, exposed to pesticides in Las Grullas, Ahome, Sinaloa, Mexico, with an average of 7 years of exposure. The effect was detected through the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in lymphocytes of peripheral blood and micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear anomalies (NA) in buccal exfoliated cells. Also, the influence on cellular proliferation kinetics (CPK) was studied by means of the replication index (RI) and the cytotoxic effect was examined with the mitotic index (MI). The non-exposed group consisted of 70 other persons, 21 women and 47 men from the city of Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico. Significant differences between the exposed and the non-exposed groups were observed in SCE, CPK, MI, MN and NA. Analysis of variance revealed that age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption did not have a significant effect on genetic damage. However, there was a correlation between exposure time to pesticides and SCE frequency. These results could have been due to the exposure of workers to pesticides containing different chemical compounds. This study afforded valuable data to estimate the possible risk to health associated with pesticide exposure.

  13. Cytokine patterns in greenhouse workers occupationally exposed to α-cypermethrin: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Costa, Chiara; Rapisarda, Venerando; Catania, Stefania; Di Nola, Carmelina; Ledda, Caterina; Fenga, Concettina

    2013-11-01

    The immunotoxicity of the synthetic pyrethroid α-cypermethrin (αCYP) was assessed in 30 occupationally exposed greenhouse workers and 30 non-exposed controls by comparing plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-α, TNF-β and INF-γ. Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as an exposure biomarker. Exposed workers showed neither clinical signs of immunosuppression nor alterations in total leukocytes or leukocyte subpopulations, whereas significant differences (p<0.05) were found for IL-12p70 and highly significant differences (p<0.001) for INF-γ, IL-2 and IL-8, which are involved in antitumor immunity and response to infection. Proinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-8, IL-12p70 and IFN-γ play a significant role against infection and cancer. We report the first data on the ability of αCYP to reduce proinflammatory cytokine levels in an exposed healthy human population. Findings support the hypothesis that pyrethroid exposure may reduce host defenses against infection and cancer, particularly in subjects with impaired immune capacity.

  14. Acetone excretion into urine of workers exposed to acetone in acetate fiber plants.

    PubMed

    Satoh, T; Omae, K; Takebayashi, T; Nakashima, H; Higashi, T; Sakurai, H

    1995-01-01

    To develop a proper protocol for biological exposure monitoring of acetone, we evaluated whether exposure to acetone on the previous day affects the biological monitoring value at the end of a work day. One hundred and ten male workers exposed to acetone in three acetate fiber manufacturing plants were monitored using a liquid passive sampler on two consecutive working days after 2 days without exposure. Urine samples were collected at the start of the workshift and the end of the shift on both days for each subject. For ten exposed workers urine samples were collected approximately every 2 h during and after the first working day until the following morning. Acetone concentrations in urine (Cu) at the start of the first working day were 1.3 +/- 2.4 (range: ND-14.1) mg/l in nonexposed workers and 2.4 +/- 5.6 (range: ND-40.3) mg/l in exposed workers. The urinary acetone concentration at the beginning of the second working day indicated that urinary levels of acetone do not decline to background level by the following morning when exposure concentration exceeds 300 ppm. However, linear regression analysis demonstrated that the relationship between environmental exposure level and urine level was similar on the 1st day and the 2nd day. Thus, although urine acetone levels did not return completely to baseline after high exposures, under the present exposure levels the exposure on the previous day did not significantly affect urinary acetone at the end of the workshift of the next day.

  15. Lack of genotoxic effect in workers exposed to very low doses of 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Lovreglio, Piero; Bukvic, Nenad; Fustinoni, Silvia; Ballini, Andrea; Drago, Ignazio; Foà, Vito; Guanti, Ginevra; Soleo, Leonardo

    2006-06-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD), a probable carcinogen to humans, has been shown to have an ill-defined genotoxicity in occupationally exposed workers. In the present study, the influence of exposure to very low doses of BD and to cigarette smoking was investigated on some cytogenetic endpoints, namely, sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and cells with a high frequency of SCE (HFC), in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Twenty-seven male workers employed in a petrochemical plant and 26 matched controls were included in the study. As regards the airborne BD values, there was a significant difference between exposed (median BD value 1.5, min-max 0.2-69.0 microg/m3) and non-exposed workers (median BD value 0.4, min-max <0.1-3.8 microg/m3). Genotoxic biomarkers were not able to distinguish between the two groups. The frequency of SCE was higher in smokers than in non-smokers (p=0.001), with a positive correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and both SCE (r=0.4; p=0.004) and HFC frequency (r=0.3; p=0.04). Multiple regression analysis confirmed the influence of cigarette smoking on the level of SCE and HFC, while these parameters were not affected by personal exposure to BD. Overall, the biomarkers of genotoxic effect investigated in our study were not able to discriminate between workers with a very low exposure to BD and controls, while it was possible to distinguish between smokers and non-smokers on the basis of SCE.

  16. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities as biomarkers of oxidative stress in workers exposed to mercury vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin-Nadif, R.; Dusch, M.; Mur, J.M.; Koch, C.; Schmitt, P.

    1996-06-07

    We investigated the role of three blood antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant status (TAS) as biological markers of oxidative stress in workers exposed to mercury (Hg{degrees}) vapors. Twenty-two female workers took part in the study. Blood and urine sampling for biological analyses was performed. The workers were classified into three subgroups according to their creatinine-corrected Hg concentration in urine. Blood antioxidant enzyme activities and TAS were compared between groups with nonparametric distribution-free methods. A significant difference existed in catalase activity and a slight, but not significant, difference existed in Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} superoxide dismutase (Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD) activity between the three groups. No differences were observed in either the glutathione peroxidase activity or the TAS between these groups. Catalase and Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD activities were increased in the groups of workers with higher creatinine-corrected urinary Hg concentrations when compared with the group of lower creatinine-corrected urinary Hg concentrations. Catalase activity was positively correlated with the creatinine-corrected concentration of Hg in urine, and Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD activity was slightly correlated with the creatinine-corrected concentration of Hg in urine. The role of erythrocyte catalase and Cu{sup 2}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD activities we have measured is in agreement with the hypothesis of the involvement of reactive oxygen species production as an important event in chronic exposure to Hg{degrees} vapors in humans. In spite of the small sample size, results indicate that erythrocyte catalase and Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD activities could be considered as markers of biological effect in workers exposed to Hg{degrees} vapors. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Cancer mortality among male workers in the Polish rubber industry.

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Kaczmarek, T; Szymczak, W

    1991-01-01

    The rubber industry, acknowledged by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to be a cancer risk technology is, because of difficulty in identifying causal factors, the subject of intensive epidemiological studies in many countries. In the presented study, cancer risk in the rubber industry was evaluated on the basis of long-term observation (1945-1985) of a cohort of 6978 male workers employed in a rubber goods factory, predominantly engaged in producing rubber footwear. The reference group was the general male population of Poland. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), calculated by means of the person-years method, were used in the evaluation of death risk. The observation of a whole cohort indicated an excess of cancer, in general (approx 12%), lung cancer (approx 40%) and gallbladder cancer (approx fourfold). In the subcohorts, distinguished according to peculiarities of individual production sections, cancer risk of the large intestine and larynx was significantly increased. The highest cancer risk was found in compounding, mixing, milling and vulcanizing sections. Hence, beta-naphthylamine, benzidine and solvents (benzene) were used in technological processes in the past, bladder cancer and leukemia were considered as most specific for the rubber industry. In the cohort observed, the risk of death from bladder cancer was significantly increased only in those who had been employed during the years 1945-1953, namely during the period when beta-naphthylamine was in use. No excess of deaths from leukemia was observed.

  18. Compensating the workers: industrial injury and compensation in the British asbestos industry, 1930s-60s.

    PubMed

    Tweedale, G; Jeremy, D J

    1999-01-01

    In 1931 the British government introduced pioneering legislation to combat occupational disease in the asbestos industry. A key feature was an Asbestosis Scheme for compensating workers for industrial injury and death. This article examines the implementation of the Scheme at Turner & Newall, the leading UK asbestos producer. The evidence reveals an inequitable system of compensation, especially when compared to the company's generosity to its shareholders. Deficiencies in British compensation law, the weaknesses of regulatory forces, and the company's policy of minimising the extent of asbestos disease are held responsible.

  19. Lung function in asbestos-exposed workers, a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A continuing controversy exists about whether, asbestos exposure is associated with significant lung function impairments when major radiological abnormalities are lacking. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to assess whether asbestos exposure is related to impairment of lung function parameters independently of the radiological findings. Methods MEDLINE was searched from its inception up to April 2010. We included studies that assessed lung function parameters in asbestos exposed workers and stratified subjects according to radiological findings. Estimates of VC, FEV1 and FEV1/VC with their dispersion measures were extracted and pooled. Results Our meta-analysis with data from 9,921 workers exposed to asbestos demonstrates a statistically significant reduction in VC, FEV1 and FEV1/VC, even in those workers without radiological changes. Less severe lung function impairments are detected if the diagnoses are based on (high resolution) computed tomography rather than the less sensitive X-ray images. The degree of lung function impairment was partly related to the proportion of smokers included in the studies. Conclusions Asbestos exposure is related to restrictive and obstructive lung function impairment. Even in the absence of radiological evidence of parenchymal or pleural diseases there is a trend for functional impairment. PMID:21791077

  20. [Indicators of pulmonary epithelial damage among workers at a foundry exposed to airborne pollutants].

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, E; Apostoli, P; Catalani, S; Festa, D; Folesani, G; Andreoli, R; Manini, P; Schenato, S; DePalma, G; Franchini, I; Bernard, A; Mutti, A

    2003-01-01

    Foundry ambient air contains very high concentrations of noxious substances, such as particulate matter and gaseous pollutants, which can target the respiratory epithelium. Serum concentrations of the 16-kDa Clara cell protein (CC16-S) may reflect both the integrity of the epithelial barrier and smoke-induced Clara cell toxicity. To evaluate whether CC16-S is a sensitive biomarker of early respiratory disturbances, it was determined in a group of 35 foundry male workers (aged 41.1 +/- 6.9 years) examined both prior to and at the end of their work-shift (06:00 a.m.-02:00 p.m.). Exposure to inhalable/respirable dusts and PAH was characterized; urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-P) and naphtol was measured to assess exposure to pyrene and naphthalene, respectively. CC16 serum levels decreased at the end of the shift (10.7 +/- 3.82 micrograms/L vs. 8.39 +/- 3.05 micrograms/L; p < 0.01); such decrements were significantly larger in more exposed workers. Although smokers had lower baseline values as compared to non smokers, both subgroups showed an average decrease of 30% in CC16-S concentrations at the end of shift. CC16-S was also negatively correlated with 1-OH-P, but not with naphtol concentrations. Decreased CC16-S levels can result from citotoxicity and would represent an useful biomarker of pneumotoxicity in foundry workers exposed to complex mixtures.

  1. The combined effect of noise and carbon monoxide on hearing thresholds of exposed workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda, Adriana; Leroux, Tony; Gagn, Jean-Pierre

    2005-04-01

    Animal models have been used to demonstrate the potentiation of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) by carbon monoxide. It has been shown that the addition of carbon monoxide to otherwise safe noise exposure levels produces significant NIHL in rats. However, the effects of chronic exposure to low level of carbon monoxide in a noisy work environment are still unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the hearing thresholds of a group of workers exposed to noise and carbon monoxide (Group 1) to another group of workers where carbon monoxide exposure is absent or negligible (Group 2). The analysis was based on 9396 audiograms collected by the Quebec National Public Health Institute between 1983 and 1996. The results show significantly poorer hearing thresholds at high frequencies (3, 4, and 6 kHz) for the carbon monoxide exposed group (p<0.001). The potentiation effect also varied according to years of exposure in work place; a larger effect is observed for workers with between 15 to 20 years of exposure (p<0.001). This study provides the first demonstration of a potentiation effect of NIHL by carbon monoxide in humans.

  2. Socio-economic status of workers of building construction industry

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P. K.; Biswas, S.; Nayak, K.; Chatterjee, M. K.; Chakraborty, D.; Mukherjee, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informal/unorganised sector covers 92% of the total work force in India. About 50% of the construction industrial workers belonged to informal/unorganised sector. Material and Methods: The present study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status of construction worker and availing of the social security measures by this working group. Results and Conclusion: The study covered 150 subjects with an average age of 32 years and mean duration of work was nine years. They were poorly paid with an average income of Rs. 4956/-per month. Though the literacy rate was high (79%) yet most of them were addicted to different habits like drinking alcohol, smoking bidi, tobacco chewing etc., Abusing the family members were noted in (30%) of the cases. Their regular intake of food, usually inadequate in quantity and was mainly consisted of rice, pulses, vegetables. Though most of the subjects (73%) were living in kacha houses yet the latrine facilities were available to 62% of total covered houses. Majority of them were unaware of the different social security schemes/measures. The details have been discussed here. PMID:23580836

  3. Pulmonary function and symptoms of Nigerian workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire factories

    SciTech Connect

    Oleru, U.G.; Elegbeleye, O.O.; Enu, C.C.; Olumide, Y.M.

    1983-02-01

    The pulmonary function and symptoms of 125 workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire manufacturing plants were investigated. There was no significant difference in the pulmonary function of the subjects in the two plants. There was good agreement in the symptoms reported in the two different factories: cough with phlegm production, tiredness, chest pain, catarrh, headache, and skin irritation. The symptoms also corroborate those reported in the few studies on the pulmonary effects of carbon black. The suspended particulate levels in the dry cell battery plant ranged from 25 to 34 mg/m/sup 3/ and the subjects with the highest probable exposure level had the most impaired pulmonary function. The pulmonary function of the exposed subjects was significantly lower than that of a control, nonindustrially exposed population. The drop in the lung function from the expected value per year of age was relatively constant for all the study subgroups but the drop per year of duration of employment was more severe in the earlier years of employment. This study has underscored the need for occupational health regulations in the industries of developing countries.

  4. Pulmonary function and symptoms of Nigerian workers exposed to Carbon black in dry cell battery and tire factories.

    PubMed

    Oleru, U G; Elegbeleye, O O; Enu, C C; Olumide, Y M

    1983-02-01

    The pulmonary function and symptoms of 125 workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire manufacturing plants were investigated. There was no significant difference in the pulmonary function of the subjects in the two plants. There was good agreement in the symptoms reported in the two different factories: cough with phlegm production, tiredness, chest pain, catarrh, headache, and skin irritation. The symptoms also corroborate those reported in the few studies on the pulmonary effects of carbon black. The suspended particulate levels in the dry cell battery plant ranged from 25 to 34 mg/m3 and the subjects with the highest probable exposure level had the most impaired pulmonary function. The pulmonary function of the exposed subjects was significantly lower than that of a control, nonindustrially exposed population. The drop in the lung function from the expected value per year of age was relatively constant for all the study subgroups but the drop per year of duration of employment was more severe in the earlier years of employment. This study has underscored the need for occupational health regulations in the industries of developing countries.

  5. Use of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Simulate the Profiles of 3-Hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene in Workers Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Heredia Ortiz, Roberto; Maître, Anne; Barbeau, Damien; Lafontaine, Michel; Bouchard, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Biomathematical modeling has become an important tool to assess xenobiotic exposure in humans. In the present study, we have used a human physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and an simple compartmental toxicokinetic model of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) kinetics and its 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP) metabolite to reproduce the time-course of this biomarker of exposure in the urine of industrially exposed workers and in turn predict the most plausible exposure scenarios. The models were constructed from in vivo experimental data in rats and then extrapolated from animals to humans after assessing and adjusting the most sensitive model parameters as well as species specific physiological parameters. Repeated urinary voids from workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been collected over the course of a typical workweek and during subsequent days off work; urinary concentrations of 3-OHBaP were then determined. Based on the information obtained for each worker (BaP air concentration, daily shift hours, tasks, protective equipment), the time courses of 3-OHBaP in the urine of the different workers have been simulated using the PBPK and toxicokinetic models, considering the various possible exposure routes, oral, dermal and inhalation. Both models were equally able to closely reproduce the observed time course of 3-OHBaP in the urine of workers and predicted similar exposure scenarios. Simulations of various scenarios suggest that the workers under study were exposed mainly by the dermal route. Comparison of measured air concentration levels of BaP with simulated values needed to obtain a good approximation of observed time course further pointed out that inhalation was not the main route of exposure for most of the studied workers. Both kinetic models appear as a useful tool to interpret biomonitoring data of PAH exposure on the basis of 3-OHBaP levels. PMID:25032692

  6. Particle size distributions of oil mists in workplace atmospheres and their exposure concentrations to workers in a fastener manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Ru; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Chang, Chih-Ching; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2007-07-19

    This study was set out to characterize size distributions of oil mists in three workplace atmospheres of the forming, threading, and heat treatment in a fastener manufacturing industry and to assess their exposures to workers. Particle size segregating samplings were conducted on the workplace atmospheres of the three selected industrial processes by using the modified Marple 8-stage cascade impactor (m-Marple). We found that mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the fine mode and coarse mode fell to the range 0.309-0.501 microm and 8.16-13.0 microm, respectively. The fractions of inhaled particles exposed to different regions of the respiratory tracts found that the alveolar region was consistently higher than both head and tracheobronchial regions in all three studied exposure groups. Personal inhalable oil mist samplings were conducted on workers in the three selected processes revealed their exposure levels as: threading workers (2.11 mg/m3)>forming workers (1.58 mg/m3)>heat treatment workers (0.0801 mg/m3). The estimated respirable exposure concentrations for both forming and threading workers (1.34 mg/m3 and 1.40 mg/m3, respectively) were higher than the level known for "increased risk of pulmonary injury" (0.20 mg/m3) suggesting that appropriate control measures should be taken to reduce their exposures to the oil mists of the respirable fraction immediately.

  7. A long-term mortality study of workers occupationally exposed to metallic nickel at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

    PubMed

    Godbold, J H; Tompkins, E A

    1979-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether mortality from respiratory cancer among workers occupationally exposed to metallic nickel at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) differed from that of workers at the same plant with no record of occupational exposure to metallic nickel or any nickel compound. A cohort of ,14 nickel-exposed workers and one of 1600' controls were identified. The members of both cohorts had a minimum follow-up period of 19 years. Mortality from respiratory cancer and from other causes was examined in both groups. The data showed no evidence of an increased risk of mortality due to respiratory cancer among the nickel-exposed workers. The exposed cohort experienced lower mortality than the controls, both in deaths due to respiratory cancer and in deaths due to all causes, although neither of these differences was statistically significant.

  8. Latently and uninfected healthcare workers exposed to TB make protective antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Wang, Xing-Xing; Wang, Bin; Fu, Lei; Liu, Guan; Lu, Yu; Cao, Min; Huang, Hairong; Javid, Babak

    2017-05-09

    The role of Igs in natural protection against infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB, is controversial. Although passive immunization with mAbs generated against mycobacterial antigens has shown protective efficacy in murine models of infection, studies in B cell-depleted animals only showed modest phenotypes. We do not know if humans make protective antibody responses. Here, we investigated whether healthcare workers in a Beijing TB hospital-who, although exposed to suprainfectious doses of pathogenic Mtb, remain healthy-make antibody responses that are effective in protecting against infection by Mtb. We tested antibodies isolated from 48 healthcare workers and compared these with 12 patients with active TB. We found that antibodies from 7 of 48 healthcare workers but none from active TB patients showed moderate protection against Mtb in an aerosol mouse challenge model. Intriguingly, three of seven healthcare workers who made protective antibody responses had no evidence of prior TB infection by IFN-γ release assay. There was also good correlation between protection observed in vivo and neutralization of Mtb in an in vitro human whole-blood assay. Antibodies mediating protection were directed against the surface of Mtb and depended on both immune complexes and CD4+ T cells for efficacy. Our results indicate that certain individuals make protective antibodies against Mtb and challenge paradigms about the nature of an effective immune response to TB.

  9. Neurobehavioral and respiratory findings in jet engine repair workers: A comparison of exposed and unexposed volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, K H

    1999-04-01

    Workers repairing jet engines had respiratory, rheumatic, and neurobehavioral symptoms. They had welded and ground stainless steel parts using hard metal tools and cleaned metal with chlorinated and fluorinated organic solvents. We compared 154 workers and 112 unexposed subjects, all volunteers of similar ages and with similar educational levels, for abnormalities on chest radiographs, spirometric measurements, and questionnaires. Also appraised were performance of reaction time, balance, blink reflex latency, color discrimination, Culture Fair, vocabulary, slotted pegboard, trail making A and B, profile of mood states (POMS), and frequencies of 35 symptoms. Compared to unexposed subjects, workers had significantly more respiratory symptoms but no differences in pulmonary function. They had significantly prolonged simple and choice reaction time (P<0.0001), and abnormal balance with eyes open and eyes closed (P<0. 0001), and abnormal color discrimination. Blink reflex latency was abnormal in both exposed workers and in local unexposed compared to other reference groups. Focus of the inquiry on lung disease helped ensure that for neurobehavioral tests confounding factors were minimal and known biases were small. We tentatively attribute the neurobehavioral impairments and increased symptom frequencies to chlorinated solvent exposure. Excessive respiratory symptoms are attributed to welding stainless steel combined with cigarette smoking. Specifically, manganese exposure may have affected the respiratory and the central nervous systems. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. Attitudes towards second hand smoke amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, P A; Gray, S; Gilmore, A B; Daykin, N

    2006-06-01

    To examine knowledge, attitudes and experiences of London casino workers regarding exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) in the workplace. Postal survey of 1568 London casino workers in 25 casinos who were members of the TGWU or GMB Trade Unions. Of the workers, 559 responded to the survey (36% response), 22% of whom were current smokers. Of the respondents, 71% report being nearly always exposed to heavy levels of SHS at work, and most (65%) want all working areas in their casino to be smoke-free. The majority (78%) are bothered by SHS at work, while 91% have wanted to move away from where they are working because of it. Fifty-seven per cent believe their health has suffered as a result of SHS. Of the workers who smoke at work, 59% believe that they would try to quit smoking if no one was allowed to smoke in the casino. The majority of responders are bothered by SHS, and many are concerned about the health impacts. Most want all working areas in their casino to be smoke-free. Despite difficulties in generalizing from this limited sample, these findings add weight to the argument that the legislation on smoking in public places in England should encompass all workplaces, without exemption.

  11. Adolescent Workers in Third World Export Industries: Attitudes of Young Brazilian Shoemakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, J. Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    A study of adolescent workers in Brazil's shoe industry found that workers in global companies were less satisfied and more negative. Those working in family businesses had more positive experiences. Workers in local businesses dealt with some negative conditions but had more autonomy and satisfaction than those in global businesses. (Contains 47…

  12. Necessary Skills for Entry-Level Workers in Service Industries: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Mike; Sanford, Barry; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Boswell, James

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 13 service industry representatives identified the skills needed for employment in entry-level jobs. Employers wanted workers who would be on time, get along with co-workers, work effectively with customers, and were willing to follow company policies. Few advancement opportunities exist for entry workers because very few have the…

  13. Biological monitoring of genotoxic hazard in workers of the rubber industry.

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, M; Villarini, M; Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Monarca, S; Libraro, M; Fatigoni, C; Donato, F; Leonardis, C; Perego, L

    1996-01-01

    Biological monitoring of genotoxic hazard in the rubber industry was performed in 19 male workers and 20 age-matched controls in a local health unit in northern Italy. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were analyzed for the presence of DNA damage (single-cell microgel-electrophoresis, or comet assay) and for cytogenetic parameters (sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei frequency, and proliferative rate index). The following bioassays were performed in urine samples: a) mutagenicity test and concentration of thioethers as markers of exposure, and b) excretion of D-glucaric acid and 6-beta-hydroxycortisol (related to 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion) as indicators of the inductive status of the microsomal enzyme system (phase-I). The exposed subjects showed statistically higher mean values of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids and micronuclei and lower values of 6-beta-hydroxycortisol than controls, when taking cigarette smoking into account. The comet assay showed higher values for migration distance in exposed subjects than controls, although the differences were not significant at a p-value of 0.05. These findings suggest that industrial exposure in the rubber processing industry may cause genetic damage and may modify the activity level of some enzymes; these results should be considered with caution due to the small number of subjects enrolled. PMID:8781380

  14. Comparative analysis of urinary N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine for ethylene oxide- and non-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Chun Jean; Wu, Chia-Fang; Shih, Wei-Chung; Chen, Ming-Feng; Chen, Chang-Yuh; Chien, Yeh-Chung; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Chiang, Su-Yin; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2011-05-10

    Ethylene oxide (EO), a direct alkylating agent and a carcinogen, can attack the nucleophilic sites of DNA bases to form a variety of DNA adducts. The most abundant adduct, N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (N7-HEG), can be depurinated spontaneously or enzymatically from DNA backbone to form abasic sites. Molecular dosimetry of the excised N7-HEG in urine can serve as an EO exposure and potential risk-associated biomarker. This study was to analyze N7-HEG in urine collected from 89 EO-exposed and 48 nonexposed hospital workers and 20 exposed and 10 nonexposed factory workers by using our newly developed on-line solid-phase extraction isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS method. Statistical analysis of data shows that the exposed factory workers excreted significantly greater concentrations of N7-HEG than both the nonexposed factory workers and hospital workers. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the EO-exposed factory workers had a significantly greater post-shift urinary N7-HEG than their nonexposed coworkers and hospital workers. These results demonstrate that analysis of urinary N7-HEG can serve as a biomarker of EO exposure for future molecular epidemiology studies to better understand the role of the EO-induced DNA adduct formation in EO carcinogenicity and certainly for routine surveillance of occupational EO exposure for the study of potential health impacts on workers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Influence of low-frequency magnetotherapy and HF-puncture on the heart rhythm in hypertensive workers exposed to vibration].

    PubMed

    Drobyshev, V A; Loseva, M I; Sukharevskaia, T M; Michurin, A I

    2001-01-01

    The authors present results concerning use of low-frequency magnetic fields and HF-therapy for correction of vegetative homeostasis in workers with variable length of service, exposed to vibration, having early forms of arterial hypertension. The most positive changes of vegetative status and central hemodynamics are seen in workers with low length of service.

  16. Determinants of respiratory symptoms in insulation workers exposed to asbestos and synthetic mineral fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, P; Shapiro, S; Dales, R E; Becklake, M R

    1987-01-01

    The determinants of respiratory symptoms were studied in an active workforce of insulation workers exposed to asbestos and synthetic mineral fibres. Responses to a mailed respiratory symptom questionnaire from 537 insulation workers without diagnosed asbestosis were analysed using logistic regression. Wheezing complaints and breathlessness were related primarily to current cigarette smoking and to symptoms suggesting an asthmatic predisposition antedating work in the trade. There was also evidence that these complaints were related to occupational exposure (estimated by number of hours worked in the trade) in subjects with prior airways hyperreactivity. An asthmatic predisposition antedating work in the trade was the major determinant of acute respiratory symptoms in the workplace. The effects of workplace exposures on respiratory symptoms may have been underestimated due to selective withdrawal from the active workforce and due to inaccuracies in the measure of exposure used. PMID:3814550

  17. Neurobehavioural effects of industrial mixed solvent exposure in Chinese printing and paint workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, T.P.; Ong, S.G.; Lam, W.K.; Jones, G.M. )

    1990-11-01

    Neurobehavioural symptoms and performance tests were evaluated in a group of 78 workers exposed to mixed organic solvents (printers, paint sprayers and paint production workers) and a referent group of 145 unexposed subjects (nonproduction factory workers and volunteer postal workers). Both groups were administered a structured symptoms questionnaire and eight neurobehavioural tests for psycho-motor function, visual and auditory memory. An excess of symptoms of fatigue, irritability, depression, poor memory, sleep disturbances and symptoms suggestive of autonomic dysfunction was found in the exposed group. Neurobehavioural test performance was generally worse, and performance on tests of psycho-motor function (choice reaction test and digit symbol) and auditory memory (digit span and associate learning) was significantly poorer in the exposed group. The findings support the view that apparently healthy and actively employed workers exposed to mixed solvents show neurobehavioural deficits.

  18. Evaluating Effects of Heat Stress on Cognitive Function among Workers in a Hot Industry

    PubMed Central

    Mazloumi, Adel; Golbabaei, Farideh; Mahmood Khani, Somayeh; Kazemi, Zeinab; Hosseini, Mostafa; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background:Heat stress, as one of the most common occupational health problems, can impair operators' cognitive processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on cognitive function among workers in a hot industry. Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted in Malibel Saipa Company in 2013, workers were assigned into two groups: one group were exposed to heat stress (n=35), working in casting unit and the other group working in machining unit (n=35) with a normal air conditioning. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature was measured at three heights of ankle, abdomen, and head. In order to evaluate the effects of heat stress on attention and reaction time, Stroop tests 1, 2, and 3 were conducted before starting the work and during the work. Results: A significant positive correlation was observed between WBGT and test duration (P=0.01) and reaction time of Stroop test 3 (P=0.047), and between number of errors in Stroop tests 1, 2, and 3, during the work (P= 0.001). Moreover, Stroop test 3 showed a significant higher score for both test duration and reaction time of workers in case group. Conclusion: Results of the present study, conducted in a real work environment, confirmed the impairment of cognitive functions, including selective attention and reaction time, under heat stress conditions. PMID:25649311

  19. A review of job-exposure matrix methodology for application to workers exposed to radiation from internally deposited plutonium or other radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanhua; Wakeford, Richard; Riddell, Anthony; O'Hagan, Jacqueline; MacGregor, David; Agius, Raymond; Wilson, Christine; Peace, Mark; de Vocht, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Any potential health effects of radiation emitted from radionuclides deposited in the bodies of workers exposed to radioactive materials can be directly investigated through epidemiological studies. However, estimates of radionuclide exposure and consequent tissue-specific doses, particularly for early workers for whom monitoring was relatively crude but exposures tended to be highest, can be uncertain, limiting the accuracy of risk estimates. We review the use of job-exposure matrices (JEMs) in peer-reviewed epidemiological and exposure assessment studies of nuclear industry workers exposed to radioactive materials as a method for addressing gaps in exposure data, and discuss methodology and comparability between studies. We identified nine studies of nuclear worker cohorts in France, Russia, the USA and the UK that had incorporated JEMs in their exposure assessments. All these JEMs were study or cohort-specific, and although broadly comparable methodologies were used in their construction, this is insufficient to enable the transfer of any one JEM to another study. Moreover there was often inadequate detail on whether, or how, JEMs were validated. JEMs have become more detailed and more quantitative, and this trend may eventually enable better comparison across, and the pooling of, studies. We conclude that JEMs have been shown to be a valuable exposure assessment methodology for imputation of missing exposure data for nuclear worker cohorts with data not missing at random. The next step forward for direct comparison or pooled analysis of complete cohorts would be the use of transparent and transferable methods.

  20. Environmental and biological monitoring of arsenic in outdoor workers exposed to urban air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ciarrocca, Manuela; Tomei, Gianfranco; Palermo, Paola; Caciari, Tiziana; Cetica, Carlotta; Fiaschetti, Maria; Gioffrè, Pier Agostino; Tasciotti, Zaira; Tomei, Francesco; Sancini, Angela

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate personal exposure to As in urban air in two groups of outdoor workers (traffic policemen and police drivers) of a big Italian city through: (a) environmental monitoring of As obtained by personal samples and (b) biological monitoring of total urinary As. The possible influence of smoking habit on urinary As was evaluated. We studied 122 male subjects, all Municipal Police employees: 84 traffic policemen and 38 police drivers exposed to urban pollutants. Personal exposure to As in air was significantly higher in traffic policemen than in police drivers (p=0.03). Mean age, length of service, alcohol drinking habit, number of cigarettes smoked/day and BMI were comparable between the groups of subjects studied. All subjects were working in the same urban area where they had lived for at least 5 yrs. Dietary habits and consumption of water from the water supply and/or mineral water were similar in traffic policemen and in police drivers. The values of total urinary As were significantly higher in traffic policemen (smokers and non smokers) than in police drivers (smokers and non smokers) (p=0.02). In the subgroup of non-smokers the values of total urinary As were significantly higher in traffic policemen than in police drivers (p=0.03). In traffic policemen and in police drivers total urinary As values were significantly correlated to the values of As in air (respectively r=0.9 and r=0.8, p<0.001). This is the first research in literature studying the exposure to As in outdoor workers occupationally exposed to urban pollutants, such as traffic policemen and police drivers. Personal exposure to As in the air, as well as the urinary excretion of As, is significantly higher in traffic policemen compared to drivers. These results can provide information about exposure to As in streets and in car for other categories of outdoor workers similarly exposed.

  1. Double Jeopardy: Hearing Loss and Tinnitus Among Noise-Exposed Workers.

    PubMed

    Hong, OiSaeng; Chin, Dal Lae; Phelps, Stephanie; Joo, Yoonmee

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus and assess the relationship between tinnitus and hearing loss among firefighters and operating engineers, who are exposed to noise on-the-job. The study analyzed existing data from two different populations (154 firefighters and 769 operating engineers) who completed a survey and audiometric tests as part of a hearing loss prevention intervention study. Approximately 40% of both groups reported tinnitus; 34% of firefighters and 59% of operating engineers showed hearing loss at noise-sensitive frequencies (4 kHz and 6 kHz). Firefighters with high frequency hearing loss (odds ratio [OR] = 2.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.05, 5.11]) and those with perceived impaired hearing status (OR = 3.53; 95% CI = [1.27, 9.80]) were significantly more likely to report tinnitus. Similarly, operating engineers who had hearing loss at both low (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = [1.40, 3.15]) and high frequencies (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = [1.37, 2.90]), and perceived impaired hearing status (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = [1.55, 3.05]) were twice as likely to report tinnitus. This study demonstrated that tinnitus is a considerable problem for noise-exposed workers. Workers with hearing loss demonstrated significantly higher rates of tinnitus. Comprehensive workplace hearing conservation programs should include tinnitus management for noise-exposed workers, along with other key elements such as noise control and hearing protection.

  2. ECG changes in factory workers exposed to 27.2  MHz radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingsong; Xu, Guoyong; Lang, Li; Yang, Aichu; Li, Shilin; Yang, Liwen; Li, Chaolin; Huang, Hanlin; Li, Tao

    2013-05-01

    To research the effect of 27.2 MHz radiofrequency radiation on electrocardiograms (ECG), 225 female workers operating radiofrequency machines at a shoe factory were chosen as the exposure group and 100 female workers without exposure from the same factory were selected as the control group. The 6 min electric field strength that the female workers were exposed to was 64.0 ± 25.2 V/m (mean ± SD), which exceeded 61 V/m, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference root mean square levels for occupational exposure. A statistical difference was observed between the exposed group and the control group in terms of the rate of sinus bradycardia (χ(2)  = 11.48, P = 0.003). When several known risk factors for cardiovascular disease were considered, including smoking, age, alcohol ingestion habit, and so on, the exposure duration was not an effective factor for ECG changes, sinus arrhythmia, or sinus bradycardia according to α = 0.05, while P = 0.052 for sinus arrhythmia was very close to 0.05. We did not find any statistical difference in heart rate, duration of the QRS wave (ventricular depolarization), or corrected QT intervals (between the start of the Q wave and end of the T wave) between the exposed and control groups. Occupational exposure to radiofrequency radiation was not found to be a cause of ECG changes after consideration of the confounding factors.

  3. [Effects of 1-bromopropane on neurological and hematological changes of female exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Hua; Zhou, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qiang-Yi; Ichihara, Gaku; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Ding, Xun-Cheng

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the health effects of 1-bromopropane (1-BP) on female exposed workers. Four 1-BP manufacturing plants were investigated. Workers were interviewed with questionnaire and examined with neurobehavioral core test battery, nerve conduction velocity tests of nervus tibialis and nervus suralis, vibration sensation test, hematological and biochemical tests. Ambient 1-BP concentration was measured with detection tube, and time-weighed average levels of individual workers were estimated with passive samplers. 1-BP concentration in the plants ranged from 0 to 402.40 mg/m3 (Geomean 32.19 mg/m3). Time-weighted average exposure levels (TWA-8 h) ranged from 0.35 to 535.19 mg/m3 (Geomean 14.08 mg/m3). Compared with the control group, 1-BP exposed workers showed reduced motor nerve conduction velocity [(44.8 +/- 8.7) m/s] and sensory nerve conduction velocity [(45.5 +/- 4.9) m/s], prolonged distal latency [(7.5 +/- 2.1) ms], reduced toe vibration perception, and altered neurobehavior parameters(POMS vigor, tension, anxiety, confusion) significantly (P < 0.05). As to hematological and biochemical indicators, the exposed workers showed decreased white blood cell count [(5.6 +/- 2.17) x 10(3)/microl], red blood cell count [(3.9 +/- 0.4) x 10(6)/microl], hemoglobin [(121.1 +/- 14.5) g/L] and creatine kinase [(82.0 +/- 27.5) IU/L] (P < 0.05), and increased serum total protein (8.0 +/- 0.5 g/dl), lactate dehydrogenase [(335.2 +/- 356.6) IU/L], thyroid-stimulating hormone [(3.6 +/- 2.3) microIU/ml] and follicle-stimulating hormone levels (18.7 +/- 24.4 mIU/ml) (P < 0.05). 1-BP exposure may affect peripheral nerves and central nervous system, and lead to abnormal hematological and biomedical indicators.

  4. Study of skin and mucous membrane disorders among workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Vijay Kumar; Deswal, Balbir Singh; Singh, Bachu Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inhalation of dusts and fumes arising during the manufacture of sodium dichromate from chrome ore, chromic acid mist emitted during electroplating, and skin contact with chromate produce hazards to workers. Objectives: (1) To elucidate the prevalence of skin and mucous membrane disorders among the workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry. (2) To know the relationship of prevalence with the duration of exposure to chrome mist, dust, and fumes. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among all the workers engaged in sodium dichromate manufacturing and chrome plating from several industries situated near the Delhi-Haryana border in the districts of Faridabad and Sonepat of Haryana, India from January 01, 2014 to December 31, 2014. Materials and Methods: All the workers available from the concerned industries for the study were interviewed and medically examined after obtaining their informed consent. A total of 130 workers comprising 66 workers from the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and 64 workers from the chrome plating industry were examined on a pretested schedule. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistical methods (proportions, relative risk, and Chi-square test of significance with P value analyzed using Epi Info version 7). Results: All the workers were found to be males and of the adult age group. Out of the total examined, 69.69% and 56.22% of the workers had disorders of the nasal mucous membrane in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and the chrome plating industry, respectively. 42.42% and 28.22% of the workers had perforation of the nasal septum in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. 6.06% and 3.12% workers had skin ulcers in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. Nasal irritation and rhinorrhea were the most commonly found symptoms in both the processes

  5. Occupational risk assessment of oxidative stress and genotoxicity in workers exposed to paints during a working week.

    PubMed

    Cassini, Carina; Calloni, Caroline; Bortolini, Giovana; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Dornelles, Marco Aurélio; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Salvador, Mirian

    2011-09-01

    Paints are complex mixtures of solvents and metals that can induce health damages in workers exposed to them. The aim of the present work was to evaluate possible oxidative and genotoxic effects in workers exposed to paints. Peripheral blood and buccal cell samples were collected from 33 workers exposed to paints and 29 non-exposed workers (controls) during an ordinary working week (Monday morning and Friday evening). Oxidative markers were assessed using thiobarbituric acid assay, carbonylated proteins, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Hippuric acid and delta-aminolevulinic acid were determined as biomarkers of toluene and lead exposure, respectively. Genotoxicity was measured through comet assay and micronucleus (MN) frequencies. The exposed group showed higher hippuric acid and delta-aminolevulinic acid levels (Friday samples) and lower superoxide dismutase activity (Monday samples) in relation to control group. DNA damage index (comet assay) was higher in the exposed group, both in Monday and Friday samples, compared to the control group. No differences were observed in frequency of micronuclei (MN) between the groups, either in lymphocytes or buccal cells. However, the exposed group presented an increase (Monday samples) in nuclear buds frequency in lymphocytes - a marker of gene amplification - as well as an increase in condensed chromatin in the buccal cells (Monday and Friday samples), suggesting induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, a decrease in the nuclear division index (Friday samples) was observed in the exposed group, indicating that paint exposure induces cytostatic effects in lymphocytes. The results suggest that individuals exposed to paints have increased levels of DNA damage.

  6. Pig-2-Bac as a biomarker of occupational exposure to pigs and livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus among industrial hog operation workers.

    PubMed

    Pisanic, Nora; Nadimpalli, Maya; Rinsky, Jessica L; Stewart, Jill; Wing, Steve; Love, David C; Hall, Devon; Heaney, Christopher D

    2015-11-01

    Over 50 million hogs are raised annually in the United States for consumption, mostly on industrial hog operations (IHOs). Workers at IHOs are exposed to airborne particulates, zoonotic pathogens, and other workplace hazards, but lack of access to IHOs can hinder exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. Here, we demonstrate the utility of pig-specific Bacteroidales (Pig-2-Bac) as a biomarker of exposure to pigs and pig waste and to help identify sources of Staphylococcus aureus carriage among IHO workers.

  7. Monitoring working conditions and health of older workers in Dutch construction industry.

    PubMed

    Hoonakker, Peter; van Duivenbooden, Cor

    2010-06-01

    Accurate reporting of work-related conditions is necessary to monitor workplace health and safety and to identify the interventions that are most needed. In the Netherlands, working conditions and health are monitored on an aggregated level in the construction industry. One of the purposes of monitoring is to identify specific risk factors and risk groups. The objectives of this study was to examine (1) whether older workers (> or =55 years) in the construction industry are a special group at risk and (2) whether there are specific risk factors for older workers in the construction industry. Every 2 years, more than 70,000 construction workers in the Netherlands fill out a questionnaire as part of their periodic health checkup. In a repeated cross-sectional (trend) design, we compared working conditions (physical and psychological demands), musculoskeletal disorders (symptoms and conditions), and injuries of older workers with other age categories. Older construction workers have fewer complaints about physically demanding work and psychosocial workload, but have more complaints about working in awkward postures. Older workers have more complaints about their health than workers in other age categories. Older construction workers have fewer injuries than younger workers. Older construction workers are a risk group for musculoskeletal disorders. Working in awkward postures can be considered a risk factor for older workers in construction industry. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Design of digital filters for frequency weightings (A and C) required for risk assessments of workers exposed to noise.

    PubMed

    Rimell, Andrew N; Mansfield, Neil J; Paddan, Gurmail S

    2015-01-01

    Many workers are exposed to noise in their industrial environment. Excessive noise exposure can cause health problems and therefore it is important that the worker's noise exposure is assessed. This may require measurement by an equipment manufacturer or the employer. Human exposure to noise may be measured using microphones; however, weighting filters are required to correlate the physical noise sound pressure level measurements to the human's response to an auditory stimulus. IEC 61672-1 and ANSI S1.43 describe suitable weighting filters, but do not explain how to implement them for digitally recorded sound pressure level data. By using the bilinear transform, it is possible to transform the analogue equations given in the standards into digital filters. This paper describes the implementation of the weighting filters as digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and provides all the necessary formulae to directly calculate the filter coefficients for any sampling frequency. Thus, the filters in the standards can be implemented in any numerical processing software (such as a spreadsheet or programming language running on a PC, mobile device or embedded system).

  9. The Effect of Wood Aerosols and Bioaerosols on the Respiratory Systems of Wood Manufacturing Industry Workers in Golestan Province.

    PubMed

    Badirdast, Phateme; Rezazadeh Azari, Mansour; Salehpour, Soussan; Ghadjari, Ali; Khodakarim, Soheila; Panahi, Davod; Fadaei, Moslem; Rahimi, Abolfazl

    2017-01-01

    Occupational exposure to dust leads to acute and chronic respiratory diseases, occupational asthma, and depressed lung function. In the light of a lack of comprehensive studies on the exposure of Iranian workers to wood dusts, the objective of this study was to monitor the occupational exposure to wood dust and bioaerosol, and their correlation with the lung function parameters in chipboard manufacturing industry workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted on chipboard workers in Golestan Province; a total of 150 men (100 exposed cases and 50 controls) were assessed. Workers were monitored for inhalable wood dust and lung function parameters, i.e., FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25-75%. The workers' exposure to bioaerosols was measured using a bacterial sampler; a total of 68 area samples were collected. The analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and regression statistical tests. The geometric mean value and geometric standard deviation of inhalable wood dust for the exposed and control groups were 19 ± 2.00 mg/m(3) and 0.008 ± 0.001 mg/m(3), respectively. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the lung parameters and cumulative exposure to inhalable wood dust, whereas a statistically significant correlation was not observed between the lung parameters and bioaerosol exposure. However, the exposure of Iranian workers to bioaerosols was higher, compared to their foreign coworkers. Considering the high level of exposure among workers in this study along with their lung function results, long-term exposure to wood dust may be detrimental to the workers' health and steps to limit their exposure should be considered seriously.

  10. Work-related injuries in textile industry workers in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Serinken, Mustafa; Türkçüer, Ibrahim; Dağlı, Bekir; Karcıoğlu, Ozgür; Zencir, Mehmet; Uyanık, Emrah

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted as a survey including work-related injuries (WRI) of workers in the textile and clothing industry admitted to the emergency department (ED). This prospective study included patients with WRI reportedly occurring in the textile and clothing industry over a two-year period. The study sample comprised only the casualties occurring at the workplace and while working de facto. A total of 374 patients were eligible for the study. More than three-fourths of the study sample were females (76.2%, n=285). A significant proportion of the patients were between 14 and 24 years of age (44.7%, n=167). Approximately two-thirds reported that this was their first admission to a hospital related to WRI (65.8%, n=246). WRIs occurred most frequently between 07:00-09:00 (27.3%) and 23:00-01:00 (17.9%). "Carelessness" and "rushing" were the most commonly reported causes of WRIs from the patients perspective (40.6% and 21.4%, respectively). Three-fourths of the patients reported that they were using protective equipment (74.3%, n=278). With respect to injury types, laceration/puncture/ amputation/avulsion injuries accounted for 55.6% (n=208) of the sample. Trauma to the upper extremities was the main type of injury in 75.1% (n=281) of the cases. Broad population-based studies are needed to define the situation as a whole in WRIs in the textile and clothing industry in the country. Strict measures should be undertaken and revised accordingly to prevent WRIs in these growing sectors.

  11. Nocturnal oxygen desaturation, as assessed by home oximetry, in long-term solvent-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Laire, G; Viaene, M K; Veulemans, H; Masschelein, R; Nemery, B

    1997-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that occupational exposure to solvents may be a cause of sleep apnea. Digital oximetry during one night was performed in solvent-exposed offset printers (n = 21) and in a control group (n = 21), using a Palco 400 Pulse Oximeter. The threshold for recording was set at an arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) of 90%. Furthermore, computerized neurobehavioral tests (NES) and a solvent-related complaints questionnaire (NSC-60) were administered. The mean exposure time was 15 years (SD = 10). Hygiene measurements revealed a large number of different solvents and a cumulative exposure between 15% and 97% of the "cumulative TLV." The exposed workers had more solvent-related complaints, especially regarding mood (analysis of covariance, P = 0.02), than the nonexposed workers. The neurobehavioral tests indicated that hand-eye coordination was significantly worse in the exposed group (analysis of covariance, P = 0.03). The frequency of nocturnal desaturation was significantly higher in the printers (1.7 events/hr +/- SD = 1.5) than in the controls (0.6 events/hr +/- SD = 1.3) (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.01). Also, the duration of desaturation was longer in the exposed workers: 3.2 min/hr (SD = 3.2) vs 1.2 min/hr (SD = 2.3) (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.01). In the analysis of covariance, exposure (P = 0.04) and the interaction between smoking and exposure (P = 0.02) were shown to contribute significantly to the excess of nocturnal desaturation in the exposed. The same was true for the mean duration of desaturation (exposure: P = 0.02 and interaction exposure smoking: P = 0.02). The significant interaction was due to a more pronounced effect of solvent exposure among the nonsmoker group. No relation was found between the excess of complaints or the neuroperformance effects and the oximetry data. These data reinforce the presumption that occupational solvent exposure might contribute to sleep-disordered breathing.

  12. Zinc protoporphyrin IX concentrations between normal adults and the lead-exposed workers measured by HPLC, spectrofluorometer, and hematofluorometer.

    PubMed

    Roh, Y M; Kim, K; Kim, H

    2000-10-01

    To establish the relationship between Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentrations and blood lead (PbB) levels and to identify reliable analytical methods of ZPP and Protoporhyrin (PP), blood samples were obtained from 263 office workers without the history of occupational lead exposure and 49 lead-acid battery workers. The mean concentrations of PbB for the normal adults and the battery workers were 9.26 microg/dl and 42.60 microg/dl, respectively. The geometric mean concentrations of ZPP and PP by HPLC were 18.73 microg/dl and 2.27 microg/dl for normal adults and were 46.99 microg/dl and 5.53 microg/dl for the exposed workers, respectively. The geometric mean concentrations of ZPP and PP by a spectrofluorometer (SF) were 30.27 microg/dl and 5.16 microg/dl for normal adults and were 50.91 microg/dl and 6.69 +/- 1.39 microg/dl for the exposed workers. The geometric mean ZPP concentration measured by a hematofluorometer (HF) was 30.88 microg/dl for normal adults. The results showed that ZPP concentrations measured by HF were consistently higher than those by HPLC and SF for normal adults, and lower for the exposed workers. ZPP concentrations were not correlated with PbB levels for normal adults but a statistically significant correlation was found among the exposed workers.

  13. Combined effects of noise and mixed solvents exposure on the hearing function among workers in the aviation industry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongyoun; Park, Hyesook; Ha, Eunhee; Jung, Taejin; Paik, Namwon; Yang, Seungleem

    2005-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of occupational exposure to noise and organic solvents on hearing loss in the aviation industry. The study population comprised 542 male workers, who worked in avionics jobs in Kimhae, Korea, who kept records of work environment evaluations and medical examinations. The Cumulative Exposure Index (CEI) was constructed to assess the lifetime cumulative exposure of the workers, and pure tone audiometry (PTA) data of the workers from their biannual medical surveillance was used to assess hearing loss. The prevalence of hearing loss found in the group exposed to noise and mixed solvents simultaneously (54.9%) was higher than those in the other groups (6.0% in the unexposed, 17.1% in the noise-only, and 27.8 % in the exposed to only a solvents mixture). The relative risks, adjusted for age, were estimated to be 4.3 (95 % CI 1.7-10.8) for the noise-only group, 8.1 (95% CI 2.0-32.5) for the noise and solvents group, and 2.6 (95 % CI 0.6-10.3) for the solvents-mixture group. These suggest that chronic exposure to mixed solvents had a toxic effect on the auditory system. This raises the issue of whether hearing conservation regulations should be applied to all workers exposed to solvents.

  14. Milk and Dairy Products Intake Is Associated with Low Levels of Lead (Pb) in Workers highly Exposed to the Metal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Willian Robert; Devóz, Paula Pícoli; Araújo, Marília Ladeira; Batista, Bruno Lemos; Barbosa, Fernando; Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron

    2016-12-17

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic metal, frequently associated with occupational exposure, due to its widespread use in industry and several studies have shown high Pb levels in workers occupationally exposed to the metal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of milk and dairy products (MDP) on Pb levels in blood (B-Pb), plasma (P-Pb), and urine (U-Pb), in workers from automotive battery industries in Brazil. The study included 237 male workers; information concerning diet and lifestyle were gathered through a questionnaire, and B-Pb, P-Pb, and U-Pb were determined by ICP-MS. Mean B-Pb, P-Pb, and U-Pb were 21 ± 12, 0.62 ± 0.73 μg/dL, and 39 ± 47 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Forty three percent of participants declared consuming ≤3 portions/week of MDP (classified as low-MDP intake), while 57% of individuals had >3portions/week of MDP (high-MDP intake). B-Pb and P-Pb were correlated with working time (r s  = 0.21; r s  = 0.20; p < 0.010). Multivariable linear regressions showed a significant influence of MDP intake on B-Pb (β = -0.10; p = 0.012) and P-Pb (β = -0.16; p < 0.010), while no significance was seen on U-Pb. Our results suggest that MDP consumption may modulate Pb levels in individuals highly exposed to the metal; these findings may be due to the Pb-Ca interactions, since the adverse effects of Pb are partially based on its interference with Ca metabolism and proper Ca supplementation may help to reduce the adverse health effects induced by Pb exposure.

  15. Pulmonary fibrosis in workers exposed to non-asbestiform tremolite asbestos minerals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the health effects of non-asbestiform asbestos minerals remain inconclusive. Nephrite is a type of non-asbestiform tremolite mineral. We assessed the risk for pulmonary fibrosis in workers who process nephrite. A cross-sectional study that included 344 stone workers and their families was undertaken in Taiwan in 2010. The diagnostic criteria for pulmonary fibrosis included (1) radiographic fibrosis profusion of 1/1 or greater and (2) audible lung crackles confirmed by physician. The nephrite samples were analyzed using polarized light and transmission electron microscopy combined with selected-area electron diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. After excluding 16 subjects with histories of tuberculosis or previous employment in metal casting and welding, as well as 23 family members who had not worked in the stone industry, we analyzed 305 subjects. Processing nephrite increased the risk for pulmonary fibrosis (odds ratio = 2.8 [95% confidence interval = 1.0-9.9] and unchanged after adjustment for age and smoking). Bulk sample analyses showed that the nephrite is a tremolite mineral composed of both asbestiform and non-asbestiform components. The cat's-eye nephrite had the highest asbestiform fibrous content, and the average length and aspect ratio of elongated mineral particles were the highest of all the nephrite types. Compared with workers processing other types of nephrite, workers processing cat's-eye nephrite had the highest risk for pulmonary fibrosis. Processing non-asbestiform tremolite mineral may increase the risk for pulmonary fibrosis. Medical monitoring is warranted for workers with such exposure.

  16. Germline minisatellite mutations in workers occupationally exposed to radiation at the Sellafield nuclear facility.

    PubMed

    Tawn, E Janet; Curwen, Gillian B; Rees, Gwen S; Jonas, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    Germline minisatellite mutation rates were investigated in male workers occupationally exposed to radiation at the Sellafield nuclear facility. DNA samples from 160 families with 255 offspring were analysed for mutations at eight hypervariable minisatellite loci (B6.7, CEB1, CEB15, CEB25, CEB36, MS1, MS31, MS32) by Southern hybridisation. No significant difference was observed between the paternal mutation rate of 5.0% (37 mutations in 736 alleles) for control fathers with a mean preconceptional testicular dose of 9 mSv and that of 5.8% (66 in 1137 alleles) for exposed fathers with a mean preconceptional testicular dose of 194 mSv. Subgrouping the exposed fathers into two dose groups with means of 111 mSv and 274 mSv revealed paternal mutation rates of 6.0% (32 mutations in 536 alleles) and 5.7% (34 mutations in 601 alleles), respectively, neither of which was significantly different in comparisons with the rate for the control fathers. Maternal mutation rates of 1.6% (12 mutations in 742 alleles) for the partners of control fathers and 1.7% (19 mutations in 1133 alleles) for partners of exposed fathers were not significantly different. This study provides evidence that paternal preconceptional occupational radiation exposure does not increase the germline minisatellite mutation rate and therefore refutes suggestions that such exposure could result in a destabilisation of the germline that can be passed on to future generations.

  17. Psychosocial factors at work and perceived health among agricultural meat industry workers in France.

    PubMed

    Cohidon, Christine; Morisseau, Patrick; Derriennic, Francis; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the perceived health status of the meat industry employees--i.e., working in the slaughtering, cutting, and boning of large animals and poultry--and its relation to their organisational and psychosocial constraints at work. This postal survey included all 3,000 employees of the meat industry (beef, pork and poultry) in four districts in Brittany, France, whose companies were affiliated with the agricultural branch of the national health insurance fund. The questionnaire asked for social and demographic data and information describing their job and the organisation of their work. The psychosocial factors at work were described according to Karasek's questionnaire (demand, latitude and social support at work). Perceived health was measured with the Nottingham Health Profile perceived health indicator. This study shows the high prevalence of poor health reported by the workers in this industry. This poor perceived health was worse in women and increased regularly with age. Among the psychosocial factors studied, high quantitative and qualitative demand at work, inadequate resources for good work and to a lesser extent, inadequate prospects for promotion appear especially associated with poor perceived health. Other factors often associated with poor perceived health included young age at the first job and work hours that disrupt sleep rhythms (especially for women). Our results show that this population of workers is especially vulnerable from the point of view of perceived physical and psychological health and is exposed to strong physical, organisational and psychosocial constraints at work. They also demonstrate that poor perceived health is associated with some psychosocial (such as high psychological demand and insufficient resources) and organisational factors at work. These results, in conjunction with those from other disciplines involved in studying this industry, may help the companies to develop preventive

  18. Dioxin and dioxin-like PCB profiles in the serum of industrial and municipal waste incinerator workers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyokeun; Ikonomou, Michael G; Kim, Hee-Sun; Choi, Jong-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-04-01

    To assess occupational exposure, we determined the concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in human serum samples from 26 incinerator workers (10 industrial waste and 16 municipal solid waste incinerator workers), 38 residents near the facilities and 7 inhabitants (as control subjects) living over 10 km away from any incinerator facilities in Korea. The mean TEQ(WHO) levels of PCDD/Fs in the industrial and MSWI workers were 41.57 and 9.86 pg TEQ(WHO) g(-1) lipid, respectively. For the residents, the mean TEQ(WHO) was 13.47 pg TEQ(WHO) g(-1) lipid (residents near IWI, MSWI, and control subjects: 17.64, 13.31, and 6.91 pg TEQ(WHO) g(-1) lipid). Higher levels of certain PCDD/F congeners, mainly PCDFs, were detected in the serum of industrial incinerator workers in comparison to the levels measured in the residents. Significant differences were observed for PCDFs, the major compounds were OCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and the minor components 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF, and 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF (p<0.01). The PCDD/F congener patterns and concentrations measured in the 71 serum samples examined suggest that the industrial incinerator workers were exposed to PCDD/Fs in the workplace, possibly through inhalation and/or skin contact. In contrast, the levels and congener patterns of PCBs measured were similar in all subjects, indicating that workers from the incinerator facilities examined were not subjected to additional exposure to these compounds.

  19. Epidemiologic evidence of cancer risk in textile industry workers: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Fedeli, Ugo; Fadda, Emanuela; Milan, Giovanni; Lange, John H

    2002-05-01

    A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies for textile industry workers was undertaken in an attempt to evaluate whether the cancer risk varies within the textile industry in relation to the job held or the textile fiber used. We combined studies published up until 1990, when an ad hoc IARC Monograph was issued, and those published after 1990 with the aim of appreciating evidence of reversing trends in cancer risk. Observed and expected cases reported in the original studies were summed up and the totals were divided to obtain a pooled relative risk (PRR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated with a fixed-effect model. We calculated a chi-square test (chi2) of heterogeneity among studies. When PRR and chi2 were both significant, PRR and CI were calculated with a random-effect model and the source of heterogeneity was investigated. Lung cancer risk was around 0.4 in the first study on cotton workers published in 1936, around 0.7 in subsequent studies, mostly published in the 1970s and 1980s, and around 1.0 in the last studies published in the 1990s. Papers published in the 1970s and 1980s produced consistent risk estimates for lung cancer risk, which was significantly lower than 1.0 in workers exposed to cotton (PRR = 0.77; CI = 0.69-0.86) and wool dust (0.71; 0.50-0.92), as well as in carders and fiber preparers (0.73; 0.54-0.91), weavers (0.71; 0.56-0.85), and spinners and weavers (0.78; 0.66-0.91). Lung cancer PRRs did not significantly deviate from 1.0 in textile workers using synthetic fibers or silk, and in dyers. Increased PRRs were found for sinonasal cancer in workers exposed to cotton dust, and in workers involved in spinning or weaving (4.14; 1.80-6.49). PRR was 1.46 (1.10-1.82) for cancer of the digestive system in textile workers using synthetic fibers or silk, and 1.34 (1.10-1.59) for colorectal cancer in spinners and weavers. The increased bladder cancer PRR in dyers (1.39; 1.07-1.71) is generally attributed to textile dye exposure. In studies

  20. Cancer risk for chemical workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, K; Collins, J; Bloemen, L; Carson, M

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To describe the long term mortality experience of a cohort of 2187 male chemical production workers previously exposed to substantial levels of dioxin. Methods: Vital status for a previously identified cohort was determined for an additional 10 years, to 1995. Dioxin exposures took place before 1983 and were sufficient to result in chloracne in 245 individuals. Mortality rates were compared with national figures and with a large pool of co-workers in unrelated production jobs. Results: All cancers combined (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 1.0, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.1) and lung cancer (SMR = 0.8, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.1) were at or below expected levels. Rates for soft tissue sarcoma (SMR = 2.4, 95% CI 0.3 to 8.6) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SMR = 1.4, 95% CI 0.6 to 2.7) were greater than expected overall, but below expectation in the update period. No trend of increasing risk with increasing exposure was observed for these cancers. Workers who developed chloracne had very low all-cancer rates (SMR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 1.0), and lung cancer rates (SMR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.0 to 1.1). Conclusions: We found no coherent evidence of increased cancer risk from dioxin exposure in this cohort. Our study highlights the wide range of cancer rates and the lack of consistency across dioxin studies. PMID:12937189

  1. Advantages and risks of nanotechnologies in cancer patients and occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Monica; Zappavigna, Silvia; Sannolo, Nicola; Porto, Stefania; Caraglia, Michele

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, different nanotechnology platforms for drug delivery in the area of medical biology have gained remarkable attention. Nanoparticles (NPs) used as drug delivery vehicles consist of different materials such as natural or synthetic polymers, lipids or metals. They have an ultra-small size, large surface area-to-mass ratio and high reactivity. Although there are many data on the advantages in terms of both higher efficacy and less adverse effects of nanodrugs, several recent findings have reported unexpected toxicities giving origin to nanotoxicology. Despite the great promise that NPs show, few studies have examined the human body's reaction due to NP exposure in both patients and workers. To perform this type of evaluation, it is necessary to define an adequate index of exposure, and the measure of this index is representative of what the worker is breathing. The properties of the nanomaterials used for designing NPs, such as in the case of poorly biocompatible materials (carbon nanotubes or heavy metals), and their chemical composition (as in the case of liposomes) largely contribute in determining potential side effects. Awareness of the levels of particles, which can cause health effects, is necessary for the workers and exposed patients.

  2. Exposure-response analysis of cancer mortality in a cohort of workers exposed to ethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Stayner, L; Steenland, K; Greife, A; Hornung, R; Hayes, R B; Nowlin, S; Morawetz, J; Ringenburg, V; Elliot, L; Halperin, W

    1993-11-15

    The authors previously reported results from the largest cohort mortality study of ethylene oxide-exposed workers that has been conducted to date. Here they extend their previous work by quantitatively examining the relation between cancer mortality and ethylene oxide exposure. This study included workers from 13 of the 14 geographically distinct facilities that were included in the previous investigation. These facilities began regularly using ethylene oxide to sterilize medical supplies or spices sometime between 1938 and 1969. Workers were followed from first exposure through December 31, 1987. Historical exposures to ethylene oxide were estimated using a regression model. Standard life-table analysis was used to examine cancer mortality in three categories of cumulative exposure to ethylene oxide. The Cox proportional hazards model was also used to examine cumulative and other measures of ethylene oxide exposure as predictors of cancer mortality. In both the life-table analysis and the Cox model, a positive trend was observed in all lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer mortality for cumulative ethylene oxide exposure. This trend was strengthened when ethylene oxide exposures 10 years prior to death were discounted (lagged) and when the analysis was restricted to neoplasms of lymphoid cell origin. Despite limitations discussed in this paper, the authors believe that these findings provide some support for the hypothesis that exposure to ethylene oxide increases the risk of mortality from lymphatic and hematopoietic neoplasms. The authors intend to continue follow-up of this relatively young cohort, which may allow more definitive conclusions to be drawn in the future.

  3. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mortality in Diesel-Exposed Railroad Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine; Schenker, Marc B.; Garshick, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Diesel exhaust is a mixture of combustion gases and ultrafine particles coated with organic compounds. There is concern whether exposure can result in or worsen obstructive airway diseases, but there is only limited information to assess this risk. U.S. railroad workers have been exposed to diesel exhaust since diesel locomotives were introduced after World War II, and by 1959, 95% of the locomotives were diesel. We conducted a case–control study of railroad worker deaths between 1981 and 1982 using U.S. Railroad Retirement Board job records and next-of-kin smoking, residential, and vitamin use histories. There were 536 cases with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 1,525 controls with causes of death not related to diesel exhaust or fine particle exposure. After adjustment for age, race, smoking, U.S. Census region of death, vitamin use, and total years off work, engineers and conductors with diesel-exhaust exposure from operating trains had an increased risk of COPD mortality. The odds of COPD mortality increased with years of work in these jobs, and those who had worked ≥ 16 years as an engineer or conductor after 1959 had an odds ratio of 1.61 (95% confidence interval, 1.12–2.30). These results suggest that diesel-exhaust exposure contributed to COPD mortality in these workers. Further study is needed to assess whether this risk is observed after exposure to exhaust from later-generation diesel engines with modern emission controls. PMID:16835052

  4. Increased mortality in COPD among construction workers exposed to inorganic dust.

    PubMed

    Bergdahl, I A; Torén, K; Eriksson, K; Hedlund, U; Nilsson, T; Flodin, R; Järvholm, B

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if occupational exposure to dust, fumes or gases, especially among never-smokers, increased the mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A cohort of 317,629 Swedish male construction workers was followed from 1971 to 1999. Exposure to inorganic dust (asbestos, man-made mineral fibres, dust from cement, concrete and quartz), gases and irritants (epoxy resins, isocyanates and organic solvents), fumes (asphalt fumes, diesel exhaust and metal fumes), and wood dust was based on a job-exposure matrix. An internal control group with "unexposed" construction workers was used, and the analyses were adjusted for age and smoking. When all subjects were analysed, there was an increased mortality from COPD among those with any airborne exposure (relative risk 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.22)). In a Poisson regression model, including smoking, age and the major exposure groups, exposure to inorganic dust was associated with an increased risk (hazard ratio (HR) 1.10 (95% CI 1.06-1.14)), especially among never-smokers (HR 2.30 (95% CI 1.07-4.96)). The fraction of COPD among the exposed attributable to any airborne exposure was estimated as 10.7% overall and 52.6% among never-smokers. In conclusion, occupational exposure among construction workers increases mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, even among never-smokers.

  5. [Otoneurologic and cardiovascular abnormalities associated to carbon monoxide poisoning in occupational exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Martínez, Alma; Reyna-López, Víctor; Rodríguez-Ortega, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Even though Federal Labor Law includes carbon monoxide poisoning in the list of occupational diseases, the registration of this intoxication rarely occurs in a work environment. The objective was to determine the association of this poisoning with cardiovascular and otoneurologic disorders, in order to establish adequately this diagnosis as a work-related illness. Cross-sectional survey performed in a group of broiler production workers, compared with a control group (n = 54). The sample consisted of people aged between 18 and 74 years, males and females, smokers and non-smokers. We excluded those participants with clinical history of cardiac attack. We determined carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) rates in exhaled air, and performed an audiometric test, and a 12-lead electrocardiogram. We studied 54 workers (57 % males and 43 % females). We obtained a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) to develop hearing loss between the two groups, an odds ratio > 1 also in regards to hearing loss, and cardiovascular manifestations (anterior fascicle hemiblock). Otoneurologic and cardiovascular abnormalities in occupationally exposed workers to carbon monoxide are not casual, and suggest a cause-effect relationship.

  6. Isomer pattern and elimination of dioxins in workers exposed at a municipal waste incineration plant

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Kenya; KUDO, Mitsuhiro; ARITO, Heihachiro; OGAWA, Yasutaka; TAKATA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify patterns of serum concentrations of dioxins in the employees of a waste incineration plant and to estimate elimination rates and half-lives of serum dioxin isomers, and the maximum serum concentrations of dioxin isomers at the time of plant shutdown. Sixteen subjects participating 3 times or more in annual health examinations during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 were recruited for this study. Serum concentrations of dioxins expressed as TEQ/g lipid decreased gradually after plant shutdown with the highest decrease observed in polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) followed by polychlorinated deibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and then coplanar PCBs. The serum toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentrations of PCDF and PCDD congeners in the employees were higher than those in the general population survey by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, whereas the serum concentrations of coplanar PCBs were similar to those in the general population. The estimated half-lives and elimination rates of PCDDs and PCDFs in the highly exposed workers increased compared with the moderately exposed workers. The estimated geometric mean serum concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins at the time of plant shutdown were 35, 53 and 107 pg TEQ/g lipid, respectively. PMID:26118856

  7. Difficulties of attribution of effect in workers exposed to fiberglass and asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Man-made mineral fibers have many properties of asbestos that raise concern about their safety. We studied 175 fiberglass production workers, using chest radiographs, measurement of total lung capacity, chest examinations, and occupational and medical histories. Pulmonary volumes and flows were calculated as percent of predicted, adjusted for height, age, ethnicity, and cigarette smoking. Thirty-one men with radiographically evident small irregular opacities of profusion of 1/0 or greater and/or pleural abnormalities were observed. Eight of 38 men with such changes said they had been exposed only to fiberglass; the other 23 with radiologically detectable pleural and/or pulmonary changes were among the 137 whose histories indicated that they had been exposed to asbestos and to fiberglass. Pulmonary function measurements as group means were reduced in the 175: FVC was 94.8% predicted, FEV1 was 91.3% predicted, FEF25-75 was 80.7% predicted, FEF75-85 was 73.1% predicted and FEV1/FVC was 0.73. Total lung capacity (TLC) was elevated to 114.2% predicted (mean) and RV/TLC (mean 0.46) was also elevated. Although only 78% of fiberglass production workers gave histories of asbestos exposure, all had shared the air in a manufacturing plant where ovens insulated with asbestos were continuously cleaned, repaired, dismantled, and rebuilt. It appears that attribution of the effects of their exposure to fiberglass could not be estimated independently of the effects of asbestos exposure.

  8. Chromosome-wide aneuploidy study (CWAS) in workers exposed to an established leukemogen, benzene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; Lan, Qing; Guo, Weihong; Hubbard, Alan E.; Li, Guilan; Rappaport, Stephen M.; McHale, Cliona M.; Shen, Min; Ji, Zhiying; Vermeulen, Roel; Yin, Songnian; Rothman, Nathaniel; Smith, Martyn T.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that de novo, therapy-related and benzene-induced acute myeloid leukemias (AML) occur via similar cytogenetic and genetic pathways, several of which involve aneuploidy, the loss or gain of chromosomes. Aneuploidy of specific chromosomes has been detected in benzene-related leukemia patients as well as in healthy benzene-exposed workers, suggesting that aneuploidy precedes and may be a potential mechanism underlying benzene-induced leukemia. Here, we analyzed the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 47 exposed workers and 27 unexposed controls using a novel OctoChrome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique that simultaneously detects aneuploidy in all 24 chromosomes. Through this chromosome-wide aneuploidy study (CWAS) approach, we found heterogeneity in the monosomy and trisomy rates of the 22 autosomes when plotted against continuous benzene exposure. In addition, statistically significant, chromosome-specific increases in the rates of monosomy [5, 6, 7, 10, 16 and 19] and trisomy [5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 14, 16, 21 and 22] were found to be dose dependently associated with benzene exposure. Furthermore, significantly higher rates of monosomy and trisomy were observed in a priori defined ‘susceptible’ chromosome sets compared with all other chromosomes. Together, these findings confirm that benzene exposure is associated with specific chromosomal aneuploidies in hematopoietic cells, which suggests that such aneuploidies may play roles in benzene-induced leukemogenesis. PMID:21216845

  9. Plasma microRNAs expression profile in female workers occupationally exposed to mercury

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Enmin; Zhao, Qiuni; Bai, Ying; Xu, Ming; Pan, Liping; Liu, Qingdong; Wang, Bosheng; Song, Xianping; Wang, Jun; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted interests as non-invasive biomarkers of physiological and pathological conditions. Several studies have examined the potential effects of mercury exposure on miRNAs expression profiles of general population environmentally exposed to mercury. The objective is to identify mercury-related miRNAs of female workers occupationally exposed to mercury. Methods In this case-control study, we used a microarray assay to detect the miRNA expression profiles in pooled plasma samples between (I) chronic mercury poisoning group; (II) mercury absorbing group and (III) control group in the discovery stage. Each group has ten individuals. In addition, we conducted a validation of eight candidate miRNAs in the same 30 workers by quantitative real-time PCR. Results In the discovery stage, eight miRNAs were conformed following our selection criteria. In the validation stage, RT-PCR confirmed up-regulation of miR-92a and miR-486 in the mercury poisoned group (P<0.05) compared to the other two groups. The results were consistent with the microarray analysis. Conclusions Plasma miR-92a-3p and miR-486-5p might prove to be potential biomarkers to indicate responses to mercury exposure. However, further studies are necessary to prove the causal association between miRNAs changes and mercury exposure, and to determine whether these two miRNAs are clear biomarkers to mercury exposure. PMID:27162656

  10. [The prevalence and risk factors of occupational asthma in workers exposed to isocyanate].

    PubMed

    An, Xiao-qin; Jiang, Yi-wen; Kong, Ling-fei; Zhang, Min-hua

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of occupational asthma, airway inflammation and analyze the risk factors for workers exposed to isocyanates. A cross-sectional study was applied. Totally 429 isocyanates exposed workers were surveyed and the prevalence of occupational asthma and airway inflammation situation were examined by questionnaire, physical examination and laboratory tests. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to analyze the possible risk factors of isocyanate-induced occupational asthma. (1) A total of 366 patients with complete data were included in the study, and finally 11 cases were diagnosed as isocyanate-induced occupational asthma with a prevalence of 3.0%. (2) Neutrophil percentage in the induced sputum of occupational asthma increased significantly [42.00% (34.00%-55.00%) before work and 59.00% (51.00%-70.00%) after work (Z = -2.940. P < 0.05)]. (3) Length of service (OR = 3.096, P = 0.025) and rhinitis (OR = 1.901, P = 0.008) were independent dangerous factors, and protective measures (OR = 0.074, P = 0.015) was protective factors to isocyanate-induced occupational asthma. Neutrophilic inflammation can be triggered by isocyanate exposure. Regular health examinations, effective protective measures can reduce the prevalence of isocyanate-induced occupational asthma.

  11. Alterations of monoamine metabolites and neurobehavioral function in lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Tang, H W; Liang, Y X; Hu, X H; Yang, H G

    1995-03-01

    Neurobehavioral and neurochemical effects of occupational lead exposure were investigated by WHO Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery (NCTB) testing and a series of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites analyzing in workers from lead smeltery and storage-battery manufacturing factory and matched controls. Indicators of lead exposure, the blood lead (PbB) and zinc protophorphyrin (ZPP) levels were found significantly higher in the exposed group compared with that of the controls (70.55 micrograms/dL vs 3.67 micrograms/dL; and 294.92 micrograms/dL vs 38.32 micrograms/dL, respectively). Furthermore, elevated urinary homovanillic acid (HVA) and impairment of certain neurobehavioral performances were also found in the lead exposed workers; the latter included attention/response speed, manual dexterity, perceptual-motor speed, visual perception/memory, and motor speed/steadiness. Positive or negative correlations were observed between certain parameters. Thus, homovanillic acid (HVA) is positively correlated with PbB and ZPP; dopamine (DA) negatively correlated with Benton visual retention (BVR); and HVA negatively correlated with digit symbol (DSy), BVR, and pursuit aiming (PA). It is suggested that the alterations of dopamine and its metabolites HVA in urine associated with impairment of neurobehavioral function might be served as biomarkers of lead-induced neurotoxicity.

  12. Identification of rounded atelectasis in workers exposed to asbestos by contrast helical computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Terra-Filho, M; Kavakama, J; Bagatin, E; Capelozzi, V L; Nery, L E; Tavares, R

    2003-10-01

    Rounded atelectasis (RA) is a benign and unusual form of subpleural lung collapse that has been described mostly in asbestos-exposed workers. This form of atelectasis manifests as a lung nodule and can be confused with bronchogenic carcinoma upon conventional radiologic examination. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the variation in contrast uptake in computed tomography for the identification of asbestos-related RA in Brazil. Between January 1998 and December 2000, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed in 1658 asbestos-exposed workers. The diagnosis was made in nine patients based on a history of prior asbestos exposure, the presence of characteristic (HRCT) findings and lesions unchanged in size over 2 years or more. In three of them the diagnosis was confirmed during surgery. The dynamic contrast enhancement study was modified to evaluate nodules and pulmonary masses. All nine patients with RA received iodide contrast according to weight. The average enhancement after iodide contrast was infused, reported as Hounsfield units (HU), increased from 62.5+/-9.7 to 125.4+/-20.7 (P < 0.05), with a mean enhancement of 62.5+/-19.7 (range 40 to 89) and with a uniform dense opacification. In conclusion, in this study all patients with RA showed contrast enhancement with uniform dense opacification. The main clinical implication of this finding is that this procedure does not permit differentiation between RA and malignant pulmonary neoplasm.

  13. Stomach cancer mortality among workers exposed to asbestos: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wen-jia; Jia, Xian-jie; Wei, Bing-gan; Yang, Lin-sheng; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Lei

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between asbestos and stomach cancer is not well understood because of small number of cases. This study aimed to determine the incidence and mortality of stomach cancer among workers exposed to asbestos based on a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. Relevant English electronic databases were systematically searched for published studies characterizing the risk of developing stomach cancer as a result of asbestos exposure. Standardized mortality rate (SMR) for stomach cancer with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was pooled using a fixed-/random-effect model in STATA. A total of 32 independent studies were included for the analysis. The overall SMR for stomach cancer was 1.19 (95% CI 1.06-1.34), with a moderate degree of heterogeneity across the studies (I(2) = 37.6%, P = 0.011). Being male, exposure to crocidolite, miners, studies conducted in Europe and Oceania, and long study follow-up (≥ 25 years) all contribute to significantly higher SMR. Significant publication bias was observed. Elevated risk of stomach cancer mortality was evidenced among workers exposed to crocidolite, especially male miners.

  14. [Biomonitoring in workers exposed to pesticides: development and application of method detecting imidacloprid in urine].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, N e; Rakitskiy, V n; Goryacheva, Lv; Chistova, A

    2016-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a relatively new insecticide in neonicotinoids chemical class with neuroactivity in insects, being one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. For biomonitoring in workers exposed to pesticides, the authors designed a method detecting low levels of Imidacloprid in urine of operators, based on tandem liquid mass-spectrometry with ionization source--electrostatic dispersion (positive ionization) in multi-reaction monitoring regime with subsidiary ion (mass/charge) 209 for quantitative assessment and ion 175.1 for confirmation onion ratio. The study incorporated diurnal urine, about 100 ml of average sample was frozen and kept at temperature -20C for analysis. Before extraction, the sample was unfrozen, an aliquot of 5 ml was selected, diluted with 5 ml of 0.1% formic acid. The substance was concentrated out of the urine samples via solid-phase extraction with application of cartridges based on octadecylsilane, eluition--1 ml of methanol. Lower limit of Imidacloprid detection in urine is 0.02 ng/ml, of the quantitative assessment--0.1 ng/ ml, linear range of concentrations measured 0.1-10 ng/ml. The method was tested for monitoring in workers exposed to Imidacloprid preparations in natural conditions of pesticides application in agriculture, with various processing technologies. Imidacloprid was identified in urine of two professional operators after work in seed treatment and the subsequent seeding at lower limit of detection (0.02 ng/ml) and 0.34 ng/ml.

  15. Lymphocyte toxicity and T cell receptor excision circles in workers exposed to benzene.

    PubMed

    Lan, Qing; Zhang, Luoping; Hakim, Fran; Shen, Min; Memon, Sarfraz; Li, Guilan; Vermeulen, Roel; Smith, Martyn T; Rappaport, Stephen M; Hayes, Richard; Linet, Martha; Yin, Songnian; Rothman, Nathaniel; Rabkin, Charles S

    2005-05-30

    We have previously reported that benzene decreases peripheral white blood cell and platelet counts and specifically lowers subsets of several blood cell types, including CD4+-T cells, B cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. Diminished thymus function has been implicated as a mechanism for CD4+-T cell loss in other conditions such as AIDS by assays of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), a marker of naive T cells that have recently emigrated from the thymus. To evaluate alteration of thymic function as a mechanism for benzene's effects on CD4+-T cell counts, we measured total TREC levels in 45 benzene-exposed workers and 45 unexposed controls. There was no significant difference in TREC levels per 10(6) peripheral blood leukocytes in the benzene-exposed workers compared to the controls. Although our study does not rule out counterbalancing alterations of TREC levels in specific T cell subsets, benzene's lymphotoxicity does not appear to be mediated through diminished thymus function.

  16. Work-site clinical and neurobehavioral assessment of solvent-exposed microelectronics workers.

    PubMed

    Broadwell, D K; Darcey, D J; Hudnell, H K; Otto, D A; Boyes, W K

    1995-05-01

    Twenty-five workers, five currently and 20 formerly involved in the manufacture of hybrid microcircuits, underwent clinical evaluations at the request of a management-union committee concerned about chronic solvent exposures in a research and development laboratory. A battery of neurobehavioral tests was administered to compare the solvent-exposed group with 32 age-, gender-, ethnicity-, and education-matched controls. The tests included: MMPI-I, hand grip strength, tactile sensitivity, dexterity, color discrimination, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, and tests selected from the computerized Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES2). Clinical narratives and retrospective exposure assessments in the study group suggested chronic low-level exposure to solvents, with intermittent acute excursions. Work-related diagnoses included upper respiratory mucosal irritation and sinusitis (44%), lower respiratory reactive airway disease (12%), and dermatitis (5%). Three workers (12%) had findings consistent with a solvent-induced encephalopathy. Significant differences (after Bonferroni correction) were found between the two groups on 5 of 11 NES subtests: symptom scale, mood scale, finger tapping, simple reaction time, and symbol-digit substitution. Differences also reached significance for overall vibration sensitivity thresholds, visual contrast sensitivity, and grip strength. The MMPI average clinical scale elevation was significantly higher in the exposed group than controls. These results support an association between chronic low-dose solvent exposure and measurable neurobehavioral changes.

  17. [Studing the health status of workers occupationally exposed to carbon disulfide].

    PubMed

    Song, Hai-yan; Wei, Chun-long; Dong, Qiu; Wang, Mei-lin; Ji, Chun-ping; Hou, Zhi-guo; Lu, Xiao-min; Xu, Jin; Wang, Shou-yu; Zhu, Bao-li; Ni, Chun-hui

    2012-06-01

    To study the effects of carbon disulfide (CS(2)) on the health of workers, and to provide the basis for the further preventive measures. The occupational health examination of 881 workers exposed to CS(2) in a chemical fiber factory was carried out according to the national technical standard of occupational health surveillance. The time weighted average concentrations (TWA) of CS(2) in the workshops of short silk and long silk exceeded the national standard, The workers in these two workshops served as the high exposure group. The workers of the other workshops were classified as low exposure group, in which TWA met the national standard. All exposed workers were also divided into long-term exposure group and short-term exposure group on the basis of average exposure years (16 years). The statistical analysis was used by t test, χ(2), and fisher exact test. The symptom rates of numbness, fatigue, dizziness, insomnia and headache were 12.5%, 8.5%, 8.2%, 7.5%, and 7.2% respectively. The abnormal rates of superficial sensation, three fibrillation, achilles tendon reflex, patellar reflex, EMG, hypertension, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B were 33.0%, 26.1%, 20.8%, 18.6%, 10.8%, 33.4%, 24.5%, 17.0% and 9.3% respectively. Among the high exposure group, the abnormal detectable rates of dizziness, headache, fatigue, insomnia, numbness, achilles tendon reflex, superficial and deep sensation, EMG, hypertension, ECG, total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein in long-term exposure group were significantly higher than those in short-term exposure group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). However, among the low exposure group, the abnormal rates of the insomnia achilles tendon reflex and superficial sensation in long term exposure group were significantly higher than those of short term exposure group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The detected rates of hypertension, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, creatinine and uric acid were in males

  18. Respiratory health of workers exposed to metal dusts and foundry fumes in a copper refinery.

    PubMed Central

    Ostiguy, G; Vaillancourt, C; Bégin, R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess airflow limitation in workers exposed long term to metal dust, the prevalence of pleural plaques in those workers exposed in the past to asbestos, the influence of pleural plaques on lung function, and the possible association with airway disease caused by asbestos. METHODS--A cross sectional and longitudinal (seven year) survey of 494 long term (mean (SEM) 21(1) years) workers in a copper refinery was carried out from medical questionnaires, chest radiographs, and forced spirometry. RESULTS--The prevalence of lifetime non-smokers was 19%, current smokers 39%, and ex-smokers 42%. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) < 80% predicted) was 5%, small airway dysfunction (SAD) (maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) < 60% predicted) was 7%, and this did not differ from the control population. The COPD and SAD were associated with cumulative smoking index but not with the cumulative work years at the plant or with any type of work at the plant. The mean (SEM) reduction of FEV1 was 20(7) ml in non-smokers, 26(4) ml in smokers, and 26(5) ml in ex-smokers (P > 0.05). In the smokers and ex-smokers with COPD, the loss of FEV1 was 53(10) (P < 0.02). The prevalence of pleural plaques was 11% (P < 0.0001); pleural plaques were found in older workers with known exposure to asbestos. The pleural plaques were circumscribed and associated with a non-significant 196 ml reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) and non-significant reduction of FVC over time. The pleural plaques were not associated with COPD or SAD. The cumulative smoking index obtained by a technician did not differ from that by a chest physician. CONCLUSIONS--Despite exposures to asbestos that produced pleural plaques and exposures to metal dusts and foundry fumes the long term workers of this plant did not have excessive prevalence of COPD or SAD. The data suggest that low level long term exposure to metal dusts, gases, and

  19. Airway hyperresponsiveness, prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, and lung function in workers exposed to irritants.

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, A M; Pal, T M; Boleij, J S; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B

    1994-01-01

    The association between occupational exposure to airway irritants and the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and level of lung function, and whether these associations were modified by airway hyperresponsiveness, smoking, and a history of allergy were studied in 668 workers from synthetic fibre plants. Respiratory symptoms were recorded with a self administered Dutch version of the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, with additional questions on allergy. Airway responsiveness was measured by a 30 second tidal breathing histamine challenge test. On the basis of job titles and working department, the current state of exposure of all workers was characterised as (1) no exposure, reference group; (2) white collar workers; (3) SO2 HCl, SO4(2); (4) polyester vapour; (5) oil mist and vapour; (6) polyamide and polyester vapour; (7) multiple exposure. Workers exposed to airway irritants were not simultaneously exposed to airborne dust. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), defined as a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at < or = 32 mg/ml histamine, was present in 23% of the subjects. The association between exposure groups and prevalence of symptoms was estimated by means of multiple logistic regression; the association with level of lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (MMEF)) was estimated by means of multiple linear regression. Both methods allow simultaneous adjustment for potential confounding factors. The exposure groups were associated with a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. Lower prevalence of symptoms was found for workers exposed to SO2, HCl, and SO4(2-), most likely due to pre-employment selection procedures. Current smoking, AHR, and a history of allergy were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, independent of each other, and independent of irritant exposure. The association between exposure and prevalence of

  20. Airway hyperresponsiveness, prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, and lung function in workers exposed to irritants.

    PubMed

    Kremer, A M; Pal, T M; Boleij, J S; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B

    1994-01-01

    The association between occupational exposure to airway irritants and the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and level of lung function, and whether these associations were modified by airway hyperresponsiveness, smoking, and a history of allergy were studied in 668 workers from synthetic fibre plants. Respiratory symptoms were recorded with a self administered Dutch version of the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, with additional questions on allergy. Airway responsiveness was measured by a 30 second tidal breathing histamine challenge test. On the basis of job titles and working department, the current state of exposure of all workers was characterised as (1) no exposure, reference group; (2) white collar workers; (3) SO2 HCl, SO4(2); (4) polyester vapour; (5) oil mist and vapour; (6) polyamide and polyester vapour; (7) multiple exposure. Workers exposed to airway irritants were not simultaneously exposed to airborne dust. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), defined as a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at < or = 32 mg/ml histamine, was present in 23% of the subjects. The association between exposure groups and prevalence of symptoms was estimated by means of multiple logistic regression; the association with level of lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (MMEF)) was estimated by means of multiple linear regression. Both methods allow simultaneous adjustment for potential confounding factors. The exposure groups were associated with a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. Lower prevalence of symptoms was found for workers exposed to SO2, HCl, and SO4(2-), most likely due to pre-employment selection procedures. Current smoking, AHR, and a history of allergy were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, independent of each other, and independent of irritant exposure. The association between exposure and prevalence of

  1. Two new cases of liver angiosarcoma: history and perspectives of liver angiosarcoma among plastic industry workers.

    PubMed

    Hozo, I; Andelinović, S; Ljutić, D; Bojić, L; Mirić, D; Giunio, L

    1997-01-01

    In this report of two new cases of liver angiosarcoma (ASL) among plastic industry workers, the authors present the history and perspectives of this problem. The first cases of ASL have been registered since 1974, and in 1984, the European register of angiosarcoma was founded. In this register, 11 cases of ASL and one case of haemangiopericytoma have been registered from Croatia, all from a single plastics plant near Split. Two new cases of ASL (in retired autoclave cleaners, who were exposed to a concentration of 500-1000 ppm vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) during the working process) in the same plant are represented. They were detected with combined techniques of ASL detection, and both are still alive. The diagnoses have been histologically confirmed: one of them was surgically treated with segmental liver resection. The appearance of new cases of ASL confirms the perspective presented in the last report by the same authors.

  2. Circulating microRNAs found dysregulated in ex-exposed asbestos workers and pleural mesothelioma patients as potential new biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Stendardo, Mariarita; Boschetto, Piera; Orecchia, Sara; Libener, Roberta; Guaschino, Roberto; Pietrobon, Silvia; Ferracin, Manuela; Negrini, Massimo; Martini, Fernanda; Bovenzi, Massimo; Tognon, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a fatal cancer, is an occupational disease mostly affecting workers ex-exposed to asbestos fibers. The asbestos, a cancerogenic mineral of different chemical composition, was widely employed in western Countries in industrial manufactures of different types. MPM may arise after a long latency period, up to five decades. MPM is resistant to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Altogether, these data indicate that the identification of new and specific markers are of a paramount importance for an early diagnosis and treatment of MPM. In recent years, microRNAs expression was found dysregulated in patients, both in cancer cells and sera, affected by tumors of different histotypes, including MPM. Cell and circulanting microRNAs, found to be dysregulated in this neoplasia, were proposed as new biomarkers. It has been reported that circulating microRNAs are stable in biological fluids and could be employed as potential MPM biomarkers. In this investigation, circulating microRNAs (miR) from serum samples of MPM patients and workers ex-exposed to asbestos fibers (WEA) and healthy subjects (HS) were comparatively analyzed by microarray and RT-qPCR technologies. Our results allowed (i) to select MiR-3665, an endogenous stable microRNA, as the internal control to quantify in our analyses circulating miRNAs; to detect (ii) miR-197-3p, miR-1281 and miR 32-3p up-regulated in MPM compared to HS; (iii) miR-197-3p and miR-32-3p up-regulated in MPM compared to WEA; (iv) miR-1281 up-regulated in both MPM and WEA compared to HS. In conclusion, three circulating up-regulated microRNAs, i.e. miR-197-3p, miR-1281 and miR-32-3p are proposed as potential new MPM biomarkers. PMID:27716620

  3. [Correlation of protoporphyrin zinc with lead in blood in workers of the car batteries industry in Bogota, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Bustamante, O; Varona-Uribe, M E; Núñez-Trujillo, S M; Ortiz-Varón, J E; Peña-Parra, G E

    2001-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of zinc protoporphyrin in blood (PPz) as an indicator of lead exposure in workers of the homemade car battery industry. A cross-sectional study was performed in 116 workers of the car battery industry in Bogotá, Colombia. Data on general, occupational, and health variables were collected by interview. Two categories of PPz values were established: Those below the cutoff value (70 micrograms/dL) and those above it. A linear regression analysis was performed to measure the correlation between logarithm values of PPz (> 70 micrograms/dL) and lead in blood (PbB) (> 38 micrograms/dL). A semi-logarithmic correlation coefficient of r = 0.54 was found, and statistically significant associations between high levels of PPz and direct exposure to lead were observed (OR: 3.35, 95% IC 1.02-11.91; p: 0.02); for workers who often use lead as a raw material (OR: 7.80, 95% IC 2.96-21.03; p < 0.01), as well as for workers who do not change work clothes often (OR: 3.55, 95% IC 1.17-11.01; p < 0.01). PPz may be a useful diagnostic indicator for lead poisoning; it may also be used as a screening test for surveillance programs in the biological monitoring of workers exposed to lead.

  4. Hypermutation and unique mutational signatures of occupational cholangiocarcinoma in printing workers exposed to haloalkanes

    PubMed Central

    Mimaki, Sachiyo; Totsuka, Yukari; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Chikako; Goto, Masanori; Kojima, Motohiro; Arakawa, Hirofumi; Takemura, Shigekazu; Tanaka, Shogo; Marubashi, Shigeru; Kinoshita, Masahiko; Matsuda, Tomonari; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Kubo, Shoji; Nakamori, Shoji; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Tsuchihara, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence is increasing worldwide. Although several risk factors have been suggested, the etiology and pathogenesis of the majority of cholangiocarcinomas remain unclear. Recently, a high incidence of early-onset cholangiocarcinoma was reported among the workers of a printing company in Osaka, Japan. These workers underwent high exposure to organic solvents, mainly haloalkanes such as 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) and/or dichloromethane. We performed whole-exome analysis on four cases of cholangiocarcinoma among the printing workers. An average of 44.8 somatic mutations was detected per Mb in the genome of the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma tissues, approximately 30-fold higher than that found in control common cholangiocarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, C:G-to-T:A transitions with substantial strand bias as well as unique trinucleotide mutational changes of GpCpY to GpTpY and NpCpY to NpTpY or NpApY were predominant in all of the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma genomes. These results were consistent with the epidemiological observation that they had been exposed to high concentrations of chemical compounds. Whole-genome analysis of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 exposed to 1,2-DCP revealed a partial recapitulation of the mutational signature in the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma. Although our results provide mutational signatures unique to occupational cholangiocarcinoma, the underlying mechanisms of the disease should be further investigated by using appropriate model systems and by comparison with genomic data from other cancers. PMID:27267998

  5. Detection of pleural plaques in workers exposed to inhalation of natural fluoro-edenite fibres

    PubMed Central

    RAPISARDA, VENERANDO; LEDDA, CATERINA; RICCERI, VINCENZO; ARENA, FRANCESCO; MUSUMECI, ANDREA; MARCONI, ANDREA; FAGO, LUCREZIA; BRACCI, MASSIMO; SANTARELLI, LORY; FERRANTE, MARGHERITA

    2015-01-01

    Fluoro-edenite is a natural mineral species initially isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. The fibres are similar in size and morphology to certain amphibolic asbestos fibres, the inhalation of which may cause chronic inflammation and cancer. Occupational asbestos exposure is known to be associated with pleural and lung diseases, including pleural plaques. The aim of this study was to report the pleural and lung parenchymal lesions detected by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in a group of construction workers exposed to fluoro-edenite. Information regarding life habits and occupational history was collected from 43 workers enrolled into the study. The participants underwent physical examination, blood analysis, search for uncoated fibres and ferruginous bodies in the sputum, pulmonary function tests, including diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (TLCO), and HRCT chest imaging. A general descriptive outcome analysis was also conducted; a prevalence ratio (PR) with 95% confidence interval and a two-tailed test P-value were calculated for pleural plaques using log-binomial regression, measuring plaque size and thickness, and cumulative exposure index (CEI). The mean values of the functional respiratory tests were within the normal range for all participants. A restrictive ventilatory defect was identified in two (5%) subjects and an obstructive ventilatory defect in three (7%) subjects. TLCO was reduced in two additional participants. Fibres were detected in 19 (44%) of subjects. Pleural involvement was documented in 39 (91%) workers, of whom 31 (72%) had bilateral plaques. Calcifications were detected in 25 (58%) of these participants. PR indicated a progressive increase in the risk of developing pleural lesions with rising CEI, i.e. length of exposure. The present findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of pleural plaques in the lungs of subjects exposed to fluoro-edenite fibres, and not to asbestos, through residing in Biancavilla and through

  6. Biomonitoring of primary aluminium industry workers: detection of micronuclei and repairable DNA lesions by alkaline SCGE.

    PubMed

    Crebelli, Riccardo; Carta, Plinio; Andreoli, Cristina; Aru, Gabriella; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Rossi, Sabrina; Zijno, Andrea

    2002-04-26

    The genetic effects of occupational exposure to low polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were investigated in primary aluminium industry workers. The study subjects were employed in a plant that uses pre-baked anode cells, and has relatively low PAH contamination