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Sample records for industrial workers exposed

  1. Cancer incidence among asbestos-exposed chemical industry workers: an extended observation period.

    PubMed

    Hilt, B; Andersen, A; Rosenberg, J; Langård, S

    1991-01-01

    A previous study on the incidence of cancer in a cohort of 286 asbestos-exposed electrochemical industry workers observed from 1953 through 1980 has been extended with another 8 years of follow-up. The incidence of cancer was derived from the Cancer Registry of Norway, and the expected figures were calculated by a life table method. During the extended follow-up period from 1981 through 1988, among the cohort members there were 12 new cancer cases versus 14.2 expected (SIR 85, 95% CI 44-158). In a lightly exposed sub-cohort, the extended follow-up revealed 4 cases of lung cancer or pleural mesothelioma (ICD, 7th revision 162-163) versus 1.6 cases expected (SIR 256, 95% CI71-654). In a heavily exposed sub-cohort, the corresponding figures were 3 and 0.5 (SIR 588, 95% CI 118-1,725).

  2. Area Factor Determinations for an Industrial Worker Exposed to a Concrete Slab End-State

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, G. Timothy; Lee, Patricia L.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Roach, Jesse L.

    2008-01-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is decommissioning many of its excess facilities through removal of the facility structures leaving only the concrete-slab foundations in place. Site-specific, risk-based derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for radionuclides have been determined for a future industrial worker potentially exposed to residual contamination on these concrete slabs as described in Jannik. These risk-based DCGLs were estimated for an exposure area of 100 m{sup 2}. During deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) operations at SRS, the need for area factors for larger and smaller contaminated areas arose. This paper compares the area factors determined for an industrial worker exposed to a concrete slab end-state for several radionuclides of concern at SRS with 1) the illustrative area factors provided in MARSSIM, 2) the area correction factors provided in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Soil Screening Guidance, and 3) the hot spot criterion for field application provided in the RESRAD User's Manual. The purpose of this site-specific assessment is to determine if any of the recommended area factors provided in the guidance documents could be utilized at SRS for field applications of the industrial worker DCGLs. Results show the area factors that were determined for an SRS industrial worker exposed to concrete slab end-states for the common radionuclides provided in the referenced guidance documents. In addition to the SRS site-specific area factors, the following area factors are provided for comparison: - Illustrative examples of outdoor area dose factors (MARSSIM); - Area correction factors as a function of source area (Soil Screening Guidance). Note: the area correction factors were inverted to correspond to a DCGL area factor. - Recommended area correction factors as a function of source area (Soil Screening Guidance); - Ranges for hot spot multiplication factors (RESRAD). As it can be seen

  3. AREA FACTOR DETERMINATIONS FOR AN INDUSTRIAL WORKER EXPOSED TO A CONCRETE SLAB END-STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, T; Patricia Lee, P; Eduardo Farfan, E; Jesse Roach, J

    2007-02-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is decommissioning many of its excess facilities through removal of the facility structures leaving only the concrete-slab foundations in place. Site-specific, risk-based derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for radionuclides have been determined for a future industrial worker potentially exposed to residual contamination on these concrete slabs as described in Jannik [1]. These risk-based DCGLs were estimated for an exposure area of 100 m{sup 2}. During deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) operations at SRS, the need for area factors for larger and smaller contaminated areas arose. This paper compares the area factors determined for an industrial worker exposed to a concrete slab end-state for several radionuclides of concern at SRS with (1) the illustrative area factors provided in MARSSIM [2], (2) the area correction factors provided in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Soil Screening Guidance [3], and (3) the hot spot criterion for field application provided in the RESRAD User's Manual [4].

  4. [Liver function of workers occupationally exposed to mixed organic solvents in a petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Fernández-D'Pool, J; Oroño-Osorio, A

    2001-06-01

    A descriptive and cross sectional study was conducted to determine whether hepatic function changes in workers occupationally exposed to a mixture of organic solvents, were due to the exposure or confusing factors. A non random sample of 77 workers, operators and supervisors of the Olefin Plant I and II of a petrochemical industry in Maracaibo, Venezuela, was used. Their mean age was 29 +/- 7 years, and had at least one year of exposure to the solvents. This sample was compared with a group of employees of the administrative offices or control panel workers, with a mean age of 36 +/- 8 year and with similar anthropometric characteristics. Workers with a known history of liver disease, blood transfusions and diabetes mellitus were excluded of the study. In addition to a complete occupational disease medical history and a physical examination, serum samples were obtained to determine the activity of the aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamiltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AF), the concentration of the total bile acids (BAS), the surface antigen of hepatitis B(HbsAg) and the hepatitis A virus antibodies: AntiHAV-IgG and the AntiHAV-IgM. An urine sample was taken and analyzed by standard methodology to determine urinary phenols. The air concentrations of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene were analyzed by gas chromathography. The serum activities of the liver enzymes, the concentration of bile acids and urinary phenols were not influenced by the exposure to the solvents. The increase of the activity of GGT was associated with obesity and alcohol consumption. The antibodies of the surface antigen of hepatitis A-IgM were normal in both groups and the antibodies for the antigen of hepatitis A-IgG presented a prevalence of 6% in the exposed group and 9% in the non exposed not being associated with liver abnormalities. The individual air concentrations of the solvents were below the environmentally permissible

  5. Self-reported hearing loss among workers potentially exposed to industrial noise-United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-15

    Noise-induced loss of hearing has been recognized as an occupational health problem since the 18th century. Occupational deafness is an irreversible, sensorineural condition that results from damage to the nerve cells of the inner ear. Recent estimates from surveys indicate that between 7.4 and 10.2 million people work at sites where the level of noise presents an increased risk of hearing loss (85 decibels (dBA) or higher). During the period of 1978-1987, an estimated $835 million was paid in workers' compensation claims for occupationally induced hearing impairment. To assess the prevalence of hearing-loss symptoms among adult workers in the United States, investigators from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recently analyzed data collected during the 1971 and 1977 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). For this study, the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss was obtained for all persons over 17 years of age who were in the labor force at the time of interview. Data from the 1972-1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS) were used to classify worksites by noise level. NOHS was conducted by NIOSH from 1972 to 1974 on a probability sample of approximately 5000 workplaces across the United States. The survey provides information on potential exposures of workers to chemical and physical agents. These data identified industries and occupations in which employees are exposed to continuous noise.

  6. A retrospective cohort mortality study of workers exposed to formaldehyde in the garment industry.

    PubMed

    Stayner, L T; Elliott, L; Blade, L; Keenlyside, R; Halperin, W

    1988-01-01

    In order to assess the possible human carcinogenicity of formaldehyde we conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of workers exposed for at least three months to formaldehyde in three garment facilities which produced permanent press garments. A total of 11,030 workers contributing 188,025 person-years were included in the study. Vital status was successfully ascertained through 1982 for over 96% of the cohort. The average (TWA) formaldehyde exposure at the three plants monitored in 1981 and 1984 by NIOSH was 0.15 ppm but past exposures may have been substantially higher. In general, mortality from nonmalignant causes was less than expected. A statistically significant excess in mortality from cancers of the buccal cavity (SMR = 343) and connective tissue (SMR = 364) was observed. Statistically nonsignificant excesses in mortality were observed for cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung (SMR = 114), pharynx (SMR = 112), bladder (SMR = 145), leukemia and aleukemia (SMR = 113), and other lymphopoietic neoplasms (SMR = 170). Mortality from cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung was inversely related to duration of exposure and latency. In contrast, mortality from cancers of the buccal cavity, leukemias, and other lymphopoietic neoplasms increased with duration of formaldehyde exposure and/or latency. These neoplasms also were found to be highest among workers first exposed during a time period of high potential formaldehyde exposures in this industry (1955-1962). However, it should be recognized that these findings are based on relatively small numbers and that confounding by other factors may still exist. The results from this investigation, although far from conclusive, do provide evidence of a possible relationship between formaldehyde exposure and the development of upper respiratory cancers (buccal), leukemias, and other lymphopoietic neoplasms in humans.

  7. Cancer risk of petrochemical workers exposed to airborne PAHs in industrial Lanzhou City, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Xianying; Huang, Tao; Wang, Yanan; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the connections between red blood cells abnormality risk of petrochemical workers and their exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), as the biomarker of PAHs exposure, was adopted to assess the exposure risk of the petrochemical workers to PAHs in Xigu, the west suburb of Lanzhou where petrochemical industries are located. Fifty-three workers, sub-grouped to 36 petrochemical workers and 17 office workers, participated in this investigation. Logistic regression model and spearman correlation analysis were performed to estimate the associations between PAHs exposure levels and red blood cells abnormality risk of petrochemical workers. Strong associations between some red cell indices (MCH, MCHC, RDW) and 1-OHP concentration were found. Results also show that the red blood cells abnormality risk increased with increasing PAHs exposure level. Compared with office workers, risk level of red blood cells abnormality in petrochemical workers was higher by 41.7 % (OR, 1.417; 95 % CI: 0.368-5.456) than that in office workers. This result was verified by the tissue-to-human blood partition coefficient for pyrene and 1-OHP. The quantitative assessments of the potential health risk through inhalation exposure to PAHs were conducted using the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) model. It was found the ILCR from inhalation exposure to PAHs for the petrochemical workers ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-4) with 95 % probability, indicating that petrochemical plant workers were under a high potential cancer risk level.

  8. Cancer risk of petrochemical workers exposed to airborne PAHs in industrial Lanzhou City, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Xianying; Huang, Tao; Wang, Yanan; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the connections between red blood cells abnormality risk of petrochemical workers and their exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), as the biomarker of PAHs exposure, was adopted to assess the exposure risk of the petrochemical workers to PAHs in Xigu, the west suburb of Lanzhou where petrochemical industries are located. Fifty-three workers, sub-grouped to 36 petrochemical workers and 17 office workers, participated in this investigation. Logistic regression model and spearman correlation analysis were performed to estimate the associations between PAHs exposure levels and red blood cells abnormality risk of petrochemical workers. Strong associations between some red cell indices (MCH, MCHC, RDW) and 1-OHP concentration were found. Results also show that the red blood cells abnormality risk increased with increasing PAHs exposure level. Compared with office workers, risk level of red blood cells abnormality in petrochemical workers was higher by 41.7 % (OR, 1.417; 95 % CI: 0.368-5.456) than that in office workers. This result was verified by the tissue-to-human blood partition coefficient for pyrene and 1-OHP. The quantitative assessments of the potential health risk through inhalation exposure to PAHs were conducted using the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) model. It was found the ILCR from inhalation exposure to PAHs for the petrochemical workers ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-4) with 95 % probability, indicating that petrochemical plant workers were under a high potential cancer risk level. PMID:26282442

  9. Mortality of workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate in the polyurethane foam industry.

    PubMed Central

    Schnorr, T M; Steenland, K; Egeland, G M; Boeniger, M; Egilman, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cancer mortality among United States workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in the manufacture of polyurethane foam. METHODS: This cohort mortality study included 4611 men and women employed in four polyurethane foam plants for at least three months between the late 1950s and 1987. The mortality experience of the cohort was then compared with that of the general United States population. RESULTS: Current and past industrial hygiene data indicated that air concentrations in 1984-5 were below the current United States standard of 0.04 mg/m3 but exceeded the standard before 1980. Mortality ratio (SMR) 2.78, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.57-8.13) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SMR 1.54, 95% CI 0.42-3.95) were increased, but not significantly. There was one male breast cancer. However, breast cancer was not increased in women (SMR 0.74). No other cancer category had an increased number of deaths compared with the general population. Only non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease showed a possible relation with time since first employment and no cancer death category showed a strong relation with duration of employment. Mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease was not increased (SMR 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: This young cohort has few deaths and short follow up. The findings are therefore not conclusive. Further years of follow up will enable better evaluation of mortality. PMID:8943836

  10. An industry wide mortality study of chemical workers occupationally exposed to benzene. I. General results.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, O

    1987-01-01

    The cohort (7676) of this historical prospective study consisted of a group of male chemical workers from seven plants who had been occupationally exposed (continuously or intermittently) to benzene for at least six months and a comparison group of male chemical workers from the same plants who had been employed for at least six months during the same period but were never occupationally exposed to benzene. The observed mortality of the cohort, by cause, was compared with the expected based on the US mortality rates, standardised for age, race, sex, and calendar time. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) from all lymphatic and haematopoietic (lymphopoietic) cancer combined, leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (lymphosarcoma, reticulosarcoma, and other lymphoma), and non-Hodgkin's lymphopoietic cancer (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and leukaemia) for the exposed group were slightly, but not significantly, raised above the national norm. These SMRs were considerably higher than those in the comparison group. When the group with no occupational exposure was used for direct comparison, the continuously exposed group experienced a relative risk from lymphopoietic cancer of 3.20 (p less than 0.05). Furthermore, the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square showed that the association between continuous exposure to benzene and leukaemia was statistically significant (p less than 0.05). PMID:3606966

  11. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to N-nitrosodiethanolamine in the metal industry.

    PubMed Central

    Monarca, S; Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Donato, F; Angeli, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Fatigoni, C; Pasquini, R

    1996-01-01

    Biological monitoring of occupational hazards was performed in workers using cutting fluids containing N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA). The study involved a group of 25 male subjects from some metal factories in central Italy who used cutting fluids with an NDELA content of > or = 5 mg/l (high-exposure group) and a group of 37 males exposed to cutting fluids with an NDELA content < 5 mg/l (low-exposure group). For comparison, we recruited a control group consisting of 37 subjects living in the same area. For all subjects, internal dose (urinary excretion of NDELA, mutagens, and thioethers), early biological effects (sister chromatid exchanges in blood peripheral lymphocytes), and urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid (DGA) as an endpoint product in the glucuronidation pathway were assessed. The results showed that only the workers using cutting fluids with NDELA concentrations of > or = 5 mg/l excreted trace amounts of NDELA in their urine. Urine excretion of mutagens was similar in the two exposure groups and in the controls. High-exposure subjects had a higher mean value of urinary thioethers than low-exposure and control subjects, but no differences were found in urinary DGA or lymphocyte sister chromatid exchange among the three groups. Smoking status increased the mean values of all the biomarkers, and coffee drinking was associated with urinary DGA excretion. PMID:8834865

  12. Urinary mutagenicity and N-acetylation phenotype in textile industry workers exposed to arylamines

    SciTech Connect

    Sinues, B.; Perez, J.; Bernal, M.L.; Saenz, M.A.; Lanuza, J.; Bartolome, M. )

    1992-09-15

    Primary aromatic amines have been identified epidemiologically as human carcinogens. It has been suggested that the target organ affected by aromatic amines is dependent on the rate of metabolic activation. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between low acetyl transferase activity and bladder cancer risk. On this basis, our working hypothesis was that the slow acetylators could follow in a higher extent the metabolic pathway independent of N-acetylation, leading to the excretion of conjugates of electrophyles with glucuronic acid. The instability of these glucuronides could be responsible for the association between arylamine-induced bladder cancer and slow acetylator phenotype. A total of 153 individuals were included in this study: 70 exposed to arylamines (working in textile industry) and 83 nonexposed. The following parameters were determined in urine: mutagenic index in the absence of metabolic activation, S9; mutagenic index in the presence of S9; and the mutagenic index after incubation of the urine with beta-glucuronidase. All individuals were phenotyped according to their capacity of N-acetylation by using isoniazid as drug test. The results show that the mutagenic index after incubation of the urine with beta-glucuronidase is statistically higher in exposed subjects when compared with nonexposed individuals (P less than 0.001), this parameter being statistically higher among exposed subjects who were slow acetylators than among rapid metabolizers, independent of the fact that they were smokers or nonsmokers. There were no significant differences between groups for the mutagenicity in urine not incubated with beta-glucuronidase.

  13. Evaluating levels and health risk of heavy metals in exposed workers from surgical instrument manufacturing industries of Sialkot, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Junaid, Muhammad; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to monitor heavy metal (chromium, Cr; cadmium, Cd; nickel, Ni; copper, Cu; lead, Pb; iron, Fe; manganese, Mn; and zinc, Zn) footprints in biological matrices (urine, whole blood, saliva, and hair), as well as in indoor industrial dust samples, and their toxic effects on oxidative stress and health risks in exposed workers. Overall, blood, urine, and saliva samples exhibited significantly higher concentrations of toxic metals in exposed workers (Cr; blood 16.30 μg/L, urine 58.15 μg/L, saliva 5.28 μg/L) than the control samples (Cr; blood 5.48 μg/L, urine 4.47 μg/L, saliva 2.46 μg/L). Indoor industrial dust samples also reported to have elevated heavy metal concentrations, as an example, Cr quantified with concentration of 299 mg/kg of dust, i.e., more than twice the level of Cr in household dust (136 mg/kg). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) level presented significant positive correlation (p ≤ 0.01) with Cr, Zn, and Cd (Cr > Zn > Cd) which is an indication of heavy metal's associated raised oxidative stress in exposed workers. Elevated average daily intake (ADI) of heavy metals resulted in cumulative hazard quotient (HQ) range of 2.97-18.88 in workers of different surgical units; this is an alarming situation of health risk implications. Principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR)-based pie charts represent that polishing and cutting sections exhibited highest metal inputs to the biological and environmental matrices than other sources. Heavy metal concentrations in biological matrices and dust samples showed a significant positive correlation between Cr in dust, urine, and saliva samples. Current study will help to generate comprehensive base line data of heavy metal status in biomatrices and dust from scientifically ignored industrial sector. Our findings can play vital role for health departments and industrial environmental management system (EMS) authorities in policy making and implementation. PMID

  14. Evaluating levels and health risk of heavy metals in exposed workers from surgical instrument manufacturing industries of Sialkot, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Junaid, Muhammad; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to monitor heavy metal (chromium, Cr; cadmium, Cd; nickel, Ni; copper, Cu; lead, Pb; iron, Fe; manganese, Mn; and zinc, Zn) footprints in biological matrices (urine, whole blood, saliva, and hair), as well as in indoor industrial dust samples, and their toxic effects on oxidative stress and health risks in exposed workers. Overall, blood, urine, and saliva samples exhibited significantly higher concentrations of toxic metals in exposed workers (Cr; blood 16.30 μg/L, urine 58.15 μg/L, saliva 5.28 μg/L) than the control samples (Cr; blood 5.48 μg/L, urine 4.47 μg/L, saliva 2.46 μg/L). Indoor industrial dust samples also reported to have elevated heavy metal concentrations, as an example, Cr quantified with concentration of 299 mg/kg of dust, i.e., more than twice the level of Cr in household dust (136 mg/kg). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) level presented significant positive correlation (p ≤ 0.01) with Cr, Zn, and Cd (Cr > Zn > Cd) which is an indication of heavy metal's associated raised oxidative stress in exposed workers. Elevated average daily intake (ADI) of heavy metals resulted in cumulative hazard quotient (HQ) range of 2.97-18.88 in workers of different surgical units; this is an alarming situation of health risk implications. Principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR)-based pie charts represent that polishing and cutting sections exhibited highest metal inputs to the biological and environmental matrices than other sources. Heavy metal concentrations in biological matrices and dust samples showed a significant positive correlation between Cr in dust, urine, and saliva samples. Current study will help to generate comprehensive base line data of heavy metal status in biomatrices and dust from scientifically ignored industrial sector. Our findings can play vital role for health departments and industrial environmental management system (EMS) authorities in policy making and implementation.

  15. [Immune and genetic changes in workers exposed to industrial noise and dust].

    PubMed

    Dolgikh, O V; Krivtsov, A M; Starkova, K G; Boubnova, O A; Dianova, D G; Vdovina, N A; Uhabov, V M

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analysis covered immune genetic parameters in nonferrous metallurgy workers. The authors demonstrated differences in immune genetic profile between male and female workers, under exposure to combination of occupational hazards: noise and dust. Analysis of gene polymorphism revealed predominant disorders in the female workers, concerning criterion of prevalence for minor allele of genes in 1 and 2 phases of detoxication, neuro-endocrine regulation, lipid and energy metabolism, genes of immune regulation and apoptosis.

  16. Mortality patterns among industrial workers exposed to chloroprene and other substances. II. Mortality in relation to exposure.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Gary M; Youk, Ada O; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Cunningham, Michael; Esmen, Nurtan A; Hall, Thomas A; Phillips, Margaret L

    2007-03-20

    As part of an historical cohort study to investigate the mortality experience of industrial workers exposed to chloroprene (CD) and other substances, including vinyl chloride monomer (VC), we analyzed mortality from all cancers combined, respiratory system (RSC) and liver cancer in relation to CD and VC exposures. Subjects were 12,430 workers ever employed at one of two U.S. sites (Louisville, KY (n=5507) and Pontchartrain, LA (n=1357)) or two European sites (Maydown, Northern Ireland (n=4849) and Grenoble, France (n=717)). Historical exposures for individual workers were estimated quantitatively for CD and VC. For sites L, M, P and G, respectively, average intensity of CD exposures (median value of exposed workers in ppm) were 5.23, 0.16, 0.028 and 0.149 and median cumulative exposures (ppm years) were 18.35, 0.084, 0.133 and 1.01. For sites L and M, respectively, average intensity of VC exposures (median value of exposed workers in ppm) was 1.54 and 0.03 and median cumulative exposures (ppm years) were 1.54 and 0.094. We performed relative risk (RR) regression modeling to investigate the dependence of the internal cohort rates for all cancers combined, RSC and liver cancer on combinations of the categorical CD or VC exposure measures with adjustment for potential confounding factors. We categorized exposure measures into approximate quartiles based on the distribution of deaths from all cancers combined. We also considered 5- and 15-year lagged exposure measures and adjusted some RR models for worker pay type (white/blue collar) as a rough surrogate for lifetime smoking history. All modeling was site-specific to account for exposure heterogeneity. We also computed exposure category-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to assess absolute mortality rates. With the exception of a one statistically significant association with duration of exposure to CD and all cancers combined in plant M, we observed no evidence of a positive association with all cancers

  17. Relationships between blood lead concentration and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in alcoholics and workers industrially exposed to lead

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoli, A.; Fazzin, G.; Marin, V.; Trabuio, G.; Zotti, S.

    1986-07-01

    Blood lead concentration (Pb-B), aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and gamma-GT were measured in 265 workers industrially exposed to lead and in 184 patients with liver disease resulting from alcohol consumption. The first group was divided according to alcohol use, i.e., nondrinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers. The second group was divided according to the following criteria: hepatopatic without cirrhosis, hepatopatic with compensated cirrhosis, and hepatopatic with decompensated cirrhosis. Heavy drinkers who were industrially exposed had the highest Pb-B (40.4 +/- 14.6 micrograms/dl) and the lowest ALAD (22.2 +/- 9.1 U/L). The correlations between Pb-B and ALAD show no significant change with the increase of Pb-B. In the alcoholic group, 76 patients with alcoholic liver disease without cirrhosis had the highest Pb-B (40.3-9.1 micrograms/dl) and ALAD the lowest (18.6 +/- 7.7 U/L). The negative correlation between Pb-B and log ALAD disappeared completely in individuals with Pb-B that exceeded 50 micrograms/dl, independent from the seriousness of illness.

  18. Proportionate mortality study of workers in the garment industry exposed to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Stayner, L; Smith, A B; Reeve, G; Blade, L; Elliott, L; Keenlyside, R; Halperin, W

    1985-01-01

    In order to evaluate the human carcinogenicity of formaldehyde, we conducted a proportionate mortality study of garment workers engaged in the production of shirts from formaldehyde-treated cloth. This study included three plants, and was based upon 256 deaths identified from a death-benefit insurance fund. No deaths due to nasal cancer were observed, and the mortality from respiratory cancer (11 cases, PMR = 95) was slightly less than expected. Statistically significant (p less than .05) elevations in proportionate mortality were observed for malignant neoplasms of the "buccal cavity" (three cases, PMR = 750), for "biliary passages and liver" (four cases, PMR = 313) and for "other lymphatic and hematopoietic sites" (four cases, PMR = 400). A proportionate cancer mortality (PCMR) analysis also was conducted, and cancer of the "buccal cavity" (three cases, PCMR = 682), and other "lymphatic and hematopoietic sites" (four cases, PCMR = 342) were still significantly elevated. The observed excesses in cancer mortality were primarily experienced by white females, who made up the major portion of the workforce, and workers with more than 10 years of latency and duration of exposure, a criterion for inclusion for most workers in the study group. The neoplasms observed were not equally distributed among the three facilities included in the study. Because of the small number of deaths involved and the lack of consistency with other studies, we believe that these findings should be viewed cautiously, pending the outcome of more definitive studies.

  19. Evaluation of Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAEs) among workers at an Industrial Company exposed to different industrial noise levels in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Sajad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is usually one of the main problems in industrial settings. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in different DPOAE are caused by exposure to different levels of noise at different time intervals among workers exposed to noise. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in the autumn of 2014 on 45 workers at Gol Gohar Mining and Industrial Company, which is located in Sirjan in southeast Iran. The workers were divided into three groups based on their noise exposure, i.e., 1) 15 office workers as a control group with exposure to low levels of noise, 2) 15 workers from manufacturing departments who were exposed to a medium level of noise, and 3) 15 workers from manufacturing departments who were exposed to high levels of noise. The SNRs at the frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz were measured in both ears at three different time intervals during the shift work. SNRs of 6 or greater were considered as inclusion criterion. Repeated measures, the Spearman rank-order correlation test, and paired t-test analyses were used with α = 0.05 being the level of significance. Results: For all frequencies in the right and left ears, the SNR values were more than 6, thus all SNR values were considered as acceptable responses. The effects of time and sound pressure level (SPL) on SNR were significant for the right and left ears (p = 0.027 and < 0.001, respectively). There was a statistically significant correlation between the SNR values in the right and left ears for the time intervals 7:30–8:00 A.M. and 13:30–14:00 P.M., which implied that an increase in the duration of exposure led to reduced SNR values (p = 0.024, r = 0.948). Conclusions: The comparison of the SNR values in the right and left ears (for all frequencies and the three different SPLs) indicated that the values decreased during the shift work. PMID:26388979

  20. Rheumatoid arthritis in workers exposed to silica in the pottery industry

    PubMed Central

    Turner, S.; Cherry, N.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the relation between rheumatoid arthritis and occupational exposure to silica in pottery and related industries.
METHODS—Medical records of 8325 men and women born 1916-45 and employed in pottery, refractory material (aluminosilicate or silica), and sandstone industries were examined to identify cases of rheumatoid arthritis. Medical and employment histories were extracted for cases and matched referents. Indices of duration, cumulative exposure, and mean silica concentration were compiled. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate the relation between rheumatoid arthritis and indices of exposure, having allowed for potential confounders of smoking, employment in the coal mining industry, and number of pregnancies.
RESULTS—58 Cases of rheumatoid arthritis (43 men, 15 women) were identified. Cases had significantly shorter duration of exposure than referents. There was no significant difference between cases and referents in mean silica concentration. Men who had worked in the coal mining industry were particularly at risk (odds ratio 5.36, 95% confidence interval 1.92 to 15.03).
CONCLUSION—There was no evidence of increased risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis after occupational exposure to silica at mean exposures within the current United Kingdom exposure limits.


Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; silica; occupation PMID:10854495

  1. Lung cancer risk among workers exposed to man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) in the Swedish prefabricated house industry.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, P; Plato, N; Axelson, O; Brage, H N; Hogstedt, C; Ringbäck, G; Tornling, G; Wingren, G

    1992-01-01

    Mortality and cancer incidence was investigated among 2,807 workers, employed for at least one year before 1972, at 11 Swedish companies manufacturing prefabricated wooden houses. A total of 1,068 workers had been exposed to man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) used for insulation. Mortality was followed from 1969 to 1988 and cancer incidence from 1969 to 1985. Exposure conditions were investigated at all plants. There were 14 deaths from lung cancer in the total cohort, whereas 20.7 would be expected (SMR = 68; 95% CI:37-113), based on regional mortality. After a latency of 20 years of more, two lung cancer cases had occurred among all workers exposed to MMMF, whereas 4.3 would be expected (SMR = 46; 95% CI: 5-168). The exposure levels that have prevailed do not seem to be associated with an increased lung cancer rate, but extended follow-up is necessary for a definitive evaluation. PMID:1621690

  2. Respiratory function and bronchial responsiveness among industrial workers exposed to different classes of occupational agents: a study from Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Ould-Kadi, Farid; Nawrot, Tim S; Hoet, Peter H; Nemery, Benoit

    2007-01-01

    Occupational exposures play a role in the onset of several chronic airway diseases. We investigated, in a cross-sectional study, lung function parameters and bronchial hyper-responsiveness to histamine in workers exposed to different airborne compounds. The study group totalled 546 male subjects of whom 114 were exposed to welding fumes, 106 to solvents, 107 to mineral dust, 97 to organic dust and 123 without known exposure to airway irritants. A questionnaire was administered and spirometry and bronchial responsiveness to histamine were assessed by one observer, in the morning before work to prevent effects of acute exposure. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 39.3 (7.8) years, with a mean duration of employment of 13.8 (6.6) years. Both before and after adjustment for smoking status, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, expressed as % predicted) was lower in welders -4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], -6.3 to -1.8; p = 0.01) and workers exposed to solvents -5.6% (CI: -7.9 to -3.3; p = 0.0009) than in control subjects. Furthermore, solvent workers had an odds ratio of 3.43 (95% CI: 1.09–11.6; p = 0.037) for bronchial hyperresponsiveness compared with the reference group. The higher prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in solvent workers adds to the growing body of evidence of adverse respiratory effects of occupational solvent exposure. These results point to the necessity of preventive measures in solvent workers to avoid these adverse respiratory effects. PMID:17922914

  3. Reaction time of industrial workers exposed to organic solvents: relationship to degree of exposure and psychological performance

    SciTech Connect

    Gregersen, P.; Stigsby, B.

    1981-01-01

    Auditory reaction time (RT) was examined on a day free from work and on a working day in 54 workers exposed to organic solvents and in 28 unexposed workers. Medical and occupational history was recorded and neurological examination and psychological testing carried out to establish quantitative parameters of exposure and cerebral function. There was a wider 95% range of the RT in the exposed group compared to the control group on the working day and a tendency in the same direction on the day free from work. There was no difference in the means of the RT, or within the groups between the examinations on the two days. The increased RT 95% range is interpreted as indicating an impaired ability in the exposed workers to maintain their attention during the experimental period, owing to chronic exposure of organic solvents. RT measurements did not correlate with exposure or psychological performance. RT would seem to be a means of measuring subclinical effects of exposure to organic solvents.

  4. CT assessment of silicosis in exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Bégin, R; Bergeron, D; Samson, L; Boctor, M; Cantin, A

    1987-03-01

    For evaluation of the clinical usefulness of CT of the thorax in workers exposed to silica, 58 workers with long-term exposure to silica in the granite and foundry industries of the Eastern Townships of Quebec were examined. CT scans were compared with standard posteroanterior chest radiographs by using the International Labour Office 1980 grading system for silicosis. Six areas of the lung in each patient were assessed by both techniques for profusion (number) of opacities (small nodules), coalescence, and the presence of large opacities. CT scans and chest radiographs yielded similar average scores for detection of opacities. CT identified significantly more coalescence and large opacities in patients with simple silicosis. In patients with complicated silicosis, CT results were comparable with those of chest radiographs. CT of the thorax in workers exposed to silica does not identify more patients with minimal parenchymal disease, but it does detect earlier changes of coalescence.

  5. Antinuclear antibody and rheumatoid factor in silica-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Aminian, Omid; Sharifian, Seyed Akbar; Mehrdad, Ramin; Haghighi, Khosro Sadeghniyat; Mazaheri, Maria

    2009-06-01

    A lot of workers in industries such as foundry, stonecutting, and sandblasting are exposed to higher than permissible levels of crystalline silica. Various alterations in humoral immune function have been reported in silicosis patients and workers exposed to silica dust. The aim of this study was to measure antinuclear antibody (ANA) and rheumatoid factor (RF) levels in foundry workers exposed to silica and to compare them with a control group without such exposure. ANA and RF were measured in 78 exposed and 73 non-exposed workers, and standard statistical methods were used to compare them. The two groups did not significantly differ in age and smoking. Mean work duration of the exposed and non-exposed workers was (14.9+/-4.72) years and (12.41+/-6.3) years, respectively. Ten exposed workers had silicosis. ANA was negative in all workers in either group. Its mean titer did not differ significantly between the exposed and control workers [(0.39+/-0.15) IU mL(-1) vs. (0.36+/-0.17) IU mL(-1), respectively]. RF was positive in two workers of each group. Other studies have reported an increase in ANA and RF associated with exposure to silica dust and silicosis.In contrast, our study suggests that exposure to silica dust does not increase the level of ANA and RF in exposed workers. PMID:19581212

  6. Lung cancer mortality among industrial workers exposed to formaldehyde: a Poisson regression analysis of the National Cancer Institute Study.

    PubMed

    Marsh, G M; Stone, R A; Henderson, V L

    1992-11-01

    The Formaldehyde Institute (FI) sponsored additional Poisson regression analysis of lung cancer mortality data from the joint National Cancer Institute (NCI)/FI cohort study of workers exposed to formaldehyde to investigate the previously reported effects of plant and latency period and to assess the impact of short-term workers (under 1 yr employment) on the results. There were 242 lung cancer deaths in this cohort of 20,067 white male workers. With OCMAP software, lung cancer death rates for the white males in this cohort were computed by plant, age, calendar time, and job type for several time-dependent formaldehyde exposures, including formaldehyde exposure in the presence of 12 selected co-exposures: ammonia (AM), antioxidants (AN), asbestos (AS), carbon black (CB), dyes/inks/pigments (DY), hexamethylenetetramine (HX), melamine (ME), particulates (PT), phenol (PH), plasticizers (PL), urea/urea compounds (UR), wood dust (WD), and a composite co-exposure (X5) involving AN, HX, ME, PH, and UR.A 1.6-fold increase in lung cancer risk was found, beginning approximately 16-20 yr after first employment in the study plants with no evidence of a differential effect of latency between hourly and salaried workers or among the various categories of formaldehyde exposure as measured by cumulative average intensity or length of exposure. The statistically significant heterogeneity in lung cancer risk among the 10 plants could not be explained by interplant differences in cumulative or average intensity of exposure to formaldehyde, either without regard to co-exposures or in the presence of any of the 12 co-exposures considered individually. Plant was not a statistically significant predictor of lung cancer risk when cumulative exposure to the composite X5 was included in the model, suggesting that some component of X5, or a correlate, could at least partly account for the overall heterogeneity. No significant associations were found for cumulative, average, or length of

  7. DNA methylation differences in exposed workers and nearby residents of the Ma Ta Phut industrial estate, Rayong, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Marco; Bollati, Valentina; Munnia, Armelle; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Piro, Sara; Ceppi, Marcello; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Boffetta, Paolo; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2012-01-01

    Background Adverse biological effects from airborne pollutants are a primary environmental concern in highly industrialized areas. Recent studies linked air pollution exposures with altered blood Deoxyribo-nucleic acid (DNA) methylation, but effects from industrial sources and underlying biological mechanisms are still largely unexplored. Methods The Ma Ta Phut industrial estate (MIE) in Rayong, Thailand hosts one of the largest steel, oil refinery and petrochemical complexes in south-eastern Asia. We measured a panel of blood DNA methylation markers previously associated with air pollution exposures, including repeated elements [long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) and Alu] and genes [p53, hypermethylated-in-cancer-1 (HIC1), p16 and interleukin-6 (IL-6)], in 67 MIE workers, 65 Ma Ta Phut residents and 45 rural controls. To evaluate the role of DNA damage and oxidation, we correlated DNA methylation measures with bulky DNA and 3-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentafuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one deoxyguanosine (M1dG) adducts. Results In covariate-adjusted models, MIE workers, compared with rural residents, showed lower LINE-1 (74.8% vs 78.0%; P < 0.001), p53 (8.0% vs 15.7%; P < 0.001) and IL-6 methylation (39.2% vs 45.0%; P = 0.027) and higher HIC1 methylation (22.2% vs 15.3%, P < 0.001). For all four markers, Ma Ta Phut residents exhibited methylation levels intermediate between MIE workers and rural controls (LINE-1, 75.7%, P < 0.001; p53, 9.0%, P < 0.001; IL-6, 39.8%, P = 0.041; HIC1, 17.8%, P = 0.05; all P-values vs rural controls). Bulky DNA adducts showed negative correlation with p53 methylation (P = 0.01). M1dG showed negative correlations with LINE-1 (P = 0.003) and IL-6 methylation (P = 0.05). Conclusions Our findings indicate that industrial exposures may induce alterations of DNA methylation patterns detectable in blood leucocyte DNA. Correlation of DNA adducts with DNA hypomethylation suggests potential mediation by DNA damage. PMID:23064502

  8. Sister-chromatid exchanges and cell-cycle kinetics in the lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to a chemical mixture in the tyre industry.

    PubMed

    Sasiadek, M

    1993-08-01

    Cytogenetic studies of clinically healthy workers employed in the rubber industry showed an increase in chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and a decrease in proliferation indices (PIs). The aim of the present study was to establish, using the SCE and PI tests, genotoxic effects of hazardous chemicals in the rubber industry. An increase in mean SCEs in the lymphocytes of vulcanizers as compared to controls was observed. Since the PI in the exposed group was insignificantly decreased as compared to the controls, it could be concluded that the SCE test is the most sensitive cytogenetic test for the detection of a genotoxic effect of chemicals in the rubber industry. There was no evidence in the present study that the genotoxic effect of chemicals in the rubber industry was enhanced by cigarette smoking. PMID:7688857

  9. Medical surveillance of the lead exposed worker. Current guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hipkins, K L; Materna, B L; Kosnett, M J; Rogge, J W; Cone, J E

    1998-07-01

    1. The "lead standards" established by OSHA for general industry in 1978 and the construction industry in 1993 require employers and clinicians to follow very specific guidelines for protecting lead exposed workers. Depending on the level of exposure, medical surveillance may be legally required. 2. Lead affects multiple body systems and can cause permanent damage. Low level exposures that in the past were thought safe are now considered hazardous as new information emerges about the toxicity of lead. 3. Lead poisoning, if undetected, often results in misdiagnosis and costly care. Adults are exposed to lead in many different workplace settings. All clinicians caring for lead exposed workers need to be informed about the health effects of lead, employer and physician responsibilities, and worker rights. 4. Occupational and environmental health nurses can help identify workers at risk and prevent lead poisoning by education and early intervention through collaboration with the workers, the employer, the company physician, and other health and safety professionals.

  10. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  11. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs.

    PubMed

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M; Khaliullin, Timur O; Vasil'yeva, Olga L; Zalyalov, Ramil R; Mustafin, Ilshat G; Kisin, Elena R; Birch, M Eileen; Yanamala, Naveena; Shvedova, Anna A

    2016-05-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. PMID:26902652

  12. Risk-Based Radionuclide Derived Concentration Guideline Levels For An Industrial Worker Exposed To Concrete-Slab End States At The Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    GERALD, JANNIK

    2005-04-25

    Dose and risk assessments are an integral part of decommissioning activities. Most human health risk assessments are performed for a reasonable maximum exposure to an individual with assumed intake and exposure parameters that depend on the end state of the decommissioning activities and the likely future use of the site. Regardless of how the potentially exposed individual is defined, the subsequent calculated human health risk is not a measurable quantity. To demonstrate compliance with risk-based acceptance or cleanliness criteria, facility-specific risk assessments usually are performed after final-verification sampling and analysis. Alternatively, conservative, a priori, guideline concentrations for residual contaminants can be calculated and rapidly compared to the subsequently measured contaminant concentrations to demonstrate compliance. In response to the request for accelerated cleanup at U.S. Department of Energy facilities, the Savannah River Site (SRS) is decommissioning its excess facilities through removal of the facility structures leaving only the concrete-slab foundations in place. Site-specific, risk-based derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for radionuclides have been determined for a future industrial worker potentially exposed to residual contamination on these concrete slabs. When appropriate, these conservative DCGLs will be used at SRS in lieu of facility-specific risk assessments to further accelerate the decommissioning process. This paper discusses and describes the methods and scenario-specific parameters used to estimate the risk-based DCGLs for the SRS decommissioning end state.

  13. Hormonal Perturbations in Occupationally Exposed Nickel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Beshir, Safia; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah; Shaheen, Weam; Shahy, Eman M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel exposure is recognized as an endocrine disruptor because of its adverse effects on reproduction. AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations on workers occupationally exposed to nickel and to assess its effects on human male sexual function. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparative study, comprising 105 electroplating male non-smoker, non-alcoholic workers exposed to soluble nickel and 60 controls was done. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone levels and urinary nickel concentrations were determined for the studied groups. RESULTS: Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, urinary nickel and the simultaneous incidence of more than one sexual disorder were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to controls. The occurrence of various types of sexual disorders (decreased libido, impotence and premature ejaculation) in the exposed workers was 9.5, 5.1 and 4.4 folds respectively than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to nickel produces possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations in those exposed workers. PMID:27335607

  14. [State of vegetative regulation in workers exposed to vibration at work during industrial implementation of hi-tech pneumoinstruments].

    PubMed

    Drobyshev, V A; Shpagina, L A; Panacheva, L A; Gerasimenko, O N; Abramovich, S G; Smirnova, I N

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted on aircraft-building enterprise during production microcycle (before working shift start, during last working hour and in an hour after the shift end)--spectral analysis covered variability of heart rhythm in 70 male assembler riveters aged 25-59, divided into 2 groups in accordance with industrial equipment used. The group 1 used standard vibroinstrument, the group 2--pneumoinstruments with low vibration velocity parameters. Triple study during the working shift revealed in group 2 an adequate reaction of vegetative nervous system to vibration, in group 1 a negative trend was seen with centralization of regulatory processes and absence of adequate recovery in an hour after work.

  15. [State of vegetative regulation in workers exposed to vibration at work during industrial implementation of hi-tech pneumoinstruments].

    PubMed

    Drobyshev, V A; Shpagina, L A; Panacheva, L A; Gerasimenko, O N; Abramovich, S G; Smirnova, I N

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted on aircraft-building enterprise during production microcycle (before working shift start, during last working hour and in an hour after the shift end)--spectral analysis covered variability of heart rhythm in 70 male assembler riveters aged 25-59, divided into 2 groups in accordance with industrial equipment used. The group 1 used standard vibroinstrument, the group 2--pneumoinstruments with low vibration velocity parameters. Triple study during the working shift revealed in group 2 an adequate reaction of vegetative nervous system to vibration, in group 1 a negative trend was seen with centralization of regulatory processes and absence of adequate recovery in an hour after work. PMID:27164752

  16. Chromosome aberrations in workers exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Beckman, G; Beckman, L; Nordenson, I

    1977-08-01

    The occurrence of chromosome aberrations was studied in short-term cultured lymphocytes from nine workers exposed to arsenic at the Rönnskär smeltery in northern Sweden. In the smelter workers, 87 aberrations were found in 819 mitoses. The number of aberrations varied individually from 0 to 25 aberrations per 100 cells. In a control material 13 aberrations were found in 1012 mitoses. The frequency of chromosome aberrations was significantly increased among the smelter workers, but due to the simultaneous exposure to other agents the effect of arsenic per se can not be assessed with certainty.

  17. A cohort mortality study and a case-control study of workers potentially exposed to styrene in the reinforced plastics and composites industry.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, O

    1990-01-01

    The cohort consisted of 15,908 men and women who worked for at least six months between 1948 and 1977 in 30 participating manufacturing plants in the reinforced plastics and composites industry. These workers were occupationally exposed to the working environment in the industry, which included exposure to styrene. Cause specific mortality analyses were performed based on the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) with the United States population as a comparison. No significant excess of cause specific mortality was found for the total cohort. Mortality from cancer was slightly less than expected (SMR = 88.1). For cancer of the respiratory system, a small non-significant excess was detected (SMR = 116.1). For lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer, a non-significant deficit was found (SMR = 73.3). The observed mortality from leukaemia was similar to that expected (five observed v 4.76 expected deaths). The plants with hot processes (injection moulding, centrifugal casting, compression moulding, continuous lamination, and pultrusion) experienced a significantly increased SMR (177.9) for respiratory cancer, which was more than twice that (78.3) for those with cold processes (resin mixing, lay up and spray up, bag moulding, and filament winding). As potential exposure to styrene from hot processes is considerably less than that from the cold processes, this finding could not be attributed to occupational exposures. A subsequent nested case-control study consisting of 40 cases of deaths from respiratory cancer was conducted. Further information on detailed work history, occupational exposures, and smoking history was collected. The case-control study did not show any significant association between respiratory cancer and direct exposure to styrene (contained in polyester resins), duration of exposure to styrene, the type of process (hot or cold), or whether a resin was used. A statistically significant association (relative risk = 7.33) was found between cigarette smoking

  18. Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers

    PubMed Central

    Pennisi, Manuela; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Puglisi, Valentina; Vinciguerra, Luisa; Vacante, Marco; Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies. PMID:23985770

  19. Physical examinations of workers exposed to trichlorotrifluoroethane.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbus, H. R.; Adkins, C.

    1972-01-01

    A group of 50 workers, exposed for an average of 2.77 years in an environment, samples of which contained from 46 to 4700 ppm of trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113), was examined. There were no subjective complaints, other than one case of dryness of the skin, referable to this occupational exposure. At this time, it is our opinion that there is no evidence of adverse effects from exposure to trichlorotrifluoroethane under the conditions encountered by these personnel. We believe that continued, periodic, follow-up examinations of these workers will be helpful in further evaluating any possible long-range effects of this material.

  20. Electroencephalographic findings in workers exposed to benzene.

    PubMed

    Kellerová, V

    1985-01-01

    Preventive EEG examination was carried out in 40 workers significantly exposed to benzene. The EEG findings were compared with those of a control group of 48 healthy persons, a group of 110 workers significantly exposed to toluene and xylene and a group of 236 workers exposed to vinyl chloride. The individuals exposed to benzene exhibited 22.5% of abnormal and 45% threshold findings, the abnormalities being episodic, diffuse or a combination of the two. The effect of benzene entailed a frequent (32.5%) occurrence of a characteristic frequency lability. Sleep phenomena were found in a total of 60% cases (37.5% cases reached stage 1 B3 while 15% reached stage 2 according to Roth [14]). The rapid onset of deeper sleep stages (in 30% cases) is considered typical for benzene exposure. The photic driving response often had an extended frequency range (a total of 61.1%, to beta frequencies only in 30.55%, to both beta and theta frequencies also in 30.55% of cases). The different EEG features characteristic of the neurotoxic action of various types of organic solvents make possible a more efficient diagnostics of the effects of these chemicals on the CNS. PMID:4086812

  1. Radiological surveillance of formerly asbestos-exposed power industry workers: rates and risk factors of benign changes on chest X-ray and MDCT

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of asbestos-related changes on chest X-ray (CXR) and low-dose multidetector-row CT (MDCT) of the thorax in a cohort of formerly asbestos-exposed power industry workers and to assess the importance of common risk factors associated with specific radiological changes. Methods To assess the influence of selected risk factors (age, time since first exposure, exposure duration, cumulative exposure and pack years) on typical asbestos-related radiographic changes, we employed multiple logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results On CXR, pleural changes and asbestosis were strongly associated with age, years since first exposure and exposure duration. The MDCT results showed an association between asbestosis and age and between plaques and exposure duration, years since first exposure and cumulative exposure. Parenchymal changes on CXR and MDCT, and diffuse pleural thickening on CXR were both associated with smoking. Using a cut-off of 55 years for age, 17 years for exposure duration and 28 years for latency, benign radiological changes in the cohort with CXR could be predicted with a sensitivity of 82.0% for all of the three variables and a specificity of 47.4%, 39.0% and 40.6%, respectively. Conclusions Participants aged 55 years and older and those with an asbestos exposure of at least 17 years or 28 years since first exposure should be seen as having an increased risk of abnormal radiological findings. For implementing a more focused approach the routine use of low-dose MDCT rather than CXR at least for initial examinations would be justified. PMID:24808921

  2. Health of workers exposed to electric fields.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, D E; Broadbent, M H; Male, J C; Jones, M R

    1985-02-01

    The results of health questionnaire interviews with 390 electrical power transmission and distribution workers, together with long term estimates of their exposure to 50 Hz electric fields, and short term measurements of the actual exposure for 287 of them are reported. Twenty eight workers received measurable exposures, averaging about 30 kVm-1h over the two week measurement period. Estimated exposure rates were considerably greater, but showed fair correlation with the measurements. Although the general level of health was higher than we have found in manual workers in other industries, there were significant differences in the health measures between different categories of job, different parts of the country, and in association with factors such as overtime, working alone, or frequently changing shift. After allowing for the effects of job and location, however, we found no significant correlations of health with either measured or estimated exposure to electric fields. PMID:3970875

  3. Industry's Struggle for Skilled Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Don

    1979-01-01

    The growing shortage of skilled workers in industrial maintenance, the growing complexity of equipment, and the automation of production processes call for improved and increased employee training and retraining. A General Motors training supervisor notes how education and industry can cooperate to provide this education and training. (MF)

  4. Biochemical markers in butadiene-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtold, W.E.; Hayes, R.B.; Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Henderson, R.F.

    1994-11-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is used to manufacture a wide range of polymers and copolymers including styrene-butadiene rubber, polybutadiene, and acrylonitrile-butadiene-syrene resins. The carcinogenicity of BD has been determined in life-span inhalation studies in both Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F{sub 1} mice. Results suggest a marked species difference in the carcinogenic effects of BD. For example, female mice exposed to as low as 6.25 ppm BD exhibited increased alveolar/bronchiolar neoplasms. In contrast, BD was only a weak carcinogen in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were observed to have an increase only in mammary tumors after exposure to 1000 ppm. A biochemical study of highly exposed BD workers and unexposed controls is providing valuable information on BD metabolism in humans, and how this relates to the development of intermediate biologic effects. A group of heavily exposed workers were identified in a BD production facility in China. The purpose of this paper is to report the initial results from the sampling trip in the first quarter of 1994.

  5. Plasma prolactin concentrations in lead exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Govoni, S; Battaini, F; Fernicola, C; Castelletti, L; Trabucchi, M

    1987-01-01

    Plasma Prolactin (Prl) Zinc protoporphyrin (Zpp) and blood lead concentrations (PbB) were measured in 76 exposed male workers. All of them were employed in small (not more than 30 persons) pewter factories and were randomly selected from those regularly controlled by the National Health Service, Occupational Health Unit of Brescia (USSL 41). Although all plasma Prl values were within the normal range, the mean value of the subgroup having Zpp and PbB higher than 40 micrograms/dl was significantly higher (+47%) than that observed in the group of workers having Zpp and PbB less than 40 micrograms/dl. The data indicate the possibility of a lead-induced Prl secretion dysfunction, probably mediated by a decrease in dopaminergic inhibitory control.

  6. Plasma prolactin concentrations in lead exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Govoni, S; Battaini, F; Fernicola, C; Castelletti, L; Trabucchi, M

    1987-01-01

    Plasma Prolactin (Prl) Zinc protoporphyrin (Zpp) and blood lead concentrations (PbB) were measured in 76 exposed male workers. All of them were employed in small (not more than 30 persons) pewter factories and were randomly selected from those regularly controlled by the National Health Service, Occupational Health Unit of Brescia (USSL 41). Although all plasma Prl values were within the normal range, the mean value of the subgroup having Zpp and PbB higher than 40 micrograms/dl was significantly higher (+47%) than that observed in the group of workers having Zpp and PbB less than 40 micrograms/dl. The data indicate the possibility of a lead-induced Prl secretion dysfunction, probably mediated by a decrease in dopaminergic inhibitory control. PMID:3598878

  7. Mortality of aerospace workers exposed to trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R W; Kelsh, M A; Zhao, K; Heringer, S

    1998-07-01

    We measured mortality rates in a cohort of 20,508 aerospace workers who were followed up over the period 1950-1993. A total of 4,733 workers had occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. In addition, trichloroethylene was present in some of the washing and drinking water used at the work site. We developed a job-exposure matrix to classify all jobs by trichloroethylene exposure levels into four categories ranging from "none" to "high" exposure. We calculated standardized mortality ratios for the entire cohort and the trichloroethylene exposed subcohort. In the standardized mortality ratio analyses, we observed a consistent elevation for nonmalignant respiratory disease, which we attribute primarily to the higher background rates of respiratory disease in this region. We also compared trichloroethylene-exposed workers with workers in the "low" and "none" exposure categories. Mortality rate ratios for nonmalignant respiratory disease were near or less than 1.00 for trichloroethylene exposure groups. We observed elevated rare ratios for ovarian cancer among those with peak exposure at medium and high levels] relative risk (RR) = 2.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.84-8.99] and among women with high cumulative exposure (RR = 7.09; 95% CI = 2.14-23.54). Among those with peak exposures at medium and high levels, we observed slightly elevated rate ratios for cancers of the kidney (RR = 1.89; 95% CI = 0.85-4.23), bladder (RR = 1.41; 95% CI = 0.52-3.81), and prostate (RR = 1.47; 95% CI = 0.85-2.55). Our findings do not indicate an association between trichloroethylene exposure and respiratory cancer, liver cancer, leukemia or lymphoma, or all cancers combined. PMID:9647907

  8. Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

  9. Mortality study of beryllium industry workers' occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, T.F.

    1980-02-01

    A cohort of 3685 white males employed during 1937 to 1948 in two major industries manufacturing beryllium was followed to the end of 1976 to evaluate lung cancer mortality experience. Lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers was contrasted with that of workers employed in the viscose rayon industry. Study results demonstrated that lung cancer mortality among berylliumm-exposed workers was significantly greater than that expected on the basis of lung cancer mortality experience of workers in the viscose rayon industry having similar employment patterns. The results of the present study are consistent with earlier animal bioassay studies and recent epidemiologic studies indicating that beryllium is carcinogenic. The results of the present study are not consistent with speculation attributing the excessive lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers to personal characteristics of individuals having unstable employment patterns.

  10. Worker awareness of exposure: industries and occupations with low awareness.

    PubMed

    Behrens, V J; Brackbill, R M

    1993-05-01

    A goal of occupational health is to inform workers of hazards on their jobs. This analysis addresses this goal by identifying industries and occupations with low worker awareness of potential exposures. Industries and occupations were ranked by the greatest positive difference between the proportion of workers exposed and proportion perceiving exposure to chemical and physical hazards. Those with low awareness had the greatest difference, i.e., high exposure and low perception. This analysis was performed by adding exposure data from a national exposure survey to a national health survey with perceived exposure data. The hospital and construction industries and occupations in these industries ranked among the top five for all hazards. For example, for hospital workers the difference between proportion exposed and proportion perceiving exposure to chemicals was 62% and to radiation was 42%, and for workers in construction the difference was 54% for exposure to noise and 63% for exposure to vibration.

  11. Heart disease in workers exposed to dinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.J.; Andjelkovich, D.A.; Kersteter, S.L.; Arp, E.W. Jr.; Balogh, S.A.; Blunden, P.B.; Stanley, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    To determine whether the carcinogenicity of dinitrotoluene (DNT) in rodent bioassays was predictive for humans, we examined the mortality experience of exposed workers at two ammunition plants. Cohorts of 156 and 301 men who had worked a month or more during the 1940s and 1950s at jobs with opportunity for substantial DNT exposure were followed through the end of 1980. Numbers of expected deaths and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed, using mortality rates of US white males as the standard. No evidence of a carcinogenic effect was found, but unsuspected excesses of mortality from ischemic heart disease were noted at both plants (SMRs) 131 and 143; 95% confidence limits 65 to 234 and 107 to 187, respectively). Deaths from ischemic heart disease remained high even when compared with expected numbers derived using mortality rates of the counties in which the plants were located. Additional analyses revealed evidence of a 15-year latent period and suggested a relationship with duration and intensity of exposure. Epidemiologic investigations of other heavily exposed populations are needed to confirm the etiologic significance of the association between DNT and heart disease described here.

  12. Lung Cancer in Railroad Workers Exposed to Diesel Exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Rosner, Bernard; Smith, Thomas J.; Dockery, Douglas W.; Speizer, Frank E.

    2004-01-01

    Diesel exhaust has been suspected to be a lung carcinogen. The assessment of this lung cancer risk has been limited by lack of studies of exposed workers followed for many years. In this study, we assessed lung cancer mortality in 54,973 U.S. railroad workers between 1959 and 1996 (38 years). By 1959, the U.S. railroad industry had largely converted from coal-fired to diesel-powered locomotives. We obtained work histories from the U.S. Railroad Retirement Board, and ascertained mortality using Railroad Retirement Board, Social Security, and Health Care Financing Administration records. Cause of death was obtained from the National Death Index and death certificates. There were 43,593 total deaths including 4,351 lung cancer deaths. Adjusting for a healthy worker survivor effect and age, railroad workers in jobs associated with operating trains had a relative risk of lung cancer mortality of 1.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.30–1.51). Lung cancer mortality did not increase with increasing years of work in these jobs. Lung cancer mortality was elevated in jobs associated with work on trains powered by diesel locomotives. Although a contribution from exposure to coal combustion products before 1959 cannot be excluded, these results suggest that exposure to diesel exhaust contributed to lung cancer mortality in this cohort. PMID:15531439

  13. Assessment of genotoxic effects of lead in occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Chinde, Srinivas; Kumari, Monika; Devi, Kanapuram Rudrama; Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana; Rahman, Mohammed Fazlur; Kumari, Srinivas Indu; Mahboob, Mohammed; Grover, Paramjit

    2014-10-01

    The genotoxicological effects in 200 lead acid storage battery recycling and manufacturing industry workers in Hyderabad along with matched 200 controls were studied. The genetic damage was determined by comet, micronucleus (MN), and chromosomal aberration (CA) test in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The MN test was also carried out in buccal epithelial cells (BECs). Pb in ambient air, blood Pb (B-Pb) concentrations, and hematological parameters were measured. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) formed were also studied. The results of the present study showed that there was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) increase in mean percent tail DNA, frequency of CA, and MN in PBL as well as in BEC as compared to controls. Pb in ambient air and B-Pb concentrations were found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01). The hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell values were significantly lowered in Pb-exposed workers in comparison to controls. SOD, GPx, and CAT levels were significantly decreased while GSH and MDA levels increased in exposed group when compared to control group. The present study suggests that environmental health standards should be enforced to control Pb contamination from battery industries to reduce human health risk.

  14. INDUSTRIAL INJURIES OF FARM WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    LaTourette, Donald P.

    1957-01-01

    Most industrial employees receive physical examinations to evaluate their physical fitness in relation to their work. The farm worker is neglected in this matter, in that he is hired for almost any type of work without physical evaluation. As a result, his accident rate is high. His efficiency at his work is low. His time loss from work because of sickness and accident is high, and the employer pays a very high rate of insurance for the patient's care and his own legal protection. Physical fitness cards should be carried by all farm laborers so that they would be put in properly graded jobs. PMID:13460719

  15. Epidemiologic Study of One Million American Workers and Military Veterans Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, John D.

    2015-02-27

    A pilot study was completed demonstrating the feasibility of conducting an epidemiologic study assessing cancer and other disease mortality among nearly one million US veterans and workers exposed to ionizing radiation, a population 10 times larger than atomic bomb survivor study with high statistical power to evaluate low dose rate effects. Among the groups enumerated and/or studied were: (1) 194,000 Department of Energy Uranium Workers; (2) 6,700 Rocketdyne Radiation Workers; (3) 7,000 Mound Radiation Workers; (4) 156,000 DOE Plutonium Workers; (5) 212,000 Nuclear Power Plant Workers; (6) 130,000 Industrial Radiography Workers; (7) 1.7 million Medical Workers and (8) 135,000 Atomic Veterans.

  16. Results of sputum, cytology among workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer and to poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed

    Maltoni, C; Lodi, P

    1981-10-01

    The results of systematic cytological sputum examinations of 3,380 Italian VC-PVC industry workers and of 2,287 workers in other industries at different potential risk and chosen as control groups are reported. The results indicate an increase in cellular abnormalities and dysplasias in the epithelium of the respiratory tract among VC-PVC workers. These data are in line with experimental results showing that VC produces lung tumors in mice and with early epidemiological evidence among exposed workers.

  17. Health effects among refrigeration repair workers exposed to fluorocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D D; Lockey, J E; Petajan, J; Gunter, B J; Rom, W N

    1986-01-01

    Refrigeration repair workers may be intermittently exposed to fluorocarbons and their thermal decomposition products. A case of peripheral neuropathy (distal axonopathy) in a commercial refrigeration repairman prompted an epidemiological investigation of the health of refrigeration repair workers. No additional cases of peripheral neuropathy were identified among the 27 refrigeration repair workers studied. A reference group of 14 non-refrigeration repair workers was also studied. No differences were noted between groups for the ulnar (motor and sensory), median (motor and sensory), peroneal, sural, or tibial nerve conduction velocities. Refrigeration repair workers reported palpitations and lightheadedness significantly more often than workers in the reference group. No clinical neurological or electroneurophysiological abnormalities were detected in eight refrigeration repair workers followed up for three years during continuous employment. PMID:3004555

  18. Cardiovascular effects in viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide.

    PubMed

    Kotseva, K; Braeckman, L; De Bacquer, D; Bulat, P; Vanhoorne, M

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the cardiovascular effects in workers currently exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) below the threshold limit value (TLV) of 31 mg/m3 and to determine the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) after long-term exposure. 172 men (91 workers exposed to CS2 in a viscose rayon factory and 81 referent workers) were examined using a medical and job history questionnaire, Rose's questionnaire, and electrocardiography at rest, and by measuring blood pressure and serum lipids and lipoproteins. Personal exposures were monitored simultaneously with active sampling and findings were analyzed according to the NIOSH 1600 method. As a result of technical and organizational improvements, personal CS2 exposures were well below the TLV (5.4-13.02 mg/m3). No significant effect of CS2 on blood pressure or lipids (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins AI and B) was found, even after allowance for confounding factors. The prevalence of CHD (ECG abnormalities and chest pain) was higher in the viscose rayon workers than in the workers with no exposure but reached statistical significance for men with exposure histories often years and more only (cumulative CS9 index > or = 150 mg/m3, the most highly exposed group). The findings suggest that the coronary risk is increased in workers previously exposed to high CS2 concentrations but not in those exposed to CS2 levels below the current TLV. PMID:11210016

  19. Cardiovascular effects in viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide.

    PubMed

    Kotseva, K; Braeckman, L; De Bacquer, D; Bulat, P; Vanhoorne, M

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the cardiovascular effects in workers currently exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) below the threshold limit value (TLV) of 31 mg/m3 and to determine the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) after long-term exposure. 172 men (91 workers exposed to CS2 in a viscose rayon factory and 81 referent workers) were examined using a medical and job history questionnaire, Rose's questionnaire, and electrocardiography at rest, and by measuring blood pressure and serum lipids and lipoproteins. Personal exposures were monitored simultaneously with active sampling and findings were analyzed according to the NIOSH 1600 method. As a result of technical and organizational improvements, personal CS2 exposures were well below the TLV (5.4-13.02 mg/m3). No significant effect of CS2 on blood pressure or lipids (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins AI and B) was found, even after allowance for confounding factors. The prevalence of CHD (ECG abnormalities and chest pain) was higher in the viscose rayon workers than in the workers with no exposure but reached statistical significance for men with exposure histories often years and more only (cumulative CS9 index > or = 150 mg/m3, the most highly exposed group). The findings suggest that the coronary risk is increased in workers previously exposed to high CS2 concentrations but not in those exposed to CS2 levels below the current TLV.

  20. Long-term study on workers occupationally exposed to ethylbenzene.

    PubMed

    Bardodĕj, Z; Círek, A

    1988-01-01

    Ethylbenzene is synthesized from benzene; subject to catalytic dehydrogenation it yields styrene, a raw material for the production of synthetic rubber and plastics. Long-term biomonitoring of occupational ethylbenzene exposures, carried out in the past 20 years in some 200 ethylbenzene-production workers, revealed this substance to pose little hazard to human health. As it turned out, mandelic acid concentrations in these workers' urine never exceeded 3.25 mmol.l-1 and none of the exposed showed damage to hematopoiesis and/or liver tissue. Over the last 10 years no case of malignancy has been recorded in this industrial facility belonging to a larger chemical complex where the overall incidence of cancer is about 3 times the national average. Today's low-level ethylbenzene exposures would make it fully justifiable if the present-day MAC limits, both whole-shift (200 mg.m-3) and peak (1,000 mg.m-3), were to be halved, i.e. to be lowered to 100 mg.m3 and 500 mg.m3 respectively. These newly recommended limit values are no more exceeded nowadays.

  1. Mortality in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Milham, S. Jr.

    1985-10-01

    In an occupational mortality analysis of 486,000 adult male death records filed in Washington State in the years 1950-1982, leukemia and the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas show increased proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) in workers employed in occupations with intuitive exposures to electromagnetic fields. Nine occupations of 219 were considered to have electric or magnetic field exposures. These were: electrical and electronic technicians, radio and telegraph operators, radio and television repairmen, telephone and power linemen, power station operators, welders, aluminum reduction workers, motion picture projectionists and electricians. There were 12,714 total deaths in these occupations. Eight of the nine occupations had PMR increases for leukemia (International Classification of Diseases (ICD), seventh revision 204) and seven of the nine occupations had PMR increases for the other lymphoma category (7th ICD 200.2, 202). The highest PMRs were seen for acute leukemia: (67 deaths observed, 41 deaths expected; PMR 162), and in the other lymphomas (51 deaths observed, 31 deaths expected; PMR 164). No increase in mortality was seen for Hodgkin's disease or multiple myeloma. These findings offer some support for the hypothesis that electric and magnetic fields may be carcinogenic.

  2. Cancer mortality among electric utility workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, D; Browning, S R; Schenck, A P; Gregory, E; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether excess mortality from cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin, and cancers of the brain and liver in particular, is associated with long term occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). METHODS: An epidemiological study of mortality was conducted among 138,905 men employed for at least six months between 1950 and 1986 at five electrical power companies in the United States. Exposures were assessed by panels composed of workers, hygienists, and managers at each company, who considered tasks performed by workers in 28 job categories and estimated weekly exposures in hours for each job. Poisson regression was used to examine mortality in relation to exposure to electrical insulating fluids containing PCBs, controlling for demographic and occupational factors. RESULTS: Neither all cause nor total cancer mortality was related to cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids. Mortality from malignant melanoma increased with exposure; rate ratios (RRs) relative to unexposed men for melanoma were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.56 to 2.52), 1.71 (0.68 to 4.28) and 1.93 (0.52 to 7.14) for men with < 2000, > 2000-10,000, and > 10,000 hours of cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids, respectively, without consideration of latency. Lagging exposure by 20 years yielded RRs of 1.29 (0.76 to 2.18), 2.56 (1.09 to 5.97), and 4.81 (1.49 to 15.50) for the same exposure levels. Mortality from brain cancer was modestly increased among men with < 2000 hours (RR 1.61, 95% CI 0.86 to 3.01) and > 2000-10,000 hours exposure (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.95), but there were no deaths from brain cancer among the most highly exposed men. A lag of five years yielded slightly increased RRs. Mortality from liver cancer was not associated with exposure to PCB insulating fluids. CONCLUSIONS: This study was larger and provided more detailed information on exposure than past investigations of workers exposed to PCBs. The results suggest that PCBs

  3. Epidemiological survey of workers exposed to inorganic germanium compounds

    PubMed Central

    Swennen, B; Mallants, A; Roels, H; Buchet, J; Bernard, A; Lauwerys, R; Lison, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess occupational exposure to inorganic germanium (Ge) in workers from a producing plant, and to assess the health of these workers, with a special focus on respiratory, kidney, and liver functions.
METHODS—Cross sectional study of 75 workers exposed to Ge and 79 matched referents. Exposure was characterised by measuring air and urine concentrations of the element during a typical working week, and health was assessed by a questionnaire, clinical examination, lung function testing, chest radiography, and clinical chemistry in serum and urine, including high and low molecular weight urinary proteins.
RESULTS—Airborne concentrations of Ge (inhalable fraction) ranged from 0.03 to 300 µg/m, which was reflected by increased urinary excretion of Ge (0.12-200 µg/g creatinine, after the shift at the end of the working week). Lung, liver, and haematological variables were not significantly different between referents and workers exposed to Ge. A slightly higher urinary concentration of high molecular weight proteins (albumin and transferrin) was found in workers exposed to Ge, possibly reflecting subclinical glomerular changes. No relation was found between the intensity or duration of exposure and the urinary concentration of albumin. No difference between referents and workers exposed to Ge was found for other renal variables.
CONCLUSIONS—Measurement of urinary Ge can detect occupational exposure to inorganic Ge and its compounds. It is prudent to recommend the monitoring of renal variables in workers exposed to Ge.


Keywords: inorganic germanium; occupational exposure; biological monitoring PMID:10810110

  4. Prevalence of tinnitus in workers exposed to noise and organophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Delecrode, Camila Ribas; de Freitas, Thais Domingues; Frizzo, Ana Claúdia Figueiredo; Cardoso, Ana Claúdia Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Research on the workplace has emphasized the effects of noise exposure on workers' hearing, but has not considered the effects of agrochemicals. Aim: To evaluate and correlate the hearing level and tinnitus of workers exposed simultaneously to noise and organophosphates in their workplace and to measure tinnitus distress on their quality of life. Method: A retrospective clinical study. We evaluated 82 organophosphate sprinklers from the São Paulo State Regional Superintendence who were active in the fight against dengue and who were exposed to noise and organophosphates. We performed pure tone audiometry and applied the translated THI (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory) questionnaire. Results: Of the sample, 28.05% reported current tinnitus or had presented tinnitus, and the workers with tinnitus had an increased incidence of abnormal audiometry. The average hearing threshold for the 4–8-kHz frequency range of the workers with current tinnitus was higher than that of the others, and was most affected at the 4-kHz frequency. The THI score ranged 0–84, with an average score of 13.1. Twelve (52.17%) workers had THI scores consistent with discrete handicap. Conclusion: There is an increased incidence of abnormal pure tone audiometry in workers with tinnitus, and its impact on the workers' quality of life was discrete. The correlation between average hearing threshold and tinnitus distress was weak. PMID:25991953

  5. [Health maintenance strategy for construction industry workers].

    PubMed

    Perminova, I Iu; Logvinenko, I I

    2011-01-01

    The authors analyzed work conditions and health state of workers engaged into construction industry in Kemerovo city. Findings are that complex approach to carrying out the strategy "Health for all in XXI century" causes health preservation.

  6. Liver functions in silica-exposed workers in Egypt: possible role of matrix remodeling and immunological factors

    PubMed Central

    Zawilla, Nermin; Taha, Fatma; Ibrahim, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brick manufacturing constitutes an important industrial sector in Egypt with considerable exposure to silica. Objectives: We aimed for evaluating hepatic functions in silica-exposed workers in the clay brick industry, and the possible role of matrix remodeling and immunological factors. Methods: A case–control study, 87 workers as exposed and 45 as control subjects. Questionnaire, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations: liver functions, matrix metalloproteinase-9, immunoglobulins G and E, and anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody. Results: In the exposed workers, mean levels of liver functions, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and IgG and IgE were significantly higher. In the silicotic subgroup the mean level of GGT was almost twice the level in the non-silicotic subjects. Logistic regression showed that abnormal GGT and ALT were associated with production workers. Conclusion: Workers in the clay brick industry showed evidence of liver disease that could be related to matrix remodeling. PMID:24999850

  7. Tuberculosis among workers exposed to free silica dust.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Rajnarayan R; Sharma, Yashwant K; Saiyed, Habibullah N

    2007-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global emergency. Poverty, increasing migration, homelessness and the compulsions to live and work in high-risk environments are making people increasingly susceptible to the disease. Those working in mines, construction work, stone-crushing and in other similar occupations where there is a greater level of exposure to silica dust are specially vulnerable. Though the association between TB and silicosis has been firmly established by the results of epidemiologic studies no attempts have been made to study the epidemiological features of radiologically active TB among free silica exposed workers. Thus the cross sectional study was carried out among slate pencil workers and quartz stone crushers to assess the prevalence of TB and some associated epidemiological factors. It included 253 quartz workers and 102 slate pencil workers. Clinical history and chest radiographs were used for labeling the subjects as tuberculotic. The pulmonary functions of the subjects were measured using Spirovit SP- 10. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical software package Epi Info 3.3.2. Among stone crushers the prevalence of TB was found to be 10.7% while among slate pencil workers it was as high as 22.5%. Among the quartz stone-crushers the workers aged ≥35 years, those exposed for ≥3 years and those who were smokers had higher risk TB while among the slate pencil workers, only those exposed for ≥10 years had higher risk. Though the FVC and FEV(1) values of the workers having TB were lower than those having normal radiographs, the differences were found to statistically non-significant.

  8. [Occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers of West Siberia].

    PubMed

    Pomytkina, T E; Pershin, A N

    2010-01-01

    The high incidence of chronic digestive diseases is recorded in chemical industry workers exposed to the isolated action of noxious substances. The aim of the investigation was to make a hygienic assessment of the risk for occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers exposed to a combination of noxious drugs. The working conditions and the prevalence of digestive diseases were studied in 4120 workers engaged in chemical and auxiliary processes. Under the isolated action of noxious substances, the workers had an average of 35% increase in the incidence of digestive diseases than unexposed ones (p < 0.05). Under the combined action of hazardous substances, the incidence of digestive diseases was 1.7-fold greater (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects and 1.2-fold greater in those under isolated action. The odd ratio and relative risk for digestive diseases in the workers exposed to a combination of noxious substances were 4.0-11.1 and 3.5-10.7 times higher, respectively (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects.

  9. Critical organ concentration of cadmium in occupationally-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, K.J.; Morgan, W.D.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Zanzi, I.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the present Brookhaven facility for in vivo measurements of cadmium in man and provides a comparison with other portable systems. The cadmium detection limits are 2.2 mg in the kidney and 1.5 ppM in the liver for the Brookhaven system. In a recent field study, the cadmium content of the left kidney and concentration in the liver were measured in 82 occupationally exposed workers and 10 control subjects. Organ content ranged up to 57 mg in the kidney and up to 120 ppM in the liver for the industrial group. By contrast, the values for the control group ranged from 0.4 to 11.8 mg for the kidney and 0.7 to 7.9 ppM for the liver. The geometric means were 3.7 mg for the kidney and 2.7 ppM for the liver in the control group. When the data were analyzed to provide an estimate of the critical concentration for the kidney, a range of 300 to 400 ..mu..g/g for the renal cortex was calculated. The corresponding cadmium concentrations in the liver and urine were 30 to 42 ppM (liver) and 22 to 28 ..mu..g/g creatinine (urine), respectively. Blood and urine levels of cadmium and ..beta../sub 2/-microgloubin were also evaluated as possible biological indicators of organ content.

  10. Hepatic function in workers occupationally exposed to carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed Central

    Tomenson, J A; Baron, C E; O'Sullivan, J J; Edwards, J C; Stonard, M D; Walker, R J; Fearnley, D M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To identify any differences in hepatic function between workers exposed to carbon tetrachloride and controls, and to identify the best variable with which to examine any effects. METHODS--In a cross sectional study of hepatic function in workers occupationally exposed to carbon tetrachloride, 135 exposed employees were compared with 276 non-exposed controls. The exposed group was taken from three sites in the north west of England and the control group included non-exposed workers from one of these sites and another site located nearby. Demographic and alcohol consumption data were collected from both groups by questionnaire. Each member of the study group was allotted a notional estimated exposure to carbon tetrachloride, calculated from historic personal monitoring data and job category. A fasting sample of blood was taken from all participants and analysed for a variety of biochemical and haematological variables. The techniques of univariate and multivariate analysis of variance were used to investigate the effect on biochemical and haematological indices of a range of factors. RESULTS--Multivariate analysis of variance of four core liver function variables, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase, showed a significant difference between exposed and non-exposed workers. The univariate analyses identified increases in only alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase within the exposed group and these did not show a significant dose-response relation. Univariate analysis of variance did show effects of alcohol and age on several variables. Significant differences between exposed and control groups for three haematological variables, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, and red blood count, were thought not to be due to the effects of exposure. Clinical review of exposed subjects with abnormal results did not show clinically evident disease that could have been associated with exposure to

  11. Hearing loss in workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Epoxy adhesives contain organic solvents and are widely used in industry. The hazardous effects of epoxy adhesives remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 182 stone workers who were exposed to both epoxy adhesives and noise, 89 stone workers who were exposed to noise only, and 43 workers from the administrative staff who had not been exposed to adhesives or noise. We obtained demographic data, occupational history and medical history through face-to-face interviews and arranged physical examinations and pure-tone audiometric tests. We also conducted walk-through surveys in the stone industry. A total of 40 representative noise assessments were conducted in 15 workplaces. Air sampling was conducted at 40 workplaces, and volatile organic compounds were analysed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) TO-15 method. Results The mean sound pressure level was 87.7 dBA (SD 9.9). The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was considerably increased in the stone workers exposed to epoxy adhesives (42%) compared with the stone workers who were not exposed to epoxy adhesives (21%) and the administrative staff group (9.3%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to epoxy adhesives significantly increased the risk of hearing loss between 2 and 6 kHz after adjusting for age. Significant interactions between epoxy adhesives and noise and hearing impairment were observed at 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Conclusions Epoxy adhesives exacerbate hearing impairment in noisy environments, with the main impacts occurring in the middle and high frequencies. PMID:26892792

  12. Industrial Safety Training for Soviet Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semenov, A.

    1978-01-01

    Various forms of worker training in industrial safety in the Soviet Union are described by a Soviet labor inspector, with special "industrial safety rooms" the principal means of inplant instruction. Safety education in vocational schools and "people's universities" is also touched on. (MF)

  13. Epidemiologic study of workers exposed to titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.L.; Fayerweather, W.E.

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether workers exposed to titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/) had significantly higher risks of lung cancer, chronic respiratory disease, pleural thickening/plaques, or pulmonary fibrosis than referent groups. A total of 1,576 employees exposed to TiO/sub 2/ were observed from 1956 through 1985 for cancer and chronic respiratory disease incidence, and from 1935 through 1983 for mortality. A cross-sectional sample of 398 employees was evaluated for chest roentgenogram abnormalities. Cohort analyses suggested that the risks of developing lung cancer and other fatal respiratory diseases were no higher for TiO/sub 2/-exposed employees than for the referent groups. Nested case-control analyses found no statistically significant associations between TiO/sub 2/ exposure and risk of lung cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and chest roentgenogram abnormalities. No cases of pulmonary fibrosis were observed among TiO/sub 2/-exposed employees.

  14. Neurobehavioural evaluation of Venezuelan workers exposed to inorganic lead.

    PubMed Central

    Maizlish, N A; Parra, G; Feo, O

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess neurobehavioural effects of low exposure to lead, 43 workers from a lead smelter and 45 workers from a glass factory were evaluated with the World Health Organisation neurobehavioural core test battery (NCTB) in a cross sectional study. METHODS--The NCTB comprises a questionnaire and seven tests that measure simple reaction time, short-term memory (digit span, Benton), mood (profile of mood states), eye-hand coordination (Santa Ana pegboard, pursuit aiming II), and perceptual speed (digit-symbol). RESULTS--Smelter workers were employed on average for four years, and had a mean blood lead concentration of 2.0 mumol/l (42 micrograms/dl). Glass factory workers had a mean of 0.72 mumol/l (15 micrograms/dl). Historical blood lead concentrations were used to classify exposure based on current, peak, and time weighted average. Although the exposed workers performed less well than the non-exposed in 10 of 14 response variables, only profile of mood states tension-anxiety, hostility, and depression mood scales showed a significantly poorer dose-response relation with blood lead concentration in multiple linear regression models that included age, education, and alcohol intake as covariates. The frequency of symptoms of anger, depression, fatigue, and joint pain were also significantly increased in the exposed group. CONCLUSION--This study is consistent with the larger body of neurobehavioural research of low occupational exposure to lead. The small effects found in this study occurred at blood lead concentrations slightly lower than those reported in several previous studies. PMID:7627319

  15. Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust

    PubMed Central

    Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables. PMID:12771392

  16. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme.

  17. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  18. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  19. Hearing protector use in noise-exposed workers: a retrospective look at 1983.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rickie R; Sieber, W Karl

    2002-01-01

    Although hearing protectors have been available for more than 60 years, little field surveillance has been done to assess their appropriate wear in noisy occupational environments. This study examined historical field survey data to determine whether workers use hearing protection when exposed to loud noise. Data from the 1981-83 NIOSH National Occupational Exposure Survey were analyzed to determine whether workers in noise greater than or equal to 85 dBA were using hearing protection. The study also looked at the effect of company personal protective equipment (PPE) policies on hearing protector compliance. This study found that, in 1981-83, an estimated 4.1 million industrial workers were exposed to noise greater than or equal to 85 dBA. Of these, 41% were wearing some form of hearing protection. This percentage varied from 79% of workers exposed in SIC 76 (Miscellaneous Repair Service) to less than 1% in Communications (SIC 48), Wholesale Trade Nondurable Goods (SIC 51), and Automotive Dealers & Service Stations (SIC 55). Whether an establishment had a written policy on wearing PPE seemed to make no difference, because there appeared to be no tie between the percentage of workers wearing of hearing protection and presence of a PPE policy. PMID:11975657

  20. [Precancerous conditions of the larynx in workers exposed to dust and their prevention].

    PubMed

    Podol'skaia, E V

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of examinations of 522 workers exposed to various industrial dusts and 361 workers exposed to different concentrations of carcinogenic asbestos dust. The examinations showed a significantly higher incidence of total processes in the upper respiratory tract which manifested as chronic subatrophic nasopharingitis and hyperplastic laryngitis. Also, they demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of local processes that manifested as hyperplasia of the laryngeal mucosa and contact fibromas. These laryngeal lesions can be viewed as etiologically associated with the effect of industrial dusts having traumatic (abrasive and glass dust) and carcinogenic (asbestos) properties. Patients with the above laryngeal pathologies should be removed from the dust environment and sent to physical examinations with emphasis on occupational diseases.

  1. Genotoxic effects of textile printing dye exposed workers in India detected by micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Sellappa, Sudha; Prathyumnan, Shibily; Joseph, Shyn; Keyan, Kripa S; Balachandar, Vellingiri

    2010-01-01

    The textile printing industry in South India employs a great number of workers that may possibly be exposed to toxic compounds. In the present study, subjects from textile printing units were investigated for the presence of genetic damage in their peripheral blood lymphocytes using micronucleus assay. Proliferation was also investigated using a nuclear division index. It was found that the micronucleus frequency was considerably greater in exposed subjects than in non exposed control subjects, but division was not increased in a statistically significant way. For the time being, this investigation should be considered as a preliminary study in which the influence of potential confounders could be adequately assessed. However, our results are non-ambiguous, indicating a potential health risk in these workers.

  2. Semen quality in workers exposed to 2-ethoxyethanol.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, J M; Schrader, S M; Clapp, D E; Halperin, W E; Turner, T W; Hornung, R W

    1989-06-01

    To evaluate whether long term exposure to 2-ethoxyethanol (2EE) may affect semen quality, a cross sectional study was conducted among men exposed to 2EE used as a binder slurry in a metal castings process. Full shift breathing zone exposures to 2EE ranged from non-detectable to 24 ppm (geometric mean 6.6 ppm). Because of the potential for substantial absorption of 2EE through skin exposure, urine measurements of the metabolite of 2EE, 2-ethoxyacetic acid (2EAA) were conducted, showing levels of 2EAA ranging from non-detectable to 163 mg 2EAA/g creatinine. Only 37 exposed men (50% participation) and 39 non-exposed comparison (26% participation) from elsewhere in the plant provided a sperm sample. A questionnaire to determine personal habits, and medical and work histories, and a physical examination of the urogenital tract were also administered. The average sperm count per ejaculate among the workers exposed to 2EE was significantly lower than that of the unexposed group (113 v 154 million sperm per ejaculate respectively; p = 0.05) after consideration of abstinence, sample age, subjects' age, tobacco, alcohol and caffeine use, urogenital disorders, fever, and other illnesses. The mean sperm concentrations of the exposed and unexposed groups did not significantly differ from each other (44 and 53 million/ml respectively). No effect of exposure to 2EE on semen volume, sperm viability, motility, velocity, and normal morphology or testicular volume was detected, although some differences in the proportion of abnormal sperm shapes were observed. These data suggest that there may be an effect of 2EE on sperm count among these workers, although the possibility that other factors may be affecting the semen quality in both exposed and unexposed men in this population or that the results reflect bias introduced by the low participation rates cannot be excluded. PMID:2818974

  3. Occupational Exposure to Chromium of Assembly Workers in Aviation Industries.

    PubMed

    Genovese, G; Castiglia, L; Pieri, M; Novi, C; d'Angelo, R; Sannolo, N; Lamberti, M; Miraglia, N

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft are constructed by modules that are covered by a "primer" layer, which can often contain hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], known carcinogen to humans. While the occupational exposure to Cr(VI) during aircraft painting is ascertained, the exposure assessment of assembly workers (assemblers) requires investigations. Three biological monitoring campaigns (BM-I,II,III) were performed in an aviation industry, on homogeneous groups of assemblers (N = 43) and controls (N = 23), by measuring chromium concentrations in end-shift urine collected at the end of the working week and the chromium concentration difference between end- and before-shift urines. BM-I was conducted on full-time workers, BM-II was performed on workers after a 3-4 day absence from work, BM-III on workers using ecoprimers with lower Cr(VI) content. Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and mean values were compared by T-test. Even if Cr concentrations measured during BM-I were lower than Biological Exposure Indices by ACGIH, statistically significant differences were found between urinary Cr concentrations of workers and controls. Despite 3-4 days of absence from work, urinary chromium concentrations measured during BM-II were still higher than references from nonoccupationally exposed populations. In the BM-III campaign, the obtained preliminary results suggested the efficacy of using ecoprimers. The healthcare of workers exposed to carcinogenic agents follows the principle of limiting the exposure to "the minimum technically possible". The obtained results evidence that assemblers of aviation industries, whose task does not involve the direct use of primers containing Cr(VI), show an albeit slight occupational exposure to Cr(VI), that must be carefully taken into consideration in planning suitable prevention measures during risk assessment and management processes.

  4. Mortality among dust-exposed Chinese mine and pottery workers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; McLaughlin, J.K.; Zhang, J.Y.; Stone, B.J.; Luo, J.; Chen, R.A.; Dosemeci, M.; Rexing, S.H.; Wu, Z.; Hearl, F.J. )

    1992-03-01

    A cohort study of approximately 68,000 persons employed during 1972 to 1974 at metal mines and pottery factories in south central China was conducted to evaluate mortality from cancer and other diseases among workers exposed to different levels of silica and other dusts. A follow-up of subjects through December 31, 1989 revealed 6,192 deaths, a number close to that expected based on Chinese national mortality rates. There was, however, a nearly 6-fold increase in deaths from pulmonary heart disease (standard mortality ratio, 581; 95% confidence interval 538 to 626), and a 48% excess of mortality from nonmalignant respiratory diseases (standard mortality ratio, 148; 95% confidence interval, 139 to 158), primarily because of a more than 30-fold excess of pneumoconiosis. Pulmonary heart disease and noncancerous respiratory disease rates rose in proportion to dust exposure. Cancer mortality overall was not increased among the miners or pottery workers. There was no increased risk of lung cancer, except among tin miners, and trends in risk of this cancer with increasing level of dust exposure were not significant. Risks of lung cancer were 22% higher among workers with than without silicosis. The findings indicate that respiratory disease continues to be an occupational hazard among Chinese miners and pottery workers, but that cancer risks are not as yet strongly associated with work in these dusty trades.

  5. Mortality among dust-exposed Chinese mine and pottery workers.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; McLaughlin, J K; Zhang, J Y; Stone, B J; Luo, J; Chen, R A; Dosemeci, M; Rexing, S H; Wu, Z; Hearl, F J

    1992-03-01

    A cohort study of approximately 68,000 persons employed during 1972 to 1974 at metal mines and pottery factories in south central China was conducted to evaluate mortality from cancer and other diseases among workers exposed to different levels of silica and other dusts. A follow-up of subjects through December 31, 1989 revealed 6,192 deaths, a number close to that expected based on Chinese national mortality rates. There was, however, a nearly 6-fold increase in deaths from pulmonary heart disease (standard mortality ratio, 581; 95% confidence interval 538 to 626), and a 48% excess of mortality from nonmalignant respiratory diseases (standard mortality ratio, 148; 95% confidence interval, 139 to 158), primarily because of a more than 30-fold excess of pneumoconiosis. Pulmonary heart disease and noncancerous respiratory disease rates rose in proportion to dust exposure. Cancer mortality overall was not increased among the miners or pottery workers. There was no increased risk of lung cancer, except among tin miners, and trends in risk of this cancer with increasing level of dust exposure were not significant. Risks of lung cancer were 22% higher among workers with than without silicosis. The findings indicate that respiratory disease continues to be an occupational hazard among Chinese miners and pottery workers, but that cancer risks are not as yet strongly associated with work in these dusty trades.

  6. Cancer occurrence in shipyard workers exposed to asbestos in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Kolonel, L N; Yoshizawa, C N; Hirohata, T; Myers, B C

    1985-08-01

    Because large numbers of persons were employed in United States shipyards during World War II, the long-term risks for cancer associated with asbestos exposure in this setting are of great concern. We report here on the mortality findings after up to 29 years of follow-up on a retrospective cohort of 7971 male Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard workers, which included more than 3000 men whose employment period spanned the World War II years. Compared with the general population of Hawaii, workers in the shipyard cohort had no increase in total mortality or in total cancer mortality irrespective of the duration of their exposure. However, the risk ratio for lung cancer among workers with at least 15 years of asbestos exposure was 1.4 overall (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.0) and 1.7 for those with a latency interval of 30 or more years (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.5). In addition, seven mesotheliomas occurred between 1977 and 1982 in a subset of the cohort, consisting of 7029 Hawaii residents who are being followed prospectively for cancer incidence. This represented an incidence of 67.3 per million men per year, compared with a rate of 5.8 for the state as a whole. These results suggest that the long-term relative increase in risk for mesothelioma may be even greater than that for bronchogenic carcinoma in this and other cohorts of United States shipyard workers exposed to asbestos.

  7. Optimization of Routine Monitoring of Workers Exposed to Plutonium Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Davesne, Estelle; Quesne, Benoit; De Vita, Antoine; Chojnacki, Eric; Blanchardon, Eric; Franck, Didier

    2016-10-01

    In case of incidental confinement failure, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel preparation may expose workers to plutonium aerosols. Due to its potential toxicity, occupational exposure to plutonium compounds should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To ensure the absence of significant intake of radionuclides, workers at risk of internal contamination are monitored by periodic bioassay planned in a routine monitoring programme. From bioassay results, internal dose may be estimated. However, accurate dose calculation relies on known exposure conditions, which are rarely available when the exposure is demonstrated by routine monitoring only. Therefore, internal dose calculation is subject to uncertainty from unknown exposure conditions and from activity measurement variability. The present study calculates the minimum detectable dose (MDD) for a routine monitoring programme by considering all plausible conditions of exposure and measurement uncertainty. The MDD evaluates the monitoring quality and can be used for optimization. Here, MDDs were calculated for the monitoring of workers preparing MOX fuel. Uncertain parameters were modelled by probability distributions defined according to information provided by experts of routine monitoring, of workplace radiological protection and of bioassay analysis. Results show that the current monitoring is well adapted to potential exposure. A sensitivity study of MDD highlights high dependence on exposure condition modelling. Integrating all expert knowledge is therefore crucial to obtain reliable MDD estimates, stressing the value of a holistic approach to worker monitoring.

  8. Mortality from lung cancer among workers employed in formaldehyde industries.

    PubMed

    Blair, A; Stewart, P A; Hoover, R N

    1990-01-01

    A historical cohort of 26,561 workers employed in ten facilities was assembled to evaluate cancer risks associated with exposure to formaldehyde. Historical exposures to formaldehyde by job, work area, plant, and calendar time were estimated using monitoring data available from participating plants, comments from long-term workers and company officials, exposure evaluations from walk-through surveys conducted by project industrial hygienists, and results from monitoring specifically performed for this project. A previous report of findings from this study noted a 30% excess mortality from lung cancer among wage workers. The relative risk for lung cancer (whether estimated by SMRs or SRRs) 20 or more years after first exposure did not generally rise with increasing exposure to formaldehyde. Various estimates of exposure were investigated including duration, intensity, peak, cumulative, and average, and by exposures lagged by 5, 10, 20, and 30 years. The excess did not appear to arise gradually, but emerged suddenly among workers whose total cumulative exposure was less than 0.1 ppm-years. Slightly positive, but nonsignificant, exposure-response associations between lung cancer and level of formaldehyde occurred in only a few out of a large number of comparisons (e.g., for persons hired before the start dates for the study and for workers also exposed to particulates). There was a lack of consistency among the various plants for risk of lung cancer, with six plants having elevated SMRs and four plants having deficits. Mortality from lung cancer was more strongly associated with exposure to other substances including phenol, melamine, urea, and wood dust than with exposure to formaldehyde. Workers exposed to formaldehyde without exposure to these substances did not experience an elevated mortality from lung cancer. The risk did not increase with cumulative levels of formaldehyde among those exposed to other substances and there was a slightly negative trend for those

  9. Lung cancer in chromate-exposed aerospace workers.

    PubMed

    Alexander, B H; Checkoway, H; Wechsler, L; Heyer, N J; Muhm, J M; O'Keeffe, T P

    1996-12-01

    A retrospective cohort study evaluated the risk of lung cancer in aerospace workers with minimum of 6 months' employment in jobs with chromium [VI] exposure (n = 2429). Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) estimated the risk of lung cancer by duration of employment in chromate-exposure jobs and cumulative exposure based on industrial hygiene and work-history data. The overall SIR for lung cancer was 0.8 (observed [Obs] = 15). Lung cancer risk was inversely related to estimates of cumulative chromate exposure and duration of employment as a painter. Although based on few cases, an elevated lung cancer risk was found in subjects who had worked for 5 or more years as a chrome plater or surface processor tank tender (Obs = 2, SIR = 1.9) and sander/masker or polisher (Obs = 3, SIR = 2.7). A clear association was not observed between chromate exposure and the risk of lung cancer in this population of workers.

  10. Proportional mortality patterns among chemical plant workers exposed to formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, G M

    1982-01-01

    To examine the possible health risks associated with occupational exposure to formaldehyde a proportional mortality analysis was conducted on deaths occurring between 1950 and 1976 among 136 men who had been employed a month or more in one of five formaldehyde-related areas of a large chemical producing plant located in Springfield, Massachusetts, USA. Overall, no statistically significant excesses or deficits in proportional mortality were observed among the formaldehyde-exposed group based on comparisons with both United States men and men from the local county area. In addition, no important differences in mortality were observed among this group when comparisons were made with 456 male decedents from the same plant who had not had a month or more of formaldehyde exposure. Within the calendar period examined, no deaths from sinonasal cancer were observed among the chemical workers studied nor was mention made on any death certificate of sinonasal cancer as a contributory cause of death. No important excesses, trends, or patterns in cancer mortality were observed among white male formadelhyde-exposed workers when consideration was given to age and time period of death, type and duration of formaldehyde exposure, and the lapse period from the onset of the first formaldehyde-related job assignment. Although certain limitations of this study do not allow definite conclusions to be drawn, the results indicate no trends or patterns in proportional mortality that could be directly linked to exposures to formaldehyde. PMID:7138792

  11. Evoked otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to noise: A review

    PubMed Central

    Alcarás, Patrícia Arruda de Souza; Lüders, Débora; França, Denise Maria Vaz Romano; Klas, Regina Maria; Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira de; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The otoacoustic emissions test is an essential tool in the evaluation of auditory function, since it allows the early detection of cochlear damage of occupational origin. Objective: To present a review of the literature and analyze the effectiveness of the clinical application of the otoacoustic emissions test in workers exposed to noise. Methods: A bibliographical search covering a period of 10 years was performed in the Virtual Health Library including published articles in national and international journals indexed in the internationally recognized databases for the health sciences, LILACS, SCIELO, and MEDLINE, using the terms “otoacoustic emissions” and “occupational exposure.” The type of published article (national/international), the type and intensity of the stimulus most commonly used for the evoked otoacoustic emissions, the gender and age of the subjects, and the conclusions from the retrospective studies were all taken into consideration. Results and Conclusions: A total of 19 articles were analyzed, 7 national and 12 international, covering subjects from 17 to 77 years of age, mostly men. The type of stimulus most commonly used for the evoked otoacoustic emissions was the distortion method (12). Through this review, we have concluded that testing of evoked otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to noise is an important tool in the early diagnosis of noise-induced cochlear hearing disorders. PMID:25991982

  12. Small airways function of silica-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Chia, K S; Ng, T P; Jeyaratnam, J

    1992-01-01

    Small airways obstruction may be present for many years before chronic airway obstruction becomes evident. Several spirometric indices, especially flow rates at low lung volumes, may reflect the status of small airways. Time domain indices, by using moments analysis of the volume time spirogram, have also been shown to be sensitive indicators of small airways obstruction. In this study, we have applied the various spirometric indices as well as time domain indices to a group of granite quarry workers without radiographic evidence of silicosis or physiological evidence of obstruction to the larger airways. The aim was to evaluate small airways function in relation to dust exposure in subjects with normal ratio of the forced expiratory volume in one second to the forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and normal FVC. The volume-time spirograms of 140 quarry workers were digitized using an electronic digitizer connected to a microcomputer where flow and time domain indices were computed. The workers were divided into three exposure groups based on their occupational history. With adjustment for age, height, and smoking status, all the time domain indices showed significant small airways obstruction with increasing dust exposure. Smokers had greater degree of airways obstruction than the non-smokers, with a similar trend of increase in small airways obstruction in relation to higher exposure. Our present study suggests that small airways obstruction is present among silica exposed workers in the absence of radiological evidence of silicosis and large airways obstruction. There was also evidence of increasing small airways obstruction in higher dust exposure group. Our study also suggests that time domain indices are more sensitive to small airways obstruction.

  13. Cohort mortality study of workers exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Steenland, Kyle; Woskie, Susan

    2012-11-15

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is persistent in the human body; the general population has serum levels of approximately 4 ng/mL. It causes tumors of the liver, pancreas, and testicles in rodents. The authors studied the mortality of 5,791 workers exposed to PFOA at a DuPont chemical plant in West Virginia, using a newly developed job exposure matrix based on serum data for 1,308 workers from 1979-2004. The estimated average serum PFOA level was 350 ng/mL. The authors used 2 referent groups: other DuPont workers in the region and the US population. In comparison with other DuPont workers, cause-specific mortality was elevated for mesothelioma (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 2.85, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 6.20), diabetes mellitus (SMR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.35, 2.61), and chronic renal disease (SMR = 3.11, 95% CI: 1.66, 5.32). Significant positive exposure-response trends occurred for both malignant and nonmalignant renal disease (12 and 13 deaths, respectively). PFOA is concentrated in the kidneys of rodents, and there are prior findings of elevated kidney cancer in this cohort. Multiple-cause mortality analyses tended to support the results of underlying-cause analyses. No exposure-response trend was seen for diabetes or heart disease mortality. In conclusion, the authors found evidence of positive exposure-response trends for malignant and nonmalignant renal disease. These results were limited by small numbers and restriction to mortality data, which are of limited relevance for several nonfatal outcomes of a priori interest.

  14. Women workers in the health service industry.

    PubMed

    Brown, C A

    1975-01-01

    The health service industry is unusual in that most of the skilled as well as unskilled workers are women, although the industry is largely controlled by men. Women are hired because they constitute an inexpensive, available, and seemingly powerless work force. Women enter health service because they have few alternatives to the low-paying, dead-end jobs found there. Health service occupations are organized like craft unions, with rigid hierarchical separations and control by the top occupation. Conflicts between men and women-between management and workers-are often played out as conflicts between occupations. Challenges to physicians come from various nursing specialties as well as from technical professions. Physicians in turn create lower-level occupations which challenge the nurses' status. Increasing industrialization alters the pattern of conflict, creating opportunities for individual bureaucratic mobility as well as favorable conditions for unionization drives. Unionism is often held back by sex, race, and professional conflicts, which must be overcome if the status of women is to be changed in the industry.

  15. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in workers occupationally exposed to jet fuel--a combined epidemiological and casuistic study.

    PubMed

    Struwe, G; Knave, B; Mindus, P

    1983-01-01

    Some aircraft personel and airline industry workers are exposed to jet fuel, a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons (petroleum 80%) and some organic solvents (petroleum 80%) and some organic solvents (aromatic hydrocarbons 20%). In order to evaluate the possible neuropsychiatric sequeale of such long-term occupational exposure, we examined 30 workers exposed at about 250 mg/m3 for 4-32 years at a jet motor factory. They were compared with two control groups (2 x 30) of matched non-exposed workers. The medical history was first assessed by standardized interviews and examination of medical records kept by the factory physician. The exposed subjects had, after their employment, much more often sought medical advice because of emotional dysfunctions, such as depression and anxiety, than had the control groups (P less than 0.005). When the prevalent mental symptoms, indicative of brain lesion, later were rated by psychiatrists, the exposed workers scored higher than did the controls (P less than 0.001). 14 subjects showing most symptoms were then selected for a thorough neuropsychiatric clinical investigation comprising psychosocial inquiries, psychological testing, personality assessment and neurological/neurophysiological examination. Seven were judged to suffer from mild organic brain syndrome (i.e. "organic neurasthenia") of which one subject was a severe case. The subjects had all undergone a slow but steady personality change over the years--starting from an ordinary strength without neurotic traits and moving towards an asthenic state with fatigue, anxiety and vegetative hyperreactivity. No other cause for this change could be identified as an alternative to the occupational exposure to jet fuel. It is concluded that personality changes and emotional dysfunctions are the foremost effects of such long-term exposure to petroleum products. PMID:6575584

  16. Lung Cancer and Elemental Carbon Exposure in Trucking Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Davis, Mary E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diesel exhaust has been considered to be a probable lung carcinogen based on studies of occupationally exposed workers. Efforts to define lung cancer risk in these studies have been limited in part by lack of quantitative exposure estimates. Objective: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess lung cancer mortality risk among U.S. trucking industry workers. Elemental carbon (EC) was used as a surrogate of exposure to engine exhaust from diesel vehicles, traffic, and loading dock operations. Methods: Work records were available for 31,135 male workers employed in the unionized U.S. trucking industry in 1985. A statistical model based on a national exposure assessment was used to estimate historical work-related exposures to EC. Lung cancer mortality was ascertained through the year 2000, and associations with cumulative and average EC were estimated using proportional hazards models. Results: Duration of employment was inversely associated with lung cancer risk consistent with a healthy worker survivor effect and a cohort composed of prevalent hires. After adjusting for employment duration, we noted a suggestion of a linear exposure–response relationship. For each 1,000-µg/m3 months of cumulative EC, based on a 5-year exposure lag, the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.07 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.15] with a similar association for a 10-year exposure lag [HR = 1.09 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.20)]. Average exposure was not associated with relative risk. Conclusions: Lung cancer mortality in trucking industry workers increased in association with cumulative exposure to EC after adjusting for negative confounding by employment duration. PMID:22739103

  17. Anthropometry of Korean female industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, J E; Malzahn, D E; Eyada, O K; Kim, C H

    1989-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey conducted on Korean female workers in the garment industry. The data was collected as part of a project to modify work stations that utilized equipment from other countries. A set of 23 body dimensions were taken from a sample of 101 workers (aged 18-28 years). The anthropometric measurements are presented and compared with those of the Western and Japanese female. The results indicate that the body dimensions of the Korean female are different from those of both the Western and the Japanese female. The ratio of sitting height to standing height for the Korean female is closer to that of the Western female than it is the Japanese female.

  18. Hearing Impairment Among Noise-Exposed Workers - United States, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Elizabeth A; Bushnell, P Timothy; Themann, Christa L; Morata, Thais C

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is the third most common chronic physical condition in the United States, and is more prevalent than diabetes or cancer (1). Occupational hearing loss, primarily caused by high noise exposure, is the most common U.S. work-related illness (2). Approximately 22 million U.S. workers are exposed to hazardous occupational noise (3). CDC compared the prevalence of hearing impairment within nine U.S. industry sectors using 1,413,789 noise-exposed worker audiograms from CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Occupational Hearing Loss Surveillance Project (4). CDC estimated the prevalence at six hearing impairment levels, measured in the better ear, and the impact on quality of life expressed as annual disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), as defined by the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study (5). The mining sector had the highest prevalence of workers with any hearing impairment, and with moderate or worse impairment, followed by the construction and manufacturing sectors. Hearing loss prevention, and early detection and intervention to avoid additional hearing loss, are critical to preserve worker quality of life. PMID:27101435

  19. Hearing Impairment Among Noise-Exposed Workers - United States, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Elizabeth A; Bushnell, P Timothy; Themann, Christa L; Morata, Thais C

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is the third most common chronic physical condition in the United States, and is more prevalent than diabetes or cancer (1). Occupational hearing loss, primarily caused by high noise exposure, is the most common U.S. work-related illness (2). Approximately 22 million U.S. workers are exposed to hazardous occupational noise (3). CDC compared the prevalence of hearing impairment within nine U.S. industry sectors using 1,413,789 noise-exposed worker audiograms from CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Occupational Hearing Loss Surveillance Project (4). CDC estimated the prevalence at six hearing impairment levels, measured in the better ear, and the impact on quality of life expressed as annual disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), as defined by the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study (5). The mining sector had the highest prevalence of workers with any hearing impairment, and with moderate or worse impairment, followed by the construction and manufacturing sectors. Hearing loss prevention, and early detection and intervention to avoid additional hearing loss, are critical to preserve worker quality of life.

  20. Morbidity and mortality in talc-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wergeland, E.; Andersen, A.; Baerheim, A. )

    1990-01-01

    Cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality were studied in a male cohort of 94 talc miners and 295 talc millers, exposed to non-asbestiform talc with low quartz content. No excess risk was found compared with national age-specific incidence. Six cases of lung cancer occurred versus 6.49 expected (miners: observed 2, expected 1.27; millers: observed 4, expected 5.22). There were 3 deaths due to non-malignant respiratory disease against 10.9 expected (miners: observed 1, expected 2.5; millers: observed 2, expected 8.4). Mesothelioma, tuberculosis, or pneumoconiosis were not recorded as causes of death. Pneumoconiosis was noted as a contributory cause in three cases (silicosis two, talcosis one). Further follow-up will reduce any potential impact of healthy worker selection.

  1. Impairment of colour vision in workers exposed to organic solvents

    PubMed Central

    Semple, S; Dick, F; Osborne, A; Cherrie, J; Soutar, A; Seaton, A; Haites, N

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate loss of colour vision related to exposure to solvents and the role of three enzyme polymorphisms in modifying the risk in exposed workers.
METHODS—A sample was studied of 68 male dockyard workers and 42 male community controls with and without neuropsychological symptoms from a previous cross sectional study. Indices of cumulative and intensity based exposure to solvents were calculated for all subjects. Alcohol, drug, and smoking histories were obtained. Colour vision was tested by Lanthony D15d colour vision test. Genotype of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 and N-acetyltransferase 2 polymorphisms were determined.
RESULTS—The relation between impairment of colour vision and exposure to solvents was investigated with multiple regression techniques. Increasing annual exposure to solvents was significantly associated with reduced colour vision (p=0.029). Impairment of colour vision was not associated with neuropsychological symptoms as measured by the Q16 solvent symptom questionnaire. No significant association was found between acquired impairment of colour vision and genetic polymorphisms when GSTM1, GSTT1 or NAT2 phenotypes were included in the analyses.
CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to mixed solvents is associated with impairment in colour vision, the risk increases with increasing exposure. The risk of impairment of colour vision was not altered in this study by the presence of different GSTM1, GSTT1 or NAT2 polymorphisms.


Keywords: colour vision; organic solvents; genetic polymorphisms PMID:10935938

  2. Oral conditions among workers in the Danish granite industry.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P E; Henmar, P

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the oral health situation of workers in the Danish granite industry, in particular, to describe the prevalence and severity of dental abrasion. Measurements of the work environment showed that the workers were exposed to abrasive quartz dust. A total of 39 workers (72%) completed a questionnaire on their dental health, work environment, and symptoms from the masticatory system. Only 10% had been treated by school dental services, and only 51% made regular visits to the dentist. Consequently, the clinical examinations revealed a high prevalence of dental caries (mean number of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces 87.2). The workers' periodontal conditions were poor; the mean percentage of teeth with gingivitis, calculus and pockets deeper than 5 mm was 13.4. The prevalence of dental abrasion was 100%; in particular, abrasion was observed on the front teeth. The severity of abrasion and the affection ratio increased by duration of exposure to dust. In conclusion, dental abrasion induced by work-related dust should be considered an occupational disease.

  3. Mortality patterns among workers exposed to acrylamide: 1994 follow up

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, G. M.; Lucas, L. J.; Youk, A. O.; Schall, L. C.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update the mortality experience of a cohort of 8508 workers with potential exposure to acrylamide at three plants in the United States from 1984-94. METHODS: Analyses of standardised mortality ratios (SMR) with national and local rates and relative risk (RR) regression modelling were performed to assess site specific cancer risks by demographic and work history factors, and exposure indicators for acrylamide and muriatic acid. RESULTS: For the 1925-94 study period, excess and deficit overall mortality risks were found for cancer sites of interest: brain and other central nervous system (CNS) (SMR 0.65, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.36 to 1.09), thyroid gland (SMR 2.11, 95% CI 0.44 to 6.17), testis and other male genital organs (SMR 0.28, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.59), and cancer of the respiratory system (SMR 1.10, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.22); however, none was significant or associated with exposure to acrylamide. A previously reported excess mortality risk of cancer of the respiratory system at one plant remained increased among workers with potential exposure to muriatic acid (RR 1.50, 95% CI 0.86 to 2.59), but was only slightly increased among workers exposed or unexposed to acrylamide. In an exploratory exposure-response analysis of rectal, oesophageal, pancreatic, and kidney cancer, we found increased SMRs for some categories of exposure to acrylamide, but little evidence of an exposure-response relation. A significant 2.26-fold risk (95% CI 1.03 to 4.29) was found for pancreatic cancer among workers with cumulative exposure to acrylamide > 0.30 mg/m3.years; however, no consistent exposure-response relations were detected with the exposure measures considered when RR regression models were adjusted for time since first exposure to acrylamide. CONCLUSION: The contribution of 1115 additional deaths and nearly 60,000 person-years over the 11 year follow up period corroborate the original cohort study findings of little evidence for a causal relation between

  4. TP53 mutations in workers exposed to occupational carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2003-03-01

    In some cases, evidence exists that exogenous carcinogenic exposures contribute to the mutation spectrum of the TP53 gene (p53) in human cancers. Although the clearest examples come from dietary and environmental sources, only a restricted number of papers have concentrated specifically on TP53 mutations in tumors from workers exposed to occupational carcinogens. In populations exposed to dietary aflatoxin B1 with liver cancer (AFB1) and ultraviolet (UV)-radiation with skin cancer, a single specific-looking TP53 mutation has been described in some of the tumors. Whether these fingerprints in the TP53 gene can be used to reveal an occupational etiology remains to be shown. In other cases, although differences in the TP53 mutation spectrum exist, they are more diffuse and difficult to interpret at this point. For instance, cigarette smoking seems to induce long-lasting molecular footprints in TP53. However, their use to rule out other occupational exposures as etiological factors in occupational cancers is still very questionable, especially due to the putative synergistic effects of cigarette smoke with other carcinogens. Although interesting implications of possible typical mutation spectra among cancers with other occupational etiologies exist, the data are scanty and await further development of TP53 mutation databases.

  5. Spontaneous abortions among nickel-exposed female refinery workers.

    PubMed

    Vaktskjold, Arild; Talykova, Ljudmila V; Chashchin, Valerij P; Odland, Jon Ø; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-04-01

    A case-control study to investigate whether women employed in nickel-exposed work areas in early pregnancy are at elevated risk of spontaneous abortion (SA). Data about pregnancy outcome and maternal factors were obtained about each delivery and SA from women in selected work places. Each pregnancy record was assigned a categorical nickel (Ni) exposure rating according to the women's occupations at pregnancy onset. The guidelines were the water-soluble Ni subfraction of the inhalable aerosol fraction obtained by personal monitoring for nickel- and copper-refinery workers or/and measured urinary-Ni concentrations. The unadjusted odds ratio for the association between the maternal exposure to Ni and an SA for Ni-exposed women was 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.84), and the adjusted was 1.14 (0.95-1.37). In conclusion, there was no statistical association between maternal occupational exposure to water-soluble Ni in early pregnancy and the risk of self-reported SA. The findings do not exclude the possibility of a weak excess risk, or a risk in the first weeks of pregnancy. PMID:18365800

  6. An update of mortality among chemical workers exposed to benzene.

    PubMed

    Bond, G G; McLaren, E A; Baldwin, C L; Cook, R R

    1986-10-01

    Mortality was updated to the end of 1982 for 594 employees exposed to benzene who had been studied previously and for an additional 362 exposed workers not studied previously. Cause specific mortality comparisons were made using United States white male, age, and calendar year adjusted rates. Total mortality was observed to have been significantly below expectation, and this was particularly evident for deaths from accidental causes. Mortality from skin cancer was significantly raised, although there were no unusual or common characteristics among the affected individuals which would suggest a link with exposure to benzene. A non-significant excess of total deaths from leukaemia was noted based on four observed cases; however, all four were myelogenous leukaemias and this represented a significant excess in that subcategory. These and other deaths of possible interest are reviewed in detail. Analyses by work area, duration of exposure, and cumulative dose index did not show patterns suggestive of a causal association between exposure to benzene and any particular cause of death.

  7. An update of mortality among chemical workers exposed to benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Bond, G G; McLaren, E A; Baldwin, C L; Cook, R R

    1986-01-01

    Mortality was updated to the end of 1982 for 594 employees exposed to benzene who had been studied previously and for an additional 362 exposed workers not studied previously. Cause specific mortality comparisons were made using United States white male, age, and calendar year adjusted rates. Total mortality was observed to have been significantly below expectation, and this was particularly evident for deaths from accidental causes. Mortality from skin cancer was significantly raised, although there were no unusual or common characteristics among the affected individuals which would suggest a link with exposure to benzene. A non-significant excess of total deaths from leukaemia was noted based on four observed cases; however, all four were myelogenous leukaemias and this represented a significant excess in that subcategory. These and other deaths of possible interest are reviewed in detail. Analyses by work area, duration of exposure, and cumulative dose index did not show patterns suggestive of a causal association between exposure to benzene and any particular cause of death. PMID:3465366

  8. Comparison of knee gait kinematics of workers exposed to knee straining posture to those of non-knee straining workers.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Nathaly; Hagemeister, Nicola; Poitras, Stéphane; de Guise, Jacques A

    2013-06-01

    Workers exposed to knee straining postures, such as kneeling and squatting, may present modifications in knee gait kinematics that can make them vulnerable to osteoarthritis. In this study, knee kinematics of workers exposed to occupational knee straining postures (KS workers) were compared to those of non-knee straining (non-KS) workers. Eighteen KS workers and 20 non-KS workers participated in the study. Three-dimensional gait kinematic data were recorded at the knee using an electromagnetic motion tracking system. The following parameters were extracted from flexion/extension, adduction/abduction and internal/external rotation angle data and used for group comparisons: knee angle at initial foot contact, peak angles, minimal angles and angle range during the entire gait cycle. Group comparisons were performed with Student t-tests. In the sagittal plane, KS workers had a greater knee flexion angle at initial foot contact, a lower peak knee flexion angle during the swing phase and a lower angle range than non-KS workers (p<0.05). In the frontal plane, all parameters indicated that KS workers had their knees more adducted than non-KS workers. External/internal rotation range was greater for KS workers. This study provides new knowledge on work related to KS postures and knee kinematics. The results support the concept that KS workers might exhibit knee kinematics that are different from those of non-KS workers.

  9. The noise exposed factory workers: the prevalence of sensori-neural hearing loss and their use of personal hearing protection devices.

    PubMed

    Maisarah, S Z; Said, H

    1993-09-01

    A total of 524 industrial workers were studied. They consisted of 442 noise exposed and 82 non-noise exposed workers. The purpose was to compare the prevalence of sensori-neural hearing loss among the noise exposed and the non-noise exposed workers, to study their knowledge on the hazard of noise to hearing and the workers' attitude towards the hearing protection devices. The prevalence of sensori-neural hearing loss was significantly higher among the noise exposed workers, i.e., 83% versus 31.7% (p < 0.01). However, the prevalence of hearing impairment was much lower for both groups, being 30.1% for the noise exposed and 3.7% for the non-noise exposed group. Although hearing protection devices were provided to 80.5% of the workers, only 5.1% were wearing them regularly. The possibility of developing hearing loss due to exposure to excessive noise was only known by 35.5% of the noise exposed workers. This awareness was found to have a positive correlation with the workers' compliance to the hearing protection devices. Our findings highlight the need for workers to be educated on the hazards of excessive noise exposure to hearing.

  10. [Pulmonary disease due to asbestos in steel industry workers].

    PubMed

    Zurbriggen, Rita; Capone, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos-related diseases are caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers in their variety chrysotile or white asbestos. Although the ban in Argentina dates from 2003, there are numerous industries where work continues with this mineral, including iron and steel industries. It is currently known the high pathogenicity of this material, so that in many countries there are programs to monitoring the exposed workers. Here we describe the general characteristics and pulmonary manifestations in 27 patients who had worked in a very huge steel factory in South America. The diagnosis of asbestos-related diseases was made by a medical-occupational record, history of asbestos exposure, additional studies of lung function and chest images. Then the sources of exposure (occupational, domestic and environmental), exposure time and latency period were analyzed, in those patients in whom a related disease was detected. Smoking history was also taken into account. Twenty-two patients had benigns pathologies (81.4%), sixteen of them with lesions localyzed in pleura, and other six pulmonary asbestosis. The malignant pathologies occurred in five patients (18.5%), in four of them mesothelioma and in other one lung cancer. The problem of asbestos exposure has contemporary relevance. Hence the need for a surveillance program in workers exposed to asbestos in the past or currently, to detect, report, record and investigate the characteristics of these pathologies.

  11. Trends in Worker Hearing Loss by Industry Sector, 1981–2010

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Elizabeth A.; Deddens, James A.; Themann, Christa L.; Bertke, Stephen; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of hearing loss for noise-exposed U.S. workers by industry sector and 5-year time period, covering 30 years. Methods Audiograms for 1.8 million workers from 1981–2010 were examined. Incidence and prevalence were estimated by industry sector and time period. The adjusted risk of incident hearing loss within each time period and industry sector as compared with a reference time period was also estimated. Results The adjusted risk for incident hearing loss decreased over time when all industry sectors were combined. However, the risk remained high for workers in Healthcare and Social Assistance, and the prevalence was consistently high for Mining and Construction workers. Conclusions While progress has been made in reducing the risk of incident hearing loss within most industry sectors, additional efforts are needed within Mining, Construction and Healthcare and Social Assistance. PMID:25690583

  12. [Arterial hypertension among oil-drilling workers exposed to noise].

    PubMed

    Souto Souza, N S; Carvalho, F M; de Cássia Pereira Fernandes, R

    2001-01-01

    A cross-sectional study with a retrospective component was conducted to evaluate occupational noise exposure as a potential risk factor for arterial hypertension among 775 workers from an oil-drilling industry. Hypertension was defined as >/= 140/90mmHg. Occupational noise exposure was measured as: (1) exposure to sound pressure levels >/= 85dbA for 10 years or more and (2) moderate-to-severe noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The effects of age, education, shift work, and obesity were evaluated by stratification and logistic regression analysis. A positive association between occupational noise exposure and hypertension was found, using both the level/duration of noise exposure (RP = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3-2.4) and NIHL (RP = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0) as exposure indicators. Considering the study limits, long-term occupational noise exposure thus appears to be a risk factor for arterial hypertension. PMID:11784909

  13. Nickel and blood counts in workers exposed to urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Maria Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Capozzella, Assunta; Schifano, Maria Pia; Tomei, Francesco; Nieto, Hector Alberto; Marrocco, Mariasilvia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Sancini, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Nickel (Ni) and Ni compounds are widely present in the urban air. The purpose of this study is to estimate exposure of individuals to Ni and the correlation between this exposure and the values of blood counts in outdoor workers. This study focused on a sample of 101 outdoor workers (55 male and 46 female; 65 nonsmokers and 36 smokers), all employed in the municipal police in a large Italian city. The personal levels of exposure to Ni were assessed through (a) environmental monitoring of Ni present in the urban air obtained from individual samples and (b) biological monitoring of urinary and blood Ni. The blood count parameters were obtained from the hemochromocytometric tests. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to assess the association between the blood and urinary Ni and the complete blood count. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the associations between the complete blood count and the independent variables (age, gender, years of work for current tasks, cigarette smoking habit (current and never smoker), values of airborne Ni, and blood and urinary Ni). Multiple linear regression analysis performed on the total group of 101 subjects confirms the association among the red blood cells count, the hematocrit, and the urinary Ni (R(2) = 0.520, p = 0.025 and R(2) = 0.530, p = 0.030). These results should lead to further studies on the effects of Ni in working populations exposed to urban pollutants. The possibility that the associations found in our study may be partially explained by other urban pollutants (such as benzene, toluene, and other heavy metals) not taken into consideration in this study cannot be ruled out.

  14. Pulmonary nodules in workers exposed to urban stressor

    SciTech Connect

    Sancini, A.; Fioravanti, M.; Ciarrocca, M.; Palermo, P.; Fiaschetti, M.; Schifano, M.P.; Tomei, G.; Tomei, F.

    2010-07-15

    By multilayer spiral low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) of the chest this study assesses the early detection of lung lesions on a sample of 100 traffic policemen of a big Italian city professionally exposed to urban pollutants and 100 controls non-occupationally exposed to urban pollutants matched by sex, age, length of service and cigarette smoking habit. Exposure to urban pollutants in traffic policemen was characterized using the annual average concentrations of PM{sub 10}, NO{sub 2} and benzene in the period 1998-2008 measured by fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city. A significant and increasing number of suspicious lung nodules with diameters between 5 and 10 mm was observed: in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) vs. controls (including smokers and non-smokers); in total smokers (including traffic policemen and controls) vs. total non-smokers (traffic policemen and controls); in smoker traffic policemen vs. smoker controls and vs. non-smoker traffic policemen; in non-smoker traffic policemen vs. non-smoker controls. The RR of finding cases with at least one lung nodule with diameters between 5 and 10 mm in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) compared to controls (including smokers and non-smokers) is 1.94 (CI 1.13-3.31); in total smokers vs. non-smokers the RR is 1.96 (CI 1.20-3.19). The comparison between the interaction exposure and smoking shows an increase in smoker traffic policemen than in smoker controls (RR=2.14; CI 1.02-4.52). The RR for smoker traffic policemen was higher than in non-smoker traffic policemen (RR=2.09; CI 1.19-3.66). The results of our study show that: (1) while smoker workers have a higher risk for developing solid suspicious lung nodules, the simple routinely exposure to urban pollutants is unable to produce the same kind of increased risk; (2) the interaction of smoking and exposure to urban pollutants greatly increases the risk for the development of solid

  15. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis: CT assessment in exposed workers and correlation with radiographic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Remy-Jardin, M.; Degreef, J.M.; Beuscart, R.; Voisin, C.; Remy, J. )

    1990-11-01

    To study the signs of coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) at computed tomography (CT), the authors obtained thoracic CT scans in 170 coal-dust-exposed workers who were concomitantly evaluated with conventional posteroanterior and lateral radiography. The profusion and extent of disease was assessed by means of CT in two groups of miners: group 1 (n = 86), miners with worker's compensation and radiographic evidence of CWP, and group 2(n = 84), miners who had applied for compensation without radiographic evidence of CWP. The CT signs of CWP consisted of micronodules, nodules, and progressive massive fibrosis. The comparative analysis demonstrates the superiority of an optimal CT technique over chest radiography in the evaluation of simple silicosis, with improved sensitivity in the detection of small parenchymal opacities. CT provides additional information on the stage of the disease but also clarifies some ambiguities of the ILO classification of small opacities. CT was equivalent to radiography for complicated silicosis, except in the identification of necrosis. CT evaluations are complementary to plain radiography in the assessment of CWP, and the addition of high-resolution CT is useful in achieving a more accurate evaluation of the small parenchymal opacities.

  16. Genetic monitoring of aluminum workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles.

    PubMed

    Heussner, J C; Ward, J B; Legator, M S

    1985-03-01

    A group of 50 workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) in an aluminum reduction plant and a group of 50 non-exposed workers were selected to evaluate the genotoxic effects of CTPV exposure. A battery of tests was performed on 3 different body fluids; urine, blood and semen. Urine samples were evaluated for mutagenic constituents using the Ames/Salmonella assay. Cultured lymphocytes from blood samples were used to perform cytogenetic analysis. Semen samples were used to measure sperm count, percent abnormal sperm morphology and frequency of sperm carrying double fluorescent bodies (2-F). 14 of 28 (50%) exposed workers and 7 of 36 (19.4%) non-exposed workers had mutagenic urine. This difference was significant (p less than 0.01). Among the non-smokers a significantly higher percentage of workers who were exposed had positive urine (36%) compared to the non-exposed workers (5%) (p less than 0.05). Among the exposed group, more mechanics had mutagenic urine than did other types of workers. Overall chromosome aberration rates were similar in both exposed and non-exposed workers. Among exposed workers a significant inverse correlation (p less than 0.05) between age and chromatid aberration rate was observed. Results of semen analysis failed to detect differences between exposed and non-exposed workers. Results of these tests lend support to a battery approach to genetic monitoring and suggest a link between exposure to CTPV and genotoxic effects. Detection of exposure to mutagens at an early time offers an opportunity for disease prevention by the reduction of exposure.

  17. Environmental and biological monitoring of workers exposed to inorganic lead.

    PubMed

    De Medinilla, J; Espigares, M

    1991-01-01

    A total of 20 workers who were exposed to inorganic lead in two local firms (M and N) were studied. Lead concentrations in the air (PbA) at firm M exceeded the threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.150 mg/m3 established by Spanish and EC legislation, while atmospheric lead at firm N exceeded the action level of 0.075 mg/m3. In the same population, biological exposure indices (BEI) were also determined; these included lead in whole blood (PbB), erythrocyte activity of aminolevulinic acid (ALA-D), urinary excretion of aminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). The relationship between the exposure parameters (PbA, PbB) and the biological activity indices (ALA-D, ALA-U, ZPP) were analysed statistically in order to obtain levels of significance, coefficients of correlation and regression equations. The high coefficients of correlation found confirm the usefulness of BEI in evaluating exposure to lead fumes and lead dust.

  18. Mortality of workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls--an update

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.

    1987-11-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study of workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in two plants manufacturing electrical capacitors was reported in 1981. The study was conducted primarily to examine the risk of cancer mortality associated with exposure to PCBs. Based on animal data, liver cancer was the disease of most interest. Due to the small number of deaths and a relatively short observation period, the study was considered inconclusive. This study has been updated by adding 7 yr of observation. The number of deaths in the study cohort has increased from 163 to 295. Mortality from all causes was found to be lower than expected (295 observed vs. 318 expected deaths) as well as mortality from all cancers (62 observed vs. 80 expected deaths). A statistically significant excess in deaths was observed in the disease category that includes cancer of the liver (primary and unspecified), gall bladder, and biliary tract (5 observed vs. 1.9 expected; p less than .05). Most of this excess was observed in women employed in one plant. Due to the small number of deaths and the variability of specific cause of death within this category, it remains difficult to interpret these findings in regard to PCB exposure.

  19. Long-term follow up of workers exposed to solvents.

    PubMed Central

    Edling, C; Ekberg, K; Ahlborg, G; Alexandersson, R; Barregård, L; Ekenvall, L; Nilsson, L; Svensson, B G

    1990-01-01

    Long term occupational exposure to organic solvents may cause adverse effects to the central nervous system. This collaborative study between six Swedish departments of occupational medicine examines the overall prognosis in terms of working capacity, symptoms, and psychometric test performance for individuals occupationally exposed to organic solvents. After re-analyses of the data from an initial clinical investigation of 111 men, the subjects were divided into two subgroups: one group of 65 with symptoms but no impairment on the tests and one group of 46 with toxic encephalopathy (symptoms and test impairment). At least five years after the initial examination the subjects were asked to attend a re-examination that included a structured medical interview and a psychometric investigation. The results indicate that effects on the central nervous system persist even when exposure has ceased. In the group of 46 more men had stopped working and were receiving sickness or early retirement pensions. This group also had reduced activity levels with regard to everyday life, leisure activities, and education or training and more neuropsychiatric symptoms. There was no support for the view that a solvent induced toxic encephalopathy is a progressive disease comparable with presenile dementia such as Alzheimer's disease or Pick's disease. If a worker was removed from exposure when he presented symptoms without signs of impairment in intellectual function recovery was seen in most cases. PMID:2178676

  20. Socioeconomic and health status of electronics workers employed in organized industry.

    PubMed

    Mathur, N; Gupta, B N; Rastogi, S K; Mahendra, P N; Pangtey, B S; Husain, T; Bharti, R S

    1993-02-01

    To study their socioeconomic and health status, 1,770 workers in the organized electronics industry in India were surveyed. Mean age of the workers employed in this industry was 32.5 +/- 6.01 years. The average per capita income/month was Rupees 333, indicating a higher socioeconomic status, compared with the status of the national population, as well as compared with their counterparts in the unorganized sectors. Respiratory symptoms and impairment rates were significantly higher in workers exposed to soldering fumes. The high prevalence of congested or inflamed throat was also related to chemical exposure specially among solderers and workers exposed to metal oxides. The ocular symptoms and signs were also related to chemical exposure. Musculoskeletal disorders were related to erratic ergonomic postures.

  1. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in Workers Exposed to Metalworking Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Christopher M; Burton, Clare M; Hendrick, David J; Pickering, C Anthony C; Robertson, Alastair S; Robertson, Wendy; Burge, P Sherwood

    2014-01-01

    Background This study used data from a large UK outbreak investigation, to develop and validate a new case definition for hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to metalworking fluid exposure (MWF-HP). Methods The clinical data from all workers with suspected MWF-HP were reviewed by an experienced panel of clinicians. A new MWF-HP Score was then developed to match the “gold standard” clinical opinion as closely as possible, using standard diagnostic criteria that were relatively weighted by their positive predictive value. Results The new case definition was reproducible, and agreed with expert panel opinion in 30/37 cases. This level of agreement was greater than with any of the three previously utilized case definitions (agreement in 16–24 cases). Where it was possible to calculate, the MWF-HP Score also performed well when applied to 50 unrelated MWF-HP cases. Conclusions The MWF-HP Score offers a new case definition for use in future outbreaks. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:872–880, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24954921

  2. A survey of occupational health hazards among 7,610 female workers in China's electronics industry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.

  3. Multifactorial aetiology of lung cancer among silica-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Cocco, P

    2001-09-01

    In 1997, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) upgraded its evaluation of crystalline silica to a Group 1 human carcinogen. Criticism against such decision is based on the lack of consistency in experimental results across animal species, violation of an important principle for causality, such as the replication of findings under different circumstances of exposure, and the lack of a clear dose-response curve. The most recent epidemiological literature on the silica-silicosis-lung cancer link replicates the inconsistent findings that have been characterising 50 years of scientific debate in the occupational arena. Exposure circumstances capable of modifying the silica-lung cancer association include chronic bronchitis, composition of the dust mixing, particularly concerning co-occurrence of other known or probable lung carcinogens, total respirable dust, concentration of silica in respirable dust, type of crystalline silica and particle surface characteristics. The hypothesis of a silicosis-mediated pathway points toward an unspecific mechanism shared with other fibrotic conditions, for which silica might be just one of the triggers. In envisaging a multivariate multistep model of lung cancer among silica-exposed workers, silica might be considered as a "passive components of the sufficient cause", i.e., one of the associated risk factors, concurrent or subsequent to the "active component(s) of the sufficient cause" (including, for instance, smoking, asbestos, radon-daughters, arsenic, hexavalent chromium, nickel, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and diesel exhausts among the external risk factors; and DNA repair enzymes polymorphism and spontaneous inactivation of tumour suppressor genes among the internal risk factors), which adds up in modulating the tumoral development in not easily predictable directions. If silica acts as a human lung carcinogen depending on certain occupational exposure circumstances, perhaps those circumstances and

  4. Evaluation of genotoxicity in workers exposed to low levels of formaldehyde in a furniture manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Peteffi, Giovana Piva; da Silva, Luciano Basso; Antunes, Marina Venzon; Wilhelm, Camila; Valandro, Eduarda Trevizani; Glaeser, Jéssica; Kaefer, Djeine; Linden, Rafael

    2016-10-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical widely used in the furniture industry and has been classified as a potential human carcinogen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occupational exposure of workers to FA at a furniture manufacturing facility and the relationship between environmental concentrations of FA, formic acid concentration in urine, and DNA damage. The sample consisted of 46 workers exposed to FA and a control group of 45 individuals with no history of occupational exposure. Environmental concentrations of FA were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Urinary formic acid concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. DNA damage was evaluated by the micronucleus (MN) test performed in exfoliated buccal cells and comet assay with venous blood. The 8-h time-weighted average of FA environmental concentration ranged from 0.03 ppm to 0.09 ppm at the plant, and the control group was exposed to a mean concentration of 0.012 ppm. Workers exposed to higher environmental FA concentrations had urinary formic acid concentrations significantly different from those of controls (31.85 mg L(-1) vs. 19.35 mg L(-), p ≤ 0.01 Mann-Whitney test). Significant differences were found between control and exposed groups for the following parameters: damage frequency and damage index in the comet assay, frequency of binucleated cells in the MN test, and formic acid concentration in urine. The frequency of micronuclei, nuclear buds, and karyorrhexis did not differ between groups. There was a positive correlation between environmental concentrations of FA and damage frequency (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient [r s] = 0.24), damage index (r s = 0.21), binucleated cells (r s = 0.34), and urinary formic acid concentration (r s = 0.63). The results indicate that, although workers in the furniture manufacturing facility were exposed to low environmental levels of FA, this agent contributes to the observed increase in

  5. Method for monitoring the fertility of workers. 2. Validation of the method among workers exposed to dibromochloropropane

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.J.; Symons, M.J.; Balogh, S.A.; Milby, T.H.; Whorton, M.D.

    1981-03-01

    A method has been developed for monitoring industrial workers and others exposed to environmental agents which may impair fertility. National birth probabilities specific for maternal birth cohort, age, parity, and race are used to derive expected fertility. Observed fertility is obtained by questionnaire. Standardized fertility ratios are computed for exposure and non-exposure periods and compared. The analytic techniques have been validated by applying the method to a group of 36 male factory employees working in an agricultural chemical division (ACD) where pesticides including the nematocide dibromochloropropane were formulated. Twelve of these employees in mid-1977 had been discovered to have severely depressed sperm counts related to occupational exposure. The standardized fertility ratio (SFR) computed from data available in mid-1977 for the period at risk from employment in the ACD (SFR = 0.75) was significantly lower than those derived for the entire not-at-risk period (SFR = 1.88) and the portion related to employment in other areas of the factory (SFR = 2.16). Similar differences also were evident from data available several years earlier, demonstrating that the surveillance technique would have been capable of detecting occupationally induced infertility among these workers in advance of the actual discovery date.

  6. Lung function in silica-exposed workers. A relationship to disease severity assessed by CT scan.

    PubMed

    Bégin, R; Ostiguy, G; Cantin, A; Bergeron, D

    1988-09-01

    To investigate the relationship of lung function, airflow limitation, and lung injury in silica-exposed workers, we analyzed the clinical, functional, and radiologic data of 94 long-term workers exposed in the granite industry or in foundries. The subjects were divided into four subsets based on chest roentgenogram and CT scan of the thorax: group 1 consisted of 21 subjects with category 0 chest roentgenogram and category 0 CT scan; group 2, 28 subjects with category E 1 on both chest roentgenogram and CT scan; group 3, 18 subjects with category E 1 on chest roentgenogram but with coalescence or conglomeration or both seen only on CT scan; and group 4, 27 subjects with category E 1 and coalescence or conglomeration or both on roentgenogram and CT scan. The groups did not differ in terms of age, height, cigarette smoking, or years of exposure. Lung volumes were significantly reduced only in group 4 (p less than 0.05). Lung compliance, diffusion capacity, and the rest-exercise P(A-a)O2 gradient were reduced in groups 3 and 4 (p less than 0.05). Expiratory flow rates were significantly reduced in groups 2, 3, and 4, with the lowest values in group 4. The expiratory flow rates in group 3 were significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. These results support the concept that airflow in silica-exposed workers is significantly reduced when the disease is detectable on simple chest roentgenogram; coalescence or conglomeration or both on chest roentgenogram or CT scan is associated with significant loss of lung volumes, gas exchange function, and increased airflow obstruction.

  7. Intracellular free calcium concentration and calcium transport in human erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Quintanar-Escorza, M.A.; Gonzalez-Martinez, M.T.; Navarro, L.; Maldonado, M.; Arevalo, B.; Calderon-Salinas, J.V. . E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx

    2007-04-01

    Erythrocytes are the route of lead distribution to organs and tissues. The effect of lead on calcium homeostasis in human erythrocytes and other excitable cells is not known. In the present work we studied the effect of lead intoxication on the uptake and efflux (measured as (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity) of calcium were studied in erythrocytes obtained from lead-exposed workers. Blood samples were taken from 15 workers exposed to lead (blood lead concentration 74.4 {+-} 21.9 {mu}g/dl) and 15 non-exposed workers (9.9 {+-} 2 {mu}g/dl). In erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers, the intracellular free calcium was 79 {+-} 13 nM, a significantly higher concentration (ANOVA, P < 0.01) than the one detected in control (30 {+-} 9 nM). The enhanced intracellular free calcium was associated with a higher osmotic fragility and with important modifications in erythrocytes shape. The high intracellular free calcium in lead-exposed workers was also related to a 100% increase in calcium incorporation and to 50% reduction of (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity. Lipid peroxidation was 1.7-fold higher in erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers as compared with control. The alteration on calcium equilibrium in erythrocytes is discussed in light of the toxicological effects in lead-exposed workers.

  8. Smoking Behavior in Trucking Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nitin B; Hart, Jaime E; Smith, Thomas J; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine

    2007-01-01

    Background In retrospective occupational studies, the degree of confounding by smoking depends on variation in smoking among job-related exposure groups. We assessed the relationship between job title and smoking behavior as part of a study on occupational exposures and lung cancer. Methods A questionnaire on smoking was mailed to a sample of 11,986 trucking industry. Company records were used to gather other relevant information. Results The response rate was 40.5%. Among white males, the age-adjusted prevalence of ever smoking was highest among longhaul truck drivers (67%) and lowest among clerks (44%). Smoking rates among workers with other job titles were similar. Conclusions Our results will be used to adjust for the differences in smoking among job-related exposure groups when assessing the association between particulate matter exposure and lung cancer mortality. Our study also suggests that an assessment of methods to control for smoking should be considered in the design of retrospective occupational health studies. PMID:17096359

  9. [Croatian and international regulations on the protection and rights of workers exposed to asbestos at work].

    PubMed

    Zavalić, Marija; Macan, Jelena

    2009-11-01

    New regulations on the protection and rights of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos were introduced in Croatia in 2007 and 2008. They have been harmonised with the European Union (EU) and International Labour Organization (ILO) regulations, and make a step forward in safety at work, health protection, social rights, and pension schemes for Croatian workers occupationally exposed to asbestos. The 2007 Croatian regulation on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work defines and describes activities in which workers can be occupationally exposed to asbestos, defines the threshold value of asbestos in the air at work, defines valid methods for measurement of asbestos concentrations in the air, and establishes measures to reduce asbestos exposure at work or protect the exposed workers. Croatian law regulating obligatory health surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos from year 2007 defines activities and competent authorities to implement health surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos and to diagnose occupational diseases related to asbestos. This law also defines "occupational exposure to asbestos", and "occupational asbestos-related diseases", including asbestosis (pulmonary asbestos-related fibrosis), pleural asbestos-related disorders (plaques, pleural thickening, and benign effusion), lung and bronchial cancer, and malignant mesothelioma of serous membranes. These regulations have been harmonised with ILO, Directive 2003/18/EC amending Council Directive 83/477/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work, and with the Commission Recommendation 2003/670/EC concerning the European schedule of occupational diseases. The 2008 Croatian regulation on conditions of health surveillance, diagnostic procedures and criteria for confirmation of occupational asbestos-related diseases "defines the terms and the content of medical examination of workers

  10. Retrospective exposure assessment to airborne asbestos among power industry workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A method of individually assessing former exposure to asbestos fibres is a precondition of risk-differentiated health surveillance. The main aims of our study were to assess former levels of airborne asbestos exposure in the power industry in Germany and to propose a basic strategy for health surveillance and the early detection of asbestos related diseases. Methods Between March 2002 and the end of 2006, we conducted a retrospective questionnaire based survey of occupational tasks and exposures with airborne asbestos fibres in a cohort of 8632 formerly asbestos exposed power industry workers. The data on exposure and occupation were entered into a specially designed computer programme, based on ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos fibre concentrations. The cumulative asbestos exposure was expressed as the product of the eight-hour time weighted average and the total duration of exposure in fibre years (fibres/cubic centimetre-years). Results Data of 7775 (90% of the total) participants working in installations for power generation, power distribution or gas supply could be evaluated. The power generation group (n = 5284) had a mean age of 56 years, were exposed for 20 years and had an average cumulative asbestos exposure of 42 fibre years. The occupational group of "metalworkers" (n = 1600) had the highest mean value of 79 fibre years. The corresponding results for the power distribution group (n = 2491) were a mean age of 45 years, a mean exposure duration of 12 years and an average cumulative asbestos exposure of only 2.5 fibre years. The gas supply workers (n = 512) had a mean age of 54 years and a mean duration of exposure of 15 years. Conclusions While the surveyed cohort as a whole was heavily exposed to asbestos dust, the power distribution group had a mean cumulative exposure of only 6% of that found in the power generation group. Based on the presented data, risk-differentiated disease surveillance focusing on metalworkers and electricians

  11. Hepatitis E, Helicobacter pylori, and gastrointestinal symptoms in workers exposed to waste water

    PubMed Central

    Jeggli, S; Steiner, D; Joller, H; Tschopp, A; Steffen, R; Hotz, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: Workers exposed to sewage may have an increased risk of infection by Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Aims: To assess the prevalence of clinical hepatitis E (HE) and peptic ulcer disease as well as the seroprevalence of antibodies to H pylori and HEV in workers with and without sewage exposure and to look for symptoms due to exposure to endotoxin. Methods: In the first year of a prospective cohort study 349 sewage exposed workers and 429 municipal manual workers (participation: 61%) underwent a complete medical examination. Travelling to endemic areas, socioeconomic level, age, country in which childhood was spent, and number of siblings were considered as the main confounding factors. Results: Peptic ulcer disease and clinical HE did not occur more often in workers exposed to sewage. Prevalence of antibodies to HEV was 3.3% and overall prevalence of IgG antibodies to H pylori was 42% with large differences between subgroups. Logistic regression did not show an increased risk of seropositivity or antibodies to parietal cells in sewage exposed workers, but disentangling the effect of exposure from that of confounders was extremely difficult. No increase of symptoms due to exposure to endotoxin was found in sewage workers, with the exception of diarrhoea. Conclusions: No clear increased risk of infection by H pylori or by HEV in workers exposed to sewage was found in this cross-sectional study, but these results need to be confirmed by follow up. PMID:15208379

  12. Artificial stone dust-induced functional and inflammatory abnormalities in exposed workers monitored quantitatively by biometrics

    PubMed Central

    Ophir, Noa; Shai, Amir Bar; Alkalay, Yifat; Israeli, Shani; Korenstein, Rafi; Kramer, Mordechai R.

    2016-01-01

    The manufacture of kitchen and bath countertops in Israel is based mainly on artificial stone that contains 93% silica as natural quartz, and ∼3500 workers are involved in cutting and processing it. Artificial stone produces high concentrations of silica dust. Exposure to crystalline silica may cause silicosis, an irreversible lung disease. Our aim was to screen exposed workers by quantitative biometric monitoring of functional and inflammatory parameters. 68 exposed artificial stone workers were compared to 48 nonexposed individuals (controls). Exposed workers filled in questionnaires, and all participants underwent pulmonary function tests and induced sputum analyses. Silica was quantitated by a Niton XL3 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Pulmonary function test results of exposed workers were significantly lower and induced sputa showed significantly higher neutrophilic inflammation compared to controls; both processes were slowed down by the use of protective measures in the workplace. Particle size distribution in induced sputum samples of exposed workers was similar to that of artificial stone dust, which contained aluminium, zirconium and titanium in addition to silica. In conclusion, the quantitation of biometric parameters is useful for monitoring workers exposed to artificial stone in order to avoid deterioration over time. PMID:27730180

  13. Psychological test performance in foundry workers exposed to low levels of manganese

    SciTech Connect

    Iregren, A. )

    1990-11-01

    A sample of 30 manganese-exposed foundry workers from two Swedish plants were examined with a partly computerized psychological test battery, comprised of 10 performance tests. Performance of the manganese-exposed workers was compared to that of a matched control group of 60 workers. Matching criteria were age, geographical area, type of work, and the results on a test of verbal comprehension. Performance of the exposed workers was inferior to that of the control group on tests of simple reaction time, digit span, and finger tapping. No correlations were found between performance and the present manganese exposure levels or the number of years employed in manganese work. The results seem to indicate that the present exposure standards for manganese, in Sweden 2.5 mg/m3 and in most other countries 5 mg/m3, are not sufficient to protect workers from negative effects on performance capacity.

  14. Asbestos bodies in the sputum of workers exposed to environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Alderisio, M; Giovagnoli, M R; Cenci, M; Vecchione, A

    1996-01-01

    The diseases related to asbestos exposure (pulmonary fibrosis, broncogenic carcinoma and mesothelioma) are of widespread interest and involve different socio-economic groups of subjects. Since these pathologies have a wide diffusion in the industrial world, we carried out an investigation on two populations occupationally exposed to air pollution and asbestos fibre inhalation (164 traffic policemen of the municipal district of Rome and 218 railwaymen) and on a control group (119 residents in a rural district of Perugia) for the detection of asbestos bodies in the sputum. The results obtained from traffic policemen and railwaymen workers differred significantly from those of the control group. The presence of asbestos bodies in traffic policemen seems to be determined by a strong synergetic effect between gaseous urban pollution, cigarette smoking habits and asbestos dust arising from car brakes and building materials, whereas, in railwaymen it seems to be more directly correlated to exposure.

  15. Radiographic abnormalities and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to silica dust in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, M M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether workers in Ontario who had been exposed to silica dust and who have radiographic abnormalities are at increased risk of lung cancer. DESIGN: Cohort and case-control studies of rates of death from lung cancer and cancer incidence rates; data were obtained from the Ontario Silicosis Surveillance Registry. Follow-up was through linkage to the Ontario mortality and cancer registries. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 523 workers with radiographic abnormalities and 1568 control subjects with normal radiographic findings who had been exposed to silica dust. Matching criteria were year of birth and the requirement that the control subject have a normal radiographic finding either later than or in the same year that the radiographic abnormality was identified in the silicosis subject. OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and odds ratios for lung cancer. RESULTS: In the cohort analysis, with the Ontario population rates as reference, the all-cause SMR was 0.96 among the workers with radiographic abnormalities and 0.51 among the control subjects. The corresponding SIRs for lung cancer were 2.49 and 0.87 (p < 0.001). In the case-control analysis the workers with silicosis were more likely than the control subjects to have been smokers, but this difference likely accounted for only a small part of the difference in the incidence of lung cancer. The relative risk of lung cancer was elevated among the workers with silicosis from the foundry, mining and nonmetallic-minerals industries; however, the number of subjects was too small for a significant difference to be detected. Among the miners exposure to radon daughters did not affect the risk of lung cancer attributable to radiographic abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Radiographic abnormalities suggestive of exposure to silica dust are markers for increased risk of lung cancer. Physicians might thus wish to warn their patients with silica

  16. Cigarette smoking and lead levels in occupationally exposed lead workers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.P.; Spivey, G.H.; Valentine, J.L.; Browdy, B.L.

    1980-07-01

    One hundred eleven workers at a secondary Pb smelter were surveyed to determine smoking and personal hygiene habits. Fifty-three percent of the smokers had blood Pb levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl, compared to 31% of nonsmokers (p = 0.02). Among smokers, 66% of heavy smokers (greater than or equal to 1 pack a day) had blood Pb levels over 60 ..mu..g/dl, compared to 39% of the light smokers (p = O.05). Those who kept their cigarettes on their person had a higher proportion of blood Pb greater than 60 ..mu..g/dl than workers who kept their cigarettes elsewhere (63 vs 36%, respectively; p = 0.08). The difference in blood Pb levels between smokers and nonsmokers may be due in part to direct environmental contamination of cigarettes or impaired lung clearance mechanisms, and could be important in workers with already elevated blood Pb levels.

  17. Further evidence of human silica nephrotoxicity in occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Ng, T P; Lee, H S; Phoon, W H

    1993-10-01

    It has previously been shown that granite workers with heavy exposure to silica had glomerular and proximal tubular dysfunction evidenced by increased urinary excretions of albumin, alpha-1-microglobulin (AMG), and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG). The investigation was replicated in another group of granite workers to further elucidate the exposure effect relation. The urinary excretion of albumin, alpha-1-microglobulin (AMG), beta-2-microglobulin (BMG), and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) was determined in two groups of granite workers with low and high exposure to silica. Low molecular weight proteinuria and enzymuria were significantly correlated with duration of exposure in the high but not the low exposure group. These increases were most pronounced in those with 10 or more years of heavy exposure, and in those with radiological evidence of pulmonary fibrosis, particularly those with rounded small opacities denoting classical silicosis. These results provide further evidence that prolonged and heavy exposure to silica is associated with nephrotoxic effects in granite workers.

  18. Circulating immune/inflammation markers in Chinese workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Wei Jie; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Tang, Xiaojiang; Hu, Wei; Bassig, Bryan A.; Ji, Zhiying; Shiels, Meredith S.; Kemp, Troy J.; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Reiss, Boris; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Blair, Aaron; Kim, Christopher; Guo, Weihong; Wen, Cuiju; Li, Laiyu; Pinto, Ligia A.; Huang, Hanlin; Smith, Martyn T.; Hildesheim, Allan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background. Formaldehyde has been classified as a human myeloid leukemogen. However, the mechanistic basis for this association is still debated. Objectives. We aimed to evaluate whether circulating immune/inflammation markers were altered in workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde. Methods. Using a multiplexed bead-based assay, we measured serum levels of 38 immune/inflammation markers in a cross-sectional study of 43 formaldehyde-exposed and 51 unexposed factory workers in Guangdong, China. Linear regression models adjusting for potential confounders were used to compare marker levels in exposed and unexposed workers. Results. We found significantly lower circulating levels of two markers among exposed factory workers compared with unexposed controls that remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders and multiple comparisons using a false discovery rate of 10%, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (36.2 pg/ml in exposed versus 48.4 pg/ml in controls, P = 0.0008) and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (52.7 pg/ml in exposed versus 75.0 pg/ml in controls, P = 0.0028), suggesting immunosuppression among formaldehyde-exposed workers. Conclusions. Our findings are consistent with recently emerging understanding that immunosuppression might be associated with myeloid diseases. These findings, if replicated in a larger study, may provide insights into the mechanisms by which formaldehyde promotes leukemogenesis. PMID:25908645

  19. Hypertension and hearing impairment in workers of iron and steel industry.

    PubMed

    Narlawar, Uday W; Surjuse, Bhooshan G; Thakre, Sushama S

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to study the (i) prevalence of hypertension and hearing impairment in iron and steel industry workers, (ii) association between hypertension and hearing impairment, (iii) association between hypertension and hearing impairment, with duration of exposure, and (iv) correlation between levels of sound and noise induced health problems viz. hypertension and hearing impairment in a cross sectional study involving Workers working in iron and steel industry at Nagpur. Of a total of 804 workers, 770 workers participated in the study. There were five sections in the factory; Steel melting section (SMS), rolling mill section (RMS), quality control department (QCD), maintenance department (MD) and administration department (AD). Workers working in SMS, RMS, & QCD formed a continuously exposed group (CEG); workers of MD and AD formed intermittently exposed group (IEG). Workers were interviewed, examined and information was collected in a pre-tested pro-forma. Blood pressure was measured, and tuning fork tests were done to assess hearing ability. Prevalence of hypertension among CEG (25.51%) was significantly higher than IEG (14.05%). (X2-14.28, df-1, P<0.001). There was positive association between duration of exposure and prevalence of hypertension. The prevalence of hearing impairment was significantly more in CEG (20.5%) as compared to IEG (8.91%). (X2-11.69, df-1, P<0.001). Occurrence of hearing impairment was also directly proportional to the duration of exposure. The correlation between level of sound exposure and hearing impairment was found to be significant (r=0.98; P<0.05), the correlation between level of sound and hypertension was found to be statistically insignificant (r=0.84; P>0.05). The results of the present study indicate that hypertension and hearing impairment are commoner in workers continuously exposed to high levels of occupational noise.

  20. Exposure to asbestos and lung and pleural cancer mortality among pulp and paper industry workers.

    PubMed

    Carel, Rafael; Boffetta, Paolo; Kauppinen, Timo; Teschke, Kay; Andersen, Aage; Jäppinen, Paavo; Pearce, Neil; Rix, Bo Andreassen; Bergeret, Alain; Coggon, David; Persson, Bodil; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena; Kielkowski, Danuta; Henneberger, Paul; Kishi, Reiko; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Sala, Maria; Colin, Didier; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2002-06-01

    We studied the mortality from lung and pleural cancers in a cohort of 62,937 male workers employed for at least 1 year in the pulp and paper industry in 13 countries during 1945 to 1996. Mill departments were classified according to probability and level of exposure to asbestos on the basis of available dust measurements and mill-specific information on exposure circumstances. Thirty-six percent of workers were classified as ever exposed to asbestos. Standardized mortality ratios of lung cancer were 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.08) among unexposed and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.90 to 1.11) among ever exposed workers. The number of pleural cancer deaths among unexposed workers was 10; that among exposed workers was 14, most of which occurred among maintenance workers. In internal analyses, a trend in mortality from either neoplasm was suggested for estimated cumulative exposure to asbestos, weighted for the individual probability of exposure within the department and for duration of exposure (relative risk for lung cancer for 0.78+ f/cc-years, as compared with < or = 0.01 f/cc-years: 1.44; 95% CI, 0.85 to 2.45; corresponding relative risk for pleural cancer: 2.43; 95% CI, 0.43 to 13.63). Despite a possible nondifferential misclassification of exposure and outcome, this study suggests that the carcinogenic effect of asbestos can be detected among workers employed in industries such as the pulp and paper industry, in which it is not considered to be a major hazard.

  1. Radiographic abnormalities in Vermont granite workers exposed to low levels of granite dust.

    PubMed

    Graham, W G; Ashikaga, T; Hemenway, D; Weaver, S; O'Grady, R V

    1991-12-01

    The issue of whether low levels of granite dust exposure lead to radiographic abnormalities after a lifetime of exposure has not been settled. In 1983, we carried out a radiographic survey of the Vermont granite industry, consisting of quarry and stone shed workers who had been exposed to the low dust levels prevailing in the industry since 1938 to 1940. Films were read by three "B" readers, using the ILO classification system, which requires the identification of both rounded and irregular opacities, as well as combinations of both. X-ray films were taken of 972 workers, out of a total work force of approximately 1,400. Of these films, 28 (3 percent) were interpreted by either two or three of the three readers as showing abnormalities consistent with pneumoconiosis. Only seven films (or 0.7 percent of the entire cohort) showed nodular or rounded opacities of the type typically seen in uncomplicated silicosis. The remainder of the abnormal x-ray films showed irregular opacities, largely in the lower lung zones, which are of uncertain significance, but may be related to heavy cigarette smoking and aging, and possibly dust inhalation. In addition, total gravimetric dust concentrations in the workplace were measured; 417 respirable-size mass samples showed concentrations of 601 micrograms/cu m +/- 368 micrograms/cu m. Using previously published estimates of 10 percent quartz in granite dust, the average quartz concentration was 60 micrograms/cu m. Twelve percent of the samples exceeded 100 micrograms/cu m, the current OSHA standard for quartz. We conclude that control of quartz exposure in the Vermont granite industry to levels which are on average less than the current OSHA standard has essentially eliminated definite radiographic changes of silicosis. The significance of the irregular opacities in the lower lung zones seen on a majority of the 28 x-ray films judged to be abnormal is not clear.

  2. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Final report. Volume 2. Shale workers' pneumoconiosis and skin conditions: epidemiological surveys of surviving ex-shale workers

    SciTech Connect

    Louw, S.J.; Cowie, H.; Seaton, A.

    1985-03-01

    This report (in 3 volumes) describes the now defunct Scottish oil shale industry and its effects on the health of its workers. This volume investigates the prevalence of skin disease and pneumoconiosis in Scottish ex-oil shale workers. A cross sectional epidemiological survey has been carried base on a population enrolled in the 1950 Scottish Oils Ltd Provident Fund. Investigation of the Fund indicated that it would have included almost all industrial workers employed in the oil shale industry between 1950 and its closure in 1962. It is concluded that workers in the Scottish shale oil industry in its latter years were not at excess risk of skin disease, perhaps because of steps taken within the industry to reduce the known hazards of dermatitis and skin cancer. However, pneumoconiosis was a definite hazard of miners and retort workers and its presence was associated with an impairment of lung function suggestive of fibrosis and possibly emphysema as well. It is suggested that prevention of this hazard might sensibly be based on the strategy used in the coalmining industry and, in the absence of further information on dust and fume exposures of shale workers, standards as applied in coalmining should be appropriate. Radiological surveillance of dust-exposed workers, whether in mines or at retorts or tips, is recommended. 39 refs., 10 figs., 48 tabs.

  3. Social aspects of high-risk notification among chromium-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Needleman, C

    1993-01-01

    This study, based on 169 telephone interviews, explores how a sample of chromium-exposed workers responded to notification of their cohort's elevated risk of lung cancer. It is important to recognize that notified workers do not react as isolated individuals. Their responses are social, actively constructed through interaction with others, unfolding over time within a context of relationships and shared symbols that mediate the risk information. This report illustrates some of the ways that socially-based beliefs and interaction with the social environment can influence worker response, and suggests a more sociologically sophisticated concept of notification to fit the realities of workers' lives.

  4. Survey of reproductive hazards among oil, chemical, and atomic workers exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; Harley, B.; Krekel, S.; Marshall, J.; Bondy, J.; Orleans, M.

    1984-01-01

    Several halogenated hydrocarbons are suspected of causing adverse reproductive effects. Because of such concerns, the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union surveyed the reproductive histories of two groups of workers. One group worked at plants engaged in the production or use of halogenated hydrocarbons (exposed) whereas the others had no such opportunity for exposure (nonexposed). Although a low response rate precludes firm conclusions, the 1,280 completed questionnaires provide useful data for generating hypotheses in this developing field of interest. A history of diagnosed cancer was reported more frequently among exposed workers. The infant mortality rate was also significantly elevated among the offspring of exposed workers. No risk gradient was observed for episodes of infertility, fetal loss, congenital defects, or low-birthweight offspring. Concerns with nonresponse, exposure characterization, possible confounding factors, and limited statistical power are addressed. The results provide further suggestions which help to direct studies of occupational reproductive risks.

  5. Acute and long-term airway hyperreactivity in aluminium-salt exposed workers with nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed

    Simonsson, B G; Sjöberg, A; Rolf, C; Haeger-Aronsen, B

    1985-02-01

    Nineteen young male workers exposed occupationally from 1975-1977 to inhaled particles of aluminium fluoride or sulphate at 2 plants, developed nocturnal wheezing and breathlessness with reversible airways obstruction after an average of 4 months employment. At standardized methacholine provocation tests (MPT), 17 of 19 workers with normal spirometry showed airway hyperreactivity with a fall of FEV1 of greater than or equal to 15% after 0.1% methacholine. We followed 15 initially asthmatic workers for 2-5 years with MPT. Mean TD 15% FEV1 in 11 workers did not change significantly after an average of 41 months of non-exposure. Six workers continuously exposed for 48 months also failed to change their TD 15% FEV1 MCh. In 1983, only one subject had returned to normal airway reactivity. We have no reason to suspect inducing agents other than aluminium salts. PMID:3882443

  6. Cancer risk evaluation of brick kiln workers exposed to dust bound PAHs in Punjab province (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Kamal, Atif; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Martellini, Tania; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2014-09-15

    Principal objective of this study was to evaluate the health risks of brick kiln workers to dust bound PAHs exposure in Punjab province (Pakistan). To this aim, surface dust samples were collected from brick kiln units located in Chung Khurd (Lahore city), Gujranwala city and Sohra village (in the vicinity of Gujranwala). The highest ΣPAH levels were measured in the dust samples collected in Sohdra village (mean 2578 ng g(-1) d.w., range 302-6757 ng g(-1) d.w.) followed by Gujranwala city (mean 957, range 16.1-1963 ng g(-1) d.w.) and Chung Khurd (mean 882, range 692-1007 ng g(-1) d.w.). Source identification using diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis identified coal and wood combustion as the major PAHs sources. The cancer risk model (CR-Model 1) and the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk model (ILCR-Model 2) were used to evaluate the cancer risk assessment via ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact pathways. Both models suggested that brick kiln workers (including adults and children) were exposed to high-potential carcinogenic risk via both ingestion and dermal contact pathways during the brick making process. This study also emphasizes the need for pollution control in the brick kiln industry of Pakistan.

  7. Cancer risk evaluation of brick kiln workers exposed to dust bound PAHs in Punjab province (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Kamal, Atif; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Martellini, Tania; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2014-09-15

    Principal objective of this study was to evaluate the health risks of brick kiln workers to dust bound PAHs exposure in Punjab province (Pakistan). To this aim, surface dust samples were collected from brick kiln units located in Chung Khurd (Lahore city), Gujranwala city and Sohra village (in the vicinity of Gujranwala). The highest ΣPAH levels were measured in the dust samples collected in Sohdra village (mean 2578 ng g(-1) d.w., range 302-6757 ng g(-1) d.w.) followed by Gujranwala city (mean 957, range 16.1-1963 ng g(-1) d.w.) and Chung Khurd (mean 882, range 692-1007 ng g(-1) d.w.). Source identification using diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis identified coal and wood combustion as the major PAHs sources. The cancer risk model (CR-Model 1) and the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk model (ILCR-Model 2) were used to evaluate the cancer risk assessment via ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact pathways. Both models suggested that brick kiln workers (including adults and children) were exposed to high-potential carcinogenic risk via both ingestion and dermal contact pathways during the brick making process. This study also emphasizes the need for pollution control in the brick kiln industry of Pakistan. PMID:24973936

  8. Trace metal contamination study on scalp hair of occupationally exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, W.; Jaffar, M. ); Mohammad, D. )

    1994-10-01

    Scalp hair is a metabolic end product that incorporates metals into its structure during the growth process. The levels of trace elements in the hair are considered to be influenced in particular by food, air and occupational exposure, and in general by race, age, sex, metabolism, hygienic condition and geographical location of individuals. Recently, trace metal content of human hair has been explored as a tool for monitoring the impact of environmental pollution on the inhabitants of a community. In this respect, the endogenous and exogenous contents of metals in hair are understood to play important role towards exposure assessment. The exogenous metal content of hair reflects exposure to the occupational, domestic and recreational environments, provided the donor is not suffering from heavy metal poisoning and depressed endogenous levels arising from dietary deficiencies. Keeping this in view, the exogenous and endogenous metal contents of scalp hair of occupationally exposed workers from various workshops were determined in the present study, both in unwashed and washed hair samples to assess the extent of metal contamination. All donors, within the age group of 6-45 years, were full-time workers of various autoworkshops situated in the densely populated and industrialized city of Lahore. ICP atomic emission and atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods were used for determining the levels of five non-essential and three essential elements in the scalp hair. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  9. Chromosome-wide aneuploidy study of cultured circulating myeloid progenitor cells from workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Lan, Qing; Smith, Martyn T; Tang, Xiaojiang; Guo, Weihong; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Hu, Wei; Hubbard, Alan E; Shen, Min; McHale, Cliona M; Qiu, Chuangyi; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Blair, Aaron; Ge, Yichen; Xiong, Jun; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M; Huang, Hanlin; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhang, Luoping

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an economically important industrial chemical to which millions of people worldwide are exposed environmentally and occupationally. Recently, the International Agency for Cancer Research concluded that there is sufficient evidence that FA causes leukemia, particularly myeloid leukemia. To evaluate the biological plausibility of this association, we employed a chromosome-wide aneuploidy study approach, which allows the evaluation of aneuploidy and structural chromosome aberrations (SCAs) of all 24 chromosomes simultaneously, to analyze cultured myeloid progenitor cells from 29 workers exposed to relatively high levels of FA and 23 unexposed controls. We found statistically significant increases in the frequencies of monosomy, trisomy, tetrasomy and SCAs of multiple chromosomes in exposed workers compared with controls, with particularly notable effects for monosomy 1 [P = 6.02E-06, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 2.31], monosomy 5 (P = 9.01E-06; IRR = 2.24), monosomy 7 (P = 1.57E-05; IRR = 2.17), trisomy 5 (P = 1.98E-05; IRR = 3.40) and SCAs of chromosome 5 (P = 0.024; IRR = 4.15). The detection of increased levels of monosomy 7 and SCAs of chromosome 5 is particularly relevant as they are frequently observed in acute myeloid leukemia. Our findings provide further evidence that leukemia-related cytogenetic changes can occur in the circulating myeloid progenitor cells of healthy workers exposed to FA, which may be a potential mechanism underlying FA-induced leukemogenesis.

  10. Chromosome-wide aneuploidy study of cultured circulating myeloid progenitor cells from workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Lan, Qing; Smith, Martyn T; Tang, Xiaojiang; Guo, Weihong; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Hu, Wei; Hubbard, Alan E; Shen, Min; McHale, Cliona M; Qiu, Chuangyi; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Blair, Aaron; Ge, Yichen; Xiong, Jun; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M; Huang, Hanlin; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhang, Luoping

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an economically important industrial chemical to which millions of people worldwide are exposed environmentally and occupationally. Recently, the International Agency for Cancer Research concluded that there is sufficient evidence that FA causes leukemia, particularly myeloid leukemia. To evaluate the biological plausibility of this association, we employed a chromosome-wide aneuploidy study approach, which allows the evaluation of aneuploidy and structural chromosome aberrations (SCAs) of all 24 chromosomes simultaneously, to analyze cultured myeloid progenitor cells from 29 workers exposed to relatively high levels of FA and 23 unexposed controls. We found statistically significant increases in the frequencies of monosomy, trisomy, tetrasomy and SCAs of multiple chromosomes in exposed workers compared with controls, with particularly notable effects for monosomy 1 [P = 6.02E-06, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 2.31], monosomy 5 (P = 9.01E-06; IRR = 2.24), monosomy 7 (P = 1.57E-05; IRR = 2.17), trisomy 5 (P = 1.98E-05; IRR = 3.40) and SCAs of chromosome 5 (P = 0.024; IRR = 4.15). The detection of increased levels of monosomy 7 and SCAs of chromosome 5 is particularly relevant as they are frequently observed in acute myeloid leukemia. Our findings provide further evidence that leukemia-related cytogenetic changes can occur in the circulating myeloid progenitor cells of healthy workers exposed to FA, which may be a potential mechanism underlying FA-induced leukemogenesis. PMID:25391402

  11. Health profile of workers in a ship building and repair industry

    PubMed Central

    Lokhande, Vaishali R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The modern ship building industry, which encompasses the ship yards and marine equipment manufacturing, is an important and strategic industry. The various activities in modern ship building, maintenance, and repair have to be carried out at heights, or in closed confined spaces along with the added risk of exposure to chemicals and metal fumes. These activities expose the workers to various health hazards. Aims: This study was carried out with an aim to assess the health profile of workers in the ship building industry and to assess the occupational health issues related to ship building. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study carried out on 100 randomly selected workers in a ship building yard in Mumbai, and their health profile was studied. Materials and Methods: The workers were enquired for history of co-morbidities, addictions and personal protective equipment use, health-related complaints, and were examined systemically as well as for bedside tests for hearing and detailed systemic examination as per the history or co-morbidity. Results: The important observations were those of prevalence of addictions (69%), irregular use of personal protective equipments (PPEs) among 50% of paint workers, presence of hypertension (20%), overweight (53%), osteoarthritis (10%), hearing loss (25%), and poor self-care. Conclusions: Health education to the workers regarding occupational hazards and lifestyle diseases along with more emphasis on the use of PPEs with regular health examination needs reinforcement. PMID:25568604

  12. Urinary mutagenic activity in workers exposed to diesel exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Kado, N.Y. ); Hammond, S.K.; Woskie, S.R.; Smith, T.J. )

    1992-04-01

    The authors measured postshift urinary mutagenicity on a population of railroad workers with a range of diesel exhaust exposures. Postshift urinary mutagenicity was determined by a sensitive microsuspension procedure using Salmonella strain TA 98 {plus minus} S9. Number of cigarettes smoked on the study day and urinary cotinine were highly correlated with postshift urinary mutagenicity. Diesel exhaust exposure was measured over the work shift by constant-flow personal sampling pumps. The relative ranking of jobs by this adjusted respirable particle concentration (ARP) was correlated with relative contact the job groups have with operating diesel locomotives. After adjustment for cigarette smoking in multiple regressions, there was no independent association of diesel exhaust exposure, as estimated by ARP, with postshift urinary mutagenicity among smokers or nonsmokers. An important finding is the detection of baseline mutagenicity in most of the nonsmoking workers. Despite the use of individual measurements of diesel exhaust exposure, the absence of a significant association in this study may be due to the low levels of diesel exposure, the lack of a specific marker for diesel exhaust exposure, and/or urinary mutagenicity levels from diesel exposure below the limit of sensitivity for the mutagenicity assay.

  13. Increased leukemia-associated gene expression in benzene-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Li, Keqiu; Jing, Yaqing; Yang, Caihong; Liu, Shasha; Zhao, Yuxia; He, Xiaobo; Li, Fei; Han, Jiayi; Li, Guang

    2014-07-04

    Long-term exposure to benzene causes several adverse health effects, including an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia. This study was to identify genetic alternations involved in pathogenesis of leukemia in benzene-exposed workers without clinical symptoms of leukemia. This study included 33 shoe-factory workers exposed to benzene at levels from 1 ppm to 10 ppm. These workers were divided into 3 groups based on the benzene exposure time, 1- < 7, 7- < 12, and 12- < 24 years. 17 individuals without benzene exposure history were recruited as controls. Cytogenetic analysis using Affymetrix Cytogenetics Array found copy-number variations (CNVs) in several chromosomes of benzene-exposed workers. Expression of targeted genes in these altered chromosomes, NOTCH1 and BSG, which play roles in leukemia pathogenesis, was further examined using real-time PCR. The NOTCH1 mRNA level was significantly increased in all 3 groups of workers, and the NOTCH1 mRNA level in the 12- < 24 years group was significantly higher than that in 1- < 7 and 7- < 12 years groups. Compared to the controls, the BSG mRNA level was significantly increased in 7- < 12 and 12- < 24 years groups, but not in the 1- < 7 years group. These results suggest that CNVs and leukemia-related gene expression might play roles in leukemia development in benzene-exposed workers.

  14. [Hematologic changes in workers exposed to radio wave radiation].

    PubMed

    Budinscak, V; Goldoni, J; Sarić, M

    1991-12-01

    Haematological parameters were measured in 43 radar operators employed in air traffic control occupationally exposed to microwave radiation of low intensity over a period of four years. Exposure to heat, soft X-ray radiation and noise were within maximally allowed limits. The haematological changes included a decreased number of erythrocytes, reticulocytes, platelets, segmented granulocytes and monocytes, and an increased number of leucocytes and lymphocytes. The changes were not pathologically significant and most of them were reversible.

  15. Cataracts in retired actinide-exposed radiation workers.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Baruch S

    2005-01-01

    Radiation-induced cataracts are predominantly of the posterior sub-capsular (PSC) type, whereas about 90% of age-related cataracts are of other types. Retired workers, likely to have transuranic body burdens, from three DOE-supported installations were questioned regarding their eye-care history and asked for permission to contact their eye-care providers regarding any cataracts. In 97 cases with lifetime exposure records 20 cases (20.6%) were reported to have PSC cataracts. However, of 24 individuals with recorded lifetime doses of 200-600 mSv, nine (37.5%) had PSC cataracts, compared with 15.1% of 73 cases with doses of less than 200 mSv. This difference is statistically significant at the 5% level.

  16. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis in a foundry worker exposed to isocyanate and a baker exposed to flour

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, Fabio Di; Giampaolo, Luca Di; Verna, Nicola; Gioacchino, Mario Di

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma may occur as a consequence of occupational exposure. The cases of a foundry worker and a baker who developed symptoms, respectively, due to exposure to isocyanate and flour, are reported. Cough was not associated with variable airflow obstruction or with airway hyper‐responsiveness and was responsive to inhaled corticosteroids. The eosinophilia detectable in their sputum was causally related to the occupational exposure in the workplace. The examination of induced sputum should be used in addition to the objective monitoring of lung function for workers who have asthma‐like symptoms in an occupational setting. PMID:16055615

  17. Zinc toxicity among galvanization workers in the iron and steel industry.

    PubMed

    El Safty, Amal; El Mahgoub, Khalid; Helal, Sawsan; Abdel Maksoud, Neveen

    2008-10-01

    Galvanization is the process of coating steel or cast iron pieces with zinc, allowing complete protection against corrosion. The ultimate goal of this work was to assess the effect of occupational exposure to zinc in the galvanization process on different metals in the human body and to detect the association between zinc exposure and its effect on the respiratory system. This study was conducted in 111 subjects in one of the major companies in the iron and steel industry. There were 61 subjects (workers) who were involved in the galvanization process. Fifty adult men were chosen as a matched reference group from other departments of the company. All workers were interviewed using a special questionnaire on occupational history and chest diseases. Ventilatory functions and chest X rays were assessed in all examined workers. Also, complete blood counts were performed, and serum zinc, iron, copper, calcium, and magnesium levels were tested. This study illustrated the relation between zinc exposure in the galvanization process and high zinc levels among exposed workers, which was associated with a high prevalence rate of metal fume fever (MFF) and low blood copper and calcium levels. There was no statistically significant difference between the exposed and control groups with regards to the magnesium level. No long-term effect of metals exposure was detected on ventilatory functions or chest X rays among the exposed workers.

  18. [Risk communication in analysis of occupational health risk for industrial workers].

    PubMed

    Barg, A O; Lebedeva-Nesevrya, N A

    2015-01-01

    The article covers problems of risk communication system function on industrial enterprise. Sociologic study in machinery construction enterprise of Perm area helped to consider main procedures of informing on occupational risk for health of workers exposed to occupational hazards, to describe features and mechanisms of risk communication, to specify its model. The authors proved that main obstacles for efficient system of occupational risks communication are insufficiently thorough legal basis, low corporative social responsibility of the enterprise and low social value of health for workers. This article was prepared with the support of the Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation (Project No. 14-16-59011). PMID:26596113

  19. Changes in psychological performances of solvent-poisoned and solvent-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstroem, K.

    1980-01-01

    The changes in psychological performances associated with long-term exposure to organic solvents and solvent mixtures were studied in a group of 56 male workers diagnosed as having an occupational disease caused by solvents. Their mean duration of exposure was 9.1 +/- SD 8.3 years, and they were exposed mainly to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons and to mixtures of paint solvents. The psychological performances of these solvent-exposed patients were compared with those of 98 styrene-exposed workers and a nonexposed group of 43 construction workers. The applied psychological test variables were factor analyzed, before other statistical analysis, in order to clarify what they measured in the present study. The solvent-exposed group was characterized by a decline in visuomotor performance and decreased freedom from distractibility. The poor visuomotor performances were also related to the long duration of solvent exposure in this group of patients. The index applied for the exposure level revealed no significant relationships to psychological performances among the solvent-exposed patients. The psychological performances of the styrene-exposed group differed only very slightly from those of the nonexposed workers.

  20. Forest Industry Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for forest industry occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders…

  1. DNA damage in leukocytes of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic in copper smelters.

    PubMed

    Palus, Jadwiga; Lewinska, Dobroslawa; Dziubaltowska, Elzbieta; Stepnik, Maciej; Beck, Jens; Rydzynski, Konrad; Nilsson, Robert

    2005-08-01

    Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a known human carcinogen; however, humans continue to be exposed to i-As in drinking water and in certain occupational settings. In this study, we used the Comet assay to evaluate DNA damage in the somatic cells of workers from three Polish copper smelters who were occupationally exposed to i-As. Blood samples were collected from 72 male workers and 83 unexposed male controls and used for the detection of DNA damage, oxidative DNA damage, and DNA damage after a 3-hr incubation in culture. Urine samples were collected to assess the level of exposure. The mean concentration of arsenic metabolites in urine [the sum of arsenite (AsIII), arsenate (AsV), monomethylarsenate (MMA) and dimethylarsenate (DMA)] and the concentrations of DMA (the main metabolite in urine) were higher in workers than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. By contrast, the level of DNA damage, expressed as the median tail moment, was significantly higher in the leukocytes of workers than in the controls. Comet assays conducted with formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG) digestion to detect oxidative DNA damage indicated that oxidative lesions were present in leukocytes from both the exposed and control groups, but the levels of damage were significantly higher among the workers. Incubation of the cells in culture resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of DNA damage, especially among leukocytes from the workers, suggesting that the DNA damage was subject to repair. Our findings indicate that copper smelter workers have increased levels of DNA damage in somatic cells, suggesting a potential health risk for the workers. Although i-As was present in air samples from the smelters and in urine samples from workers, no clear association could be made between i-As exposure and the DNA damage. PMID:15880732

  2. Mortality of workers occupationally exposed to refractory ceramic fibers.

    PubMed

    LeMasters, Grace Kawas; Lockey, James E; Yiin, James H; Hilbert, Timothy J; Levin, Linda S; Rice, Carol H

    2003-04-01

    This study was prompted by refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) inhalation studies at high dose levels in animals that demonstrated positive effects for lung fibrosis, mesothelioma, and lung cancer. Current and former male workers employed between 1952 and 2000 at two RCF manufacturing facilities were followed to investigate a possible excess in mortality. The mortality analytic methods included: (1) standardized mortality ratios comparing this cohort to the general and state populations, and (2) a proportional hazards model that relates risk of death to the lifetime cumulative fiber-months/cc exposure among the RCF cohort, adjusted for age at hire and for race. There was no excess mortality related to all deaths, all cancers, or malignancies or diseases of the respiratory system including mesothelioma, but there was a statistically significant association with cancers of the urinary organs SMR = 344.8 (95% CL of 111.6, 805.4). The quality of the data for job history, exposure, and smoking history were very high. Although the cohort was relatively small and young with an average age of 51, the mean latency period was over 21 years. Because of these limitations, the preliminary findings warrant the continuation of this mortality registry for future analyses.

  3. Tritium concentrations inside the homes of occupationally exposed workers: Dosimetric implications

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, W.J.; Cornett, R.J.; Trivedi, A.; Brown, R.M.

    1996-06-01

    For members of the general public living near a heavy water research reactor, about half of the total tritium dose is due to inhalation and skin absorption of atmospheric HTO. However, chronically exposed workers from the reactor facility could carry HTO in their body fluids and may increase HTO concentrations in air inside their homes. We tested the importance of this HTO transfer pathway and have demonstrated that this pathway is not important to members of the general public. The average HTO concentration in the indoor air of an occupationally exposed atomic radiation worker`s residence was higher (55 Bq m{sup -3}) than the indoor air of normal residences (0.4-0.8 Bq m{sup -3}). The higher concentrations were assumed to be from the exhaled HTO vapor of the exposed worker who had an average concentration of HTO-in-urine of 30 kBq L{sup -1} from chronic intakes of low levels of HTO. Urine samples from family members of the exposed worker were also collected and had HTO concentrations between 0.17 and 0.34 kBq L{sup -1}. These concentrations were higher than for individuals (0.006-0.032 kBq L{sup -1}) living in other residences having equal outdoor and indoor concentrations of HTO-in-air. The range of measured HTO-in-urine concentrations for family members of the exposed worker was in agreement with the prediction of a metabolic model for the estimated daily intakes of tritium (1.3 kBq). The HTO vapor in the indoor air of the exposed worker`s residence contributed about 98% of the daily tritium intakes. The annual average tritium dose to family members (9 {mu}Sv) were well below the recommended public annual dose limit (1 mSv). We conclude that, for a few members of the public living near the research reactor, daily intakes of tritium may be related to HTO exhaled by the exposed worker, as well as to tritium transported by the atmosphere from the reactor site.

  4. Alterations in leukocyte telomere length in workers occupationally exposed to benzene.

    PubMed

    Bassig, Bryan A; Zhang, Luoping; Cawthon, Richard M; Smith, Martyn T; Yin, Songnian; Li, Guilan; Hu, Wei; Shen, Min; Rappaport, Stephen; Barone-Adesi, Francesco; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Lan, Qing

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to benzene, a known leukemogen and probable lymphomagen, has been demonstrated to result in oxidative stress, which has previously been associated with altered telomere length (TL). TL specifically has been associated with several health outcomes in epidemiologic studies, including cancer risk, and has been demonstrated to be altered following exposure to a variety of chemical agents. To evaluate the association between benzene exposure and TL, we measured TL by monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR in 43 workers exposed to high levels of benzene and 43 age and sex-matched unexposed workers in Shanghai, China. Benzene exposure levels were monitored using organic vapor passive dosimetry badges before phlebotomy. The median benzene exposure level in exposed workers was 31 ppm. The mean TL in controls, workers exposed to levels of benzene below the median (≤31 ppm), and above the median (>31 ppm) was 1.26 ± 0.17, 1.25 ± 0.16, and 1.37 ± 0.23, respectively. Mean TL was significantly elevated in workers exposed to >31 ppm of benzene compared with controls (P = 0.03). Our findings provide evidence that high levels of occupational benzene exposure are associated with TL. Environ.

  5. [Special industrial medicine as a basis for workers' health preservation].

    PubMed

    Golovkova, N P; Chebotarev, A G; Leskina, L M; Khelkovskiĭ-Sergeev, N A; Ershov, V P; Kotova, N I; Koroleva, E P; Makeeva, L G; Pasekov, A N

    2013-01-01

    The article covers results and prospects of research in special industrial medicine on improving methodology of complex evaluation of work conditions in major economy branches including medical sphere workers. On the basis of ecologic epidemiologic research, remote effects of occupational and non-industrial hazards in workers and general population were studied, new technologic processes and equipment were assessed, principles for unifying methods to control chemicals in workplace air were defined, regulation methodical documents concordant with WHO, ILO and EC are specified. PMID:23986948

  6. [THE CHOLINESTERASE OF BLOOD SERUM IN WORKERS OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE].

    PubMed

    Radamishina, G G; Bakirov, A B; Gimranova, G G; Valeeva, O V

    2015-08-01

    The biochemical study of activity of serum cholinesterase in workers of industrial enterprise was carried out on the example of petrochemical industry. The indicators of average activity of enzyme and prevalence of indicators going beyond limits of reference values were analyzed depending on manufacturing-labor experience, profession and diseases established in workers. The main diseases, professional and labor experience groups were identified where activity of cholinesterase significantly changes. The impact of labor experience and profession on level of activity ofenzyme in blood serum is demonstrated. PMID:26596043

  7. Evaluation of oxidative stress and genotoxicity in battery manufacturing workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Singh, Zorawar; Chadha, Pooja; Sharma, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Battery manufacturing workers are occupationally exposed to lead (Pb), which is a highly toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to investigate the blood lead levels (BLL) of 30 battery manufacturing workers and find the correlation between BLL, micronucleated cell (MNC) frequency, binucleated cell (BNC) frequency in buccal mucosal cells and malondialdehyde concentrations in serum. 30 subjects of the BMW group, exposed to lead, and 30 control subjects, matched with the exposed subjects with respect to age, socio-economic status, sex, diet, smoking and drinking habits, were monitored for this study. BLL was found to have highly significant difference between both the groups (P < 0.001). The serum MDA levels were observed at significantly higher levels (6.76 ± 3.26) for the exposed group as compared to the control group (2.10 ± 1.02; P < 0.001). Buccal micronucleus test showed that both MNC and BNC frequencies were higher among the workers, in comparison to the control subjects. A positive correlation has been found between BLL and all the parameters. Our results indicate an increased health associated risk for workers occupationally exposed to lead. PMID:23833444

  8. Cytogenetic monitoring of industrial populations potentially exposed to genotoxic chemicals and of control populations.

    PubMed

    de Jong, G; van Sittert, N J; Natarajan, A T

    1988-03-01

    Currently the most applied technique for monitoring biological effects of exposure to genotoxic chemicals in industrial workers is the measurement of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes. In the Shell petrochemical complex in The Netherlands cytogenetic monitoring studies have been carried out from 1976 till 1981 inclusive, in workers potentially exposed to a variety of genotoxic chemicals, i.e. vinyl chloride, ethylene oxide, benzene, epichlorohydrin, epoxy resins. Average exposure levels to these chemicals were well below the occupational exposure limits. Results of these studies indicate that no biologically significant increase in the frequencies of chromosome aberrations in the exposed populations occurred compared with control populations. Our experience with this methodology has shown that the results of chromosome analyses are difficult to interpret, due to the variable and high background levels of chromosome aberrations in control populations and in individuals. It is concluded that the method is not sufficiently sensitive for routine monitoring of cytogenetic effects in workers exposed to the low levels of genotoxic compounds.

  9. Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Workers Exposed to Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Uccello, Mario; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Corriere, Thea; Biondi, Antonio; Basile, Francesco; Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Context Studies on experimental animals have shown liver is a common target of chemical carcinogens; this might suggest that occupational exposure to chemicals is another risk factor for HCC. However, the relationship between occupation and liver cancer has not been extensively studied, with the exception of the known association between vinyl chloride and angiosarcoma of the liver. Evidence Acquisition A MEDLINE and conventional search of the past 50 years of the medical literature was performed to identify relevant articles on incidence and mechanisms of HCC due to occupational exposure to chemicals. Several important edited books and monographs were also identified and reviewed. Results While laboratory data clearly indicate that the liver is an important target of chemical carcinogenesis, epidemiological studies provide very limited evidence on occupational risk factors for HCC. Nevertheless, we found some case reports and epidemiological data showing a moderately increased risk of HCC development in people exposed to vinyl chloride, organic solvents, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and arsenic. Conclusions Occupational exposure to chemicals may be another risk factor for HCC development, but the interpretation of currently available findings is limited by the small number of studies, questionable accuracy of the diagnosis of liver cancer, and potential confounding or modifying factors such as chronic hepatitis virus infection and alcohol consumption. Further relevant investigations are required for clarifying the actual contribution of occupational exposure to chemicals in HCC development. PMID:23162599

  10. Effects on the nervous system in different groups of workers exposed to aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Iregren, A; Sjogren, B; Gustafsson, K; Hagman, M; Nylen, L; Frech, W; Andersson, M; Ljunggren, K; Wennberg, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate possible neurotoxic effects in groups of aluminium pot room and foundry workers, aluminium welders, and a small group of workers exposed to aluminium in the production of flake powder.
METHODS—Exposure to aluminium was evaluated with aluminium concentrations in blood and urine as well as a questionnaire. The groups exposed to aluminium were compared with a group of mild steel welders. Neurotoxic effects were studied with mood and symptom questionnaires and several psychological and neurophysiological tests.
RESULTS—The pot room and foundry workers showed very low aluminium uptake as their aluminium concentrations in blood and urine were close to normal, and no effects on the nervous system were detected. The group of workers exposed to flake powder had high concentrations of aluminium in blood and urine, even higher than those of the aluminium welders. However, aluminium could not be shown to affect the functioning of the nervous system in flake powder producers. Although significant effects could not be shown in the present analysis of the data on welders, the performance of the welders exposed to high concentrations of aluminium was affected according to the analyses in the original paper from this group.
CONCLUSIONS—For the pot room and foundry workers no effects related to the exposure to aluminium could be found. For the group of flake powder producers exposed for a short term no effects on the nervous systems were evident despite high levels of exposure. Due to the high concentrations of aluminium in the biological samples of this group, measures to reduce the exposure to aluminium are recommended, as effects on the central nervous system might develop after protracted exposures. However, this assumption needs to be verified in further studies.


Keywords: aluminium; workers; nervous system PMID:11404450

  11. Comparison of neurobehavioral function in workers exposed to a mixture of organic and inorganic lead and in workers exposed to solvents.

    PubMed

    Bolla, K I; Schwartz, B S; Stewart, W; Rignani, J; Agnew, J; Ford, D P

    1995-02-01

    The neurobehavioral effects of lead (organic and inorganic) and organic solvents were compared in 386 U.S. workers (52 reference, 190 lead, and 144 solvent workers). The association between neurobehavioral test performance and duration of exposure to lead or solvents was also examined and compared. The neurobehavioral test battery consisted of examiner and computer-administered neurobehavioral tests, a test of olfactory function, and questionnaires that assessed neuropsychiatric symptoms. Adjusted mean differences on the neurobehavioral test scores were estimated by comparing the exposed group to the referent group using linear regression and adjusting for premorbid intellectual ability, age, and race. Both lead and solvents were associated with diminished neurobehavioral performance in all neurobehavioral areas tested. Specifically, while lead and solvent exposure had the same magnitude of adverse effects on tests of manual dexterity, lead exposure was associated with greater adverse effects on memory and learning tests but with less adverse effects on executive/motor tests and on a test of olfaction than solvent exposure. An elevated number of neuropsychiatric symptoms was reported by 7% of the referent group, 43% of the lead group, and 15% of the solvent group. For exposure duration of < or = 10 years, more neurobehavioral decrements were found in the solvent group relative to the lead group. However, for exposure duration of > or = 18 years, the lead group showed more decrements than the solvent group. Overall, these data suggest differences in neurobehavioral functioning between the lead (organic and inorganic) and solvent exposed workers examined in this study. PMID:7755013

  12. Mortality in New Zealand workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides and dioxins

    PubMed Central

    't, M; McLean, D; Cheng, S; Boffetta, P; Colin, D; Pearce, N

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate mortality in New Zealand phenoxy herbicide producers and sprayers exposed to dioxins. Methods: Phenoxy herbicide producers (n = 1025) and sprayers (n = 703) were followed up from 1 January 1969 and 1 January 1973 respectively to 31 December 2000. A total of 813 producers and 699 sprayers were classified as exposed to dioxin and phenoxy herbicides. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated using national mortality rates. Results: At the end of follow up, 164 producers and 91 sprayers had died. Cancer mortality was reduced for sprayers (SMR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.14) and increased in exposed production workers (SMR = 1.24, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.67), especially for synthesis workers (SMR = 1.69), formulation and lab workers (SMR = 1.64), and maintenance/waste treatment/cleaning workers (SMR = 1.46). Lymphohaematopoietic cancer mortality was increased in exposed production workers (SMR = 1.65, 95% CI 0.53 to 3.85), especially for multiple myeloma (SMR = 5.51, 95% CI 1.14 to 16.1). Among sprayers, colon cancer (SMR = 1.94, 95% CI 0.84 to 3.83) showed increased mortality. Conclusions: Results showed 24% non-significant excess cancer mortality in phenoxy herbicide producers, with a significant excess for multiple myeloma. Associations were stronger for those exposed to multiple agents including dioxin during production. Overall cancer mortality was not increased for producers and sprayers mainly handling final technical products, although they were likely to have been exposed to TCDD levels far higher than those currently in the general New Zealand population. PMID:15613606

  13. Workers exposed to ethylene oxide: a follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M J; Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Harris, E C

    1989-01-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2876 men and women with potential exposure to ethylene oxide. Subjects were identified from employment records at four companies that have produced or used ethylene oxide since the 1950s and at eight hospitals which have had ethylene oxide sterilising units since the 1960s. The cohort represents a substantial proportion of the British workforce with a history of occupational exposure to ethylene oxide. Industrial hygiene data were not available before 1977, but since then time weighted average exposures have been less than 5 ppm in almost all jobs and less than 1 ppm in many. Past exposures were probably somewhat higher. In contrast to some previous studies, no clear excess of leukaemia (three deaths observed, 2.09 expected) and no increase in stomach cancer (five deaths observed, 5.95 expected) were found. This discrepancy with earlier reports may be due in part to differences in levels of exposure. Total cancer mortality was similar to that expected from national and local death rates. Some specific cancers showed small excesses but their relevance to ethylene oxide exposure is doubtful. Again, contrary to some earlier reports, no excess of cardiovascular disease was found. This study does not exclude the possibility that ethylene oxide is a human carcinogen but suggests that any risk of cancer from currently permitted occupational exposures is small. PMID:2611160

  14. Biomarkers in Czech workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene: a transitional epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Albertini, Richard J; Srám, Radim J; Vacek, Pamela M; Lynch, Jeremiah; Nicklas, Janice A; van Sittert, Nico J; Boogaard, Peter J; Henderson, Rogene F; Swenberg, James A; Tates, Ad D; Ward, Jonathan B; Wright, Michael; Ammenheuser, Marinel M; Binkova, Blanka; Blackwell, Walter; de Zwart, Franz A; Krako, Dean; Krone, Jennifer; Megens, Hendricus; Musilová, Petra; Rajská, Gabriela; Ranasinghe, Asoka; Rosenblatt, Judah I; Rössner, Pavel; Rubes, Jiri; Sullivan, Linda; Upton, Patricia; Zwinderman, Ailko H

    2003-06-01

    A multiinstitutional, transitional epidemiologic study was conducted with a worker population in the Czech Republic to evaluate the utility of a continuum of non-disease biological responses as biomarkers of exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD)* in an industrial setting. The study site included two BD facilities in the Czech Republic. Institutions that collaborated in the study were the University of Vermont (Burlington, Vermont, USA); the Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology (Prague, the Czech Republic); Shell International Chemicals, BV (Amsterdam, The Netherlands); the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA); University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (Galveston, Texas, USA); Leiden University (Leiden, The Netherlands); and the Health and Safety Laboratory (Sheffield, United Kingdom). Male volunteer workers (83) participated in the study: 24 were engaged in BD monomer production, 34 in polymerization activities, and 25 plant administrative workers served as unexposed control subjects. The BD concentrations experienced by each exposed worker were measured by personal monitor on approximately ten separate occasions for 8-hour workshifts over a 60-day exposure assessment period before biological samples were collected. Coexposures to styrene, benzene, and toluene were also measured. The administrative control workers were considered to be a homogeneous, unexposed group for whom a series of 28 random BD measurements were taken during the exposure assessment period. Questionnaires were administered in Czech to all participants. At the end of the exposure assessment period, blood and urine samples were collected at the plant; samples were. fractionated, cryopreserved, and kept frozen in Prague until they were shipped to the appropriate laboratories for specific biomarker analysis. The following biomarkers were analyzed: * polymorphisms in genes involved in BD metabolism (Prague and Burlington); * urinary concentrations of 1-hydroxy

  15. Comparison between required clothing insulation and that actually worn by workers exposed to artificial cold.

    PubMed

    Aptel, M

    1988-12-01

    Required Clothing Insulation (IREQ) is a new thermal index submitted to the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for discussion. It is designed to prevent general body cooling and is based on an analysis of heat exchanges. The thermal clothing insulation actually worn (lcl) is estimated using a new method, also submitted to ISO. IREQ of 54 workers exposed to artificial cold (air temperature between -30 degrees C and +10 degrees C) was compared with lcl actually worn by these workers. The results of the present study show that, on average, the workers choose accurately lcl they need if their IREQ is below and up to 1.5 clo. Moreover, these workers prefer to wear garments which provide them with thermal comfort. If IREQ of workers is higher than 1.5-2 clo (i e, workers exposed to -20 degrees C), it is difficult for them to increase their thermal insulation with additional garments. Although their lcl is not sufficient, there is no risk of gradual body cooling because of their continuous time exposure (CTE) which is shorter than the calculated Duration Limited Exposure (DLE). On the other hand, Wind Chill Index (WCI), which is proposed to prevent local cooling, is better adapted to prevent cold injuries than physiological thermal strain; for example, impairment of manual dexterity cannot be prevented with this index. PMID:15676672

  16. Comparison between required clothing insulation and that actually worn by workers exposed to artificial cold.

    PubMed

    Aptel, M

    1988-12-01

    Required Clothing Insulation (IREQ) is a new thermal index submitted to the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for discussion. It is designed to prevent general body cooling and is based on an analysis of heat exchanges. The thermal clothing insulation actually worn (lcl) is estimated using a new method, also submitted to ISO. IREQ of 54 workers exposed to artificial cold (air temperature between -30 degrees C and +10 degrees C) was compared with lcl actually worn by these workers. The results of the present study show that, on average, the workers choose accurately lcl they need if their IREQ is below and up to 1.5 clo. Moreover, these workers prefer to wear garments which provide them with thermal comfort. If IREQ of workers is higher than 1.5-2 clo (i e, workers exposed to -20 degrees C), it is difficult for them to increase their thermal insulation with additional garments. Although their lcl is not sufficient, there is no risk of gradual body cooling because of their continuous time exposure (CTE) which is shorter than the calculated Duration Limited Exposure (DLE). On the other hand, Wind Chill Index (WCI), which is proposed to prevent local cooling, is better adapted to prevent cold injuries than physiological thermal strain; for example, impairment of manual dexterity cannot be prevented with this index.

  17. Clerical Workers on Flexitime: A Survey of Three Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, J. Carroll

    1985-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of flexitime programs in three industries: banking, insurance, and public utilities. It addresses these questions: To what extent is flexitime in use among clerical workers? What are flexitime's effects on employee and organizational performance? Survey results concern work quality, absenteeism, overtime, job…

  18. Older Workers' Workplace Learning in Manufacturing Industries: Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliore, Maria-Cristina Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to older workers (OWs)' subjective engagement in working and learning in the manufacturing industry. Workplace learning (WPL) literature rarely considers the subjective side of learning from a cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) account. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts a…

  19. Stress and musculoskeletal discomfort among hydrocarbon industry workers in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Avila-Chaurand, R; Prado-León, L R; González-Muñoz, E L

    2012-01-01

    This study of 114 workers in the hydrocarbon industry was conducted to identify the relationship between stress and musculoskeletal discomfort, and to view the roles played by such factors as age, schooling, obesity, workplace and job seniority. All factors except seniority were found to affect the presence of musculoskeletal discomfort in some area of the body.

  20. Exposure assessment for epidemiologic study of nuclear workers potentially exposed to beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Tankersley, W.G.; Cragle, D.L.; Hicks, N.V.; Googin, J.M.; Bean, G.L.

    1992-10-01

    In response to increased concern about possible exposure of Department of Energy workers to beryllium in the past, a pilot study was initiated to determine if an exposed population at Y-12 could be defined and to test the sensitivity of experimental clinical methods for diagnosing beryllium hypersensitivity.

  1. Sensory and cognitive event related potentials in workers chronically exposed to solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Massioui, F.E.; Lille, F.; Lesevre, N.; Hazemann, P.; Garnier, R.; Dally, S. )

    1990-01-01

    To obtain objective measures of possible impairment due to organic solvents, auditory, visual and somatosensory evoked potentials and cognitive event related potentials were recorded in a group of 13 workers occupationally exposed to a mixture of various solvents. The patients were compared to healthy subjects and to chronic alcoholics seen during post-alcohol withdrawal. Auditory and visual evoked potentials were almost normal but somatosensory evoked potentials showed a slight decrease of peripheral conduction velocities and an increase of central conduction times more marked in the solvent exposed workers who were also alcoholics. The late cognitive components reflecting attention processes (N2 and P3) were normal. Solvent-exposed workers and alcoholics were both characterized by some difficulty in modulating their attentional resources according to task demands, as reflected by a tendency to responses (N1, N2 and P3) of similar amplitudes whether the stimulus was or was not the target. These findings support the presence, in solvent exposed workers, of minor dysfunction of the nervous system at both peripheral and cortical levels potentiated by alcohol as well as of mild cognitive impairments concerning attention processes.

  2. [Early recognition of lung cancer in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Preiß, K; Rehbock, B

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that working with asbestos and placing it on the market have been banned in Germany since 1993 according to the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances, asbestos-related diseases of the lungs and pleura are still the leading cause of death in occupational diseases. The maximum industrial usage of asbestos was reached in former West Germany in the late 1970s and in former East Germany the late 1980s. Occupational diseases, mainly mesotheliomas and lung cancer emerging now are thus caused by asbestos exposure which occurred 30-40 years earlier. It is known that the combination of smoking and asbestos exposure results in a superadditive increase in the risk to develop lung cancer. No suitable screening methods for early detection of malignant mesothelioma are currently available and the therapeutic options are still very limited; however, the national lung screening trial (NLST) has shown for the first time that by employing low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in heavy smokers, lung cancer mortality can be significantly reduced. According to current knowledge the resulting survival benefits far outweigh the potential risks involved in the diagnostic work-up of suspicious lesions. These results in association with the recommendations of international medical societies and organizations were pivotal as the German statutory accident insurance (DGUV) decided to provide LDCT as a special occupational medical examination for workers previously exposed to asbestos and with a particularly high risk for developing lung cancer. PMID:27502004

  3. Chromosome damage and aneuploidy detected by interphase multicolour FISH in benzene-exposed shale oil workers.

    PubMed

    Marcon, F; Zijno, A; Crebelli, R; Carere, A; Veidebaum, T; Peltonen, K; Parks, R; Schuler, M; Eastmond, D

    1999-09-30

    A multicolour tandem-labelling fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure was used to detect chromosome alterations in peripheral blood cells of a group of Estonian petrochemistry workers. Twelve workers employed in benzene production and five cokery workers, together with eight unexposed rural controls, were enrolled in the study. The methodology employed, based on the in situ hybridization of adjacent centromeric and pericentromeric regions, allowed the simultaneous detection of both chromosome breakage, involving damage-prone pericentromeric regions, and hyperploidy in interphase cells. Blood smears from all subjects were hybridized with chromosome 1 specific probes, in order to detect genotoxic damage in circulating lymphocytes and granulocytes. Moreover, lymphocyte cultures were established, harvested 48 h following mitogen stimulation and hybridized with the tandem chromosomes 1 and 9 probes. No significant difference in the incidence of breakage was detected in the nucleated cells of blood smears of exposed vs. control subjects. In contrast, modest but significantly increased frequencies of breakage affecting both chromosomes 1 and 9 were observed in the cultured lymphocytes of the benzene-exposed workers compared to the unexposed controls, suggesting an expression of premutagenic lesions during the S-phase in vitro. Across the entire study group, the frequencies of breakage affecting chromosomes 1 and 9 in the stimulated lymphocytes were highly intercorrelated (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found in the incidence of hyperploidy among the study groups, although a tendency to higher values was observed in benzene-exposed workers. Although the relatively small size of the study groups does not allow firm conclusions on the role of occupational exposure, the observed patterns are suggestive of effects in the benzene-exposed workers. This work also shows that tandem labelling FISH can be usefully applied in human biomonitoring, allowing the

  4. Chemical exposures of women workers in the plastics industry with particular reference to breast cancer and reproductive hazards.

    PubMed

    DeMatteo, Robert; Keith, Margaret M; Brophy, James T; Wordsworth, Anne; Watterson, Andrew E; Beck, Matthias; Ford, Anne Rochon; Gilbertson, Michael; Pharityal, Jyoti; Rootham, Magali; Scott, Dayna Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Despite concern about the harmful effects of substances contained in various plastic consumer products, little attention has focused on the more heavily exposed women working in the plastics industry. Through a review of the toxicology, industrial hygiene, and epidemiology literatures in conjunction with qualitative research, this article explores occupational exposures in producing plastics and health risks to workers, particularly women, who make up a large part of the workforce. The review demonstrates that workers are exposed to chemicals that have been identified as mammary carcinogens and endocrine disrupting chemicals, and that the work environment is heavily contaminated with dust and fumes. Consequently, plastics workers have a body burden that far exceeds that found in the general public. The nature of these exposures in the plastics industry places women at disproportionate risk, underlining the importance of gender. Measures for eliminating these exposures and the need for regulatory action are discussed.

  5. Immunological abnormalities in workers exposed to pollutants at an Egyptian copper company.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Laila H; Ghoneim, Hossam M; El-Sayed, Mona H; Deimian, Soheir R; Adam, Abdel Nasser I; Abou Rawash, Salwa N; Abou Rawash, Nayer M; Ursos, Paul

    2003-08-01

    In the present work we studied: (a) biochemical changes; (b) serum immunoglobulins (IGs); and (c) mitogenecity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in workers directly exposed to high concentrations of pollutants in several sectors of a major copper company in Alexandria. These sectors included the aluminum utensils refining of copper semicontinuous aluminum casting, brass foundries, and steel furnaces. Toxicants in these sectors included aluminum, hexachloroethan, silica, cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, abestos, nickels, zinc, silver, carbon iron, and sulfate present in high concentrations in the sectors where workers are directly exposed. Administrative personnel (indirectly exposed) were included as positive controls; negative controls were people living in areas of Alexandria where the concentrations of these toxicants are extremely low. All personnel of the aluminum utensils area showed reduction in serum levels of IgG, IgA, and IgM assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while workers directly exposed in the other sectors showed elevated Igs. Mitogenic activity in cultured PBL assayed by 3H-thymidine uptake was impaired in all plant personnel. However, experimentals showed increases in the interleukins IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor-alpha and-beta (TNF-alpha and beta) assayed by ELISA. Changes were directly related to duration of exposure. Some workers showed autoimmune symptoms such as arthritis and spondylitis. Allergic manifestations were also recorded. Thus, abnormalities were greatest in directly exposed workers, while other plant personnel showed some form of toxicity in the parameters studied. Clinical significance of the immunologic abnormalities seen is under further study.

  6. Estimation of cytogenetic risk among coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Sureshkumar, Shanmugam; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Devi, Subramaniam Mohana; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Karthickkumar, Alagamuthu; Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanian; Sankar, Kathannan; Mustaqahamed, Shafi Ahammed Khan; Dharwadkar, Shanwaz N; Sasikala, Keshavarao; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) result from the incomplete combustion of natural or synthetic organic materials. The working environment at a coke plant can negatively affect the employed workers who were exposed to coke oven emissions containing PAHs, which formed and released into the environment by the process of pyrolysis of coke. This study aims to analyze the relationship between the exposure of PAHs and the risk of genetic damages such as chromosomal alteration (CA), micronucleus (MN), and DNA damage (PCR-RFLP) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 27 coke oven workers and equal number of control subjects. The exposed subjects and controls were divided into two groups based on their age (group I<35 years and group II ≥35 years). The exposed subjects were further classified into two groups based on the exposure period (<12 years and ≥12 years). The frequencies of CA and MN in exposed subjects are relatively high with respect to controls. The XRCC1 399 Arg/gln polymorphism showed a substantial smaller difference in allele frequencies between exposed and control subjects. Based on present data, it was concluded that coke oven workers under risk should be monitored for adverse effects of the any long-term exposure.

  7. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Never-Smoking Male Workers Exposed To Hardwood Dust

    PubMed Central

    Bislimovska, Dragana; Petrovska, Sunchica; Minov, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from many studies suggest that workplace exposure to organic dust may lead to adverse respiratory effects in exposed workers. AIM: In order to assess the respiratory effects of the workplace exposure to hardwood dust we performed a cross-sectional study of never-smoking male workers employed in parquet manufacture and never-smoking male office workers as a control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study including 37 never-smoking male workers employed in parquet manufacture and an equal number of never-smoking male office workers studied as a control. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a questionnaire for respiratory symptoms in the last 12 months and baseline spirometry performed according to the actual recommendations. RESULTS: We found a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms in parquet manufacturers than in office workers with significant difference for cough and phlegm. Majority of the respiratory symptoms in the parquet manufacturers were work-related. The mean values of all spirometric parameters with exception of forced ventilatory capacity (FVC) were significantly lower in the parquet manufacturers as compared to their mean values in the office workers. We found close relationship between both the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the reduction of spirometric parameters in the parquet manufacturers and the duration of the workplace exposure to wood dust. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that workplace exposure to hardwood dust may lead to adverse respiratory effects indicating the need of adequate preventive measures in order to protect the respiratory health of exposed workers. PMID:27275278

  8. [Influence of smoking and industrial air pollutants on respiratory health of nickel industry workers].

    PubMed

    Shilov, V V; Siurin, S A

    2015-01-01

    Studies covered respiratory health of 1530 workers of nickel industry, among which were 796 (52.0%) smokers. Findings are that tobacco smoke combined with nickel industry hazards cause potentized negative effects in respiratory organs, with earlier and more frequent chronic bronchitis. For isolated influence of these factors, chronic bronchitis risk is higher from exposure to tobacco smoke vs. occupational hazards (OR = 2.48; DI 1.49-4.13). Chronic obstructive lung disease development in nickel industry workers is caused by smoking. Industrial air pollutants appeared to have no potentizing effect on COLD formation, as well as on toxic pneumosclerosis formation.

  9. Fixed obstructive lung disease among workers in the flavor-manufacturing industry--California, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    2007-04-27

    Bronchiolitis obliterans, a rare and life-threatening form of fixed obstructive lung disease, is known to be caused by exposure to noxious gases in occupational settings and has been described in workers in the microwave-popcorn industry who were exposed to artificial butter-flavoring chemicals, including diacetyl. In August 2004, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) and Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA) received the first report of a bronchiolitis obliterans diagnosis in a flavor-manufacturing worker in California. In April 2006, a second report was received of a case in a flavor-manufacturing worker from another company. Neither worker was employed in the microwave-popcorn industry; both were workers in the flavor-manufacturing industry, which produces artificial butter flavoring and other flavors such as cherry, almond, praline, jalapeno, and orange. Both workers had handled pure diacetyl, an ingredient in artificial butter and other flavorings, and additional chemicals involved in the manufacturing process. Studies have indicated that exposure to diacetyl causes severe respiratory epithelial injury in animals. Because the manufacture of flavorings involves more than 2,000 chemicals, workers in the general flavor-manufacturing industry are exposed to more chemicals than workers in the microwave-popcorn industry, which primarily uses butter flavorings. Food flavorings are designated "generally recognized as safe" when approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; flavorings are not known to put consumers at risk for lung disease. This report describes the first two cases of bronchiolitis obliterans in flavor-manufacturing workers in California, the findings of the public health investigation, and the actions taken by state and federal agencies to prevent future cases of occupational bronchiolitis obliterans. To identify cases and reduce risk for lung disease from occupational exposure to flavorings, a timely, effective

  10. Questionnaire for low back pain in the garment industry workers.

    PubMed

    Bindra, Supreet; Sinha, A G K; Benjamin, A I

    2013-05-01

    Low back pain affects up to 90% of the world's population at some point in their lives. Until date no questionnaire has been designed for back pain in the garment industry workers. Therefore, the objective of this study is to design a questionnaire to determine the prevalence, risk factors, impact, health care service utilization and back pain features in the garment industry workers and gain preliminary experience of its use. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaire was established. Items showing acceptable internal consistency and moderate to high test re-test reliability were retained in the questionnaire. Items showing unacceptable internal consistency, low test re-test reliability or poor differentiation were reworded, redrafted and re-tested on the workers. It took 20 min to complete one interview schedule. Environmental factors such as the absence of the garment industry owner/supervisor or co-workers at the time of the interview and interview during leisure hours need to be standardized. Thus, final questionnaire is ready for use after necessary amendments and will be used on the larger sample size in the main study.

  11. Questionnaire for low back pain in the garment industry workers

    PubMed Central

    Bindra, Supreet; Sinha, A. G. K.; Benjamin, A. I.

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain affects up to 90% of the world's population at some point in their lives. Until date no questionnaire has been designed for back pain in the garment industry workers. Therefore, the objective of this study is to design a questionnaire to determine the prevalence, risk factors, impact, health care service utilization and back pain features in the garment industry workers and gain preliminary experience of its use. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaire was established. Items showing acceptable internal consistency and moderate to high test re-test reliability were retained in the questionnaire. Items showing unacceptable internal consistency, low test re-test reliability or poor differentiation were reworded, redrafted and re-tested on the workers. It took 20 min to complete one interview schedule. Environmental factors such as the absence of the garment industry owner/supervisor or co-workers at the time of the interview and interview during leisure hours need to be standardized. Thus, final questionnaire is ready for use after necessary amendments and will be used on the larger sample size in the main study. PMID:24421591

  12. Biomonitoring of exposure to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone in workers of the automobile industry.

    PubMed

    Meier, Swetlana; Schindler, Birgit K; Koslitz, Stephan; Koch, Holger M; Weiss, Tobias; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is an important organic solvent for varnishes in industry. NMP has been previously shown to be a developmental toxicant in rodents. This study reports current exposures to NMP in the spraying department of an automobile plant using biological monitoring. Two specific metabolites, 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNMP) and 2-hydroxy-N-methyl-succinimide (2-HMSI), were analyzed in 69 urine samples of 14 workers exposed to NMP and 9 nonexposed controls. Three different working tasks ('loading' and 'cleaning' of the sprayer system and 'wiping/packing' of the sprayed materials) and three sampling times (preshift, postshift, and preshift of the following day) were studied in exposed workers. Median exposures of 5-HNMP and 2-HMSI in postshift urine of exposed workers were 0.91 and 0.52mg g(-1) creatinine, respectively, whereas median levels in controls were below the limit of detection. Decreased levels of 5-HNMP were observed in preshift urine samples on the following day (0.39mg g(-1) creatinine) in exposed workers, while the concentration of 2-HMSI did not change (0.49mg g(-1) creatinine). Highest exposures occurred during sprayer cleaning with a maximum level of 8.31mg g(-1) creatinine of 5-HNMP in postshift urine. In contrast to 'wipers/packers', no decrease in 5-HNMP could be observed in preshift urine samples on day 2 of the 'loaders' and 'cleaners'. Overall, exposure in terms of 5-HNMP postshift and 2-HMSI preshift of the following day were well below the current biological limit values of the European Union (70 and 20mg g(-1) creatinine). Our results provide initial data on NMP exposure in the automobile industry and suggest that the analysis of 5-HNMP in preshift samples also provides essential information, particularly in situations involving direct handling of liquid NMP-containing formulations.

  13. Lung Cancer and Vehicle Exhaust in Trucking Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Rosner, Bernard; Davis, Mary E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Background An elevated risk of lung cancer in truck drivers has been attributed to diesel exhaust exposure. Interpretation of these studies specifically implicating diesel exhaust as a carcinogen has been limited because of limited exposure measurements and lack of work records relating job title to exposure-related job duties. Objectives We established a large retrospective cohort of trucking company workers to assess the association of lung cancer mortality and measures of vehicle exhaust exposure. Methods Work records were obtained for 31,135 male workers employed in the unionized U.S. trucking industry in 1985. We assessed lung cancer mortality through 2000 using the National Death Index, and we used an industrial hygiene review and current exposure measurements to identify jobs associated with current and historical use of diesel-, gas-, and propane-powered vehicles. We indirectly adjusted for cigarette smoking based on an industry survey. Results Adjusting for age and a healthy-worker survivor effect, lung cancer hazard ratios were elevated in workers with jobs associated with regular exposure to vehicle exhaust. Mortality risk increased linearly with years of employment and was similar across job categories despite different current and historical patterns of exhaust-related particulate matter from diesel trucks, city and highway traffic, and loading dock operations. Smoking behavior did not explain variations in lung cancer risk. Conclusions Trucking industry workers who have had regular exposure to vehicle exhaust from diesel and other types of vehicles on highways, city streets, and loading docks have an elevated risk of lung cancer with increasing years of work. PMID:18941573

  14. Quantitative determination of trucking industry workers' exposures to diesel exhaust particles.

    PubMed

    Zaebst, D D; Clapp, D E; Blade, L M; Marlow, D A; Steenland, K; Hornung, R W; Scheutzle, D; Butler, J

    1991-12-01

    As part of a case-control mortality study of trucking industry workers, exposures to diesel aerosol were measured among the four major presumably exposed job groups (road drivers, local drivers, dock workers, and mechanics) in the industry. Eight industrial hygiene surveys were conducted during both warm and cold weather at eight U.S. terminals and truck repair shops. A single-stage personal impactor was used to sample submicrometer-sized diesel particles on quartz fiber filters. Laboratory and field studies demonstrated that the elemental carbon content of the particles is a useful and practical marker of exposure to vehicular diesel exhaust. A thermal-optical analysis technique was used to determine the concentration of elemental carbon in the filter samples. Overall geometric mean exposures to submicrometer-sized elemental carbon ranged from 3.8 micrograms/m3 in road (long distance) drivers (N = 72) to 13.8 micrograms/m3 in dock workers (N = 75). Geometric mean background area concentrations, measured in the same cities where workers were sampled, were 2.5 micrograms/m3 on major highways (N = 21) and 1.1 micrograms/m3 in residential areas (N = 23). A factorial analysis of variance indicated that exposures in two job groups, dock workers (particularly those exposed primarily via diesel forklift trucks, introduced relatively recently) and mechanics (working in poorly ventilated shops during cold weather), were significantly higher than background concentrations and were significantly higher than the exposures in the local and road drivers. The exposures of the truck drivers could not be distinguished from background highway concentrations but were significantly higher than background concentrations in residential areas. PMID:1723577

  15. The effects of α-tocopherol administration in chronically lead exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Nogaj, Ewa; Boroń, Marta; Birkner, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether α-tocopherol supplementation for workers who are chronically exposed to lead would normalize/improve the values of parameters that are associated with the lead-induced oxidative stress. Study population included chronically lead exposed males who were divided into two groups. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not given any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (αT group) received supplementation with α-tocopherol. After treatment, the blood lead and leukocyte malondialdehyde levels decreased significantly in the αT group compared to the baseline levels and reference group. However, the erythrocyte malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, and lipofuscin levels significantly increased compared to the baseline levels. The glutathione level significantly increased compared with the baseline. Effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol on oxidative damage were not satisfactory. Therefore, there is no reason to administer α-tocopherol to workers chronically exposed to lead as a prophylaxis of lead poisoning. PMID:27002494

  16. Smoking imputation and lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E; Smith, Thomas J; Rosner, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Background An association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer mortality in a large retrospective cohort study of US railroad workers has previously been reported. However, specific information regarding cigarette smoking was unavailable. Methods Birth cohort, age, job, and cause of death specific smoking histories from a companion case-control study were used to impute smoking behavior for 39,388 railroad workers who died 1959–1996. Mortality analyses incorporated the effect of smoking on lung cancer risk. Results The smoking adjusted relative risk of lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaust compared to unexposed workers was 1.22 (95% CI=1.12–1.32), and unadjusted for smoking the relative risk was 1.35 (95% CI=1.24–1.46). Conclusions These analyses illustrate the use of imputation in record-based occupational health studies to assess potential confounding due to smoking. In this cohort, small differences in smoking behavior between diesel exposed and unexposed workers did not explain the elevated lung cancer risk. PMID:16767725

  17. Paraoxonase-1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Thakur, Sachin; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Ichhpujani, Rattan Lal; Rai, Arvind

    2011-04-15

    Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a lipoprotein-associated enzyme involved in the detoxification of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) by hydrolyzing the bioactive oxons. Polymorphisms of the PON1 gene are responsible for variation in the expression and catalytic activity of PON1 enzyme. In the present study, we have determined (a) the prevalence of two common PON1 polymorphisms, (b) the activity of PON1 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes, and (c) the influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes variation on DNA damage in workers exposed to OPs. We examined 230 subjects including 115 workers exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The results revealed that PON1 activity toward paraoxon (179.19±39.36 vs. 241.52±42.32nmol/min/ml in controls) and phenylacetate (112.74±17.37 vs. 134.28±25.49μmol/min/ml in controls) was significantly lower in workers than in control subjects (p<0.001). No significant difference was observed in the distribution of genotypes and allelic frequencies of PON1(192)QR (Gln/Arg) and PON1(55)LM (Leu/Met) in workers and control subjects (p>0.05). The PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was found to be significantly higher in the R/R (Arg/Arg) genotypes than Q/R (Gln/Arg) and lowest in Q/Q (Gln/Gln) genotypes in both workers and control subjects (p<0.001). For PON1(55)LM (Leu/Met), PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was observed to be higher in individuals with L/L (Leu/Leu) genotypes and lowest in individuals with M/M (Met/Met) genotypes in both groups (p<0.001). No influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes was seen on the activity of acetylcholinesterase and arylesterase. The DNA damage was observed to be significantly higher in workers than in control subjects (p<0.05). Further, the individuals who showed least paraoxonase activity i.e., those with (Q/Q [Gln/Gln] and M/M [Met/Met]) genotypes showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to other isoforms in workers exposed to OPs (p<0.05). The results indicate that the

  18. Paraoxonase-1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Thakur, Sachin; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Ichhpujani, Rattan Lal; Rai, Arvind

    2011-04-15

    Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a lipoprotein-associated enzyme involved in the detoxification of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) by hydrolyzing the bioactive oxons. Polymorphisms of the PON1 gene are responsible for variation in the expression and catalytic activity of PON1 enzyme. In the present study, we have determined (a) the prevalence of two common PON1 polymorphisms, (b) the activity of PON1 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes, and (c) the influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes variation on DNA damage in workers exposed to OPs. We examined 230 subjects including 115 workers exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The results revealed that PON1 activity toward paraoxon (179.19 {+-} 39.36 vs. 241.52 {+-} 42.32 nmol/min/ml in controls) and phenylacetate (112.74 {+-} 17.37 vs. 134.28 {+-} 25.49 {mu}mol/min/ml in controls) was significantly lower in workers than in control subjects (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the distribution of genotypes and allelic frequencies of PON1{sub 192}QR (Gln/Arg) and PON1{sub 55}LM (Leu/Met) in workers and control subjects (p > 0.05). The PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was found to be significantly higher in the R/R (Arg/Arg) genotypes than Q/R (Gln/Arg) and lowest in Q/Q (Gln/Gln) genotypes in both workers and control subjects (p < 0.001). For PON1{sub 55}LM (Leu/Met), PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was observed to be higher in individuals with L/L (Leu/Leu) genotypes and lowest in individuals with M/M (Met/Met) genotypes in both groups (p < 0.001). No influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes was seen on the activity of acetylcholinesterase and arylesterase. The DNA damage was observed to be significantly higher in workers than in control subjects (p < 0.05). Further, the individuals who showed least paraoxonase activity i.e., those with (Q/Q [Gln/Gln] and M/M [Met/Met]) genotypes showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to other isoforms in workers exposed to OPs (p < 0

  19. Environmental noise-exposed workers: event-related potentials, neuropsychological and mood assessment.

    PubMed

    Chiovenda, Paola; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Zappasodi, Filippo; Ercolani, Matilde; Milazzo, Daniele; Tomei, Gianfranco; Capozzella, Assuntina; Tomei, Francesco; Rossini, Paolo M; Tecchio, Franca

    2007-09-01

    Prolonged environmental noise exposure can induce pathogenic effects on various physical and psychosocial responses. The first aim of this study was to investigate whether long-term occupational noise exposure could affect neurophysiological, neuropsychological and emotional statuses, with particular respect to attention and working memory. The second aim was to evaluate the effects on the tactile P300 of a specific stressor (background traffic noise) vs a non-specific stress inductor (Stroop test). The comparison between a group of noise-exposed workers (traffic police officers), and a control group (office employees) did not show marked differences in cognitive and emotional profiles. The amplitude of the baseline cognitive potential (P300), recorded during a tactile (electric) discrimination task, resulted higher in noise-exposed workers than in controls, and this enhancement was associated with a lower level of trait anxiety and better mood profiles. Moreover, we found a wider P300 amplitude reduction in traffic police officers than in controls, under noisy conditions due to traffic. The effect of the Stroop test as a stress inductor was negligible and similar in the two groups. The wider amplitude of the non-auditory P300 in traffic police officers in the baseline condition could be a sign of cross-modal cerebral plasticity enhancing attentive processes in the 'stress-free' sensory channel. In addition, noise-exposed workers presented a higher cerebral sensitivity to stress selectively when they were exposed to the habitual environmental stressor.

  20. Effects of formaldehyde on lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in the peripheral blood of exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaowei; Jia, Qiang; Zhang, Zhihu; Gao, Weimin; Zhang, Xianan; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Feng, Bin; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Dai, Yufei; Jia, Zhongwei; Zheng, Yuxin

    2014-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a well-known irritant, and it is suggested to increase the risk of immune diseases and cancer. The present study aimed to evaluate the distribution of major lymphocyte subsets and cytokine expression profiles in the peripheral blood of FA-exposed workers. A total of 118 FA-exposed workers and 79 controls were enrolled in the study. High performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and cytometric bead array were used to analyze FA in air sample and formic acid in urine, blood lymphocyte subpopulations, and serum cytokines, respectively. The FA-exposed workers were divided into low and high exposure groups according to their exposure levels. The results showed that both the low and high FA-exposed groups had a significant increase of formic acid in urine when compared to the controls. Both the low and high exposure groups had a significant increase in the percentage of B cells (CD19+) compared to the control group (p<0.01). A significant increase in the percentage of the natural killer (NK) cells (CD56+) was observed in the low exposure group compared to the control (p = 0.013). Moreover, the FA-exposed workers in both exposure groups showed a significant higher level of IL-10 but lower level of IL-8 than the control (p<0.01). Subjects in the high exposure group had a higher level of IL-4 but a lower level of IFN-γ than the control (p<0.05). Finally, there is a significant correlation between the levels of IL-10, IL-4, and IL-8 and formic acid (p<0.05). The findings from the present study may explain, at least in part, the association between FA exposure and immune diseases and cancer.

  1. Increase of olfactory threshold in plating factory workers exposed to chromium in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Fumihiko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Araki, Shunichi; Nishikitani, Mariko; Choi, Jae-Wook; Yum, Youg-Tae; Park, Hee-Chan; Park, Sang-Hwoi; Sato, Hajime

    2003-07-01

    To disclose the effects of chromium (Cr) on olfactory function, olfactory threshold tests were conducted on 27 male plating workers (Cr workers) with signs and symptoms of olfactory irritation but without nasal septum perforation or ulcer and on 34 male control subjects in Korean plating factories. The Cr workers had been exposed to Cr fume for 0.9 to 18.2 (mean 7.9) years; their blood Cr concentrations (0.16-3.69, mean 1.29 microg/dl) were significantly higher than those of the 34 control subjects (0.04-1.95, mean 0.55 microg/dl). Scores on recognition thresholds among the Cr workers were significantly higher than those of the control subjects (p < 0.05) and related positively and significantly to the exposure periods of the 27 Cr workers (p < 0.05). Olfactory thresholds were not significantly different between the Cr workers with and without nasal signs or symptoms, except that the scores on the recognition threshold were significantly higher in those experiencing difficulty with smell (p < 0.05). It is suggested that olfactory threshold is affected by Cr without development of nasal septum perforation or ulceration. PMID:12916760

  2. Foundations for Excellence in the Chemical Process Industries. Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstader, Robert; Chapman, Kenneth

    This document discusses the Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers Project and issues of relevance to the education and employment of chemical laboratory technicians (CLTs) and process technicians (PTs). Section 1 consists of the following background information: overview of the chemical process industries,…

  3. MENTAL MORBIDITY IN INDUSTRIAL WORKERS OF KHETRI COPPER COMPLEX1

    PubMed Central

    Satija, D.C.; Patni, S.K.; Nathawat, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY There is dearth of researches pertaining to prevalence of mental morbidity in Industrial setups, particularly in our country. They are important as psychological ill health of workers may adversely effect the productivity in developing country like India. Khetri Copper Complex in Rajasthan was selected for present study. Aims were to determine the period prevalence of mental morbidity among workers and role of sociodemographic, psychological variables in such disorders. 330 workers were randomly selected from various departments. Each worker was given specially designed proforma and Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire. Workers scoring 12 or more were given “A standardised psychiatric interview schedule” suspected cases were examined by senior consultants to assign them diagnostic categories (I.C.D.-9). Period Prevalence in this study was 186.66/1000. As regards diagnostic categories, 75% were neurotic and 12.5% psychotics. Role of socio demographic, psychological and psychiatric variables in the development of these disorders has been discussed. Findings of this study are in expected direction and results obtained can be easily explained in terms of formulations given by other researchers in this field. Recommendation and plans for further research are discussed. PMID:21965974

  4. URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

  5. Chest pain in rubber chemical workers exposed to carbon disulphide and methaemoglobin formers.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, L C; Weber, R P

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional prevalence study of chest pain in 94 rubber chemical workers exposed to carbon disulphide (CS2) and methaemoglobin forming aromatic amines was carried out. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the prevalence of chest pain or coronary heart disease (CHD), or both, in exposed individuals exceeded that of a group of non-exposed individuals from the same plant. Cardiovascular, smoking, and occupational histories were obtained. Blood pressure, height, weight, serum cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose were measured. Resting electrocardiograms (ECGs) were obtained on all study participants, as were exercise stress tests on selected exposed individuals. Matching eliminated important known risk factors for coronary artery disease. Both chest pain and angina were significantly related to exposure, controlling for age and cigarette smoking. This association was not dependent on duration of exposure as defined by 10 or more years of employment in the department of interest. CHD as defined by angina, a history of myocardial infarction, or a coronary ECG or a combination of these occurred more frequently among exposed workers. The number of abnormal ECGs in the exposed group was twice that in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Age rather than exposure appeared to be the important variable associated with raised blood pressure. Neither biological measures of exposure nor ECGs showed an acute effect of workplace exposures on the myocardium. Possible additive or multiplicative effects of individual chemical agents could not be evaluated. Appropriate modification of medical surveillance of rubber chemical workers with exposure to CS2 and aromatic amines is warranted. PMID:6611171

  6. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in a tyre industry worker.

    PubMed

    Karkhanis, Vinaya S; Joshi, J M

    2012-07-01

    We report a case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) with severe pulmonary hypertension in a 46-year-old man, nonsmoker, tyre industry worker. CPFE is commonly reported to be associated with tobacco smoking. This case highlights the possible role of environmental dust exposure (talc) in the pathogenesis of the disease and confirms the clinical characteristics of CPFE described in previous studies. PMID:22919169

  7. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in a tyre industry worker

    PubMed Central

    Karkhanis, Vinaya S.; Joshi, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) with severe pulmonary hypertension in a 46-year-old man, nonsmoker, tyre industry worker. CPFE is commonly reported to be associated with tobacco smoking. This case highlights the possible role of environmental dust exposure (talc) in the pathogenesis of the disease and confirms the clinical characteristics of CPFE described in previous studies. PMID:22919169

  8. Incidence of chloracne among chemical workers potentially exposed to chlorinated dioxins.

    PubMed

    Bond, G G; McLaren, E A; Brenner, F E; Cook, R R

    1989-09-01

    Company medical charts were reviewed for 2192 chemical workers who were potentially exposed to chlorinated dioxins during 1940 to 1982 to determine whether they were ever diagnosed as having chloracne. Nearly 16% of the 2072 workers with medical records were found to have been so affected. The incidence of chloracne was noted to have been highest among the youngest workers, and among those who worked in the production of chlorinated phenols rather than with products derived from those materials. Chloracne incidence was found to increase with several measures of intensity and cumulative dose of tetra- and hexa- to octachlorinated dioxins, but these analyses were hampered somewhat by the limitations of both the exposure and medical outcome data.

  9. Mortality of workers exposed to methylene chloride employed at a plant producing cellulose triacetate film base.

    PubMed Central

    Tomenson, J A; Bonner, S M; Heijne, C G; Farrar, D G; Cummings, T F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study mortality among 1785 employees of a factory that produced cellulose triacetate film base at Brantham in the United Kingdom. Also, to investigate patterns of mortality after exposure to methylene chloride; in particular, mortality from liver and biliary tract cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and cardiovascular disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All male employees with a record of employment at the film factory in 1946-88. A total of 1473 subjects worked in jobs that entailed exposure to methylene chloride. The mean duration of exposure was nine years at 19 ppm (eight hour time weighted average). RESULTS: In the cohort, 334 deaths were identified up to 31 December 1994. Mortalities for the cohort were compared with national and local rates and expressed as standardised mortality ratios (SMR). In the subcohort of workers exposed to methylene chloride, substantially reduced mortalities compared with national and local rates were found for all causes, all cancers, and the principal cancer sites of interest. The significantly reduced lung cancer mortalities in exposed workers (SMR 48) seemed to reflect the restrictions on smoking at the workplace. In contrast, mortality from ischaemic heart disease in exposed workers, although lower than national rates (SMR 92), was slightly increased compared with local rates. However, mortality from ischaemic heart disease was lower in active employees (SMR 83) where a direct effect of exposure to methylene chloride should be concentrated. No in service mortality due to ischaemic heart disease was found in workers with the highest cumulative exposure (> or = 800 ppm-years). CONCLUSIONS: The study provided no indication that employment at the plant, or exposure to methylene chloride, had adversely affected the mortalities of workers. PMID:9282122

  10. Silicosis in Workers Exposed to Artificial Quartz Conglomerates: Does It Differ From Chronic Simple Silicosis?

    PubMed

    Paolucci, Valentina; Romeo, Riccardo; Sisinni, Antonietta Gerardina; Bartoli, Dusca; Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Sartorelli, Pietro

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a number of reports have been published on silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates containing high levels of crystalline silica particles (70-90%) used in the construction of kitchen and bathroom surfaces. Three cases of silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates are reported. The diagnosis was derived from both the International Labour Office and the International Classification of HRCT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) classifications and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In 2 cases, levels of respirable silica greatly in excess of recommended standards were measured in the workplace, and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid highlighted a prevalence of lymphocytes, meeting criteria for the diagnosis of accelerated silicosis. The prevention of pneumoconiosis caused by the use of innovative materials, such as artificial conglomerates with high crystalline silica content must be addressed. PMID:26410340

  11. Evaluation of DNA damage using 3 comet assay parameters in workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Kayaaltı, Zelıha; Yavuz, İlknur; Söylemez, Esma; Bacaksız, Ayşegül; Tutkun, Engın; Sayal, Ahmet; Söylemezoğlu, Tülın

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between DNA damage and blood lead levels in individuals occupationally exposed to lead. To evaluate this association, 61 workers exposed to lead were monitored in terms of DNA damage in blood lymphocytes. The levels of DNA damage were measured according to 3 comet assay parameters, including tail intensity (TI), tail moment (TM), and DNA tail (DNAt). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the lead levels and TI, TM, and DNAt (p < .01). Smoking had independent effects on DNA damage. A statistically significant difference was observed between smokers and nonsmokers in regards to DNA damage parameters (p < .05). In addition, the lead and DNA damage levels in smokers were found to be significantly higher than the levels observed in nonsmoking workers (p < . 05). Our results show that exposure to lead induces genotoxic effects in peripheral lymphocytes, as measured by comet assays.

  12. An expanded cohort study of cancer among benzene-exposed workers in China

    SciTech Connect

    Song-Nian Yin; Gui-Lan Li; Zhi-Nan Zhang

    1996-12-01

    An expanded cohort study of 74,828 benzene-exposed and 35,805 unexposed workers were followed during 1972 to 1987, based on a previous study in 12 cities in China. A small increase was observed in total cancer mortality among benzene-exposed compared with unexposed Workers (relative risk [RR] = 1-2). Statistically significant excesses were noted for leukemia (RR = 2.3), malignant lymphoma (RR = 4.5), and lung cancer (RR = 1.4). When risks were evaluated by leukemia subtype, only acute myelogenous leukemia was significantly elevated (RR = 3.1), although nonsignificant excesses were also noted for chronic myelogenous leukemia (RR = 2.6) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (RR = 2.3). A significant excess was also found for aplastic anemia. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. Silicosis in Workers Exposed to Artificial Quartz Conglomerates: Does It Differ From Chronic Simple Silicosis?

    PubMed

    Paolucci, Valentina; Romeo, Riccardo; Sisinni, Antonietta Gerardina; Bartoli, Dusca; Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Sartorelli, Pietro

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a number of reports have been published on silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates containing high levels of crystalline silica particles (70-90%) used in the construction of kitchen and bathroom surfaces. Three cases of silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates are reported. The diagnosis was derived from both the International Labour Office and the International Classification of HRCT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) classifications and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In 2 cases, levels of respirable silica greatly in excess of recommended standards were measured in the workplace, and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid highlighted a prevalence of lymphocytes, meeting criteria for the diagnosis of accelerated silicosis. The prevention of pneumoconiosis caused by the use of innovative materials, such as artificial conglomerates with high crystalline silica content must be addressed.

  14. Urinary β2 microglobulin in workers exposed to arc welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Aminian, Omid; Eftekhari, Saeid; Mazaheri, Maria; Sharifian, Seyed Akbar; Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro

    2011-01-01

    Welding is a process in which two or more metals are attached by the use of heat and, in some cases, pressure. Direct exposure and inhalation of welding fumes causes acute and chronic side effects in humans. Kidney damage is one of these important side effects. β(2) microglobulin is an 11.8 kilodalton protein and levels increase in the case of some inflammatory and viral diseases, or kidney malfunction and autoimmune diseases. In this study measurements of β(2) microglobulin were used as a criterion for assessing effects on the kidneys of workers exposed to welding fumes. The study population were electric arc welders in an industrial plant in Tehran, Iran. For control we selected workers who did not have any exposure to welding fumes. Both groups were selected on the basis of a questionnaire and the consideration of criteria for inclusion and exclusion. In the end 50 cases and 50 controls were chosen. A urine sample was collected from all participants and urinary pH was set to between 6-8 using NaOH (1M). Sample transportation to the laboratory complied with the related standards. The samples were assessed using the ORG 5BM kit. For quantitative assessment of β(2) microglobulin we used the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The ages of the welders ranged from 21 to 48 years (mean=30.5 ± 5.9 yrs) and of controls from 23 to 56 years (mean=31.8 ± 5.9 yrs). Mean employment duration was 7.86 ± 5.01 years (range 2 to 27 years) for welders. Mean β(2) microglobulin level was 0.10 ± 0.096 μg/ml in welders and 0.11 ± 0.06 in controls. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.381). In conclusion we don't find that exposure to electric arc welding fumes cause a significant change in urinary β(2) microglobulin compared to the control group. PMID:22131246

  15. Hypermutation and unique mutational signatures of occupational cholangiocarcinoma in printing workers exposed to haloalkanes.

    PubMed

    Mimaki, Sachiyo; Totsuka, Yukari; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Chikako; Goto, Masanori; Kojima, Motohiro; Arakawa, Hirofumi; Takemura, Shigekazu; Tanaka, Shogo; Marubashi, Shigeru; Kinoshita, Masahiko; Matsuda, Tomonari; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Kubo, Shoji; Nakamori, Shoji; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Tsuchihara, Katsuya

    2016-08-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence is increasing worldwide. Although several risk factors have been suggested, the etiology and pathogenesis of the majority of cholangiocarcinomas remain unclear. Recently, a high incidence of early-onset cholangiocarcinoma was reported among the workers of a printing company in Osaka, Japan. These workers underwent high exposure to organic solvents, mainly haloalkanes such as 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) and/or dichloromethane. We performed whole-exome analysis on four cases of cholangiocarcinoma among the printing workers. An average of 44.8 somatic mutations was detected per Mb in the genome of the printing workers' cholangiocarcinoma tissues, approximately 30-fold higher than that found in control common cholangiocarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, C:G-to-T:A transitions with substantial strand bias as well as unique trinucleotide mutational changes of GpCpY to GpTpY and NpCpY to NpTpY or NpApY were predominant in all of the printing workers' cholangiocarcinoma genomes. These results were consistent with the epidemiological observation that they had been exposed to high concentrations of chemical compounds. Whole-genome analysis of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 exposed to 1,2-DCP revealed a partial recapitulation of the mutational signature in the printing workers' cholangiocarcinoma. Although our results provide mutational signatures unique to occupational cholangiocarcinoma, the underlying mechanisms of the disease should be further investigated by using appropriate model systems and by comparison with genomic data from other cancers. PMID:27267998

  16. Evaluation of the effects of occupational noise exposure on serum aldosterone and potassium among industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Zare, Sajad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi

    2016-01-01

    The existing literature indicates that occupational exposure to noise may have adverse effects on workers' health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of exposure to different sound pressure levels (SPLs) on serum aldosterone and potassium concentration among Iranian blue collar workers in Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company in Sirjan, Kerman Province, Iran. This case-control study was performed on 45 workers of Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company. The subjects consisted of 30 workers from manufacturing departments and 15 office employees of the mining company. The controls, mainly with administrative jobs were exposed to 72 dBA SPL. Cases, in two separate groups, were exposed to noise levels of 88 dBA and 103 dBA, respectively. Noise intensity was measured at the desired locations. Noise measurements were performed according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9612. To measure the serum aldosterone and potassium concentrations, a 5 mL blood sample was taken from each worker at the specified time intervals and aldosterone concentration was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test in the laboratory. Repeated measurement and Spearman's correlation coefficient analysis were used with α = 0.05. Exposure to the different levels of sound pressure resulted in different aldosterone concentrations and meanwhile an increase in the SPL did not affect the concentration of potassium. From 10:00 AM to 10:30 AM, as SPL increased, aldosterone concentrations did not increase significantly but from 13:30 PM to 14:00 PM, raised SPL led to a significant increase in aldosterone concentration. However, there was no correlation between the concentration of potassium and different factors. This study indicated that increases in SPLs affect aldosterone concentration but at the same time do not have significant effects on serum potassium level. PMID:26780955

  17. Metabolic Polymorphisms and Clinical Findings Related to Benzene Poisoning Detected in Exposed Brazilian Gas-Station Workers.

    PubMed

    Mitri, Simone; Fonseca, Antônio Sérgio Almeida; Otero, Ubirani Barros; Tabalipa, Marianne Medeiros; Moreira, Josino Costa; Sarcinelli, Paula de Novaes

    2015-07-21

    Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and an important industrial chemical present in both gasoline and motor vehicle emissions. Occupational human exposure to benzene occurs in the petrochemical and petroleum refining industries as well as in gas-station workers, where it can lead to benzene poisoning (BP), but the mechanisms of BP are not completely understood. In Brazil, a significant number of gas-station service workers are employed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate alterations related to BP and metabolic polymorphisms in gas-station service workers exposed to benzene in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Occupational exposure was based on clinical findings related to BP, and metabolic polymorphisms in 114 Brazilian gas-station attendants. These workers were divided into No Clinical Findings (NCF) and Clinical Findings (CF) groups. Neutrophil and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) showed a significant difference between the two study groups, and neutrophil has the greatest impact on the alterations suggestive of BP. The clinical findings revealed higher frequencies of symptoms in the CF group, although not all members presented statistical significance. The frequencies of alleles related to risk were higher in the CF group for GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP2E1 7632T > A, but lower for NQO1 and CYP2E1 1053C > T genotypes. Moreover, an association was found between GSTM1 null and alterations related to BP, but we did not observe any effects of other polymorphisms. Variations in benzene metabolizing genes may modify benzene toxicity and should be taken into consideration during risk assessment evaluations.

  18. Early Diagnosis of Respiratory Abnormalities in Asbestos-Exposed Workers by the Forced Oscillation Technique

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The current reference test for the detection of respiratory abnormalities in asbestos-exposed workers is spirometry. However, spirometry has several shortcomings that greatly affect the efficacy of current asbestos control programs. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) represents the current state-of-the-art technique in the assessment of lung function. This method provides a detailed analysis of respiratory resistance and reactance at different oscillatory frequencies during tidal breathing. Here, we evaluate the FOT as an alternative method to standard spirometry for the early detection and quantification of respiratory abnormalities in asbestos-exposed workers. Methodology/Principal findings Seventy-two subjects were analyzed. The control group was composed of 33 subjects with a normal spirometric exam who had no history of smoking or pulmonary disease. Thirty-nine subjects exposed to asbestos were also studied, including 32 volunteers in radiological category 0/0 and 7 volunteers with radiological categories of 0/1 or 1/1. FOT data were interpreted using classical parameters as well as integer (InOr) and fractional-order (FrOr) modeling. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by investigating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Exposed workers presented increased obstruction (resistance p<0.001) and a reduced compliance (p<0.001), with a predominance of obstructive changes. The FOT parameter changes were correlated with the standard pulmonary function analysis methods (R = -0.52, p<0.001). Early respiratory abnormalities were identified with a high diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.987) using parameters obtained from the FrOr modeling. This accuracy was significantly better than those obtained with classical (p<0.001) and InOr (p<0.001) model parameters. Conclusions The FOT improved our knowledge about the biomechanical abnormalities in workers exposed to asbestos. Additionally, a high diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of

  19. Pulmonary fibrosis in cable plant workers exposed to mist and vapor of petroleum distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Skyberg, K.; Roenneberg, A.; Kamoey, J.I.; Dale, K.; Borgersen, A.

    1986-08-01

    Twenty-five cable plant workers exposed to mists and vapors of mineral oils and kerosene for 5-35 years have investigated in a cross-sectional, matched pairs study. The exposed cohort and the referents were examined by radiology, pulmonary function measurements, and a questionnaire for symptoms of respiratory disease. Lung tissue from a deceased worker with 35 years of exposure was investigated by histopathologic methods and by scanning electron microscopy. Exposure measurements were performed by personal sampling. Previous employment and smoking habits were recorded for all subjects. An increased prevalence of slight basal lung fibrosis was found in chest films of the exposed workers. Pulmonary fibrosis was confirmed histopathologically. A moderately decreased vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV/sub 1/) was found. Oil mist was measured to time-weighted average levels of 0.15-0.30 mg/m/sup 3/ with short-term vapor exposure of up to 4000 mg/m/sup 3/. It is concluded that mists and vapors from petroleum distillates are the most probable caused of the findings.

  20. A cytogenetic and haematological investigation of oil exposed workers in a Norwegian cable manufacturing company.

    PubMed Central

    Skyberg, K; Hansteen, I L; Jelmert, O; Rønneberg, A

    1989-01-01

    Cytogenetic and haematological parameters were studied in 31 oil exposed workers and 31 office workers matched for age and smoking, all men employed by a Norwegian cable manufacturing company. Information was obtained about tobacco and alcohol consumption, infections, allergies, chronic diseases, use of medicines, and exposure to radiography. A decrease in the absolute lymphocyte counts was observed in the most heavily exposed subgroup (p less than 0.05) but no other significant differences were found between exposed workers and referents. The influence of non-occupational variables on the cytogenetic parameters was studied by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges appeared to be influenced by smoking history (p less than 0.05) and season of sampling (p less than 0.01) and, if season was excluded, by age (p less than 0.05) and current smoking (p less than 0.05). The number of cells with chromosomal aberrations increased with age (p less than 0.05) and lymphocyte count (p less than 0.05), whereas the frequency of stable rearrangements was negatively correlated with current smoking (p less than 0.01). PMID:2590644

  1. [The risk of lead and health conditions of exposed workers in the Siena region].

    PubMed

    Sciarra, G; Aprea, C; Cenni, A; Loi, F; Sartorelli, P; Strambi, F; Valentini, F; Sartorelli, E

    1998-01-01

    A number of studies on the health of occupational exposure to lead of workers from various industrial sectors are summarized. These studies document the disappearance of severe cases of saturnism, as seen in the past, and the occurrence nowadays, mainly of sub-clinical manifestations, such as alterations of blood levels of lead and protoporphyrin IX, in the large majority of cases. For the period 1984-95, a statistical analysis of the results obtained for these parameters is reported, together with other clinical data, for seven industrial sectors: crystal, ceramics, chemistry, metallurgy and mechanics, iron and steel, printing and painting. These results show a drop of the mean concentrations of blood lead levels in all sectors but the ceramic industry, especially since 1991, when the law, Decreto Legislativo 277/91--in accomplishment of European directives on protection of workers, including the directive 82/605/EEC--has been put into force.

  2. A preliminary investigation of mortality among workers in the pottery industry.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T L

    1982-06-01

    Early studies of mortality among workers in the pottery industry indicated elevated mortality from tuberculosis and non-malignant respiratory disease. Although raw materials and production processes have changed very little some fibrous materials such as talc have been introduced into the industry during the past 20 to 30 years. This prompted a mortality study of pottery workers to examine patterns of fatal disease among individuals exposed to dust particles during the production of ceramics. Deaths among active and retired pottery workers were identified from records of the international Brotherhood of Potters and Allied Workers (IBPAW). Underlying cause of death was determined from death certificates obtained from state vital records offices for 2924 white males and 946 white females who died between 1955 and 1977. Cause-specific Proportionate Mortality Ratios (PMRs) were calculated using the total United States as a standard. PMRs fro tuberculosis and non-malignant respiratory disease were elevated among males and females, particularly those whose occupations were associated with high levels of dust exposure. A significantly elevated frequency of lung cancer occurred exclusively among white males who had been employed in the manufacture of ceramic plumbing fixtures.

  3. Preliminary results from a cohort of workers exposed to wollastonite in a Finish limestone quarry.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, M S; Järvisalo, J; Koskinen, H; Nickels, J; Räsänen, J; Asp, S

    1983-04-01

    Wollastonite metasilicate fibers are rather similar in form, length, and diameter, but mineralogically different, to amphibole asbestos fibers. We have studied immunologic findings from 46 men exposed to wollastonite at a limestone quarry for at least 10 years. These workers showed a higher prevalence of positive serum rheumatoid factors than blood donors did. This finding resembles the one detected among asbestos workers. The group of wollastonite workers with radiological signs of pulmonary fibrosis had activities of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme that were similar to those of wollastonite workers without fibrosis. A mortality study of 238 quarry workers with 5,769 person-years was, as expected, nonpositive. It was interesting that one woman with 20 years of exposure to wollastonite and with no other known exposure to fibers revealed a malignant retroperitoneal mesenchymal tumor 30 years after the initial exposure. This kind of very rare tumor is difficult to distinguish from mesothelioma. However, this is only one case, and it is impossible to draw any definite conclusions.

  4. Assessment of biomarkers in asbestos-exposed workers as indicators of cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Amati, Monica; Tomasetti, Marco; Mariotti, Laura; Tarquini, Lucia Miria; Valentino, Matteo; Santarelli, Lory

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that mortality from malignant mesothelioma (MM) and lung cancer have increased with increasing cumulative exposure to asbestos. To investigate whether tumour-related biomarkers can contribute towards the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk in populations exposed to asbestos, the DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (80HdG), interleukine-6 (IL-6), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFbeta) and soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRPs) were analysed in a cohort of workers differently exposed to asbestos fibres at the workplace. To document biomarker levels in an unexposed population, 54 age-matched subjects were enrolled. A total of 119 subjects with a history of occupational exposure to asbestos underwent clinical examination and were interviewed by trained personnel, responding to a detailed questionnaire related to duration of asbestos exposure, smoking, and occupational task. According to the occupational tasks, asbestos-exposed subjects were analysed for their asbestos cumulative dose and the association with the biomarkers was evaluated. Among the occupational groups, maintenance workers, pipe fitters and electricians were exposed to a higher cumulative dose of asbestos fibres. Exposure to asbestos significantly increased the steady-state content of 80HdG in DNA. Elevated levels of 80HdG and IL-6 best reflected a high level of SMRPs, which is related to cell transformation. Subjects heavily exposed to asbestos [> 60(ff/cm3) x years] showed also a higher level of angiogenic factors. A combination of angiogenic biomarkers with a specific mesothelioma-biomarker such as SMRPs could be used for close surveillance of workers with a history of asbestos exposure. PMID:18638565

  5. Speech recognition index of workers with tinnitus exposed to environmental or occupational noise: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Tinnitus is considered the third worst symptom affecting humans. The aim of this article is to assess complaints by workers with tinnitus exposed to environmental and occupational noise. Methodology 495 workers went through an epidemiological survey at the Audiology Department of the Center for Studies on Workers’ Health and Human Ecology, from 2003 to 2007. The workers underwent tonal and vocal audiometry, preceded by a clinical and occupational history questionnaire. Two-factor ANOVA and Tukey were the statistical tests used. All the analysis set statistical significance at α=5%. Findings There was a higher prevalence of occupational tinnitus (73.7%), a predominance of female domestic workers (65.4%) in cases of environmental exposure, and predominance of male construction workers (71.5%) for occupational exposure. There was a significant difference in workers with hearing loss, who showed a mean speech recognition index (SRI) of 85%, as compared to healthy workers with a mean SRI greater than 93.5%. Signs and symptoms, speech perception, and interference in sound localization with the type of noise exposure (environmental versus occupational) comparisons found no significant differences. Conclusion Studied group’s high prevalence of tinnitus, major difficulties in speech recognition with hearing loss and the presence of individuals with normal hearing with both types of exposure justify the importance of measures in health promotion, prevention, and hearing surveillance. The findings highlight the importance of valuing the patients’ own perception as the first indication of tinnitus and hearing loss in order to help develop appropriate public policies within the Unified National Health System (SUS). PMID:23259813

  6. Contribution of mental workload to job stress in industrial workers.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, Elvia Luz; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Rodolfo E

    2007-01-01

    This study's central objective is to determine how several individual, organizational and ergonomic factors influence the relationship between job stress and mental workload for workers in an electronics company. A cross-sectional study was made as a test of hypotheses regarding that relationship. The sample is composed of 95 workers, of both sexes, from the electronics industry in the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Ergonomic conditions were evaluated with the Ergonomic Evaluation List, stress was evaluated by administering the SWS-Survey to groups of subjects, and mental workload was evaluated with the NASA-TLX Workload Index. Using Cochran's and Mantel-Haenzsel statistics, the odds ratio for each of the independent variables was {e}stimated as a risk factor for job stress, and analysis was later conducted by means of logistic regression for those risks found to be significant. Of the 95 worker participants, 26.3% presented a high level of job stress and 17.9% of the workers were found to present high levels of mental workload. The results show that working hours, mental demand, temporal demand, and frustration when faced with a given task may be considered risk factors for job stress. PMID:17522456

  7. Common musculoskeletal problem experienced by fishing industry workers

    PubMed Central

    Dabholkar, Tejashree Ajit; Nakhawa, Priyanka; Yardi, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a common health problem throughout the world and a major cause of disability in the workplace. Awkward working posture is a main risk factor for developing WMSDs. Assessment of exposure level to WMSDs risks can be an appropriate base for planning and implementing interventional ergonomics program in the workplace. Fihing in India is a major industry in the coastal states employing over 14 million people. The job demand of fishermen make them vulnerable for various musculoskeletal problems This study was conducted among workers of fishing industry in Mumbai, India with the objective to determine WMSDs prevalence in fishing industry. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 110 randomly selected workers from fishing industry, India, Mumbai, Anonymous questionnaire was used to study prevalence of WMSDs.visual analogue scale used to assess intensity of pain. Results: The results of NMQ revealed that WMSDs occurrence was high. The highest rates of WMSDs prevalence were reported in Low back(92.4%), Shoulder (64.8%) and Knee(31%) and Hand (25%). Conclusion: This study showed that maximum of the fishermen have musculoskeletal problem with the most common joint involved is low back and then followed by shoulder, knee, and hand. Ergonomic risk factor involved were found to be repeated pulling and throwing of the net as well as repeated bending forward action to lift heavy load and transfer that heavy load. PMID:25568597

  8. Increased risk of lung cancer in pesticide-exposed male agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Barthel, E

    1981-01-01

    The cancer morbidity in a large group of male German agricultural workers exposed to pesticides was investigated through a retrospective cohort study. A total of 169 malignant tumors were diagnosed in 1658 men who began to work with pesticides between 1948 and 1972, and who continued this type of activity for at least 5 yr. The SMR (standardized mortality ratio) of 2.0 for lung cancer morbidity (mortality) in these pesticide-exposed subjects was significantly higher than that for the general male population of the German Democratic Republic. A positive correlation between the duration of employment and the mortality due to lung cancer (mainly undifferentiated and small-cell carcinomas) suggested a dose-effect relation. The smoking habits of the exposed men did not differ from those of the general male population of the German Democratic Republic. Because the subjects had been exposed to many different substances, the study does not permit any conclusions to be drawn in respect to the carcinogenicity of individual pesticides. The increased mortality due to lung cancer is presumably the result of an additive effect of different pesticide ingredients or of by-products whose carcinogenic effect has been definitely or tentatively established through experimental or epidemiologic studies (e.g. arsenic, asbestos, chlorinated dibenzodioxins, DDT). The results of the present investigation emphasize the need for effective measures to protect workers during occupational contact with pesticides.

  9. Cytokine patterns in greenhouse workers occupationally exposed to α-cypermethrin: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Costa, Chiara; Rapisarda, Venerando; Catania, Stefania; Di Nola, Carmelina; Ledda, Caterina; Fenga, Concettina

    2013-11-01

    The immunotoxicity of the synthetic pyrethroid α-cypermethrin (αCYP) was assessed in 30 occupationally exposed greenhouse workers and 30 non-exposed controls by comparing plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-α, TNF-β and INF-γ. Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as an exposure biomarker. Exposed workers showed neither clinical signs of immunosuppression nor alterations in total leukocytes or leukocyte subpopulations, whereas significant differences (p<0.05) were found for IL-12p70 and highly significant differences (p<0.001) for INF-γ, IL-2 and IL-8, which are involved in antitumor immunity and response to infection. Proinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-8, IL-12p70 and IFN-γ play a significant role against infection and cancer. We report the first data on the ability of αCYP to reduce proinflammatory cytokine levels in an exposed healthy human population. Findings support the hypothesis that pyrethroid exposure may reduce host defenses against infection and cancer, particularly in subjects with impaired immune capacity.

  10. Vasospastic tendency and Raynaud's phenomenon in smelter workers exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Lagerkvist, B; Linderholm, H; Nordberg, G F

    1986-04-01

    The long-term drinking of water with a high content of inorganic arsenic can lead to Raynaud's phenomenon, acrocyanosis, and gangrene of the lower legs ("black foot disease"). We have measured the systolic blood pressure in the finger after local cooling in 47 workers from a copper smelter who were habitually exposed to moderate amounts of arsenic dust. The controls were 48 workers not exposed to arsenic. The concentration of inorganic arsenic including its metabolites in urine was determined. We found a difference between As-exposed workers and the controls in the finger systolic pressure at skin temperatures of 10 degrees C and/or 15 degrees C expressed as a percentage of the pressure at 30 degrees C (FSP%), P less than 0.01; and the prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon, P less than 0.05. A low FSP% was taken to indicate vasospastic tendency. There was a covariation between the duration of exposure to arsenic and the decrease in finger systolic pressure between the measurements at 30 and 10 degrees C (P less than 0.05). The uptake of arsenic at the time of the study probably did not exceed 300 micrograms/day. This was confirmed by estimation of the urinary excretion. The average total arsenic uptake was estimated to be about 4 g over 23 years, which is less than the total uptake of 20 g of arsenic by subjects who developed black foot disease. Increased vasospastic reactivity in the fingers and Raynaud's phenomenon in smelter workers seems to be due to functional alterations in the vessels caused by inhalation of arsenic.

  11. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities as biomarkers of oxidative stress in workers exposed to mercury vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin-Nadif, R.; Dusch, M.; Mur, J.M.; Koch, C.; Schmitt, P.

    1996-06-07

    We investigated the role of three blood antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant status (TAS) as biological markers of oxidative stress in workers exposed to mercury (Hg{degrees}) vapors. Twenty-two female workers took part in the study. Blood and urine sampling for biological analyses was performed. The workers were classified into three subgroups according to their creatinine-corrected Hg concentration in urine. Blood antioxidant enzyme activities and TAS were compared between groups with nonparametric distribution-free methods. A significant difference existed in catalase activity and a slight, but not significant, difference existed in Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} superoxide dismutase (Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD) activity between the three groups. No differences were observed in either the glutathione peroxidase activity or the TAS between these groups. Catalase and Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD activities were increased in the groups of workers with higher creatinine-corrected urinary Hg concentrations when compared with the group of lower creatinine-corrected urinary Hg concentrations. Catalase activity was positively correlated with the creatinine-corrected concentration of Hg in urine, and Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD activity was slightly correlated with the creatinine-corrected concentration of Hg in urine. The role of erythrocyte catalase and Cu{sup 2}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD activities we have measured is in agreement with the hypothesis of the involvement of reactive oxygen species production as an important event in chronic exposure to Hg{degrees} vapors in humans. In spite of the small sample size, results indicate that erythrocyte catalase and Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD activities could be considered as markers of biological effect in workers exposed to Hg{degrees} vapors. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Time may not fully attenuate solvent-associated cognitive deficits in highly exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Laure-Anne; Okechukwu, Cassandra A.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Amieva, Hélène; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Berr, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the effects of lifetime occupational solvent exposure, as measured by dose and timing, on performance on multiple cognitive tests among retired French utility workers. Methods: A total of 2,143 retirees in the GAZEL cohort underwent cognitive testing in 2010. Lifetime exposure to chlorinated solvents, petroleum solvents, and benzene was assessed using a job exposure matrix. We modeled effects of lifetime solvent dose, timing of last exposure, and a combination of these metrics on risk for cognitive impairment. Results: Thirty-three percent of participants were exposed to chlorinated solvents, 26% to benzene, and 25% to petroleum solvents. High exposure to solvents was significantly associated with poor cognition; for example, those highly exposed to chlorinated solvents were at risk of impairment on the Mini-Mental State Examination (risk ratio 1.18; 95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.31), the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (1.54; 1.31, 1.82), semantic fluency test (1.33; 1.14, 1.55), and the Trail Making Test B (1.49; 1.25, 1.77). Retirees at greatest risk for deficits had both high lifetime exposure to solvents and were last exposed 12 to 30 years before testing. Risk was somewhat elevated among those with high lifetime exposure who were last exposed 31 to 50 years before testing. Those with high, recent exposure exhibited impairment in almost all domains, including those not typically associated with solvent exposure. Conclusions: While risk of cognitive impairment among moderately exposed workers may attenuate with time, this may not be fully true for those with higher exposure. This has implications for physicians working with formerly solvent-exposed patients as well as for workplace exposure limit policies. PMID:24821933

  13. Causes of death among workers in the tobacco industry.

    PubMed

    Blair, A; Berney, B W; Heid, M F; White, D W

    1983-01-01

    The number of deaths by cause, race, and sex among 2,709 workers (1,003 white males, 789 black males, 517 white females, and 400 black females) in the tobacco industry identified from obituary listings of the Tobacco Workers' International Union from 1957 to 1978 were compared to expected numbers based on the experience of the U.S. population. The frequency of deaths from cancer of the colon was slightly elevated among each race-sex group [proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) from 129 to 163]. Although unexplained, this resembles the excess of cancer of the digestive system previously reported among cigarette manufacturers. The excess deaths from cancer of the lung occurred only among white females and may represent chance findings. Among non-neoplastic causes of death, PMRs for arteriosclerotic heart disease, motor vehicle accidents, and suicides were high among most race-sex groups, while PMRs for respiratory disease and cirrhosis of the liver were low.

  14. Mortality from lung cancer and respiratory disease among pottery workers exposed to silica and talc

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, T.L.; Stewart, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    A cohort mortality study of white men employed for at least one year between 1939 and 1966 at three plants of a single United States company was conducted to evaluate the risk of lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory disease among workers exposed to silica dust and nonfibrous (nonasbestiform) talc in the manufacture of ceramic plumbing fixtures. Follow-up of 2055 men through January 1, 1981, indicated a substantial excess of nonmalignant respiratory disease among those with high levels of exposure to silica dust (standardized mortality ratio = 2.26). The risk of nonmalignant respiratory disease rose with the number of years exposed, was not further enhanced by talc exposure, and appeared to be appreciably lower among those exposed in more recent time periods. For lung cancer, men exposed to high levels of silica dust with no talc exposure had a nonsignificant standardized mortality ratio of 1.37. However, those exposed to nonfibrous talc in addition to high levels of silica had a significant 2.5-fold excess risk of lung cancer. Among this group, the lung cancer standardized mortality ratio rose with increasing years of talc exposure to 3.64 among those exposed for 15 or more years. Although the role of silica as a cofactor cannot be ruled out, these data suggest that nonfibrous talc exposure is associated with excess lung cancer risk.

  15. Increased levels of chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage in a group of workers exposed to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Costa, Solange; Carvalho, Sandra; Costa, Carla; Coelho, Patrícia; Silva, Susana; Santos, Luís S; Gaspar, Jorge F; Porto, Beatriz; Laffon, Blanca; Teixeira, João P

    2015-07-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a commonly used chemical in anatomy and pathology laboratories as a tissue preservative and fixative. Because of its sensitising properties, irritating effects and cancer implication, FA accounts probably for the most important chemical-exposure hazard concerning this professional group. Evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting, particularly in regard to the ability of inhaled FA to induce toxicity on other cells besides first contact tissues, such as buccal and nasal cells. To evaluate the effects of exposure to FA in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, a group of 84 anatomy pathology laboratory workers exposed occupationally to FA and 87 control subjects were tested for chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and DNA damage (comet assay). The level of exposure to FA in the workplace air was evaluated. The association between genotoxicity biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic-metabolising and DNA repair enzymes were also assessed. The estimated mean level of FA exposure was 0.38±0.03 ppm. All cytogenetic endpoints assessed by CAs test and comet assay % tail DNA (%TDNA) were significantly higher in FA-exposed workers compared with controls. Regarding the effect of susceptibility biomarkers, results suggest that polymorphisms in CYP2E1 and GSTP1 metabolic genes, as well as, XRCC1 and PARP1 polymorphic genes involved in DNA repair pathways are associated with higher genetic damage in FA-exposed subjects. Data obtained in this study show a potential health risk situation of anatomy pathology laboratory workers exposed to FA (0.38 ppm). Implementation of security and hygiene measures may be crucial to decrease risk. The obtained information may also provide new important data to be used by health care programs and by governmental agencies responsible for occupational health and safety.

  16. Industrial Characteristics and Employment of Older Manufacturing Workers in the Early-Twentieth-Century United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how industry-specific technological, organizational, and managerial features affected the employment of old male manufacturing workers in the early twentieth-century United States. Industrial characteristics favorably related to the employment of old industrial workers include high labor productivity, less capital- and material-intensive production, short workdays, low intensity of work, high job flexibility, and formalized employment relationship. Results show that aged industrial workers were heavily concentrated in “unfavorable” industries, suggesting that the contemporary argument of “industrial scrap heap” was applicable for most of the manufacturing workers in the early twentieth century United States. PMID:26989273

  17. Cohort and case-control analyses of workers exposed to vinyl chloride: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.A.; Steenland, K.; Brown, D.; Wells, V.; Jones, J.; Schulte, P.; Halperin, W.

    1989-06-01

    The mortality in a cohort of workers at a vinyl chloride polymerization plant has been updated, extending the period of observation in the original study from 1974 to 1986. Workers at this plant may have been exposed to vinyl chloride monomer and/or polyvinyl chloride dust, or may have had no exposure to either substance. Seventy-six percent of the work force worked in jobs with potential exposure to vinyl chloride monomer. Among the total cohort, statistically significant excess risks were observed for liver, lung, and brain cancer. For the subcohort of workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for liver cancer was 333 (90% confidence interval (CI) 202 to 521). However, there were no significant excesses of either brain (SMR = 145, 90% CI 78 to 249) or lung cancer (SMR = 115, 90% CI 96 to 141). To investigate dose response, nested case-control studies for liver, brain, and lung cancer were conducted among the total cohort (including the nonexposed). For these studies there were two exposure variables, cumulative dose of vinyl chloride monomer and cumulative dose of polyvinyl chloride dust. Cumulative dose was defined as the product of level and duration of exposure. The only significant association between disease risk and cumulative dose was for liver cancer and cumulative dose of vinyl chloride monomer. Further division of the liver cancers into angiosarcoma (n = 12) and other liver cancers (n = 7), based on review of death certificates and medical records, showed that the dose response existed only for angiosarcomas.

  18. Cohort and case-control analyses of workers exposed to vinyl chloride: an update.

    PubMed

    Wu, W; Steenland, K; Brown, D; Wells, V; Jones, J; Schulte, P; Halperin, W

    1989-06-01

    The mortality in a cohort of workers at a vinyl chloride polymerization plant has been updated, extending the period of observation in the original study from 1974 to 1986. Workers at this plant may have been exposed to vinyl chloride monomer and/or polyvinyl chloride dust, or may have had no exposure to either substance. Seventy-six percent of the work force worked in jobs with potential exposure to vinyl chloride monomer. Among the total cohort, statistically significant excess risks were observed for liver, lung, and brain cancer. For the subcohort of workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for liver cancer was 333 (90% confidence interval (CI) 202 to 521). However, there were no significant excesses of either brain (SMR = 145, 90% CI 78 to 249) or lung cancer (SMR = 115, 90% CI 96 to 141). To investigate dose response, nested case-control studies for liver, brain, and lung cancer were conducted among the total cohort (including the nonexposed). For these studies there were two exposure variables, cumulative dose of vinyl chloride monomer and cumulative dose of polyvinyl chloride dust. Cumulative dose was defined as the product of level and duration of exposure. The only significant association between disease risk and cumulative dose was for liver cancer and cumulative dose of vinyl chloride monomer. Further division of the liver cancers into angiosarcoma (n = 12) and other liver cancers (n = 7), based on review of death certificates and medical records, showed that the dose response existed only for angiosarcomas.

  19. Estimation of benchmark dose for micronucleus occurrence in Chinese vinyl chloride-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Tan, Hong-Shan; Ma, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Yuan; Feng, Nan-Nan; Zhou, Li-Fang; Ye, Yun-Jie; Zhu, Yi-Liang; Li, Yong-Liang; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W; Tang, Nai-Jun; Xia, Zhao-Lin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the possibility of using benchmark dose (BMD) to assess the dose-response relationship between vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) exposure and chromosome damage. A group of 317 workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride monomer and 166 normal, unexposed control in Shandong Province northern China were examined for chromosomal damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) using the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CB-MN) assay of DNA damage. The exposed group (3.47 ± 2.65)‰ showed higher micronucleus frequency than the control (1.60 ± 1.30)‰ (P < 0.01). Occupational exposure level based on micronucleus occurrence in all individuals was analyzed with benchmark dose (BMD) methods. The benchmark dose lower limit of a one-sided 95% confidence interval (BMDL) for 10% excess risk was also determined. Results showed a dose-response relationship between cumulative exposure and MN frequency, and a BMDL of 0.54 mg/m3 and 0.23 mg/m3 for males and females, respectively. Female workers were more susceptible to MN damage than male workers.

  20. A Vinyl Chloride-exposed Worker with an Adrenal Gland Angiosarcoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    CRISCUOLO, Mario; VALERIO, Jacqueline; GIANICOLO, Maria Elena; GIANICOLO, Emilio A.L; PORTALURI, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal epithelioidangiosarcoma (AEA) is a rare neoplasm that accounts for less than 1% of sarcomas. Due to its rarity, it can easily be misdiagnosed, both by the clinician and the pathologist. Data on the patient’s occupational history was collected and analyzed. The bibliographic data was found on the PUBMED bibliographic search site after entering the word “extrahepaticangiosarcoma”. We report a case of adrenal epithelioidangiosarcoma (AEA) in a 68 yr-old Caucasian male factory worker exposed to Vinyl Chloride (VC) for 15 yr. He underwent surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a known consequence of VC exposure, but occupational causality of extra-hepatic angiosarcoma is controversial. Extra-hepatic angiosarcomas have been reported in VC workers, but never AEA. Cancerogenic effects of VC involve all endothelial areas of the body and extra-hepatic endothelial tumors may also be caused by this substance. This is the first published report of AEA diagnosed in a worker exposed to VC. PMID:24292955

  1. Seminal plasma trace metal levels in industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Dawson, E B; Evans, D R; Harris, W A; Powell, L C

    2000-05-01

    This study compares the seminal plasma trace metal levels of hospital workers with groups of industrial workers in a petroleum refinery, smelter, and chemical plant. The metals measured were the essential metals (copper, zinc, nickel, cobalt, and manganese) and the toxic metals (lead, cadmium, and aluminum). The group mean +/- SE metal level for each group (50 subjects per group) was calculated, and the statistical significance of the group mean differences of the industrial groups with the hospital group (control) was determined by the Student's t-test. The differences observed in the smelter group were increased copper and zinc (p < or = 0.001) and decreased nickel, cobalt, and manganese (p < or = 0.001, < or = 0.01). The refinery group differences were increased copper, zinc, and nickel (p < or = 0.001) but decreased cobalt and manganese (p < or = 0.001). The chemical group differences were increased zinc (p < or = 0.001) and decreased cobalt (p < or = 0.001). The seminal plasma levels of the toxic metals lead and aluminum were increased in each of the industrial groups (p < or = 0.001). Concurrent differences were (1) decreased accumulation of nickel, cobalt, and manganese in the smelter group, (2) decreased cobalt and manganese in the refinery group, and (3) only decreased cobalt in the chemical group. PMID:11051584

  2. Evaluation of the effects of occupational noise exposure on serum aldosterone and potassium among industrial workers

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Sajad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi

    2016-01-01

    The existing literature indicates that occupational exposure to noise may have adverse effects on workers’ health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of exposure to different sound pressure levels (SPLs) on serum aldosterone and potassium concentration among Iranian blue collar workers in Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company in Sirjan, Kerman Province, Iran. This case-control study was performed on 45 workers of Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company. The subjects consisted of 30 workers from manufacturing departments and 15 office employees of the mining company. The controls, mainly with administrative jobs were exposed to 72 dBA SPL. Cases, in two separate groups, were exposed to noise levels of 88 dBA and 103 dBA, respectively. Noise intensity was measured at the desired locations. Noise measurements were performed according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9612. To measure the serum aldosterone and potassium concentrations, a 5 mL blood sample was taken from each worker at the specified time intervals and aldosterone concentration was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test in the laboratory. Repeated measurement and Spearman's correlation coefficient analysis were used with α = 0.05. Exposure to the different levels of sound pressure resulted in different aldosterone concentrations and meanwhile an increase in the SPL did not affect the concentration of potassium. From 10:00 AM to 10:30 AM, as SPL increased, aldosterone concentrations did not increase significantly but from 13:30 PM to 14:00 PM, raised SPL led to a significant increase in aldosterone concentration. However, there was no correlation between the concentration of potassium and different factors. This study indicated that increases in SPLs affect aldosterone concentration but at the same time do not have significant effects on serum potassium level. PMID:26780955

  3. Neurobehavioral and respiratory findings in jet engine repair workers: A comparison of exposed and unexposed volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, K H

    1999-04-01

    Workers repairing jet engines had respiratory, rheumatic, and neurobehavioral symptoms. They had welded and ground stainless steel parts using hard metal tools and cleaned metal with chlorinated and fluorinated organic solvents. We compared 154 workers and 112 unexposed subjects, all volunteers of similar ages and with similar educational levels, for abnormalities on chest radiographs, spirometric measurements, and questionnaires. Also appraised were performance of reaction time, balance, blink reflex latency, color discrimination, Culture Fair, vocabulary, slotted pegboard, trail making A and B, profile of mood states (POMS), and frequencies of 35 symptoms. Compared to unexposed subjects, workers had significantly more respiratory symptoms but no differences in pulmonary function. They had significantly prolonged simple and choice reaction time (P<0.0001), and abnormal balance with eyes open and eyes closed (P<0. 0001), and abnormal color discrimination. Blink reflex latency was abnormal in both exposed workers and in local unexposed compared to other reference groups. Focus of the inquiry on lung disease helped ensure that for neurobehavioral tests confounding factors were minimal and known biases were small. We tentatively attribute the neurobehavioral impairments and increased symptom frequencies to chlorinated solvent exposure. Excessive respiratory symptoms are attributed to welding stainless steel combined with cigarette smoking. Specifically, manganese exposure may have affected the respiratory and the central nervous systems.

  4. Neurobehavioral and respiratory findings in jet engine repair workers: A comparison of exposed and unexposed volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, K H

    1999-04-01

    Workers repairing jet engines had respiratory, rheumatic, and neurobehavioral symptoms. They had welded and ground stainless steel parts using hard metal tools and cleaned metal with chlorinated and fluorinated organic solvents. We compared 154 workers and 112 unexposed subjects, all volunteers of similar ages and with similar educational levels, for abnormalities on chest radiographs, spirometric measurements, and questionnaires. Also appraised were performance of reaction time, balance, blink reflex latency, color discrimination, Culture Fair, vocabulary, slotted pegboard, trail making A and B, profile of mood states (POMS), and frequencies of 35 symptoms. Compared to unexposed subjects, workers had significantly more respiratory symptoms but no differences in pulmonary function. They had significantly prolonged simple and choice reaction time (P<0.0001), and abnormal balance with eyes open and eyes closed (P<0. 0001), and abnormal color discrimination. Blink reflex latency was abnormal in both exposed workers and in local unexposed compared to other reference groups. Focus of the inquiry on lung disease helped ensure that for neurobehavioral tests confounding factors were minimal and known biases were small. We tentatively attribute the neurobehavioral impairments and increased symptom frequencies to chlorinated solvent exposure. Excessive respiratory symptoms are attributed to welding stainless steel combined with cigarette smoking. Specifically, manganese exposure may have affected the respiratory and the central nervous systems. PMID:10092444

  5. Assessment of immunotoxicity and genotoxicity in workers exposed to low concentrations of formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Sevtap; Canpinar, Hande; Ündeğer, Ülkü; Güç, Dicle; Çolakoğlu, Mustafa; Kars, Ayşe; Başaran, Nurşen

    2013-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA), which is an important chemical with a wide commercial use, has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by International Research on Cancer (IARC). The genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of FA has been documented in mammalian cells and in rodents. A recent evaluation by the E.U. Scientific Committee for Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) anticipated that an 8-h time-weighted average exposure to 0.2 ppm FA would not be irritating and not genotoxic in humans. In order to verify this prediction, a field study was performed that aimed at evaluating immune alterations and genetic damage in peripheral lymphocytes of workers in medium density fiberboard plants exposed to a level of FA equivalent to the OEL recommended by SCOEL (0.2 ppm). Subsets of peripheral lymphocytes, immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM), complement proteins, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were evaluated. DNA damage of the workers was assessed by the Comet assay. The absolute numbers and the percentages of T lymphocytes and of natural killer cells, and the levels of TNF-α were higher than the controls, whereas IgG and IgM levels were found to be lower in workers. Other examined immunological parameters were not different from those of the controls. There was no increased DNA damage in the workers compared to controls.

  6. Effect of Exposure to a Mixture of Organic Solvents on Hearing Thresholds in Petrochemical Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Loukzadeh, Ziba; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Yazdi, Zohreh; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases. In most workplaces, workers are exposed to noise and solvents simultaneously, so the potential risk of hearing loss due to solvents may be attributed to noise. In this study we aimed to assess the effect of exposure to mixed aromatic solvents on hearing in the absence of exposure to hazardous noise. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 99 workers from the petrochemical industry with exposure to a mixture of organic solvents whose noise exposure was lower than 85 dBA were compared with 100 un-exposed controls. After measuring sound pressure level and mean concentration of each solvent in the workplace, pure-tone-audiometry was performed and the two groups were compared in terms of high-frequency and low-frequency hearing loss. T-tests and Chi-square tests were used to compare the two groups. Results: The mean hearing threshold at all frequencies among petrochemical workers was normal (below 25 dB). We did not observe any significant association between solvent exposure and high-frequency or low-frequency hearing loss. Conclusion: This study showed that temporary exposure (less than 4 years) to a mixture of organic solvents, without exposure to noise, does not affect workers’ hearing threshold in audiometry tests. PMID:25320701

  7. Cancer morbidity among workers in the telecommunications industry.

    PubMed Central

    Vågerö, D; Ahlbom, A; Olin, R; Sahlsten, S

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study of 2918 workers in the telecommunications industry in Sweden recorded the cancer morbidity for the period 1958-79. Cases of cancer were collected from the Swedish Cancer Registry for this period and information on work characteristics was collected for the entire period of employment. The total cancer morbidity was as expected. There was no excess risk of lung cancer but an excess risk of malignant melanoma of the skin was detected (SMR = 2.6, 12 cases). This excess risk was particularly associated with work environments where soldering was practised. Estimates of the SMR became larger with the assumption of a longer induction/latency period. PMID:3970885

  8. Determinants of respiratory symptoms in insulation workers exposed to asbestos and synthetic mineral fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, P; Shapiro, S; Dales, R E; Becklake, M R

    1987-01-01

    The determinants of respiratory symptoms were studied in an active workforce of insulation workers exposed to asbestos and synthetic mineral fibres. Responses to a mailed respiratory symptom questionnaire from 537 insulation workers without diagnosed asbestosis were analysed using logistic regression. Wheezing complaints and breathlessness were related primarily to current cigarette smoking and to symptoms suggesting an asthmatic predisposition antedating work in the trade. There was also evidence that these complaints were related to occupational exposure (estimated by number of hours worked in the trade) in subjects with prior airways hyperreactivity. An asthmatic predisposition antedating work in the trade was the major determinant of acute respiratory symptoms in the workplace. The effects of workplace exposures on respiratory symptoms may have been underestimated due to selective withdrawal from the active workforce and due to inaccuracies in the measure of exposure used. PMID:3814550

  9. Pulmonary function and symptoms of Nigerian workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire factories

    SciTech Connect

    Oleru, U.G.; Elegbeleye, O.O.; Enu, C.C.; Olumide, Y.M.

    1983-02-01

    The pulmonary function and symptoms of 125 workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire manufacturing plants were investigated. There was no significant difference in the pulmonary function of the subjects in the two plants. There was good agreement in the symptoms reported in the two different factories: cough with phlegm production, tiredness, chest pain, catarrh, headache, and skin irritation. The symptoms also corroborate those reported in the few studies on the pulmonary effects of carbon black. The suspended particulate levels in the dry cell battery plant ranged from 25 to 34 mg/m/sup 3/ and the subjects with the highest probable exposure level had the most impaired pulmonary function. The pulmonary function of the exposed subjects was significantly lower than that of a control, nonindustrially exposed population. The drop in the lung function from the expected value per year of age was relatively constant for all the study subgroups but the drop per year of duration of employment was more severe in the earlier years of employment. This study has underscored the need for occupational health regulations in the industries of developing countries.

  10. Use of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Simulate the Profiles of 3-Hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene in Workers Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Heredia Ortiz, Roberto; Maître, Anne; Barbeau, Damien; Lafontaine, Michel; Bouchard, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Biomathematical modeling has become an important tool to assess xenobiotic exposure in humans. In the present study, we have used a human physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and an simple compartmental toxicokinetic model of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) kinetics and its 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP) metabolite to reproduce the time-course of this biomarker of exposure in the urine of industrially exposed workers and in turn predict the most plausible exposure scenarios. The models were constructed from in vivo experimental data in rats and then extrapolated from animals to humans after assessing and adjusting the most sensitive model parameters as well as species specific physiological parameters. Repeated urinary voids from workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been collected over the course of a typical workweek and during subsequent days off work; urinary concentrations of 3-OHBaP were then determined. Based on the information obtained for each worker (BaP air concentration, daily shift hours, tasks, protective equipment), the time courses of 3-OHBaP in the urine of the different workers have been simulated using the PBPK and toxicokinetic models, considering the various possible exposure routes, oral, dermal and inhalation. Both models were equally able to closely reproduce the observed time course of 3-OHBaP in the urine of workers and predicted similar exposure scenarios. Simulations of various scenarios suggest that the workers under study were exposed mainly by the dermal route. Comparison of measured air concentration levels of BaP with simulated values needed to obtain a good approximation of observed time course further pointed out that inhalation was not the main route of exposure for most of the studied workers. Both kinetic models appear as a useful tool to interpret biomonitoring data of PAH exposure on the basis of 3-OHBaP levels. PMID:25032692

  11. ECG changes in factory workers exposed to 27.2  MHz radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingsong; Xu, Guoyong; Lang, Li; Yang, Aichu; Li, Shilin; Yang, Liwen; Li, Chaolin; Huang, Hanlin; Li, Tao

    2013-05-01

    To research the effect of 27.2 MHz radiofrequency radiation on electrocardiograms (ECG), 225 female workers operating radiofrequency machines at a shoe factory were chosen as the exposure group and 100 female workers without exposure from the same factory were selected as the control group. The 6 min electric field strength that the female workers were exposed to was 64.0 ± 25.2 V/m (mean ± SD), which exceeded 61 V/m, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference root mean square levels for occupational exposure. A statistical difference was observed between the exposed group and the control group in terms of the rate of sinus bradycardia (χ(2)  = 11.48, P = 0.003). When several known risk factors for cardiovascular disease were considered, including smoking, age, alcohol ingestion habit, and so on, the exposure duration was not an effective factor for ECG changes, sinus arrhythmia, or sinus bradycardia according to α = 0.05, while P = 0.052 for sinus arrhythmia was very close to 0.05. We did not find any statistical difference in heart rate, duration of the QRS wave (ventricular depolarization), or corrected QT intervals (between the start of the Q wave and end of the T wave) between the exposed and control groups. Occupational exposure to radiofrequency radiation was not found to be a cause of ECG changes after consideration of the confounding factors.

  12. Plasma microRNA Expression and Micronuclei Frequency in Workers Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Qifei; Huang, Suli; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Wangzhen; Feng, Jing; Wang, Tian; Hu, Die; Guan, Lei; Li, Jun; Dai, Xiayun; Deng, Huaxin; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been shown to alter gene expression patterns and elevate micronuclei (MN) frequency, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key gene regulators that may be influenced by PAH exposures and mediate their effects on MN frequency. Objectives: We sought to identify PAH-associated miRNAs and evaluate their associations with MN frequency. Methods: We performed a two-stage study in healthy male coke oven workers to identify miRNAs associated with PAH exposures quantified using urinary monohydroxy-PAHs and plasma benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol-albumin (BPDE–Alb) adducts. In the discovery stage, we used Solexa sequencing to test differences in miRNA expression profiles between pooled plasma samples from 20 exposed workers and 20 controls. We then validated associations with eight selected miRNAs in 365 workers. We further evaluated associations between the PAH-associated miRNAs and MN frequency. Results: In the discovery stage, miRNA expression profiles differed between the exposed and control groups, with 68 miRNAs significantly down-regulated [fold change (FC) ≤ –5] and 3 miRNAs mildly up-regulated (+2 ≤ FC < +5) in the exposed group. In the validation analysis, urinary 4-hydroxyphenanthrene and/or plasma BPDE–Alb adducts were associated with lower miR-24-3p, miR-27a-3p, miR-142-5p, and miR-28-5p expression (p < 0.030). Urinary 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, and the sum of monohydroxy-PAHs were associated with higher miR-150-5p expression (p < 0.030). These miRNAs were associated with higher MN frequency (p < 0.005), with stronger associations in drinkers (pinteraction < 0.015). Conclusions: Associations of PAH exposures with miRNA expression, and of miRNA expression with MN frequency, suggest potential mechanisms of adverse effects of PAHs that are worthy of further investigation. Citation: Deng Q, Huang S

  13. Evaluation by industrial workers of passive and level-dependent hearing protection devices.

    PubMed

    Tufts, Jennifer B; Hamilton, Mark A; Ucci, Amanda J; Rubas, James

    2011-01-01

    Level-dependent hearing protection devices (HPDs) provide protection from intense sound, while offering amplification for speech and other signals in lower levels of noise. These HPDs have been developed in response to the communication and operational needs of noise-exposed persons in industry and the military. This study was conducted to examine industrial workers' perceptions of the performance of two level-dependent HPDs (one with integrated radio communication capability and one without it) and their customary passive HPDs. This research took place at a plastic film manufacturing plant in Rhode Island, USA, following a mixed-measures design. Fifteen maintenance technicians at the plant evaluated the two level-dependent HPDs, plus their customary passive HPDs, in three separate trial periods. Data were collected via a questionnaire designed for this purpose. Mixed-model analyses of variance were performed on all dependent measures. Linear and quadratic effect sizes were assessed with eta. Results revealed that the two level-dependent HPDs offered better perceived communication and situational awareness than the workers' customary passive HPDs. However, the level-dependent HPDs were rated lower than the passive HPDs in terms of usability and comfort. To increase workers' acceptance of level-dependent HPDs, usability issues must be addressed by the HPD manufacturers. PMID:21173484

  14. Evaluation by industrial workers of passive and level-dependent hearing protection devices.

    PubMed

    Tufts, Jennifer B; Hamilton, Mark A; Ucci, Amanda J; Rubas, James

    2011-01-01

    Level-dependent hearing protection devices (HPDs) provide protection from intense sound, while offering amplification for speech and other signals in lower levels of noise. These HPDs have been developed in response to the communication and operational needs of noise-exposed persons in industry and the military. This study was conducted to examine industrial workers' perceptions of the performance of two level-dependent HPDs (one with integrated radio communication capability and one without it) and their customary passive HPDs. This research took place at a plastic film manufacturing plant in Rhode Island, USA, following a mixed-measures design. Fifteen maintenance technicians at the plant evaluated the two level-dependent HPDs, plus their customary passive HPDs, in three separate trial periods. Data were collected via a questionnaire designed for this purpose. Mixed-model analyses of variance were performed on all dependent measures. Linear and quadratic effect sizes were assessed with eta. Results revealed that the two level-dependent HPDs offered better perceived communication and situational awareness than the workers' customary passive HPDs. However, the level-dependent HPDs were rated lower than the passive HPDs in terms of usability and comfort. To increase workers' acceptance of level-dependent HPDs, usability issues must be addressed by the HPD manufacturers.

  15. Urinary thiodiglycolic acid levels for vinyl chloride monomer-exposed polyvinyl chloride workers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T J; Huang, Y F; Ma, Y C

    2001-11-01

    Thiodiglycolic acid (TdGA) is the major metabolite of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) detected in human urine. Although urinary TdGA has been reported to be associated with ambient VCM exposure, the relationship between urinary TdGA and a low level of air VCM is not clear. Questionnaires were administered to 16 polyvinyl chloride manufacturing workers to obtain a detailed history of occupation and lifestyle. For each worker, personal air monitoring for VCM was performed and a time-weighted average for VCM exposure was calculated. The urinary TdGA levels at the end of a work shift, and at the commencement of the next shift, were also assessed for each worker. Urine analysis revealed that TdGA levels at the beginning of the next shift were higher than those at the end of that shift. Workers experiencing a VCM exposure greater than 5 ppm in air revealed a urinary TdGA level significantly greater than those experiencing a VCM exposure of less than 5 ppm (P < 0.05). The best fit of regression for urinary TdGA on air VCM was Y = 1.06 + 0.57X for urine collected at the commencement of the following work shift, where X is the air VCM concentration and Y is the urinary TdGA concentration (r2 = 0.65, P < 0.01). We conclude that the urinary TdGA level is best detected at the commencement of the next shift and that it can be used as an exposure marker for polyvinyl chloride workers when the air VCM level to which they are exposed is greater than 5 ppm.

  16. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.M.

    1995-10-01

    Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological effects producing skeletal abnormalities and impaired differentiation of the reproductive and nervous systems through mechanisms of hormonal mimicking of estrogens. The range of chemical effects on adult birds covers acute mortality, sublethal stress, reduced fertility, suppression of egg formation, eggshell thinning, and impaired incubation and chick rearing behaviors. The types of pollutants shown to cause reproductive effects include organochlorine pesticides and industrial pollutants, organophosphate pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and in a fewer number of reports, herbicides, and fungicides. o,p`-DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mixtures of organochlorines have been identified as environmental estrogens affecting populations of gulls breeding in polluted {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} in southern California, the Great Lakes, and Puget Sound. Estrogenic organochlorines represent an important class of toxicants to birds because differentiation of the avian reproductive system is estrogen dependent. 85 refs.

  17. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Fry, D M

    1995-10-01

    Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological effects producing skeletal abnormalities and impaired differentiation of the reproductive and nervous systems through mechanisms of hormonal mimicking of estrogens. The range of chemical effects on adult birds covers acute mortality, sublethal stress, reduced fertility, suppression of egg formation, eggshell thinning, and impaired incubation and chick rearing behaviors. The types of pollutants shown to cause reproductive effects include organochlorine pesticides and industrial pollutants, organophosphate pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and in a fewer number of reports, herbicides, and fungicides. o,p'-DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mixtures of organochlorines have been identified as environmental estrogens affecting populations of gulls breeding in polluted "hot spots" in southern California, the Great Lakes, and Puget Sound. Estrogenic organochlorines represent an important class of toxicants to birds because differentiation of the avian reproductive system is estrogen dependent. PMID:8593865

  18. A review of job-exposure matrix methodology for application to workers exposed to radiation from internally deposited plutonium or other radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanhua; Wakeford, Richard; Riddell, Anthony; O'Hagan, Jacqueline; MacGregor, David; Agius, Raymond; Wilson, Christine; Peace, Mark; de Vocht, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Any potential health effects of radiation emitted from radionuclides deposited in the bodies of workers exposed to radioactive materials can be directly investigated through epidemiological studies. However, estimates of radionuclide exposure and consequent tissue-specific doses, particularly for early workers for whom monitoring was relatively crude but exposures tended to be highest, can be uncertain, limiting the accuracy of risk estimates. We review the use of job-exposure matrices (JEMs) in peer-reviewed epidemiological and exposure assessment studies of nuclear industry workers exposed to radioactive materials as a method for addressing gaps in exposure data, and discuss methodology and comparability between studies. We identified nine studies of nuclear worker cohorts in France, Russia, the USA and the UK that had incorporated JEMs in their exposure assessments. All these JEMs were study or cohort-specific, and although broadly comparable methodologies were used in their construction, this is insufficient to enable the transfer of any one JEM to another study. Moreover there was often inadequate detail on whether, or how, JEMs were validated. JEMs have become more detailed and more quantitative, and this trend may eventually enable better comparison across, and the pooling of, studies. We conclude that JEMs have been shown to be a valuable exposure assessment methodology for imputation of missing exposure data for nuclear worker cohorts with data not missing at random. The next step forward for direct comparison or pooled analysis of complete cohorts would be the use of transparent and transferable methods.

  19. A review of job-exposure matrix methodology for application to workers exposed to radiation from internally deposited plutonium or other radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanhua; Wakeford, Richard; Riddell, Anthony; O'Hagan, Jacqueline; MacGregor, David; Agius, Raymond; Wilson, Christine; Peace, Mark; de Vocht, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Any potential health effects of radiation emitted from radionuclides deposited in the bodies of workers exposed to radioactive materials can be directly investigated through epidemiological studies. However, estimates of radionuclide exposure and consequent tissue-specific doses, particularly for early workers for whom monitoring was relatively crude but exposures tended to be highest, can be uncertain, limiting the accuracy of risk estimates. We review the use of job-exposure matrices (JEMs) in peer-reviewed epidemiological and exposure assessment studies of nuclear industry workers exposed to radioactive materials as a method for addressing gaps in exposure data, and discuss methodology and comparability between studies. We identified nine studies of nuclear worker cohorts in France, Russia, the USA and the UK that had incorporated JEMs in their exposure assessments. All these JEMs were study or cohort-specific, and although broadly comparable methodologies were used in their construction, this is insufficient to enable the transfer of any one JEM to another study. Moreover there was often inadequate detail on whether, or how, JEMs were validated. JEMs have become more detailed and more quantitative, and this trend may eventually enable better comparison across, and the pooling of, studies. We conclude that JEMs have been shown to be a valuable exposure assessment methodology for imputation of missing exposure data for nuclear worker cohorts with data not missing at random. The next step forward for direct comparison or pooled analysis of complete cohorts would be the use of transparent and transferable methods. PMID:26861451

  20. Chronic intermittent high altitude exposure, occupation, and body mass index in workers of mining industry.

    PubMed

    Esenamanova, Marina K; Kochkorova, Firuza A; Tsivinskaya, Tatyana A; Vinnikov, Denis; Aikimbaev, Kairgeldy

    2014-09-01

    The obesity and overweight rates in population exposed to chronic intermittent exposure to high altitudes are not well studied. The aim of the retrospective study was to evaluate whether there are differences in body mass index in different occupation groups working in intermittent shifts at mining industry at high altitude: 3800-4500 meters above sea level. Our study demonstrated that obesity and overweight are common in workers of high altitude mining industry exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia. The obesity rate was lowest among miners as compared to blue- and white-collar employees (9.5% vs. 15.6% and 14.7%, p=0.013). Obesity and overweight were associated with older age, higher rates of increased blood pressure (8.79% and 5.72% vs. 1.92%), cholesterol (45.8% and 45.6% vs. 32.8%) and glucose (4.3% and 1.26% vs. 0.57%) levels as compared to normal body mass index category (p<0.0001 for all). There were differences in patterns of cholesterol and glucose levels in men and women employees according to occupation type. In conclusion, obesity and overweight rates are prevalent and associated with increase in blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose levels in workers of mining industry exposed to intermittent high-altitude hypoxia. Therefore, assessment and monitoring of body mass index seems to be essential in those who live and work at high altitudes to supply the correct nutrition, modify risk factors, and prevent related disorders.

  1. Oral health of workers in the modern Finnish confectionery industry.

    PubMed

    Masalin, K; Murtomaa, H; Meurman, J H

    1990-06-01

    The association between type of work and dental findings and the relevance of sugar dust as an occupational hazard to dental health was studied in workers producing sweets, biscuits, and bakery products, and in controls in a work environment not concerned with sugar. 298 employees, 42 +/- 11 yr of age, were investigated clinically and by means of chemical and microbiological tests of their saliva. Mean total time of work on the production line in question was 10 +/- 8.5 yr. Periodontal treatment needs increased similarly with increasing age in all subgroups. Subjects concerned with biscuit production had significantly higher DMFS values than subjects in the other groups. They also had significantly higher numbers of untreated cavities: 79.6% compared with 54.7% in those making sweets, 48.3% in bakery workers, and 62.6% in the controls not exposed to sugar. High levels of lactobacilli and Streptococcus mutans were found equally in all subgroups. Because work hygiene measurements have previously shown that sugar and flour dust concentrations were below accepted limits in the confectionery factory studied, the results do not seem to support the hypothesis that airborne sugar is an occupational dental health hazard. Some other factors need to be accounted for to explain the findings. PMID:2190754

  2. 4,4'-Methylenedianiline-induced hepatitis in an industrial worker: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Giouleme, Olga; Karabatsou, Sofia; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Xanthis, Andreas; Tsiaousi, Eleni; Katsaros, Marios; Koliouskas, Dimitrios

    2011-07-01

    4,4'-Methylenedianiline (MDA) is a chemical used in manufacturing and insulation processes and is a well-known hepatotoxin. We report the case of a 42-year-old construction-site worker who was accidentally exposed to large amounts of MDA and developed acute liver damage. The clinical course is described, with particular emphasis on the timely identification of the underlying cause and prompt management that led to an uneventful recovery. We review the relevant literature and discuss the safety measures necessary to minimize similar occupational hazards in industrial workers.

  3. Germline minisatellite mutations in workers occupationally exposed to radiation at the Sellafield nuclear facility.

    PubMed

    Tawn, E Janet; Curwen, Gillian B; Rees, Gwen S; Jonas, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    Germline minisatellite mutation rates were investigated in male workers occupationally exposed to radiation at the Sellafield nuclear facility. DNA samples from 160 families with 255 offspring were analysed for mutations at eight hypervariable minisatellite loci (B6.7, CEB1, CEB15, CEB25, CEB36, MS1, MS31, MS32) by Southern hybridisation. No significant difference was observed between the paternal mutation rate of 5.0% (37 mutations in 736 alleles) for control fathers with a mean preconceptional testicular dose of 9 mSv and that of 5.8% (66 in 1137 alleles) for exposed fathers with a mean preconceptional testicular dose of 194 mSv. Subgrouping the exposed fathers into two dose groups with means of 111 mSv and 274 mSv revealed paternal mutation rates of 6.0% (32 mutations in 536 alleles) and 5.7% (34 mutations in 601 alleles), respectively, neither of which was significantly different in comparisons with the rate for the control fathers. Maternal mutation rates of 1.6% (12 mutations in 742 alleles) for the partners of control fathers and 1.7% (19 mutations in 1133 alleles) for partners of exposed fathers were not significantly different. This study provides evidence that paternal preconceptional occupational radiation exposure does not increase the germline minisatellite mutation rate and therefore refutes suggestions that such exposure could result in a destabilisation of the germline that can be passed on to future generations.

  4. Biological monitoring of kidney function among workers occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene

    PubMed Central

    Green, T; Dow, J; Ong, C; Ng, V; Ong, H; Zhuang, Z; Yang, X; Bloemen, L

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the nephrotoxic potential of trichloroethylene in a currently exposed population using sensitive urinary markers of kidney toxicity. Methods: Renal dysfunction was monitored in a cross-sectional study of 70 workers currently exposed to trichloroethylene. An age and sex matched control population of 54 individuals was drawn from hospital and administrative staff. Results: The mean exposure to trichloroethylene, estimated from urinary trichloroacetic acid concentrations, was 32 ppm (range 0.5–252 ppm) with an average duration of exposure of 4.1 years (range 1–20 years). Significant differences between the exposed and control populations were found for nephrotoxicity markers N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) and albumin, and for the mode of action marker, formic acid. However, neither NAG nor albumin showed a significant correlation with either the magnitude or duration of exposure to trichloroethylene. There was a significant correlation between urinary formic acid and trichloroacetic acid concentrations. Within the exposed population there were dose dependent increases in urinary methylmalonic acid concentrations and urinary glutathione S-transferase α activity. Although still within the control range, these changes were clearly dose dependent and consistent with one of the proposed mechanisms of trichloroethylene induced kidney toxicity. Conclusion: Although there was no evidence of kidney toxicity within the population studied, the results suggest that kidney damage could occur at exposure concentrations higher (>250 ppm) than those encountered in this study. PMID:15031388

  5. Increased mortality in COPD among construction workers exposed to inorganic dust.

    PubMed

    Bergdahl, I A; Torén, K; Eriksson, K; Hedlund, U; Nilsson, T; Flodin, R; Järvholm, B

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if occupational exposure to dust, fumes or gases, especially among never-smokers, increased the mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A cohort of 317,629 Swedish male construction workers was followed from 1971 to 1999. Exposure to inorganic dust (asbestos, man-made mineral fibres, dust from cement, concrete and quartz), gases and irritants (epoxy resins, isocyanates and organic solvents), fumes (asphalt fumes, diesel exhaust and metal fumes), and wood dust was based on a job-exposure matrix. An internal control group with "unexposed" construction workers was used, and the analyses were adjusted for age and smoking. When all subjects were analysed, there was an increased mortality from COPD among those with any airborne exposure (relative risk 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.22)). In a Poisson regression model, including smoking, age and the major exposure groups, exposure to inorganic dust was associated with an increased risk (hazard ratio (HR) 1.10 (95% CI 1.06-1.14)), especially among never-smokers (HR 2.30 (95% CI 1.07-4.96)). The fraction of COPD among the exposed attributable to any airborne exposure was estimated as 10.7% overall and 52.6% among never-smokers. In conclusion, occupational exposure among construction workers increases mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, even among never-smokers. PMID:15065829

  6. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mortality in Diesel-Exposed Railroad Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine; Schenker, Marc B.; Garshick, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Diesel exhaust is a mixture of combustion gases and ultrafine particles coated with organic compounds. There is concern whether exposure can result in or worsen obstructive airway diseases, but there is only limited information to assess this risk. U.S. railroad workers have been exposed to diesel exhaust since diesel locomotives were introduced after World War II, and by 1959, 95% of the locomotives were diesel. We conducted a case–control study of railroad worker deaths between 1981 and 1982 using U.S. Railroad Retirement Board job records and next-of-kin smoking, residential, and vitamin use histories. There were 536 cases with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 1,525 controls with causes of death not related to diesel exhaust or fine particle exposure. After adjustment for age, race, smoking, U.S. Census region of death, vitamin use, and total years off work, engineers and conductors with diesel-exhaust exposure from operating trains had an increased risk of COPD mortality. The odds of COPD mortality increased with years of work in these jobs, and those who had worked ≥ 16 years as an engineer or conductor after 1959 had an odds ratio of 1.61 (95% confidence interval, 1.12–2.30). These results suggest that diesel-exhaust exposure contributed to COPD mortality in these workers. Further study is needed to assess whether this risk is observed after exposure to exhaust from later-generation diesel engines with modern emission controls. PMID:16835052

  7. Increased mortality in COPD among construction workers exposed to inorganic dust.

    PubMed

    Bergdahl, I A; Torén, K; Eriksson, K; Hedlund, U; Nilsson, T; Flodin, R; Järvholm, B

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if occupational exposure to dust, fumes or gases, especially among never-smokers, increased the mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A cohort of 317,629 Swedish male construction workers was followed from 1971 to 1999. Exposure to inorganic dust (asbestos, man-made mineral fibres, dust from cement, concrete and quartz), gases and irritants (epoxy resins, isocyanates and organic solvents), fumes (asphalt fumes, diesel exhaust and metal fumes), and wood dust was based on a job-exposure matrix. An internal control group with "unexposed" construction workers was used, and the analyses were adjusted for age and smoking. When all subjects were analysed, there was an increased mortality from COPD among those with any airborne exposure (relative risk 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.22)). In a Poisson regression model, including smoking, age and the major exposure groups, exposure to inorganic dust was associated with an increased risk (hazard ratio (HR) 1.10 (95% CI 1.06-1.14)), especially among never-smokers (HR 2.30 (95% CI 1.07-4.96)). The fraction of COPD among the exposed attributable to any airborne exposure was estimated as 10.7% overall and 52.6% among never-smokers. In conclusion, occupational exposure among construction workers increases mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, even among never-smokers.

  8. Design of digital filters for frequency weightings (A and C) required for risk assessments of workers exposed to noise.

    PubMed

    Rimell, Andrew N; Mansfield, Neil J; Paddan, Gurmail S

    2015-01-01

    Many workers are exposed to noise in their industrial environment. Excessive noise exposure can cause health problems and therefore it is important that the worker's noise exposure is assessed. This may require measurement by an equipment manufacturer or the employer. Human exposure to noise may be measured using microphones; however, weighting filters are required to correlate the physical noise sound pressure level measurements to the human's response to an auditory stimulus. IEC 61672-1 and ANSI S1.43 describe suitable weighting filters, but do not explain how to implement them for digitally recorded sound pressure level data. By using the bilinear transform, it is possible to transform the analogue equations given in the standards into digital filters. This paper describes the implementation of the weighting filters as digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and provides all the necessary formulae to directly calculate the filter coefficients for any sampling frequency. Thus, the filters in the standards can be implemented in any numerical processing software (such as a spreadsheet or programming language running on a PC, mobile device or embedded system). PMID:25224333

  9. Lung and pleural fibrosis in asbestos-exposed workers: a risk factor for pneumonia mortality.

    PubMed

    Vehmas, T; Pallasaho, P; Oksa, P

    2012-11-01

    Lungs exposed to occupational dust may be especially vulnerable to fatal infections. We followed up asbestos-exposed workers (n=590) originally screened for lung cancer with computed tomography and scored for pleuropulmonary fibrosis. We checked these workers' influenza and pneumonia mortality data (ICD-10 codes J10-J18) in the national register. In total, 191 deaths, including 43 deaths from infectious pneumonia, occurred in 6158 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up time 10·44 years). 'Some interstitial fibrosis' [hazard ratio (HR) 2·26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·98-5·19, P=0·06] and 'definite interstitial fibrosis' (HR 3·70, 95% CI 1·22-11·23, P=0·02) were associated with an increased risk of death from pneumonia compared to no fibrosis. Asbestosis patients, i.e. those with both asbestos exposure and lung fibrosis, therefore appear to be particularly at risk for death from pneumonia. These patients should be vaccinated against influenza and Pneumococcus. PMID:22214835

  10. Isomer pattern and elimination of dioxins in workers exposed at a municipal waste incineration plant

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Kenya; KUDO, Mitsuhiro; ARITO, Heihachiro; OGAWA, Yasutaka; TAKATA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify patterns of serum concentrations of dioxins in the employees of a waste incineration plant and to estimate elimination rates and half-lives of serum dioxin isomers, and the maximum serum concentrations of dioxin isomers at the time of plant shutdown. Sixteen subjects participating 3 times or more in annual health examinations during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 were recruited for this study. Serum concentrations of dioxins expressed as TEQ/g lipid decreased gradually after plant shutdown with the highest decrease observed in polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) followed by polychlorinated deibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and then coplanar PCBs. The serum toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentrations of PCDF and PCDD congeners in the employees were higher than those in the general population survey by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, whereas the serum concentrations of coplanar PCBs were similar to those in the general population. The estimated half-lives and elimination rates of PCDDs and PCDFs in the highly exposed workers increased compared with the moderately exposed workers. The estimated geometric mean serum concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins at the time of plant shutdown were 35, 53 and 107 pg TEQ/g lipid, respectively. PMID:26118856

  11. Difficulties of attribution of effect in workers exposed to fiberglass and asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Man-made mineral fibers have many properties of asbestos that raise concern about their safety. We studied 175 fiberglass production workers, using chest radiographs, measurement of total lung capacity, chest examinations, and occupational and medical histories. Pulmonary volumes and flows were calculated as percent of predicted, adjusted for height, age, ethnicity, and cigarette smoking. Thirty-one men with radiographically evident small irregular opacities of profusion of 1/0 or greater and/or pleural abnormalities were observed. Eight of 38 men with such changes said they had been exposed only to fiberglass; the other 23 with radiologically detectable pleural and/or pulmonary changes were among the 137 whose histories indicated that they had been exposed to asbestos and to fiberglass. Pulmonary function measurements as group means were reduced in the 175: FVC was 94.8% predicted, FEV1 was 91.3% predicted, FEF25-75 was 80.7% predicted, FEF75-85 was 73.1% predicted and FEV1/FVC was 0.73. Total lung capacity (TLC) was elevated to 114.2% predicted (mean) and RV/TLC (mean 0.46) was also elevated. Although only 78% of fiberglass production workers gave histories of asbestos exposure, all had shared the air in a manufacturing plant where ovens insulated with asbestos were continuously cleaned, repaired, dismantled, and rebuilt. It appears that attribution of the effects of their exposure to fiberglass could not be estimated independently of the effects of asbestos exposure.

  12. Methods for analyzing combined data from studies of workers exposed to low doses of radiation.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, E S; Fry, S A; Wiggs, L D; Voelz, G L; Cragle, D L; Petersen, G R

    1990-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies of workers exposed occupationally to protracted low doses of radiation provide a direct assessment of health effects resulting from such exposure and thus supplement information provided by studies of populations exposed at high doses of radiation and high dose rates. Analyses based on combined data from several studies can be expected to provide a more thorough assessment of low dose occupational studies and more precise risk estimates than can be obtained from any single study. Statistical methods for conducting such combined analyses are discussed, and different approaches, such as basing analyses on various levels of aggregation of exposure data, are compared and evaluated. Emphasis is given to methods for obtaining risk estimates and confidence limits that can be appropriately compared with estimates that form the basis for current radiation protection standards; these estimates have been obtained through extrapolation from high dose data. Methods are illustrated using combined data on workers at three US Department of Energy facilities: the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; and the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant, Denver, Colorado. PMID:2321632

  13. Plasma microRNAs expression profile in female workers occupationally exposed to mercury

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Enmin; Zhao, Qiuni; Bai, Ying; Xu, Ming; Pan, Liping; Liu, Qingdong; Wang, Bosheng; Song, Xianping; Wang, Jun; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted interests as non-invasive biomarkers of physiological and pathological conditions. Several studies have examined the potential effects of mercury exposure on miRNAs expression profiles of general population environmentally exposed to mercury. The objective is to identify mercury-related miRNAs of female workers occupationally exposed to mercury. Methods In this case-control study, we used a microarray assay to detect the miRNA expression profiles in pooled plasma samples between (I) chronic mercury poisoning group; (II) mercury absorbing group and (III) control group in the discovery stage. Each group has ten individuals. In addition, we conducted a validation of eight candidate miRNAs in the same 30 workers by quantitative real-time PCR. Results In the discovery stage, eight miRNAs were conformed following our selection criteria. In the validation stage, RT-PCR confirmed up-regulation of miR-92a and miR-486 in the mercury poisoned group (P<0.05) compared to the other two groups. The results were consistent with the microarray analysis. Conclusions Plasma miR-92a-3p and miR-486-5p might prove to be potential biomarkers to indicate responses to mercury exposure. However, further studies are necessary to prove the causal association between miRNAs changes and mercury exposure, and to determine whether these two miRNAs are clear biomarkers to mercury exposure. PMID:27162656

  14. Difficulties of attribution of effect in workers exposed to fiberglass and asbestos.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, K H; Warshaw, R H

    1991-01-01

    Man-made mineral fibers have many properties of asbestos that raise concern about their safety. We studied 175 fiberglass production workers, using chest radiographs, measurement of total lung capacity, chest examinations, and occupational and medical histories. Pulmonary volumes and flows were calculated as percent of predicted, adjusted for height, age, ethnicity, and cigarette smoking. Thirty-one men with radiographically evident small irregular opacities of profusion of 1/0 or greater and/or pleural abnormalities were observed. Eight of 38 men with such changes said they had been exposed only to fiberglass; the other 23 with radiologically detectable pleural and/or pulmonary changes were among the 137 whose histories indicated that they had been exposed to asbestos and to fiberglass. Pulmonary function measurements as group means were reduced in the 175: FVC was 94.8% predicted, FEV1 was 91.3% predicted, FEF25-75 was 80.7% predicted, FEF75-85 was 73.1% predicted and FEV1/FVC was 0.73. Total lung capacity (TLC) was elevated to 114.2% predicted (mean) and RV/TLC (mean 0.46) was also elevated. Although only 78% of fiberglass production workers gave histories of asbestos exposure, all had shared the air in a manufacturing plant where ovens insulated with asbestos were continuously cleaned, repaired, dismantled, and rebuilt. It appears that attribution of the effects of their exposure to fiberglass could not be estimated independently of the effects of asbestos exposure.

  15. [Biomonitoring in workers exposed to pesticides: development and application of method detecting imidacloprid in urine].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, N e; Rakitskiy, V n; Goryacheva, Lv; Chistova, A

    2016-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a relatively new insecticide in neonicotinoids chemical class with neuroactivity in insects, being one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. For biomonitoring in workers exposed to pesticides, the authors designed a method detecting low levels of Imidacloprid in urine of operators, based on tandem liquid mass-spectrometry with ionization source--electrostatic dispersion (positive ionization) in multi-reaction monitoring regime with subsidiary ion (mass/charge) 209 for quantitative assessment and ion 175.1 for confirmation onion ratio. The study incorporated diurnal urine, about 100 ml of average sample was frozen and kept at temperature -20C for analysis. Before extraction, the sample was unfrozen, an aliquot of 5 ml was selected, diluted with 5 ml of 0.1% formic acid. The substance was concentrated out of the urine samples via solid-phase extraction with application of cartridges based on octadecylsilane, eluition--1 ml of methanol. Lower limit of Imidacloprid detection in urine is 0.02 ng/ml, of the quantitative assessment--0.1 ng/ ml, linear range of concentrations measured 0.1-10 ng/ml. The method was tested for monitoring in workers exposed to Imidacloprid preparations in natural conditions of pesticides application in agriculture, with various processing technologies. Imidacloprid was identified in urine of two professional operators after work in seed treatment and the subsequent seeding at lower limit of detection (0.02 ng/ml) and 0.34 ng/ml. PMID:27265938

  16. Hypermutation and unique mutational signatures of occupational cholangiocarcinoma in printing workers exposed to haloalkanes

    PubMed Central

    Mimaki, Sachiyo; Totsuka, Yukari; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Chikako; Goto, Masanori; Kojima, Motohiro; Arakawa, Hirofumi; Takemura, Shigekazu; Tanaka, Shogo; Marubashi, Shigeru; Kinoshita, Masahiko; Matsuda, Tomonari; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Kubo, Shoji; Nakamori, Shoji; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Tsuchihara, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence is increasing worldwide. Although several risk factors have been suggested, the etiology and pathogenesis of the majority of cholangiocarcinomas remain unclear. Recently, a high incidence of early-onset cholangiocarcinoma was reported among the workers of a printing company in Osaka, Japan. These workers underwent high exposure to organic solvents, mainly haloalkanes such as 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) and/or dichloromethane. We performed whole-exome analysis on four cases of cholangiocarcinoma among the printing workers. An average of 44.8 somatic mutations was detected per Mb in the genome of the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma tissues, approximately 30-fold higher than that found in control common cholangiocarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, C:G-to-T:A transitions with substantial strand bias as well as unique trinucleotide mutational changes of GpCpY to GpTpY and NpCpY to NpTpY or NpApY were predominant in all of the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma genomes. These results were consistent with the epidemiological observation that they had been exposed to high concentrations of chemical compounds. Whole-genome analysis of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 exposed to 1,2-DCP revealed a partial recapitulation of the mutational signature in the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma. Although our results provide mutational signatures unique to occupational cholangiocarcinoma, the underlying mechanisms of the disease should be further investigated by using appropriate model systems and by comparison with genomic data from other cancers. PMID:27267998

  17. Detection of pleural plaques in workers exposed to inhalation of natural fluoro-edenite fibres

    PubMed Central

    RAPISARDA, VENERANDO; LEDDA, CATERINA; RICCERI, VINCENZO; ARENA, FRANCESCO; MUSUMECI, ANDREA; MARCONI, ANDREA; FAGO, LUCREZIA; BRACCI, MASSIMO; SANTARELLI, LORY; FERRANTE, MARGHERITA

    2015-01-01

    Fluoro-edenite is a natural mineral species initially isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. The fibres are similar in size and morphology to certain amphibolic asbestos fibres, the inhalation of which may cause chronic inflammation and cancer. Occupational asbestos exposure is known to be associated with pleural and lung diseases, including pleural plaques. The aim of this study was to report the pleural and lung parenchymal lesions detected by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in a group of construction workers exposed to fluoro-edenite. Information regarding life habits and occupational history was collected from 43 workers enrolled into the study. The participants underwent physical examination, blood analysis, search for uncoated fibres and ferruginous bodies in the sputum, pulmonary function tests, including diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (TLCO), and HRCT chest imaging. A general descriptive outcome analysis was also conducted; a prevalence ratio (PR) with 95% confidence interval and a two-tailed test P-value were calculated for pleural plaques using log-binomial regression, measuring plaque size and thickness, and cumulative exposure index (CEI). The mean values of the functional respiratory tests were within the normal range for all participants. A restrictive ventilatory defect was identified in two (5%) subjects and an obstructive ventilatory defect in three (7%) subjects. TLCO was reduced in two additional participants. Fibres were detected in 19 (44%) of subjects. Pleural involvement was documented in 39 (91%) workers, of whom 31 (72%) had bilateral plaques. Calcifications were detected in 25 (58%) of these participants. PR indicated a progressive increase in the risk of developing pleural lesions with rising CEI, i.e. length of exposure. The present findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of pleural plaques in the lungs of subjects exposed to fluoro-edenite fibres, and not to asbestos, through residing in Biancavilla and through

  18. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico.

  19. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico. PMID:26245813

  20. Immunological markers among workers exposed to 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, W.; Vogt, R.; Sweeney, M. H.; Shopp, G.; Fingerhut, M.; Petersen, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of immune cell number and function with occupational exposure to substances contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). METHODS: A cross sectional medical survey. The exposed participants were employed at two chemical plants between 1951 and 1972 in the manufacture of 2,4,5- trichlorophenate and its derivatives. The reference group consisted of people with no occupational exposure to phenoxy herbicides who lived within the communities of the workers. Data from a total of 259 workers and 243 unexposed referents were included in the analysis of immune function. Laboratory tests for immune status included enumeration of circulating leukocyte and lymphocyte populations, proliferative responses of circulating lymphocytes to mitogens and antigens, and serum concentrations of the major immunoglobulins and complement factor C3. RESULTS: The workers had substantial exposure to substances contaminated with TCDD, as indicated by a lipid adjusted mean serum TCDD concentration of 229 ppt compared with a mean of 6 ppt in the unexposed referents. Workers were divided into categories based on their serum TCDD concentration. For all categories except the lowest, with values of serum TCDD comparable with the unexposed referents, there were increased odds of having lower counts of CD26 cells (activated T cells) (odds ratio (OR) 1.0, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.5 to 1.8 for TCDD < 20 ppt; OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.8 to 3.2 for TCDD 20- 51 ppt; OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 5.1 for TCDD 52-125 ppt; OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.9 for TCDD 125-297 ppt; OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3 to 4.6 for TCDD 298- 3389 ppt). A less consistent finding was decreased spontaneous proliferation of cultured lymphocytes. However, increases were found in proliferation of lymphocytes in response to concanavalin and pokeweed in workers in the high TCDD category. Age, cigarette smoking, and alcohol were significant predictors of several immunological outcomes. CONCLUSIONS

  1. Evaluation of Dust Exposure among the Workers in Agricultural Industries in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Dewangan, Krishna N; Patil, Mahesh R

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to quantify dust exposure among the workers in four different industrial settings: rice mills, flour mills, oil mills, and tea factories and to compare the obtained data with the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of Indian Union Ministry of Labour as well as to compare the dust exposure across activities and seasons. RespiCon(TM) particle sampler was used for collecting dust concentration in the breathing zone of the workers. In total, 149 workers participated in the study and 204 samples were collected. Samples were collected in the vicinity of different processing operations. Samples in the rice mills were collected for two consecutive years in two seasons; however samples from other industries were collected for 1 year. The results indicate that geometric mean (GM) of dust exposure was significantly (P < 0.0001) different among industrial settings. Respirable dust were 8.22, 5.76, 2.98, and 6.34mg m(-3) and total dust exposure were 81.05, 111.02, 56.68, and 39.85mg m(-3) in the rice mills, oil mills, flour mills, and tea factories, respectively. Considerable variations in dust exposure were observed in different activities in the rice and oil mills; however variation was relatively less in the flour mills and tea factories. In the rice mills, dust concentration was higher in winter than those obtained in autumn and it is significantly different (P < 0.05) for inhalable dust and total dust. Positive correlation was obtained in thoracic dust (r (2) = 0.94) and inhalable dust (r (2) = 0.97) with total dust and thoracic dust with inhalable dust (r (2) = 0.89). The results show that majority of the workers are exposed to higher level of respirable dust as compared to the PEL, while total dust exposure to all the workers were higher than the PEL; thus, immediate reduction of dust exposure among the workers is necessary for preventing respiratory system impairment. PMID:26324828

  2. Neurobehavioural effects of industrial mixed solvent exposure in Chinese printing and paint workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, T.P.; Ong, S.G.; Lam, W.K.; Jones, G.M. )

    1990-11-01

    Neurobehavioural symptoms and performance tests were evaluated in a group of 78 workers exposed to mixed organic solvents (printers, paint sprayers and paint production workers) and a referent group of 145 unexposed subjects (nonproduction factory workers and volunteer postal workers). Both groups were administered a structured symptoms questionnaire and eight neurobehavioural tests for psycho-motor function, visual and auditory memory. An excess of symptoms of fatigue, irritability, depression, poor memory, sleep disturbances and symptoms suggestive of autonomic dysfunction was found in the exposed group. Neurobehavioural test performance was generally worse, and performance on tests of psycho-motor function (choice reaction test and digit symbol) and auditory memory (digit span and associate learning) was significantly poorer in the exposed group. The findings support the view that apparently healthy and actively employed workers exposed to mixed solvents show neurobehavioural deficits.

  3. Studies of transformer repair workers exposed to PCBs. II. Results of clinical laboratory investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Emmett, E.A.; Maroni, M.; Jefferys, J.; Schmith, J.; Levin, B.K.; Alvares, A.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-eight transformer repairmen currently exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 17 former transformer repairmen, and 56 comparison workers not known to be exposed to PCBs were studied. Measurements were made of serum liver function tests, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lipid profile, thyroid function tests, and other serum biochemistry; hemoglobin; white cell count; 24-hour excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid, porphyrins, 17-hydroxycorticosteriods and 17-ketosteroids; sperm count; spirometry; and antipyrine half-life to evaluate microsomal mixed function oxidase induction. The total exposed group differed significantly from the comparison group in albumin, LDH, T4, T4-RT3 index, and actual/predicted FEV1. Significant differences among all three exposure groups were seen for albumin, T4, T4-RT3 index, and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion. Differences in FEV1 were attributable to smoking. Significant correlations between serum PCBs and serum lipids were removed by adjustment for confounding variables. After adjustment for confounding variables, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between serum PCBs and GGT and a negative correlation between adipose PCBs and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion. These may reflect subtle metabolic effects of PCBs.

  4. Adolescent Workers in Third World Export Industries: Attitudes of Young Brazilian Shoemakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, J. Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    A study of adolescent workers in Brazil's shoe industry found that workers in global companies were less satisfied and more negative. Those working in family businesses had more positive experiences. Workers in local businesses dealt with some negative conditions but had more autonomy and satisfaction than those in global businesses. (Contains 47…

  5. A comprehensive analysis of plausible genotoxic covariates among workers of a polyvinyl chloride plant exposed to vinyl chloride monomer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Alagamuthu Karthick; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Ahamed, Shafi Ahammed Khan Mustaq; Kumar, Shanmugam Suresh; Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanium; Sankar, Kathannan; Sasikala, Keshavarao

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of chromosomal aberrations-including chromatid type aberrations (CTAs), chromosomal type aberrations, micronucleus (MN) comet assay, and XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln polymorphism-in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). A total of 52 workers and an equal number of controls were recruited into the study to explore the potential cytogenetic risk of occupational exposure to VCM. Questionnaires were administered to obtain details of habitual cigarette-smoking, alcohol-consumption pattern, and occupation, etc. The exposed subjects and controls were classified into two groups based on age (group I <40 years; group II ≥40 years), and exposed subjects were further classified based on exposure duration (>8 and ≥8 years). CTA, MN, and comet assay frequency were significantly greater in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) factory workers (p < 0.05) with long-duration work. CTA, MN, and comet assay values were found to be increased with age in exposed subjects as well as in controls, with exposed subjects showing a statistically greater degree. An extensively greater MN frequency was observed in smokers exposed to VCM than in the control group (P < 0.05). The mean tail length of exposed subjects was greater compared with controls. The study on XRCC1 399 Arg/gln polymorphism in PVC factory workers showed less significant difference in allele frequency compared with controls. In conclusion, this results of work provides evidence for an apparent genotoxic effect associated with VCM exposure. Our results reinforce the greater sensitivity of cytogenetic assays for biomonitoring of occupationally exposed populations. Statistics indicate that workers exposed to VCM are at carcinogenic risk and should be monitored for long-term adverse effects from their exposure.

  6. Effect of polymorphic metabolizing genes on micronucleus frequencies among benzene-exposed shoe workers in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-hui; Ye, Ling-li; Wang, Jin-wei; Ren, Jing-chao; Xu, Xiao-wen; Feng, Nan-nan; Zhou, Li-fang; Ru, Jian-guo; Hao, Yan-hui; Tian, Wei; Sun, Pin; Au, William W; Christiani, David C; Xia, Zhao-lin

    2014-09-01

    It is well-known that metabolism of benzene is required for the induction of toxicity and consequent health problems. Therefore, genetic variation in benzene (BZ) metabolism genes can influence health outcomes. However, large population studies are needed to provide more evidence for such relationship. We have conducted a large population investigation (385 BZ-exposed shoe workers and 197 matched healthy controls) on the association between inheritance of certain BZ metabolizing genes and the expression of micronuclei (MN). The latter was based on the cytokinesis-blocked MN assay. We analyzed the polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 (rs1695), CYP2E1 (rs3813867), CYP2E1 (rs2031920), CYP2E1 (rs6413432), mEH exon 3 (rs1051740), mEH exon 4 (rs2234922). Univariate Poisson regression analysis demonstrated that the BZ-exposed workers had significantly increased MN frequency compared with the controls (FR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.56-2.18; P<0.001), and showed a cumulative exposure dose-response relationship. The CYP2E1 rs3813867 mutant allele (CC+GC) (FR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02-1.29; P=0.020) and rs2031920 variant allele (CT+TT) (FR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.09-1.37, P<0.01) was associated with higher MN frequency significantly compared with the wild genotype separately. Furthermore, the MN frequency in rs2031920 variant allele (CT+TT) (FR=1.17, 95% CI: 1.04-1.31, P<0.01) was also higher than the wild genotype when the age, gender and cumulative exposure dose was adjusted in Poisson regression. In addition, the CYP2E1, however, GSTM1null, GSTT1null, GSTP1 rs1695, rs6413432, rs1051740 and rs2234922 polymorphisms showed no association with MN frequency. Our results indicate that two promoter polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 gene, especially the rs2031920 variant allele, were involved with the BZ-induction of MN and may contribute to risk of cancer among exposed workers.

  7. [The level of mercapturic acids in the urine of workers in the petroleum refining industry].

    PubMed

    Benchev, I; Khristeva, V; Mukhtarova, M

    1991-01-01

    Examination are carried out on 236 workers from three productions of oil-processing industry, who are exposed to the effect of hydrocarbons--saturated from the ethylene order, saturated (benzine), aromatic and sulphuric compounds--sulphur-containing organic, hydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide. The purpose of the study is to establish the risk of exposure to alkylating agents, which are potentially cancerogenic and mutagenic. Leading noxa in the production of high-octane aviation benzine (production "sulfur acidic alkylation", are the sulphur containing organic compounds, hydrogen sulphide, and in some working places--hydrocarbons (benzine and aromatic); in the production of "Ethylene" and "Polypropylene" leading noxae are the saturated hydrocarbons, and the sulphur-containing organic compounds as well as the unsaturated hydrocarbons (ethylene and propylene). The mercapturic acids in urine are determined after the method of Malonova and Bardoday (1983), and the creatinine by the Böringer test. Tobacco smoking and taking of drugs is also considered when data processing. A control group of 30 persons is also examined. In the workers from the 3 enterprises the average values of mercapturic acids in smokers and non-smokers are higher than that of the control group. The differences are statistically significant in the group of non-smokers. The highest per cent of workers with increased content of mercapturic acids (above 8 mumol/mmol creatinine) is established in the production of "Polypropylene".

  8. [Asbestos-related diseases observed in Palermo (Italy) among workers exposed to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Costantino, Claudio; Amodio, Emanuele; Costagliola, Eduardo; Curcurù, Loredana; Ilardo, Sara; Trapani, Elisa; Calamusa, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cases of asbestos-related diseases in workers exposed to asbestos in the province of Palermo (Italy) from 2005 to 2009. Data were collected from medical records and from reports from the Prevention and Safety in the Workplace Unit of the provincial health authorities of and between Palermo. Multinomial logistic regression showed a significant association between tobacco smoke and lung cancer and between starting work at an early stage and presence of asbestosis and pleural plaques. Results confirm that over eighteen years after the entry into force of Law 257/1992, which established the cessation of all activities related to asbestos, asbestos-related diseases continue being observed in clinical practice and represent a serious public health problem.

  9. A study of possible predictors of mesothelioma in shipyard workers exposed to asbestos.

    PubMed

    Sandén, A; Järvholm, B

    1991-07-01

    In a prospective cohort study of 3893 shipyard workers, we estimated the value of medical monitoring, including chest radiograph, spirometry, and questions about smoking habits, asbestos exposure, and respiratory symptoms, as predictors of the risk of developing mesothelioma. There was no strong association between different exposure parameters and risk of mesothelioma. Impaired lung function and smoking were not predictors of risk of mesothelioma. Pleural plaque was not found to be associated with an increased risk of mesothelioma. Respiratory symptoms were of low value as predictors of risk of mesothelioma. Thus, traditional methods in health monitoring seem to be of low value in identifying persons with a high risk of mesothelioma in populations exposed to asbestos.

  10. DNA repair gene polymorphisms and micronucleus frequencies in Chinese workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu-lan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Tong; Sun, Pin; Wu, Fen; Zhu, Shou-min; Qian, Ji; Jin, Li; Au, William; Xia, Zhao-lin

    2011-06-01

    Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is genotoxic and cancerogen agent. Individual variations in response to the exposure have been noticed and the variations may be due to genetic differences in the removal of VCM-DNA adducts, such as polymorphism in genes NER pathway and BER pathway. This study explores the relationship between genetic polymorphism of seven genes within the NER pathway (XPA, XPD, XPC, XPG, XPF, and ERCC1) and BER pathway (APE1), and susceptibility to chromosomal damage after exposure to VCM. One hundred and eighty workers occupationally exposed to VCM and 43 unexposed controls were investigated. Chromosome damage in peripheral lymphocytes was measured by the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay. PCR-RFLP technique was applied to detect polymorphisms of the seven genes. The influence of genotype, age, gender, cumulative exposure dose, alcohol consumption, and smoking status on the frequencies of MN was determined using univariate and multiple Poisson regression analyses. We found XPA A23G variant workers had significantly higher MN frequencies than those from the wild-type homozygous counterparts (P = 0.01). Those with the variant XPD Lys751Gln genotype had marginally higher MN frequencies (P = 0.07). On the other hand, XPC PAT and XPF 5'-UTR T2063A variant workers had significantly lower MN frequencies compared with those from their wild-type homozygous counterparts (P = 0.04 and P = 0.004, respectively). Our findings suggest that XPC PAT, XPD Lys751Gln, XPA A23G and XPF 5'-UTR T2063A contribute to the level of chromosome damage in occupational exposure to VCM in Chinese population.

  11. Shorter telomere length in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Sofia; Pesatori, Angela-C; Dioni, Laura; Hoxha, Mirjam; Bollati, Valentina; Siwinska, Ewa; Mielzyńska, Danuta; Bolognesi, Claudia; Bertazzi, Pier-Alberto; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2010-02-01

    Shorter telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) is predictive of lung cancer risk. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are established lung carcinogens that cause chromosome instability. Whether PAH exposure and its molecular effects are linked with shorter TL has never been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chronic exposure to PAHs on TL measured in PBLs of Polish male non-current smoking cokeoven workers and matched controls. PAH exposure and molecular effects were characterized using measures of internal dose (urinary 1-pyrenol), effective dose [anti-benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide (anti-BPDE)-DNA adduct], genetic instability (micronuclei, MN) and DNA methylation [p53 promoter and Alu and long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) repetitive elements, as surrogate measures of global methylation] in PBLs. TL was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cokeoven workers were heavily exposed to PAHs (79% exceeded the urinary 1-pyrenol biological exposure index) and exhibited lower TL (P = 0.038) than controls, as well as higher levels of genetic and chromosomal alterations [i.e. anti-BPDE-DNA adduct and MN (P < 0.0001)] and epigenetic changes [i.e. p53 gene-specific promoter and global methylation (P worker (P = 0.039) and in all subjects with higher levels of anti-BPDE-DNA adduct (P = 0.042), p53 hypomethylation (P = 0.005) and MN (P = 0.009). In multivariate analysis, years of work in cokery (P = 0.008) and p53 hypomethylation (P = 0.001) were the principal determinants of shorter TL. Our results indicate that shorter TL is associated with chronic PAH exposure. The interrelations with other genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in our data suggest that shorter TL could be a central event in PAH carcinogenesis.

  12. The metabolism of carbohydrates and lipid peroxidation in lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Dobrakowski, Michal; Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to estimate the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the blood concentration of glucose and several enzymes involved in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway. To estimate the degree of lipid peroxidation, the concentrations of conjugated dienes were determined. The examined group included 145 healthy male employees of lead-zinc works. Taking into account the mean blood lead levels, the examined group was divided into two subgroups. The control group was composed of 36 healthy male administrative workers. The markers of lead exposure were significantly elevated in both subgroups when compared with the controls. There were no significant changes in fasting glucose concentration and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase activity in the study population. The concentration of conjugated dienes was significantly higher in both subgroups, whereas the activity of malate dehydrogenase was significantly higher only in the group with higher exposure. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase were significantly decreased in the examined subgroups. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase decreased significantly in the group with higher exposure and could be the cause of the elevated concentrations of conjugated dienes. It is possible to conclude that lead interferes with carbohydrate metabolism, but compensatory mechanisms seem to be efficient, as glucose homeostasis in lead-exposed workers was not disturbed.

  13. Temporary variations in chromosomal aberrations in a group of agricultural workers exposed to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, E; Valbuena, A; Xamena, N; Creus, A; Marcos, R

    1995-10-01

    The induction of chromosomal aberrations (CA) was studied in the peripheral lymphocytes of 29 male agricultural workers occupationally exposed to several pesticides. To investigate possible exposure-related changes in the frequency of CA, a longitudinal study has been conducted. Two blood samples were taken from each individual: one in a period of high exposure (spring-summer) and the other in a period of lower exposure (autumn-winter). Simultaneously, two matched control groups constituted by 29 and 24 healthy men, without indication of exposure to pesticides, were analysed. During the period of major exposure, the group of agricultural workers showed a significant increase in the frequency of CA, mainly of chromatid-type, when compared to the unexposed control group; nevertheless, this increase in the expression of CA was not found in the period of minor exposure. This finding could indicate that the frequency of CA is related to the intensity of the pesticide exposure, and that CA have a relatively short-life, recovering the control value a few months later. In addition to the cytogenetic analysis, biochemical and haemotological blood parameters were also analysed and no significant variations were detected. PMID:7491130

  14. Male exposure mediated adverse reproductive outcomes in carbon disulphide exposed rayon workers.

    PubMed

    Patel, K G; Yadav, P C; Pandya, C B; Saiyed, H N

    2004-10-01

    The authors examined 100 carbon disulphide (CS2) exposed male workers who had been employed ten years prior to study were selected for the study. They were virtually obliged to participate in the study by the Medical Labor Inspector and all of them participated voluntary. The aim was to assess the effects of occupational exposure to carbon disulphide concentrations below the threshold limit value (31 mg/m3) on the reproductive functions with special emphasis on miscarriages. Specially, workers history records were build up on number of children, miscarriages and general weakness, mental fatigue etc. It was found that the incidences of number of miscarriages against number of living children correlated well with environmental concentration of CS2. Where the average CS2 levels were 1.695 ppm, the incidences of miscarriages was 5.71% (group 1). Where as in group 2 environmental concentrations were 12.28 ppm and the incidences of miscarriages were 18.91%. It was also found that in the spinning department the exposure exceeds many times the Threshold Limit Values (TL V).

  15. 75 FR 77666 - Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff and Supply Technologies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 56143). At the request of the petitioner, the Department reviewed the certification for... Employment and Training Administration Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff and... Assistance on August 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Polaris Industries, including on-site leased...

  16. 76 FR 4724 - Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff and Supply Technologies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 56143). At the request of the petitioner, the Department reviewed the certification for... Employment and Training Administration Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff and... Assistance on August 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Polaris Industries, including on-site leased...

  17. Increased micronucleus, nucleoplasmic bridge, and nuclear bud frequencies in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of diesel engine exhaust-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Duan, Huawei; Gao, Feng; Li, Yuanyuan; Huang, Chuanfeng; Niu, Yong; Gao, Weimin; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2015-02-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recently reclassified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a Group 1 carcinogen. Micronucleus (MN), nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB), and nuclear bud (NBUD) frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) are associated with cancer risk. However, the impact of DEE exposure on MN frequency has not been thoroughly elucidated due to mixed exposure and its impact on NPB and NBUD frequencies has never been explored in humans. We recruited 117 diesel engine testing workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 112 non-DEE-exposed workers, and then we measured urinary levels of 4 mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies in PBLs using cytokinesis-block MN assay. The DEE-exposed workers exhibited significantly higher MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies than the non-DEE-exposed workers (P < 0.05). Among all study subjects, increasing levels of all 4 urinary OH-PAHs, on both quartile and continuous scales, were associated with increased MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies (all P < 0.05). When the associations were analyzed separately in DEE-exposed and non-DEE-exposed workers, we found that the association between increasing quartiles of urinary 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (9-OHPh) and MN frequencies persisted in DEE-exposed workers (P = 0.001). The percent of MN frequencies increased, on average, by 23.99% (95% confidential interval, 9.64-39.93) per 1-unit increase in ln-transformed 9-OHPh. Our results clearly show that exposure to DEE can induce increases in MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies in PBLs and suggest that DEE exposure level is associated with MN frequencies.

  18. Epidemiologic evidence of cancer risk in textile industry workers: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Fedeli, Ugo; Fadda, Emanuela; Milan, Giovanni; Lange, John H

    2002-05-01

    A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies for textile industry workers was undertaken in an attempt to evaluate whether the cancer risk varies within the textile industry in relation to the job held or the textile fiber used. We combined studies published up until 1990, when an ad hoc IARC Monograph was issued, and those published after 1990 with the aim of appreciating evidence of reversing trends in cancer risk. Observed and expected cases reported in the original studies were summed up and the totals were divided to obtain a pooled relative risk (PRR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated with a fixed-effect model. We calculated a chi-square test (chi2) of heterogeneity among studies. When PRR and chi2 were both significant, PRR and CI were calculated with a random-effect model and the source of heterogeneity was investigated. Lung cancer risk was around 0.4 in the first study on cotton workers published in 1936, around 0.7 in subsequent studies, mostly published in the 1970s and 1980s, and around 1.0 in the last studies published in the 1990s. Papers published in the 1970s and 1980s produced consistent risk estimates for lung cancer risk, which was significantly lower than 1.0 in workers exposed to cotton (PRR = 0.77; CI = 0.69-0.86) and wool dust (0.71; 0.50-0.92), as well as in carders and fiber preparers (0.73; 0.54-0.91), weavers (0.71; 0.56-0.85), and spinners and weavers (0.78; 0.66-0.91). Lung cancer PRRs did not significantly deviate from 1.0 in textile workers using synthetic fibers or silk, and in dyers. Increased PRRs were found for sinonasal cancer in workers exposed to cotton dust, and in workers involved in spinning or weaving (4.14; 1.80-6.49). PRR was 1.46 (1.10-1.82) for cancer of the digestive system in textile workers using synthetic fibers or silk, and 1.34 (1.10-1.59) for colorectal cancer in spinners and weavers. The increased bladder cancer PRR in dyers (1.39; 1.07-1.71) is generally attributed to textile dye exposure. In studies

  19. PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, Corie A.; Crane, Alice L.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Knaak, James B.; Browne, Richard W.; Lein, Pamela J.; Olson, James R.

    2012-12-15

    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.

  20. A study on blood eosinophil level and ventilatory pulmonary function of the workers exposed to storage grain dust.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, B P; Mahata, A; Kundu, S; Alam, J; Das, S; Roychowdhury, A

    2007-01-01

    The workers engaged in storage grain handling are exposed to storage grain dust and suffer from different respiratory symptoms like, cough wheezing, chest tightness, eye and nasal irritations. It has been reported abroad and the present study results noted that the grain handlers have allergic symptoms like redness of eyes, itching, sneezing, skin rash, breathlessness and decrement of pulmonary function test values. According to their nature of job, the workers of storage grain godowns were divided into four categories i.e., load handling worker (LHW), ancillary, quality control and depot administration workers. The pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the differential count of leucocytes were carried out among the workers by standard technique. Decrement of pulmonary function test values was noted with the increment of blood eosinophil level.The PFT results were presented according to the blood eosinophil level. The decrement of mean PFT values were noticed as the blood level of eosinophil gradually increased from, up to -4%, >4-10% and above 10%. The maximum numbers of workers in different job categories are belonged to >4 -10% of eosinophil level. The percentage figure of workers in different departments were LHW 48.38%, (n=45), ancillary 38.88%, (n=7), quality control 54.54% (n=6) and depot administration workers 47.05% (n=16) are belonged to that range. Among the total workers the higher figure was found >4-10% ranges 47.43% (n=74) workers. The allergic manifestations like redness, itchiness and watering of eyes, sneezing, cough, breathless etc. are reported. These workers have blood eosinophil level and low pulmonary function test values. The respiratory impairments among the workers are restrictive, obstructive and combined restrictive and obstructive type.

  1. Dose-dependent increase in subjective symptoms among toluene-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ukai, Hirohiko ); Watanabe, Takao ); Nakatsuka, Haruo ); Satoh, Toshihiko ); Liu, Shijie; Jin, Chui ); Qiao, Xin ); Li, Guilan ); Ikeda, Masayuki )

    1993-02-01

    A factory survey on dose-response relationship in toluene toxicity was conducted in 1985-1989 in four cities in China. The examination items consisted of personal diffusive sampling for TWA exposure measurement, questionnaires on subjective symptoms, hematology and serum biochemistry, and clinical examination including simple neurology tests. Hippuric acid was also determined in urine samples collected at the end of the shift. With selection criteria that (1) complete results were available on all study items and (2) valid toluene exposure data (i.e., toluene shared 90% or more of the exposure) were obtained for the exposed, 452 toluene-exposed workers (206 men and 246 women; toluene exposure at 24.7 ppm as GM) and 517 nonexposed controls (246 men and 271 women) were selected. The subjective symptoms increased in close association with the intensity of exposure to toluene; the threshold concentration appeared to exist at 100 ppm in the case of symptoms during work, and it might be at 50-100 ppm when symptoms off work were evaluated. During the work with exposure at higher concentrations, various symptoms possibly related to CNS or local effects (e.g., eyes, nose, and throat) were complained, and dizziness and floating sensations were identified as typical symptoms with significant dose-response relationship. Several symptoms persisted off work, most of which were apparently related but not necessarily limited to CNS effects. Hematology and serum biochemistry were essentially negative. 46 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya; Challapalli, Srinivas; Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao; Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-07-15

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects

  3. Biomonitoring of primary aluminium industry workers: detection of micronuclei and repairable DNA lesions by alkaline SCGE.

    PubMed

    Crebelli, Riccardo; Carta, Plinio; Andreoli, Cristina; Aru, Gabriella; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Rossi, Sabrina; Zijno, Andrea

    2002-04-26

    The genetic effects of occupational exposure to low polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were investigated in primary aluminium industry workers. The study subjects were employed in a plant that uses pre-baked anode cells, and has relatively low PAH contamination. Forty-two male workers belonging to different job categories (anode fabrication, baking, rodding, electrolysis, maintenance), together with 16 male local residents with no occupational exposure to PAHs were selected for the analysis of micronuclei and DNA lesions in peripheral lymphocytes. The incidence of micronuclei determined in 1000 cytokinesis-blocked cells in each subject was not significantly different between workers and controls (8.5+/-5.4 per thousand versus 9.7+/-4.9 per thousand, respectively), nor between smokers and non-smokers (8.3+/-5.8 per thousand versus 9.2+/-5.1 per thousand), but was significantly (P<0.05) related to the subjects' age. Also the analysis of DNA damage in unstimulated and mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) did not show significant differences between the studied groups (average tail moment values were 0.53+/-0.53 and 0.49+/-0.45 microm in exposed subjects and controls, respectively). However, when lymphocytes were cultured in the presence of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C, 1 microg/ml for 16h) the SCGE analysis revealed a significant (P=0.018) difference in tail moment values between aluminium workers and controls (1.73+/-1.05 microm versus 0.93+/-0.88 microm, respectively). This difference may highlight an excess of relatively stable DNA lesions, that do not affect strand integrity, and are expressed as intermediates of excision repair in stimulated cells, when gap refilling is inhibited by cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C).

  4. Asbestos-related cancers in refinery workers in the Australian petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Gun, Richard; Pratt, Nicole L; Roder, David M; Ryan, Philip

    2006-01-01

    In this study of the incidence of asbestos-related cancer in the Australian petroleum industry, the authors traced a cohort of 16,543 petroleum industry workers for a total of 226,989 person-years. There were 18 cases of pleural mesothelioma; 12 occurred in refinery nonoffice workers, for whom the Standardized Incidence Ratio was 3.77 (95% confidence interval = 1.95-6.59). The incidence of lung cancer was significantly lower than that in the general male population. Lung cancer incidence was higher in maintenance workers than in nonmaintenance workers, but the excess was not statistically significant, as it was based on small numbers with wide confidence intervals. Lung cancer rates in refinery workers did not increase with duration of employment; however, they did tend to be higher in workers hired in earlier decades. Excess mesothelioma incidence in refinery workers is confirmed, but it is likely that there are few if any asbestos-related lung cancers.

  5. Quality of death certificate occupation data for a cohort of aluminum industry workers.

    PubMed

    Houck, P; Milham, S

    1992-02-01

    Occupational data from death certificates have been used extensively in health studies but their quality has been questioned. In this study, data from the death certificates of aluminum plant workers were analyzed. Aluminum industry employment was indicated in the certificate occupation/industry statement of 321 (80%) of the 403 total workers, 263 (94%) of the 280 workers who had been employed for 10 years or more, 156 (94%) of the 166 workers who died while employed, and 131 (95%) of the 138 workers who died after retirement. Of 82 certificates that did not indicate aluminum industry employment, 57 (70%) were from workers who were employed for fewer than 10 years and terminated employment for reasons other than death or retirement. This study supports the usefulness of death certificate occupational information.

  6. Evaluation of DNA damage in agricultural workers exposed to pesticides using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Raminderjeet; Kaur, Satbir; Lata, Mukesh

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops, but they pose a potential risk to farmers and environment. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relation between the occupational exposure to various pesticides and the presence of DNA damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples of 210 exposed workers (after a day of intense spraying) and 50 control subjects belonging to various districts of Punjab (India) were evaluated using Comet assay. Sixty workers who showed DNA damage were selected for follow up at 5-6 months after the first sampling during a low or null spraying period. RESULTS: Significant differences were found in DNA damage between freshly exposed workers and controls and freshly exposed and followed up cases. There was significant increase in the comet parameters viz. mean comet tail length and frequency of cells showing migration in exposed workers as compared to controls (72.22 ± 20.76 vs. 46.92 ± 8.17, P<0.001; 31.79 vs. 5.77, P<0.001). In the second samples, followed up cases showed significant decrease in frequency of damaged cells as compared to freshly exposed workers of first sampling (P<0.05). The confounding factors such as variable duration of pesticide exposure, age, smoking, drinking and dietary habits etc which were expected to modulate the damage, were instead found to have no significant effect on DNA fragmentation. CONCLUSION: The evidence of a genetic hazard related to exposure resulting from the intensive use of pesticides stresses the need for educational programs for agricultural workers to reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture. PMID:22345990

  7. Cryptic pulmonary lesions in workers occupationally exposed to dust containing silica.

    PubMed

    Craighead, J E; Vallyathan, N V

    Fibrotic lesions associated with deposits of crystalline silica were found postmortem in the lungs of 15 granite workers who lacked radiological evidence of pneumoconiosis. All members of this occupational group had been employed in the granite quarrying and monument industry of Vermont since ambient air-dust standards were introduced in 1937. Although particulate silica was not revealed in the lesions by traditional polarization light microscopy, it was identified by scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with backscatter imaging and x-ray spectrometry. The etiologic basis of the fibrotic pulmonary disease would not have been diagnosed without the aid of these modern analytical tools. Exposure to silica-containing dust can result in cryptic pulmonary disease that is not detectable radiologically. In these retrospective postmortem studies, it was not possible to define the distribution of the lesions in the lungs. PMID:6252356

  8. Symptoms, airway physiology and histology of workers exposed to medium-density fiber board.

    PubMed

    Holmström, M; Rosén, G; Wilhelmsson, B

    1991-12-01

    Medium-density fiber (MDF) board was recently introduced in the furniture industry. In this pilot study health complaints, physiology, and histology of the upper airways were evaluated for two groups of workers, one handling MDF board for at least one-third of their work week (MDF group) and another handling traditional fiber board. Civil servants served as a reference group. The frequency of health complaints concerning the airways was higher, the sense of smell was poorer, and the frequency of nasal obstruction measured with rhinomanometry was higher for the MDF group, while mucociliary activity was lower in the group handling traditional board. In both groups forced vital capacity was low when compared with expected values. Histological specimens from the middle turbinate of the nose showed, in a few cases, nasal epithelial dysplasia in the traditional board group, but histological changes in terms of scoring did not differ significantly between the groups. PMID:1788535

  9. Cryptic pulmonary lesions in workers occupationally exposed to dust containing silica.

    PubMed

    Craighead, J E; Vallyathan, N V

    Fibrotic lesions associated with deposits of crystalline silica were found postmortem in the lungs of 15 granite workers who lacked radiological evidence of pneumoconiosis. All members of this occupational group had been employed in the granite quarrying and monument industry of Vermont since ambient air-dust standards were introduced in 1937. Although particulate silica was not revealed in the lesions by traditional polarization light microscopy, it was identified by scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with backscatter imaging and x-ray spectrometry. The etiologic basis of the fibrotic pulmonary disease would not have been diagnosed without the aid of these modern analytical tools. Exposure to silica-containing dust can result in cryptic pulmonary disease that is not detectable radiologically. In these retrospective postmortem studies, it was not possible to define the distribution of the lesions in the lungs.

  10. Health impacts of exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers

    PubMed Central

    Pilkington, Paul A; Gray, Selena; Gilmore, Anna B

    2007-01-01

    Background Casino workers are exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) at work, yet remain at risk of being excluded from smoke-free legislation around the world. If the prime motivation for smoke-free legislation is the protection of workers, then a workforce experiencing ill-health associated with SHS exposure should not be excluded from legislation. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms among a sample of casino workers, to identify any association between the reporting of symptoms and exposure to SHS at work, and to compare the prevalence of symptoms with that in other workers exposed to SHS. Methods A postal questionnaire survey of 1568 casino workers in London. Using multivariate analysis we identified predictors of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms. Results 559 workers responded to the questionnaire (response of 36%). 91% of casino workers reported the presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms in the previous four weeks, while the figure was 84% for respiratory symptoms. The presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms was most strongly associated with reporting the highest exposure to SHS at work (OR 3.26; 1.72, 6.16). This was also true for reporting the presence of one or more respiratory irritation symptoms (OR 2.24; 1.34, 3.74). Prevalence of irritation symptoms in the casino workers was in general appreciably higher than that reported in studies of bar workers. Conclusion Our research supports the need for comprehensive smoke-free legislation around the world, covering all indoor workplaces including casinos. PMID:17888155

  11. [Relationship between health practices and depressive mood among industrial workers].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, N; Haratani, T; Kaneko, T; Koizumi, A

    1987-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between health practices and depressive mood, a survey was made by mail questionnaire on 3,987 industrial workers, which included items on 8 health practices and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (Zung SDS). A total of 3,160 or 79.3% responded to the questionnaire. Multivariate analysis was employed to control the effects of possible confounders, such as demographic, job- and health-related variables. As the results, the following four health practices were found to be significantly related to low depressive score in male cases (N = 2,779): eating breakfast regularly, habitual physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption, and obesity not less than -10%. The following three health practices were found in female cases (N = 381) to be significantly related to low depression score: sleeping regularly 7-8 h per night, habitual physical activity, and non-smoker. It is considered that these health practices might decrease depressive mood, but further analysis is needed to determine their causal relationships because of the cross-sectional design of the present study.

  12. Acute cyanide poisoning among jewelry and textile industry workers.

    PubMed

    Coentrão, Luís; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Limited work has focused on occupational exposures that may increase the risk of cyanide poisoning by ingestion. A retrospective chart review of all admissions for acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion for the years 1988 to 2008 was conducted in a tertiary university hospital serving the largest population in the country working in jewelry and textile facilities. Of the 9 patients admitted to the hospital during the study period, 8 (7 males, 1 female; age 36 ± 11 years, mean ± SD) attempted suicide by ingestion of potassium cyanide used in their profession as goldsmiths or textile industry workers. Five patients had severe neurologic impairment and severe metabolic acidosis (pH 7.02 ± 0.08, mean ± SD) with high anion gap (23 ± 4 mmol/L, mean ± SD). Of the 5 severely intoxicated patients, 3 received antidote therapy (sodium thiosulfate or hydroxocobalamin) and resumed full consciousness in less than 8 hours. All patients survived without major sequelae. Cyanide intoxication by ingestion in our patients was mainly suicidal and occurred in specific jobs where potassium cyanide is used. Metabolic acidosis with high anion is a good surrogated marker of severe cyanide poisoning. Sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin are both safe and effective antidotes.

  13. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-23

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  14. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-01

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  15. Cytological value of sputum in workers daily exposed to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Alderisio, Mauro; Cenci, Maria; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Vecchione, Aldo; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria

    2006-01-01

    In this study, quantitative modifications of dust cells, siderocytes, Curschmann's spirals and asbestos bodies and qualitative modifications (cellular changes and inflammatory infiltrate) in the sputum of 164 traffic police officers and 218 railway workers, occupationally exposed to environmental pollution, and the sputum of 119 inhabitants of a rural area, were evaluated. The results were correlated with time of exposure and smoking habits. Seventy-three (45%) traffic police officers (TPO), 76 (35%) railway workers (RW) and 29 (24%) of the rural population (RP) were smokers. The sputum, collected over a 3-day period, was smeared on glass slides and stained according to the Papanicolaou, Perl and yellow eosin methods. The results of the qualitative cytological diagnosis revealed a statistically significant difference between the TPO, RW and the RP (p < 0.001). The results of the qualitative and quantitative cytological examinations were not significantly correlated to time of occupational exposure, which was considered to be a continuous variable. The qualitative cytological examination of sputa was not statistically significant for the smoking habits of the TPO and the RP, but was significant for the RW (p < 0.0067). In the TPO, the number of dust cells was higher in smokers, and the relative risk (RR) was 3.95. In the RW, the RR was 2.84. The results of our study revealed that for the RW, the qualitative-quantitative cytological alterations in sputum were due much more to smoking habits than to occupational exposure, while the presence of asbestos bodies correlated with work activity. The qualitative-quantitative cytological examinations of the TPO differed significantly from that of the other two populations.

  16. Risk of acute myeloid leukaemia and multiple myeloma in workers exposed to benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, O

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the risk of developing acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and multiple myeloma in a cohort of workers exposed to benzene. The results were used to show the importance of taking specificity of disease into consideration in causation analysis. METHODS--Data were derived from a cohort of workers employed at two Goodyear plants in Ohio in the manufacture of Pliofilm. Based on data in the Pliofilm study, several papers that examined the relation between exposure to benzene and leukaemia (all cell types combined) have been published. In the current analyses based on updated data in the study, standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for AML and multiple myeloma by cumulative exposure to benzene. The results based on AML were compared with those for leukaemia (all cell types combined) published previously. RESULTS--An exposure response relation was shown between cumulative exposure to benzene and AML. No increased risk of AML was detected for cumulative exposure to benzene below 200 ppm-years (SMR 0.91). Above 200 ppm-years, risk of AML rose drastically; reaching a significant SMR of 98.37 for > 400 ppm-years. For multiple myeloma, no relation with exposure to benzene was detected. CONCLUSION--Analysis specific to AML shows the importance of taking specificity of disease into consideration in causation analysis. This investigation shows that previous analyses based on all leukaemia cell types combined have incorrectly set the estimated threshold too low, and have underestimated risk above the threshold. Current regulatory policies that rely on previous analyses based on all leukaemia cell types combined should be re-examined. PMID:7627314

  17. Influence of vanadium on serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles: a population-based study among vanadium exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some experimental animal studies reported that vanadium had beneficial effects on blood total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG). However, the relationship between vanadium exposure and lipid, lipoprotein profiles in human subjects remains uncertain. This study aimed to compare the serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles of occupational vanadium exposed and non-exposed workers, and to provide human evidence on serum lipid, lipoprotein profiles and atherogenic indexes changes in relation to vanadium exposure. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 533 vanadium exposed workers and 241 non-exposed workers from a Steel and Iron Group in Sichuan, China. Demographic characteristics and occupational information were collected through questionnaires. Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels were measured for all participants. The ratios of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to HDL-C and apoB to apoA-I were used as atherogenic indexes. A general linear model was applied to compare outcomes of the two groups while controlling possible confounders and multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between low HDL-C level, abnormal atherogenic index and vanadium exposure. Results Higher levels of HDL-C and apoA-I could be observed in the vanadium exposed group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, atherogenic indexes (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and apoB/apoA-I ratios) were found statistically lower in the vanadium exposed workers (P < 0.05). Changes in HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C were more pronounced in male workers than that in female workers. In male workers, after adjusting for potential confounding variables as age, habits of smoking and drinking, occupational vanadium exposure was still associated with lower HDL-C (OR 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27-0.62) and abnormal atherogenic index (OR 0.38; 95% CI, 0.20-0.70). Conclusion Occupational

  18. Effect of vitamin E and C supplementation on oxidative damage and total antioxidant capacity in lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Rendón-Ramírez, Adela-Leonor; Maldonado-Vega, María; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Hernández, Gerardo; Arévalo-Rivas, Bertha-Isabel; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The molecular response of the antioxidant system and the effects of antioxidant supplementation against oxidative insult in lead-exposed workers has not been sufficiently studied. In this work, antioxidants (vitamin E 400 IU+vitamin C 1g/daily) were supplemented for one year to 15 workers exposed to lead (73 μg of lead/dl of blood) and the results were compared with those on 19 non-lead exposed workers (6.7 μg of lead/dl). Lead intoxication was accompanied by a high oxidative damage and an increment in the erythrocyte antioxidant response due to increased activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Antioxidant supplementations decreased significantly the oxidative damage as well as the total antioxidant capacity induced by lead intoxication with reduction of the antioxidant enzyme activities. We conclude that antioxidant supplementation is effective in reducing oxidative damage and induces modifications in the physiopathological status of the antioxidant response in lead-exposed workers.

  19. [On industrial conditionality of diseases among copper melting enterprise workers].

    PubMed

    Budkar, L N; Kudrina, K S; Karpova, E A; Obukhova, T Yu; Shmonina, O G; Kashanskaya, E P

    2016-01-01

    Health state of workers in hazardous conditions of copper melting enterprise depends on wide spectrum of somatic occupationally conditioned diseases. Economic damage from workers' health disorders due only to cardiovascular diseases can be considerable. To reduce this damage, hygienic measures are necessary to improve work conditions, to preserve occupational fitness of the workers, other measures to diminish controllable factors of vascular risk and to prevent occupationally conditioned cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Design of digital filters for frequency weightings (A and C) required for risk assessments of workers exposed to noise

    PubMed Central

    RIMELL, Andrew N.; MANSFIELD, Neil J.; PADDAN, Gurmail S.

    2014-01-01

    Many workers are exposed to noise in their industrial environment. Excessive noise exposure can cause health problems and therefore it is important that the worker’s noise exposure is assessed. This may require measurement by an equipment manufacturer or the employer. Human exposure to noise may be measured using microphones; however, weighting filters are required to correlate the physical noise sound pressure level measurements to the human’s response to an auditory stimulus. IEC 61672-1 and ANSI S1.43 describe suitable weighting filters, but do not explain how to implement them for digitally recorded sound pressure level data. By using the bilinear transform, it is possible to transform the analogue equations given in the standards into digital filters. This paper describes the implementation of the weighting filters as digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and provides all the necessary formulae to directly calculate the filter coefficients for any sampling frequency. Thus, the filters in the standards can be implemented in any numerical processing software (such as a spreadsheet or programming language running on a PC, mobile device or embedded system). PMID:25224333

  1. DNA damage and repair capacity in workers exposed to low concentrations of benzene.

    PubMed

    Lovreglio, Piero; Doria, Denise; Fracasso, Maria Enrica; Barbieri, Anna; Sabatini, Laura; Drago, Ignazio; Violante, Francesco S; Soleo, Leonardo

    2016-03-01

    DNA damage and cellular repair capacity were studied in 18 male fuel tanker drivers and 13 male filling-station attendants exposed to low and very low concentrations of benzene, respectively, and compared to 20 males with no occupational exposure (controls). Exposure to airborne benzene was measured using passive personal samplers, and internal doses were assayed through the biomarkers t,t-muconic acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid and urinary benzene. DNA damage was evaluated using tail intensity (TI) determined by the comet assay in peripheral lymphocytes. Urinary 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) was measured as a biomarker of oxidative damage. DNA repair kinetics were assessed using the comet assay in lymphocytes sampled 20 and 60 min post H2O2 exposure. Benzene exposure differed significantly between the drivers (median 246.3 µg/m(3)), attendants (median 13.8 µg/m(3)), and controls (median 4.1 µg/m(3)). There were no differences in TI and 8-oxodG among the three groups, or between smokers and non-smokers. DNA repair kinetics were similar among the drivers, attendants and controls, although the comet assay on H2 O2 -damaged lymphocytes after 60 min revealed significantly lower levels of TI only in drivers. The DNA repair process in smokers was similar to that observed in drivers. In conclusion, this study found no relationship between low levels of benzene exposure and DNA damage, although there was evidence that exposure interferes with DNA repair kinetics. The biological impact of this finding on the onset of genotoxic effects in exposed workers has still to be ascertained. PMID:26646167

  2. DNA damage and repair capacity in workers exposed to low concentrations of benzene.

    PubMed

    Lovreglio, Piero; Doria, Denise; Fracasso, Maria Enrica; Barbieri, Anna; Sabatini, Laura; Drago, Ignazio; Violante, Francesco S; Soleo, Leonardo

    2016-03-01

    DNA damage and cellular repair capacity were studied in 18 male fuel tanker drivers and 13 male filling-station attendants exposed to low and very low concentrations of benzene, respectively, and compared to 20 males with no occupational exposure (controls). Exposure to airborne benzene was measured using passive personal samplers, and internal doses were assayed through the biomarkers t,t-muconic acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid and urinary benzene. DNA damage was evaluated using tail intensity (TI) determined by the comet assay in peripheral lymphocytes. Urinary 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) was measured as a biomarker of oxidative damage. DNA repair kinetics were assessed using the comet assay in lymphocytes sampled 20 and 60 min post H2O2 exposure. Benzene exposure differed significantly between the drivers (median 246.3 µg/m(3)), attendants (median 13.8 µg/m(3)), and controls (median 4.1 µg/m(3)). There were no differences in TI and 8-oxodG among the three groups, or between smokers and non-smokers. DNA repair kinetics were similar among the drivers, attendants and controls, although the comet assay on H2 O2 -damaged lymphocytes after 60 min revealed significantly lower levels of TI only in drivers. The DNA repair process in smokers was similar to that observed in drivers. In conclusion, this study found no relationship between low levels of benzene exposure and DNA damage, although there was evidence that exposure interferes with DNA repair kinetics. The biological impact of this finding on the onset of genotoxic effects in exposed workers has still to be ascertained.

  3. Analysis of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine among workers exposed to diesel particulate exhaust: comparison with urinary metabolites and PAH air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Harri, Minna; Svoboda, Peter; Mori, Toshiaki; Mutanen, Pertti; Kasai, Hiroshi; Savela, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    Oxidative DNA damage and repair, as measured by 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine and DNA samples were studied in association with work-related diesel exhaust exposure among garage and waste collection workers. Seasonal variations of the urinary 8-OHdG levels in pre- and two post-workshift urine samples of 29 exposed workers and 36 control persons were evaluated. The mean+/-SE levels of post-workshift 8-OHdG (mumol/mol crea) were 1.52+/-0.44 in winter and 1.61+/-0.33 in summer for the exposed workers, and 1.56+/-0.61 in winter and 1.43+/-0.49 in summer for the controls, respectively. No significant difference in the urinary 8-OHdG levels between exposed workers and control subjects in winter (p=0.923) and summer (p=0.350) was observed. A linear mixed model, adjusted for years of employment, age, ex/non-smoking and BMI, indicated no significant dose exposure-relationships between the urinary 8-OHdG and 15 PAH air concentrations nor between the 8-OHdG and 7 PAH monohydroxy-metabolites analyzed in the same workers. 8-OHdG was also analyzed in the mononuclear cell DNA of 19 exposed and 18 control subjects. The mean value of 8-OHdG/non-modified 2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG/105 dG+/-SE) were 4.89+/-0.17 for the exposed and 4.11+/-0.16 for the control persons, which showed no correlation with the urinary 8-OHdG levels (r=0.01, n=28, P=0.96). The PAH exposure at workplaces was mainly composed of volatile compounds, particularly naphthalene, suggesting low exposure through the respiratory tract and a low effect of PAH in ROS induction. PMID:16087477

  4. [Cancer risk in asbestos-cement industry workers in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Szymczak, W

    1997-01-01

    A cohort study was carried out in order to evaluate the cancer risk in the asbestos-cement industry workers. The cohort consisted of workers employed in four asbestos-cement plants. One of those plants was established in 1924, the other three in the 1960s and 1970s. Currently only two of these plants continue their production. The plants used mainly chrysotile asbestos as well as crocidolite and amosite. Amphibolite asbestos was used before the mid-nineteen eighties in production of pressure pipes utilising about 15% of the total quantity of asbestos used. The measurements of the asbestos fibre concentration at work-sites have been taken occasionally since the mid 1980s, thus, the determination of a cumulative dose for individual persons in the cohort and the evaluation of the dose-effect relationship were not feasible. It could only be supposed that the concentrations at the preparatory work-site during first years of the plants' operation accounted for several tens fibres/cm3 in the production that employed the dry method. The cohort consisted of workers employed in the plant for at least three months between beginning of the plant during the post-war period, and 1980, that is during the period when amphibolite asbestos was in use. The retrospective observation was completed on 31 December 1991. The analysis of the death risk by causes was based on a standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) calculated using the person-years method. Statistical significance of SMRs was assessed by means of Poisson distribution one-sided test. The general population of Poland was used as the reference population to estimate the death risk. The cohort comprised 4,712 persons (3,563 males and 1,149 females). Of this number 4,500 persons (3,405 males and 1,095 females) were followed. The cohort availability were 95.5%. Male mortality, both total (473 deaths; SMR = 83) and due to malignant neoplasms (108 deaths; SMR = 86) was lower than in the general population. An excess of deaths from

  5. Older Workers' Communication Satisfaction in the Lodging Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Yao-Yi; Mount, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    Usable responses from 374 hotel employees compared the satisfaction with workplace communications of younger (n=80) and older workers (n=81). Differences in terms of downward and vertical communication, corporate information, communication climate, feedback, and coworker communication suggest different ways to manage workers. (Contains 33…

  6. Effects of physician counseling on the smoking behavior of asbestos-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, V.C.; Kim, Y.J.; Ewart, C.K.; Terry, P.B.; Cuthie, J.C.; Wood, J.; Emmett, E.A.; Permutt, S.

    1984-09-01

    Physician antismoking advice has been shown to increase smoking cessation, particularly among patients who have medical problems or perceive themselves to be at risk. The present study tested three hypotheses: (a) providing 3 to 5 min of behavioral counseling regarding a cessation strategy would be more effective than simply warning the smoker to quit smoking; (b) smokers with abnormal pulmonary function would be more likely to comply with medical advice than would smokers with normal pulmonary function; and (c) that smokers with abnormal pulmonary function who receive behavioral counseling would be the group most likely to achieve prolonged abstinence. Asbestos-exposed smoking men undergoing screening in a mandated program for naval shipyard workers were categorized as having normal or abnormal pulmonary status on the basis of chest X ray and pulmonary function tests (PFT). They were then randomly assigned within PFT categories to receive either a simple warning or 3 to 5 min of behavioral cessation counseling from the physician who gave them the results of their pulmonary tests. Subjects smoking status was evaluated at 3- and 11-month intervals following the physician intervention. Smokers who received behavioral counseling were more likely to quit and remain abstinent over the 11-month period (8.4% abstinent) than were smokers given a minimal warning (3.6% abstinent). Prolonged abstinence rates among abnormal PFT subjects (3.7%) did not differ from those of normals (5.9%). The group with normal PFT who received behavioral counseling achieved the highest level of abstinence (9.5%).

  7. Asbestos disease in maintenance workers of the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Lilis, R; Daum, S; Anderson, H; Sirota, M; Andrews, G; Selikoff, I J

    1979-01-01

    In several large groups of workers employed in chemical plants, chest x-ray abnormalities (small irregular opacities and/or pleural changes) of the type known to be induced by asbestos were found in a proportion of those examined. A cross-sectional study of maintenance workers in a large chemical plant was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of asbestosis; 185 workers were examined. Radiologic evidence of parenchymal interstitial fibrosis was found in 24% of those examined; in 10% of workers, parenchymal fibrosis was the only abnormality. Pleural fibrosis and/or calcification was found in the absence of parenchymal fibrosis in 14% of cases; in another 14% of workers, both parenchymal and pleural abnormalities were detected. The prevalence was significantly higher in those employed 20 or more years. Pleural abnormalities were more prevalent than were parenchymal changes. The increased risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma remains to be studied.

  8. [Evaluation of occupational risk factors, nutritional habits and nutritional status in industrial workers].

    PubMed

    Domagała-Dobrzycka, M

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between selected risk factors at the workplace and health indices in relation to nutritional habits and nutritional status in industrial workers. Exposure to physical and chemical risk factors and their impact on health in the province of Szczecin and in Poland was evaluated basing on data published in the Yearbooks of the Province of Szczecin, the Central Statistics Bureau (GUS) and Regional Inspectorate of Labor (OIP) in Szczecin. A random selection of plants in Szczecin was done and workplaces with chemical and physical risk levels exceeding the highest acceptable values were identified. Measurements of concentrations of chemicals and intensity of physical factors were performed by Work Environment Research Laboratories of the plants and by the laboratory of the Sanitary and Epidemiological Center in Szczecin. Eighty-eight men exposed to occupational risk factors were randomly selected. The mean period of exposure in that group was approximately ten years. The control group was composed of male workers (n = 83) not exposed to any of the risk factors in question (Tab. 3). Nutritional habits and nutritional status were studied during summer/autumn and winter/spring periods. Dietary survey consisted of the last 24-hour nutrient intake questionnaire. Nutritional status evaluation was based on body mass index (BMI) values and results of the following laboratory tests: blood cell count, levels of total protein, prealbumin, retinol binding protein (RBP), magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, and ascorbic acid. The following results were obtained: 1. Physical factors constituted the most frequent source of occupational risk in the province of Szczecin and in Poland in 1990-1994 (Tab. 1); 2. The incidence of occupational risk and occupational disease morbidity rates in 1990-1994 were lower for the province of Szczecin than the average for Poland; 3. The rate of fatal accidents at work in 1982-1994 was higher for the

  9. Levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA of white blood cells from workers highly exposed to asbestos in Germany.

    PubMed

    Marczynski, B; Rozynek, P; Kraus, T; Schlösser, S; Raithel, H J; Baur, X

    2000-07-10

    Asbestos fibers have genotoxic effects and are a potential carcinogenic hazard to occupationally exposed workers. The ability of inhaled asbestos fibers to induce the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the DNA of white blood cells (WBC) of workers highly exposed at the workplace has been studied. The 8-OHdG adduct level of asbestos-exposed workers was significantly increased (p<0.001) compared to that in the control group in all three years of the study. Asbestos-exposed individuals showed a mean value of 2.61+/-0.91 8-OHdG/10(5) dG (median 2.49, n=496) in 1994-1995, 2.96+/-1.10 8-OHdG/10(5) dG (median 2.76, n=437) in 1995-1996 and 2.55+/-0.56 8-OHdG/10(5) dG (median 2.53, n=447) in 1996-1997. For the control subjects, a mean of 1.52+/-0.39 (median 1.51, n=214) was determined. The results indicate that human DNA samples from exposed individuals contain between 1.7 times and twice the level of oxidative damage relative to that found in control samples in all 3 years of the study. The studies presented here show that asbestos exposure can result in oxidative DNA damage. Our data confirm that oxidative DNA damage occurs in the WBC of workers highly exposed to asbestos fibers, thus supporting the hypothesis that asbestos fibers damage cells through an oxidative mechanism. These in vivo findings underline the importance of oxidative damage in asbestos-induced carcinogenesis and highlight the need for exploring the molecular basis of asbestos-induced diseases, and for more effective diagnosis, prevention and therapy of mesothelioma, lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, preventive and therapeutic approaches using antioxidants may be relevant.

  10. Comparative Hepatotoxicity of Aflatoxin B1 among Workers Exposed to Different Organic Dust with Emphasis on Polymorphism Role of Glutathione S-Transferase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Saad-Hussein, Amal; Shahy, Eman M.; Shaheen, Weam; Taha, Mona M.; Mahdy-Abdallah, Heba; Ibrahim, Khadiga S.; Hafez, Salwa F.; Fadl, Nevein N.; El-Shamy, Karima A.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The study aimed to investigate effects of organic dust exposure from different sources on aflatoxin B1-albumin adducts (AFB1/Alb), and role of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphism in hepatotoxicity of (AFB1) among exposed workers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Liver enzymes, AFB1/Alb, and GST polymorphism were estimated in 132 wheat flour dust and 87 woods sawmill workers, and 156 controls. RESULTS: Results revealed that AFB1/Alb and liver enzymes were significantly elevated in exposed workers compared to controls, and were significantly higher in sawmill workers compared to flour workers. AFB1/Alb in flour and sawmill workers with GSTT1 and GSTM1&GSTT1 null genotypes were significantly higher than controls, and in sawmill workers with GSTM1&GSTT1 null than flour workers. Liver enzymes (ALT and AST) in sawmill workers were significantly higher than flour workers and controls in all GST polymorphism; except in GSTT1 polymorphism, where these enzymes were significantly higher in the two exposed groups than controls. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, organic dust exposure may cause elevation in AFB1/Alb and liver enzymes of exposed workers, and GST gene polymorphism plays an important role in susceptibility to hepatic parenchymal cell injury; except in workers with GSTT1&GSTM1 null genotype, gene susceptibility seemed to have little role and the main role was for environmental exposures. PMID:27335608

  11. Ischemic heart disease risk factors in lead exposed workers: research study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Review of other epidemiological studies reveal inconsistent results of relationships between high blood lead level and risk of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. In this study we wanted to find if there is a relationship between blood lead level and these ischemic heart disease risk factors. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in a battery recycling plant, and 497 male workers with the mean age of 41.7 (±6.50) years were recruited from all over the plant (those from the products and maintenance sections were classed as “high lead exposed group” and those from amongst the office, laboratory, security services and food services sections as “low lead exposed group”). Personal information such as demographics and work history was obtained through a questionnaire. Mean (±Standard deviation) for quantitative variables, Frequency (Percent) for qualitative variables, and Odd’s ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for estimating the effect of blood lead level on lipid profile[triglyceride (TG), cholesterol(CHOL), low density lipoprotein – Cholesterol(LDL-C),high density lipoprotein –Cholesterol(HDL-C)], hypertension(HTN) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) level. Logistic regression modeling was used for multivariate analysis and adjusting the effect of different variables (age, body mass index(BMI), eating habits, cigarette smoking). Results The mean Blood Lead Level (BLL) was >40 μg/dl in 281 (56.6%) subjects, ≤40 μg in 216 (43.4%) subjects and the mean BLL was 43.3 μg/dl (n = 497). The mean job experience involving lead exposure was 13 years. There was no significant correlation between BLL and FBS (p = 0.68), between BLL and TG (P = 0.32), between BLL and HDL-C (p = 0.49), between BLL and LDL-C (p = 0.17), between BLL and CHOL(p = 0.96), between BLL and systolic blood pressure (p = 0.12). The adjusted Odd’s ratio for the effect of BLL >40.0 μg/dl on diastolic blood

  12. The relationship between worker satisfaction and productivity in a repetitive industrial task.

    PubMed

    Shikdar, Ashraf A; Das, Biman

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the manner by which production standards or goals, performance or production feedback and monetary or wage incentive affected or moderated the relationship between worker satisfaction and productivity in a repetitive production task in a fishing industry. The industrial study was conducted to measure worker satisfaction and productivity under various experimental conditions involving production standards, performance feedback and monetary incentive. Only the participative standard and performance feedback condition affected the worker satisfaction-productivity relationship significantly for the fish-trimming task. The positive correlation coefficient (0.87) for this condition was found to be highly significant. This has an important implication for setting a strategy for achieving higher worker satisfaction and productivity in such an industry. Production standards with feedback generally improved worker satisfaction and productivity. Monetary incentive further improved worker performance but added no incremental satisfaction gain. The incorporation of production standards, performance feedback and monetary incentive affected worker satisfaction and productivity differently and this had an effect on the worker satisfaction-productivity relationship. In an earlier laboratory study, no significant worker satisfaction-productivity relationship was found when subjects (college students) were provided with similar experimental conditions. PMID:14559421

  13. Semen Quality of Workers Exposed to Ionizing Radiation in Decontamination Work after the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Accident.

    PubMed

    Bartoov; Zabludovsky; Eltes; Smirnov; Grischenko; Fischbein

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the study was to assess effects of radiation on sperm quality, including ultramorphology of spermatozoa of men who worked as salvage workers at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident site or in the adjacent region. Semen characteristics were assessed by light microscopy, biochemical analysis, and quantitative ultramorphologic analysis seven years after the accident. Samples were collected in the Ukraine, examined there by routine semen analysis, fixed, and transferred to Israel for further examinations. The study population consisted of 18 radiation-exposed individuals. Eighteen unexposed Ukrainian men were examined as controls. Sperm motility was found to be reduced in the radiation-exposed workers. Ultramorphologic defects were evident in the sperm nucleus. Fertility potential was adversely affected among the exposed workers. Thus, salvage workers who had worked at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident site or in the vicinity thereof were found to manifest ultramorphologic abnormalities in the sperm nucleus and to have impaired fertility potential seven years after the radiation exposure. The injury was independent of whether the work site had been located at the reactor site or in the vicinity thereof.

  14. Retinol supplementation and mesothelioma incidence in workers earlier exposed to blue asbestos (Crocidolite) at Wittenoom, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Helman S; Reid, Alison; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Olsen, Nola; Mina, Robin; Ambrosini, Gina L; Beilby, John; Berry, Geoffrey; Musk, Bill A W

    2010-09-01

    Owing to the high rates of malignant mesothelioma in workers exposed to crocidolite earlier at Wittenoom and evidence of protection against cancer by vitamin A, a population-based cancer prevention programme providing retinol supplements (25 000 IU/day) was commenced in 1990. The former workers at Wittenoom known to be alive and living in Western Australia in June 1990 constitute the study population. The participants were classified into two groups: those who received supplemental retinol (intervention group) and those who received none (comparison group). The relative rate of mesothelioma for those receiving retinol was estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for cumulative asbestos exposure and age at first exposure to asbestos. Nine hundred and twenty-eight former Wittenoom workers received retinol at some stage of the programme, whereas 1471 workers never received retinol (comparison group). Those who received retinol were younger, had a greater exposure to asbestos and smoked less than the comparison group. There were 65 cases of mesothelioma in the retinol group and 88 in the comparison group. After adjustment, the hazard ratio was 0.99 (95% confidence interval=0.70-1.41). This result did not alter when the participants who received only retinol once or those who received beta-carotene earlier were excluded from the analysis. In conclusion, this study provides little support for possible preventive effects of retinol against mesothelioma in workers exposed to blue asbestos.

  15. Why Workers Are Reluctant Learners: The Case of the Canadian Pulp and Paper Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratton, John A.

    2001-01-01

    In the Canadian pulp/paper industry, management is focused on worker flexibility for productivity. Unions view workplace learning as a threat to job control and security. Although learning new skills enhances individual workers' flexibility and employability, collectively it weakens the union through job losses. (Contains 56 references.) (SK)

  16. Health status of workers of a thermal power station exposed for prolonged periods to arsenic and other elements from fuel.

    PubMed

    Buchancová, J; Klimentová, G; Knizková, M; Mesko, D; Gáliková, E; Kubík, J; Fabianová, E; Jakubis, M

    1998-02-01

    The Nováky Power Station (NPS) has been using since 1953 as fuel coal with a high content of As and with a low content of other metals. This involves a constant risk for the workers as well as pollution of the surroundings. The authors described 16 cases of chronic As intoxication in NPS workers after 22.3 +/- 8.4 years of exposure (especially stokers, maintenance workers, boiler cleaners). Among clinical symptoms prevailed sensory and motor polyneuropathy (13 cases), pseudoneurasthenic syndrome (10 cases), toxic encephalopathy (6 cases) and nasal septum perforation (2 cases). After 1989 the intoxications with As did not occur any more due to technical measures and health protection of the workers. The authors present a review of actual results of clinical, haematological and biochemical investigations and tests for metals (AAS methods) in biological materials of workers at risk in NPS (n = 70), exposed on average for 11.9 +/- 0.5 years, of average age 35.91 +/- 1.7 years (mean +/- SE) and compared the results to a matched control group of blood donors not exposed to metals (n = 29). In NPS workers significantly lower Hb values, higher serum creatinine, higher serum beta 2-microglobulin, higher As content in hair as well as higher serum Mn and Pb concentrations compared with the C-group were found. The exposed group had significantly lower serum Se concentrations (0.64 +/- 0.025 mumol/l (mean +/- SE) compared to Se levels of persons from an adjacent district. The authors stress the necessity of individual evaluation of the metal concentrations in relation to clinical findings. With prolonged exposure the situation can become more urgent not only because of chronic poisoning but also because of the cancerogenic effects of these elements on the human organism.

  17. Health status of workers of a thermal power station exposed for prolonged periods to arsenic and other elements from fuel.

    PubMed

    Buchancová, J; Klimentová, G; Knizková, M; Mesko, D; Gáliková, E; Kubík, J; Fabianová, E; Jakubis, M

    1998-02-01

    The Nováky Power Station (NPS) has been using since 1953 as fuel coal with a high content of As and with a low content of other metals. This involves a constant risk for the workers as well as pollution of the surroundings. The authors described 16 cases of chronic As intoxication in NPS workers after 22.3 +/- 8.4 years of exposure (especially stokers, maintenance workers, boiler cleaners). Among clinical symptoms prevailed sensory and motor polyneuropathy (13 cases), pseudoneurasthenic syndrome (10 cases), toxic encephalopathy (6 cases) and nasal septum perforation (2 cases). After 1989 the intoxications with As did not occur any more due to technical measures and health protection of the workers. The authors present a review of actual results of clinical, haematological and biochemical investigations and tests for metals (AAS methods) in biological materials of workers at risk in NPS (n = 70), exposed on average for 11.9 +/- 0.5 years, of average age 35.91 +/- 1.7 years (mean +/- SE) and compared the results to a matched control group of blood donors not exposed to metals (n = 29). In NPS workers significantly lower Hb values, higher serum creatinine, higher serum beta 2-microglobulin, higher As content in hair as well as higher serum Mn and Pb concentrations compared with the C-group were found. The exposed group had significantly lower serum Se concentrations (0.64 +/- 0.025 mumol/l (mean +/- SE) compared to Se levels of persons from an adjacent district. The authors stress the necessity of individual evaluation of the metal concentrations in relation to clinical findings. With prolonged exposure the situation can become more urgent not only because of chronic poisoning but also because of the cancerogenic effects of these elements on the human organism. PMID:9524739

  18. Evaluation of Airway Inflammation in Compost Workers Exposed to Bioaerosols Using Exhaled Breath Condensate and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeyer, F; van Kampen, V; Deckert, A; Neumann, H-D; Buxtrup, M; Willer, E; Felten, C; Brüning, T; Raulf, M; Bünger, J

    2015-01-01

    Occupational bioaerosol exposures are capable to cause respiratory diseases. We studied the relationship between exposure to bioaerosols and biomarkers' concentration in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in 119 bioaerosol-exposed compost workers taking into account atopy and smoking habits. Atopy was classified according to specific IgE concentrations to common inhalant allergens (sx1). Bioaerosol exposure was estimated according to job title, duration of employment, results of ambient monitoring at the workplaces, and shift time worked under protection of filtered air supply. Concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and acid-base balance (pH) in EBC and FeNO were assessed in 59 never-smoking (NS) and 60 smoking (S) compost workers. We found that atopic subjects were equally distributed among NS and S (n=16 each). Levels of 8-iso-PGF2α were significantly higher in workers considered highly exposed to bioaerosols than in low exposed workers (86.6 (66.1; 128.8) pg/mL vs. 74.4 (56.3; 96.7) pg/mL, p=0.047). No associations could be observed between exposures and biomarkers concerning compost workers in total, but there were some in atopic workers (duration of employment and FeNO: r=0.376, p=0.041; filtered air supply and FeNO: r=-0.335, p=0.071). Smokers had significantly lower pH values compared to NS (non-atopic, p=0.041; atopic p=0.050). In conclusion, EBC and FeNO might be useful tools for monitoring of inflammation due to bioaerosol exposures, especially in atopic subjects. Besides smoking also atopy should be considered when investigating airway inflammation.

  19. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  20. Neuropsychological Symptoms among Workers Exposed to Toluene and Xylene in Two Paint Manufacturing Factories in Eastern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Jaidee, Wanlop; Saowakhontha, Sastri; Ekburanawat, Wiwat

    2015-01-01

    The study analyzed the exposure factors that may lead to neuropsychological symptoms among 92 workers who were exposed to xylene and toluene and 100 workers who were not exposed to the solvents. The airborne concentration of xylene and toluene was evaluated with personal passive badges. The levels of methyl hippuric acid and hippuric acid in urine were assessed, and interviews were performed to observe the neuropsychological symptoms that may result from exposure to the solvents. The result showed that the average concentration for the exposed group of xylene in the paint company working environment was 2.7 (SD = 2.4) ppm and the average concentration of toluene was 9.5 (SD = 10.4) ppm. The average level of methyl hippuric acid in urine was 78 (SD = 74.7) mg/g creatinine. Factors that affected the neuropsychological symptoms included the following. (1) The impact of age: the risk (adjusted odds ratio) for getting psychosomatic symptoms in persons over 40 and exposed to xylene was 9.5 and the aOR of those exposed to toluene was 8.3. (2) The impact of not providing personal protective equipment was found to be sleep disturbance; it was found that the aOR of those exposed to xylene was 3.9, and the aOR of those exposed to toluene was 4.4. In summary, periodic examination of workers by occupational physician is needed for detection of early neuropsychological effects, especially psychosomatic symptoms, and sleep disturbances. PMID:26290757

  1. Neuropsychological Symptoms among Workers Exposed to Toluene and Xylene in Two Paint Manufacturing Factories in Eastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Jaidee, Wanlop; Saowakhontha, Sastri; Ekburanawat, Wiwat

    2015-01-01

    The study analyzed the exposure factors that may lead to neuropsychological symptoms among 92 workers who were exposed to xylene and toluene and 100 workers who were not exposed to the solvents. The airborne concentration of xylene and toluene was evaluated with personal passive badges. The levels of methyl hippuric acid and hippuric acid in urine were assessed, and interviews were performed to observe the neuropsychological symptoms that may result from exposure to the solvents. The result showed that the average concentration for the exposed group of xylene in the paint company working environment was 2.7 (SD = 2.4) ppm and the average concentration of toluene was 9.5 (SD = 10.4) ppm. The average level of methyl hippuric acid in urine was 78 (SD = 74.7) mg/g creatinine. Factors that affected the neuropsychological symptoms included the following. (1) The impact of age: the risk (adjusted odds ratio) for getting psychosomatic symptoms in persons over 40 and exposed to xylene was 9.5 and the aOR of those exposed to toluene was 8.3. (2) The impact of not providing personal protective equipment was found to be sleep disturbance; it was found that the aOR of those exposed to xylene was 3.9, and the aOR of those exposed to toluene was 4.4. In summary, periodic examination of workers by occupational physician is needed for detection of early neuropsychological effects, especially psychosomatic symptoms, and sleep disturbances. PMID:26290757

  2. Mortality and cancer incidence of aircraft maintenance workers exposed to trichloroethylene and other organic solvents and chemicals: extended follow up

    PubMed Central

    Blair, A.; Hartge, P.; Stewart, P. A.; McAdams, M.; Lubin, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To extend the follow up of a cohort of 14,457 aircraft maintenance workers to the end of 1990 to evaluate cancer risks from potential exposure to trichloroethylene and other chemicals. METHODS: The cohort comprised civilians employed for at least one year between 1952 and 1956, of whom 5727 had died by 31 December 1990. Analyses compared the mortality of the cohort with the general population of Utah and the mortality and cancer incidence of exposed workers with those unexposed to chemicals, while adjusting for age, sex and calendar time. RESULTS: In the combined follow up period (1952-90), mortality from all causes and all cancer was close to expected (standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) 97 and 96, respectively). Significant excesses occurred for ischaemic heart disease (SMR 108), asthma (SMR 160), and cancer of the bone (SMR 227), whereas significant deficits occurred for cerebrovascular disease (SMR 88), accidents (SMR 70), and cancer of the central nervous system (SMR 64). Workers exposed to trichloroethylene showed non-significant excesses for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (relative risk (RR) 2.0), and cancers of the oesophagus (RR 5.6), colon (RR 1.4), primary liver (RR 1.7), breast (RR 1.8), cervix (RR 1.8), kidney (RR 1.6), and bone (RR 2.1). None of these cancers showed an exposure- response gradient and RRs among workers exposed to other chemicals but not trichloroethylene often had RRs as large as workers exposed to trichloroethylene. Workers exposed to solvents other than trichloroethylene had slightly increased mortality from asthma, non- Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer. CONCLUSION: These findings do not strongly support a causal link with trichloroethylene because the associations were not significant, not clearly dose-related, and inconsistent between men and women. Because findings from experimental investigations and other epidemiological studies on solvents other than trichloroethylene provide some biological

  3. Assessment of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in peripheral lymphocytes from tunisian hospital workers exposed to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Sakly, Amina; Ayed, Yosra; Chaari, Neila; Akrout, Mohamed; Bacha, Hassen; Cheikh, Hassen Ben

    2013-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that cytogenetic biomarkers, such as micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes may predict cancer risk because they indicate genomic instability. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequencies of MN and chromosome aberrations (CA) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of hospital workers exposed to ionizing radiation and healthy subjects. The study was conducted using peripheral blood lymphocytes from 30 workers from the radiology department and 30 from the cardiology department. This study included 27 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals as the control group. The assessment of chromosomal damage was carried out by the use of CA and micronucleus assays in peripheral lymphocytes. Our results show that CA and micronucleus frequencies were significantly higher among the exposed groups when compared to controls. Our finding of significant increase of CA and MN frequencies in peripheral lymphocytes in exposed workers indicates a potential cytogenetic hazard due to this exposure. The enhanced chromosomal damage of subjects exposed to genotoxic agents emphasizes the need to develop safety programs. PMID:23216272

  4. Pulmonary function in wood workers exposed to formaldehyde: A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandersson, R.; Hedenstierna, G. )

    1988-10-01

    Employees exposed to formaldehyde in the woodworking industry (N = 47) and nonexposed control subjects (N = 20) were examined in 1980 by spirometry and the nitrogen washout technique. A transient impairment of lung function was noted over a work shift. Five years later, 21 subjects were still experiencing exposure to formaldehyde. A transient decrease in lung function was again found over a work shift, as evidenced by a reduction in forced mid-expiratory flow (FEF{sub 25-75}) of 0,15 l/s and an increase in closing volume (CV%) of 3.0% in nonsmokers. Significant decreases in forced expired volume in 1 s as a percent of forced vital capacity (FEV{sup 1.0}/FVC) and FEF{sub 25-75} were also noted over the 5 y in nonsmokers (0,4% and 0,2 l {center dot} s/y, respectively, after correction for normal aging). After 4 wk of no exposure (holidays), FEF{sub 25-75} and forced expired vital capacity (FVC, FEV{sub 1.0}) returned to normal in the smoking group. Lung function in smokers improved less during the holiday. A dose-response relationship was found between exposure to formaldehyde and decrease in lung function. Thus, industrial exposure to formaldehyde causes transient lung function impairment over a work shift, with a cumulative effect over the years. The impairment, however, can be reversed with 4 wk of no exposure.

  5. Pulmonary function in wood workers exposed to formaldehyde: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Alexandersson, R; Hedenstierna, G

    1989-01-01

    Employees exposed to formaldehyde in the woodworking industry (N = 47) and nonexposed control subjects (N = 20) were examined in 1980 by spirometry and the nitrogen washout technique. A transient impairment of lung function was noted over a work shift. Five years later, 21 subjects were still experiencing exposure to formaldehyde. A transient decrease in lung function was again found over a work shift, as evidenced by a reduction in forced mid-expiratory flow (FEF25-75) of 0.15 l/s and an increase in closing volume (CV%) of 3.0% in nonsmokers. Significant decreases in forced expired volume in 1 s as a percent of forced vital capacity (FEV1.0/FVC) and FEF25-75 were also noted over the 5 y in nonsmokers (0.4% and 0.2 l.s/y, respectively, after correction for normal aging). After 4 wk of no exposure (holidays), FEF25-75 and forced expired vital capacity (FVC, FEV1.0) returned to normal in the smoking group. Lung function in smokers improved less during the holiday. A dose-response relationship was found between exposure to formaldehyde and decrease in lung function. Thus, industrial exposure to formaldehyde causes transient lung function impairment over a work shift, with a cumulative effect over the years. The impairment, however, can be reversed with 4 wk of no exposure.

  6. Serum and urinary beta-2-microglobulin among cadmium-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Iwao, S.; Tsuchiya, K.; Sakurai, H.

    1980-06-01

    The effect of ten years' cadmium (Cd) exposure was investigated among a total of 18 workers (ten with previous heavy exposure, three with recent lower exposure and five control workers) by comparing indicators of previous exposure (blood and urinary Cd and ..beta..2-M) with clinical estimates of renal tubular function. The ten workers still excreted higher concentration of Cd than did the other three workers with low exposure, even after cessation of exposure. Estimates of renal function indicated that most workers among the ten and the three workers did not always exhibit dysfunction. Elevated blood Cd was significantly correlated with elevated serum ..beta..2-M. The study demonstrated that increased ..beta..2-M in urine is not necessarily due to tubular impairment, but may be the result of the increased ..beta..2-M in plasma exceeding the renal threshold.

  7. Cross-shift and longitudinal changes in FEV1 among wood dust exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Gitte Højbjerg; Schlünssen, Vivi; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Acute lung function (LF) changes might predict an accelerated decline in LF. In this study, we investigated the association between cross-shift and longitudinal changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) among woodworkers in a 6-year follow-up study. Methods 817 woodworkers and 136 controls participated with cross-shift changes of FEV1 at baseline and FEV1 and forced vital capacity at follow-up. Height and weight were measured and questionnaire information on respiratory symptoms, employment and smoking habits was collected. Wood dust exposure was assessed from 3572 personal dust measurements at baseline and follow-up. Cumulative wood dust exposure was assessed by a study-specific job exposure matrix and exposure time. Results The median (range) of inhalable dust at baseline and cumulative wood dust exposure was 1.0 (0.2–9.8) mg/m3 and 3.8 (0–7.1) mg year/m3, respectively. Mean (SD) for %ΔFEV1/workday and ΔFEV1/year was 0.2 (6.0)%, and −29.1 (41.8) ml. Linear regression models adjusting for smoking, age, height and weight change showed no association between cross-shift and annual change in FEV1 among woodworkers or controls. Including different exposure estimates, atopy or cross-shift change dichotomised or as quartiles did not change the results. Conclusions This study among workers exposed to low levels of wood dust does not support an association between acute LF changes and accelerated LF decline. PMID:23014594

  8. Evaluation of acute sensory--motor effects and test sensitivity using termiticide workers exposed to chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Dick, R B; Steenland, K; Krieg, E F; Hines, C J

    2001-01-01

    Sensory and motor testing was performed on a group of termiticide workers primarily using chlorpyrifos-containing products to evaluate both the acute effects from current exposure and sensitivity of the measures to detect effects. The study group comprised 106 applicators and 52 nonexposed participants. Current exposure was measured by urinary concentrations of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) collected the morning of testing. The mean TCP value for the 106 applicators was 200 microg/g creatinine. Participants received 4--5 h of testing and were evaluated using a sensory--motor test battery recommended by a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-sponsored advisory panel to be appropriate for testing effects from pesticide exposures. Measurements testing olfactory dysfunction, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision, vibrotactile sensitivity, tremor, manual dexterity, eye--hand coordination, and postural stability were analyzed. Study results indicated limited acute effects from exposure to chlorpyrifos using urinary TCP as a measure of current exposure. The effects occurred primarily on measures of postural sway in the eyes closed and soft-surface conditions, which suggests a possible subclinical effect involving the proprioceptive and vestibular systems. Several other tests of motor and sensory functions did not show any evidence of acute exposure effects, although statistically significant effects of urinary TCP on the Lanthony color vision test scores and one contrast sensitivity test score were found. The visual measures, however, were not significant when a step-down Bonferroni correction was applied. Information also is presented on the sensitivity of the measures to detect effects in an occupationally exposed population using standard error of the parameter estimates. PMID:11485841

  9. Blood biomarkers in metal scrap workers accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M L; Srivastava, N N; Dutta, S; Shukla, S K; Dutta, A; Verma, S; Devi, M

    2013-12-01

    The detrimental effect of nuclear accidents due to localized or whole body radiation exposure results in severe cellular damage. The current study was carried out to evaluate radiation-mediated variability in blood components of metal scrap workers exposed accidently to cobalt-60 source. Blood samples collected initially from five hospitalized patients, coded P1-P5, were processed for total leukocyte counts (TLC), platelet (PLT) counts, haemoglobin, estimation of DNA double strand breaks by measuring phosphorylated form of H2AX (γ-H2AX) and chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics). Blood cells count (TLC), in all the patients except P2, was found decreased. Dicentrics increased in all the five patients. γ-H2AX was found significantly elevated in patients P2 and P4. After 3 days, 21 subjects working in close vicinity of accident site were evaluated for the above-mentioned markers to confirm their possibility of radiation exposure; however, all the parameters in these subjects were found within normal limits. Blood from patients P1-P5 was collected again after 11 days. Studies revealed exorbitant increase in γ-H2AX in lymphocytes and monocytes of patients P1, P4 and P5. TLC and PLT count in these patients had fallen further. Dicentrics declined with time in all the five patients. Based on the studied blood biomarkers, we conclude that the five subjects showed signs of radiation exposure. Measurement on radiation dose could not be performed in the current study; however, the generated data particularly on dicentrics provide ample evidence of radiation exposure.

  10. Old scissors to industrial automation: the impact of technologic evolution on worker's health.

    PubMed

    Teodoroski, Rita de Cassia Clark; Koppe, Vanessa Mazzocchi; Merino, Eugênio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    To cut a fabric, the professional performs different jobs and among them stands out the cut. The scissors has been the instrument most used for this activity. Over the years, technology has been conquering its space in the textile industry. However, despite the industrial automation able to offer subsidies to answer employment market demands, without appropriate orientation, the worker is exposed to the risks inherent at the job. Ergonomics is a science that search to promote the comfort and well being in consonance with efficacy. Its goals are properly well defined and clearly guide the actions aimed at transforming the working conditions. This study aimed to analyze the activity of cut tissues with a machine by a seamstress and the implications on their body posture. The methodology used was the observation technique and application of the Protocol RULA, where the result obtained was the level 3 and score 5, confirming that "investigations and changes are required soon". Conclude that using the machine to tissue cut should be encouraged, but in conjunction with orientations for improving posture while handling it. It seeks to prevent dysfunction of the musculoskeletal system that prevents employees from performing their work tasks efficiently and productively.

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practices of Egyptian industrial and tourist workers towards HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    El-Sayyed, N; Kabbash, I A; El-Gueniedy, M

    2008-01-01

    This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS infection among 1256 Egyptian industrial and tourism workers aged 16-40 years. Compared with industrial workers, tourism workers had a significantly better perception of the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS problem worldwide as well as in Egypt and of the likelihood of the problem worsening. Knowledge of tourism workers was also significantly better about causative agent of AIDS and methods of transmission. Both groups had negative attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS concerning their right to confidentiality and to work. Both groups had a positive attitude towards behaviour change for protection from HIV/AIDS, principally via avoidance of extramarital sexual relations and adherence to religious beliefs. Use of condoms as a way to avoid HIV/AIDS was reported by only 0.4% of workers. PMID:19161085

  12. More evidence of unpublished industry studies of lead smelter/refinery workers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Lead smelter/refinery workers in the US have had significant exposure to lead and are an important occupational group to study to understand the health effects of chronic lead exposure in adults. Recent research found evidence that studies of lead smelter/refinery workers have been conducted but not published. This paper presents further evidence for this contention. Objectives To present further evidence of industry conducted, unpublished epidemiologic studies of lead smelter/refinery workers and health outcomes. Methods Historical research relying on primary sources such as internal industry documents and published studies. Results ASARCO smelter/refinery workers were studied in the early 1980s and found to have increased risk of lung cancer and stroke in one study, but not in another. Conclusions Because occupational lead exposure is an on-going concern for US and overseas workers, all epidemiologic studies should be made available to evaluate and update occupational health and safety standards. PMID:26070220

  13. Tinnitus as an early indicator of permanent hearing loss. A 15 year longitudinal study of noise exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Griest, S E; Bishop, P M

    1998-07-01

    A retrospective study was designed to evaluate tinnitus (ringing or other sounds in the ears or head) as a potential early indicator of permanent hearing loss in a population of noise exposed workers. Data were examined from 91 male employees working in environments with noise levels ranging from 8 hour time weighted averages of 85 to 101 dBA over a period of 15 years. Results of annual audiometric testing were obtained as part of an ongoing hearing conservation program conducted since 1971 by ESCO Corporation, a steel foundry located in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area. Results indicate the prevalence of tinnitus increases more than two and one half times for workers experiencing maximum threshold shifts > or = 15 decibels in hearing level (dBHL). Results also provide evidence that reports of tinnitus at the time of annual audiometric testing may be useful in identifying workers at greater risk for developing significant shifts in hearing thresholds. PMID:9748912

  14. [Health protection of workers occupationally exposed to effects of electromagnetic fields in Poland and in the European Union member states].

    PubMed

    Wagrowska-Koski, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields, one of potentially harmful physical agents present in the work environment in Poland, are under a constant surveillance regulated by the law. Among others, the surveillance involves periodical measurements of electromagnetic field (EMF) intensities in the work environment and medical prophylactic examination of workers at the employers' expense. The introduction of new MAC values imposes extra responsibilities on occupational health services, resulting from the need to verify the number of workers exposed to EMF at frequency bands corresponding with protection zones, and the need to set an appropriate range of prophylactic examinations, taking account of the current body of knowledge of biological effects of EMF and their hazards to workers' health. The suggestions how to change the range and frequency of medical prophylactic examinations are presented. The differences in occupational health care between Poland and the European Union members states, as well as changes in legal regulations on occupational diseases are discussed.

  15. Biological effect monitoring in industrial workers following incidental exposure to high concentrations of ethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Tates, A D; Boogaard, P J; Darroudi, F; Natarajan, A T; Caubo, M E; van Sittert, N J

    1995-06-01

    Peripheral blood from four groups of seven workers from a chemical manufacturing plant in The Netherlands was analyzed for hemoglobin adducts in erythrocytes and for hprt mutants, micronuclei and SCEs in lymphocytes. Group I workers were incidentally exposed to acute high doses of ethylene oxide ranging from 52 to 785 mg/m3. Group II and III workers were chronically exposed to low doses of ethylene oxide for < 5 years or > 15 years respectively. Group IV workers served as unexposed controls and came from the Occupational Health Department. Hemoglobin adduct levels in group I workers were very high and ranged from 1461 to 19913 pmol HOEtVal/g Hb approximately 1 month after the accident. HOEtVal values for group II and III workers fluctuated between 0 and 190 pmol/g Hb corresponding with average EtO exposure levels in the range of < 0.01 and 0.06 mg/m3 EtO. The statistical analysis of the genetic data did not reveal any statistically significant differences between any combination of worker groups. The genetic tests for group I workers were performed on blood samples collected 89-180 days after the incidental exposure. The absence of enhanced frequencies of mutations, micronuclei and SCEs suggests that significant induction of hprt mutations in vivo did not occur and that persistent preclastogenic lesions were not present in significant amounts when the exposed lymphocytes were put in culture to visualize any induced cytogenetic damage. This finding implies that the incidental exposure to high concentrations of EtO did not cause any measurable permanent mutational/cytogenetic damage in exposed lymphocytes.

  16. Ventilatory function in workers exposed to low levels of toluene diisocyanate: a six-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Peters, John M.; Murphy, Raymond L. H.; Ferris, Benjamin G.

    1969-01-01

    Peters, John M., Murphy, Raymond L. H., and Ferris, Benjamin, G., Jr. (1969).Brit. J. industr. Med.,26, 115-120. Ventilatory function in workers exposed to low levels of toluene diisocyanate: a six-month follow-up. Thirty-four workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate during production of polyurethane foam were examined with a respiratory questionnaire and tests of ventilatory capacity. The tests of pulmonary function were conducted on Monday morning and afternoon and on Tuesday morning and afternoon. Twenty-eight of these 34 workers had been examined with the same tests six months earlier. On Monday a mean change in the one-second forced expiratory volume (F.E.V.1·0) of –0·16 l. occurred that did not return to the baseline value (Monday a.m.) on Tuesday morning. A statistically significant decrease in all the measurements of ventilatory capacity except the forced vital capacity occurred over the six months in the 28 workers. The F.E.V.1·0 fell an average of 0·14 l. and flow rates at 75%, 50%, 25%, and 10% of vital capacity also decreased significantly. There was a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0·72) between one-day changes in F.E.V.1·0 (measured six months earlier) and six-month changes in F.E.V.1·0. Workers with respiratory symptoms (cough and/or phlegm) demonstrated greater falls in F.E.V.1·0 than did asymptomatic workers. All air concentrations of toluene diisocyanate measured during this study were below the threshold limit value (0·02 p.p.m.). PMID:5780102

  17. Prediction models and risk assessment for silicosis using a retrospective cohort study among workers exposed to silica in China

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Lap Ah; Dai, Juncheng; Chen, Minghui; Liu, Yuewei; Zhang, Hao; Wong, Tze Wai; Leung, Chi Chiu; Kromhout, Hans; Meijer, Evert; Liu, Su; Wang, Feng; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop a prognostic risk prediction model for the development of silicosis among workers exposed to silica dust in China. The prediction model was performed by using retrospective cohort of 3,492 workers exposed to silica in an iron ore, with 33 years of follow-up. We developed a risk score system using a linear combination of the predictors weighted by the LASSO penalized Cox regression coefficients. The model’s predictive accuracy was evaluated using time-dependent ROC curves. Six predictors were selected into the final prediction model (age at entry of the cohort, mean concentration of respirable silica, net years of dust exposure, smoking, illiteracy, and no. of jobs). We classified workers into three risk groups according to the quartile (Q1, Q3) of risk score; 203 (23.28%) incident silicosis cases were derived from the high risk group (risk score ≥ 5.91), whilst only 4 (0.46%) cases were from the low risk group (risk score < 3.97). The score system was regarded as accurate given the range of AUCs (83–96%). This study developed a unique score system with a good internal validity, which provides scientific guidance to the clinicians to identify high-risk workers, thus has important cost efficient implications. PMID:26090590

  18. Psychological performance in relation to central and peripheral nerve conduction in workers exposed to lead, zinc, and copper

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, S.; Yokoyama, K.; Aono, H.; Murata, K.

    1986-01-01

    Psychological performance was examined in relation to central and peripheral nerve conduction by means of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale test, short-latency somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP), and median nerve conduction velocity in 19 male gun-metal foundry workers exposed to lead, zinc, and copper. (Their blood lead concentrations--ie, 16-64 micrograms/dl with a mean of 42--and plasma zinc and copper concentrations were significantly higher than those of control subjects). In these workers, the score of picture completion (psychological performance) was significantly low; indicators of lead absorption, but no indicators of zinc and copper absorption, were significantly correlated with this score. The score of picture completion was significantly correlated with the N11-N13 latency of SSEP (conduction time in the spinobulbar region) in the workers; their N11-N13 latency, together with the N9 and N9-N11 latencies, was significantly prolonged and was significantly correlated with indicators of lead absorption. Furthermore, their maximal motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were significantly slowed. It is concluded that both psychological performance and central and peripheral nerve conduction may be impaired in lead-exposed workers with BPb's below approximately 60 micrograms/dl.

  19. [Immune state of workers exposed to nickel aerosols in galvanic production].

    PubMed

    Dueva, L A; Sivochalova, O V; Tsidil'kovskaia, E S; Makarova-Zemlianskaia, E N

    2006-01-01

    Galvanic production workers appeared to have mainly humoral immunity activated--sensitization to nickel, reliable prevalence of immune disorders in males over females, significant influence of immune overstrain on frequency of acute respiratory infections and allergic conditions. The authors justified approaches to safe immune prophylaxis of diseases in workers.

  20. Studies of the mutagenic effects of styrene to man: conclusions for the surveillance of styrene-exposed workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothe, Roland; Schmidt, P.; Grummt, T.; Grummt, H. J.; Kersten, N.; Weigmann, Hans-Juergen

    1993-03-01

    One hundred fifty-six styrene-exposed workers had a fourfold higher rate of chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes than the control persons. The parameters of clinical chemistry (liver, kidney, and blood) remained in the normal range. Further analyses of the data of this study revealed no connections of the degree of effects in clinical chemistry and the exposure level. But a connection exists to the duration of exposure (3 - 26 years): in the comparison of the mean values (all mean values within the normal range) significant differences were found between long-term exposed workers (more than ten years) and control persons. In the higher age groups (above 45 years) also the GAP-rate differences are more pronounced. Seventy percent of the TWA-values were found to be below 85 mg/m3; the arithmetic mean of the TWA-values 72,3 mg/m3. A health surveillance program to styrene-exposed workers is to be reviewed (clinical chemistry and genetic effects). Proposals concerning both problems are presented.

  1. [Review and perspective of a long-term follow-up of two cohorts of workers heavily exposed to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Chamoux, Alain

    2015-01-01

    National screening programs for detection of breast, colon and cervical cancers have been set up in France. Occupational cancers are excluded from these programs. Surveillance is left to the initiative of former employees who can initiate post-professional medical monitoring. This study describes an experience of such monitoring organised by the health insurance in collaboration with "victims". The long term follow-up, every two years, of 324 workers directly and heavily exposed to asbestos confirms the high risk of developing lung cancer, mesothelioma or asbestosis, the latter at times rapidly evolving. The early discovery of 3 bronchopulmonary cancers points to the interest of an annual or biannual routine screening. While new imaging techniques reduce by a factor of 8 irradiation, without significantly affecting the diagnostic capacity, the health benefit provided by annual monitoring scanner in heavy smokers favors an early detection program for lung cancers. The population targeted for such a screening (active or former smoker with pleural plaques) should be defined in more detail. The increasingly frequent observation of lung or pleural changes besides the populations at risk should also be considered. Therefore the detecting procedures applied to those workers indirectly or discontinuously exposed should be reassessed (only 1 TDM at 60 y, or on retirement, for the relevant occupations). These data suggest that the recommendation HAS 2010 for post-professional screening of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos should be reconsidered, particularly in case of pleural plaques. An organized screening program needs to be overhauled.

  2. Positive dermal hypersensitivity and specific antibodies in workers exposed to bio-engineered enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Biagini, R.E.; Henningsen, G.M.; Driscoll, R.; MacKenzie, B.A.; Wilcox, T.; Scinto, J.D.; Bernstein, D.M.; Swanson, M. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN )

    1991-03-15

    Thirty-six employees who produced industrial enzymes from bio-engineered strains of bacteria and fungi were evaluated by skin prick testing and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays for specific IgE and IgG antibodies. The workers complained of asthma- and flu-like' symptoms which generally lessened away from work. The enzymes evaluated were {alpha}-amylase from A. niger (ind-AAN), B. licheniformis (ind-AAL) and B. subtilis (ind-AAS); purified {alpha}-amylase from B. subtilis (AAS) and A. niger (AAN); alkaline protease from B. licheniformis (ind-APL) and purified alkaline protease (APL); amylase glucosidase from A. niger (ind-AGN) and purified amylase glucosidase (AGN). Significantly positive skin tests were found for APL, AGN and ind-AAN. Significantly elevated specific IgE results were observed for AAN, AGN, and ind-AAN; elevated specific IgGs were observed for AAN, ind-AAN, ind-AAS, ind-AAL and ind-AGN. Radioimmunoassays of air filter samples (using sera with high Ab titers) for 4 of the ind-enzymes showed only ind-AAN at extremely high environmental levels. These results indicate that occupational exposure to some ind-enzymes causes immediate onset dermal hypersensitivity reactions. The results are equivocal as to whether these reactions are IgE mediated, as IgE titers were low. Contrary to this, IgG titers were extremely high and suggest that these biomarkers can be used as indicators of both individual exposure and environmental analyses.

  3. Increased incidence of anti-dsDNA autoantibody concentration in sera of workers occupationally exposed to diisocyanates.

    PubMed

    Czuppon, A B; Marczynski, B; Scheer, E; Hartmann, R; Baur, X

    1993-01-01

    Sera of 87 industrial workers with a history of occupational exposition to various diisocyanates, toluene diisocyanate, hexamethylene diisocyanate and methylene-diphenyl diisocyanate were analyzed for antibodies to isocyanate-conjugated human serum albumin and for anti-dsDNA autoantibodies. Ten workers (approx. 11%) were shown to have elevated anti-dsDNA autoantibody concentrations and 13 revealed antibodies to isocyanate-modified human serum albumin. The overlap of both tests being positive was calculated at about 40%. It would seem, therefore, that routine estimation of anti-dsDNA autoantibodies could provide additional useful information for the clinical diagnosis of occupational health impairment due to isocyanate exposure.

  4. Measurement of vitamin D3 metabolites in smelter workers exposed to lead and cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Chalkley, S. R.; Richmond, J.; Barltrop, D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of lead and cadmium on the metabolic pathway of vitamin D3. METHODS: Blood and urinary cadmium and urinary total proteins were measured in 59 smelter workers occupationally exposed to lead and cadmium. In 19 of these workers, the plasma vitamin D3 metabolites, (25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25 OHD3), 24R, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (24R,25(OH)2D3) and 1 alpha,25- dihydroxycholecalciferol (1 alpha, 25(OH)2D3)) were measured together with blood lead. Vitamin D3 metabolites were measured by radioimmunoassay, (RIA), lead and cadmium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and total proteins with a test kit. RESULTS: Ranges for plasma 25(OH)D3, 24R,25(OH)2D3 and 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 were 1.0-51.9 ng/ml, 0.6-5.8 ng/ml, and 0.1-75.7 pg/ml, respectively. Ranges for blood lead were 1-3.7 mumol/l, (21-76 micrograms/dl), blood cadmium 6- 145 nmol/l, and urinary cadmium 3-161 nmol/l. Total proteins in random urine samples were 2.1-32.6 mg/dl. Concentrations of lead and cadmium in blood showed no correlation (correlation coefficient -0.265) but there was a highly significant correlation between blood and urinary cadmium. Concentrations for 24R,25(OH)2D3 were depressed below the normal range as blood and urinary cadmium increased, irrespective of lead concentrations. High cadmium concentrations were associated with decreased plasma 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 when lead concentrations were < 1.9 mumol/l and with above normal plasma 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 when lead concentrations were > 1.9 mumol/l, Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (K-W ANOVA) chi 2 = 10.3, p = 0.006. Plasma 25(OH)D3 was negatively correlated with both urinary total proteins and urinary cadmium, but showed no correlation with plasma 24R,25(OH)2D3, 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3, blood lead, or blood cadmium. CONCLUSION: Continuous long term exposure to cadmium may result in a state of equilibrium between blood and urinary cadmium. Cadmium concentrations in blood could be predicted from the cadmium

  5. Assessment of genotoxic risks in Croatian health care workers occupationally exposed to cytotoxic drugs: a multi-biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Kopjar, Nevenka; Garaj-Vrhovac, Verica; Kasuba, Vilena; Rozgaj, Ruzica; Ramić, Snjezana; Pavlica, Vesna; Zeljezić, Davor

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate genome damage induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Croatian health care workers occupationally exposed to cytotoxic drugs. A comprehensive multi-biomarker approach using the alkaline comet assay and cytogenetic endpoints (analysis of structural chromosome aberrations, SCE assay, lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay) was employed. The study included two populations of subjects: 50 health care workers occupationally exposed to cytotoxic drugs and 50 control subjects matched in age, gender and smoking habit. An investigation regarding the handling practice with cytotoxic drugs was conducted in parallel. Results obtained indicate high exposure levels at workplace that should be reduced. The values recorded among the occupationally exposed subjects were as follows: mean comet tail length: 17.46+/-0.08 microm; the incidence of long-tailed nuclei: 54.68+/-3.93%; 4.48+/-0.33 structural chromosome aberrations per 200 cells; 5.81+/-0.04 SCE per 50 cells; 29.28+/-2.21% of high-frequency cells; proliferation rate index: 1.97+/-0.12; and 16.32+/-0.85 micronuclei per 1000 binuclear cells. All these values indicated higher levels of DNA and cytogenetic damage compared to the general population. Obtained results also confirmed that the frequency of long-tailed nuclei in the alkaline comet assay represents a helpful complement to other well-established comet parameters. The age of subjects and smoking habit significantly influenced the values of both comet and cytogenetic endpoints. Overall results of this study confirmed that handling cytotoxic drugs without appropriate safety precautions involves a potential genotoxic risk for exposed subjects. Before a strict monitoring of exposure levels on each workplace becomes a standard practice in Croatian hospitals, cytogenetic surveillance of exposed workers is also recommended, at least in cases of accidental exposure. PMID:19049854

  6. Long-term exposure to jet fuel: an investigation on occupationally exposed workers with special reference to the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Knave, B; Persson, H E; Goldberg, J M; Westerholm, P

    1976-09-01

    In the present study the results of a neurological and neurophysiological health examination of 29 aircraft factory workers chronically exposed to jet fuel vapors are presented. The exposed subjects were classified into a heavily exposed and a less heavily exposed group. The examination included a standardized clinical neurological examination, measurements of the conduction velocities in the peripheral nerves, and threshold determinations of vibratory sensations in the extremities. All 13 persons examined in the heavily exposed group and 7 of the 16 in the less heavily exposed group stated that they had repeatedly experienced acute effects (dizziness, respiratory tract symptoms, heart palpitations, a feeling of pressure on the chest, nausea, headache) of the jet fuel vapors in the inhaled air. A high rate of symptoms indicative of neurasthenia and psychasthenia and symptoms and signs indicative of polyneuropathy was observed both in the heavily exposed group and in the two groups combined in comparison with reference groups. Considering the presented facts concerning (a) the acute effects on repeated occasions, (b) the high rates of symptoms indicative of neurasthenia and psychasthenia and symptoms and signs indicative of polyneuropathy, and (c) the differences in the observations made between the two groups with varying degrees of exposure to jet fuel, the authors interpreted the results as indicative of a possible effect of long-term exposure to jet fuel on the nervous system.

  7. Housing Seasonal Workers for the Minnesota Processed Vegetable Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziebarth, Ann

    2006-01-01

    The place where we live and work is a reflection of a complex set of economic conditions and social relationships. Very little information is available regarding housing for Minnesota's migrant workers. It is estimated that approximately 20,000 people migrate to Minnesota each summer to work in the production and processing of green peas and sweet…

  8. Follow up study of workers exposed to man made mineral fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J M; Jones, R N; Glindmeyer, H W; Hammad, Y Y; Weill, H

    1993-01-01

    A survey of workers in seven man made mineral fibre (MMMF) production plants, the subject of a previous report, was conducted, with other blue collar workers serving as regional comparisons. Based on the median reading of chest radiographs by five readers, a low prevalence of small opacities, all at the 1/0 and 1/1 profusion levels, was again found: for workers with MMMFs, 23/1435 (1.6%); for comparison workers, 2/305 (0.7%). Spirometric measurements indicated generally healthy populations, and were not related to presence of opacities. Ninety three per cent (21/23) of MMMF workers with opacities worked at the two plants with the highest exposures to fine fibres, resulting in a dose-response relation across plants. For one location, the prevalences of opacities for the MMMF and comparison workers were not significantly different (5.9% (13/220) v 3.1% (2/65)). No comparison x ray films were obtained for the MMMF plant with the highest prevalence (6.6%), so a second phase of the study was conducted, with pre-employment films from these two plants. On this second reading, the prevalence of opacities was lower; there were no significant differences between the two groups of films, and no relation between opacities and exposure indices. There was considerable inter and intrareader variability. These results indicate no adverse clinical, functional or radiographic signs of effects of exposure to MMMFs in these workers. PMID:8343428

  9. Epidemiological study of respiratory disease in workers exposed to polyvinylchloride dust.

    PubMed Central

    Soutar, C A; Copland, L H; Thornley, P E; Hurley, J F; Ottery, J; Adams, W G; Bennett, B

    1980-01-01

    The respiratory health of workers exposed to polyvinylchloride (PVC) dust has been investigated in 818 men sampled from the work force of a factory manufacturing PVC. In a cross-sectional survey, the lung function and prevalences of respiratory symptoms and chest radiographic abnormalities were compared with estimates of individual PVC dust exposures based on detailed occupational histories and current measurements of respirable PVC dust. Complaints of slight exertional dyspnoea were associated with PVC dust exposure, though age and smoking effects were much stronger. The forced expired volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were inversely related to dust exposure after age, height, and smoking effects had been taken into account. This effect was seen principally in cigarette smokers, and there was suggestive evidence that PVC dust exposure and cigarette smoking interacted in the reduction of FEV1 and FVC. Gas transfer factor was not related to dust exposure. The chest radiographs were read according to the ILO U/C classification by three experienced readers. One reader recorded a low prevalence of small rounded opacities, and these were not related to age or dust exposure. Another reader recorded a higher prevalence of small rounded opacities category 0/1 or more, and these were related to age but not to dust exposure. The third reader recorded the highest prevalence of small rounded opacities (though none greater than category 1/1), and these were independently related both to age and to PVC dust exposure, indicating an effect of PVC dust on the appearance of the chest radiography. These appearances were so slight that only the higher sensitivity of this reader in the interpretation of profusion of small rounded opacities on the ILO U/C scale enabled detection of this effect of PVC dust. In conclusion, exposure to PVC dust is associated with some deterioration of lung function, slight abnormalities of the chest radiograph, and complaints of

  10. Occupational dermatitis in a milk industry worker due to Kathon CG.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Redondo, Virginia; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Toribio, Jaime

    2004-06-01

    The allergenic properties of the preservative Kathon CG have been well known since 1980. Kathon CG is regularly used in many industrial processes because of its germicidal powers. The most common sources of exposure for people are cosmetics and toiletries. Occupational contact dermatitis is unusual among milk industry workers because of the high level of factory automation. PMID:15473332

  11. Occupational dermatitis in a milk industry worker due to Kathon CG.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Redondo, Virginia; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Toribio, Jaime

    2004-06-01

    The allergenic properties of the preservative Kathon CG have been well known since 1980. Kathon CG is regularly used in many industrial processes because of its germicidal powers. The most common sources of exposure for people are cosmetics and toiletries. Occupational contact dermatitis is unusual among milk industry workers because of the high level of factory automation.

  12. Natural Resources. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile. Forest Industry Worker. Resource Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This competency analysis profile lists 155 competencies that have been identified by employers as core competencies for inclusion in programs to train forest industry and resource conservation workers. The core competencies are organized into 10 units dealing the following: general safety precautions, natural resource industry operations, soil…

  13. Biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticide mixtures in Guerrero state, Mexico, with comet assay and micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure. PMID:26423288

  14. Biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticide mixtures in Guerrero state, Mexico, with comet assay and micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure.

  15. Concentrations and size distribution of inhalable and respirable dust among sugar industry workers: a pilot study in Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sakunkoo, Pornpun; Chaiear, Naesinee; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Sadhra, Steven

    2011-11-01

    There has been very limited information regarding bagasse exposure among workers in sugar industries as well as on health outcomes. The authors determined the occupational exposure of sugar industry workers in Khon Kaen to airborne bagasse dust. The size of the bagasse dust ranged from 0.08 to 9 µm with the highest size concentration of 2.1 to 4.7 µm. The most common size had a geometric mean diameter of 5.2 µm, with a mass concentration of 6.89 mg/m(3)/log µm. The highest mean values of inhalable and respirable dust were found to be 9.29 mg/m(3) from February to April in bagasse storage, 5.12 mg/m(3) from May to September, and 4.12 mg/m(3) from October to January. Inhalable dust concentrations were 0.33, 0.47, and 0.41 mg/m(3), respectively. Workers are likely to be exposed to high concentrations of bagasse dust and are at risk of respiratory diseases. Preventive measures, both in the form of engineering designs and personal protective devices, should be implemented.

  16. Urinary mutagenicity, CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity in textile industry workers.

    PubMed

    Fanlo, Ana; Sinuès, Blanca; Mayayo, Esteban; Bernal, Luisa; Soriano, Antonia; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; Martínez-Ballarín, Enrique

    2004-11-01

    The two major causes of bladder cancer have been recognised to be cigarette smoke and occupational exposure to arylamines. These compounds are present both in tobacco smoke and in the dyes used in textile production. Aromatic amines suffer oxidative metabolism via P450 cytochrome CYP1A2, and detoxification by the polymorphic NAT2. The aim of the present work was to assess the association between occupational-derived exposure to mutagens and CYP1A2 or NAT2 activity. This cross-sectional study included 117 textile workers exposed to dyes and 117 healthy controls. The urinary mutagenicity was determined in 24 h urine using TA98 Salmonella typhimurium strain with microsomal activation S9 (MIS9) or incubation with beta-glucuronidase (MIbeta). Urinary caffeine metabolite ratios: AFMU+1X+1U/17U, and AFMU/AFMU+1X+1U were calculated to assess CYP1A2 and NAT2 activities, respectively. The results show that workers present a strikingly higher urine mutagenicity than controls (p<0.0001), despite the implementation of the new restrictive norms forbidding the industrial use of the most carcinogenic arylamines. Neither NAT2 nor CYP1A2 activity had any effect on the markers of internal exposure to mutagens, since no significant differences were observed when the urinary mutagenicity of slow and fast acetylators (p>0.05) was compared, and the urinary mutagenicity was not significantly associated with the CYP1A2 activity marker (r=0.04 and r=-0.01 for MIS9 and MIbeta, respectively). This study clearly indicates the need for further protective policies to minimise exposure to the lowest feasible limit in order to avoid unnecessary risks.

  17. Exhaled Breath Condensate as a Suitable Matrix to Assess Lung Dose and Effects in Workers Exposed to Cobalt and Tungsten

    PubMed Central

    Goldoni, Matteo; Catalani, Simona; De Palma, Giuseppe; Manini, Paola; Acampa, Olga; Corradi, Massimo; Bergonzi, Roberto; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exhaled breath condensate (EBC), a fluid formed by cooling exhaled air, can be used as a suitable matrix to assess target tissue dose and effects of inhaled cobalt and tungsten, using EBC malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of pulmonary oxidative stress. Thirty-three workers exposed to Co and W in workshops producing either diamond tools or hard-metal mechanical parts participated in this study. Two EBC and urinary samples were collected: one before and one at the end of the work shift. Controls were selected among nonexposed workers. Co, W, and MDA in EBC were analyzed with analytical methods based on mass spectrometric reference techniques. In the EBC from controls, Co was detectable at ultratrace levels, whereas W was undetectable. In exposed workers, EBC Co ranged from a few to several hundred nanomoles per liter. Corresponding W levels ranged from undetectable to several tens of nanomoles per liter. A parallel trend was observed for much higher urinary levels. Both Co and W in biological media were higher at the end of the work shift in comparison with preexposure values. In EBC, MDA levels were increased depending on Co concentration and were enhanced by coexposure to W. Such a correlation between EBC MDA and both Co and W levels was not observed with urinary concentration of either element. These results suggest the potential usefulness of EBC to complete and integrate biomonitoring and health surveillance procedures among workers exposed to mixtures of transition elements and hard metals. PMID:15345342

  18. Increase in DNA damage in lymphocytes and micronucleus frequency in buccal cells in silica-exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ajanta; De, Madhusnata

    2012-01-01

    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was applied to study the genotoxic properties of silica in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The study was designed to evaluate the DNA damage of lymphocytes and the end points like micronuclei from buccal smears in a group of 45 workers, occupationally exposed to silica, from small mines and stone quarries. The results were compared to 20 sex and age matched normal individuals. There was a statistically significant difference in the damage levels between the exposed group and the control groups. The types of damages (type I –type 1V) were used to measure the DNA damage. The numbers of micronuclei were higher in the silica-exposed population. The present study suggests that the silica exposure can induce lymphocyte DNA damage and produces significant variation of micronuclei in buccal smear. PMID:23112505

  19. Thermography in mass screening investigations of industrial workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chehter, A. I.; Ginsburg, L. I.; Traktinsky, A. G.

    1993-11-01

    The role of thermography in screening, directed to diagnose breast diseases, chronic tonsillitis, neurocirculatory dystonia, gall bladder dyskinesia, sinusitis, and to detect the character of influence of harmful factors on workers organisms is studied. The investigations demonstrate a possibility of a successful utilization of thermography in mass prophylactive examinations in order to diagnose these diseases, but the problem of breast tumors diagnostics demands the following investigations.

  20. Microbial incidence in upper respiratory tracts of workers in the paper industry.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, S I; Väätänen, P; Mentu, J; Jokinen, A; Jäppinen, P; Sillanpää, P

    1985-07-01

    The incidence of microbes in the nasal cavities of workers in three paper and board mills was investigated. A total of 234 persons exposed to microbial aerosols and splashes from paper machine wires and debarker drums formed the exposed group. The control group consisted of 294 workers from the dry working areas: the winding and packing sections. Chi-square analysis was used to test the differences in the frequency of microbial incidence and various symptoms between the exposed and control groups. The nasal cavities of many workers, particularly workers in the debarkers, proved to be contaminated by Klebsiella pneumoniae, other coliforms, yeasts, and molds; usually only one microbe was involved, but sometimes two or several species were found. Nasal bacteria and yeasts were largely derived from the mill and debarker air; the microbes in the air came mainly from process waters. Lack of association of nasopharyngeal symptoms with either exposure to aerosols or nasal microbial contamination was interpreted as an indication of host defenses that were adequate to protect workers from harmful microbial colonization in paper mill environments. PMID:3896140

  1. Industrial workers' health and environmental pollution under the new international division of labor: the Taiwan experience.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, M S; Huang, C L

    1997-01-01

    Using Taiwan as an example, this paper conducts a historical analysis of the relationship between economic development in the new international division of labor and environmental pollution and industrial workers' health. Three industries-asbestos, plastic, and dye-were chosen for case studies. We trace the emergence of each industry in Taiwan and study each industry's protection of workers' health and environmental quality. Under the new international division of labor, the state's prioritization of economic development leads to lenient regulation. Under such state policies, employers have few incentives to invest in the protection of their workers' health and in the control of environmental pollution. Workers and the public are constrained in their efforts to protect their own health and prevent environmental pollution. This situation is exemplified by the deplorable working conditions and inadequate environmental pollution controls in the asbestos, plastic, and dye industries. Workers' health and the public's health are greatly compromised by economic development in the new international division of labor. Images p1228-a p1228-b PMID:9240119

  2. A retrospective cohort study of cause-specific mortality and incidence of hematopoietic malignancies in Chinese benzene-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Linet, Martha S; Yin, Song-Nian; Gilbert, Ethel S; Dores, Graça M; Hayes, Richard B; Vermeulen, Roel; Tian, Hao-Yuan; Lan, Qing; Portengen, Lutzen; Ji, Bu-Tian; Li, Gui-Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2015-11-01

    Benzene exposure has been causally linked with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but inconsistently associated with other hematopoietic, lymphoproliferative and related disorders (HLD) or solid tumors in humans. Many neoplasms have been described in experimental animals exposed to benzene. We used Poisson regression to estimate adjusted relative risks (RR) and the likelihood ratio statistic to derive confidence intervals for cause-specific mortality and HLD incidence in 73,789 benzene-exposed compared with 34,504 unexposed workers in a retrospective cohort study in 12 cities in China. Follow-up and outcome assessment was based on factory, medical and other records. Benzene-exposed workers experienced increased risks for all-cause mortality (RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) due to excesses of all neoplasms (RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.4), respiratory diseases (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 2.3) and diseases of blood forming organs (RR = ∞, 95% CI = 3.4, ∞). Lung cancer mortality was significantly elevated (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9) with similar RRs for males and females, based on three-fold more cases than in our previous follow-up. Significantly elevated incidence of all myeloid disorders reflected excesses of myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 6.6) and chronic myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 0.8, 11), and increases of all lymphoid disorders included excesses of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR = 3.9, 95%CI = 1.5, 13) and all lymphoid leukemia (RR = 5.4, 95%CI = 1.0, 99). The 28-year follow-up of Chinese benzene-exposed workers demonstrated increased risks of a broad range of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms, lung cancer, and respiratory diseases and suggested possible associations with other malignant and non-malignant disorders.

  3. A retrospective cohort study of cause-specific mortality and incidence of hematopoietic malignancies in Chinese benzene-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Linet, Martha S; Yin, Song-Nian; Gilbert, Ethel S; Dores, Graça M; Hayes, Richard B; Vermeulen, Roel; Tian, Hao-Yuan; Lan, Qing; Portengen, Lutzen; Ji, Bu-Tian; Li, Gui-Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2015-11-01

    Benzene exposure has been causally linked with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but inconsistently associated with other hematopoietic, lymphoproliferative and related disorders (HLD) or solid tumors in humans. Many neoplasms have been described in experimental animals exposed to benzene. We used Poisson regression to estimate adjusted relative risks (RR) and the likelihood ratio statistic to derive confidence intervals for cause-specific mortality and HLD incidence in 73,789 benzene-exposed compared with 34,504 unexposed workers in a retrospective cohort study in 12 cities in China. Follow-up and outcome assessment was based on factory, medical and other records. Benzene-exposed workers experienced increased risks for all-cause mortality (RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) due to excesses of all neoplasms (RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.4), respiratory diseases (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 2.3) and diseases of blood forming organs (RR = ∞, 95% CI = 3.4, ∞). Lung cancer mortality was significantly elevated (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9) with similar RRs for males and females, based on three-fold more cases than in our previous follow-up. Significantly elevated incidence of all myeloid disorders reflected excesses of myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 6.6) and chronic myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 0.8, 11), and increases of all lymphoid disorders included excesses of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR = 3.9, 95%CI = 1.5, 13) and all lymphoid leukemia (RR = 5.4, 95%CI = 1.0, 99). The 28-year follow-up of Chinese benzene-exposed workers demonstrated increased risks of a broad range of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms, lung cancer, and respiratory diseases and suggested possible associations with other malignant and non-malignant disorders. PMID:25944549

  4. Workers' safety in the construction industry in the southern West Bank of Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al-Sari, M I; Al-Khatib, I A

    2012-10-01

    There are few data about safety in the construction industry in Palestine. The main aim of the study was to assess worker's experiences and perceptions of safety at construction sites in Hebron and Bethlehem governorates of the West Bank. A structured questionnaire was completed through direct interviews with 349 construction workers. Of the respondents, 34.6% had experienced work-related accidents, 13.0% and 65.6% indicated that their workplace did not have a first-aid kit or trained first-aid specialist respectively, 35.8% reported that their work sites did not have safety tools and 83.7% had not received safety training. Workers perceived that awareness and training were the most frequent factor affecting workers' safety, with the foreman position having the greatest impact on the workers' safety. Greater enforcement of the current Palestinian safety laws is needed.

  5. Effects of bonuses for punctuality on the tardiness of industrial workers1

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Jaime A.; Montes, Ana I. De; Domínguez, Benjamín; Montes, Francisco; Hopkins, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an incentive procedure designed to increase the punctuality of six workers who were chronically late to work in a manufacturing company. The six workers in the experiment received a 2.00 pesos ($0.16 U.S.) bonus for every day that they arrived on time. A reversal design was used. The contingent bonuses increased the workers' rates of punctuality compared to their baseline rates. A control group of six workers observed during the same 77-week period showed a trend toward decreasing punctuality. These results suggest that the use of small daily bonuses is a practical procedure for modifying chronic tardiness among industrial workers. PMID:16795440

  6. Neuropsychological effect of lead in occupationally exposed workers: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Ehle, A L; McKee, D C

    1990-01-01

    In their discussion of field testing of health effects of environmental and industrial toxins, Gullion and Eckerman make the following observations which can be applied to the current literature survey: "The general inattention to methodological consistency makes it difficult to integrate the research to date into a clear picture of what is known and not known about the effects of toxic substances on human behavior. In view of the variation in methods of subject selection, measurement, and statistical analysis, the completion of a series of studies of a particular toxic substance does not assure that there has been a concurrent accumulation of reliable knowledge about the effects of that substance. Apparent replications or failures to replicate a significant relationship must be evaluated carefully, since different studies may have measured different things in different populations." Therefore, the issue of psychological and neuropsychological effects of low-level lead exposure in adults remains to be resolved in the studies reviewed. The methodologies were so varied and the cultures in which the studies were conducted so diverse that it is impossible to generalize across findings. For example, studies were conducted in the U.S., Denmark, Sweden, Finland, and Australia. Although, in some instances, equivalent versions of neuropsychological and psychological tests were used, this was generally not the case. Nevertheless, a few general statements can be made. Studies that have been carried out in recent years are beginning to pay attention to more methodology and therefore do a much better job of controlling for possible confounding variables. Also, their statistical methods are more sophisticated and reporting techniques are superior to the earlier investigations in this area. The issue of whether current blood lead levels or cumulative levels are preferable is still unresolved with regard to the relationship of neuropsychological impairment. In the area of

  7. Histone Methylation in Nickel-Smelting Industrial Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Bai, Yana; Pu, Hongquan; Gou, Faxiang; Dai, Min; Wang, Hui; He, Jie; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cheng, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background Nickel is an essential trace metal naturally found in the environment. It is also common in occupational settings, where it associates with various levels of both occupational and nonoccupational exposure In vitro studies have shown that nickel exposure can lead to intracellular accumulation of Ni2+, which has been associated with global decreases in DNA methylation, increases in chromatin condensation, reductions in H3K9me2, and elevated levels of H3K4me3. Histone modifications play an important role in modulating chromatin structure and gene expression. For example, tri-methylation of histone H3k4 has been found to be associated with transcriptional activation, and tri-methylation of H3k27 has been found to be associated with transcriptional repression. Aberrant histone modifications have been found to be associated with various human diseases, including cancer. The purpose of this work was to identify biomarkers for populations with occupational nickel exposure and to examine the relationship between histone methylation and nickel exposure. This may provide a scientific indicator of early health impairment and facilitate exploration of the molecular mechanism underlying cancer pathogenesis. Methods One hundred and forty subjects with occupational exposure to Ni and 140 referents were recruited. H3K4 and H3K27 trimethylation levels were measured in subjects’ blood cells. Results H3K4me3 levels were found to be higher in nickel smelting workers (47.24±20.85) than in office workers (22.65±8.81; P = 0.000), while the opposite was found for levels of H3K27me3(nickel smelting workers, 13.88± 4.23; office workers, 20.67± 5.96; P = 0.000). H3K4me3 was positively (r = 0.267, P = 0.001) and H3K27 was negatively (r = -0.684, P = 0.000) associated with age and length of service in smelting workers. Conclusion This study indicated that occupational exposure to Ni is associated with alterations in levels of histone modification. PMID:26474320

  8. Left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Poręba, Rafał Skoczyńska, Anna; Gać, Paweł; Turczyn, Barbara; Wojakowska, Anna

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. The studies included 115 workers (92 men and 23 women) occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement (mean age: 47.83 ± 8.29). Blood samples were taken to determine blood lipid profile, urine was collected to estimate mercury concentration (Hg-U) and echocardiographic examination was performed to evaluate diastolic function of the left ventricle. In the entire group of workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement, Spearman correlations analysis demonstrated the following significant linear relationships: between body mass index (BMI) and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/E') (r = 0.32, p < 0.05), between serum HDL concentration and E/E' (r = − 0.22, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and E/E' (r = 0.35, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT') (r = 0.41, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/maximal late diastolic mitral flow velocity (E/A) (r = − 0.31, p < 0.05) and between serum HDL concentration and E/A (r = 0.43, p < 0,05). In logistic regression analysis it as shown that independent factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction risk in the study group included a higher urine mercury concentration, a higher value of BMI and a lower serum HDL concentration (OR{sub Hg}-{sub U} = 1.071, OR{sub BMI} = 1.200, OR{sub HDL} = 0.896, p < 0.05). Summing up, occupational exposure to mercury vapour may be linked to impaired left ventricular diastolic function in workers without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. -- Highlights: ► Study aimed at evaluation of LVDD in workers occupationally exposed to Hg. ► There was significant linear relationships

  9. Hepatic function in previously exposed thorium refinery workers as compared to normal controls from the health and nutrition survey.

    PubMed

    Farid, I; Conibear, S A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of thorium exposure on hepatic function was investigated in 275 former workers of a thorium refinery. Body burden of radioactivity from the decay chain of thorium was measured as 212Bi and 220Rn in the exhaled breath. Asparate aminotransferase, globulin and total bilirubin in sera were found to be associated with body burden of radioactivity at high levels of significance. Thorium-exposed workers were also compared with a population of white males from the Health and Nutrition Survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics from 1971 to 1975. The results showed the means of aspartate aminotransferase alkaline phosphatase to be significantly higher (P = 0.0001) in the thorium-exposed workers when corrected for age, alcohol use and weight. The changes observed in liver function may be compatible with a toxic effect of thorium or daughter products on hepatocytes. The correlation of some hepatic function tests with body burden of radioactivity suggests a radiation effect of thorium although a chemical toxic effect cannot be ruled out and further investigation of chemical toxicity of rare earths are indicated.

  10. Comparison of hematological alterations and markers of B-cell activation in workers exposed to benzene, formaldehyde and trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Bassig, Bryan A; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Tang, Xiaojiang; Li, Guilan; Hu, Wei; Guo, Weihong; Purdue, Mark P; Yin, Songnian; Rappaport, Stephen M; Shen, Min; Ji, Zhiying; Qiu, Chuangyi; Ge, Yichen; Hosgood, H Dean; Reiss, Boris; Wu, Banghua; Xie, Yuxuan; Li, Laiyu; Yue, Fei; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Blair, Aaron; Hayes, Richard B; Huang, Hanlin; Smith, Martyn T; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-07-01

    Benzene, formaldehyde (FA) and trichloroethylene (TCE) are ubiquitous chemicals in workplaces and the general environment. Benzene is an established myeloid leukemogen and probable lymphomagen. FA is classified as a myeloid leukemogen but has not been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), whereas TCE has been associated with NHL but not myeloid leukemia. Epidemiologic associations between FA and myeloid leukemia, and between benzene, TCE and NHL are, however, still debated. Previously, we showed that these chemicals are associated with hematotoxicity in cross-sectional studies of factory workers in China, which included extensive personal monitoring and biological sample collection. Here, we compare and contrast patterns of hematotoxicity, monosomy 7 in myeloid progenitor cells (MPCs), and B-cell activation biomarkers across these studies to further evaluate possible mechanisms of action and consistency of effects with observed hematologic cancer risks. Workers exposed to benzene or FA, but not TCE, showed declines in cell types derived from MPCs, including granulocytes and platelets. Alterations in lymphoid cell types, including B cells and CD4+ T cells, and B-cell activation markers were apparent in workers exposed to benzene or TCE. Given that alterations in myeloid and lymphoid cell types are associated with hematological malignancies, our data provide biologic insight into the epidemiological evidence linking benzene and FA exposure with myeloid leukemia risk, and TCE and benzene exposure with NHL risk. PMID:27207665

  11. Proteomic profiling in the sera of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic and lead: identification of potential biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Rihong; Su, Suhua; Lu, Xin; Liao, Ruiqing; Ge, Xianmin; He, Min; Huang, Yuanjiao; Mai, Sui; Lu, Xi; Christiani, David

    2005-12-01

    Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are important inorganic toxicants in the environment. Frequently, humans are exposed to the mixtures of As and Pb, but little is known about the expression of biomarkers resulting from such mixed exposures. In this study, we analyzed serum proteomic profiles in a group of smelter workers with the aim of identifying protein biomarkers of mixed As and Pb exposure. Forty-six male workers co-exposed to As and Pb were studied. Forty-five age-matched male office workers were chosen as controls. Urine As and blood Pb concentrations were determined. Serum proteomic profiles were analyzed by Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometer on the WCX2 ProteinChip. Using Recursive support vector machine (RSVM) algorithm, a panel of five peptides/proteins (2097 Da, 2953 Da, 3941 Da, 5338 Da, and 5639 Da) was selected based on their collective contribution to the optional separation between higher metal mixture exposure and non-exposure controls. Among these five selected markers, the 3941 Da was down-regulated and the four other proteins were up-regulated. Descriptive statistics confirmed that these five proteins differed significantly between metal exposure and non-exposure. Interestingly, the combined use of the five selected biomarkers could achieve higher discriminative power than single marker. These results demonstrated that proteomic technology, in conjunction with bioinformatics tools, could facilitate the discovery of new and better biomarkers of mixed metal exposure.

  12. [Prenosologic criteria of health disorders and cardiovascular risk factors in workers engaged into nuclear industry].

    PubMed

    Shpagina, L A; Vorob'ev, V A; Smirnova, I N; Panacheva, L A; Drobyshev, V A; Abramovich, S G; Titskaya, E V; Reshetova, G G; Tonkoshkurova, A V; Saraskina, L E

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic study among workers engaged into main production of Siberian chemical enterprise (Seversk city) revealed high frequency of cardiovascular risk factors (overweight, hypodynamia, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension), low level of adaptational potential and integral somatic health parameter as prenosologic criteria of cardiovascular diseases. The results necessitate recommendations to supplement periodic medical examinations with studies aimed to reveal early criteria of health disorders, and determine priority directions to specify prophylactic measures in nuclear industry workers. PMID:27164750

  13. [Prenosologic criteria of health disorders and cardiovascular risk factors in workers engaged into nuclear industry].

    PubMed

    Shpagina, L A; Vorob'ev, V A; Smirnova, I N; Panacheva, L A; Drobyshev, V A; Abramovich, S G; Titskaya, E V; Reshetova, G G; Tonkoshkurova, A V; Saraskina, L E

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic study among workers engaged into main production of Siberian chemical enterprise (Seversk city) revealed high frequency of cardiovascular risk factors (overweight, hypodynamia, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension), low level of adaptational potential and integral somatic health parameter as prenosologic criteria of cardiovascular diseases. The results necessitate recommendations to supplement periodic medical examinations with studies aimed to reveal early criteria of health disorders, and determine priority directions to specify prophylactic measures in nuclear industry workers.

  14. Antioxidant enzymes status and reproductive health of adult male workers exposed to brick kiln pollutants in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Falah, Samreen; Ullah, Hizb; Ullah, Asad; Rauf, Naveed

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to study the effect of brick kilns emissions on the reproductive health and biochemical status of brick kiln workers and people living in the area near brick kilns. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly reduced in brick makers, carriers, and bakers compared to the control. Red blood cells count and hematocrit (%) were significantly high in brick bakers while MCH was significantly reduced in brick makers and brick bakers. Heavy metals (lead, cadmium, and chromium) concentration in whole blood of the brick kiln workers were significantly higher as compared to the control. Antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, POD, GSH, and GR) were significantly reduced in brick kiln workers as compared to the control while TBARS level were significantly high in brick bakers as compared to the control. Plasma leutinizing hormone (LH) was significantly high in brick bakers while testosterone concentrations were significantly reduced in brick makers, carriers, and bakers. The present study shows that brick kiln workers and people living in the brick kiln vicinity are exposed to heavy metals and other pollutants that is a serious threat to their health. Alternate technology is needed to be developed and brick kilns should be replaced.

  15. Antioxidant enzymes status and reproductive health of adult male workers exposed to brick kiln pollutants in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Falah, Samreen; Ullah, Hizb; Ullah, Asad; Rauf, Naveed

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to study the effect of brick kilns emissions on the reproductive health and biochemical status of brick kiln workers and people living in the area near brick kilns. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly reduced in brick makers, carriers, and bakers compared to the control. Red blood cells count and hematocrit (%) were significantly high in brick bakers while MCH was significantly reduced in brick makers and brick bakers. Heavy metals (lead, cadmium, and chromium) concentration in whole blood of the brick kiln workers were significantly higher as compared to the control. Antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, POD, GSH, and GR) were significantly reduced in brick kiln workers as compared to the control while TBARS level were significantly high in brick bakers as compared to the control. Plasma leutinizing hormone (LH) was significantly high in brick bakers while testosterone concentrations were significantly reduced in brick makers, carriers, and bakers. The present study shows that brick kiln workers and people living in the brick kiln vicinity are exposed to heavy metals and other pollutants that is a serious threat to their health. Alternate technology is needed to be developed and brick kilns should be replaced. PMID:26996903

  16. Unusual mortality pattern among short term workers in the perfumery industry in Geneva.

    PubMed

    Gubéran, E; Usel, M

    1987-09-01

    A cohort of 537 workers employed for less than one year between 1900 and 1964 in the Geneva perfumery industry was followed up from entry to the end of 1983. During the period of study, 251 workers died and 41 (8%) were lost to follow up. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was significantly above 100 for all causes (SMR = 120), all cancers (SMR = 127), lung cancer (SMR = 186), and violent death (SMR = 179). The highest SMR from all causes was associated with the shortest period of employment (less than two months) and it decreased significantly with longer duration. Such mortality excesses had not been recorded among the 1168 workers of the same industry employed one year or more, previously studied in similar fashion. Interviews among a random sample of 52 workers employed for less than two months seem to indicate that the prevalence of smoking, exposures to asbestos, and occupational accidents in other hazardous industries were higher for these workers than for the reference population. Furthermore, unmarried men were overrepresented among the study cohort. These findings support previous observations indicating that short term workers share atypical features related to high mortality from various causes. It is suggested that mortality in this subgroup should be analysed separately in occupational studies.

  17. [The effect of antioxidant therapy on indicators of activity of free radicals in workers exposed to risks of styrene].

    PubMed

    Kaderábková, O; Racek, J; Kohout, J; Holecek, V; Senft, V; Krejcová, I

    1997-06-01

    To 30 workers exposed to the risk of styrene for a period of 30 days a mixture of antioxidants was administered: vitamin C 200 mg, vitamin E 300 mg, selenium 20 mg, troxerutin 600 mg and beta-carotene 6 mg. Before the onset of supplementation and immediately afterwards laboratory indicators of antioxidant protection and lipid peroxidation were investigated. Before treatment workers exposed to the risk of styrene had a significantly higher malondialdehyde concentration (p < 0.01) and antioxidant capacity (p < 0.01) as compared with the control group. Due to the established positive correlation between these parameters (r = 0.42, p < 0.05) the findings can be evaluated as the result of increased exposure to free radicals. After supplementation a marked decline of the malondialdehyde concentration occurred p < 0.001) and a further rise of the antioxidant capacity (p < 0.001). The selenium concentration increased also markedly, the rise being more marked in subjects who had originally a lower concentration. There was a significant rise of uric acid which has an antioxidant effect (p < 0.01). The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and gluathione peroxidase did not change significantly. The results indicate the favourable effect of antioxidant treatment in subjects exposed to the risk of styrene.

  18. Biological monitoring of chlorinated pesticides among exposed workers of mango orchards: A case study in tropical climate

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, H.; Pangtey, B.S.; Modak, D.P.; Singh, K.P.; Gupta, B.N.; Bharti, R.S.; Srivastava, S.P. )

    1992-02-01

    Organochlorine, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds are widely used pesticides in India for controlling disease carrying vectors and agricultural pests. Organochlorine compounds being persistent and lipophilic in nature, accumulate in the human body through food chain and environmental exposure. Accumulation of DDT, BHC and endosulfan has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders, hypertension and other health related problems. Earlier, the authors have observed respiratory impairment (36.5%) among workers engaged in spraying of organochlorine pesticides on mango trees at Malihabad. In the present investigation, the levels of chlorinated present investigation, the levels of chlorinated pesticides among exposed workers have been monitored to study the distribution pattern in blood and their excretion in urine of human subjects.

  19. Changes in lymphocyte single strand breakage and liver function of workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer.

    PubMed

    Du, C L; Kuo, M L; Chang, H L; Sheu, T J; Wang, J D

    1995-05-01

    Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is a suspected human carcinogen. Its metabolite, chloroethylene epoxide, is able to alkylate the DNA molecule and to produce single strand breakage (SSB). A total of 244 workers from 4 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) manufacturing factories were recruited to assess the SSB of their peripheral lymphocyte DNA. The method of alkaline unwinding and hydroxyapatite chromatography was used to detect and calculate frequencies of SSB. In addition, hepatitis B and C markers and the liver function of the workers were also examined. The worker's cumulative exposures to VCM were retrospectively constructed from the current monitoring data and each worker's job history. Multiple linear regression models were constructed to predict the worker's level of SSB and liver functions based on various exposure indices and variables, such as age, sex, smoking, drinking, and hepatitis markers. The results showed that current smoking and drinking status, and the presence of VCM exposures on the previous day were 3 major determinants of the level of SSB. Among the liver function tests, only gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) was associated with current VCM exposures. In contrast, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were mainly affected by the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV). We conclude that GGT should be considered to be included in the regular health screening of VCM workers, and that the SSB method may not be suitable for long-term monitoring of cumulative exposure because of the quick DNA repair mechanism in humans.

  20. Dental erosion in workers exposed to sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Dental erosion, and specifically its symptoms, has long been studied in Japan as an occupational dental disease. However, in recent years, few studies have investigated the development of this disease or labor hygiene management aimed at its prevention. As a result, interest in dental erosion is comparatively low, even among dental professionals. Our investigation at a lead storage battery factory in 1991 found that the work environmental sulfuric acid density was above the tolerable range (1.0mg/m(3)) and that longterm workers had dental erosion. Therefore, workers handling sulfuric acid were given an oral examination and rates of dental erosion by tooth type, rates of erosion by number of working years and rates of erosion by sulfuric acid density in the work environment investigated. Where dental erosion was diagnosed, degree of erosion was identified according to a diagnostic criterion. No development of dental erosion was detected in the maxillary teeth, and erosion was concentrated in the anterior mandibular teeth. Its prevalence was as high as 20%. Rates of dental erosion rose precipitously after 10 working years. The percentages of workers with dental erosion were 42.9% for 10-14 years, 57.1% for 15-19 years and 66.7% for over 20 years with 22.5% for total number of workers. The percentages of workers with dental erosion rose in proportion to work environmental sulfuric acid density: 17.9% at 0.5-1.0, 25.0% at 1.0-4.0 and 50.0% at 4.0-8.0mg/m(3). This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate not only years of exposure to sulfuric acid but also sulfuric acid density in the air in factory workers.

  1. Carcinogenesis and Inflammatory Effects of Plutonium-Nitrate Retention in an Exposed Nuclear Worker and Beagle Dogs.

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wang, Xihai; Robinson, Robert J.; Brooks, Antone L.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Patton, Kristin M.; McComish, Stacey; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Morgan, William F.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic and inflammatory response pathways elicited following plutonium exposure in archival lung tissue of an occupationally exposed human and experimentally exposed beagle dogs were investigated. These pathways include: tissue injury, apoptosis and gene expression modifications related to carcinogenesis and inflammation. In order to determine which pathways are involved, multiple lung samples from a plutonium exposed worker (Case 0269), a human control (Case 0385), and plutonium exposed beagle dogs were examined using histological staining and immunohistochemistry. Examinations were performed to identify target tissues at risk of radiation-induced fibrosis, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Case 0269 showed interstitial fibrosis in peripheral and subpleural regions of the lung, but no pulmonary tumors. In contrast, the dogs with similar and higher doses showed pulmonary tumors primarily in brochiolo-alveolar, peripheral and subpleural alveolar regions. The TUNEL assay showed slight elevation of apoptosis in tracheal mucosa, tumor cells, and nuclear debris was present in the inflammatory regions of alveoli and lymph nodes of both the human and the dogs. The expression of apoptosis and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes was slightly but not significantly elevated in protein or gene levels compared to that of the control samples. In the beagles, mucous production was increased in the airway epithelial goblet cells and glands of trachea, and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes showed positive immunoreactivity. This analysis of archival tissue from an accidentally exposed worker and in a large animal model provides valuable information on the effects of long-term retention of plutonium in the respiratory tract and the histological evaluation study may impact mechanistic studies of radiation carcinogenesis.

  2. Micronucleus frequency in copper-mine workers exposed to arsenic is modulated by the AS3MT Met287Thr polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alba; Paiva, Leiliane; Creus, Amadeu; Quinteros, Domingo; Marcos, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic(III)methyltransferase (AS3MT) has been demonstrated to be the key enzyme in the metabolism of arsenic as it catalyses the methylation of arsenite and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) to form methylated arsenic species, which have higher toxic and genotoxic potential than the parent compounds. The aim of this study is to evaluate if genetic variation in the AS3MT gene influences arsenic-induced cytogenetic damage, measured by the micronucleus (MN) assay. AS3MT Met287Thr allele frequencies and MN values were determined for 207 subjects working in the copper-mine industry, who were exposed to variable levels of arsenic. The urinary arsenic profile was used as individual biomarker of arsenic exposure. Results indicate that the MN frequencies found in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the exposed population poorly correlate with the levels of total arsenic content in urine. Nevertheless, when workers were classified according to their AS3MT Met287Thr genotypes, significantly higher MN values were observed for those carrying the variant allele [odds ratio (OR), 3.4 (1.6-5.2); P=0.0003)]. To our knowledge, these results are the first to show that genetic variation in AS3MT, especially the Met287Thr polymorphism, may play a role in modulating the levels of arsenic-induced cytogenetic damage among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic. PMID:24361376

  3. Micronucleus frequency in copper-mine workers exposed to arsenic is modulated by the AS3MT Met287Thr polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alba; Paiva, Leiliane; Creus, Amadeu; Quinteros, Domingo; Marcos, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic(III)methyltransferase (AS3MT) has been demonstrated to be the key enzyme in the metabolism of arsenic as it catalyses the methylation of arsenite and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) to form methylated arsenic species, which have higher toxic and genotoxic potential than the parent compounds. The aim of this study is to evaluate if genetic variation in the AS3MT gene influences arsenic-induced cytogenetic damage, measured by the micronucleus (MN) assay. AS3MT Met287Thr allele frequencies and MN values were determined for 207 subjects working in the copper-mine industry, who were exposed to variable levels of arsenic. The urinary arsenic profile was used as individual biomarker of arsenic exposure. Results indicate that the MN frequencies found in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the exposed population poorly correlate with the levels of total arsenic content in urine. Nevertheless, when workers were classified according to their AS3MT Met287Thr genotypes, significantly higher MN values were observed for those carrying the variant allele [odds ratio (OR), 3.4 (1.6-5.2); P=0.0003)]. To our knowledge, these results are the first to show that genetic variation in AS3MT, especially the Met287Thr polymorphism, may play a role in modulating the levels of arsenic-induced cytogenetic damage among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic.

  4. Comparison of genetic damage in Brazilian footwear-workers exposed to solvent-based or water-based adhesive.

    PubMed

    Heuser, Vanina Dahlström; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; da Silva, Juliana; Erdtmann, Bernardo

    2005-05-01

    Research has shown that workers employed in footwear manufacture are at increased risk of some cancers, the strongest evidence being for nasal cancer and leukemia. Footwear-workers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of solvents in degreasers, cleaners, primers, and adhesives used in the production process as toluene, n-hexane, acetone, and possibly dust particles, additives in shoe materials and degradation products of materials. The recognition of the potential health-hazards of solvent-based adhesives (SBAs) has lead to the development of adhesives with no organic solvents, the water-based adhesives (WBA). We investigated footwear-workers (all males) exposed to SBA (n=29) (for 3.98+/-4.13 years), and WBA (n=16), which had spent the six months previous to the study employed in an experimental section which used only water-based adhesives, although they had previously worked in sections which used solvent-based adhesives (for 5.80+/-4.03 years); 25 healthy subjects were used as controls. The Comet assay and the micronucleus test were used as endpoints, while the traditional parameters for assessing exposure to toluene in organic mixtures by measuring the concentration of urinary hippuric acid were also assessed. Our results showed a significantly lower mean concentration of hippuric acid in the control group than found in the SBA (P<0.001) and WBA (P<0.05) groups. The Comet assay results showed that there was a significant increase in the mean damage index for the SBA (P<0.001) group in comparison to the WBA group and control (P<0.05). For the micronucleus test in binucleated lymphocytes and exfoliated buccal cell, the three groups were not statistically different. Our study demonstrated that water-based adhesives are clearly a better option for safeguarding the health of footwear-workers, even with possibility of isocyanate presence, while the positive results observed in SBA group might be explained by chloroprene presence in the adhesive.

  5. Latent Tuberculosis in Health Care Workers Exposed to Active Tuberculosis in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Khamis, Faryal; Al-Lawati, Adil; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Naamani, Jaleelah; Al-Harthi, Harith; Al-Jardani, Amina; Al-Harthi, Aliya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Data on the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in healthcare workers (HCW) in Oman and the Arabian Gulf is scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of latent tuberculosis (LTB) among HCW exposed to active TB in one of the tertiary care hospitals in Muscat. Methods Exposed HCW were screened for LTB from January to June 2012 using skin tuberculin and serum interferon tests. Candidates were followed-up for a total of nine months. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Results A total of 371 exposed HCW were involved in the study. The incidence of LTB in exposed HCW was 33.2% (n = 123). Almost 54% (66/123) of the HCW started treatment and only 42.4% (28/66) completed the full nine-month treatment course. Conclusions The high prevalence of LTBI in exposed HCW merits further evaluation of the screening and treatment programs in the country. Future countrywide studies are warranted to provide more precise statistics on the prevalence and management of this public health issue. PMID:27403243

  6. Polymorphisms in BER and NER pathway genes: effects on micronucleus frequencies among vinyl chloride-exposed workers in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Tan, Hong-shan; Zhang, Fang; Sun, Yuan; Feng, Nan-nan; Zhou, Li-fang; Ye, Yun-jie; Zhu, Yi-liang; Li, Yong-liang; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W; Shao, Hua; Xia, Zhao-lin

    2013-06-14

    In this study, a group of 317 workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride monomer and 166 normal, unexposed referents in Shandong province (Northern China) were examined for chromosomal damage in peripheral lymphocytes using the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CB-MN) assay. The exposure group (3.47±2.65)‰ showed higher micronucleus frequency than the unexposed workers (2.51±1.96)‰ (P<0.01). We explored the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1 (-77C/T, Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln), APE1 Asp148Glu, XPA Ala23Gly, XPC.PAT, XPC Ala499Val, XPC Lys939Gln, XPF 5'-UTR T2063A, XPG Exon15 G-C, ERCC13'-UTR C8092A and susceptibility of chromosomal damage in all the subjects. It was found that XRCC1 -77, XRCC1 280, APE1148, XPC.PAT, XPG Exon15 G-C, and ERCC13'-UTR C8092A polymorphisms showed no significant associations with micronucleus frequency in unexposed workers. However, among the exposed workers individuals with XRCC1 (-77C/T, Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln) polymorphisms had a significantly higher micronucleus frequency as seen in mean frequency ratios (FR) compared with their homozygous wild-type genotypes (FR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.05-1.39; P<0.01); (FR=1.14, 95% CI: 1.00-1.38; P<0.05) and (FR=1.26, 95% CI: 1.11-1.44; P<0.01); (FR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.46; P<0.01). Four SNP sites in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway were associated with susceptibility for MN frequency in either unexposed or exposed workers. Further, we observed the gene-MN association changed with exposure for XRCC1 (-77C/T, Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln), XPA Ala23Gly, XPC Ala499Val, XPC Lys939Gln, XPF 5'-UTR T2063A. Moreover, Individuals carrying the XPC (PAT)-(499)-(939) diplotype, PAT-CG/PAT-TG, had a higher MN frequency, compared with individuals carrying the wild-type PAT-CA/PAT-CA.

  7. Increased levels of urinary biomarkers of lipid peroxidation products among workers occupationally exposed to diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Li, Haibin; Sun, Xin; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Gu, Guizhen; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) was found to induce lipid peroxidation (LPO) in animal exposure studies. LPO is a class of oxidative stress and can be reflected by detecting the levels of its production, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and etheno-DNA adducts including 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (ɛdA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (ɛdC). However, the impact of DEE exposure on LPO has not been explored in humans. In this study, we evaluated urinary MDA, 4-HNE, ɛdA, and ɛdC levels as biomarkers of LPO among 108 workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 109 non-DEE-exposed workers. Results showed that increased levels of urinary MDA and ɛdA were observed in subjects occupationally exposed to DEE before and after age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and alcohol use were adjusted (all p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant relationship between the internal exposure dose (urinary ΣOH-PAHs) and MDA, 4-HNE, and ɛdA (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant increased relations between urinary etheno-DNA adduct and MDA, 4-HNE were observed (all p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggested that the level of LPO products (MDA and ɛdA) was increased in DEE-exposed workers, and urinary MDA and ɛdA might be feasible biomarkers for DEE exposure. LPO induced DNA damage might be involved and further motivated the genomic instability could be one of the pathogeneses of cancer induced by DEE-exposure. However, additional investigations should be performed to understand these observations.

  8. Increased levels of urinary biomarkers of lipid peroxidation products among workers occupationally exposed to diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Li, Haibin; Sun, Xin; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Gu, Guizhen; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) was found to induce lipid peroxidation (LPO) in animal exposure studies. LPO is a class of oxidative stress and can be reflected by detecting the levels of its production, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and etheno-DNA adducts including 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (ɛdA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (ɛdC). However, the impact of DEE exposure on LPO has not been explored in humans. In this study, we evaluated urinary MDA, 4-HNE, ɛdA, and ɛdC levels as biomarkers of LPO among 108 workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 109 non-DEE-exposed workers. Results showed that increased levels of urinary MDA and ɛdA were observed in subjects occupationally exposed to DEE before and after age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and alcohol use were adjusted (all p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant relationship between the internal exposure dose (urinary ΣOH-PAHs) and MDA, 4-HNE, and ɛdA (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant increased relations between urinary etheno-DNA adduct and MDA, 4-HNE were observed (all p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggested that the level of LPO products (MDA and ɛdA) was increased in DEE-exposed workers, and urinary MDA and ɛdA might be feasible biomarkers for DEE exposure. LPO induced DNA damage might be involved and further motivated the genomic instability could be one of the pathogeneses of cancer induced by DEE-exposure. However, additional investigations should be performed to understand these observations. PMID:27087348

  9. Prevalence of Latent and Active Tuberculosis among Dairy Farm Workers Exposed to Cattle Infected by Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Gonzalez, Pedro; Soberanis-Ramos, Orbelin; Martinez-Gamboa, Areli; Chavez-Mazari, Barbara; Barrios-Herrera, Ma Teresa; Torres-Rojas, Martha; Cruz-Hervert, Luis Pablo; Garcia-Garcia, Lourdes; Singh, Mahavir; Gonzalez-Aguirre, Adrian; Ponce de Leon-Garduño, Alfredo; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Bobadilla-del-Valle, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Background Human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis is a zoonosis presently considered sporadic in developed countries, but remains a poorly studied problem in low and middle resource countries. The disease in humans is mainly attributed to unpasteurized dairy products consumption. However, transmission due to exposure of humans to infected animals has been also recognized. The prevalence of tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors have been insufficiently characterized among dairy farm workers (DFW) exposed in settings with poor control of bovine tuberculosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Tuberculin skin test (TST) and Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) were administered to 311 dairy farm and abattoir workers and their household contacts linked to a dairy production and livestock facility in Mexico. Sputa of individuals with respiratory symptoms and samples from routine cattle necropsies were cultured for M. bovis and resulting spoligotypes were compared. The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) was 76.2% (95% CI, 71.4–80.9%) by TST and 58.5% (95% CI, 53.0–64.0%) by IGRA. Occupational exposure was associated to TST (OR 2.72; 95% CI, 1.31–5.64) and IGRA (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31–4.30) adjusting for relevant variables. Two subjects were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, both caused by M. bovis. In one case, the spoligotype was identical to a strain isolated from bovines. Conclusions We documented a high prevalence of latent and pulmonary TB among workers exposed to cattle infected with M. bovis, and increased risk among those occupationally exposed in non-ventilated spaces. Interspecies transmission is frequent and represents an occupational hazard in this setting. PMID:23638198

  10. CaNa2EDTA chelation attenuates cell damage in workers exposed to lead--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Čabarkapa, A; Borozan, S; Živković, L; Stojanović, S; Milanović-Čabarkapa, M; Bajić, V; Spremo-Potparević, B

    2015-12-01

    Lead induced oxidative cellular damage and long-term persistence of associated adverse effects increases risk of late-onset diseases. CaNa2EDTA chelation is known to remove contaminating metals and to reduce free radical production. The objective was to investigate the impact of chelation therapy on modulation of lead induced cellular damage, restoration of altered enzyme activities and lipid homeostasis in peripheral blood of workers exposed to lead, by comparing the selected biomarkers obtained prior and after five-day CaNa2EDTA chelation intervention. The group of smelting factory workers diagnosed with lead intoxication and current lead exposure 5.8 ± 1.2 years were administered five-day CaNa2EDTA chelation. Elevated baseline activity of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-SOD and CAT as well as depleted thiols and increased protein degradation products-carbonyl groups and nitrites, pointing to Pb induced oxidative damage, were restored toward normal values following the treatment. Lead showed inhibitor potency on both RBC AChE and BChE in exposed workers, and chelation re-established the activity of BChE, while RBC AChE remained unaffected. Also, genotoxic effect of lead detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly decreased after therapy, exhibiting 18.9% DNA damage reduction. Administration of chelation reversed the depressed activity of serum PON 1 and significantly decreased lipid peroxidation detected by the post-chelation reduction of MDA levels. Lactate dehydrogenase LDH1-5 isoenzymes levels showed evident but no significant trend of restoring toward normal control values following chelation. CaNa2EDTA chelation ameliorates the alterations linked with Pb mediated oxidative stress, indicating possible benefits in reducing health risks associated with increased oxidative damage in lead exposed populations.

  11. Workers' compensation claims for musculoskeletal disorders among wholesale and retail trade industry workers--Ohio, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) resulting from ergonomic hazards are common in the United States. Recent data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) indicate that in 2011, one third of occupational injuries and illnesses resulting in lost time from work were WMSDs. Based on data from the 2010 BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, a higher rate of WMSDs resulting in lost time from work occurred in the Wholesale and Retail Trade (WRT) industry compared with most other industries. To assess trends and identify WRT subsectors and subgroups associated with high rates of WMSD workers' compensation claims, the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation (OBWC) and CDC analyzed OBWC claims data for single-location WRT employers in Ohio for the period 2005-2009. From 2005 to 2009, the rate of WMSD claims declined from 86.3 to 52.8 per 10,000 employees. The three WRT industry subsectors with the highest rates of WMSD claims were Merchant Wholesalers, Nondurable Goods; Furniture and Home Furnishings Stores; and Merchant Wholesalers, Durable Goods. Within those three WRT subsectors, the highest rates of WMSD claims were noted in five subgroups: furniture stores and wholesalers of alcoholic beverages, groceries and related products, metal and minerals, and motor vehicle parts. Providing recommendations for WMSD prevention is particularly important for these WRT subgroups.

  12. Workers' compensation claims for musculoskeletal disorders among wholesale and retail trade industry workers--Ohio, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) resulting from ergonomic hazards are common in the United States. Recent data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) indicate that in 2011, one third of occupational injuries and illnesses resulting in lost time from work were WMSDs. Based on data from the 2010 BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, a higher rate of WMSDs resulting in lost time from work occurred in the Wholesale and Retail Trade (WRT) industry compared with most other industries. To assess trends and identify WRT subsectors and subgroups associated with high rates of WMSD workers' compensation claims, the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation (OBWC) and CDC analyzed OBWC claims data for single-location WRT employers in Ohio for the period 2005-2009. From 2005 to 2009, the rate of WMSD claims declined from 86.3 to 52.8 per 10,000 employees. The three WRT industry subsectors with the highest rates of WMSD claims were Merchant Wholesalers, Nondurable Goods; Furniture and Home Furnishings Stores; and Merchant Wholesalers, Durable Goods. Within those three WRT subsectors, the highest rates of WMSD claims were noted in five subgroups: furniture stores and wholesalers of alcoholic beverages, groceries and related products, metal and minerals, and motor vehicle parts. Providing recommendations for WMSD prevention is particularly important for these WRT subgroups. PMID:23739337

  13. A pilot study on neopterin levels and tryptophan degradation in zinc-exposed galvanization workers.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Elif Seyda; Girgin, Gözde; Palabiyik, S Sezin; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Aydin, Ahmet; Sahin, Gönül; Baydar, Terken

    2013-03-01

    Hot-dip galvanization is a zinc-coating process to protect the metal items from corrosion. Zinc oxide nanoaerosol fume rising from hot metal bath surface in nano dimensions contains the greatest risk for workers in galvanization process. In the present study, it was evaluated whether inhalation of zinc causes any alteration in cellular immunity and tryptophan degradation by measuring neopterin, tryptophan, kynurenine, and zinc levels in 63 male galvanization workers and 23 male office personnel as controls. Serum and urinary zinc levels were found as 102.43 ± 4.74 and 0.66 ± 0.05 μg/dL in workers while 75.45 ± 4.24 and 0.80 ± 0.08 μg/dL [corrected] in controls, respectively (both, p < 0.05). Similarly, the mean urinary neopterin levels and serum neopterin and kynurenine levels were found to be statistically higher in galvanization workers than the controls (all, p < 0.05). Significant correlations were found between urinary neopterin levels and kynurenine to tryptophan ratio or serum zinc levels. The results indicated cellular immune activation by occupational zinc exposure. It was estimated that neopterin, in parallel with kynurenine pathway, could reflect occupational exposure to zinc nanoaerosols and might be useful in early diagnosis of immune alterations due to nano-scale exposures.

  14. Cancer among workers exposed to arsenic and other substances in a copper smelter.

    PubMed

    Enterline, P E; Marsh, G M

    1982-12-01

    A study of the mortality experience of 2802 men who worked one year or more during the period 1940-4964 at a copper smelter in Tacoma, Washington, where arsenic exposure occurred showed a twofold excess in respiratory cancer deaths. Using a time-weighted measure of exposure, a life table method for accumulating dose, and a 10-year lag period, the excess ranged from 1.5 in the lowest exposure category to 2.5 in the highest exposure category. Neither duration of exposure nor time since first exposure contributed strongly to the respiratory cancer excess. The twofold excess in respiratory cancer deaths held for workers with relatively short exposures (less than 10 years) and with a relatively short latency period (less than 20 years) as well as for those with longer exposure and latent periods. This appeared to be because the respiratory cancer excess tended to disappear with time for workers who terminated employment alive, and because workers in high-exposure jobs tended to terminate more quickly than workers in low-exposure jobs. A somewhat unorthodox analytic method showed a weak relationship between the respiratory cancer excess and exposure duration when exposure intensity was held constant. Here, arsenic exposure intensity made an independent contribution to the respiratory cancer excess.

  15. Experimental and human studies on antimony metabolism: their relevance for the biological monitoring of workers exposed to inorganic antimony.

    PubMed

    Bailly, R; Lauwerys, R; Buchet, J P; Mahieu, P; Konings, J

    1991-02-01

    Unlike inorganic arsenic, inorganic trivalent antimony (Sb) is not methylated in vivo. It is excreted in the bile after conjugation with glutathione and also in urine. A significant proportion of that excreted in bile undergoes an enterohepatic circulation. In workers exposed to pentavalent Sb, the urinary Sb excretion is related to the intensity of exposure. It has been estimated that after eight hours exposure to 500 micrograms Sb/m3, the increase of urinary Sb concentration at the end of the shift amounts on average to 35 micrograms/g creatinine.

  16. Cancer incidence among workers in the Norwegian ferroalloy industry.

    PubMed Central

    Kjuus, H; Andersen, A; Langård, S; Knudsen, K E

    1986-01-01

    The total mortality and the incidence of cancer was studied among a cohort of employees at the six oldest ferrosilicon and ferromanganese plants in Norway. The cohort consisted of 6494 men employed for more than 18 months before 1970 and has been followed up from 1953 to 1982. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for cancer (all sites) was 0.94. The observed number of cancers was as expected for lung cancer (SIR = 0.99) and for most of the other cancer sites studied. A statistically significant reduction of stomach cancer was found (SIR = 0.72). There was an increased incidence of lung cancer (SIR = 1.75) and cancer of the prostate (SIR = 1.56) in the workers at one ferrosilicon plant and of colonic cancer (SIR = 1.90) at another ferrosilicon plant. PMID:3964571

  17. The efficacy of preretirement preparation programs for industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Glamser, F D; DeJong, G F

    1975-09-01

    The ability of preretirement programs to generate changes which will facilitate the transition to retirement was investigated. A research design incorporating two experimental groups and one control group was employed to evaluate a group discussion program and an individual briefing program. Questionnaire data were collected prior to the programs and 1 mo. after program completion. Over 70 hourly and salaried male workers, age 60+, participated in the project. The group discussion program was effective in increasing knowledge of retirement issues. Participants felt better prepared for retirement and evidenced less uncertainty about the future. They also exhibited a significant increase in the number of preparation activities undertaken and the prevalence of retirement plans. Effectiveness of the individual briefing program was relatively minimal. This study indicated that a comprehensive preretirement program can produce favorable changes in retirement-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior.

  18. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males' life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China. PMID:26845337

  19. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males' life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China.

  20. Worker selection of safe speed and idle condition in simulated monitoring of two industrial robots.

    PubMed

    Karwowski, W; Rahimi, M

    1991-05-01

    Industrial robots often operate at high speed, with unpredictable motion patterns and erratic idle times. Serious injuries and deaths have occurred due to operator misperception of these robot design and performance characteristics. The main objective of the research project was to study human perceptual aspects of hazardous robotics workstations. Two laboratory experiments were designed to investigate workers' perceptions of two industrial robots with different physical configurations and performance capabilities. Twenty-four subjects participated in the study. All subjects were chosen from local industries, and had had considerable exposure to robots and other automated equipment in their working experience. Experiment 1 investigated the maximum speed of robot arm motions that workers, who were experienced with operation of industrial robots, judged to be 'safe' for monitoring tasks. It was found that the selection of safe speed depends on the size of the robot and the speed with which the robot begins its operation. Speeds of less than 51 cm/s and 63 cm/s for large and small robots, respectively, were perceived as safe, i.e., ones that did not result in workers feeling uneasy or endangered when working in close proximity to the robot and monitoring its actions. Experiment 2 investigated the minimum value of robot idle time (inactivity) perceived by industrial workers as system malfunction, and an indication of the 'safe-to-approach' condition. It was found that idle times of 41 s and 28 s or less for the small and large robots, respectively, were perceived by workers to be a result of system malfunction. About 20% of the workers waited only 10 s or less before deciding that the robot had stopped because of system malfunction. The idle times were affected by the subjects' prior exposure to a simulated robot accident. Further interpretations of the results and suggestions for operational limitations of robot systems are discussed.

  1. Exposure to occupational air pollution and cardiac function in workers of the Esfahan Steel Industry, Iran.

    PubMed

    Golshahi, Jafar; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Saqira, Mohammad; Zavar, Reihaneh; Sadeghifar, Mostafa; Roohafza, Hamidreza

    2016-06-01

    Air pollution is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We investigated association of exposure to occupational air pollution and cardiac function in the workers of the steel industry. Fifty male workers of the agglomeration and coke-making parts of the Esfahan Steel Company were randomly selected (n = 50). Workers in the administrative parts were studied as controls (n = 50). Those with known history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes, and active smokers were not included. Data of age, body mass index, employment duration, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile were gathered. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in workers of the agglomeration/coke-making parts than in controls (mean difference = 5 to 5.5 %, P < 0.001). Mild right ventricular dilatation and grade I pulmonary hypertension were present in three (12 %) workers of the coke-making part, but none of the controls (P = 0.010). According to these results, occupational air pollution exposure in workers of the steel industry is associated with left heart systolic dysfunction. Possible right heart insults due to air pollution exposure warrant further investigations. PMID:26946505

  2. Exposure to occupational air pollution and cardiac function in workers of the Esfahan Steel Industry, Iran.

    PubMed

    Golshahi, Jafar; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Saqira, Mohammad; Zavar, Reihaneh; Sadeghifar, Mostafa; Roohafza, Hamidreza

    2016-06-01

    Air pollution is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We investigated association of exposure to occupational air pollution and cardiac function in the workers of the steel industry. Fifty male workers of the agglomeration and coke-making parts of the Esfahan Steel Company were randomly selected (n = 50). Workers in the administrative parts were studied as controls (n = 50). Those with known history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes, and active smokers were not included. Data of age, body mass index, employment duration, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile were gathered. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in workers of the agglomeration/coke-making parts than in controls (mean difference = 5 to 5.5 %, P < 0.001). Mild right ventricular dilatation and grade I pulmonary hypertension were present in three (12 %) workers of the coke-making part, but none of the controls (P = 0.010). According to these results, occupational air pollution exposure in workers of the steel industry is associated with left heart systolic dysfunction. Possible right heart insults due to air pollution exposure warrant further investigations.

  3. Young workers in the construction industry and initial OSH-training when entering work life.

    PubMed

    Holte, Kari Anne; Kjestveit, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Studies have found that young workers are at risk for injuries. The risk for accidents is high within construction, indicating that young workers may be especially vulnerable in this industry. In Norway, it is possible to enter the construction industry as a full time worker at the age of 18. The aim of this paper was to explore how young construction workers are received at their workplace with regards to OHS-training. The study was designed as a qualitative case study. Each case consisted of a young worker or apprentice (< 25 years), a colleague, the immediate superior, the OHS manager, and a safety representative in the company. The interviews were recorded and analyzed through content analysis. The results showed that there were differences between large and small companies, where large companies had more formalized routines and systems for receiving and training young workers. These routines were however more dependent on requirements set by legislators and contractors more than by company size, since the legislation has different requirements with impact on OHS.

  4. COMPARISON OF BIOMARKERS IN WORKERS EXPOSED TO 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an important occupational and environmental pollutant. In TNT-exposed humans, the notable toxic manifestations have included aplastic anemia, toxic hepatitis, cataracts, hepatomegaly, and liver cancer. Therefore, we developed methods to biomonitor w...

  5. Impaired color discrimination among viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Raitta, C.; Teir, H.; Tolonen, M.; Nurminen, M.; Helpioe, E.M.; Malmstroem, S.

    1981-03-01

    A possible effect of chronic carbon disulfide exposure on the optic nerve was studied by giving the Farnsworth Munsell 100-Hue Test for color discrimination to 62 exposed and 40 nonexposed men. Carbon disulfide exposure did not relate to specific pattern defects in color discrimination, but impaired color discrimination occurred significantly more often in the exposed group than among the referents. The abnormal findings suggest an impairment in the receptiveness of the ganglion cells or demyelination of the optic nerve fibers.

  6. Study of two cohorts of workers exposed to methyl methacrylate in acrylic sheet production

    PubMed Central

    Tomenson, J; Bonner, S; Edwards, J; Pemberton, M; Cummings, T; Paddle, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To study mortality among 4324 workers at two United Kingdom factories, Darwen, Lancashire and Wilton, Cleveland, producing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sheet. The Darwen factory is still active, but the Wilton one was closed in 1970. Also, to investigate patterns of mortality after exposure to methyl methacrylate; in particular, mortality from colon and rectal cancer.
METHODS—All male employees at the Darwen factory with a record of employment in 1949-88 and all men ever employed at the Wilton factory (1949-70) were investigated. The vital status of both cohorts was ascertained on 31 December 1995. The exposure of 1526 subjects at the Darwen plant who were engaged from 1949 onwards could be characterised. The mean duration of exposure was 7.6 years at 13.2 ppm (8 hour time weighted average), although exposures in some work groups were as high as 100 ppm. It was not possible to calculate the cumulative exposure of workers first employed at the Darwen plant before 1949 or workers at the Wilton factory.
RESULTS—In the Darwen cohort, 622 deaths were identified and a further 700 deaths in the Wilton cohort. Mortalities for the cohort were compared with national and local rates and expressed as standardised mortality ratios (SMRs). In the subcohort of Darwen workers with more than minimal exposure to MMA, reduced mortalities compared with national and local rates, were found for all causes (SMR 94), and colorectal cancer (SMR 92), but mortality from all cancers was slightly increased (SMR 104). No relations were found with cumulative exposure to MMA. In the subcohort of Wilton workers, mortality from all causes of death was significantly reduced (SMR 89), but mortality from all cancers (SMR 103) and colorectal cancer (SMR 124) were increased. The excess of colorectal cancer was confined to employees with less than 1 year of employment.
CONCLUSION—The study provided no clear evidence that employment at the factories or exposure to

  7. Leukotrienes in exhaled breath condensate and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in workers exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pelclova, Daniela; Zdimal, Vladimir; Kacer, Petr; Fenclova, Zdenka; Vlckova, Stepanka; Komarc, Martin; Navratil, Tomas; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Zikova, Nadezda; Makes, Otakar; Syslova, Kamila; Belacek, Jaroslav; Zakharov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Human health data regarding exposure to nanoparticles are extremely scarce and biomonitoring of exposure is lacking in spite of rodent pathological experimental data. Potential markers of the health-effects of engineered nanoparticles were examined in 30 workers exposed to TiO2 aerosol, 22 office employees of the same plant, and 45 unexposed controls. Leukotrienes (LT) B4, C4, E4, and D4 were analysed in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and spirometry was also measured. The median particle number concentration of the aerosol in the production ranged from 1.98  ×  10(4) to 2.32  ×  10(4) particles cm(-3); about 80% of the particles were  <100 nm in diameter. Median total mass concentration varied between 0.4 and 0.65 mg m(-3). All LT levels in workers' EBC were elevated relative to the controls (p  <  0.01). LTs in the EBC sample were correlated with titanium levels. Urinary LTs were not elevated in the workers and office employees. Office workers had higher LTB4 in EBC (p  <  0.05), and higher levels of FeNO (p  <  0.01). FeNO was higher in office employees with allergic diseases and was negatively correlated with smoking (p  <  0.01). In spirometry significant impairment in the workers was seen only for %VCIN and %PEF (both p  <  0.01). Multiple regression analysis confirmed a significant association between production of TiO2 and all cysteinyl LTs in EBC (p  <  0.01) and impaired %VCIN and %PEF (both p  <  0.01). LTB4 was also associated with smoking (p  <  0.01). LT levels complemented our earlier findings of DNA, protein, and lipid damage in the EBC of workers with nanoTiO2 exposures. Cysteinyl LTs in EBC analysis suggest inflammation and potential fibrotic changes in the lungs; they may be helpful for monitoring the biological

  8. Tooth loss, prosthetic status and treatment needs among industrial workers in Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vishal V; Shigli, Kamal; Hebbal, Mamata; Agrawal, Neha

    2012-01-01

    The health of industrial workers often goes uncared for due to their stressful working conditions, busy schedules and poor economic conditions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of tooth loss, prosthetic status and treatment needs among industrial workers in Belgaum, Karnataka, India according to the criteria described in the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Assessment form (1997). A total of 614 workers participated in the study. Information was obtained regarding their oral hygiene practice. The presence or absence of habits, and the frequency and duration since the last visit to a dentist were recorded followed by clinical examination. Chi-square test was used to determine the association between the variables and tooth loss. There was a statistically significant difference between the number of missing teeth in different age groups, methods of cleaning, smoking habits and visits to the dentist. Regarding prosthetic status, only one worker had a fixed prosthesis in the mandibular arch. The study revealed that tooth loss was associated with oral hygiene practices, habits and visits to the dentist. Poor prosthetic status and high treatment needs were observed. This study emphasized the need for improved dental health awareness and availability of dental facilities to industrial workers.

  9. [Carpal tunnel syndrome in workers engaged in the assembly of manufactured products in various industries in the province of Brescia].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, P G

    1996-01-01

    Tests were carried out on five manual assembly departments in a variety of different factories, in order to assess the risks associated with the onset of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and to describe the prevalence of this disorder among exposed workers. The application of the risk analysis method proposed by the EPM Research Unit in Milan (Italy) demonstrated the presence of numerous jobs featuring both a high frequency of actions per minute and a total lack of recovery times, in addition to a variety of incongrous upper limb postures. The clinical and instrumental investigation diagnosed 76 cases of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among the 170 exposed workers. 62% of the cases was bilateral and 24% was associated with Guyon Channel Syndrome. In two of the five departments reviewed, the carpal tunnel disorders detected were endemic, and featured unusually high prevalence. The situation had been seriously underestimated by the company technical and medical staff, resulting in a failure to call for the urgent adoption of individual protection and collective prevention measures. The authors recommend that an extensive and adequate occupational risk assessment analysis be performed: the local occupational health services could play a critical role in identifying the highest risk industries and the diseases diagnosed in a hospital environment.

  10. Acute liver injury in two workers exposed to chloroform in cleanrooms: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young Joong; Ahn, Jungho; Hwang, Yang-In

    2014-01-01

    We report 2 cases of hepatotoxicity in cleanroom workers due to high retained chloroform air concentrations. The women, aged 34 and 41 years, who had been working in a medical endoscopic device manufacturer as cleanroom workers for approximately 40-45 days suffered severe liver damage. Two measured time-weighted averages of the chloroform concentration in the air in the cleanroom were 82.74 and 64.24 ppm, which are more than 6 times the legal occupational exposure limit in Korea. Only 7% of the cleanroom air was newly introduced from outside. The clinical courses of these cases and workplace inspection, led us to conclude that both cases of hepatotoxicity were caused by chloroform exposure.

  11. Plasma gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane concentrations in forestry workers exposed to lindane.

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, L; Gillanders, E M; Wilson, H K

    1988-01-01

    Plasma gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) and three urinary trichlorophenols were measured in forestry workers who were engaged in planting seedlings treated with gamma-HCH. These two procedures were assessed as potential biological monitoring methods and the data were compared with reported clinical symptoms. The measurement of plasma gamma-HCH was considered to be a feasible and valid monitoring method for use in routine practice and is a useful indicator of gamma-HCH absorption. The data were used to illustrate the need to be vigilant about personal hygiene and the efficacy of protective clothing. Plasma gamma-HCH concentrations above 70 nmol/l were measured in two workers which coincided with persistent non-specific clinical symptoms. Trichlorophenols were identified in urine but the extensive and variable metabolism of gamma-HCH makes this approach less suitable for biological monitoring. PMID:2456092

  12. Cancer mortality in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Fingerhut, M.A.; Halperin, W.E.; Marlow, D.A.; Piacitelli, L.A.; Honchar, P.A.; Sweeney, M.H.; Greife, A.L.; Dill, P.A.; Steenland, K.; Suruda, A.J. )

    1991-01-24

    In both animal and epidemiologic studies, exposure to dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or TCDD) has been associated with an increased risk of cancer. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of mortality among the 5172 workers at 12 plants in the United States that produced chemicals contaminated with TCDD. Occupational exposure was documented by reviewing job descriptions and by measuring TCDD in serum from a sample of 253 workers. Causes of death were taken from death certificates. Mortality from several cancers previously associated with TCDD (stomach, liver, and nasal cancers, Hodgkin's disease, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) was not significantly elevated in this cohort. Mortality from soft-tissue sarcoma was increased, but not significantly (4 deaths; standardized mortality ratio (SMR), 338; 95 percent confidence interval, 92 to 865). In the subcohort of 1520 workers with greater than or equal to 1 year of exposure and greater than or equal to 20 years of latency, however, mortality was significantly increased for soft-tissue sarcoma (3 deaths; SMR, 922; 95 percent confidence interval, 190 to 2695) and for cancers of the respiratory system (SMR, 142; 95 percent confidence interval, 103 to 192). Mortality from all cancers combined was slightly but significantly elevated in the overall cohort (SMR, 115; 95 percent confidence interval, 102 to 130) and was higher in the subcohort with greater than or equal to 1 year of exposure and greater than or equal to 20 years of latency (SMR, 146; 95 percent confidence interval, 121 to 176). This study of mortality among workers with occupational exposure to TCDD does not confirm the high relative risks reported for many cancers in previous studies. Conclusions about an increase in the risk of soft-tissue sarcoma are limited by small numbers and misclassification on death certificates.

  13. Olfactory function in chemical workers exposed to acrylate and methacrylate vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, B.S.; Doty, R.L.; Frye, R. ); Monroe, C.; Barker, S. )

    1989-05-01

    An investigation of the olfactory function of 731 workers at a chemical facility which manufactures acrylates and methacrylates was undertaken using a standardized quantitative test. In a cross-section analysis of the data, no associations of chemical exposure with olfactory test scores were observed. A nested case-control study designed to evaluate the cumulative effects of exposure on olfactory function, however, revealed elevated crude exposure odds ratios of 2.0 (1.1, 3.8) for all workers and 6.0 (1.7, 21.5) for workers who never smoked cigarettes. Logistic regression analysis, adjusting for multiple confounders, revealed exposure odds ratios of 2.8 (1.1, 7.0) and 13.5 (2.1, 87.6) in these same groups, respectively, and a dose-response relationship between olfactory dysfunction and cumulative exposure scores - semi-quantitative indices of lifetime exposure to the acrylates. The data also revealed decreasing exposure odds ratios with increasing duration since last exposure to these chemicals, suggesting that the effects may be reversible.

  14. Incidence of cancer in Norwegian workers potentially exposed to electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tynes, T; Andersen, A; Langmark, F

    1992-07-01

    The risk of cancer was investigated in a cohort of 37,945 male Norwegian electrical workers for whom information on job description was collected from 1960 census data and linked to the 1970 census data. The standardized incidence ratio was calculated for all cancer sites in the overall cohort by comparison with national incidence rates for economically active men at the 1960 census. The standardized incidence ratios for cancers of the breast, pleura (mesothelioma), larynx, and bladder and for soft tissue sarcoma were elevated, while those for non-Hodgkins and Hodgkins lymphoma were lower. The standardized incidence ratio for leukemia for electrical workers with 10 or more economically active years was 1.41. The standardized incidence ratio for brain tumors in this subgroup of electrical workers was 1.14. These results from a large, national, population-based study at the Cancer Registry of Norway give support to previous findings of a possible association between electrical work and the risk of leukemia.

  15. Olfactory function in chemical workers exposed to acrylate and methacrylate vapors.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, B S; Doty, R L; Monroe, C; Frye, R; Barker, S

    1989-05-01

    An investigation of the olfactory function of 731 workers at a chemical facility which manufacturers acrylates and methacrylates was undertaken using a standardized quantitative test. In a cross-sectional analysis of the data, no associations of chemical exposure with olfactory test scores were observed. A nested case-control study designed to evaluate the cumulative effects of exposure on olfactory function, however, revealed elevated crude exposure odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 2.0 (1.1, 3.8) for all workers and 6.0 (1.7, 21.5) for workers who never smoked cigarettes. Logistic regression analysis, adjusting for multiple confounders, revealed exposure odds ratios of 2.8 (1.1, 7.0) and 13.5 (2.1, 87.6) in these same groups, respectively, and a dose-response relationship between olfactory dysfunction and cumulative exposure scores--semi-quantitative indices of lifetime exposure to the acrylates. The data also revealed decreasing exposure odds ratios with increasing duration since last exposure to these chemicals, suggesting that the effects may be reversible. PMID:2784947

  16. The health status of northern Omo State Farm workers exposed to chlorpyrifos and profenofos.

    PubMed

    Lakew, K; Mekonnen, Y

    1998-07-01

    The health effects of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides on cholinesterase (ChE) activities were assessed among 81 pest control workers from Northern Omo State Farm (Ethiopia), following the occupational use of Chlorpyrifos 25 and 48% ULV and Profenifos 250 EC/ULV. Plasma ChE (PChE) and erythrocyte ChE (AChE) activities were determined electrometrically before and after pesticide exposure. Plasma alkaline phosphatase (AP) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) values were estimated colorimetrically. Risk factors of pesticide poisoning and related occupational factors were assessed following the WHO recommendations. The mean PChE and AChE activities determined after pesticide exposures were significantly lower than the pre-exposure values (P < 0.05); 16% and 40% of the pest control workers had PChE and AChE levels below 50% of the pre-exposure values, respectively. The mean plasma AP and GPT values were found to be within the recommended normal limits. No significant difference in either of the ChE activities was observed between the spray men and the pest assessors, although the former were believed to have frequent contact with the concentrated OP formulations. Risk factors of pesticide poisoning such as workers ignorance about the toxicity of pesticides, poor personal hygiene and total absence or improper use of personal protective devices were prevalent. Measures that should be considered to minimize the problem in the farm population are recommended. PMID:10214458

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders among Myanmar migrant workers in Thai seafood industries.

    PubMed

    Soe, Kyaw Thu; Laosee, Orapin; Limsatchapanich, Suwassa; Rattanapan, Cheerawit

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with self-administered questionnaires among 368 Myanmar migrant workers to investigate the prevalence of and to determine the risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the Thai seafood industry. The results showed the prevalence of MSDs was 45.1% occurring in the last 7 days. Marital status, number of dependents, other health problems, working hours, repetitive hand movements, awkward posture of wrists, prolonged standing, and manual handling of heavy loads were found to be associated with MSDs. Multiple logistic regression indicated that the workers who were married, had more than two dependents, and had more exposure to awkward wrist postures were at significantly increased risk of MSDs. The study findings suggest the need for adequate knowledge of ergonomics and for awareness campaign programs focusing on prevention of MSDs, especially low back pain, to be initiated in industries for earlier detection of symptoms among seafood processing workers. PMID:26694006

  18. Air quality index from charcoal production sites, carboxyheamoglobin and lung function among occupationally exposed charcoal workers in South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olujimi, O O; Ana, G R E E; Ogunseye, O O; Fabunmi, V T

    2016-01-01

    Charcoal production is often accompanied with gaseous and particulate emission into the atmosphere and occupationally exposed workers could be affected. This cross sectional comparative study was carried out to assess the levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5) generated during the phases of charcoal production and their relationship with certain biomarkers among charcoal workers (subjects) and non-charcoal workers (controls) such as carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and body mass index (BMI) in Igbo-Ora, Oyo State and Alabata, Ogun State, which are two of the major hubs of charcoal production in South Western Nigeria. Four communities in Igbo-Ora and six communities in Alabata were purposively selected and levels of pollutant gases were assessed using appropriate gas meters, PM2.5 was assessed with Thermo Scientific MIE pDR-1500, FEV1 and PEFR were measured with Piko-1 spirometer while COHb was assessed using non-invasive pulse CO-oximeter (Rad 57). Data were statistically analyzed and results were compared with recommended guidelines. The mean FEV1, PEFR, COHb and BMI for subjects and controls were 2.35 ± 0.73 and 2.69 ± 0.56, 253.72 ± 103.45 and 330.02 ± 94.61 (p < 0.01), 13.28 ± 3.91 and 8.50 ± 3.68 (p < 0.01) and 21.97 ± 2.19 and 23.36 ± 3.74 (p < 0.05) respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between actual and expected values of FEV1 (p < 0.01) and PEFR (p < 0.01) among charcoal workers. There existed a positive correlation between CO and COHb while FEV1 and PEFR correlated negatively with PM2.5. The study showed that charcoal workers are exposed to high levels of CO and PM2.5, contributing to lowered respiratory functions for FEV1 and PEFR and high levels of COHb compared to the control group. Routine respiratory and

  19. Air quality index from charcoal production sites, carboxyheamoglobin and lung function among occupationally exposed charcoal workers in South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olujimi, O O; Ana, G R E E; Ogunseye, O O; Fabunmi, V T

    2016-01-01

    Charcoal production is often accompanied with gaseous and particulate emission into the atmosphere and occupationally exposed workers could be affected. This cross sectional comparative study was carried out to assess the levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5) generated during the phases of charcoal production and their relationship with certain biomarkers among charcoal workers (subjects) and non-charcoal workers (controls) such as carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and body mass index (BMI) in Igbo-Ora, Oyo State and Alabata, Ogun State, which are two of the major hubs of charcoal production in South Western Nigeria. Four communities in Igbo-Ora and six communities in Alabata were purposively selected and levels of pollutant gases were assessed using appropriate gas meters, PM2.5 was assessed with Thermo Scientific MIE pDR-1500, FEV1 and PEFR were measured with Piko-1 spirometer while COHb was assessed using non-invasive pulse CO-oximeter (Rad 57). Data were statistically analyzed and results were compared with recommended guidelines. The mean FEV1, PEFR, COHb and BMI for subjects and controls were 2.35 ± 0.73 and 2.69 ± 0.56, 253.72 ± 103.45 and 330.02 ± 94.61 (p < 0.01), 13.28 ± 3.91 and 8.50 ± 3.68 (p < 0.01) and 21.97 ± 2.19 and 23.36 ± 3.74 (p < 0.05) respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between actual and expected values of FEV1 (p < 0.01) and PEFR (p < 0.01) among charcoal workers. There existed a positive correlation between CO and COHb while FEV1 and PEFR correlated negatively with PM2.5. The study showed that charcoal workers are exposed to high levels of CO and PM2.5, contributing to lowered respiratory functions for FEV1 and PEFR and high levels of COHb compared to the control group. Routine respiratory and

  20. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: South Australian Construction Industry Study. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  1. Young Workers and Their Dispositions towards Mathematics: Tensions of a Mathematical Habitus in the Retail Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen Zebenbergen, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of contemporary retail industry and the ways in which young workers participate in that field. Public perceptions of low numeracy among young people provided the catalyst for the study. Drawing on a mixed-method approach involving survey, case studies, stimulated recall, observations, and interviews, it was found…

  2. 76 FR 5833 - Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... the Federal Register on September 15, 2010 (75 FR 56143). The notice was amended on December 6, 2010... Register on December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77666). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed... Employment and Training Administration Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

  3. 76 FR 22729 - Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... vehicles. The notice was published in the Federal ] Register on September 15, 2010 (75 FR 56143). The... December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77666) and February 2, 2011 (76 FR 5833), respectively. At the request of the... Employment and Training Administration Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

  4. Older Workers in the Hospitality Industry: Valuing Experience and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Roy

    2011-01-01

    The research sets out to identify the learning processes adopted by older workers in the hospitality and visitor attraction industry in Scotland, with a view to determining how employers may better support their education and training within enterprises. The study was undertaken as part of the ESRC project on "Sustaining the employability of older…

  5. Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephen; Walline, James

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), a program sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW)/General Motors (GM) that employs school teachers, administrators, and college and university faculty each summer in GM assembly plants. The QEP provides educators and those in industry the unique opportunity to interact…

  6. Lead poisoning influences TCR-related gene expression patterns in peripheral blood T-lymphocytes of exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yuzhe; Yu, Wei; Fang, Su; Liu, Sichu; Yang, Zhiqian; Liu, Weiwei; Chen, Shaohua; Yang, Lijian; Li, Bo; Li, Yangqiu

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that occupational lead (Pb) exposure might influence human T-lymphocyte function, including such as changes in T-cell receptor (TCR) Vβ and Vγ repertoire and in expression of the TCRζ gene. Thus, the study here further investigated expression of TCRζ-related factors and the FcεRIγ gene (whose product has a functional role complementary to the TCRζ chain) and the Elf-1 gene whose product is involved in regulation of TCR expression. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to measure expression of TCRζ, FcεRIγ, and Elf-1 genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from 17 Pb-exposed workers. Samples were collected before and after the workers had undergone chelation therapy regimens. Twenty-three healthy individuals served as controls. The results showed that TCRζ, FcεRIγ, and Elf-1 gene expression in Pb-exposed workers before chelation therapy was significantly lower than in PBMC from healthy individuals. After chelation therapy, expression of TCRζ appeared to trend toward normal levels; in comparison, lower expressions of FcεRIγ and Elf-1 persisted. In conclusion, the previously-documented impairment of T-lymphocyte functions and T- lymphocyte-mediated immune responses seen previously in response to occupational Pb exposure might be attributable, in part, to effects on TCR signaling pathways - including those related to TCRζ and FcεRIγ - and to any down-regulation of membrane TCRζ expression/activity that might be associated with Pb-induced effects on Elf-1 expression.

  7. 76 FR 79221 - Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From QPS Employment Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on July 16, 2010 (75 FR 41526). At the request of the State... Employment and Training Administration Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers... Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, including on-site leased workers from QPS Employment Group and...

  8. Risk of lower extremity arterial disease in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation over a prolonged period.

    PubMed

    Azizova, Tamara V; Bannikova, Maria V; Grigorieva, Evgenia S; Bagaeva, Yaroslava P; Azizova, Elena V

    2016-05-01

    In this study the incidence risk of lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD; international classification of diseases version 9 code 440.2) was assessed in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to radiation over a prolonged period. The study cohort includes 22,377 workers of the Mayak Production Association (25% of whom are females) first employed at one of the main facilities in 1948-1982 and followed up to the end of 2008. Dose estimates used in the study are provided by Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008. The mean total dose from external gamma-rays is 0.54 Gy for males and 0.44 Gy for females. The mean absorbed liver dose from internal alpha-radiation due to incorporated plutonium is 0.23 Gy in males and 0.44 Gy in females. Relative risks and excess relative risks per unit dose (ERR/Gy) are calculated based on maximum likelihood. A total of 943 cases of LEAD are registered in the study cohort during the follow-up of 512,801 person-years. A significant association of LEAD incidence with total dose from external gamma-rays (based on a linear model) was revealed, and the ERR/Gy is 0.27 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11; 0.48). It turned out that a linear-exponential model provides a better fit of the data (∆AIC = 9.957). Inclusion of an adjustment for internal alpha-radiation dose resulted in the reduction of the ERR/Gy to 0.19 (95% CI 0.05; 0.39), but the risk remains significant. No association of LEAD incidence with dose from internal alpha-radiation was found in the study worker cohort. It is concluded that this study provides evidence for an association of LEAD incidence with dose from external gamma-rays taking non-radiation factors into account. PMID:26994996

  9. Risk of lower extremity arterial disease in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation over a prolonged period.

    PubMed

    Azizova, Tamara V; Bannikova, Maria V; Grigorieva, Evgenia S; Bagaeva, Yaroslava P; Azizova, Elena V

    2016-05-01

    In this study the incidence risk of lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD; international classification of diseases version 9 code 440.2) was assessed in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to radiation over a prolonged period. The study cohort includes 22,377 workers of the Mayak Production Association (25% of whom are females) first employed at one of the main facilities in 1948-1982 and followed up to the end of 2008. Dose estimates used in the study are provided by Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008. The mean total dose from external gamma-rays is 0.54 Gy for males and 0.44 Gy for females. The mean absorbed liver dose from internal alpha-radiation due to incorporated plutonium is 0.23 Gy in males and 0.44 Gy in females. Relative risks and excess relative risks per unit dose (ERR/Gy) are calculated based on maximum likelihood. A total of 943 cases of LEAD are registered in the study cohort during the follow-up of 512,801 person-years. A significant association of LEAD incidence with total dose from external gamma-rays (based on a linear model) was revealed, and the ERR/Gy is 0.27 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11; 0.48). It turned out that a linear-exponential model provides a better fit of the data (∆AIC = 9.957). Inclusion of an adjustment for internal alpha-radiation dose resulted in the reduction of the ERR/Gy to 0.19 (95% CI 0.05; 0.39), but the risk remains significant. No association of LEAD incidence with dose from internal alpha-radiation was found in the study worker cohort. It is concluded that this study provides evidence for an association of LEAD incidence with dose from external gamma-rays taking non-radiation factors into account.

  10. Childhood cancer in the offspring of male sawmill workers occupationally exposed to chlorophenate fungicides.

    PubMed Central

    Heacock, H; Hertzman, C; Demers, P A; Gallagher, R; Hogg, R S; Teschke, K; Hershler, R; Bajdik, C D; Dimich-Ward, H; Marion, S A; Ostry, A; Kelly, S

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether paternal occupational exposure to chlorophenol fungicides and their dioxin contaminants is associated with childhood cancer in the offspring of sawmill workers. We used data from 23,829 British Columbian sawmill workers employed for at least 1 continuous year between 1950 and 1985 in 11 sawmills that used chlorophenates. Probabilistic linkage of the sawmill worker cohort to the provincial marriage and birth files produced an offspring cohort of 19,674 children born at least 1 year after the initiation of employment in the period 1952-1988. We then linked the offspring cohort to the British Columbia Cancer Registry. We included all malignancies in cases younger than 20 years of age that appeared on the cancer registry between 1969 and 1993. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) using the British Columbia population as a reference. A nested case-control analysis assessed the effects of paternal cumulative exposure and windows of exposure on the risk of developing cancer in the offspring. We identified 40 cases of cancer during 259,919 person-years of follow-up. The all-cancer SIR was 1.0 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-1.4]; the SIR for leukemia was 1.0 (CI, 0.5-1.8); and the SIR for brain cancer was 1.3 (CI, 0.6-2.5). The nested case-control analysis showed slightly increased risks in the highest categories of chlorophenol exposure, although none was statistically significant. Our analyses provide little evidence to support a relationship between the risk of childhood cancer and paternal occupational exposure to chlorophenate fungicides in British Columbian sawmills. PMID:10856022

  11. Nocturnal 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in female workers exposed to magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Juutilainen, J; Stevens, Richard G. ); Anderson, Larry E. ); Hansen, Norman H.; Kilpelainen, M; Kumlin, T; Laitinen, J T.; Sobell, Eugene; Wilson, Bary W. )

    2000-03-15

    The objective of this study was to determine whether daytime occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (MFs) suppresses nocturnal melatonin production. Sixty female volunteers were recruited. Thirty-nine worked in a garment factory, and 21 office workers served as a reference group. Exposure assessment was based on the type of sewing machine used and MF measurements around each type of machine. Eye-level MF flux density was used to classify the operators to higher (> 1 microT) and lower (0.3-1 microT) exposure categories. A third group of factory workers had diverse MF exposures from other sources. The reference group had average exposure of about 0.15 microT. Urine samples were collected on Friday and Monday for three consecutive weeks. Melatonin production was assessed as urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) excretion. The ratio of Friday morning/Monday morning 6-OHMS was used to test the hypothesis that melatonin production is suppressed after 4 days of occupational MF exposure with significant recovery during the weekend. Possible chronic suppression of melatonin production was evaluated by studying exposure-related differences in the Friday values by multivariate regression analysis. The Monday/Friday ratios were close to 1.0, suggesting that there is no increase in melatonin production over the weekend. The average 6-OHMS excretion on Friday was lower among the factory workers than in the reference group, but no monotonous dose-response was observed. Multivariate regression analysis identified MF exposure, smoking, and age as significant explanatory variables associated with decreased 6-OHMS excretion.

  12. Respiratory health of workers exposed to low levels of chromium in stainless steel production.

    PubMed Central

    Huvinen, M; Uitti, J; Zitting, A; Roto, P; Virkola, K; Kuikka, P; Laippala, P; Aitio, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether occupational exposure to chromite, trivalent chromium, or hexavalent chromium causes respiratory diseases, an excess of respiratory symptoms, a decrease in pulmonary function, or signs of pneumoconiosis among workers in an integrated chain of stainless steel production. METHODS: This cross sectional study was carried out in 1993 and the inclusion criterion was a minimum of eight years of employment in the same production department. A self administered questionnaire was collected, and spirometry, measurement of diffusing capacity, chest radiography, and laboratory tests were carried out by a mobile research unit. RESULTS: There were 221 workers in the exposure groups and 95 in the control group. The average duration of employment was 18 years. No significant differences in the odds ratios (ORs) of the symptoms were found between the exposure and the control groups. In a logistic regression analysis age and smoking significantly explained the occurrence of most of the respiratory symptoms. The smokers in the chromite group had significantly lower forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and diffusing capacity than the corresponding values of the control group. The analysis of variance between study groups, smoking, and exposure time, without modelling for interactions, showed that the chromite group had lower values for FVC, FEV1, and diffusing capacity than the other groups. The occurrence of small opacities was more frequent on the chest radiographs of the workers in the chromite group. CONCLUSIONS: An average exposure time of 18 years in ferrochromium and stainless steel production and exposure to dusts containing low concentrations of hexavalent or trivalent chromium do not lead to any respiratory changes detectable by lung function tests or radiography nor to any increase in symptoms of respiratory diseases. The lung function values were lower and the occurrence of radiological findings was

  13. BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE, EFFECT AND SUSCEPTIBILITY IN WORKERS EXPOSED TO NITROTOLUENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrotoluenes, such as 2-nitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (24DNT), and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (26DNT), are carcinogenic in animal experiments. Humans are exposed to such chemicals in the workplace and in the environment. It is therefore important to develop methods to biomonitor peop...

  14. A study of morbidity pattern among iron and steel workers from an industry in central India

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Manish J.; Koparkar, Anil R.; Joshi, Mohan P.; Hajare, Shilpa T.; Kasturwar, Nandakishor B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Iron is the world's most commonly used metal and can usually be found with other elements in the form of steel. In this era of machines, it is the inevitable part in production of various materials like eyeglass frames, jet aircraft, the space shuttle, automobiles, and surgical instruments. Occupational factors make an important contribution to the global burden of disease, but the reliable data on occupational disease are much more difficult to obtain. Hence, the current study was carried out to find out the morbidity pattern among iron and steel workers Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study. was carried out after obtaining permission from Institutional Ethics Committee in an iron and steel factory. Worker's detailed information regarding profile was taken in pretested questionnaire format after obtaining the informed written consent and explaining the purpose of study. Workers were also interviewed regarding their years of job, job satisfaction, usage of protective devices, and history of injuries during work. Worker's detailed general and systemic examination was conducted. Results: The overall prevalence of morbidities among the workers was 60%. It was observed that commonest morbidity in the workers was lumbago (musculoskeletal pain), that is, 33.25%which was more in Group B (49.73%) than Group A (18.78%), followed by occupational dermatitis (27%) which more common in Group A (33.33%) than Group B (19.79%). It was seen that occupation-related morbidities were more prevalent in Group A, i.e. Exposed group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: It was observed that occupation-related morbidities were more common in exposed group (EG) than that of nonexposed group (NEG) and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). PMID:25598617

  15. Benzene exposure and risk of lymphohaematopoietic cancers in 25 000 offshore oil industry workers

    PubMed Central

    Stenehjem, J S; Kjærheim, K; Bråtveit, M; Samuelsen, S O; Barone-Adesi, F; Rothman, N; Lan, Q; Grimsrud, T K

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this work was to examine the risk of lymphohaematopoietic (LH) cancer according to benzene exposure among offshore workers. Methods: Cancer registry data were used to identify 112 cancer cases diagnosed during 1999–2011 in a cohort of 24 917 Norwegian men reporting offshore work between 1965 and 1999. Analyses were conducted according to a stratified case–cohort design with a reference subcohort of 1661 workers. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for other benzene exposure and smoking. Results: Most workers were exposed to benzene for <15 years. The upper range values of average intensity and cumulative exposure were estimated to 0.040 p.p.m. and 0.948 p.p.m.-years, respectively. Risks were consistently elevated among exposed workers for all LH cancers combined and for most subgroups, although case numbers were small and yielded imprecise risk estimates. There was evidence of dose-related risk patterns according to cumulative exposure for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), multiple myeloma (MM) (P trends 0.052 and 0.024, respectively), and suggestively so for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) according to average intensity (P trend 0.094). Conclusions: Our results support an association between cumulative and intensity metrics of low-level benzene exposure and risk for AML, MM, and suggestively for CLL. PMID:25867262

  16. Sweat or no sweat: foreign workers in the garment industry in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Crinis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade factory owners, in response to brand-name Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) parameters, have joined associations that verify (through a monitoring and audit system) that management does not exploit labour. There have been no reports of violations of codes of conduct concerning Malaysian workers but for foreign workers on contract there are certain areas that have been reported. These areas, including trade union membership, the withholding of workers' passports and unsuitable accommodation, generally escape notice because auditors who monitor factory compliance do not question the terms of contracts as long as they comply with national labour standards. This paper is based on research with foreign workers in Malaysia and argues that despite the success of the anti-sweatshop movement in a global context, the neo-liberal state in Malaysia continues to place certain restrictions on transnational labour migrants which breach garment industry codes of conduct. Available evidence does not support the assumption that CSR practices provide sufficient protection for both citizen and foreign workers on contract in the garment industry. PMID:20845568

  17. Sweat or no sweat: foreign workers in the garment industry in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Crinis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade factory owners, in response to brand-name Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) parameters, have joined associations that verify (through a monitoring and audit system) that management does not exploit labour. There have been no reports of violations of codes of conduct concerning Malaysian workers but for foreign workers on contract there are certain areas that have been reported. These areas, including trade union membership, the withholding of workers' passports and unsuitable accommodation, generally escape notice because auditors who monitor factory compliance do not question the terms of contracts as long as they comply with national labour standards. This paper is based on research with foreign workers in Malaysia and argues that despite the success of the anti-sweatshop movement in a global context, the neo-liberal state in Malaysia continues to place certain restrictions on transnational labour migrants which breach garment industry codes of conduct. Available evidence does not support the assumption that CSR practices provide sufficient protection for both citizen and foreign workers on contract in the garment industry.

  18. Histomorphometric Evaluation of the Small Coronary Arteries in Rats Exposed to Industrial Noise

    PubMed Central

    Lousinha, Ana; Antunes, Eduardo; Borrecho, Gonçalo; Oliveira, Maria João; Brito, José; Martins dos Santos, José

    2015-01-01

    Morphological changes induced by industrial noise (IN) have been experimentally observed in several organs. Histological observations of the coronary arteries showed prominent perivascular tissue and fibrosis among IN-exposed rats. The effects on the small arteries are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the histomorphometric changes induced by IN on rat heart small arteries. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats exposed to IN during a maximum period of seven months and 20 age-matched controls were studied. Hearts were transversely sectioned from ventricular apex to atria and a mid-ventricular fragment was selected for analysis. The histological images were obtained with an optical microscope using 400× magnifications. A total of 634 arterial vessels (298 IN-exposed and 336 controls) were selected. The mean lumen-to-vessel wall (L/W) and mean vessel wall-to-perivascular tissue (W/P) ratios were calculated using image J software. Results: There were no differences between exposed and control animals in their L/W ratios (p = 0.687) and time variations in this ratio were non-significant (p = 0.110). In contrast, exposed animals showed lower W/P ratios than control animals (p < 0.001), with significant time variations (p = 0.004). Conclusions: Industrial noise induced an increase in the perivascular tissue of rat small coronary arteries, with significant development of periarterial fibrosis. PMID:25946344

  19. Acute effects and exposure to organic compounds in road maintenance workers exposed to asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Norseth, T.; Waage, J.; Dale, I. )

    1991-01-01

    Subjective symptoms and exposure to organic compounds were recorded in road repair and construction workers. Abnormal fatigue, reduced appetite, laryngeal/pharyngeal irritation, and eye irritation were recorded more often in such workers handling asphalt than in a corresponding reference group without asphalt exposure. Mean daily exposure to volatile compounds was only occasionally above 1 ppm. Mean exposure to asphalt fume was 0.358 mg/m3. There was no correlation between symptoms and total amount of volatile compounds, but a significant positive correlation was demonstrated between symptoms and some substances. The highest correlation was found for 1, 2, 4 trimethyl benzene. Symptoms increased with increasing asphalt temperature and with increasing concentrations of asphalt fumes. Amine addition did not increase the sum of symptoms, but soft asphalt seems to result in fewer symptoms than the harder types. Symptoms were not related to external factors like weather, traffic density, or specific working operations. As preventive measures, asphalt temperature should be kept below 150 degrees C, fume concentrations below 0.40 mg/m3, and if possible, the use of harder asphalt types which also require high temperatures should be avoided.

  20. Pulmonary function in workers exposed to diesel exhausts: The effect of control measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ulfvarson, U.; Alexandersson, R.; Dahlqvist, M.; Ekholm, U.; Bergstroem, B. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess the protective effect of exhausts pipe filters or respirators on pulmonary function, 15 workers in a tunnel construction site, truck and loading machine drivers, rock workers, and others were studied. The total and respirable dust, combustible matter in respirable dust, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide were measured for each subject during entire work shifts. The effect of the exposure on the lung function variables was measured by dynamic spirometry, carbon monoxide single breath technique, and nitrogen single breath wash-out. The exhaust pipe filtering had a protective effect, directly discernible in the drivers on vital capacity and FEV1.0 and for the whole group on FEV% and TLco. The dust respirators had no effect, probably because of the difficulties in correctly using personal protection under the circumstances in the tunnel. In the absence of a true exposure assessment, control measures for diesel exhausts can be tested by medical effect studies. Catalytic particle filters of diesel exhausts are one method of rendering the emissions less irritant, although they will not remove irritant gases. An indicator of diesel exhaust exposure should include the particle fraction of the diesel exhausts, but a discrimination between different sources of organic dust must be possible.

  1. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Penkova, Kalina Ivanova; Rupova, Ivanka Tankova; Panova, Delyana Yonkova; Djounova, Jana Nikolaeva

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year survey of immune status of nuclear power plant (NPP) workers was assessed by cellular and humoral immune parameters. The cumulative doses of NPP workers were in the range of 0.06 to 766.36 mSv. The results did not show significant deviations in the studied parameters of cellular and humoral immunity, but a tendency of elevated values in CD3+4+ helper inducers cells, especially its CD4+62L+ subpopulation, regulatory CD4+25+ cells, CD8+28+ cytotoxic subpopulation, and immunoglobulin M, was established. The observed trend of the above-mentioned parameters could be interpreted by assumption that while the adaptation processes are dominated with low prevalence of T-helper (Th) 1 immune response to cumulative doses less than 100 mSv, a switch to Th-2 response occurred at doses above 100 mSv. The impact of a number of other confounding factors on the immune system does not allow definitive conclusions about the direct radiation-induced changes in immune parameters. PMID:26740807

  2. Telomere Length in Aged Mayak PA Nuclear Workers Chronically Exposed to Internal Alpha and External Gamma Radiation.

    PubMed

    Scherthan, Harry; Sotnik, Natalia; Peper, Michel; Schrock, Gerrit; Azizova, Tamara; Abend, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres consist of GC-rich DNA repeats and the "shelterin" protein complex that together protect chromosome ends from fusion and degradation. Telomeres shorten with age due to incomplete end replication and upon exposure to environmental and intrinsic stressors. Exposure to ionizing radiation is known to modulate telomere length. However, the response of telomere length in humans chronically exposed to radiation is poorly understood. Here, we studied relative telomere length (RTL) by IQ-FISH to leukocyte nuclei in a group of 100 workers from the plutonium production facility at the Mayak Production Association (PA) who were chronically exposed to alpha-emitting ((239)Pu) radiation and/or gamma (photon) radiation, and 51 local residents serving as controls, with a similar mean age of about 80 years. We applied generalized linear statistical models adjusted for age at biosampling and the second exposure type on a linear scale and observed an age-dependent telomere length reduction. In those individuals with the lowest exposure, a significant reduction of about 20% RTL was observed, both for external gamma radiation (≤1 Gy) and internal alpha radiation (≤0.05-0.1 Gy to the red bone marrow). In highly exposed individuals (>0.1 Gy alpha, 1-1.5 Gy gamma), the RTL was similar to control. Stratification by gender revealed a significant (∼30%) telomere reduction in low-dose-exposed males, which was absent in females. While the gender differences in RTL may reflect different working conditions, lifestyle and/or telomere biology, absence of a dose response in the highly exposed individuals may reflect selection against cells with short telomeres or induction of telomere-protective effects. Our observations suggest that chronic systemic exposure to radiation leads to variable dose-dependent effects on telomere length. PMID:27340887

  3. Telomere Length in Aged Mayak PA Nuclear Workers Chronically Exposed to Internal Alpha and External Gamma Radiation.

    PubMed

    Scherthan, Harry; Sotnik, Natalia; Peper, Michel; Schrock, Gerrit; Azizova, Tamara; Abend, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres consist of GC-rich DNA repeats and the "shelterin" protein complex that together protect chromosome ends from fusion and degradation. Telomeres shorten with age due to incomplete end replication and upon exposure to environmental and intrinsic stressors. Exposure to ionizing radiation is known to modulate telomere length. However, the response of telomere length in humans chronically exposed to radiation is poorly understood. Here, we studied relative telomere length (RTL) by IQ-FISH to leukocyte nuclei in a group of 100 workers from the plutonium production facility at the Mayak Production Association (PA) who were chronically exposed to alpha-emitting ((239)Pu) radiation and/or gamma (photon) radiation, and 51 local residents serving as controls, with a similar mean age of about 80 years. We applied generalized linear statistical models adjusted for age at biosampling and the second exposure type on a linear scale and observed an age-dependent telomere length reduction. In those individuals with the lowest exposure, a significant reduction of about 20% RTL was observed, both for external gamma radiation (≤1 Gy) and internal alpha radiation (≤0.05-0.1 Gy to the red bone marrow). In highly exposed individuals (>0.1 Gy alpha, 1-1.5 Gy gamma), the RTL was similar to control. Stratification by gender revealed a significant (∼30%) telomere reduction in low-dose-exposed males, which was absent in females. While the gender differences in RTL may reflect different working conditions, lifestyle and/or telomere biology, absence of a dose response in the highly exposed individuals may reflect selection against cells with short telomeres or induction of telomere-protective effects. Our observations suggest that chronic systemic exposure to radiation leads to variable dose-dependent effects on telomere length.

  4. Ischemic heart disease mortality and years of work in trucking industry workers

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jaime E; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J; Davis, Mary E; Laden, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evidence from general population based studies and occupational cohorts has identified air pollution from mobile sources as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In a cohort of US trucking industry workers, with regular exposure to vehicle exhaust, we previously observed elevated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for ischemic heart disease compared to members of the general US population. Therefore, we examined the association of increasing years of work in jobs with vehicle exhaust exposure and ischemic heart disease mortality within the cohort. Methods We calculated years of work in eight job groups for 30,758 workers using work records from four nationwide companies. Proportional hazard regression was used to examine relationships between ischemic heart disease mortality 1985–2000 and employment duration in each job group. Results Hazard ratios for at least one year of work in each job were elevated for dockworkers, long-haul drivers, pick-up and delivery drivers, combination workers, hostlers, and shop workers. There was a suggestion of an increased risk of IHD mortality with increasing years of work as a long-haul driver, pick-up and delivery driver, combination worker, and dockworker. Conclusions These results suggest an elevated risk of ischemic heart disease mortality in workers with a previous history of regular exposure to vehicle exhaust. PMID:22992341

  5. [Sick leave benefits for workers in the Brazilian meat and fish industries in 2008].

    PubMed

    Jakobi, Heinz Roland; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Bueno, Luis Fernando; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze factors associated with sick leave rates among workers in the meat, fish, and seafood industries in Brazil. The study analyzed all sick leave benefits granted by the country's social security system to workers in these industries in 2008. Incidence of sick leave per 10 thousand jobs was stratified by sex, age, diagnosis, job position, State, and nature and length of benefits. The study analyzed 31,913 sick leaves, with an annual incidence of 788.7. Meat processing and packaging showed the highest incidence, and fish and seafood processing and packaging showed the longest mean length of sick leave. Women showed a higher sick leave incidence, while men received longer average sick leaves. Injuries, musculoskeletal disorders, and mental disorders accounted for 67.2% of sick leaves. The most common diagnoses were lower back pain, first-trimester bleeding in pregnancy, and depression. The data suggest poor job protection and adverse working conditions in these industries.

  6. Cost of lost work and bed days for us workers in private industry--national health interview survey, 2003.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Abdiaziz S

    2007-07-01

    Data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (n = 12,943) of US workers aged 18 to 64 years were used to estimate the annual cost of lost work (ACLW) and lost productivity (ACLP) due to bed days. The average lost workdays (LWDs) was estimated to be 8.39 for US workers compared with 5.62 bed days (BDs). The prevalence of high LWDs (>or=30 days) was 2.9% for US workers compared with 1.3% for BDs (>or=30 days). Regression analyses showed that female workers had higher adjusted mean LWDs and BDs than did male workers. Workers in the mining industry had the highest mean of 26.71 LWDs compared with 5.58 LWDs for workers in the wholesale industry. The total ACLW and ACLP was estimated to be $62.8 billion ($US 2003; 95% CI = $57.53-$67.52 billion).

  7. Chrysotile biopersistence in the lungs of persons in the general population and exposed workers.

    PubMed Central

    Langer, A M; Nolan, R P

    1994-01-01

    Lung burden analysis was performed on 126 autopsy cases of persons who died in New York City from 1966 through 1968. Of the 126 cases, 107 were probably non-occupationally exposed, judging by occupational history and asbestos body content of lung. Fifty-three of the 107 cases contained short chrysotile fibers/fibrils, < 5 microns in length, present in 3-fold greater amounts than were found in laboratory background controls. The fiber concentrations ranged from 1.8 to 15.7 x 10(6) f/gm/dry lung tissue, and the proportion of fibers > or = 5 microns in length was only 0.34% of the total chrysotile population found. Other inorganic particles present included fragments of amphiboles. In contrast to these data, the lung parenchyma of persons occupationally exposed to asbestos commonly showed the presence of other fiber types, especially amosite and crocidolite, at very much higher concentrations and greater fiber length. Any chrysotile present would usually be in fiber bundle form, with both fibers and fibrils > 5 microns in length. Comparison of the lung fiber content of occupationally exposed persons with that of the general population showed marked qualitative and quantitative differences. Fibers are durable, and are retained in a range of concentrations. Their length and dose, among other factors, which control their biological potential are different in the two populations; the risk factors for chrysotile-induced disease are not the same. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C PMID:7882940

  8. Assessment of DNA integrity (COMET assay) in sperm cells of boron-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Duydu, Yalçin; Başaran, Nurşen; Ustündağ, Aylin; Aydin, Sevtap; Undeğer, Ulkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçin; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Britta Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann M

    2012-01-01

    An extension of a male reproductive study conducted in a boric acid/borate production zone at Bandırma, Turkey, is presented. The relation between DNA-strand breaks (COMET assay, neutral and alkaline version) in sperm cells and previously described sperm quality parameters was investigated in boron-exposed males. A correlation between blood boron levels and mean DNA-strand breaks in sperm was weak, and DNA-strand breaks in sperm were statistically not different between control and exposed groups. Therefore, increasing boron exposures had no additional contribution in addition to already pre-existing DNA-strand breaks in the sperm cells. Weak but statistically significant correlations between DNA-strand breaks and motility/morphology parameters of sperm samples were observed in the neutral version of the COMET assay, while correlations between the same variables were statistically not significant in the alkaline version. A likely reason for these negative results, even in highly exposed humans, is that experimental exposures that had led to reproductive toxicity in animals were significantly higher than any boron exposures, which may be reached under realistic human conditions.

  9. Mortality among mound workers exposed to polonium-210 and other sources of radiation, 1944-1979.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D; Cohen, Sarah S; Mumma, Michael T; Ellis, Elizabeth Dupree; Cragle, Donna L; Eckerman, Keith F; Wallace, Phillip W; Chadda, Bandana; Sonderman, Jennifer S; Wiggs, Laurie D; Richter, Bonnie S; Leggett, Richard W

    2014-02-01

    Polonium-210 is a naturally occurring radioactive element that decays by emitting an alpha particle. It is in the air we breathe and also a component of tobacco smoke. Polonium-210 is used as an anti-static device in printing presses and gained widespread notoriety in 2006 after the poisoning and subsequent death of a Russian citizen in London. More is known about the lethal effects of polonium-210 at high doses than about late effects from low doses. Cancer mortality was examined among 7,270 workers at the Mound nuclear facility near Dayton, OH where polonium-210 was used (1944-1972) in combination with beryllium as a source of neutrons for triggering nuclear weapons. Other exposures included external gamma radiation and to a lesser extent plutonium-238, tritium and neutrons. Vital status and cause of death was determined through 2009. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed for comparisons with the general population. Lifetime occupational doses from all places of employment were sought and incorporated into the analysis. Over 200,000 urine samples were analyzed to estimate radiation doses to body organs from polonium and other internally deposited radionuclides. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate dose-response relationships for specific organs and tissues. Vital status was determined for 98.7% of the workers of which 3,681 had died compared with 4,073.9 expected (SMR 0.90; 95% CI 0.88-0.93). The mean dose from external radiation was 26.1 mSv (maximum 939.1 mSv) and the mean lung dose from external and internal radiation combined was 100.1 mSv (maximum 17.5 Sv). Among the 4,977 radiation workers, all cancers taken together (SMR 0.86; 95% CI 0.79-0.93), lung cancer (SMR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74-0.98), and other types of cancer were not significantly elevated. Cox regression analysis revealed a significant positive dose-response trend for esophageal cancer [relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval at 100 mSv of 1.54 (1.15-2.07)] and a

  10. Abnormal liver function in workers exposed to low levels of ethylene dichloride and vinyl chloride monomer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T J; Huang, M L; You, N C; Du, C L; Chau, T T

    1999-12-01

    We investigated whether exposure to ethylene dichloride (EDC) and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) resulted in increased risk of liver damage. Epidemiological information, including occupational, medical, smoking, and drinking history, was obtained by interview from 251 male workers. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were used as indicators of liver damage. Exposure to moderate or low levels of ECD and VCM resulted in a higher risk of developing abnormal ALT levels than did exposure to lower levels of the chemicals. Results were similar for AST. GGT was not associated with EDC or VCM exposure. Combined exposure to EDC and VCM showed a dose-response relationship in association with abnormal ALT levels. We concluded that relatively low concentrations of VCM and EDC cause liver damage.

  11. A mortality study of workers exposed to insoluble forms of beryllium.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Fordyce, Tiffani; Mandel, Jack S

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated lung cancer and other diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds. A cohort of 4950 workers from four US insoluble beryllium manufacturing facilities were followed through 2009. Expected deaths were calculated using local and national rates. On the basis of local rates, all-cause mortality was significantly reduced. Mortality from lung cancer (standardized mortality ratio 96.0; 95% confidence interval 80.0, 114.3) and from nonmalignant respiratory diseases was also reduced. There were no significant trends for either cause of death according to duration of employment or time since first employment. Uterine cancer among women was the only cause of death with a significantly increased standardized mortality ratio. Five of the seven women worked in office jobs. This study confirmed the lack of an increase in mortality from lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds.

  12. Mortality among mound workers exposed to polonium-210 and other sources of radiation, 1944-1979.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D; Cohen, Sarah S; Mumma, Michael T; Ellis, Elizabeth Dupree; Cragle, Donna L; Eckerman, Keith F; Wallace, Phillip W; Chadda, Bandana; Sonderman, Jennifer S; Wiggs, Laurie D; Richter, Bonnie S; Leggett, Richard W

    2014-02-01

    Polonium-210 is a naturally occurring radioactive element that decays by emitting an alpha particle. It is in the air we breathe and also a component of tobacco smoke. Polonium-210 is used as an anti-static device in printing presses and gained widespread notoriety in 2006 after the poisoning and subsequent death of a Russian citizen in London. More is known about the lethal effects of polonium-210 at high doses than about late effects from low doses. Cancer mortality was examined among 7,270 workers at the Mound nuclear facility near Dayton, OH where polonium-210 was used (1944-1972) in combination with beryllium as a source of neutrons for triggering nuclear weapons. Other exposures included external gamma radiation and to a lesser extent plutonium-238, tritium and neutrons. Vital status and cause of death was determined through 2009. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed for comparisons with the general population. Lifetime occupational doses from all places of employment were sought and incorporated into the analysis. Over 200,000 urine samples were analyzed to estimate radiation doses to body organs from polonium and other internally deposited radionu