Science.gov

Sample records for industry extended energy

  1. Energy Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Biomass energy includes the burning of products such as wood, methanol, sludge, railroad ties, and agricultural waste, to produce heat, steam and... energy . Recent political will elevated the development of biomass fuels to the top of the President’s political agenda. In his 2007 State of the...Union Address, President Bush set an ambitious goal for the nation to draw 20% of its energy needs from the use of ethanol, a biomass derived fuel

  2. Energy for industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.H. ); Steinmeyer, D. )

    1990-09-01

    Economic growth and energy use once marched in lockstep. Now industrial output is climbing while energy use declines. In practice, companies reduce energy consumption by optimizing the cost of existing processes, by introducing process refinements and by making breakthroughs that lead to entirely new methods of manufacture. Each of these are described with examples of each.

  3. Energy industries abroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    The relationships between foreign governments and energy industries in many of the world's most important energy producing and consuming nations are examined. The history of hydrocarbon exploration and production is traced and the concessionary and other contractual arrangements entered into by foreign governments and international oil companies are reviewed. Petroleum legislation that was enacted, how government institutions gradually assumed more responsibility for energy matters, and how the former concessionaires adapted to accommodate this increased government participation in the energy sector is described.

  4. Poultry Industry Energy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The poultry industry, a multi-billion dollar business in the United States, uses great amounts of energy in such operations as broiler growing, feed manufacturing, poultry processing and packing. Higher costs and limited supply of fuels common to the industry are predicted, so poultry producers are seeking ways to reduce energy expenditure. NASA is providing assistance to Delmarva Poultry Industry, Inc., an association of some 4,000 growers and suppliers in one of the nation's largest poultry production areas. Delmarva is the East Coast peninsula that includes Delaware and parts of Maryland and Virginia. The upper right photo shows a weather station in the Delmarva area (wind indicator on the pole, other instruments in the elevated box). The station is located at the University of Maryland's Broiler Sub-station, Salisbury; Maryland, where the university conducts research on poultry production and processing. The sub-station is investigating ways of conserving energy in broiler production and also exploring the potential of solar collectors as an alternative energy source. For these studies, it is essential that researchers have continuous data on temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction, solar intensity and cloud cover. Equipment to acquire such data was loaned and installed by NASA's Wallops Flight Center, Wallops Island, Virginia.

  5. Energy Industry 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Support Center Energy supply and distribution for DOD Alexandria, VA H2Gen Hydrogen generation Frederick, MD BP Solar Photovoltaic panel manufacturing...Richard Allen, Office of Management and Budget COL Muslim Altynbayev, Kazakhstan Army Lt Col Linda Dahl, USAF Lt Col Harold Elkins, USAF COL Margie...hydro, geothermal, solar and wind. The following section on current conditions highlights the trends and challenges facing the industry. CURRENT

  6. On energy conservation in extended magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Keiji; Morrison, P. J.

    2014-08-15

    A systematic study of energy conservation for extended magnetohydrodynamic models that include Hall terms and electron inertia is performed. It is observed that commonly used models do not conserve energy in the ideal limit, i.e., when viscosity and resistivity are neglected. In particular, a term in the momentum equation that is often neglected is seen to be needed for conservation of energy.

  7. Mining Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-07-01

    The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) relies on analytical studies to identify large energy reduction opportunities in energy-intensive industries and uses these results to guide its R&D portfolio. The energy bandwidth illustrates the total energy-saving opportunity that exists in the industry if the current processes are improved by implementing more energy-efficient practices and by using advanced technologies. This bandwidth analysis report was conducted to assist the ITP Mining R&D program in identifying energy-saving opportunities in coal, metals, and mineral mining. These opportunities were analyzed in key mining processes of blasting, dewatering, drilling, digging, ventilation, materials handling, crushing, grinding, and separations.

  8. Industrial Energy Conservation Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 55 papers presented in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 18 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  9. Industrial energy conservation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, P.S.; Williams, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 60 papers included in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 21 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  10. Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-10-01

    ITP conducted a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, in major steelmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study (PDF 133 KB) also estimates steel industry energy use in the year 2010, and uses that value as a basis for comparison against the minimum requirements. This energy savings opportunity for 2010 will aid focus on longer term R&D.

  11. Industrial Scale Energy Systems Integration; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, Mark

    2015-07-28

    The industrial sector consumes 25% of the total energy in the U.S. and produces 18% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Energy Systems Integration (ESI) opportunities can reduce those values and increase the profitability of that sector. This presentation outlines several options. Combined heat and power (CHP) is an option that is available today for many applications. In some cases, it can be extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed. extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed.

  12. Industrial energy performance indicator reports

    SciTech Connect

    Munroe, V.

    1999-07-01

    The mandate for this work originated in December, 1996, when a joint meeting of federal and provincial Ministers of Energy and Environment, in addressing their responsibility to provide leadership on the Greenhouse Gases/Climate Change agenda, endorsed the following statement ({number{underscore}sign}13 of 45 initiatives launches at that time): Industrial establishments will be provided with a confidential benchmarking report on their energy efficiency progress, including how they compare to national and international averages for their sector. Information will also be provided on energy management best practices in their industries. The goal of the initiative is to use information provided on the state of energy practice to prompt, motivate, and induce companies to implement further energy efficiency measures. And one premise underlying it is that useful guidance on the state of energy practice in a company can be obtained from existing data sources, primarily the Industrial Consumption of Energy (ICE) survey and the Annual Survey of Manufacturers (ASM), both products of Statistics Canada. In addition, there are existing surveys which include energy consumption that are undertaken by associations such as the Canadian Portland Cement Association, the Canadian Chemical Producers Association, the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, etc. Since the commitment was made, Natural Resources Canada staff have undertaken a large amount of investigative and developmental work which will be presented. Existing data from three sectors, pulp, cement and fluid milk, has been analyzed and will be delivered with draft context and energy efficiency guidance notes to the management of about 100 establishments. The author will also be able to report on how this information was received by these managers, and on the recommendations that will have been collected from industry on the more specific nature and frequency of industrial energy performance reporting desired.

  13. Silicon drift chamber with extended energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labanti, Claudio; Dal Fiume, Daniele; Fiorini, Carlo; Longoni, Antonio; Mauri, Alessandro; Perotti, Francesco; Rossi, Elio; Stephen, John B.

    2000-12-01

    The requirement for future X-ray Astronomy instrumentation to exhibit a combination of good energy resolution and an extended energy range may be fulfilled by the development of a X ray detectors made from coupling a Silicon Drift Chamber (SDC), to a scintillation crystal. We report on such a detector made with an SDC of 3 mm diameter and using a Caesium Iodide [CsI(Tl)] scintillator. The radiation input window is located on the Si side of the assembly so than soft X-rays are directly detected by the SDC. This allows a minimum threshold of about 1 keV at 0 degrees Celsius to be obtained. The Silicon Drift Chamber acts also as a photodiode able to detect the scintillation light produced by the CsI(Tl), thus extending the energy range of such a device up to some MeV. The discrimination of events between these two detection layers is performed by using a pulse shape discriminator in order to differentiate between the different rise times of the collected charge. The detector concept is discussed on the basis of the results already achieved and the future developments foreseen.

  14. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-03-01

    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  15. Industrial Facility Combustion Energy Use

    DOE Data Explorer

    McMillan, Colin

    2016-08-01

    Facility-level industrial combustion energy use is calculated from greenhouse gas emissions data reported by large emitters (>25,000 metric tons CO2e per year) under the U.S. EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP, https://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting). The calculation applies EPA default emissions factors to reported fuel use by fuel type. Additional facility information is included with calculated combustion energy values, such as industry type (six-digit NAICS code), location (lat, long, zip code, county, and state), combustion unit type, and combustion unit name. Further identification of combustion energy use is provided by calculating energy end use (e.g., conventional boiler use, co-generation/CHP use, process heating, other facility support) by manufacturing NAICS code. Manufacturing facilities are matched by their NAICS code and reported fuel type with the proportion of combustion fuel energy for each end use category identified in the 2010 Energy Information Administration Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS, http://www.eia.gov/consumption/manufacturing/data/2010/). MECS data are adjusted to account for data that were withheld or whose end use was unspecified following the procedure described in Fox, Don B., Daniel Sutter, and Jefferson W. Tester. 2011. The Thermal Spectrum of Low-Temperature Energy Use in the United States, NY: Cornell Energy Institute.

  16. Energy saver for industrial lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arline, J.; Lapalme, J.; Warren, C.

    1980-01-01

    Electronic controller switches lights on or off in response to amount of sunlight available. Is application in offices and industrial installations where electrical energy is wasted by using artificial light in sunlit areas. Device utilizes electronic monitor that varies artificial lighting according to amount of sunlight in given area.

  17. An innovative application of extended exergy analysis into an industrial park.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yupeng; Qiao, Qi; Fang, Lin

    2017-03-23

    Exergy is a thermodynamic term used to account all possible useful work theoretically throughout one process when it is brought into equilibrium with its environment. It however cannot directly incorporate non-physical flows, which can be accounted by extensions of the exergy consumption method. Extended exergy, which builds a bridge between thermal and anthropic dimensions, can both measure resource consumption and economic system. In this study, we applied extended exergy analysis to analyze an industrial park, including material consumption, social investment, and environmental influence. The total extended exergy consumption in the study park amounts to 2.52 EJ. The material-based exergy occupies the largest exergy consumption, followed by capital exergy, environmental remediation exergy, and labor exergy in decreasing order. The exergy capacity was proposed to depict the conversion ability from exergy consumption into economic benefits. In the study area, electronic information industry has the largest exergy capacity with a value of 70 RMB/GJ, indicating a high conversion power from exergy to money. New energy vehicles and parts manufacturing occupies bottom rung in terms of exergy capacity. From the view of material consumption, other industry consumed a lot more exergy compared to electronic information industry; for the environmental remediation, other industry has the lowest exergy capacity, indicating it discharged more pollutants than other clusters to output the same amount of money. Therefore, other industry needs to be urgently transformed and upgraded. The study could help to optimize industrial structure and environmental management in industrial parks.

  18. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  19. Energy Industry. Industry Study, Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    transitioning to clean energy from fossil fuels) coupled with more efficient timelines for nuclear plant licensin construction, may lower the investment...impact on food imports/exports.1 Wind—A Breath of Clean Energy ! Wind power has the greatest near-term growth potential of all renewable energy...currently feasible clean energy sources to expand. The U.S. must also work to decarbonize current energy sources by capturing and storing carbon. Much

  20. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  1. Restructuring Energy Industries: Lessons from Natural Gas

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the natural gas industry has been undergoing a restructuring similar to the transition now confronting the electric power industry. This article presents a summary of some of these gas industry experiences to provide a basis for some insights into energy industry restructuring.

  2. Supporting industries energy and environmental profile

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-09-21

    As part of its Industries of the Future strategy, the Industrial Technologies Program within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy works with energy-intensive industries to improve efficiency, reduce waste, and increase productivity. These seven Industries of the Future (IOFs) – aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metal casting, mining, and steel – rely on several other so-called “supporting industries” to supply materials and processes necessary to the products that the IOFs create. The supporting industries, in many cases, also provide great opportunities for realizing energy efficiency gains in IOF processes.

  3. Restructuring the energy industry: A financial perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper present eight tables summarizing financial aspects of energy industry restructuring. Historical, current, and future business characteristics of energy industries are outlined. Projections of industry characteristics are listed for the next five years and for the 21st century. Future independent power procedures related to financial aspects are also outlined. 8 tabs.

  4. Scaled multisensor inspection of extended surfaces for industrial quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayser, Daniel; Bothe, Thorsten; Osten, Wolfgang

    2002-06-01

    Reliable real-time surface inspection of extended surfaces with high resolution is needed in several industrial applications. With respect to an efficient application to extended technical components such as aircraft or automotive parts, the inspection system has to perform a robust measurement with a ratio of less then 10-6 between depth resolution and lateral extension. This ratio is at least one order beyond the solutions that are offered by existing technologies. The concept of scaled topometry consists of arranging different optical measurement techniques with overlapping ranges of resolution systematically in order to receive characteristic surface information with the required accuracy. In such a surface inspection system, an active algorithm combines measurements on several scales of resolution and distinguishes between local fault indicating structures with different extensions and global geometric properties. The first part of this active algorithm finds indications of critical surface areas in the data of every measurement and separates them into different categories. The second part analyses the detected structures in the data with respect to their resolution and decides whether a further local measurement with a higher resolution has to be performed. The third part positions the sensors and starts the refined measurements. The fourth part finally integrates the measured local data set into the overall data mesh. We have constructed a laboratory setup capable of measuring surfaces with extensions up to 1500mm x 1000mm x 500mm (in x-, y- and z-direction respectively). Using this measurement system we will be able to separate the fault indicating structures on the surface from the global shape and to classify the detected structures according to their extensions and characteristic shapes simultaneously. The level of fault detection probability will be applicable by input parameter control.

  5. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    Current and future energy demands, end uses, and cost used to characterize typical applications and resultant services in the industrial sector of the United States and 15 selected states are examined. A review and evaluation of existing industrial energy data bases was undertaken to assess their potential for supporting SERI research on: (1) market suitability analysis, (2) market development, (3) end-use matching, (3) industrial applications case studies, and (4) identification of cost and performance goals for solar systems and typical information requirements for industrial energy end use. In reviewing existing industrial energy data bases, the level of detail, disaggregation, and primary sources of information were examined. The focus was on fuels and electric energy used for heat and power purchased by the manufacturing subsector and listed by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC, primary fuel, and end use. Projections of state level energy prices to 1990 are developed using the energy intensity approach. The effects of federal and state industrial energy conservation programs on future industrial sector demands were assessed. Future end-use energy requirements were developed for each 4-digit SIC industry and were grouped as follows: (1) hot water, (2) steam (212 to 300/sup 0/F, each 100/sup 0/F interval from 300 to 1000/sup 0/F, and greater than 1000/sup 0/F), and (3) hot air (100/sup 0/F intervals). Volume I details the activities performed in this effort.

  6. Energy and the English Industrial Revolution.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, E A

    2013-03-13

    Societies before the Industrial Revolution were dependent on the annual cycle of plant photosynthesis for both heat and mechanical energy. The quantity of energy available each year was therefore limited, and economic growth was necessarily constrained. In the Industrial Revolution, energy usage increased massively and output rose accordingly. The energy source continued to be plant photosynthesis, but accumulated over a geological age in the form of coal. This poses a problem for the future. Fossil fuels are a depleting stock, whereas in pre-industrial time the energy source, though limited, was renewed each year.

  7. Industrial energy systems and assessment opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, Frank Leonard, III

    Industrial energy assessments are performed primarily to increase energy system efficiency and reduce energy costs in industrial facilities. The most common energy systems are lighting, compressed air, steam, process heating, HVAC, pumping, and fan systems, and these systems are described in this document. ASME has produced energy assessment standards for four energy systems, and these systems include compressed air, steam, process heating, and pumping systems. ASHRAE has produced an energy assessment standard for HVAC systems. Software tools for energy systems were developed for the DOE, and there are software tools for almost all of the most common energy systems. The software tools are AIRMaster+ and LogTool for compressed air systems, SSAT and 3E Plus for steam systems, PHAST and 3E Plus for process heating systems, eQUEST for HVAC systems, PSAT for pumping systems, and FSAT for fan systems. The recommended assessment procedures described in this thesis are used to set up an energy assessment for an industrial facility, collect energy system data, and analyze the energy system data. The assessment recommendations (ARs) are opportunities to increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems. A set of recommended assessment procedures and recommended assessment opportunities are presented for each of the most common energy systems. There are many assessment opportunities for industrial facilities, and this thesis describes forty-three ARs for the seven different energy systems. There are seven ARs for lighting systems, ten ARs for compressed air systems, eight ARs for boiler and steam systems, four ARs for process heating systems, six ARs for HVAC systems, and four ARs for both pumping and fan systems. Based on a history of past assessments, average potential energy savings and typical implementation costs are shared in this thesis for most ARs. Implementing these ARs will increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems in

  8. The role of thermal energy storage in industrial energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal Energy Storage for Industrial Applications is a major thrust of the Department of Energy's Thermal Energy Storage Program. Utilizing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) with process or reject heat recovery systems is shown to be extremely beneficial for several applications. Recent system studies resulting from contracts awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE) identified four especially significant industries where TES appears attractive - food processing, paper and pulp, iron and steel, and cement. Potential annual fuel savings with large scale implementation of near term TES systems for these industries is over 9,000,000 bbl of oil. This savings is due to recuperation and storage in the food processing industry, direct fuel substitution in the paper and pulp industry and reduction in electric utility peak fuel use through inplant production of electricity from utilization of reject heat in the steel and cement industries.

  9. Effective transfer of industrial energy conservation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, M.; Vallario, R.W.

    1983-04-01

    Voluntary participation in industrial energy conservation programs resulted in savings of approximately 1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day in the US during 1981. These energy savings accrued largely from the development, introduction, and acceptance by industry of new energy conserving technologies. These new technologies were developed through cost sharing programs between the Department of Energy and private industry. These joint efforts reduced risk to industry, thus making them willing to accept and use these new technologies at an accelerated rate. Examples of several technologies that were used by industry at an accelerated rate are described. These technologies are: textile foam finishing and dyeing, forging furnace modifications, and high-efficiency metallic recuperators.

  10. Process modeling and industrial energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S O; Pilati, D A; Sparrow, F T

    1980-11-01

    How the process models developed at BNL are used to analyze industrial energy use is described and illustrated. Following a brief overview of the industry modeling program, the general methodology of process modeling is discussed. The discussion highlights the important concepts, contents, inputs, and outputs of a typical process model. A model of the US pulp and paper industry is then discussed as a specific application of process modeling methodology. Case study results from the pulp and paper model illustrate how process models can be used to analyze a variety of issues. Applications addressed with the case study results include projections of energy demand, conservation technology assessment, energy-related tax policies, and sensitivity analysis. A subsequent discussion of these results supports the conclusion that industry process models are versatile and powerful tools for energy end-use modeling and conservation analysis. Information on the current status of industry models at BNL is tabulated.

  11. Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial energy efficiency improvement overview, based primarily on information from these industries (chemicals and allied products; primary metal industry; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass products; paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metal products; transportation equipment; machinery, except electrical; and textile mill products), is presented. Reports from industries, now required to report, are included for rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products. Additional data from voluntary submissions are included for American Gas Association; American Hotel and Motel Association; General Telephone and Electronics Corporation; and American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (MCW)

  12. The energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The United states housing industry is undergoing a metamorphosis from hand built to factory built products. Virtually all new housing incorporates manufactured components; indeed, an increasing percentage is totally assembled in a factory. The factory-built process offers the promise of houses that are more energy efficient, of higher quality, and less costly. To ensure that this promise can be met, the US industry must begin to develop and use new technologies, new design strategies, and new industrial processes. However, the current fragmentation of the industry makes research by individual companies prohibitively expensive, and retards innovation. This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: the formation of a steering committee; the development of a multiyear research plan; analysis of the US industrialized housing industry; assessment of foreign technology; assessment of industrial applications; analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools; and assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. Our goal is to develop techniques to produce marketable industrialized housing that is 25% more energy efficient that the most stringent US residential codes now require, and that costs less. Energy efficiency is the focus of the research, but it is viewed in the context of production and design. 63 refs.

  13. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1989-01-01

    This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

  14. Plant Profiles - Industrial Energy Management in Action

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    This 24-page brochure profiles industrial manufacturing firms who are achieving significant energy savings in their plants. The DOE Office of Industrial Technologies six plant-of-the-year nominees are featured, and an additional 10 projects from other companies are also highlighted. Information on OIT's awards and recognition process, and information on OIT and BestPractices is also included.

  15. Human Settlements, Energy, and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Gupta, Sujata; Jauregui, Ernesto; Nwafor, James; Satterthwaite, David; Wanasinghe, Yapa; Wilbanks, Thomas; Yoshino, Masatoshi; Kelkar, Ulka

    2001-01-15

    Human settlements are integrators of many of the climate impacts initially felt in other sectors, and differ from each other in geographic location, size, economic circumstances, and political and social capacity. The most wide-spread serious potential impact is flooding and landslides, followed by tropical cyclones. A growing literature suggests that a very wide variety of settlements in nearly every climate zone may be affected, although the specific evidence is still very limited. Settlements with little economic diversification and where a high percentage of incomes derive from climate sensitive primary resource industries (agriculture, forestry and fisheries) are more sensitive than more diversified settlements

  16. Energy Industry Powers CTE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khokhar, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Michael Fields is a recent graduate of Buckeye Union High School in Buckeye, Arizona. Fields is enrolled in the Estrella Mountain Community College (EMCC) Get Into Energy program, which means he is well on his way to a promising career. Specializing in power plant technology, in two years he will earn a certificate that will all but guarantee a…

  17. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1990-02-01

    This report summarizes three documents: Multiyear Research Plan, Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports, and Volume II Appendices. These documents describe tasks that were undertaken from November 1988 to December 1989, the first year of the project. Those tasks were: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. While this document summarizes information developed in each task area, it doesn't review task by task, as Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports does, but rather treats the subject of energy efficient industrialized housing as a whole to give the reader a more coherent view. 7 figs., 9 refs.

  18. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Mazwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1989-12-01

    This document describes the research work completed in five areas in fiscal year 1989. (1) The analysis of the US industrialized housing industry includes statistics, definitions, a case study, and a code analysis. (2) The assessment of foreign technology reviews the current status of design, manufacturing, marketing, and installation of industrialized housing primarily in Sweden and Japan. (3) Assessment of industrialization applications reviews housing production by climate zone, has a cost and energy comparison of Swedish and US housing, and discusses future manufacturing processes and emerging components. (4) The state of computer use in the industry is described and a prototype design tool is discussed. (5) Side by side testing of industrialized housing systems is discussed.

  19. Conservation in the energy industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The basic energy supply and utilization problems faced by the United States were described. Actions which might alleviate the domestic shortfall of petroleum and natural gas are described, analyzed and overall impacts are assessed. Specific actions included are coal gasification, in situ shale oil production, improved oil and gas recovery, importation of liquid natural gas and deregulation of natural gas prices. These actions are weighed against each other as alternate techniques of alleviating or overcoming existing shortfalls.

  20. Solar energy for industrial process heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

  1. Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide for Alternative Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for alternative energy courses is part of a series of curriculum guides for use in the industrial arts curriculum in Connecticut. The guide contains two parts. Part 1 provides the following overview: (1) objectives of alternative energy education, including suggestions for course levels, class sizes, teaching methods, and…

  2. Energy resource management for energy-intensive manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, C.W.; Levangie, J.

    1981-10-01

    A program to introduce energy resource management into an energy-intensive manufacturing industry is presented. The food industry (SIC No. 20) was chosen and 20 companies were selected for interviews, but thirteen were actually visited. The methodology for this program is detailed. Reasons for choosing the food industry are described. The substance of the information gained and the principal conclusions drawn from the interviews are given. Results of the model Energy Resource Management Plan applied to three companies are compiled at length. Strategies for dissemination of the information gained are described. (MCW)

  3. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  4. Energy Savings from Industrial Water Reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; de Fontaine, Andre

    2015-08-03

    Although it is widely recognized that reducing freshwater consumption is of critical importance, generating interest in industrial water reduction programs can be hindered for a variety of reasons. These include the low cost of water, greater focus on water use in other sectors such as the agriculture and residential sectors, high levels of unbilled and/or unregulated self-supplied water use in industry, and lack of water metering and tracking capabilities at industrial facilities. However, there are many additional components to the resource savings associated with reducing site water use beyond the water savings alone, such as reductions in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, treatment chemicals, and impact on the local watershed. Understanding and quantifying these additional resource savings can expand the community of businesses, NGOs, government agencies, and researchers with a vested interest in water reduction. This paper will develop a methodology for evaluating the embedded energy consumption associated with water use at an industrial facility. The methodology developed will use available data and references to evaluate the energy consumption associated with water supply and wastewater treatment outside of a facility’s fence line for various water sources. It will also include a framework for evaluating the energy consumption associated with water use within a facility’s fence line. The methodology will develop a more complete picture of the total resource savings associated with water reduction efforts and allow industrial water reduction programs to assess the energy and CO2 savings associated with their efforts.

  5. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, N.; Worrell, E.; Ruth, M.; Price, L.; Elliott, R.N.; Shipley, A.M.; Thorne, J.

    2000-10-01

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, industry is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology will be essential for meeting these challenges. At some point, businesses are faced with investment in new capital stock. At this decision point, new and emerging technologies compete for capital investment alongside more established or mature technologies. Understanding the dynamics of the decision-making process is important to perceive what drives technology change and the overall effect on industrial energy use. The assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies can be useful for: (1) identifying R&D projects; (2) identifying potential technologies for market transformation activities; (3) providing common information on technologies to a broad audience of policy-makers; and (4) offering new insights into technology development and energy efficiency potentials. With the support of PG&E Co., NYSERDA, DOE, EPA, NEEA, and the Iowa Energy Center, staff from LBNL and ACEEE produced this assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies. The goal was to collect information on a broad array of potentially significant emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies and carefully characterize a sub-group of approximately 50 key technologies. Our use of the term ''emerging'' denotes technologies that are both pre-commercial but near commercialization, and technologies that have already entered the market but have less than 5 percent of current market share. We also have chosen technologies that are energy-efficient (i.e., use less energy than existing technologies and practices to produce the same product), and may have additional ''non-energy benefits.'' These benefits are as important (if not more important in many cases) in influencing

  6. Emerging Energy-Efficient Technologies for Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Price, Lynn; Ruth, Michael; Elliot, Neal; Shipley, Anna; Thorn, Jennifer

    2005-05-05

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of thenation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly,society is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, moresustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing globalcompetitiveness. Technology is essential in achieving these challenges.We report on a recent analysis of emerging energy-efficient technologiesfor industry, focusing on over 50 selected technologies. The technologiesare characterized with respect to energy efficiency, economics andenvironmental performance. This paper provides an overview of theresults, demonstrating that we are not running out of technologies toimprove energy efficiency, economic and environmental performance, andneither will we in the future. The study shows that many of thetechnologies have important non-energy benefits, ranging from reducedenvironmental impact to improved productivity, and reduced capital costscompared to current technologies.

  7. The US textile industry: An energy perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Badin, J. S.; Lowitt, H. E.

    1988-01-01

    This report investigates the state of the US textile industry in terms of energy consumption and conservation. Specific objectives were: To update and verify energy and materials consumption data at the various process levels in 1984; to determine the potential energy savings attainable with current (1984), state-of-the-art, and future production practices and technologies (2010); and to identify new areas of research and development opportunity that will enable these potential future savings to be achieved. Results of this study concluded that in the year 2010, there is a potential to save between 34% and 53% of the energy used in current production practices, dependent on the projected technology mix. RandD needs and opportunities were identified for the industry in three categories: process modification, basic research, and improved housekeeping practices that reduce energy consumption. Potential RandD candidates for DOE involvement with the private sector were assessed and selected from the identified list.

  8. 77 FR 43807 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee; Extended Deadline for Solicitation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee; Extended Deadline... which it will accept nominations to serve on the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory... procedures, qualifications for membership, and on the composition and purpose of the Renewable Energy...

  9. Industrial Energy Audit Guidebook: Guidelines for Conducting an Energy Audit in Industrial Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn

    2010-10-07

    Various studies in different countries have shown that significant energy-efficiency improvement opportunities exist in the industrial sector, many of which are cost-effective. These energy-efficiency options include both cross-cutting as well as sector-specific measures. However, industrial plants are not always aware of energy-efficiency improvement potentials. Conducting an energy audit is one of the first steps in identifying these potentials. Even so, many plants do not have the capacity to conduct an effective energy audit. In some countries, government policies and programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency. However, usually only limited technical and financial resources for improving energy efficiency are available, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises. Information on energy auditing and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to industrial plants. This guidebook provides guidelines for energy auditors regarding the key elements for preparing for an energy audit, conducting an inventory and measuring energy use, analyzing energy bills, benchmarking, analyzing energy use patterns, identifying energy-efficiency opportunities, conducting cost-benefit analysis, preparing energy audit reports, and undertaking post-audit activities. The purpose of this guidebook is to assist energy auditors and engineers in the plant to conduct a well-structured and effective energy audit.

  10. Industrial market and energy management guide. Standard Industrial Classification 22, textile mill products industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Purpose of this guide is twofold: First, to provide an overview of the industrial market for consulting engineers in the textile mill products industry by providing an overall description of the market, its size, and attitudes toward more energy efficient operations. Second, to present sources of information to help consulting engineers locate these industries on a local and national level, and further assess their market opportunities. The facts and figures that describe the various elements of this industrial sector are presented along with its national distribution of plant locations, and resources where more detailed information can be found. Process flow diagrams, process step descriptions, and energy efficient ideas are presented.

  11. A magnetospheric energy principle extended to include neutral atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Akira

    2011-03-15

    The problem of ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of plasmas in a magnetosphere-atmosphere system, in which the unperturbed magnetic field is assumed to be perpendicular to the plasma-atmosphere interface (ionospheric surface), is investigated by means of an extended magnetospheric energy principle. The derivation of the principle and conditions under which it applies to a real terrestrial magnetosphere is given. In the principle, the atmosphere is considered to be a very heavy and compressible gas with finite pressure. A thin ionospheric layer is taken into account as boundary conditions, but energetics within it are neglected. The solid-earth surface is assumed to be a perfectly conducting wall for perturbations. For a perturbation that satisfies either rigid or horizontally free boundary conditions at the plasma-atmosphere interface, the self-adjointness of the force operator is satisfied and an extended magnetospheric energy principle can be developed on the basis of the extended energy principle for fusion plasmas. These two boundary conditions are shown to be realized in the magnetosphere when the ionospheric conductivity is either very large or very small. Whereas in fusion plasmas the perturbed magnetic energy in the vacuum makes a stabilizing contribution to the potential energy, in the magnetosphere the perturbed magnetic energy in the atmosphere makes no such stabilizing contribution. This is due to the difference of the assumed field configurations of the magnetospheric and fusion plasmas. The ionospheric surface makes a destabilizing negative contribution to the potential energy owing to a horizontal plasma displacement on the spherical ionospheric surface. The method is applied to magnetospheric ballooning and interchange instabilities. The existence of a new type of magnetospheric interchange instability is shown and its structure in the magnetosphere-atmosphere system is clarified. Possible consequences of the instabilities and their relevance to

  12. EXTENDING NUCLEAR ENERGY TO NON-ELECTRICAL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Boardman; M. McKellar; D. Ingersoll; Z. Houghton; , R. Bromm; C. Desportes

    2014-09-01

    Electricity represents less than half of all energy consumed in the United States and globally. Although a few commercial nuclear power plants world-wide provide energy to non-electrical applications such as district heating and water desalination, nuclear energy has been largely relegated to base-load electricity production. A new generation of smaller-sized nuclear power plants offers significant promise for extending nuclear energy to many non-electrical applications. The NuScale small modular reactor design is especially well suited for these non-traditional customers due to its small unit size, very robust reactor protection features and a highly flexible and scalable plant design. A series of technical and economic evaluation studies have been conducted to assess the practicality of using a NuScale plant to provide electricity and heat to a variety of non-electrical applications, including water desalination, oil refining, and hydrogen production. The studies serve to highlight the unique design features of the NuScale plant for these applications and provide encouraging conclusions regarding the technical and economic viability of extending clean nuclear energy to a broad range of non-electrical energy consumers.

  13. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    ScienceCinema

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2016-07-12

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  14. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2014-09-23

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  15. Graphene for energy solutions and its industrialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Di; Kivioja, Jani

    2013-10-01

    Graphene attracts intensive interest globally across academia and industry since the award of the Nobel Prize in Physics 2010. Within the last half decade, there has been an explosion in the number of scientific publications, patents and industry projects involved in this topic. On the other hand, energy is one of the biggest challenges of this century and related to the global sustainable economy. There are many reviews on graphene and its applications in various devices, however, few of the review articles connect the intrinsic properties of graphene with its energy. The IUPAC definition of graphene refers to a single carbon layer of graphite structure and its related superlative properties. A lot of scientific results on graphene published to date are actually dealing with multi-layer graphenes or reduced graphenes from insulating graphene oxides (GO) which contain defects and contaminants from the reactions and do not possess some of the intrinsic physical properties of pristine graphene. In this review, the focus is on the most recent advances in the study of pure graphene properties and novel energy solutions based on these properties. It also includes graphene metrology and analysis of both intellectual property and the value chain for the existing and forthcoming graphene industry that may cause a new `industry revolution' with the strong and determined support of governments and industries across the European Union, U. S., Asia and many other countries in the world.

  16. Graphene for energy solutions and its industrialization.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di; Kivioja, Jani

    2013-11-07

    Graphene attracts intensive interest globally across academia and industry since the award of the Nobel Prize in Physics 2010. Within the last half decade, there has been an explosion in the number of scientific publications, patents and industry projects involved in this topic. On the other hand, energy is one of the biggest challenges of this century and related to the global sustainable economy. There are many reviews on graphene and its applications in various devices, however, few of the review articles connect the intrinsic properties of graphene with its energy. The IUPAC definition of graphene refers to a single carbon layer of graphite structure and its related superlative properties. A lot of scientific results on graphene published to date are actually dealing with multi-layer graphenes or reduced graphenes from insulating graphene oxides (GO) which contain defects and contaminants from the reactions and do not possess some of the intrinsic physical properties of pristine graphene. In this review, the focus is on the most recent advances in the study of pure graphene properties and novel energy solutions based on these properties. It also includes graphene metrology and analysis of both intellectual property and the value chain for the existing and forthcoming graphene industry that may cause a new 'industry revolution' with the strong and determined support of governments and industries across the European Union, U. S., Asia and many other countries in the world.

  17. Energy and mining industry workforce trends examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    The present and future are bright for energy and mining jobs in the United States, with the demand for workers expected to remain strong into the foreseeable future, according to a new report from the U.S. National Research Council. However, Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action (2013) cautions that several key factors could adversely affect the workforce.

  18. Setting the Standard for Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Williams, Robert; Perry, Wayne; Li, Tienan

    2007-06-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems use more than 2194 billionkWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largest opportunitiesfor energy savings.1 The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimization of motor driven systems could reduce global electricitydemand by 7 percent through the application of commercially availabletechnologies and using well-tested engineering practices. Yet manyindustrial firms remain either unaware of or unable to achieve theseenergy savings. The same factors that make it so challenging to achieveand sustain energy efficiency in motor-driven systems (complexity,frequent changes) apply to the production processes that they support.Yet production processes typically operate within a narrow band ofacceptable performance. These processes are frequently incorporated intoISO 9000/14000 quality and environmental management systems, whichrequire regular, independent audits to maintain ISO certification, anattractive value for international trade. It is our contention that acritical step in achieving and sustaining energy efficiency ofmotor-driven systems specifically, and industrial energy efficiencygenerally, is the adoption of a corporate energy management standard thatis consistent with current industrial quality and environmentalmanagement systems such as ISO. Several energy management standardscurrently exist (US, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden) and specifications(Germany, Netherlands) others are planned (China, Spain, Brazil, Korea).This paper presents the current status of energy management standardsdevelopment internationally, including an analysis of their sharedfeatures and differences, in terms of content, promulgation, andimplementation. The purpose of the analysis is to describe the currentstate of "best practices" for this emerging area of energy efficiencypolicymaking and tosuggest next steps toward the creation of a trulyinternational energy management standard that is consistent with the ISOprinciples of measurement

  19. Modeling Innovations Advance Wind Energy Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    In 1981, Glenn Research Center scientist Dr. Larry Viterna developed a model that predicted certain elements of wind turbine performance with far greater accuracy than previous methods. The model was met with derision from others in the wind energy industry, but years later, Viterna discovered it had become the most widely used method of its kind, enabling significant wind energy technologies-like the fixed pitch turbines produced by manufacturers like Aerostar Inc. of Westport, Massachusetts-that are providing sustainable, climate friendly energy sources today.

  20. Renewable energy recovery through selected industrial wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengchong

    Typically, industrial waste treatment costs a large amount of capital, and creates environmental concerns as well. A sound alternative for treating these industrial wastes is anaerobic digestion. This technique reduces environmental pollution, and recovers renewable energy from the organic fraction of those selected industrial wastes, mostly in the form of biogas (methane). By applying anaerobic technique, selected industrial wastes could be converted from cash negative materials into economic energy feed stocks. In this study, three kinds of industrial wastes (paper mill wastes, brown grease, and corn-ethanol thin stillage) were selected, their performance in the anaerobic digestion system was studied and their applicability was investigated as well. A pilot-scale system, including anaerobic section (homogenization, pre-digestion, and anaerobic digestion) and aerobic section (activated sludge) was applied to the selected waste streams. The investigation of selected waste streams was in a gradually progressive order. For paper mill effluents, since those effluents contain a large amount of recalcitrant or toxic compounds, the anaerobic-aerobic system was used to check its treatability, including organic removal efficiency, substrate utilization rate, and methane yield. The results showed the selected effluents were anaerobically treatable. For brown grease, as it is already well known as a treatable substrate, a high rate anaerobic digester were applied to check the economic effect of this substrate, including methane yield and substrate utilization rate. These data from pilot-scale experiment have the potential to be applied to full-scale plant. For thin stillage, anaerobic digestion system has been incorporated to the traditional ethanol making process as a gate-to-gate process. The performance of anaerobic digester was applied to the gate-to-gate life-cycle analysis to estimate the energy saving and industrial cost saving in a typical ethanol plant.

  1. Characterizing emerging industrial technologies in energy models

    SciTech Connect

    Laitner, John A.; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Hanson, Donald A.

    2003-07-29

    Conservation supply curves are a common tool in economic analysis. As such, they provide an important opportunity to include a non-linear representation of technology and technological change in economy-wide models. Because supply curves are closely related to production isoquants, we explore the possibility of using bottom-up technology assessments to inform top-down representations of energy models of the U.S. economy. Based on a recent report by LBNL and ACEEE on emerging industrial technologies within the United States, we have constructed a supply curve for 54 such technologies for the year 2015. Each of the selected technologies has been assessed with respect to energy efficiency characteristics, likely energy savings by 2015, economics, and environmental performance, as well as needs for further development or implementation of the technology. The technical potential for primary energy savings of the 54 identified technologies is equal to 3.54 Quads, or 8.4 percent of the assume d2015 industrial energy consumption. Based on the supply curve, assuming a discount rate of 15 percent and 2015 prices as forecasted in the Annual Energy Outlook2002, we estimate the economic potential to be 2.66 Quads - or 6.3 percent of the assumed forecast consumption for 2015. In addition, we further estimate how much these industrial technologies might contribute to standard reference case projections, and how much additional energy savings might be available assuming a different mix of policies and incentives. Finally, we review the prospects for integrating the findings of this and similar studies into standard economic models. Although further work needs to be completed to provide the necessary link between supply curves and production isoquants, it is hoped that this link will be a useful starting point for discussion with developers of energy-economic models.

  2. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  3. Incentives for solar energy in industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, K. D.

    1981-05-01

    Several issues are analyzed on the effects that government subsidies and other incentives have on the use of solar energy in industry, as well as on other capital-intensive alternative energy supplies. Discounted cash flow analysis is used to compare tax deductions for fuel expenses with tax credits for capital investments for energy. The result is a simple expression for tax equity. The effects that market penetration of solar energy has on conventional energy prices are analyzed with a free market model. It is shown that net costs of a subsidy program to the society can be significantly reduced by price. Several government loan guarantee concepts are evaluated as incentives that may not require direct outlays of government funds; their relative effectiveness in achieving loan leverage through project financing, and their cost and practicality, are discussed.

  4. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  5. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  6. GUIDE TO INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENTS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents an overview of industrial assessments and the general framework for conducting an assessment. It describes combined assessments for pollution prevention and energy, "industrial assessments," providing guidance to those performing assessments at industrial o...

  7. Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. SEGIS developments.

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, Mesa P.; Bower, Ward Isaac; Mills-Price, Michael A.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2012-03-01

    The Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) initiative is a three-year, three-stage project that includes conceptual design and market analysis (Stage 1), prototype development/testing (Stage 2), and commercialization (Stage 3). Projects focus on system development of solar technologies, expansion of intelligent renewable energy applications, and connecting large-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations into the electric grid. As documented in this report, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. (AE), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully collaborated to complete the final stage of the SEGIS initiative, which has guided new technology development and development of methodologies for unification of PV and smart-grid technologies. The combined team met all deliverables throughout the three-year program and commercialized a broad set of the developed technologies.

  8. 78 FR 11996 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC54 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... CONTACT: Mr. Charles Llenza, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

  9. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Study (Appendix A), June 2015

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This study examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This study also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  10. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Report to Congress, June 2015

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This report examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This report also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  11. Energy capability enhancement for isolated extended drain NMOS transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidong, Nie; Jin, Wu; Xiaohui, Ma; Zongguang, Yu

    2012-02-01

    Isolated extended drain NMOS (EDNMOS) transistors are widely used in power signal processing. The hole current induced by a high electric field can result in a serious reliability problem due to a parasitic NPN effect. By optimizing p-type epitaxial (p-epi) thickness, n-type buried layer (BLN) and nwell doping distribution, the peak electric field is decreased by 30% and the peak hole current is decreased by 60%, which obviously suppress the parasitic NPN effect. Measured I-V characteristics and transmission line pulsing (TLP) results show that the on-state breakdown voltage is increased from 28 to 37 V when 6 V Vgs is applied and the energy capability is improved by about 30%, while the on-state resistance remains unchanged.

  12. Accurate NMR structures through minimization of an extended hybrid energy.

    PubMed

    Nilges, Michael; Bernard, Aymeric; Bardiaux, Benjamin; Malliavin, Thérèse; Habeck, Michael; Rieping, Wolfgang

    2008-09-10

    The use of generous distance bounds has been the hallmark of NMR structure determination. However, bounds necessitate the estimation of data quality before the calculation, reduce the information content, introduce human bias, and allow for major errors in the structures. Here, we propose a new rapid structure calculation scheme based on Bayesian analysis. The minimization of an extended energy function, including a new type of distance restraint and a term depending on the data quality, results in an estimation of the data quality in addition to coordinates. This allows for the determination of the optimal weight on the experimental information. The resulting structures are of better quality and closer to the X-ray crystal structure of the same molecule. With the new calculation approach, the analysis of discrepancies from the target distances becomes meaningful. The strategy may be useful in other applications-for example, in homology modeling.

  13. Guide to the energy industries. [Index of 2930 items

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The primary focus of the guide is the identification of marketing and financial data on seven specific energy industries: coal, energy alternatives, hydroelectric power, natural gas, nuclear energy, petroleum, and solar energy. The guide is divided into four parts. Part 1 contains sources of data that concern the seven energy industries. It is arranged alphabetically by industry and, within each industry, by broad geographic region. Part 2 lists publishers of energy industry data and includes an index to sources produced by those publishers. Part 3 contains indexes by SIC code and by subject. Part 4 is a title index.

  14. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  15. 76 FR 56125 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy... rulemaking for direct heating equipment is extended to October 14, 2011. ] DATES: DOE will accept comments, data, and information regarding the notice of proposed rulemaking for direct heating equipment...

  16. Policy modeling for industrial energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Park, Hi-Chun; Lee, Sang-Gon; Jung, Yonghun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Nyboer, John; Jaccard, Mark; Nordqvist, Joakim; Boyd, Christopher; Klee, Howard; Anglani, Norma; Biermans, Gijs

    2003-03-01

    The international workshop on Policy Modeling for Industrial Energy Use was jointly organized by EETA (Professional Network for Engineering Economic Technology Analysis) and INEDIS (International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector). The workshop has helped to layout the needs and challenges to include policy more explicitly in energy-efficiency modeling. The current state-of-the-art models have a proven track record in forecasting future trends under conditions similar to those faced in the recent past. However, the future of energy policy in a climate-restrained world is likely to demand different and additional services to be provided by energy modelers. In this workshop some of the international models used to make energy consumption forecasts have been discussed as well as innovations to enable the modeling of policy scenarios. This was followed by the discussion of future challenges, new insights in the data needed to determine the inputs into energy model s, and methods to incorporate decision making and policy in the models. Based on the discussion the workshop participants came to the following conclusions and recommendations: Current energy models are already complex, and it is already difficult to collect the model inputs. Hence, new approaches should be transparent and not lead to extremely complex models that try to ''do everything''. The model structure will be determined by the questions that need to be answered. A good understanding of the decision making framework of policy makers and clear communication on the needs are essential to make any future energy modeling effort successful. There is a need to better understand the effects of policy on future energy use, emissions and the economy. To allow the inclusion of policy instruments in models, evaluation of programs and instruments is essential, and need to be included in the policy instrument design. Increased efforts are needed to better understand the effects of

  17. India's Fertilizer Industry: Productivity and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, K.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's fertilizer sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Our analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the fertilizer sector increased by 2.3% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's fertilizer sector has been biased towards the use of energy, while it has been capital and labor saving. The increase in productivity took place during the era of total control when a retention price system and distribution control was in effect. With liberalization of the fertilizer sector and reduction of subsidies productivity declined substantially since the early 1990s. Industrial policies and fiscal incentives still play a major role in the Indian fertilizer sect or. As substantial energy savings and carbon reduction potential exists, energy policies can help overcome barriers to the adoption of these measures in giving proper incentives and correcting distorted prices.

  18. Cancer incidence among asbestos-exposed chemical industry workers: An extended observation period

    SciTech Connect

    Hilt, B.; Andersen, A.; Rosenberg, J.; Langard, S. )

    1991-01-01

    A previous study on the incidence of cancer in a cohort of 286 asbestos-exposed electrochemical industry workers observed from 1953 through 1980 has been extended with another 8 years of follow-up. The incidence of cancer was derived from the Cancer Registry of Norway, and the expected figures were calculated by a life table method. During the extended follow-up period from 1981 through 1988, among the cohort members there were 12 new cancer cases versus 14.2 expected (SIR 85, 95% CI 44-158). In a lightly exposed sub-cohort, the extended follow-up revealed 4 cases of lung cancer or pleural mesothelioma (ICD, 7th revision 162-163) versus 1.6 cases expected (SIR 256, 95% CI71-654). In a heavily exposed sub-cohort, the corresponding figures were 3 and 0.5 (SIR 588, 95% CI 118-1,725).

  19. Industrial Technologies Program Research Plan for Energy-Intensive Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Chapas, Richard B.; Colwell, Jeffery A.

    2007-10-01

    In this plan, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) identifies the objectives of its cross-cutting strategy for conducting research in collaboration with industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories to develop technologies that improve the efficiencies of energy-intensive process industries.

  20. Integrating Energy and Environmental Management in Wood Furniture Industry

    PubMed Central

    Babić, Milun; Jelić, Dubravka; Konćalović, Davor; Vukašinović, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    As energy costs continue to rise, industrial plants (even those of energy nonintensive industries such as furniture industry) need effective way to reduce the amount of energy they consume. Besides, there are a number of economic and environmental reasons why a company should consider environmental management initiatives. This paper provides a detailed guideline for implementing joint energy and environmental management system in wood furniture industrial company. It covers in detail all essential aspects of the system: initial system assessment, organization, policy development, energy and environmental auditing, action plan development, system promotion, checking system performance, and management review. PMID:24587734

  1. Integrating energy and environmental management in wood furniture industry.

    PubMed

    Gordić, Dušan; Babić, Milun; Jelić, Dubravka; Konćalović, Davor; Vukašinović, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    As energy costs continue to rise, industrial plants (even those of energy nonintensive industries such as furniture industry) need effective way to reduce the amount of energy they consume. Besides, there are a number of economic and environmental reasons why a company should consider environmental management initiatives. This paper provides a detailed guideline for implementing joint energy and environmental management system in wood furniture industrial company. It covers in detail all essential aspects of the system: initial system assessment, organization, policy development, energy and environmental auditing, action plan development, system promotion, checking system performance, and management review.

  2. Workshop proceeding of the industrial building energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Gadgil, A.

    1988-01-01

    California has a large number of small and medium sized industries which have a major impact on the demand growth of California utilities. Energy use in building services (lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.). These industries constitute an important but largely neglected fraction of the total site energy use. The ratio of energy use in building service to the total site energy use is a function of the industrial activity, its size, and the climate at the site of the facility. Also, energy use in building services is more responsive to weather and occupant schedules than the traditional base-load'' industrial process energy. Industrial energy use is considered as a base-load'' by utility companies because it helps to increase the utilities' load factor. To increase this further, utilities often market energy at lower rates to industrial facilities. Presently, the energy use in the building services of the industrial sector is often clubbed together with industrial process load. Data on non-process industrial energy use are not readily available in the literature. In cases where the major portion of the energy is used in the building services (with daily and seasonal load profiles that in fact peak at the same time as systemwide load peaks), the utility may be selling below cost at peak power times. These cases frequently happen with electric utilities. 30 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems designed for energy conservation through the recovery, storage, and reuse of industrial process waste heat are reviewed. Consideration is given to systems developed for primary aluminum, cement, the food processing industry, paper and pulp, and primary iron and steel. Projected waste-heat recovery and energy savings are listed for each category.

  4. Energy productivity in the industrial sector: an econometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Energy productivity and energy intensity within the industrial sector of the economy are examined. Results suggest that relative prices and other economic factors can explain much of the variation in both energy productivity and energy intensity for manufacturing and mining and for the industrial sector as a whole. Cyclical factors, seasonal factors and trend variables are also useful in explaining variation in these data, both for annual and monthly time series. Of the variables examined, it appears that the relative price of energy is a highly significant factor in accounting for the difference between actual industrial energy intensity and that which might have been expected had pre-1973 trends continued.

  5. Regional industrial ecology: examples from regional economic systems of forest industry and energy supply in Finland.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, J

    2001-12-01

    Industrial ecology (IE) promotes the development of industrial systems based on recycling of matter and cascading of energy through cooperation. In this paper, the local/regional industrial ecosystem approach is reflected in two examples from Finland. The local forest industry system is based on renewable resources, waste materials and energy utilisation between forestry companies, a saw-mill, a pulp mill, a paper mill and a forest industry power plant. Waste energy from electricity production is used for production of heat and process steam. Regional city energy supply systems in Finland are also to a large extent arranged around power plants that utilise waste energy. The potential of combining the forest industry system with the energy supply systems of cities is considered and the conditions for success in the Finnish case are discussed.

  6. Using Alternate Energy Sources. The Illinois Plan for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal.

    This guide, which is one in the "Exploration" series of curriculum guides intended to assist junior high and middle school industrial educators in helping their students explore diverse industrial situations and technologies used in industry, deals with using alternate energy sources. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons:…

  7. Pulp and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-08-01

    The study provides energy estimates for the following four cases: current average mill energy consumption, state-of-the-art art mill energy consumption, mill energy consumption if advanced technologies requiring further R&D were employed, and theoretical minimum mill energy consumption.

  8. Industrial application of geothermal energy in southeast Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batdorf, J. A.; McClain, D. W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G. M.

    1980-02-01

    The main industries in Southeastern Idaho are phosphorus/ phosphate production and potato processing. Most of the energy required in the phosphate industries is electrical and therefore not replaceable by direct application of geothermal energy. The main area for direct use of geothermal energy in the phosphate industry is for drying of the ore at the mine site; however, most of this is energy now supplied by waste heat from the calcining process. There exists a large need for a dedicated supply of electrical energy to these industries and the possibility of using geothermal energy to generate electricity for these areas should be investigated. The potato processing industry uses most of its energy to provide process steam for drying and cooking. Geothermal energy can potentially replace most of these energy requirements provided a high energy source temperature can be located. A 200 F geothermal source could supply about 40% of the industry's needs. A 400 F geothermal source could supply nearly 90% of the industry's needs.

  9. Use of solar energy to produce process heat for industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, K.

    1980-04-01

    The role of solar energy in supplying heat and hot water to residential and commerical buildings is familiar. On the other hand, the role that solar energy may play in displacing imported energy supplies in the industrial and utility sectors often goes unrecognized. The versatility of solar technology lends itself well to applications in industry; particulary to the supplemental supply for process heat. The status of solar thermal technology for industrial process heat applications, including a description of current costs and operating histories is surveyed. The most important objectives to be met in improving system performance, reducing cost, and identifying markets for solar industrial process heat are outlined.

  10. Industrial Energy Efficiency: Designing Effective State Programs for the Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Amelie Goldberg; Taylor, Robert P.; Hedman, Bruce

    2014-03-21

    This report provides state regulators, utilities, and other program administrators with an overview of U.S. industrial energy efficiency programs and assesses some of the key features of programs that have generated increased energy savings.

  11. Refractories for Industrial Processing. Opportunities for Improved Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James G.; Hayden, H. Wayne; Angelini, Peter; Moore, Robert E.; Headrick, William L.

    2005-01-01

    Refractories are a class of materials of critical importance to manufacturing industries with high-temperature unit processes. This study describes industrial refractory applications and identifies refractory performance barriers to energy efficiency for processing. The report provides recommendations for R&D pathways leading to improved refractories for energy-efficient manufacturing and processing.

  12. Impact of recent energy legislation on the aluminum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, E.; Emery, J.G.; Hopp, W.J.; Kretz, A.L.

    1981-06-01

    This report examines the aluminum industry's technology in energy use and emissions control. Data on consumption and pollution levels are presented. A history of the aluminum industry in the Pacific Northwest, its role in providing power reserves, and how that role fits into the present power situation are given. The Northwest Power Act, the rates the industry will probably pay as a result of the Act, the implications of those rates to the industry, as well as the availability of federal power to the industry are discussed. Finally, the Act's effects on the relative competitiveness of the industry in both domestic and world markets are examined.

  13. Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

  14. An Innovation for the Energy Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    REDOX is an economical energy storage system which promises major reductions in the cost of storing electrical energy. The system is based upon the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy. 75 percent of the energy used to charge the system is returned. It is flexible and the energy may be stored for long periods. It was developed by Lewis Research Center, who transferred the technology to SOHIO for further development and possible commercialization. Redox could eliminate the use of high quality generator levels and would be particularly valuable to utilities which generate power from coal or nuclear energy.

  15. Industrial Energy in Transition: A Petrochemical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Ronald S.

    1978-01-01

    An industrial development involves the conversion of biomass, through fermentation, to useful chemical products and the gasification of municiple wastes to produce steam for electricity generation. These gases may also serve as chemical feedstocks. (Author/MA)

  16. OSeMOSYS Energy Modeling Using an Extended UTOPIA Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, Denis

    2017-01-01

    The OSeMOSYS project offers open-access energy modeling to a wide audience. Its relative simplicity makes it appealing for academic research and governmental organizations to study the impacts of policy decisions on an energy system in the context of possibly severe greenhouse gases emissions limitations. OSeMOSYS is a tool that enhances the…

  17. Opportunity knocks - the sustainable energy industry and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Price, B.; Keegan, P.

    1997-12-31

    Climate change mitigation, if intelligently undertaken, can stimulate economic growth. The main tools available for this task are energy efficiency, renewable energy, and clean energy technologies and services, which are collectively known as sustainable energy. To unleash this potential, the US and other governments need the full cooperation of the sustainable energy industry. This industry knows more than most other about turning energy-related pollution prevention into profits. If engaged, they can help: (1) Identify the economic benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation; (2) Identify barriers to the implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation projects; (3) Develop policies and measures to overcome these barriers; and (4) Implement greenhouse gas mitigation projects. 7 refs.

  18. Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum RefiningIndustry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-05-01

    Information has proven to be an important barrier inindustrial energy efficiency improvement. Voluntary government programsaim to assist industry to improve energy efficiency by supplyinginformation on opportunities. ENERGY STAR(R) supports the development ofstrong strategic corporate energy management programs, by providingenergy management information tools and strategies. This paper summarizesENERGY STAR research conducted to develop an Energy Guide for thePetroleum Refining industry. Petroleum refining in the United States isthe largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually every economicsector, including the transport sector and the chemical industry.Refineries spend typically 50 percent of the cash operating costs (e.g.,excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy amajor cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction.The petroleum refining industry consumes about 3.1 Quads of primaryenergy, making it the single largest industrial energy user in the UnitedStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve energy efficiencyby 20 percent. The findings suggest that given available resources andtechnology, there are substantial opportunities to reduce energyconsumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry whilemaintaining the quality of the products manufactured.

  19. Energy Sources (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for an energy sources course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  20. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  1. Analyzing industrial energy use through ordinary least squares regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Allyson Katherine

    Extensive research has been performed using regression analysis and calibrated simulations to create baseline energy consumption models for residential buildings and commercial institutions. However, few attempts have been made to discuss the applicability of these methodologies to establish baseline energy consumption models for industrial manufacturing facilities. In the few studies of industrial facilities, the presented linear change-point and degree-day regression analyses illustrate ideal cases. It follows that there is a need in the established literature to discuss the methodologies and to determine their applicability for establishing baseline energy consumption models of industrial manufacturing facilities. The thesis determines the effectiveness of simple inverse linear statistical regression models when establishing baseline energy consumption models for industrial manufacturing facilities. Ordinary least squares change-point and degree-day regression methods are used to create baseline energy consumption models for nine different case studies of industrial manufacturing facilities located in the southeastern United States. The influence of ambient dry-bulb temperature and production on total facility energy consumption is observed. The energy consumption behavior of industrial manufacturing facilities is only sometimes sufficiently explained by temperature, production, or a combination of the two variables. This thesis also provides methods for generating baseline energy models that are straightforward and accessible to anyone in the industrial manufacturing community. The methods outlined in this thesis may be easily replicated by anyone that possesses basic spreadsheet software and general knowledge of the relationship between energy consumption and weather, production, or other influential variables. With the help of simple inverse linear regression models, industrial manufacturing facilities may better understand their energy consumption and

  2. Process models: analytical tools for managing industrial energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S O; Pilati, D A; Balzer, C; Sparrow, F T

    1980-01-01

    How the process models developed at BNL are used to analyze industrial energy systems is described and illustrated. Following a brief overview of the industry modeling program, the general methodology of process modeling is discussed. The discussion highlights the important concepts, contents, inputs, and outputs of a typical process model. A model of the US pulp and paper industry is then discussed as a specific application of process modeling methodology. Applications addressed with the case study results include projections of energy demand, conservation technology assessment, energy-related tax policies, and sensitivity analysis. A subsequent discussion of these results supports the conclusion that industry process models are versatile and powerful tools for managing industrial energy systems.

  3. Solar energy and the aeronautics industry. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedek, L.

    1985-01-01

    An introduction to the physical aspects of solar energy, incidental energy and variations in solar flux is presented, along with an explanation of the physical principles of obtaining solar energy. The history of the application of solar energy to aeronautics, including the Gossamer Penguin and the Solar Challenger is given. Finally, an analysis of the possibilities of using a reaction motor with hybrid propulsion combining solar energy with traditional fuels as well as calculations of the proposed cycle and its mode of operation are given.

  4. Solar energy and the aeronautics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedek, L.

    1985-11-01

    An introduction to the physical aspects of solar energy, incidental energy and variations in solar flux is presented, along with an explanation of the physical principles of obtaining solar energy. The history of the application of solar energy to aeronautics, including the Gossamer Penguin and the Solar Challenger is given. Finally, an analysis of the possibilities of using a reaction motor with hybrid propulsion combining solar energy with traditional fuels as well as calculations of the proposed cycle and its mode of operation are given.

  5. Space Telemetry for the Energy Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Space telemetry is the process whereby information acquired in orbit is relayed to Earth. In 1981, Bill Sheen, President of Nu-Tech Industries, Inc., saw a need for a better way of monitoring flow, due to high costs of oil and gas, increasing oil field theft and a mounting requirement for more timely information to speed up accounting procedures. Sheen turned to NASA for assistance which was provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center (KIAC). The system that emerged from two years of research, now in production at Nu-Tech's Fort Worth Texas facility, is known as the Remote Measurement and Control Network.

  6. Energy Reporting Practices among Top Energy Intensive Industries in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasrip, N. E.; Mat Husin, N.; Alrazi, B.

    2016-03-01

    This study content analyses the energy content in the corporate report of top 30 Malaysian energy-intensive companies. Motivated by the gap among prior corporate social responsibility and environmental reporting studies in respect of energy, this study provides evidence of Malaysian companies’ initiative to reduce energy consumption. While the evidence suggests that not all 30 companies have reported energy-related information, the findings provide an overview on the response of energy intensive companies in relation to Malaysian government initiatives on energy.

  7. RenewableNY - An Industrial Energy Conservation Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Lubarr, Tzipora

    2009-09-30

    The New York Industrial Retention Network (NYIRN) manages the RenewableNY program to assist industrial companies in New York City to implement energy efficiency projects. RenewableNY provides companies with project management assistance and grants to identify opportunities for energy savings and implement energy efficiency projects. The program helps companies identify energy efficient projects, complete an energy audit, and connect with energy contractors who install renewable energy and energy efficient equipment. It also provides grants to help cover the costs of installation for new systems and equipment. RenewableNY demonstrates that a small grant program that also provides project management assistance can incentivize companies to implement energy efficiency projects that might otherwise be avoided. Estimated savings through RenewableNY include 324,500 kWh saved through efficiency installations, 158 kW of solar energy systems installed, and 945 thm of gas avoided.

  8. The changing structure of energy industries in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.

    1986-01-01

    Britain is fortunate in its abundant energy reserves. It has coal reserves of 45 billion tonnes, or a 300-year supply at current rates of use. Oil and gas reserves are up to 5000 million and 1800 million tonnes of oil equivalent, respectively. In addition, Britain has a substantial electricity industry with a sizable nuclear component. Alone among major Western industrialized countries, Britain is effectively self-sufficient in energy, with a sustained, major program to increase the efficiency of energy use. But this self-sufficiency in energy is temporary. Unless oil and gas reserves prove markedly greater than estimated, Britain in the next century will again become a significant net importer of energy. This shift requires development of appropriate energy, economic, industrial, and social policies to ensure that the imported energy is used to strengthen the basis of the economy.

  9. 75 FR 9181 - Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission: Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission: Application... the Clean Energy Business Development Missions' Web site at http://www.trade.gov/CleanEnergyMission or... or CleanEnergyMission@doc.gov ). The application deadline has been extended to Friday, March 12,...

  10. 75 FR 9181 - Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; Application... the Clean Energy Business Development Missions' Web site at http://www.trade.gov/CleanEnergyMission or... or CleanEnergyMission@doc.gov ). The application deadline has been extended to Friday, March 12,...

  11. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  12. Energy efficiency in industry and agriculture: Lessons from North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, R.N.

    1993-12-31

    The author presents lessons learned during 15 years of work on energy efficiency with North Carolina industry and agriculture. The paper includes examples of energy projects and recommendations for structuring programs that will best overcome institutional barriers. Based on a paper prepared for the 16th World Energy Engineering Congress.

  13. Pennsylvania's Energy Curriculum for the Secondary Grades: Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wighaman, Paul F.; Zimmerman, Earl R.

    Compiled in this guide are 23 previously published documents for use by secondary school industrial arts teachers who want to incorporate energy studies into their curricula. Over half of the entries describe energy-related projects such as fireplaces, solar water heaters, and solar ovens. Other materials presented address the place of energy in…

  14. Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry

    SciTech Connect

    China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2010-09-29

    The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.

  15. Cleanroom energy benchmarking in high-tech and biotech industries

    SciTech Connect

    Tschudi, William; Benschine, Kathleen; Fok, Stephen; Rumsey, Peter

    2001-04-01

    Cleanrooms, critical to a wide range of industries, universities, and government facilities, are extremely energy intensive. Consequently, energy represents a significant operating cost for these facilities. Improving energy efficiency in cleanrooms will yield dramatic productivity improvement. But more importantly to the industries which rely on cleanrooms, base load reduction will also improve reliability. The number of cleanrooms in the US is growing and the cleanroom environmental systems' energy use is increasing due to increases in total square footage and trends toward more energy intensive, higher cleanliness applications. In California, many industries important to the State's economy utilize cleanrooms. In California these industries utilize over 150 cleanrooms with a total of 4.2 million sq. ft. (McIlvaine). Energy intensive high tech buildings offer an attractive incentive for large base load energy reduction. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvement exist in virtually all operating cleanrooms as well as in new designs. To understand the opportunities and their potential impact, Pacific Gas and Electric Company sponsored a project to benchmark energy use in cleanrooms in the electronics (high-tech) and biotechnology industries. Both of these industries are heavily dependent intensive cleanroom environments for research and manufacturing. In California these two industries account for approximately 3.6 million sq. ft. of cleanroom (McIlvaine, 1996) and 4349 GWh/yr. (Sartor et al. 1999). Little comparative energy information on cleanroom environmental systems was previously available. Benchmarking energy use allows direct comparisons leading to identification of best practices, efficiency innovations, and highlighting previously masked design or operational problems.

  16. Industrial Energy Conservation, Forced Internal Recirculation Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2003-06-19

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop and evaluate an industrial low NOx burner for existing and new gas-fired combustion systems for intermediate temperature (1400 degree to 2000 degree F) industrial heating devices such as watertube boilers and process fluid heaters. A multi-phase effort is being pursued with decision points to determine advisability of continuance. The current contract over Phases II and III of this work. The objectives of each phase are as follows. Phase II - to design, fabricate, and evaluate prototype burners based on the Forced Internal Recirculation (FIR) concept. Phase III - to evaluate the performance of an FIR burner under actual operating conditions in a full-scale field test and establish the performance necessary for subsequent commercialization

  17. Waste Material Management: Energy and materials for industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This booklet describes DOE`s Waste Material Management (WMM) programs, which are designed to help tap the potential of waste materials. Four programs are described in general terms: Industrial Waste Reduction, Waste Utilization and Conversion, Energy from Municipal Waste, and Solar Industrial Applications.

  18. Education for the Energy Industry: An Idea from the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Ann D.; Griffin, Richard A.

    1997-01-01

    Education for the Energy Industry is an innovative, collaborative program for grades 4-12 planned for the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District's magnet schools in math, science, and the arts. Assisted by Rice University and major oil companies, the program allows students to use their knowledge to solve industry-related problems and apply…

  19. External research and energy efficiency in the process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Kaarsberg, T.M.; Foust, T.D.

    1997-07-01

    The process industries in the US are under enormous pressure. These industries, even more than US industry on average, face skyrocketing environmental costs, a rapidly changing electricity market, potential climate change policies, aging infrastructure and strong international competition. To be profitable they must reduce their costs and environmental impacts while increasing their product quality, turnaround time, productivity and output. Most of these industries have already cut costs and labor as much as possible. Therefore, to survive, these industries must innovate. History shows that industries that are the most innovative are the most successful. These industries are vital to the US economy. For example, the metals, pulp and paper, chemicals and the petroleum refining industries account for more than $800 billion in products shipped and employ more than three million workers. Although the US has shifted dramatically toward services with 77% of workers and 74% of GDP now in the service sector, what many have missed is that the process industries are important customers for many of these new services. ServOnly the last two years of NSF industrial R and D data provide any breakout of non-manufacturing R and D. This paper discusses the past, current and possible future role of eternal research and development (R and D)--much of which is now in the service sector--in fostering innovation and thus energy efficiency in these industries. The authors suggest that these industries are more innovative than previously thought because of external research.

  20. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Industrial Model

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) World Industrial Model (WIM). It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  1. Energy efficiency programs and policies in the industrial sector in industrialized countries

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    About 37% of the primary energy consumed both in the U.S. and globally is used by the industrial sector. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been implemented throughout the world in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of this sector. This report provides an overview of these policies and programs in twelve industrialized nations and the European Union (EU). We focus on energy efficiency products and services that are available to industrial consumers, such as reports, guidebooks, case studies, fact sheets, profiles, tools, demonstrations, roadmaps and benchmarking. We also focus on the mechanisms to communicate the availability and features of these products and services and to disseminate them to the industrial consumers who can use them. Communication channels include customer information centers and websites, conferences and trade shows, workshops and other training mechanisms, financial assistance programs, negotiated agreements, newsletters, publicity, assessments, tax and subsidy schemes and working groups. In total, over 30 types of industrial sector energy efficiency products, services and delivery channels have been identified in the countries studied. Overall, we found that the United States has a large variety of programs and offers industry a number of supporting programs for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, there are some products and services found in other industrialized countries that are not currently used in the U.S., including benchmarking programs, demonstration of commercialized technologies and provision of energy awareness promotion materials to companies. Delivery mechanisms found in other industrialized countries that are not employed in the U.S. include negotiated agreements, public disclosure and national-level tax abatement for energy-efficient technologies.

  2. 78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ...The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including commercial and industrial electric motors. EPCA also requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether more-stringent, amended standards would be technologically feasible and......

  3. Extended development of a sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. E.; Rowny, P. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    The post-test evaluation of a single heat exchanger sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module for use in solar electric generation is reported. Chemical analyses of the storage medium used in the experimental model are presented. The experimental verification of the module performance using an alternate heat transfer fluid, Caloria HT-43, is described. Based on these results, a design analysis of a dual heat exchanger concept within the storage module is presented. A computer model and a reference design for the dual system (storage working fluid/power cycle working fluid) were completed. The dual system is estimated to have a capital cost of approximately one half that of the single heat exchanger concept.

  4. Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Follow-up Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United Industries Corporation.

    1986-06-01

    United Industries Corporation (UIC) conducted an energy analysis at five food processing plants (SIC 20) in the winter of 1984-1985. Tour of plants (Alpac, Carnation, Terminal flour mill, Tree Top) were revisited eighteen months later to determine what energy conservation measures (ECM's) had been or would be implemented. Additionally, the follow-up investigation evaluated the actual energy savings that accrued for the implemented ECM's and recorded the plants' views on the usefulness of the energy analysis.

  5. Extended MHD Effects in High Energy Density Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, Charles

    2016-10-01

    The MHD model is the workhorse for computational modeling of HEDP experiments. Plasma models are inheritably limited in scope, but MHD is expected to be a very good model for studying plasmas at the high densities attained in HEDP experiments. There are, however, important ways in which MHD fails to adequately describe the results, most notably due to the omission of the Hall term in the Ohm's law (a form of extended MHD or XMHD). This talk will discuss these failings by directly comparing simulations of MHD and XMHD for particularly relevant cases. The methodology is to simulate HEDP experiments using a Hall-MHD (HMHD) code based on a highly accurate and robust Discontinuous Galerkin method, and by comparison of HMHD to MHD draw conclusions about the impact of the Hall term. We focus on simulating two experimental pulsed power machines under various scenarios. We examine the MagLIF experiment on the Z-machine at Sandia National Laboratories and liner experiments on the COBRA machine at Cornell. For the MagLIF experiment we find that power flow in the feed leads to low density plasma ablation into the region surrounding the liner. The inflow of this plasma compresses axial magnetic flux onto the liner. In MHD this axial flux tends to resistively decay, whereas in HMHD a force-free current layer sustains the axial flux on the liner leading to a larger ratio of axial to azimuthal flux. During the liner compression the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability leads to helical perturbations due to minimization of field line bending. Simulations of a cylindrical liner using the COBRA machine parameters can under certain conditions exhibit amplification of an axial field due to a force-free low-density current layer separated by some distance from the liner. This results in a configuration in which there is predominately axial field on the liner inside the current layer and azimuthal field outside the layer. We are currently attempting to experimentally verify the simulation

  6. Energy and materials flows in the iron and steel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Sparrow, F.T.

    1983-06-01

    Past energy-consumption trends and future energy-conservation opportunities are investigated for the nation's iron and steel industry. It is estimated that, in 1980, the industry directly consumed approximately 2.46 x 10/sup 15/ Btu of energy (roughly 3% of total US energy consumption) to produce 111 million tons of raw steel and to ship 84 million tons of steel products. Direct plus indirect consumption is estimated to be about 3.1 x 10/sup 15/ Btu. Of the set of conservation technologies identified, most are judged to be ready for commercialization if and when the industry's capital formation and profitability problems are solved and the gradual predicted increase in energy prices reduces the payback periods to acceptable levels.

  7. Proceedings of the 1985 Mississippi industrial energy conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The following presentations are included: (1) Electric Load Management; (2) Heat Recovery; (3) Motor and Drive Systems; (4) How to Conduct an Energy Audit (outline only); (5) Energy-Efficient Lighting; (6) Industrial Chillers (outline only); (7) Plant Maintenance - Does it Pay; (8) Energy Accounting; (9) Air Compressors (outline only); (10) Thermal Storage (outline only); (11) HVAC Air Side; (12) Life-Cycle Cost; (13) Process Heating; (14) Industrial Ventilation (outline only); (15) Financing Energy-Conservation Projects; and (16) Solar Heating. The following titles are listed, but no material is included: (a) Rooftop HVAC, by Normal Asbjornson and Robert Hall, Mammoth, Minneapolis, MN; (b) Computer Energy Management, by Bob Batterman, Johnson Controls, Jackson, MS; and (c) Industrial Heat Pumps, by Bob Batterman, Johnson Controls, Jackson, MS.

  8. The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1994 review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This is a report on DOE`s Solar Industrial Program. The topics of the report include an overview of the program, it`s participants and it`s objectives; solar detoxification--using solar energy to destroy environmental contaminants in air, water, and soil; solar process heat--generating industrial quantities of hot water, steam, and hot air from solar energy; and advanced processes--using concentrated solar energy to manufacture high-technology materials and develop new industrial processes.

  9. Technology Roadmap. Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-11-01

    To help guide R&D decision-making and gain industry insights on the top opportunities for improved energy systems, ITP sponsored the Energy Loss Reduction and Recoveryin Energy Systems Roadmapping Workshopin April 2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. This Technology Roadmapis based largely on the results of the workshop and additional industrial energy studies supported by ITP and EERE. It summarizes industry feedback on the top opportunities for R&D investments in energy systems, and the potential for national impacts on energy use and the environment.

  10. 78 FR 26101 - Scoping Period Extended for the Proposed Enbridge Energy Partners, Line 67 Capacity Expansion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Period Extended for the Proposed Enbridge Energy Partners, Line 67 Capacity Expansion Project April 30... proposed Enbridge Energy Partners, Line 67 Capacity Expansion Project to May 13, 2013. SUMMARY: The... Statement for the proposed Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership (Enbridge), Line 67 Capacity...

  11. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  12. Industrial Energy Efficiency Practices in Indonesia: Lesson Learned from Astra Green Energy (AGen) Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telaga, A. S.; Hartanto, I. D.

    2017-03-01

    Many countries have used award system to promote energy efficiency practices in industry. The award system has been found to have significant impact to increase energy conservation and sustainability adoption in companies. Astra International (AI) as a holding company of more than 200 companies also organised Astra green energy (AGen) award to all affiliated companies (AFFCO) in Astra group. The event has been used to share energy efficiency best practices among AFFCO in Astra group. AFFCOs of Astra International are among the biggest and the leader in their industrial sectors Therefore, analyses from AFFO’s energy efficiency case studies represents current practices in Indonesia industrial sectors. Analyses are divided into industry, building, and renewable energy. The results from analyses found that AFFCOs already aware of energy conservation and have implemented projects to promote energy efficiency. However, the AFFCOs do not optimally use monitoring data for energy reduction.

  13. Productive trends in India's energy intensive industries

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Sanstad, A.; Mongia, P.; Schumacher, K.

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports on an analysis of productivity growth and input trends in six energy intensive sectors of the Indian economy, using growth accounting and econometric methods. The econometric work estimates rates and factor price biases of technological change using a translog production model with an explicit relationship defined for technological change. Estimates of own-price responses indicate that raising energy prices would be an effective carbon abatement policy for India. At the same time, the authors results suggest that, as with previous findings on the US economy, such policies in India could have negative long run effects on productivity in these sectors. Inter-input substitution possibilities are relatively weak, so that such policies might have negative short and medium term effects on sectoral growth. The authors study provides information relevant for the analysis of costs and benefits of carbon abatement policies applied to India and thus contributes to the emerging body of modeling and analysis of global climate policy.

  14. Extended Fluorescent Resonant Energy Transfer in DNA Constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Taeseok

    This study investigates the use of surfactants and metal cations for the enhancement of long range fluorescent resonant energy transfer (FRET) and the antenna effect in DNA structures with multiple fluorescent dyes. Double-stranded (ds) DNA structures were formed by hybridization of 21mer DNA oligonucleotides with different arrangements of three fluorescent TAMRA donor dyes with two different complementary 21mer oligonucleotides with one fluorescent TexasRed acceptor dye. In such DNA structures, hydrophobic interactions between the fluorescent dyes in close proximity produces dimerization which along with other quenching mechanisms leads to significant reduction of fluorescent emission properties. Addition of the surfactants Triton X-100, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) along with sodium cations (Na+) and divalent magnesium cations (Mg 2+) were tested for their ability to reduce quenching of the fluorescent dyes and improve overall fluorescent emission, the long range FRET and the antenna effect properties. When the neutral (uncharged) surfactant Triton X-100 was added to the FRET ds-DNA hybrid structures with three TAMRA donors and one TexasRed acceptor, dye dimerization and emission quenching remained unaffected. However, for the positively charged CTAB surfactant at concentrations of 100 uM or higher, the neutralization of the negatively charged ds-DNA backbone by the cationic surfactant micelles was found to reduce TAMRA dye dimerization and emission quenching and improve TexasRed quantum yield, resulting in much higher FRET efficiencies and an enhanced antenna effect. This improvement is likely due to the CTAB molecules covering or sheathing the fluorescent donor and acceptor dyes which breaks up the dimerized dye complexes and prevents further quenching from interactions with water molecules and guanine bases in the DNA structure. While the negatively charged SDS surfactant alone was not able to reduce dimerization and

  15. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Therkelesen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-05-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  16. Energy Matters: An invitation to Chat About Industrial Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Do you have questions or ideas about how the U.S. Department of Energy can contribute to global competitiveness through industrial efficiency? Dr. Kathleen Hogan would like to hear them. Submit your questions via: Email ( newmedia@hq.doe.gov ) Twitter ( @Energy ) Facebook ( Facebook.com/Energygov ) **LIVE CHAT IS EXPIRED**

  17. Energy Matters: An invitation to Chat About Industrial Efficiency

    ScienceCinema

    Hogan, Kathleen

    2016-07-12

    Do you have questions or ideas about how the U.S. Department of Energy can contribute to global competitiveness through industrial efficiency? Dr. Kathleen Hogan would like to hear them. Submit your questions via: Email ( newmedia@hq.doe.gov ) Twitter ( @Energy ) Facebook ( Facebook.com/Energygov ) **LIVE CHAT IS EXPIRED**

  18. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment: Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents an indication of existing workforce levels and career potentials for environmental/energy occupations within private industry. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater, and energy. The format includes an introduction to…

  19. Alternative Energy Curriculum for Trade and Industry Exploratory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Central Arkansas, Conway.

    This study was a descriptive curriculum research project covering the development of learning packets on alternative energy. The purpose of the project was to improve instruction in trades and industry exploratory programs by providing alternative energy materials. It was anticipated that the use of a prepared learning package would facilitate the…

  20. Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Terminal Flour Mill.

    SciTech Connect

    United Industries Corporation.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the results of an energy study that was conducted at Terminal Flour Mill in Portland, Oregon. Terminal Flour Mill is one of five food industry (SIC 20) plants that are being studied. Energy conservation measures (ECM's) are divided into two groups; operation and maintenance (O and M) measures, and equipment modification measures.

  1. Public/private sector cooperation to promote industrial energy efficiency: Allied partners and the US Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Cockrill, Chris; Tutterow, Vestal; Radspieler, Anthony

    2003-05-18

    Since 1996, the US Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (USDOE) has been involved in a unique voluntary collaboration with industry called the Allied Partner program. Initially developed under the Motor Challenge program, the partnership concept continues as a central element of USDOE's BestPractices, which in 2001 integrated all of USDOE's near-term industrial program offerings including those in motors, compressed air, pump, fan, process heating and steam systems. Partnerships are sought with end use industrial companies as well as equipment suppliers and manufacturers, utilities, consultants, and state agencies that have extensive existing relationships with industrial customers. Partners are neither paid nor charged a fee for participation. Since the inception of Allied Partners, the assumption has been that these relationships could serve as the foundation for conveying a system energy-efficiency message to many more industrial facilities than could be reached through a typical government-to-end-user program model. An independent evaluation of the Motor Challenge program, reported at the last EEMODS conference, attributed US $16.9 million or nearly 67 percent of the total annual program energy savings to the efforts of Allied Partners in the first three years of operation. A recent evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenger, which grew out of the former Motor Challenger program, attribute additional energy savings from compressed air training alone at US $12.1 million per year. Since the reorganization under BestPractices, the Allied Partner program has been reshaped to extend the impact of all BestPractices program activities. This new model is more ambitious than the former Motor Challenge program concerning the level of collaborative activities negotiated with Allied Partners. This paper describes in detail two new types of program initiatives involving Allied Partners: Qualified Specialist Training and Energy Events. The Qualified

  2. Industrial utilization of waste derived energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    A technical and economic feasibility study of a partial oxidation unit was conducted. Major objectives of the program were: (1) disposal of both urban (municipal refuse and sewage sludge) and agricultural (dairy) wastes; and (2) the production of a medium-Btu fuel gas. The investigated wasteshed includes those portions of Western San Bernardino County, Eastern Los Angeles County, and Northwestern Riverside County. The available waste supply, transportation of these waste materials, product quantities and energy products of fuel gas steam, and electricity, markets, ferrous metals, aluminum, nonferrous metals, and slag are studied.

  3. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions.

  4. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  5. Energy conservation in the textile industry: 10 case histories

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Presented are ten case studies of energy conserving technologies that have been implemented by the textile industry. For each case is given: the name and location of the plant and an employee contact, description of products, energy consumption and costs in years before and after the energy conserving technology was implemented, energy savings since the energy conserving technology was implemented, description of investment decision-making process, and description of any institutional and environmental considerations. Measures included are: tandem preparation line, dyebath reuse, bump-and-run (dyebath temperature drifts for the last 85% of the hold time), foam finishing, wastewater heat recovery, wastewater chlorination and reuse, oven exhaust air counterflow, boiler economizer, wood-fired boiler, and solar industrial process heat. Several other energy conserving technologies that were not studied are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  6. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  7. Practical energy and water management through pinch analysis for the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Koufos, D; Retsina, T

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we briefly describe pinch technology as a practical tool for effective energy management in the pulp and paper industry. Results indicate good steam savings. Recently pinch technology has been extended to water management. We have developed a customized methodology for the pulp and paper industry, to eliminate or reduce fresh water intake. Although the methodology is not fully developed it is a "proof of concept" that pinch principles can be applied to water related problems. The eventual combination of both thermal and water pinch will thus provide a structured and comprehensive approach for plant wide efficiency increase.

  8. Energy and materials flows in the copper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.

    1980-12-01

    The copper industry comprises both the primary copper industry, which produces 99.9%-pure copper from copper ore, and the secondary copper industry, which salvages and recycles copper-containing scrap metal to extract pure copper or copper alloys. The United States uses about 2 million tons of copper annually, 60% of it for electrical applications. Demand is expected to increase less than 4% annually for the next 20 years. The primary copper industry is concentrated in the Southwest; Arizona produced 66% of the 1979 total ore output. Primary production uses about 170 x 10/sup 12/ Btu total energy annually (about 100 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton pure copper produced from ore). Mining and milling use about 60% of the total consumption, because low-grade ore (0.6% copper) is now being mined. Most copper is extracted by smelting sulfide ores, with concomitant production of sulfur dioxide. Clean air regulations will require smelters to reduce sulfur emissions, necessitating smelting process modifications that could also save 20 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (10 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper) in smelting energy. Energy use in secondary copper production averages 20 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper. If all copper products were recycled, instead of the 30% now salvaged, the energy conservation potential would be about one-half the total energy consumption of the primary copper industry.

  9. Energy efficiency opportunities in China. Industrial equipment and small cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    A quick glance at comparative statistics on energy consumption per unit of industrial output reveals that China is one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. Energy waste not only impedes economic growth, but also creates pollution that threatens human health, regional ecosystems, and the global climate. China`s decision to pursue economic reform and encourage technology transfer from developed countries has created a window of opportunity for significant advances in energy efficiency. Policy changes, technical training, public education, and financing can help China realize its energy conservation potential.

  10. A model for Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF)

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M. ||; Hwang, R.

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish the content and structural validity of the Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model, and to provide estimates for the model`s parameters. The model is intended to provide decision makers with a relatively simple, yet credible tool to forecast the impacts of policies which affect long-term energy demand in the manufacturing sector. Particular strengths of this model are its relative simplicity which facilitates both ease of use and understanding of results, and the inclusion of relevant causal relationships which provide useful policy handles. The modeling approach of LIEF is intermediate between top-down econometric modeling and bottom-up technology models. It relies on the following simple concept, that trends in aggregate energy demand are dependent upon the factors: (1) trends in total production; (2) sectoral or structural shift, that is, changes in the mix of industrial output from energy-intensive to energy non-intensive sectors; and (3) changes in real energy intensity due to technical change and energy-price effects as measured by the amount of energy used per unit of manufacturing output (KBtu per constant $ of output). The manufacturing sector is first disaggregated according to their historic output growth rates, energy intensities and recycling opportunities. Exogenous, macroeconomic forecasts of individual subsector growth rates and energy prices can then be combined with endogenous forecasts of real energy intensity trends to yield forecasts of overall energy demand. 75 refs.

  11. A model for Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF)

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M. Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI . Dept. of Physics Argonne National Lab., IL . Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.); Hwang, R. )

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish the content and structural validity of the Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model, and to provide estimates for the model's parameters. The model is intended to provide decision makers with a relatively simple, yet credible tool to forecast the impacts of policies which affect long-term energy demand in the manufacturing sector. Particular strengths of this model are its relative simplicity which facilitates both ease of use and understanding of results, and the inclusion of relevant causal relationships which provide useful policy handles. The modeling approach of LIEF is intermediate between top-down econometric modeling and bottom-up technology models. It relies on the following simple concept, that trends in aggregate energy demand are dependent upon the factors: (1) trends in total production; (2) sectoral or structural shift, that is, changes in the mix of industrial output from energy-intensive to energy non-intensive sectors; and (3) changes in real energy intensity due to technical change and energy-price effects as measured by the amount of energy used per unit of manufacturing output (KBtu per constant $ of output). The manufacturing sector is first disaggregated according to their historic output growth rates, energy intensities and recycling opportunities. Exogenous, macroeconomic forecasts of individual subsector growth rates and energy prices can then be combined with endogenous forecasts of real energy intensity trends to yield forecasts of overall energy demand. 75 refs.

  12. 78 FR 73200 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Paliperidone Palmitate Extended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... Recommendations for Paliperidone Palmitate Extended-Release Injectable Suspension; Availability AGENCY: Food and... extended-release injectable suspension. DATES: Although you can comment on any guidance at any time (see 21... paliperidone palmitate extended-release injectable suspension. New drug application 022264 for INVEGA...

  13. Methods for assessing the energy-saving efficiency of industrial symbiosis in industrial parks.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenfeng; Cui, Zhaojie; Han, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The available energy resources are being depleted worldwide. Industrial symbiosis (IS) provides a promising approach for increasing the efficiency of energy utilization, with numerous studies reporting the superiority of this technology. However, studies quantifying the energy-saving efficiency of IS remain insufficient. This paper proposes an index system for the quantitative evaluation of the energy-saving efficiency of IS. Both energy-saving and financial indexes were selected, the former include the IS energy-saving index, the contribution rate of energy saved through IS, fractional energy savings, and cut rate of energy consumption per total output value; and the latter include the IS investment payback period, IS input-output ratio, net present value (NPV), and internal rate of return (IRR) of IS. The proposed methods were applied to a case study on the XF Industrial Park (XF IP), in the city of Liaocheng in Shandong Province of China. Three energy-saving channels using IS were found in the XF IP: (a) utilizing the energy of high-temperature materials among industrial processes, (b) recovering waste heat and steam between different processes, and (c) saving energy by sharing infrastructures. The results showed that the energy efficiency index of IS was 0.326, accounting for 34.6% of the comprehensive energy-saving index in 2011, and the fractional energy-savings were 12.42%. The index of energy consumption per total industrial output value varied from 90.9 tce/MRMB to 51.6 tce/MRMB. Thus, the cut rate of energy consumption per total industrial output value was 43.42%. The average values of the IS input-output ratio was 406.2 RMB/tce, 57.2% lower than the price of standard coal. Static investment payback period in the XF IP was 8.5 months, indicating that the XF IP began to earn profit 8.5 months after the construction of all IS modes. The NVP and IRR of each IS mode in the XF IP were greater than zero, with average values equal to 1,789.96 MRMB and 140

  14. Application of solar thermal energy to buildings and industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C. F.

    1981-05-01

    Flat plate collectors and evacuated tube collectors are described, as are parabolic troughs, Fresnel lenses, and compound parabolic concentrators. Use of solar energy for domestic hot water and for space heating and cooling are discussed. Some useful references and methods of system design and sizing are given. This includes mention of the importance of economic analysis. The suitability of solar energy for industrial use is discussed, and solar ponds, point-focus receivers and central receivers are briefly described. The use of solar energy for process hot water, drying and dehydration, and process steam are examined, industrial process heat field tests by the Department of Energy are discussed, and a solar total energy system in Shenandoah, GA is briefly described. (LEW)

  15. Nuclear energy position in industrial and economics global

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Permana, Sidik

    2012-06-01

    3E (Energy, Economics and Education) are three concepts of community development, and 3E concepts are interlinked between each other. 3E concept is divided into three levels of regions, remote area or villages, small towns and metropolitan cities, and there are different problems of each region. This paper analyzes the relations between energy, economics and education in the metropolitan and industrial city. Especially the influence of nuclear energy concerning at cost production of the industrial and the contribution of education and research for nuclear energy innovation. This relation can be explained using "S-curve". The results of this study is the comparison between the product involves the use of nuclear energy or not in the production process are explained using "S-curve" and its effect on the global economics.

  16. Technologies and Policies to Improve Energy Efficiency in Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Price, Lynn

    2008-03-01

    The industrial sector consumes nearly 40% of annual global primary energy use and is responsible for a similar share of global energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Many studies and actual experience indicate that there is considerable potential to reduce the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities, concurrently reducing CO2 emissions. With the support of strong policies and programs, energy-efficient technologies and measures can be implemented that will reduce global CO2 emissions. A number of countries, including the Netherlands, the UK, and China, have experience implementing aggressive programs to improve energy efficiency and reduce related CO2 emissions from industry. Even so, there is no silver bullet and all options must be pursued if greenhouse gas emissions are to be constrained to the level required to avoid significant negative impacts from global climate change.

  17. Technologies and Policies to Improve Energy Efficiency in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Lynn

    2008-09-01

    The industrial sector consumes nearly 40% of annual global primary energy use and is responsible for a similar share of global energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Many studies and actual experience indicate that there is considerable potential to reduce the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities, concurrently reducing CO2 emissions. With the support of strong policies and programs, energy-efficient technologies and measures can be implemented that will reduce global CO2 emissions. A number of countries, including the Netherlands, the UK, and China, have experience implementing aggressive programs to improve energy efficiency and reduce related CO2 emissions from industry. Even so, there is no silver bullet and all options must be pursued if greenhouse gas emissions are to be constrained to the level required to avoid significant negative impacts from global climate change.

  18. Application of solar thermal energy to buildings and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutscher, C. F.

    1981-05-01

    Flat plate collectors and evacuated tube collectors are described, as are parabolic troughs, Fesnel lenses, and compound parabolic concentrators. Use of solar energy for domestic hot water and for space heating and cooling are discussed. Some useful references and methods of system design and sizing are given. This includes mention of the importance of economic analysis. The suitability of solar energy for industrial use is discussed, and solar ponds, point-focus receivers and central receivers are briefly described. The use of solar energy for process hot water, drying and dehydration, and process steam was examined, industrial process heat field tests by the Department of Energy are discussed, and a solar total energy system in Shenandoah, GA is briefly described.

  19. What works for energy efficiency in large industry

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, H.G.; Bonnyman, C.E.; Ghislain, J.C.

    1997-07-01

    In recent years it has become clear that various groups interested in energy efficiency, including state energy agencies, utilities, and advocacy groups do not know how energy efficiency efforts are conceived and carried out within global industrial corporations. There are vast energy efficiency efforts underway of which almost no one knows, except those directly involved. Nevertheless, the criteria employed, the viewpoint on efficiency, the constraints, and the methods of evaluation are all either somewhat or even quite different in an industrial setting. This paper reports on work underway at Ford Motor Company. Ford Motor Company has demonstrated a major commitment to energy efficiency. This paper illustrates the ways energy efficiency is approached, explains something of how the internal process works. and provides examples of the types of projects recently completed and underway. This paper first reviews certain organizational features of large industrial Demand Side Management (DSM). Second, it explores the model provided by ISO 14001. Third, specific experience of Ford Motor Company, General Motors, and Chrysler in working cooperatively with the Detroit Edison electric utility is reported. Finally, the broader scope of energy efficiency at Ford is indicated, and the ethical nature of energy efficiency is asserted.

  20. Potential for energy conservation in the glass industry

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Bruno, G.A.

    1986-06-01

    While the glass industry (flat glass, container glass, pressed and blown glass, and insulation fiber glass) has reduced its specific energy use (Btu/ton) by almost 30% since 1972, significant potential for further reduction still remains. State-of-the-art technologies are available which could lead to incremental improvements in glass industry energy productivity; however, these technologies must compete for capital with projects undertaken for other reasons (e.g., capacity expansion, equipment rebuild, labor cost reduction, product quality improvement, or compliance with environmental, health or safety regulations). Narrowing profit margins in the large tonnage segments of the glass industry in recent years and the fact that energy costs represent less than 25% of the value added in glass manufacture have combined to impede the widespread adoption of many state-of-the-art conservation technologies. Savings in energy costs alone have not provided the incentive to justify the capital expenditures required to realize the energy savings. Beyond implementation of state-of-the-art technologies, significant potential energy savings could accrue from advanced technologies which represent a radical departure from current glass making technology. Long-term research and development (R and D) programs, which address the technical and economic barriers associated with advanced, energy-conserving technologies, offer the opportunity to realize this energy-saving potential.

  1. 77 FR 2355 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... January 17, 2012 Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air..., January 17, 2012 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC47...

  2. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

  3. Regional characteristics relevant to advanced technology cogeneration development. [industrial energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    To assist DOE in establishing research and development funding priorities in the area of advanced energy conversion technoloy, researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory studied those specific factors within various regions of the country that may influence cogeneration with advanced energy conversion systems. Regional characteristics of advanced technology cogeneration possibilities are discussed, with primary emphasis given to coal derived fuels. Factors considered for the study were regional industry concentration, purchased fuel and electricity prices, environmental constraints, and other data of interest to industrial cogeneration.

  4. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations. Volume II. Energy data on the US manufacturing subsector

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    In order to characterize industrial energy service, current energy demand, its end uses, and cost of typical energy applications and resultant services in the industrial sector were examined and a projection of state industrial energy demands and prices to 1990 was developed. Volume II presents in Section 2 data on the US manufacturing subsector energy demand, intensity, growth rates, and cost for 1971, 1974, and 1976. These energy data are disaggregated not only by fuel type but also by user classifications, including the 2-digit SIC industry groups, 3-digit subgroups, and 4-digit SIC individual industries. These data characterize typical energy applications and the resultant services in this subsector. The quantities of fuel and electric energy purchased by the US manufacturing subsector were converted to British thermal units and reported in billions of Btu. The conversion factors are presented in Table 4-1 of Volume I. To facilitate the descriptive analysis, all energy cost and intensity data were expressed in constant 1976 dollars. The specific US industrial energy service characteristics developed and used in the descriptive analysis are presented in Volume I. Section 3 presents the computer program used to produce the tabulated data.

  5. Sustainable design of complex industrial and energy systems under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng

    Depletion of natural resources, environmental pressure, economic globalization, etc., demand seriously industrial organizations to ensure that their manufacturing be sustainable. On the other hand, the efforts of pursing sustainability also give raise to potential opportunities for improvements and collaborations among various types of industries. Owing to inherent complexity and uncertainty, however, sustainability problems of industrial and energy systems are always very difficult to deal with, which has made industrial practice mostly experience based. For existing research efforts on the study of industrial sustainability, although systems approaches have been applied in dealing with the challenge of system complexity, most of them are still lack in the ability of handling inherent uncertainty. To overcome this limit, there is a research need to develop a new generation of systems approaches by integrating techniques and methods for handling various types of uncertainties. To achieve this objective, this research introduced series of holistic methodologies for sustainable design and decision-making of industrial and energy systems. The introduced methodologies are developed in a systems point of view with the functional components involved in, namely, modeling, assessment, analysis, and decision-making. For different methodologies, the interval-parameter-based, fuzzy-logic-based, and Monte Carlo based methods are selected and applied respectively for handling various types of uncertainties involved, and the optimality of solutions is guaranteed by thorough search or system optimization. The proposed methods are generally applicable for any types of industrial systems, and their efficacy had been successfully demonstrated by the given case studies. Beyond that, a computational tool was designed, which provides functions on the industrial sustainability assessment and decision-making through several convenient and interactive steps of computer operation. This

  6. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D. B.; Hadley, S. W.; Chin, S-M.

    2008-10-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. No. 109-58; EPAct 2005) amended the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (Pub. L. No. 89-387) to increase the portion of the year that is subject to Daylight Saving Time. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 extended the duration of Daylight Saving Time in the spring by changing its start date from the first Sunday in April to the second Sunday in March, and in the fall by changing its end date from the last Sunday in October to the first Sunday in November. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 also called for the Department of Energy to evaluate the impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy consumption in the United States and to submit a report to Congress. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) This report presents the results of impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the national energy consumption in the United States. The key findings are: (1) The total electricity savings of Extended Daylight Saving Time were about 1.3 Tera Watt-hour (TWh). This corresponds to 0.5 percent per each day of Extended Daylight Saving Time, or 0.03 percent of electricity consumption over the year. In reference, the total 2007 electricity consumption in the United States was 3,900 TWh. (2) In terms of national primary energy consumption, the electricity savings translate to a reduction of 17 Trillion Btu (TBtu) over the spring and fall Extended Daylight Saving Time periods, or roughly 0.02 percent of total U.S. energy consumption during 2007 of 101,000 TBtu. (3) During Extended Daylight Saving Time, electricity savings generally occurred over a three- to five-hour period in the evening with small increases in usage during the early-morning hours. On a daily percentage basis, electricity savings were slightly greater during the March (spring) extension of Extended Daylight Saving Time than the November (fall) extension. On a regional basis, some southern portions of the United States exhibited slightly smaller impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy savings

  7. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  8. Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett-Price, B.A.

    1985-02-01

    This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.

  9. Occupational Contact Dermatitis in the Wind Energy Industry.

    PubMed

    Lárraga-Piñones, G; Heras-Mendaza, F; Conde-Salazar, L

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In 2010, wind energy coverage in Spain increased by 16%, making the country the world's fourth largest producer in a fast-developing industry that is also a source of employment. Occupational skin diseases in this field have received little attention. The present study aims to describe the main characteristics of skin diseases affecting workers in the wind energy industry and the allergens involved. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive, observational study of workers from the wind energy industry with suspected contact dermatitis who were referred to the occupational dermatology clinic of the National School of Occupational Medicine (Escuela Nacional de Medicina del Trabajo) between 2009 and 2011. We took both a clinical history and an occupational history, and patients underwent a physical examination and patch testing with the materials used in their work. RESULTS: We studied 10 workers (8 men, 2 women), with a mean age of 33.7 years. The main finding was dermatitis, which affected the face, eyelids, forearms, and hands. Sensitization to epoxy resins was detected in 4 workers, 1 of whom was also sensitized to epoxy curing agents. One worker was sensitized to bisphenol F resin but had a negative result with epoxy resin from the standard series. In the 5 remaining cases, the final diagnosis was irritant contact dermatitis due to fiberglass. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational skin diseases are increasingly common in the wind energy industry. The main allergens are epoxy resins. Fiberglass tends to produce irritation.

  10. Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM) Framework Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2012-12-12

    The goal of this study is to develop a new bottom-up industry sector energy-modeling framework with an agenda of addressing least cost regional and global carbon reduction strategies, improving the capabilities and limitations of the existing models that allows trading across regions and countries as an alternative.

  11. Process Innovation and Changes in Industrial Energy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Charles A.

    1978-01-01

    American industry in the 19th century switched from wood to coal as its primary energy resource. The history of this switch is reviewed, along with the history of preceding similar trends in Europe and later trends in the switch from coal to oil and gas. (Author/MA)

  12. Extended Glauber Model of Antiproton-Nucleus Annihilation for All Energies and Mass Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Teck-Ghee; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Previous analytical formulas in the Glauber model for high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions developed by Wong are utilized and extended to study Antiproton-nucleus annihilations for both high and low energies, after taking into account the effects of Coulomb and nuclear interactions, and the change of the antiproton momentum inside a nucleus. The extended analytical formulas capture the main features of the experimental antiproton-nucleus annihilation cross sections for all energies and mass numbers. At high antiproton energies, they exhibit the granular property for the lightest nuclei and the black-disk limit for the heavy nuclei. At low antiproton energies, they display the effect of the antiproton momentum increase due to the nuclear interaction for the light nuclei, and the effect of the magnification due to the attractive Coulomb interaction for the heavy nuclei.

  13. Advances in energy conservation of China steel industry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980-2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011-2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

  14. Advances in Energy Conservation of China Steel Industry

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980–2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011–2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics. PMID:23533344

  15. Industrial Assessment Centers - Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-06

    Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US Department of Energy, have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce energy use and increase their productivity and competitiveness. The 24 IACs, located at premier engineering universities around the country (see below), send faculty and engineering students to local small and medium-sized manufacturers to provide no-cost assessments of energy use, process performance and waste and water flows. Under the direction of experienced professors, IAC engineering students analyze the manufacturer’s facilities, energy bills and energy, waste and water systems, including compressed air, motors/pumps, lighting, process heat and steam. The IACs then follow up with written energy-saving and productivity improvement recommendations, with estimates of related costs and payback periods.

  16. US energy industry financial developments, 1993 second quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-29

    US Energy Industry Financial Developments, 1993 Second Quarter provides information on the financial performance of energy companies during the most recent reporting period. The data are taken from public sources such as the Wall Street Journal, Energy Information Administration publications, corporate press releases, and other public sources. Based on information provided in 1993 second quarter financial disclosures, net income for 114 petroleum companies--including 19 majors--rose 33 percent between the second quarter of 1992 and the second quarter of 1993. Both upstream (oil and gas exploration, development and production) operations and downstream (petroleum refining, marketing, and transport) contributed to the improved financial Performance of petroleum companies consolidated operations. Rate-regulated industries also showed positive income growth between the second quarter of 1992 and the second quarter of 1993 due to higher natural gas prices and increased electricity consumption.

  17. US energy industry financial developments, 1994 first quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-23

    This report traces key financial trends in the US energy industry for the first quarter of 1994. Financial data (only available for publicly-traded US companies) are included in two broad groups -- fossil fuel production and rate-regulated electric utilities. All financial data are taken from public sources such as energy industry corporate reports and press releases, energy trade publications, and The Wall Street Journal`s, Earnings Digest. Return on equity is calculated from data available from Standard and Poor`s Compustat data service. Since several major petroleum companies disclose their income by lines of business and geographic area. These data are also presented in this report. Although the disaggregated income concept varies by company and is not strictly comparable to corporate income, relative movements in income by lines of business and geographic area are summarized as useful indicators of short-term changes in the underlying profitability of these operations.

  18. US energy industry financial developments, 1993 first quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-25

    Net income for 259 energy companies-- including, 20 major US petroleum companies-- rose 38 percent between the first quarter of 1992 and the first quarter of 1993. An increased level of economic activity, along with colder weather, helped lift the demand for natural gas. crude oil, coal, and electricity. The sharp rise in the domestic price of natural gas at the wellhead relative to the year-ago quarter was the most significant development in US energy during the first quarter. As a consequence of higher natural gas prices, the upstream segment of the petroleum industry reported large gains in income, while downstream income rose due to higher refined product demand. Increased economic activity and higher weather-related natural gas demand also led to improvements in income for the rate-regulated energy segment. However, declining domestic oil production continued to restrain upstream petroleum industry earnings growth, despite a moderate rise in crude oil prices.

  19. Estimating energy-augmenting technological change in developingcountry industries

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, Alan H.; Roy, Joyashree; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2006-07-07

    Assumptions regarding the magnitude and direction ofenergy-related technological change have long beenrecognized as criticaldeterminants of the outputs and policy conclusions derived fromintegrated assessment models. Particularly in the case of developingcountries, however, empirical analysis of technological change has laggedbehind simulation modeling. This paper presents estimates of sectoralproductivity trends and energy-augmenting technological change forseveral energy-intensive industries in India and South Korea, and, forcomparison, the United States. The key findings are substantialheterogeneity among both industries and countries, and a number of casesof declining energy efficiency. The results are subject to certaintechnical qualifications both in regards to the methodology and to thedirect comparison to integrated assessment parameterizations.Nevertheless, they highlight the importance of closer attention to theempirical basis for common modeling assumptions.

  20. Understanding Potential Climate Variability Impacts on the Offshore Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stear, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability may have important implications for the offshore energy industry. Scenarios of increased storm activity and changes in sea level could require the retrofit of existing offshore platforms and coastal infrastructure, the decommissioning of facilities for which upgrade or relocation is not economically viable, and the development of new methods and equipment which are removed from or less sensitive to environmental loads. Over the past years the energy industry has been actively involved in collaborative research efforts with government and academia to identify the potential changes in the offshore operating environment, and corresponding risk implications. This presentation will review several of these efforts, and for several of the hypothetical climate variation scenarios, review the potential impacts on and possible mitigations for offshore and coastal energy infrastructure and operations.

  1. Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, E.; Phylipsen, D.; Einstein, D.; Martin, N.

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. chemical industry is the largest in the world, and responsible for about 11% of the U.S. industrial production measured as value added. It consumes approximately 20% of total industrial energy consumption in the U.S. (1994), and contributes in similar proportions to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Surprisingly, there is not much information on energy use and energy intensity in the chemical industry available in the public domain. This report provides detailed information on energy use and energy intensity for the major groups of energy-intensive chemical products. Ethylene production is the major product in terms of production volume of the petrochemical industry. The petrochemical industry (SIC 2869) produces a wide variety of products. However, most energy is used for a small number of intermediate compounds, of which ethylene is the most important one. Based on a detailed assessment we estimate fuel use for ethylene manufacture at 520 PJ (LHV), excluding feedstock use. Energy intensity is estimated at 26 GJ/tonne ethylene (LHV), excluding feedstocks.The nitrogenous fertilizer production is a very energy intensive industry, producing a variety of fertilizers and other nitrogen-compounds. Ammonia is the most important intermediate chemical compound, used as basis for almost all products. Fuel use is estimated at 268 PJ (excluding feedstocks) while 368 PJ natural gas is used as feedstock. Electricity consumption is estimated at 14 PJ. We estimate the energy intensity of ammonia manufacture at 39.3 GJ/tonne (including feedstocks, HHV) and 140 kWh/tonne, resulting in a specific primary energy consumption of 40.9 GJ/tonne (HHV), equivalent to 37.1 GJ/tonne (LHV). Excluding natural gas use for feedstocks the primary energy consumption is estimated at 16.7 GJ/tonne (LHV). The third most important product from an energy perspective is the production of chlorine and caustic soda. Chlorine is produced through electrolysis of a salt-solution. Chlorine production is

  2. The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1995 review

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    During 1995, the Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial (SI) Program worked to bring the benefits of solar energy to America`s industrial sector. Scientists and engineers within the program continued the basic research, applied engineering, and economic analyses that have been at the heart of the Program`s success since its inception in 1989. In 1995, all three of the SI Program`s primary areas of research and development--solar detoxification, advanced solar processes, and solar process heat--succeeded in increasing the contribution made by renewable and energy-efficient technologies to American industry`s sustainable energy future. The Solar Detoxification Program develops solar-based pollution control technologies for destroying hazardous environmental contaminants. The Advanced Solar Processes Program investigates industrial uses of highly concentrated solar energy. The Solar Process Heat Program conducts the investigations and analyses that help energy planners determine when solar heating technologies--like those that produce industrial-scale quantities of hot water, hot air, and steam--can be applied cost effectively. The remainder of this report highlights the research and development conducted within in each of these subprograms during 1995.

  3. Industrial sustainability of competing wood energy options in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ackom, Emmanuel K; Mabee, Warren E; Saddler, John N

    2010-12-01

    The amount of sawmill residue available in Canada to support the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry was examined. A material flow analysis technique was employed to determine the amount of sawmill residue that could possibly be available to the ethanol industry per annum. A combination of two key trends--improved efficiency of lumber recovery and increased uptake of sawmill residues for self-generation and for wood pellet production--have contributed to a declining trend of sawmill residue availability. Approximately 2.3 x 10⁶ bone-dry tons per year of sawmill residue was estimated to be potentially available to the cellulosic ethanol industry in Canada, yielding 350 million liters per year of cellulosic ethanol using best practices. An additional 2.7 billion liters of cellulosic ethanol might be generated from sawmill residue that is currently used for competing wood energy purposes, including wood pellet generation. Continued competition between bioenergy options will reduce the industrial sustainability of the forest industry. Recommendations for policy reforms towards improved industrial sustainability practices are provided.

  4. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program. Annual report, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Masanet, Eric; Graus, Wina

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. glass industry is comprised of four primary industry segments--flat glass, container glass, specialty glass, and fiberglass--which together consume $1.6 billion in energy annually. On average, energy costs in the U.S. glass industry account for around 14 percent of total glass production costs. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There is a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. glass industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. glass industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in glass manufacturing. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in glass production facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. glass industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures--as well on as their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  6. Measurement of radiative capture resonance energies with an extended gas target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheon, D. A.; Ruiz, C.; Fallis, J.; D'Auria, J. M.; Davids, B.; Hager, U.; Martin, L.; Ottewell, D. F.; Reeve, S.; Rojas, A.

    2012-10-01

    The DRAGON facility for the study of radiative capture reactions has an extended gas target, surrounded by an array of BGO detectors. The distribution of detected gamma rays amongst the segmented array permits an estimate of the reaction position and consequently of the resonance energy. We report a study of the technique, using the 24Mg(p, γ)25Al reaction. Energy determination to better than 0.5% has been demonstrated.

  7. United States Industrial Sector Energy End Use Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Morrow, William R.; Masanet, Eric

    2012-05-11

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) conducts the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) to provide detailed data on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector. The survey is a sample of approximately 15,000 manufacturing establishments selected from the Economic Census - Manufacturing Sector. MECS provides statistics on the consumption of energy by end uses (e.g., boilers, process, electric drives, etc.) disaggregated by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) categories. The manufacturing sector (NAICS Sector 31-33) consists of all manufacturing establishments in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. According to the NAICS, the manufacturing sector comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. The establishments are physical facilities such as plants, factories, or mills. For many of the sectors in the MECS datasets, information is missing because the reported energy use is less than 0.5 units or BTUs, or is withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual establishments, or is withheld because the standard error is greater than 50%. We infer what the missing information likely are using several approximations techniques. First, much of the missing data can be easily calculated by adding or subtracting other values reported by MECS. If this is not possible (e.g. two data are missing), we look at historic MECS reports to help identify the breakdown of energy use in the past and assume it remained the same for the current MECS. Lastly, if historic data is also missing, we assume that 3 digit NAICS classifications predict energy use in their 4, 5, or 6 digit NAICS sub-classifications, or vice versa. Along with addressing data gaps, end use energy is disaggregated beyond the specified MECS allocations using additional industry specific energy consumption data. The result is a

  8. Thinking Globally: How ISO 50001 - Energy Management can make industrial energy efficiency standard practice

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Desai, Deann; Matteini, Marco; Meffert, William; Williams, Robert; Risser, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Industry utilizes very complex systems, consisting of equipment and their human interface, which are organized to meet the production needs of the business. Effective and sustainable energy efficiency programs in an industrial setting require a systems approach to optimize the integrated whole while meeting primary business requirements. Companies that treat energy as a manageable resource and integrate their energy program into their management practices have an organizational context to continually seek opportunities for optimizing their energy use. The purpose of an energy management system standard is to provide guidance for industrial and commercial facilities to integrate energy efficiency into their management practices, including fine-tuning production processes and improving the energy efficiency of industrial systems. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has identified energy management as one of its top five priorities for standards development. The new ISO 50001 will establish an international framework for industrial, commercial, or institutional facilities, or entire companies, to manage their energy, including procurement and use. This standard is expected to achieve major, long-term increases in energy efficiency (20percent or more) in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide.This paper describes the impetus for the international standard, its purpose, scope and significance, and development progress to date. A comparative overview of existing energy management standards is provided, as well as a discussion of capacity-building needs for skilled individuals to assist organizations in adopting the standard. Finally, opportunities and challenges are presented for implementing ISO 50001 in emerging economies and developing countries.

  9. 75 FR 47536 - Application Deadline Extended; Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Application Deadline Extended; Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico..., International Trade Administration, and U.S. & Foreign Commercial Service are organizing an Executive Green ICT... will focus on assisting U.S. providers of ``Green Information & Communication Technology...

  10. System Assessment Standards: Defining the Market for Industrial Energy Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Tutterow, Vestal; Crane, Ryan

    2009-08-01

    Improved efficiency of industrial systems (e.g., compressed air or steam) contributes to a manufacturing facility?s bottom line, improves reliability, and better utilizes assets. Despite these advantages, many industrial facilities continue to have unrealized system optimization potential. A barrier to realizing this potential is the lack of market definition for system energy efficiency assessment services, creating problems for both service providers in establishing market value for their services and for consumers in determining the relative quality of these system assessment services. On August 19, 2008, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) issued four new draft Standards for trial use that are designed to raise the bar and define the market for these services. These draft Standards set the requirements for conducting an energy assessment at an industrial facility for four different system types: compressed air, process heating, pumping, and steam. The Standards address topics such as organizing and conducting assessments; analyzing the data collected; and reporting and documentation. This paper addresses both the issues and challenges in developing the Standards and the accompanying Guidance Documents, as well as the result of field testing by industrial facilities, consultants, and utilities during the trial use period that ended in January, 2009. These Standards will be revised and released by ASME for public review, and subsequently submitted for approval as American National Standards for publication in late 2009. Plans for a related activity to establish a professional-level program to certify practitioners in the area of system assessments, opportunities to integrate the ASME Standards with related work on industrial energy efficiency, as well as plans to expand the system assessment Standard portfolio are also discussed.

  11. Assisting the Tooling and Machining Industry to Become Energy Efficient

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, Bennett

    2016-12-30

    The Arizona Commerce Authority (ACA) conducted an Innovation in Advanced Manufacturing Grant Competition to support and grow southern and central Arizona’s Aerospace and Defense (A&D) industry and its supply chain. The problem statement for this grant challenge was that many A&D machining processes utilize older generation CNC machine tool technologies that can result an inefficient use of resources – energy, time and materials – compared to the latest state-of-the-art CNC machines. Competitive awards funded projects to develop innovative new tools and technologies that reduce energy consumption for older generation machine tools and foster working relationships between industry small to medium-sized manufacturing enterprises and third-party solution providers. During the 42-month term of this grant, 12 competitive awards were made. Final reports have been included with this submission.

  12. The feasibility of effluent trading in the energy industries

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to spur additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This report evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry (exploration and production, refining, and distribution and marketing segments), electric power industry, and the coal industry (mines and preparation plants). Nonpoint source/nonpoint source trades are not considered since the energy industry facilities evaluated here are all point sources. EPA has administered emission trading programs in its air quality program for many years. Programs for offsets, bubbles, banking, and netting are supported by federal regulations, and the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments provide a statutory basis for trading programs to control ozone and acid rain. Different programs have had varying degrees of success, but few have come close to meeting their expectations. Few trading programs have been established under the Clean Water Act (CWA). One intraplant trading program was established by EPA in its effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs) for the iron and steel industry. The other existing effluent trading programs were established by state or local governments and have had minimal success.

  13. Industrial steam systems and the energy-water nexus.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael E; Lv, Zhen; Masanet, Eric

    2013-11-19

    This paper presents estimates for water consumption and steam generation within U.S. manufacturing industries. These estimates were developed through the integration of detailed, industry-level fuel use and operation data with an engineering-based steam system model. The results indicate that industrial steam systems consume approximately 3780 TBTU/yr (3.98 × 10(9) GJ/yr) to generate an estimated 2.9 trillion lb/yr (1.3 trillion kg/yr) of steam. Since a good portion of this steam is injected directly into plant processes, vented, leaked, or removed via blowdown, roughly 354 MGD of freshwater must be introduced to these systems as makeup. This freshwater consumption rate is approximately 11% of that for the entire U.S. manufacturing sector, or the total residential consumption rate of Los Angeles, the second largest city in the U.S. The majority of this consumption (>94%) can be attributed to the food, paper, petroleum refining, and chemicals industries. The results of the analyses presented herein provide previously unavailable detail on water consumption in U.S. industrial steam systems and highlight opportunities for combined energy and water savings.

  14. Fossil energy R and D for a competitive power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the vision for Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC`s) advanced power generation program. It covers the following four topics: the status of the electric industry as it deregulates, particularly those aspects of deregulation that impact advanced power generation technologies; a snapshot of the environmental trends that influence the program; how research, and development, and demonstration (RD&D) program is being restructured in response to these trends; and the status of METC`s merger with its sister center, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center.

  15. Smoothed Biasing Forces Yield Unbiased Free Energies with the Extended-System Adaptive Biasing Force Method.

    PubMed

    Lesage, Adrien; Lelièvre, Tony; Stoltz, Gabriel; Hénin, Jérôme

    2016-12-27

    We report a theoretical description and numerical tests of the extended-system adaptive biasing force method (eABF), together with an unbiased estimator of the free energy surface from eABF dynamics. Whereas the original ABF approach uses its running estimate of the free energy gradient as the adaptive biasing force, eABF is built on the idea that the exact free energy gradient is not necessary for efficient exploration, and that it is still possible to recover the exact free energy separately with an appropriate estimator. eABF does not directly bias the collective coordinates of interest, but rather fictitious variables that are harmonically coupled to them; therefore is does not require second derivative estimates, making it easily applicable to a wider range of problems than ABF. Furthermore, the extended variables present a smoother, coarse-grain-like sampling problem on a mollified free energy surface, leading to faster exploration and convergence. We also introduce CZAR, a simple, unbiased free energy estimator from eABF trajectories. eABF/CZAR converges to the physical free energy surface faster than standard ABF for a wide range of parameters.

  16. Developing an energy efficiency service industry in Shanghai

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Goldman, Charles; Levine, Mark; Hopper, Nicole

    2004-02-10

    The rapid development of the Chinese economy over the past two decades has led to significant growth in China's energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Between 1980 and 2000, China's energy consumption more than doubled from 602 million to 1.3 billion tons of coal-equivalent (NBS, 2003). In 2000, China's GHG emissions were about 12% of the global total, ranked second behind only the US. According to the latest national development plan issued by the Chinese government, China's energy demand is likely to double again by 2020 (DRC, 2004), based on a quadrupling of its gross domestic product (GDP). The objectives of the national development plan imply that China needs to significantly raise the energy efficiency of its economy, i.e., cutting the energy intensity of its economy by half. Such goals are extremely ambitious, but not infeasible. China has achieved such reductions in the past, and its current overall level of energy efficiency remains far behind those observed in other developed economies. However, challenges remain whether China can put together an appropriate policy framework and the institutions needed to improve the energy efficiency of its economy under a more market-based economy today. Shanghai, located at the heart of the Yangtze River Delta, is the most dynamic economic and financial center in the booming Chinese economy. With 1% of Chinese population (13 million inhabitants), its GDP in 2000 stood at 455 billion RMB yuan (5% of the national total), with an annual growth rate of 12%--much higher than the national average. It is a major destination for foreign as well as Chinese domestic investment. In 2003, Shanghai absorbed 10% of actual foreign investment in all China (''Economist'', January 17-23, 2004). Construction in Shanghai continues at a breakneck pace, with an annual addition of approximately 200 million square foot of residential property and 100 million square foot of commercial and industrial space over the last 5 years

  17. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  18. Field survey analysis of the public's cognition on the new energy industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q. F.; Song, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The public enjoy an important role in the development of China's new energy industry. However, the role has not attracted sufficient attention. By the way of field investigation, the paper acquired the first hand data of the public cognition on the China's new energy industry. Survey data showed that the public enjoyed awareness of China's new energy industry to some extent. And the public had optimistic expectations on the future development of new energy industry. Moreover, there were obvious differences in the degree of public's familiarity with different new energy varieties. The education level and age of the individual public had a significant impact on his awareness of China's new energy industry. To raise public participation in China's new energy industry, it entailed highlighting the status of the public in China's new energy industry, increasing the publicity of the new energy industry with different measures for different types of public group.

  19. Industrial application of geothermal energy in Southeast Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Batdorf, J.A.; McClain, D.W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    Those phosphate related and food processing industries in Southeastern Idaho are identified which require large energy inputs and the potential for direct application of geothermal energy is assessed. The total energy demand is given along with that fractional demand that can be satisfied by a geothermal source of known temperature. The potential for geothermal resource development is analyzed by examining the location of known thermal springs and wells, the location of state and federal geothermal exploration leases, and the location of federal and state oil and gas leasing activity in Southeast Idaho. Information is also presented regarding the location of geothermal, oil, and gas exploration wells in Southeast Idaho. The location of state and federal phosphate mining leases is also presented. This information is presented in table and map formats to show the proximity of exploration and development activities to current food and phosphate processing facilities and phosphate mining activities. (MHR)

  20. Skilful seasonal predictions for the European energy industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Robin T.; Bett, Philip E.; Thornton, Hazel E.; Scaife, Adam A.

    2017-02-01

    We assess the utility of seasonal forecasts for the energy industry by showing how recently-established predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in winter allows predictability of near-surface wind speed and air temperature and therefore energy supply and demand respectively. Our seasonal prediction system (GloSea5) successfully reproduces the influence of the NAO on European climate, leading to skilful forecasts of wind speed and wind power and hence wind driven energy supply. Temperature is skilfully forecast using the observed temperature-NAO relationship and the NAO forecast. Using the correlation between forecast NAO and observed GB electricity demand, we demonstrate that skilful predictions of winter demand are also achievable on seasonal timescales well in advance of the season. Finally, good reliability of probabilistic forecasts of above/below-average wind speed and temperature is also demonstrated.

  1. Extend EnergyPlus to Support Evaluation, Design, and Operation of Low Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Heejin; Wang, Weimin; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Yun, Kyung Tae; Glazer, Jason; Scheier, Larry; Srivastava, Viraj; Gowri, Krishnan

    2011-12-21

    During FY10-11, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in collaboration with the EnergyPlus development team implemented the following high priority enhancements to support the simulation of high performance buildings: (1) Improve Autosizing of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Components; (2) Life-Cycle Costing to Evaluate Energy Efficiency Upgrades; (3) Develop New Model to Capture Transformer Losses; (4) Enhance the Model for Electric Battery Storage; and (5) Develop New Model for Chiller-Tower Optimization. This report summarizes the technical background, new feature development and implementation details, and testing and validation process for these enhancements. The autosizing, life-cycle costing and transformer model enhancements/developments were included in EnergyPlus release Version 6.0, and the electric battery model development will be included in Version 7.0. The model development of chiller-tower optimization will be included in a later version (after Version 7.0).

  2. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  3. Extended CO Solid: A New Class of High Energy Density Material

    SciTech Connect

    Lipp, M J; Evans, W J; Baer, B J; Yoo, C

    2004-10-14

    Covalently bonded extended phases of molecular solids made of first- and second-row elements at high pressures are a new class of materials with advanced optical, mechanical and energetic properties. The existence of such extended solids has recently been demonstrated using diamond anvil cells in several systems, including N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2},and CO. However, the microscopic quantities produced at the formidable high-pressure/temperature conditions have limited the characterization of their predicted novel properties including high-energy content. In this paper, we present the first experimental evidence that these extended low-Z solids are indeed high energy density materials via milligram-scale high-pressure synthesis, recovery and characterization of polymeric CO (p-CO). Our spectroscopic data reveal that p-CO is a random polymer made of lactonic entities and conjugated C=C with an energy content rivaling or exceeding that of HMX. Solid p-CO explosively decomposes to CO{sub 2} and glassy carbon and thus might be used as an advanced energetic material.

  4. India's pulp and paper industry: Productivity and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's pulp and paper sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. The authors derive both statistical and econometric estimates of productivity growth for this sector. Their results show that productivity declined over the observed period from 1973-74 to 1993-94 by 1.1% p.a. Using a translog specification the econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's pulp and paper sector has been biased towards the use of energy and material, while it has been capital and labor saving. The decline in productivity was caused largely by the protection afforded by high tariffs on imported paper products and other policies, which allowed inefficient, small plants to enter the market and flourish. Will these trends continue into the future, particularly where energy use is concerned? The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency undergoing in the sector. Their analysis shows that with liberalization of the sector, and tighter environmental controls, the industry is moving towards higher efficiency and productivity. However, the analysis also shows that because these improvements are being hampered by significant financial and other barriers the industry might have a long way to go.

  5. Multiple-energy Techniques in Industrial Computerized Tomography

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Schneberk, D.; Martz, H.; Azevedo, S.

    1990-08-01

    Considerable effort is being applied to develop multiple-energy industrial CT techniques for materials characterization. Multiple-energy CT can provide reliable estimates of effective Z (Z{sub eff}), weight fraction, and rigorous calculations of absolute density, all at the spatial resolution of the scanner. Currently, a wide variety of techniques exist for CT scanners, but each has certain problems and limitations. Ultimately, the best multi-energy CT technique would combine the qualities of accuracy, reliability, and wide range of application, and would require the smallest number of additional measurements. We have developed techniques for calculating material properties of industrial objects that differ somewhat from currently used methods. In this paper, we present our methods for calculating Z{sub eff}, weight fraction, and density. We begin with the simplest case -- methods for multiple-energy CT using isotopic sources -- and proceed to multiple-energy work with x-ray machine sources. The methods discussed here are illustrated on CT scans of PBX-9502 high explosives, a lexan-aluminum phantom, and a cylinder of glass beads used in a preliminary study to determine if CT can resolve three phases: air, water, and a high-Z oil. In the CT project at LLNL, we have constructed several CT scanners of varying scanning geometries using {gamma}- and x-ray sources. In our research, we employed two of these scanners: pencil-beam CAT for CT data using isotopic sources and video-CAT equipped with an IRT micro-focal x-ray machine source.

  6. Energy production from food industry wastewaters using bioelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Choo Yieng

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of waste and renewable resources to energy using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is an upcoming technology for enabling a cleaner and sustainable environment. This paper assesses the energy production potential from the US food industry wastewater resource. It also reports on an experimental study investigating conversion of wastewater from a local milk dairy plant to electricity. An MFC anode biocatalyst enriched on model sugar and organic acid substrates was used as the inoculum for the dairy wastewater MFC. The tests were conducted using a two-chamber MFC with a porous three dimensional anode and a Pt/C air-cathode. Power densities up to 690 mW/m2 (54 W/m3) were obtained. Analysis of the food industry wastewater resource indicated that MFCs can potentially recover 2 to 260 kWh/ton of food processed from wastewaters generated during food processing, depending on the biological oxygen demand and volume of water used in the process. A total of 1960 MW of power can potentially be produced from US milk industry wastewaters alone. Hydrogen is an alternate form of energy that can be produced using bioelectrochemical cells. Approximately 2 to 270 m3 of hydrogen can be generated per ton of the food processed. Application of MFCs for treatment of food processing wastewaters requires further investigations into electrode design, materials, liquid flow management, proton transfer, organic loading and scale-up to enable high power densities at the larger scale. Potential for water recycle also exists, but requires careful consideration of the microbiological safety and regulatory aspects and the economic feasibility of the process.

  7. The Holyoke Industrial Energy Conservation And Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaufler, Edward R.; Bateman, Robert H.; Connor, Frederick J.

    1982-03-01

    An innovative approach to the development of a model system for comprehensive industrial sector thermographic investigations and inspections will be taken during the winter of 1981-82 in Holyoke, MA. Infrared thermography techniques will be utilized for cost effective identification of building and process heat losses. The Holyoke program provides for a wide range of energy conservation services and will result in the implementation of no-cost, low-cost, and cost-effective capital intensive measures financed through a cooperative effort of government and private funding.

  8. Dominance of a corporate institutional elite: the extended power of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this study was to outline the patterns whereby large corporations may exert extensive influence over various aspects of socio-political-economic life. By focusing on the largest sector of the economy, energy corporation - and one on which all other sectors are at least partially dependent - the structure through which this corporate influence can be exercised is examined. Results demonstrate the extreme dominance of the entire energy field by the 20 largest petroleum corporations and intrusion of the petroleum industry's vast number of tenacles into all other sectors of the economy. In addition, the excessive number of interconnections between the largest petroleum corporations provide an extensive communication network among so-called competitors. Two major conclusions reached from this analysis were: (1) that within the fragile technostructure of modern America, the energy industry has reached approximate parity with the banking industry concerning its importance to society; and (2) that America during the latter half of the twentieth century has undergone a transition from social rule by a wealthy, social elite class to that of a corporate elite class through their interconnected roles on behalf of the mammoth corporations.

  9. Energy Saving Separations Technologies for the Petroleum Industry: An Industry-University-National Laboratory Research Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Dorgan, John R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Way, J. Douglas

    2003-03-28

    This project works to develop technologies capable of replacing traditional energy-intensive distillations so that a 20% improvement in energy efficiency can be realized. Consistent with the DOE sponsored report, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, the approach undertaken is to develop and implement entirely new technology to replace existing energy intensive practices. The project directly addresses the top priority issue of developing membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project is organized to rapidly and effectively advance the state-of-the-art in membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project team includes ChevronTexaco and BP, major industrial petroleum refiners, who will lead the effort by providing matching resources and real world management perspective. Academic expertise in separation sciences and polymer materials found in the Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Department of the Colorado School of Mines is used to invent, develop, and test new membrane materials. Additional expertise and special facilities available at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are also exploited in order to effectively meet the goals of the project. The proposed project is truly unique in terms of the strength of the team it brings to bear on the development and commercialization of the proposed technologies.

  10. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-31

    This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in this

  11. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 μm) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  12. Energy engineering analysis program, Anniston Army Depot; Energy Survey of Industrial Facilities (Ind); executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1988-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Army Industrial Facility Energy Survey of the Army Tank Rebuild Area at Anniston Army Depot (AAD). This project is being performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) under Contract No. DACA01-83-C-00099. The report includes an analyses of energy use within the industrial area, and supplies the identification and evaluation of energy conservation opportunities. The results obtained from the recommended projects indicate that the energy use of the manufacturing area could be reduced by 25 percent. Such savings assume that there will be no change in the level of production as well as no change in the production hours. Anniston Army Depot is commonly known as the Tank rebuild center of the free world and ranks among the largest US ammunition storage facilities. It is a part of the Army`s Depot System Command (DESCOM), which is a major subordinate command bf the US Army Materiel Development and Readiness Command (DARCOM).

  13. Assessment of the industrial energy-conservation program. Final report of the Committee on Assessment of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Industrial operations in the United States account for some 37% of the nation's consumptions of energy. It has been estimated that this figure will increase to 50% by 1990 unless appropriate industrial energy conservation measures are adopted. However, such measures are difficult to implement in spite of the potential of various existing, emerging, and advanced technologies that can be applied to the problem. Specifically, the application of many industrial energy conservation measures entails high economic, technological, and institutional risks and uncertainties that constrain industries from adopting such measures. Accordingly, in 1975 the federal government started a program designed to mitigate these risks and uncertainties via government-industry partnership arrangements in the interests of national energy conservation. An important element of this program is the Industrial Energy Conservation Program in the Federal Department of Energy (DOE). In June 1980, DOE asked the National Materials Advisory Board, a unit of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, to form a study committee to assess the effectiveness of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program. The committee concluded that federal support embodied in the DOE program, present and planned, is important to conserving additional industrial energy. However, the committee also concluded that the program needs various improvements in project selection and management and in transfer of results to industry. The committee's findings and recommendations and the results of the deliberation of the committee's three panels, a special report on heat and power, and a report on the visit by four members of the committee to Japan are presented.

  14. Energy conservation by hyperfiltration: food industry background literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-15

    The application of hyperfiltration to selected food product streams and food processing wastewaters for energy conservation was examined. This literature survey had led to the following conclusions: no research has been conducted in the food industry using membranes with hot process streams due to the temperature limitation (< 40/sup 0/C) of the typically studied cellulose acetate membranes; based on the bench-scale research reviewed, concentration of fruit and vegetable juices with membranes appears to be technically feasible; pretreatment and product recovery research was conducted with membranes on citrus peel oil, potato processing and brine wastewaters and wheys. The experiments demonstrated that these applications are feasible; many of the problems that have been identified with membranes are associated with either the suspended solids or the high osmotic pressure and viscosity of many foods; research using dynamic membranes has been conducted with various effluents, at temperatures to approx. 100/sup 0/C, at pressures to 1200 psi and with suspended solids to approx. 2%; and, the dynamic membrane is being prototype tested by NASA for high temperature processing of shower water. The literature review substantiates potential for dynamic membrane on porous stainless tubes to process a number of hot process and effluent streams in the food processing industry. Hot water for recycle and product concentrations are major areas with potential for economic application. The two plants involved in the first phase of the project should be reviewed to identify potential energy conservation applications. As many as possible of the conservation applications should be tested during the screening phase at each site. The most promising applications at each site should be evaluated more intensively to establish engineering estimates of the economics of this technology for the canned fruit and vegetable segment of the food industry.

  15. Energy gap of extended states in SiC-doped graphene nanoribbon: Ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoshi; Wu, Yong; Li, Zhongyao; Gao, Yong

    2017-04-01

    The energy gap of extended states in zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) was examined on the basis of density-functional theory. In isolated ZGNRs, the energy gap is inversely proportional to the width of ribbon. It agrees well with the results from the Dirac equation in spin-unpolarized ZGNRs, although the considered ZGNRs have spin-polarized edges. However, the energy gap in SiC-doped ZGNRs cannot be modeled by effective width approximation. The doping also lifts the spin-degenerate of edge states and results in a metallic-like band structure near the Fermi level in SiC-doped ZGNRs. Our calculations may be helpful for understanding the origin of the reported single-channel ballistic transport in epitaxial graphene nanoribbons.

  16. Baryon chiral perturbation theory extended beyond the low-energy region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epelbaum, E.; Gegelia, J.; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Yao, De-Liang

    2015-10-01

    We consider an extension of the one-nucleon sector of baryon chiral perturbation theory beyond the low-energy region. The applicability of this approach for higher energies is restricted to small scattering angles, i.e. the kinematical region, where the quark structure of hadrons cannot be resolved. The main idea is to re-arrange the low-energy effective Lagrangian according to a new power counting and to exploit the freedom of the choice of the renormalization condition for loop diagrams. We generalize the extended on-mass-shell scheme for the one-nucleon sector of baryon chiral perturbation theory by choosing a sliding scale, that is, we expand the physical amplitudes around kinematical points beyond the threshold. This requires the introduction of complex-valued renormalized coupling constants, which can be either extracted from experimental data, or calculated using the renormalization group evolution of coupling constants fixed in threshold region.

  17. Acceleration of Rural Industrialization Using Renewable Energy Technolgoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Kamaruddin

    2007-10-01

    Solar, wind, biomass and micro-hydro can be found in abundant in almost all rural area throughout the world. Despite of the fact that there are already so many research results showing the potential application of these renewable resources to substitute fossil fuel and to increase added value of local products, however, up to now very view if any result that has been realized in significant way. A concept of Small Provessing Unit using renewable energy sources have been introduced in Indonesia since 1999, in which domestically developed conversion technology, such as the greenhouse effect (GHE) solar drying system has been applied to process agricultural products such as coffee, cocoa, soices, various types of fishes and sea weeds. In addition, hybrid nocturnal cooling method has also beeing developed and used to help the farmer in extending shelf life of tropical fruits and vegetables and therefore, contributed in reducing post harvest losses. The Small Processing Unit concept as well as the developed renewable energy technology are now gradually being appreciated by both the central and local authorities, the private sectors including the NGO. The demand of such system is also gradually increasing each year and the area of applications have been extended not only within the heavtily inhavited Java Island but also to the other island of Indonesia. Our experiences in dealing with the system have also been transferred to fellow ASEAN engineers as well as those coming from the African continent through training and workshops activities. The future direction of the development will be to enhace the role of the Small Processing Unit (SPU) by providing more value added facilities driven by renewable energy technology.

  18. The Language of Energy: A Glossary of Words and Phrases Used in the Energy Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

    Provided is an alphabetical list or words and phrases commonly used in the energy industry. Entries range from such general terms as biomass, fossil fuels, and wetlands to such highly specific terms as Arab oil embargo of 1973-74 and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) Process. (JN)

  19. 77 FR 28927 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... and heating equipment that is configured as a split system air-conditioner incorporating a single... package air conditioning and heating equipment that is configured as a split system heat pump that uses... Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating,...

  20. US Energy Industry Financial Developments, 1993 fourth quarter, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-14

    This report traces key financial trends in the US energy industry for the fourth quarter of 1993. Financial data (only available for publicly-traded US companies) are included in two broad groups -- fossil fuel production and rate-regulated electric utilities. All financial data are taken from public sources such as energy industry corporate reports and press releases, energy trade publications, and The Wall Street Journal`s Earnings Digest; return on equity is calculated from data available from Standard and Poor`s Compustat data service. Since several major petroleum companies disclose their income by lines of business and geographic area, these data are also presented in this report. Although the disaggregated income concept varies by company and is not strictly comparable to corporate income, relative movements in income by lines of business and geographic area are summarized as useful indicators of short-term changes in the underlying profitability of these operations. Based on information provided in 1993 fourth quarter financial disclosures, the net income for 82 petroleum companies -- including 18 majors -- was unchanged between the fourth quarter of 1992 and the fourth quarter of 1993. An 18-percent decline in crude oil prices resulted in a deterioration of the performance of upstream (oil and gas production) petroleum companies during the final quarter of 1993. However, prices for refined products fell much less than the price of crude oil, resulting in higher refined product margins and downstream (refining, marketing and transport) petroleum earnings. An increase in refined product demand also contributed to the rise in downstream income.

  1. The Economic Potential of Three Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Providing Thermal Energy to Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, Mark; Cutler, Dylan; Flores-Espino, Francisco; Stark, Greg; Jenkin, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). Previous reports provided results of an analysis of two N-R HES scenarios. This report builds that analysis with a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario providing the basis in which the N-R HES sells heat directly to an industrial customer. Subsystems were included that convert electricity to heat thus allowing the renewable energy subsystem to generate heat and benefit from that revenue stream. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector's evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon emitting energy sources.

  2. Energy conservation: Industry measures. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment, and program overviews regarding industrial energy conservation measures. Topics include case histories and energy audits in a variety of industries, financial and investment aspects, and descriptions of specific energy conservation projects undertaken in the United States and abroad. The food, metals, pulp and paper, wood, and textile industries are among the industries discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Energy conservation: Industry. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment, and program overviews regarding industrial energy conservation measures. Topics include case histories and energy audits in a variety of industries, financial and investment aspects, and descriptions of specific energy conservation projects undertaken in the United States and abroad. The food, metals, pulp and paper, wood, and textile industries are among the industries discussed. (Contains a minimum of 248 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Energy feedback freeform lenses for uniform illumination of extended light source LEDs.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongtao; Yu, Shudong; Lin, Liwei; Tang, Yong; Ding, Xinrui; Yuan, Wei; Yu, Binhai

    2016-12-20

    Using freeform lenses to construct uniform illumination systems is important in light-emitting diode (LED) devices. In this paper, the energy feedback design is used for freeform lens (EFFL) constructions by solving a set of partial differential equations that describe the mapping relationships between the source and the illumination pattern. The simulation results show that the method can overcome the illumination deviation caused by the extended light source (ELS) problem. Furthermore, a uniformity of 95.6% is obtained for chip-on-board (COB) compact LED devices. As such, prototype LEDs manufactured with the proposed freeform lenses demonstrate significant improvements in luminous efficiency and emission uniformity.

  5. Relativistically parametrized extended Hueckel calculations. 11. Energy bands for elemental tellurium and polonium

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, L.L.

    1987-06-17

    An extension of the REX relativistically parametrized extended Hueckel LCAO molecular orbital method to periodic solids is outlined. The method provides a simple and systematic approach to the description of the spin-orbit splitting of energy bands. The method is illustrated with results for the main-group elements tellurium and polonium, with trigonal-helical and simple-cubic structures, respectively. The helical structure of tellurium is described as a distortion of a simple-cubic structure, with the distortion being quenched in the case of polonium by its very large spin-orbit coupling. 36 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  6. 77 FR 13121 - Solar Energy Industries Association: Notice of Petition for Rulemaking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Solar Energy Industries Association: Notice of Petition for Rulemaking Take notice that on February 16, 2012, Solar Energy Industries Association, pursuant to sections 205 and...

  7. 78 FR 26544 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC55 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document for Commercial and Industrial Fans and Blowers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Extension of...

  8. 78 FR 12251 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC55 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document for Commercial and Industrial Fans and Blowers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Extension of...

  9. Dissecting jets and missing energy searches using n-body extended simplified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Timothy; Dolan, Matthew J.; El Hedri, Sonia; Hirschauer, James; Tran, Nhan; Whitbeck, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Simplified Models are a useful way to characterize new physics scenarios for the LHC. Particle decays are often represented using non-renormalizable operators that involve the minimal number of fields required by symmetries. Generalizing to a wider class of decay operators allows one to model a variety of final states. This approach, which we dub the n-body extension of Simplified Models, provides a unifying treatment of the signal phase space resulting from a variety of signals. In this paper, we present the first application of this framework in the context of multijet plus missing energy searches. The main result of this work is a global performance study with the goal of identifying which set of observables yields the best discriminating power against the largest Standard Model backgrounds for a wide range of signal jet multiplicities. Our analysis compares combinations of one, two and three variables, placing emphasis on the enhanced sensitivity gain resulting from non-trivial correlations. Utilizing boosted decision trees, we compare and classify the performance of missing energy, energy scale and energy structure observables. We demonstrate that including an observable from each of these three classes is required to achieve optimal performance. This work additionally serves to establish the utility of n-body extended Simplified Models as a diagnostic for unpacking the relative merits of different search strategies, thereby motivating their application to new physics signatures beyond jets and missing energy.

  10. Dissecting jets and missing energy searches using $n$-body extended simplified models

    DOE PAGES

    Cohen, Timothy; Dolan, Matthew J.; El Hedri, Sonia; ...

    2016-08-04

    Simplified Models are a useful way to characterize new physics scenarios for the LHC. Particle decays are often represented using non-renormalizable operators that involve the minimal number of fields required by symmetries. Generalizing to a wider class of decay operators allows one to model a variety of final states. This approach, which we dub the $n$-body extension of Simplified Models, provides a unifying treatment of the signal phase space resulting from a variety of signals. In this paper, we present the first application of this framework in the context of multijet plus missing energy searches. The main result of thismore » work is a global performance study with the goal of identifying which set of observables yields the best discriminating power against the largest Standard Model backgrounds for a wide range of signal jet multiplicities. Our analysis compares combinations of one, two and three variables, placing emphasis on the enhanced sensitivity gain resulting from non-trivial correlations. Utilizing boosted decision trees, we compare and classify the performance of missing energy, energy scale and energy structure observables. We demonstrate that including an observable from each of these three classes is required to achieve optimal performance. In conclusion, this work additionally serves to establish the utility of $n$-body extended Simplified Models as a diagnostic for unpacking the relative merits of different search strategies, thereby motivating their application to new physics signatures beyond jets and missing energy.« less

  11. Dissecting jets and missing energy searches using $n$-body extended simplified models

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Timothy; Dolan, Matthew J.; El Hedri, Sonia; Hirschauer, James; Tran, Nhan; Whitbeck, Andrew

    2016-08-04

    Simplified Models are a useful way to characterize new physics scenarios for the LHC. Particle decays are often represented using non-renormalizable operators that involve the minimal number of fields required by symmetries. Generalizing to a wider class of decay operators allows one to model a variety of final states. This approach, which we dub the $n$-body extension of Simplified Models, provides a unifying treatment of the signal phase space resulting from a variety of signals. In this paper, we present the first application of this framework in the context of multijet plus missing energy searches. The main result of this work is a global performance study with the goal of identifying which set of observables yields the best discriminating power against the largest Standard Model backgrounds for a wide range of signal jet multiplicities. Our analysis compares combinations of one, two and three variables, placing emphasis on the enhanced sensitivity gain resulting from non-trivial correlations. Utilizing boosted decision trees, we compare and classify the performance of missing energy, energy scale and energy structure observables. We demonstrate that including an observable from each of these three classes is required to achieve optimal performance. In conclusion, this work additionally serves to establish the utility of $n$-body extended Simplified Models as a diagnostic for unpacking the relative merits of different search strategies, thereby motivating their application to new physics signatures beyond jets and missing energy.

  12. Energy, industry and nitrogen: strategies for decreasing reactive nitrogen emissions.

    PubMed

    Moomaw, William R

    2002-03-01

    Nitrogen oxides are released during atmospheric combustion of fossil fuels and biomass, and during the production of certain chemicals and products. They can react with natural or man-made volatile organic compounds to produce smog, or else can be further oxidized to produce particulate haze, or acid rain that can eutrophy land and water. The reactive nitrogen that begins in the energy sector thus cascades through the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and soils before being eventually partially denitrifed to the global warming and stratospheric ozone-depleting gas nitrous oxide or molecular nitrogen. This paper will suggest how an economic analysis of the nitrogen cycle can identify the most cost-effective places to intervene. Nitrogen oxides released during fossil-fuel combustion in vehicles, power plants and heating boilers can either be controlled by add-on emission control technology, or can be eliminated by many of the same technical options that lead to carbon dioxide reduction. These integrated strategies also address sustainability, economic development and national security issues. Similarly in industrial production, it is more effective to focus on redesigning industrial processes rather than on nitrogen oxide pollution elimination from the current system. This paper will suggest which strategies might be utilized to address multiple benefits rather than focusing on single pollutants.

  13. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  14. True coincidence summing corrections for an extended energy range HPGe detector

    SciTech Connect

    Venegas-Argumedo, Y.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2015-07-23

    True coincidence summing (TCS) effect for natural radioactive families of U-238 and Th-232 represents a problem when an environmental sample with a close source-detector geometry measurement is performed. By using a certified multi-nuclide standard source to calibrate an energy extended range (XtRa) HPGe detector, it is possible to obtain an intensity spectrum slightly affected by the TCS effect with energies from 46 to 1836 keV. In this work, the equations and some other considerations required to calculate the TCS correction factor for isotopes of natural radioactive chains are described. It is projected a validation of the calibration, performed with the IAEA-CU-2006-03 samples (soil and water)

  15. Energy conservation in the primary aluminum and chlor-alkali industries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The primary aluminum and chlor-alkali industries together use nearly 13% of the electrical energy consumed by US industry. As part of its mission to promote energy conservation in basic US industries, the DOE surveys the present technological status of the major electrochemical industries and evaluates promising technological innovations that may lead to reduced energy requirements. This study provides technical and economic analyses in support of a government program of research and development in advanced electrolytic technology. This program is intended to supplement the development efforts directed toward energy savings by private industry. Sections II and III of this report cover aluminum and chlorine production processes only, since these two industries represent over 90% of the electrical energy requirements of all electrolytic industries in the United States. Section IV examines barriers to accelerated research and development by the electrolytic industries, and makes suggestions for government actions to overcome these barriers.

  16. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

    1999-09-01

    The industrial sector is the most important end-use sector in developing countries in terms of energy use and was responsible for 50% of primary energy use and 53% of associated carbon dioxide emissions in 1995 (Price et al., 1999). The industrial sector is extremely diverse, encompassing the extraction of natural resources, conversion of these resources into raw materials, and manufacture of finished products. Five energy-intensive industrial subsectors account for the bulk of industrial energy use and related carbon dioxide emissions: iron and steel, chemicals, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and cement. In this paper, we focus on the steel and cement sectors in Brazil, China, India, and Mexico.1 We review historical trends, noting that China became the world's largest producer of cement in 1985 and of steel in 1996. We discuss trends that influence energy consumption, such as the amount of additives in cement (illustrated through the clinker/cement ratio), the share of electric arc furnaces, and the level of adoption of continuous casting. To gauge the potential for improvement in production of steel and cement in these countries, we calculate a ''best practice'' intensity based on use of international best practice technology to produce the mix of products manufactured in each country in 1995. We show that Brazil has the lowest potential for improvement in both sectors. In contrast, there is significant potential for improvement in Mexico, India, and especially China, where adoption of best practice technologies could reduce energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from steel production by 50% and cement production by 37%. We conclude by comparing the identified potential for energy efficiency improvement and carbon dioxide emissions reduction in these key developing countries to that of the U.S. This comparison raises interesting questions related to efforts to improve energy efficiency in developing countries, such as: what is the appropriate role of

  17. A periodic energy decomposition analysis method for the investigation of chemical bonding in extended systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raupach, Marc; Tonner, Ralf

    2015-05-21

    The development and first applications of a new periodic energy decomposition analysis (pEDA) scheme for extended systems based on the Kohn-Sham approach to density functional theory are described. The pEDA decomposes the bonding energy between two fragments (e.g., the adsorption energy of a molecule on a surface) into several well-defined terms: preparation, electrostatic, Pauli repulsion, and orbital relaxation energies. This is complemented by consideration of dispersion interactions via a pairwise scheme. One major extension toward a previous implementation [Philipsen and Baerends, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 12470 (2006)] lies in the separate discussion of electrostatic and Pauli and the addition of a dispersion term. The pEDA presented here for an implementation based on atomic orbitals can handle restricted and unrestricted fragments for 0D to 3D systems considering periodic boundary conditions with and without the determination of fragment occupations. For the latter case, reciprocal space sampling is enabled. The new method gives comparable results to established schemes for molecular systems and shows good convergence with respect to the basis set (TZ2P), the integration accuracy, and k-space sampling. Four typical bonding scenarios for surface-adsorbate complexes were chosen to highlight the performance of the method representing insulating (CO on MgO(001)), metallic (H{sub 2} on M(001), M = Pd, Cu), and semiconducting (CO and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} on Si(001)) substrates. These examples cover diverse substrates as well as bonding scenarios ranging from weakly interacting to covalent (shared electron and donor acceptor) bonding. The results presented lend confidence that the pEDA will be a powerful tool for the analysis of surface-adsorbate bonding in the future, enabling the transfer of concepts like ionic and covalent bonding, donor-acceptor interaction, steric repulsion, and others to extended systems.

  18. A periodic energy decomposition analysis method for the investigation of chemical bonding in extended systems.

    PubMed

    Raupach, Marc; Tonner, Ralf

    2015-05-21

    The development and first applications of a new periodic energy decomposition analysis (pEDA) scheme for extended systems based on the Kohn-Sham approach to density functional theory are described. The pEDA decomposes the bonding energy between two fragments (e.g., the adsorption energy of a molecule on a surface) into several well-defined terms: preparation, electrostatic, Pauli repulsion, and orbital relaxation energies. This is complemented by consideration of dispersion interactions via a pairwise scheme. One major extension toward a previous implementation [Philipsen and Baerends, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 12470 (2006)] lies in the separate discussion of electrostatic and Pauli and the addition of a dispersion term. The pEDA presented here for an implementation based on atomic orbitals can handle restricted and unrestricted fragments for 0D to 3D systems considering periodic boundary conditions with and without the determination of fragment occupations. For the latter case, reciprocal space sampling is enabled. The new method gives comparable results to established schemes for molecular systems and shows good convergence with respect to the basis set (TZ2P), the integration accuracy, and k-space sampling. Four typical bonding scenarios for surface-adsorbate complexes were chosen to highlight the performance of the method representing insulating (CO on MgO(001)), metallic (H2 on M(001), M = Pd, Cu), and semiconducting (CO and C2H2 on Si(001)) substrates. These examples cover diverse substrates as well as bonding scenarios ranging from weakly interacting to covalent (shared electron and donor acceptor) bonding. The results presented lend confidence that the pEDA will be a powerful tool for the analysis of surface-adsorbate bonding in the future, enabling the transfer of concepts like ionic and covalent bonding, donor-acceptor interaction, steric repulsion, and others to extended systems.

  19. The lessons learned from the development of the wind energy industry that might be applied to marine industry renewables.

    PubMed

    Garrad, Andrew

    2012-01-28

    This paper considers the early experiences of the development of wind turbines and the wind energy industry in order to try and identify lessons learned that could now be applied to the developing marine renewables technology and industry. It considers both political and commercial incentives and engineering development.

  20. Transportation (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for a transportation course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  1. Power Technology (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for a power technology course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  2. Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed.

  3. 78 FR 41333 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Machines AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Extension... refrigerated beverage vending machines published on June 4, 2013, is extended to August 16, 2013. DATES: The... refrigerated beverage vending machines published June 4, 2013 (78 FR 33262) is extended to August 16,...

  4. Advanced Nanostructured Molecular Sieves for Energy Efficient Industrial Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Kunhao Li, Michael Beaver

    2012-01-18

    Due to the very small relative volatility difference between propane and propylene, current propane/propylene separation by distillation requires very tall distillation towers (150-250 theoretical plates) and large reflux ratios (up to 15), which is considered to be the most energy consuming large-scale separation process. Adsorptive separation processes are widely considered to be more energy-efficient alternatives to distillation. However, slow diffusion kinetics/mass transport rate through the adsorbent bed often limits the performance of such processes, so further improvements are possible if intra-particle mass transfer rates can be improved. Rive Technology, Inc. is developing and commercializing its proprietary mesoporous zeolite technology for catalysis and separation. With well-controlled intracrystalline mesoporosity, diffusion kinetics through such mesoporous zeolite based catalysts is much improved relative to conventional zeolites, leading to significantly better product selectivity. This 'proof-of-principle' project (DE-EE0003470) is intended to demonstrate that Rive mesoporous zeolite technology can be extended and applied in adsorptive propane/propylene separation and lead to significant energy saving compared to the current distillation process. In this project, the mesoporous zeolite Y synthesis technology was successfully extended to X and A zeolites that are more relevant to adsorbent applications. Mesoporosity was introduced to zeolite X and A for the first time while maintaining adequate adsorption capacity. Zeolite adsorbents were tested for liquid phase separation performance using a pulse flow test unit and the test results show that the separation selectivity of the mesoporous zeolite adsorbent is much closer to optimal for a Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) separation process and the enhanced mesoporosity lead to >100% increase of overall mass transport rate for propane and propylene. These improvements will significantly improve the

  5. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  6. 78 FR 8998 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of.... James Raba, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... Industrial Fans and Blowers, at www.regulations.gov , docket identifier EERE-2013-BT-STD-0006-0001, DOE...

  7. Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: An historical perspective and future opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbles, John

    2000-09-01

    Renowned industry expert Dr. John Stubbles has projected the energy savings that the U.S. steel industry could reasonably expect to achieve in the report, Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: Historical Perspective and Future Opportunities (PDF 432 KB). The report examines the potential impacts of state-of-the-art technologies and operating practices, as well as structural changes in the industry itself.

  8. Secondary Work Force Movement into Energy Industry Employment in Areas Affected by "Boom Town" Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurado, Eugene A.

    A labor market study of implications of rapid energy development in the West examined the dimensions of work force movement from secondary occupations to primary energy occupations in areas affected by "boom town" growth. (Secondary occupations were defined as those in all industries not categorized as primary energy industries.) Focus…

  9. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: teacher's guide. Field test edition. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    An instructional aid is presented which integrates the subject of solar energy into the classroom study of industrial arts. This guide for teachers was produced in addition to the student activities book for industrial arts by the USDOE Solar Energy Education. A glossary of solar energy terms is included. (BCS)

  10. Energy conservation in the food industry. (Latest citations from Food Science & Technology Abstracts (FSTA)). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning energy conservation methods and systems in the food industry. The general principles of energy savings and future prospects in sugar, dairy, meat, frozen foods, and brewing industries are reviewed. Energy saving estimates and measures in food processing are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 188 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. 3 CFR 13624 - Executive Order 13624 of August 30, 2012. Accelerating Investment in Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Accelerating Investment in Industrial Energy Efficiency 13624 Order 13624 Presidential Documents Executive... energy efficiency at industrial facilities, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy. The... energy efficiency and CHP as a result of numerous barriers. The Federal Government has limited...

  12. Exploring Solar Energy. The Illinois Plan for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal.

    This packet is one in the "Exploration" series of curriculum materials developed for junior high and middle school industrial educators. The Exploration Series is intended to help them provide seventh- and eighth-grade students an opportunity to explore a wide range of industrial situations as well as some of the technologies used in the industry.…

  13. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  14. Analysis on the Impact of Tax Policy over China's New Energy Industry Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Bin; Li, Yang

    Energy is a kind of resource which can be used directly or offer people what they need by some conversions, the development of energy is the headspring of economic growth With the development of our national economy, new energy industry has become China's current vigorously the mainstream of development The analysis on influence of tax policy on the development of national new energy industry is mainly discussed, as well as the alternative analysis on the production output and sales tax aspects in the areas of new energy, and based on this, some tax policy suggestions on how to promote the development of national new energy industry are given finally.

  15. US energy industry financial developments, 1993 third quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Based on information provided in 1993 third quarter financial disclosures, the average net income for 112 petroleum companies -- including 18 majors -- rose 13 percent between the third quarter of 1992 and the third quarter of 1993. The gain in overall petroleum income was derived from increases in refined product consumption and margins, which improved the profitability of downstream petroleum (refining, marketing and transport) operations. A 17-percent decline in crude oil prices led to reduced income for upstream (oil and gas exploration, development and production) operations. A 16-percent rise in natural gas wellhead prices only partially offset the negative effects of low crude oil prices. Electric utilities also reported improved financial results for the third quarter of 1993 as hotter summer temperatures relative to the year-earlier quarter helped boost air conditioning demand and overall electricity usage. The following points highlight third-quarter energy industry financial developments: (1) Refined product demand and margins lift downstream earnings. Petroleum product consumption rose 2 percent between the third quarter of 1992 and the third quarter of 1993. Although petroleum product prices declined in the most recent reporting period, they did not decline as much as crude oil input prices. As a consequence, refined product margins widened. (2) Lower crude oil prices reduce upstream earnings. Crude oil prices fell 17 percent between the third quarter of 1992 and the third quarter of 1993 leading to a substantial reduction in income for the major petroleum companies` upstream operations. (3) Drilling income rises with increased North American exploratory activity.

  16. Energy characterisation of ultrasonic systems for industrial processes.

    PubMed

    Al-Juboori, Raed A; Yusaf, Talal; Bowtell, Leslie; Aravinthan, Vasantha

    2015-03-01

    Obtaining accurate power characteristics of ultrasonic treatment systems is an important step towards their industrial scalability. Calorimetric measurements are most commonly used for quantifying the dissipated ultrasonic power. However, accuracy of these measurements is affected by various heat losses, especially when working at high power densities. In this work, electrical power measurements were conducted at all locations in the piezoelectric ultrasonic system equipped with ½″ and ¾″ probes. A set of heat transfer calculations were developed to estimate the convection heat losses from the reaction solution. Chemical dosimeters represented by the oxidation of potassium iodide, Fricke solution and 4-nitrophenol were used to chemically correlate the effect of various electrical amplitudes and treatment regimes. This allowed estimation of sonochemical-efficiency (SE) and energy conversion (XUS) of the ultrasonic system. Results of this study showed overall conversion efficiencies of 60-70%. This correlated well with the chemical dosimeter yield curves of both organic and inorganic aqueous solutions. All dosimeters showed bubble shielding and coalescence effects at higher ultrasonic power levels, less pronounced for the ½″ probe case. SE and XUS values in the range of 10(-10) mol/J and 10(-3) J/J respectively confirmed that conversion of ultrasonic power to chemical yield declined with amplitude.

  17. Earthquake fracture energy inferred from kinematic rupture models on extended faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinti, E.; Spudich, P.; Cocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate fracture energy on extended faults for several recent earthquakes by retrieving dynamic traction evolution at each point on the fault plane from slip history imaged by inverting ground motion waveforms. We define the breakdown work (Wb) as the excess of work over some minimum traction level achieved during slip. Wb is equivalent to "seismological" fracture energy (G) in previous investigations. Our numerical approach uses slip velocity as a boundary condition on the fault. We employ a three-dimensional finite difference algorithm to compute the dynamic traction evolution in the time domain during the earthquake rupture. We estimate Wb by calculating the scalar product between dynamic traction and slip velocity vectors. This approach does not require specifying a constitutive law and assuming dynamic traction to be collinear with slip velocity. If these vectors are not collinear, the inferred breakdown work depends on the initial traction level. We show that breakdown work depends on the square of slip. The spatial distribution of breakdown work in a single earthquake is strongly correlated with the slip distribution. Breakdown work density and its integral over the fault, breakdown energy, scale with seismic moment according to a power law (with exponent 0.59 and 1.18, respectively). Our estimates of breakdown work range between 4 ?? 105 and 2 ?? 107 J/m2 for earthquakes having moment magnitudes between 5.6 and 7.2. We also compare our inferred values with geologic surface energies. This comparison might suggest that breakdown work for large earthquakes goes primarily into heat production. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. [Decomposition model of energy-related carbon emissions in tertiary industry for China].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Qing; Shi, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Tertiary industry has been developed in recent years. And it is very important to find the factors influenced the energy-related carbon emissions in tertiary industry. A decomposition model of energy-related carbon emissions for China is set up by adopting logarithmic mean weight Divisia method based on the identity of carbon emissions. The model is adopted to analyze the influence of energy structure, energy efficiency, tertiary industry structure and economic output to energy-related carbon emissions in China from 2000 to 2009. Results show that the contribution rate of economic output and energy structure to energy-related carbon emissions increases year by year. Either is the contribution rate of energy efficiency or the tertiary industry restraining to energy-related carbon emissions. However, the restrain effect is weakening.

  19. An extended formula for the energy spectrum of sputtered atoms from a material irradiated by light ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, T.; Aoki, Y.; Kawamura, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Yamamura, Y.

    2005-03-01

    We extend a formula proposed by Kenmotsu et al. (hereafter Paper I), which fits with the energy spectrum of atoms sputtered from a heavy material hit by low-energy light ions (H +, D +, T +, He +) by taking into account an inelastic energy loss neglected in Paper I. We assume that primary knock-on atoms produced by ions backscattered at large angles do not lose energy while penetrating the material up to the surface, instead of the energy-loss model used in Paper I. The extended formula is expressed in terms of a normalized energy-distribution function and is compared with the data calculated with the ACAT code for 50 eV, 100 eV and 1 keV D + ions impinging on a Fe target. Our formula fits well with the data in a wide range of incident energy.

  20. Energy efficiency and recovery of heat lost in the Industrial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounkid, S.; Loukili, A.

    2017-03-01

    the economic importance of energy is manifested at all levels of farms, the demand for energy is today one of the major challenges of societies, it constitutes an indispensable element to any activity of production, it is for this, the industry has an interest to anticipate and invest in energy efficiency in order to gain competitiveness, this last represents a tremendous lever for performance and economy. The Energy diagnosis allows unveils the potential energy sinks and the discovery of the various sources of energy losses in a manufacturing process or in all system user of energy. Use with the effectiveness of the energy help the industry to meet the challenges of competitiveness.

  1. 76 FR 51281 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Industrial Equipment: Statement of Policy for Adopting Full-Fuel-Cycle Analyses Into Energy Conservation... intends to use full-fuel- cycle (FFC) measures of energy use and emissions, rather than the primary (or... page can be found at:...

  2. Industry Stakeholder Recommendations for DOE's RD&D for Increasing Energy Efficiency in Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Plympton, P.; Dagher, L.; Zwack, B.

    2007-06-01

    This technical report documents feedback for Industry Stakeholders on the direction of future U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research and development in the area of improving energy efficiency in existing residential buildings.

  3. Performance analysis of CO(2) emissions and energy efficiency of metal industries in China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chaofeng; Guan, Yang; Wan, Zheng; Chu, Chunli; Ju, Meiting

    2014-02-15

    Nonferrous metal industries play an important role in China's national economy and are some of the country's largest energy consumers. To better understand the nature of CO(2) emissions from these industries and to further move towards low-carbon development in this industry sector, this study investigates the CO(2) emissions of 12 nonferrous metal industries from 2003 to 2010 based on their life-cycle assessments. It then classifies these industries into four "emission-efficiency" types through cluster analysis. The results show that (1) the industrial economy and energy consumption of China's nonferrous metal industries have grown rapidly, although their recent energy consumption rate shows a declining trend. (2) The copper, aluminum, zinc, lead, and magnesium industries, classified as high-emission industries, are the main contributors of CO(2) emissions. The results have implications for policy decisions that aim to enhance energy efficiency, particularly for promoting the transformation of low-efficiency industries to high-efficiency ones. The study also highlights the important role of policy development in technological innovations, optimization, and upgrades, the reduction of coal proportion in energy consumption, and the advancement of new energy sources.

  4. Energy use and CO2 emissions of China’s industrial sector from a global perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Sheng; Kyle, G. Page; Yu, Sha; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Luckow, Patrick W.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhang, Xiliang; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-07-10

    The industrial sector has accounted for more than 50% of China’s final energy consumption in the past 30 years. Understanding the future emissions and emissions mitigation opportunities depends on proper characterization of the present-day industrial energy use, as well as industrial demand drivers and technological opportunities in the future. Traditionally, however, integrated assessment research has handled the industrial sector of China in a highly aggregate form. In this study, we develop a technologically detailed, service-oriented representation of 11 industrial subsectors in China, and analyze a suite of scenarios of future industrial demand growth. We find that, due to anticipated saturation of China’s per-capita demands of basic industrial goods, industrial energy demand and CO2 emissions approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040, then decrease gradually. Still, without emissions mitigation policies, the industrial sector remains heavily reliant on coal, and therefore emissions-intensive. With carbon prices, we observe some degree of industrial sector electrification, deployment of CCS at large industrial point sources of CO2 emissions at low carbon prices, an increase in the share of CHP systems at industrial facilities. These technological responses amount to reductions of industrial emissions (including indirect emission from electricity) are of 24% in 2050 and 66% in 2095.

  5. End User Functional and Performance Requirements for HTGR Energy Supply to Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    This document specifies end user functional and performance requirements to be used in the development of the design of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) based plant supplying energy to industrial processes. These requirements were developed from collaboration with industry and HTGR suppliers and from detailed evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology in industrial processes. The functional and performance requirements specified herein are an effective representation of the industrial sector energy needs and an effective basis for developing a plant design that will serve the broadest range of industrial applications.

  6. Empirical research on decoupling relationship between energy-related carbon emission and economic growth in Guangdong province based on extended Kaya identity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxiu; Kuang, Yaoqiu; Huang, Ningsheng; Zhao, Daiqing

    2014-01-01

    The decoupling elasticity decomposition quantitative model of energy-related carbon emission in Guangdong is established based on the extended Kaya identity and Tapio decoupling model for the first time, to explore the decoupling relationship and its internal mechanism between energy-related carbon emission and economic growth in Guangdong. Main results are as follows. (1) Total production energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong increase from 4128 × 10⁴ tC in 1995 to 14396 × 10⁴ tC in 2011. Decoupling elasticity values of energy-related carbon emission and economic growth increase from 0.53 in 1996 to 0.85 in 2011, and its decoupling state turns from weak decoupling in 1996-2004 to expansive coupling in 2005-2011. (2) Land economic output and energy intensity are the first inhibiting factor and the first promoting factor to energy-related carbon emission decoupling from economic growth, respectively. The development speeds of land urbanization and population urbanization, especially land urbanization, play decisive roles in the change of total decoupling elasticity values. (3) Guangdong can realize decoupling of energy-related carbon emission from economic growth effectively by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure, coordinating the development speed of land urbanization and population urbanization effectively, and strengthening the construction of carbon sink.

  7. Empirical Research on Decoupling Relationship between Energy-Related Carbon Emission and Economic Growth in Guangdong Province Based on Extended Kaya Identity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenxiu; Huang, Ningsheng; Zhao, Daiqing

    2014-01-01

    The decoupling elasticity decomposition quantitative model of energy-related carbon emission in Guangdong is established based on the extended Kaya identity and Tapio decoupling model for the first time, to explore the decoupling relationship and its internal mechanism between energy-related carbon emission and economic growth in Guangdong. Main results are as follows. (1) Total production energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong increase from 4128 × 104 tC in 1995 to 14396 × 104 tC in 2011. Decoupling elasticity values of energy-related carbon emission and economic growth increase from 0.53 in 1996 to 0.85 in 2011, and its decoupling state turns from weak decoupling in 1996–2004 to expansive coupling in 2005–2011. (2) Land economic output and energy intensity are the first inhibiting factor and the first promoting factor to energy-related carbon emission decoupling from economic growth, respectively. The development speeds of land urbanization and population urbanization, especially land urbanization, play decisive roles in the change of total decoupling elasticity values. (3) Guangdong can realize decoupling of energy-related carbon emission from economic growth effectively by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure, coordinating the development speed of land urbanization and population urbanization effectively, and strengthening the construction of carbon sink. PMID:24782666

  8. Emergy-based comparative analysis of energy intensity in different industrial systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Geng, Yong; Wang, Hui; Sun, Lu; Ma, Zhixiao; Tian, Xu; Yu, Xiaoman

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid economic development, energy consumption of China has been the second place in the world next to the USA. Usually, measuring energy consumption intensity or efficiency applies heat unit which is joule per gross domestic production (GDP) or coal equivalent per GDP. However, this measuring approach is only oriented by the conversion coefficient of heat combustion which does not match the real value of the materials during their formation in the ecological system. This study applied emergy analysis to evaluate the energy consumption intensity to fill this gap. Emergy analysis is considered as a bridge between ecological system and economic system, which can evaluate the contribution of ecological products and services as well as the load placed on environmental systems. In this study, emergy indicator for performing energy consumption intensity of primary energy was proposed. Industrial production is assumed as the main contributor of energy consumption compared to primary and tertiary industries. Therefore, this study validated this method by investigating the two industrial case studies which were Dalian Economic Development Area (DEDA) and Fuzhou economic and technological area (FETA), to comparatively study on their energy consumption intensity between the different kinds of industrial systems and investigate the reasons behind the differences. The results show that primary energy consumption (PEC) of DEDA was much higher than that of FETA during 2006 to 2010 and its primary energy consumption ratio (PECR) to total emergy involvement had a dramatically decline from year 2006 to 2010. In the same time, nonrenewable energy of PEC in DEDA was also much higher than that in FETA. The reason was that industrial structure of DEDA was mainly formed by heavy industries like petro-chemistry industry, manufacturing industries, and high energy-intensive industries. However, FETA was formed by electronic business, food industry, and light industries. Although

  9. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    PubMed

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  10. Linking Energy Efficiency and ISO: Creating a Framework forSustainable Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Perry, Wayne; Aixian, Li; Tienan, Li; Williams,Robert

    2005-04-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems consume more than 2194billion kWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largestopportunities for energy savings. In the United States (US), they accountfor more than 50 percent of all manufacturing electricity use. Incountries with less well-developed consumer economies, the proportion ofelectricity consumed by motors is higher-more than 50 percent ofelectricity used in all sectors in China is attributable to motors.Todate, the energy savings potential from motor-driven systems haveremained largely unrealized worldwide. Both markets and policy makerstend to focus on individual system components, which have a typicalimprovement potential of 2-5 percent versus 20-50 percent for completesystems. Several factors contribute to this situation, most notably thecomplexity of the systems themselves. Determining how to optimize asystem requires a high level of technical skill. In addition, once anenergy efficiency project is completed, the energy savings are often notsustained due to changes in personnel and production processes. Althoughtraining and educational programs in the US, UK, and China to promotesystem optimization have proven effective, these resource-intensiveefforts have only reached a small portion of the market.The same factorsthat make it so challenging to achieve and sustain energy efficiency inmotor-driven systems (complexity, frequent changes) apply to theproduction processes that they support. Yet production processestypically operate within a narrow band of acceptable performance. Theseprocesses are frequently incorporated into ISO 9000/14000 quality andenvironmental management systems, which require regular, independentaudits to maintain ISO certification, an attractive value forinternational trade.This paper presents a new approach to achievingindustrial system efficiency (motors and steam) that will encourageplants to incorporate system energy efficiency into their existing ISOmanagement systems. We will

  11. College Industrial Park : An Innovative Approach to Energy Conservation Through the Use of Geothermal Energy.

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon Institute of Technology . Geo-Heat Center; William E. Nork, Inc.

    1986-11-18

    Geothermal effluent from the Oregon Institute of Technology campus and Merle West Medical Center has been discharged to an open drainage ditch adjacent to the City's College Industrial Park since 1964. Over the past few years there has been increasing concern for conservation and preservation of the geothermal aquifers in Klamath Falls, Oregon. An effective way of improving the energy utilization is to cascade the approximately 130/sup 0/F effluent for heating buildings in the industrial park and disposal of the effluent in an existing injection well. An aquifer stress test was performed using the 1500 foot well in the industrial park. Based on the specific capacity, data indicate that the well is capable of accepting an injection rate of at least 700 gpm of the thermal effluent. A plume of degraded water will develop down-gradient of the well. However, the plume is expected to bypass nearby water supply wells and will have no impact on OIT and MWMC space heating wells.

  12. Power and Energy: Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide. Grades 9-12. Curriculum Guide 1335 (Tentative).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    The tentative guide in power and energy for senior high school use is part of a series of industrial arts curriculum materials developed by the State of Louisiana. The course is designed to provide "hands-on" experience with tools and materials along with a study of the industrial processes in power and energy. In addition, the student…

  13. A Rationale for Industrial Arts Teacher Education in Power and Energy Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Michael R.

    1979-01-01

    The article discusses the need for industrial arts teachers to have an understanding of the sources, conversion, control, transmission, and utilization of power and energy, and outlines a proposed scope and sequence in power and energy technology in an industrial arts education college curriculum. (MF)

  14. A Learning Package in Energy Conservation for Participants in the Home Building Industry. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Univ., TX. College of Architecture.

    Presented is the final report for a project designed to develop an experimental learning package for educating participants in the home building industry in energy conservation. The project addresses deficiencies in the present knowledge status of members of the home building industry, effective marketing techniques for energy conserving homes,…

  15. Role of national labs in energy and environmental R & D: An industrial perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Vaz, N.

    1995-12-31

    The perceived role of national laboratories in energy and environmental research and development is examined from an industrial perspective. A series of tables are used to summarize issues primarily related to the automotive industry. Impacts of policy on energy, environment, society, and international competition are outlined. Advances and further needs in automotive efficiency and pollution control, and research roles for national labs and industry are also summarized. 6 tabs.

  16. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program, Center for Housing Innovation, University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.Z.

    1990-01-01

    This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. The current research program, under the guidance of a steering committee composed of industry and government representatives, focuses on three interdependent concerns -- (1) energy, (2) industrial process, and (3) housing design. Building homes in a factory offers the opportunity to increase energy efficiency through the use of new materials and processes, and to increase the value of these homes by improving the quality of their construction. Housing design strives to ensure that these technically advanced homes are marketable and will meet the needs of the people who will live in them.

  17. Energy conservation and technological change as factors in climate change - a pulp and paper industry example

    SciTech Connect

    Koleff, A.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Pulp and Paper Industry in the United States is one of this country`s most energy intensive industries with energy generally being the second or third largest direct operating expense in mill budgets. As such, the industry has long had an effective energy conservation program and has recorded impressive reductions in energy use. It is also one of the two most capital intensive industries in the United States and has a long capital investment cycle, which can be estimated by various techniques at between 20 and 30 years. This paper discusses the estimated impact of the industry`s energy conservation achievements on long term emission reductions of greenhouse gases and will show how technological changes within the industry have impacted past emission reductions and the prospects for continued progress through emerging technologies. The importance to the global competitiveness of the industry of implementing technological change designed to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases within the industry`s normal investment cycle will also be reviewed.

  18. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects. The NEMS Industrial Demand Model is a dynamic accounting model, bringing together the disparate industries and uses of energy in those industries, and putting them together in an understandable and cohesive framework. The Industrial Model generates mid-term (up to the year 2015) forecasts of industrial sector energy demand as a component of the NEMS integrated forecasting system. From the NEMS system, the Industrial Model receives fuel prices, employment data, and the value of industrial output. Based on the values of these variables, the Industrial Model passes back to the NEMS system estimates of consumption by fuel types.

  19. Viscous extended holographic Ricci dark energy in the framework of standard Eckart theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Surajit

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we report a study on the viscous extended holographic Ricci dark energy (EHRDE) model under the assumption of existence of bulk viscosity in the linear barotropic fluid and the EHRDE in the framework of standard Eckart theory of relativistic irreversible thermodynamics and it has been observed that the non-equilibrium bulk viscous pressure is significantly smaller than the local equilibrium pressure. We have studied the equation of state (EoS) parameter and observed that the EoS behaves like “quintom” and is consistent with the constraints set by observational data sets from SNLS3, BAO and Planck + WMAP9 + WiggleZ measurements in [S. Kumar and L. Xu, Phys. Lett. B 737, 244 (2014)]. Analysis of statefinder parameters has shown the possibility of attainment of Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) phase under current model and at the same time it has been pointed out that the redshift z = 0, i.e. the current universe, the statefinder pair is different from that of ΛCDM and the ΛCDM can be attained in a later stage of the universe. An analysis of stability has shown that although the viscous EHRDE along with viscous barotropic is classically unstable in the present epoch, it can lead to a stable universe in very late stage. Considering an universe enveloped by event horizon, we have observed validity of generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics.

  20. 77 FR 54777 - Accelerating Investment in Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... energy efficient over the past several decades, there is an opportunity to accelerate and expand these efforts with investments to reduce energy use through more efficient manufacturing processes and... can use a CHP system to provide both types of energy in one energy-efficient step. Accelerating...

  1. Improving Energy Efficiency for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: A Discrete Event Simulation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumer, Abduaziz; Mekbib Atnaw, Samson; Kie Cheng, Jack; Singh, Lakveer

    2016-11-01

    This paper presented a Discrete Event Simulation (DES) model for investigating and improving energy efficiency in vehicle assembly line. The car manufacturing industry is one of the highest energy consuming industries. Using Rockwell Arena DES package; a detailed model was constructed for an actual vehicle assembly plant. The sources of energy considered in this research are electricity and fuel; which are the two main types of energy sources used in a typical vehicle assembly plant. The model depicts the performance measurement for process- specific energy measures of painting, welding, and assembling processes. Sound energy efficiency model within this industry has two-fold advantage: reducing CO2 emission and cost reduction associated with fuel and electricity consumption. The paper starts with an overview of challenges in energy consumption within the facilities of automotive assembly line and highlights the parameters for energy efficiency. The results of the simulation model indicated improvements for energy saving objectives and reduced costs.

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Blinde, Paul; Neelis, Maarten; Blomen, Eliane; Masanet, Eric

    2010-10-21

    Energy is an important cost factor in the U.S iron and steel industry. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. iron and steel industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the structure, production trends, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions of the iron and steel industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the steel and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. iron and steel industry reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?and on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  3. 76 FR 18212 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Madison Paper Industries; Merimil Limited Partnership; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Madison Paper Industries; Merimil Limited... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR Part...

  4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. pulp and paper industry consumes over $7 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pulp and paper industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This paper provides a brief overview of the U.S. EPA ENERGY STAR(R) for Industry energy efficiency guidebook (a.k.a. the"Energy Guide") for pulp and paper manufacturers. The Energy Guide discusses a wide range of energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. Also provided is a discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pulp and paper industry along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Many energy efficiency measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in pulp and paper mills and related industries worldwide. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. pulp and paper industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?as well as on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  5. Implementation planning for industrial energy conservation: approach and methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Alston, T.G.; Falk, G.; Grogan, P.J.; Katz, D.; Tatar, J.

    1981-01-01

    Details of an industry-specific Conservation Technology Implementation Branch implementation plan is described in detail. CTIB has conducted implementation planning in the steel, pulp/paper, and agriculture/food processing industries, but in FY 1981, CTIB plans to conduct planning for the chemicals, petroleum refining, aluminum, glass, cement, and textile industries. Guidelines are presented for each contractor for each industry toward a common methodology in terms of approach, areas of analysis, assumptions, and reporting. The major parts of the CTIB plan are: an implementation study consisting of technology selection, market demand analysis, and policy analysis, and a plan consisting of a detailed description and schedule of future CTIB actions, followed by a recommended system for monitoring market results when the plan is implemented. (MCW)

  6. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David G.

    2009-07-01

    Urbanization has re-shaped China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2007 China added 290 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 45%. This population adjustment spurred energy demand for construction of new buildings and infrastructure, as well as additional residential use as rural biomass was replaced with urban commercial energy services. Primary energy demand grew at an average annual rate of 10% between 2000 and 2007. Urbanization's effect on energy demand was compounded by the boom in domestic infrastructure investment, and in the export trade following World Trade Organization (WTO) accession in 2001. Industry energy consumption was most directly affected by this acceleration. Whereas industry comprised 32% of 2007 U.S. energy use, it accounted for 75% of China's 2007 energy consumption. Five sub-sectors accounted for 78% of China's industry energy use in 2007: iron and steel, energy extraction and processing, chemicals, cement, and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals alone accounted for 25% of industry and 18% of total primary energy use. The rapid growth of heavy industry has led China to become by far the world's largest producer of steel, cement, aluminum, and other energy-intensive commodities. However, the energy efficiency of heavy industrial production continues to lag world best practice levels. This study uses scenario analysis to quantify the impact of urbanization and trade on industrial and residential energy consumption from 2000 to 2025. The BAU scenario assumed 67% urbanization, frozen export amounts of heavy industrial products, and achievement of world best practices by 2025. The China Lightens Up (CLU) scenario assumed 55% urbanization, zero net exports of heavy industrial products, and more aggressive efficiency improvements by 2025. The five dominant industry sub-sectors were modeled in both scenarios using a LEAP energy end-use accounting model. The results of this study show that a CLU

  7. International Data Base for the U.S. Renewable Energy Industry

    SciTech Connect

    1986-05-01

    The International Data Base for the US Renewable Energy Industry was developed to provide the US renewable energy industry with background data for identifying and analyzing promising foreign market opportunities for their products and services. Specifically, the data base provides the following information for 161 developed and developing countries: (1) General Country Data--consisting of general energy indicators; (2) Energy Demand Data--covering commercial primary energy consumption; (3) Energy Resource Data--identifying annual average insolation, wind power, and river flow data; (4) Power System Data--indicating a wide range of electrical parameters; and (5) Business Data--including currency and credit worthiness data.

  8. Sustained Energy Savings Achieved through Successful Industrial Customer Interaction with Ratepayer Programs: Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Amelie; Hedman, Bruce; Taylor, Robert P.; Russell, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Many states have implemented ratepayer-funded programs to acquire energy efficiency as a predictable and reliable resource for meeting existing and future energy demand. These programs have become a fixture in many U.S. electricity and natural gas markets as they help postpone or eliminate the need for expensive generation and transmission investments. Industrial energy efficiency (IEE) is an energy efficiency resource that is not only a low cost option for many of these efficiency programs, but offers productivity and competitive benefits to manufacturers as it reduces their energy costs. However, some industrial customers are less enthusiastic about participating in these programs. IEE ratepayer programs suffer low participation by industries across many states today despite a continual increase in energy efficiency program spending across all types of customers, and significant energy efficiency funds can often go unused for industrial customers. This paper provides four detailed case studies of companies that benefited from participation in their utility’s energy efficiency program offerings and highlights the business value brought to them by participation in these programs. The paper is designed both for rate-payer efficiency program administrators interested in improving the attractiveness and effectiveness of industrial efficiency programs for their industrial customers and for industrial customers interested in maximizing the value of participating in efficiency programs.

  9. Wind Energy Workforce Development: A Roadmap to a Sustainable Wind Industry (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.; Kelly, M.

    2010-05-01

    As the United States moves toward a vision of greatly expanded wind energy use as outlined in the U.S. Department of Energy's 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, the need for skilled workers at all levels in the industry is repeatedly identified as a critical issue. This presentation is an overview of the educational infrastructure and expected industry needs to support the continued development of a vibrant U.S. wind industry through a discussion of the activities identified that must be put in place to train workers. The paper will also provide a framework to address issues raised from each of the education and industry sectors, identifying a roadmap for developing an educational infrastructure to support wind technology. The presentation will also provide an understanding of the available resources, materials, and programs available across the industry. This presentation provides an overview of the educational infrastructure and expected industry needs to support the continued development of a vibrant U.S. wind industry as part of a collaborative effort to develop a wind workforce roadmap. This presentation will provide 1) A review of needed programs to train workers for the wind industry; 2) An overview of the importance education will play if the nation is to expand wind energy (both in development and deployment terms) and a review of ongoing activities with a focus on federal efforts; 3) A review of the materials and resources available across the industry and a framework to address issues raised from each of the education and industry sectors.

  10. University-Industry Joint Program in Energy Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolat, Pavel; Noskievic, Pavel; Novacek, Alexej

    This paper discusses the importance of energy and its association with the modern economy. Presently, 40% of Europe's electricity needs are based on coal. Preparing a clean energy technology requires improvements in conventional steam cycle technology. Education plays an important role in energy use, and universities need to organize education…

  11. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

    2006-04-01

    United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and

  12. Changes in energy intake and triiodothyronine (T sub 3 ) kinetics with extended arctic winter operations (EAO)

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, K.; Reed, L.; Lopez, A.; Smith, D.; Williams, S.; D'Alesandro, M.; Homer, L. )

    1991-03-11

    Hypocaloric feeding decreases serum total T{sub 3} (TT{sub 3}) and production (PR) while brief cold exposure increases PR and metabolic clearance rate (MCR). The authors studied 9 men of a Navy special forces team before in Virginia and again after 2 mo extended arctic operations (EAO) in Alaska. Body weight declined in 8 of the men. This weight loss was directly correlated with a fall in skin fold thickness (r = 0.75, p < 0.008). Predicted energy intake required to maintain weight was increased + 1,886 kcal/d over predeployment conditions. There was a decrease in serum TT{sub 3} (15%), free R{sub 3} (FT{sub 3}), total thyroxine (T{sub 4}), and FT{sub 4} without a change in thyroxine binding globulin or thyrotropin. Total volume of distribution (TVd) increased by 3.76 {plus minus} 0.74 L/m{sup 2} and MCR by 13.3 {plus minus} 5.3 L/(d {center dot} m{sup 2}), while the PR showed an uncertain trend to increase by 9.84 {plus minus} 9.51 nmol/(d {center dot} m{sup 2}). Relative calorie deficits and absolute decreases in body weight with the EAO are associated with a fall in serum TT{sub 3} and FT{sub 3} that cannot be accounted for by a fall in PR. The decreases in serum T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} are, however, more closely related to an increase in MCR and TVd. The authors propose that activity and/or exposure to cold interact to modify the customary decrease in serum TT{sub 3} and PR observed with underfeeding.

  13. Extended Acceleration in Slot Gaps and Pulsar High-Energy Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Muslimov, Alex G.; Harding, Alice K.

    2003-01-01

    We revise the physics of primary electron acceleration in the "slot gap" (SG) above the pulsar polar caps (PCs), a regime originally proposed by Arons and Scharlemann (1979) in their electrodynamic model of pulsar PCs. We employ the standard definition of the SG as a pair-free space between the last open field lines and the boundary of the pair plasma column which is expected to develop above the bulk of the PC. The rationale for our revision is that the proper treatment of primary acceleration within the pulsar SGs should take into account the effect of the narrow geometry of the gap on the electrodynamics within the gap and also to include the effect of inertial frame dragging on the particle acceleration. We show that the accelerating electric field within the gap, being significantly boosted by the effect of frame dragging, becomes reduced because of the gap geometry by a factor proportional to the square of the SG width. The combination of the effects of frame dragging and geometrical screening in the gap region naturally gives rise to a regime of extended acceleration, that is not limited to favorably curved field lines as in earlier models, and the possibility of multiple-pair production by curvature photons at very high altitudes, up to several stellar radii. We present our estimates of the characteristic SG thickness across the PC, energetics of primaries accelerated within the gap, high-energy bolometric luminosities emitted from the high altitudes in the gaps, and maximum heating luminosities produced by positrons returning from the elevated pair fronts. The estimated theoretical high-energy luminosities are in good agreement with the corresponding empirical relationships for gamma-ray pulsars. We illustrate the results of our modeling of the pair cascades and gamma-ray emission from the high altitudes in the SG for the Crab pulsar. The combination of the frame-dragging field and high-altitude SG emission enables both acceleration at the smaller

  14. Potential industrial applications for composite phase-change materials as thermal energy storage media

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, G.E.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1989-07-01

    Considerable effort has been spent by the US Department of Energy and its contractors over the last few years to develop composite phase-change materials (CPCMs) for thermal energy storage (TES). This patented TES medium consists of a phase-change material (typically a salt or metal alloy) that is retained within the porous structure of a supporting material (typically a ceramic). The objectives of this study were to (1) introduce CPCMs to industries that may not otherwise be aware of them, (2) identify potentially attractive applications for CPCM in industry, (3) determine technical requirements that will affect the design of CPCM's for specific applications, and (4) generate interest among industrial firms for employing CPCM TES in their processes. The approach in this study was to examine a wide variety of industries using a series of screens to select those industries that would be most likely to adopt CPCM TES in their processes. The screens used in this study were process temperature, presence of time-varying energy flows, energy intensity of the industry, and economic growth prospects over the next 5 years. After identifying industries that passed all of the screens, representatives of each industry were interviewed by telephone to introduce them to CPCM TES, assess technical requirements for CPCM TES in their industry, and determine their interest in pursuing applications for CPCM TES. 11 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Potential industrial applications for composite phase-change materials as thermal energy storage media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanner, G. E.; Wilfert, G. L.

    1989-07-01

    Considerable effort has been spent by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors over the last few years to develop composite phase-change materials (CPCMs) for thermal energy storage (TES). This patented TES medium consists of a phase-change material (typically a salt or metal alloy) that is retained within the porous structure of a supporting material (typically a ceramic). The objectives of this study were to: (1) introduce CPCMs to industries that may not otherwise be aware of them, (2) identify potentially attractive applications for CPCM in industry, (3) determine technical requirements that will affect the design of CPCM's for specific applications, and (4) generate interest among industrial firms for employing CPCM TES in their processes. The approach in this study was to examine a wide variety of industries using a series of screens to select those industries that would be most likely to adopt CPCM TES in their processes. The screens used in this study were process temperature, presence of time-varying energy flows, energy intensity of the industry, and economic growth prospects over the next 5 years. After identifying industries that passed all of the screens, representatives of each industry were interviewed by telephone to introduce them to CPCM TES, assess technical requirements for CPCM TES in their industry, and determine their interest in pursuing applications for CPCM TES.

  16. Applications of thermal energy storage in the cement industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeger, F. A.; Beshore, D. G.; Miller, F. M.; Gartner, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    In the manufacture of cement, literally trillions of Btu's are rejected to the environment each year. The purpose of this feasibility study program was to determine whether thermal energy storage could be used to conserve or allow alternative uses of this rejected energy. This study identifies and quantifies the sources of rejected energy in the cement manufacturing process, established use of this energy, investigates various storage system concepts, and selects energy conservation systems for further study. Thermal performance and economic analyses are performed on candidate storage systems for four typical cement plants representing various methods of manufacturing cement. Through the use of thermal energy storage in conjunction with waste heat electric power generation units, an estimated 2.4 x 10 to the 13th power Btu/year, or an equivalent on investment of the proposed systems are an incentive for further development.

  17. Renewable energy resources in a restructured electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Galen, P.S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper highlights a conference presentation addressing changes in the residential energy sector in view of the increasing competitiveness of the energy market. Renewable energy characteristics are briefly outlined, and capacity and generation data for non-hydroelectric power in 1994 are listed. A review of critical factors in renewables development and policy responses to market impediments is made. Current market barriers are identified, and proposals for Federal policies are made. 17 tabs., 2 figs.

  18. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for more than 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accounting for more than 50% of total concrete production costs - cement only accounts for nearly 24%. In 2009, energy costs of the U.S. concrete industry were over $610 million. Hence, energy efficiency improvements along with efficient use of materials without negatively affecting product quality and yield, especially in times of increased fuel and material costs, can significantly reduce production costs and increase competitiveness. The Energy Guide starts with an overview of the U.S. concrete industry’s structure and energy use, a description of the various manufacturing processes, and identification of the major energy consuming areas in the different industry segments. This is followed by a description of general and process related energy- and cost-efficiency measures applicable to the concrete industry. Specific energy and cost savings and a typical payback period are included based on literature and case studies, when available. The Energy Guide intends to provide information on cost reduction opportunities to energy and plant managers in the U.S. concrete industry. Every cost saving opportunity should be assessed carefully prior to implementation in individual plants, as the economics and the potential energy and material savings may differ.

  19. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for cement manufacturing plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2006-07-21

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing the plant performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing plants can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the cement manufacturing industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for assembly plants that produce a variety of products, including Portland cement and other specialty cement products, in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for cement manufacturing plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  20. Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Lingbo; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn

    2012-11-01

    The pulp and paper industry ranks fourth in terms of energy consumption among industries worldwide. Globally, the pulp and paper industry accounted for approximately 5 percent of total world industrial final energy consumption in 2007, and contributed 2 percent of direct carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industry. Worldwide pulp and paper demand and production are projected to increase significantly by 2050, leading to an increase in this industry’s absolute energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and GHG mitigation technologies and their deployment in the market will be crucial for the pulp and paper industry’s mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report describes the industry’s processes and compiles available information on the energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for 36 emerging technologies to reduce the industry’s energy use and GHG emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies that have already been commercialized for the pulp and paper industry, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. The purpose of this report is to provide engineers, researchers, investors, paper companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured resource of information on these technologies.

  1. 77 FR 36532 - Review of Small Generator Interconnection Agreements and Procedures; Solar Energy Industries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ...-001; ER12-1855-000] Review of Small Generator Interconnection Agreements and Procedures; Solar Energy... discuss issues related to a petition for rulemaking recently submitted by the Solar Energy Industries... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  2. The Search for High Energy Extended Emission by Fermi-LAT from Swift-Localized Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, J.; Racusin, J.L.; /NASA, Goddard

    2012-05-01

    The brighter Fermi-LAT bursts have exhibited emission at energies >0.1 GeV that persists as late as {approx}2 ks after the prompt phase has nominally ended. This so-called 'extended emission' could arise from continued activity of the prompt burst mechanism or it could be the start of a high energy afterglow component. The high energy extended emission seen by the LAT has typically followed a t{sup -}{gamma} power-law temporal decay where {gamma} {approx} 1.2-1.7 and has shown no strong indication of spectral evolution. In contrast, the prompt burst emission generally displays strong spectral variability and more complex temporal changes in the LAT band. This differing behavior suggests that the extended emission likely corresponds to an early afterglow phase produced by an external shock. In this study, we look for evidence of high energy extended emission from 145 Swift-localized GRBs that have occurred since the launch of Fermi. A majority of these bursts were either outside of the LAT field-of-view or were otherwise not detected by the LAT during the prompt phase. However, because of the scanning operation of the Fermi satellite, the long-lived extended emission of these bursts may be detectable in the LAT data on the {approx}few ks time scale. We will look for emission from individual bursts and will perform a stacking analysis in order to set bounds on this emission for the sample as a whole. The detection of such emission would have implications for afterglow models and for the overall energy budget of GRBs.

  3. Modeling the effects of involvement and attitudes on energy industry pursuit intentions: A systems analysis of the university-industry environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Jordan M.

    The energy industry's struggle to attract and retain qualified employees continues to threaten the nation's economy, global competitiveness, and national security. Given the nationwide skills and labor shortage in the energy industry, this study was conducted in response to a need to identify causes of person-environment fit and its effects on engineering students' intentions to work in the energy industry after graduation. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships between student inputs, environmental factors, and career-related outcomes. Two models were compared using data collected from 381 undergraduate engineering students from across the country. Results suggest that students who gained knowledge about professions in the energy industry from participating in an internship or co-op at an energy-related company perceived greater fit with the goals and values of the energy industry. In addition, this study found that students who perceive high levels of fit with the energy industry also have high industry attraction, which directly affects their energy industry pursuit intentions. Overall, this research indicates that high quality internships have the potential to increase students' perceived industry fit, which is closely tied to their career intentions. Outcomes of this study are expected to provide stakeholders with new insights to improve practices within the university-industry environment that will educate, promote, and sustain a strong energy workforce for years to come.

  4. Energy and Process Optimization and Benchmarking of Army Industrial Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Induction Furnaces Static frequency converters (current or voltage) supply a variable fre- quency to the furnace induction coil, which varies to...match the type of ma- terial being melted and the amount of material in the furnace . Static power converters are used in induction melting systems to...of 3,000V) to be applied to an induction furnace . In recent years, the foundry and steel- making industries began to acquire induction melting systems

  5. The extended jet of AP Librae: Origin of the very high-energy γ-ray emission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Michael; Wagner, Stefan J.

    2016-04-01

    The low-frequency peaked BL Lac object (LBL) AP Librae exhibits very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emission and hosts an extended jet, which has been detected in radio and X-rays. The jet X-ray spectral index implies an inverse Compton origin. These observations are unusual for LBLs calling for a consistent explanation of this extraordinary source. The observationally constrained parameters necessary to describe the core emission within the standard one-zone model are unable to explain the broad-band spectrum, even if observationally unconstrained external photon fields are taken into account. We demonstrate that the addition of the extended jet emission successfully reproduces the total spectral energy distribution. In particular, the VHE radiation is produced in the >100 kpc long extended jet via inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons by highly relativistic electrons. We present several ways to test this theory. The extended jet is weakly magnetized (B0 = 2.5 μG), while its minimum and maximum electron Lorentz factors are γmin = 60 and γmax = 5 × 106, respectively. The electron spectral index is s = 2.6. These parameters are comparable to parameters of other blazars with extended X-ray jets dominated by inverse Compton scattering.

  6. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  7. Energy analysis of four dimensional extended hyperbolic Scarf I plus three dimensional separable trigonometric noncentral potentials using SUSY QM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparmi, A.; Cari, C.; Deta, U. A.; Handhika, J.

    2016-11-01

    The non-relativistic energies and wave functions of extended hyperbolic Scarf I plus separable non-central shape invariant potential in four dimensions are investigated using Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (SUSY QM) Approach. The three dimensional separable non-central shape invariant angular potential consists of trigonometric Scarf II, Manning Rosen and Poschl-Teller potentials. The four dimensional Schrodinger equation with separable shape invariant non-central potential is reduced into four one dimensional Schrodinger equations through variable separation method. By using SUSY QM, the non-relativistic energies and radial wave functions are obtained from radial Schrodinger equation, the orbital quantum numbers and angular wave functions are obtained from angular Schrodinger equations. The extended potential means there is perturbation terms in potential and cause the decrease in energy spectra of Scarf I potential.

  8. U.S. Renewable Energy Policy and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ella

    2015-10-01

    From 2005 to 2014, wind and solar power generation has seen an almost tenfold increase in the United States. Such rapid development is the result of a variety of federal and state, top-down and bottom-up drivers, as well as the macro-environment of cost-reduction globally and early adoption in Europe. This presentation, prepared for a meeting with China National Renewable Energy Center and National Energy Administration (of China), is a summary of some of the key drivers for renewable energy deployment in the United States.

  9. Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry - December 2010

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-12-01

    AMO's research and development partnerships with industry have resulted in more than 220 technologies and other solutions that can be purchased today. This document includes a description of each solution, its benefits, and vendor contact information. The document also identifies emerging technologies and other resources to help industry save energy.

  10. Appropriate Technology, Energy and Food Production in an Industrial Arts Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pytlik, Edward; Scanlin, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    With modern agriculture, the growing, processing, packaging, and distribution of food fit well into an industrial arts curriculum. Many areas of this system need closer attention: the high cost of energy in food production, the problems of land preparation, fertilizers, irrigation, food processing, and agriculture in an industrial arts curriculum.…

  11. Energy-Producing Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in energy-producing industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include coal mining, occupations in…

  12. 76 FR 40285 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Industrial Equipment: Proposed Determination of Set-Top Boxes and Network Equipment as a Covered Consumer... on the proposed determination for set-top boxes and network equipment is extended to September 30... set-top boxes and network equipment published June 15, 2011 (76 FR 34914) received no later than 5...

  13. Collection and dissemination of thermal energy storage system information for the pulp and paper industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edde, H.

    1981-01-01

    The collection and dissemination of thermal energy storage (TES) system technology for the pulp and paper industry with the intent of reducing fossil fuel usage is discussed. The study plan is described and a description presented of example TES systems.

  14. Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrino, Joan; Brueske, Sabine; Carole, Tracy; Andres, Howard

    2007-11-01

    This 2007 report provides an overview of the U.S. petroleum refining industry, including new data on market trends and energy and material consumption, as well as information on environmental performance.

  15. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  16. Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Shaheen, Jeanne [D-NH

    2013-04-18

    06/03/2013 By Senator Wyden from Committee on Energy and Natural Resources filed written report. Report No. 113-37. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. The Relationship Between Oil and Gas Industry Investment in Alternative Energy and Corporate Social Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyushikhin, Maxim

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasted energy consumption in the United States to increase approximately 19% between 2006 and 2030, or about 0.7% annually. The research problem addressed in this study was that the oil and gas industry's interest in alternative energy is contrary to its current business objectives and profit goals. The purpose of the quantitative study was to explore the relationship between oil and gas industry investments in alternative energy and corporate social responsibilities. Research questions addressed the relationship between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility, the role of oil and gas companies in alternative energy investment, and why these companies chose to invest in alternative energy sources. Systems theory was the conceptual framework, and data were collected from a sample of 25 companies drawn from the 28,000 companies in the oil and gas industry from 2004 to 2009. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to answer the research questions and test hypotheses using corporate financial data and company profiles related to alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility in terms of oil and gas industry financial support of programs that serve the greater social good. Results indicated significant relationships between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility. With an increasing global population with energy requirements in excess of what is available using traditional means, the industry should increase investment in alternative sources. The research results may promote positive social change by increasing public awareness regarding the degree to which oil and gas companies invest in developing alternative energy sources, which might, in turn, inspire public pressure on companies in the oil and gas industry to pursue use of alternative energy.

  18. Oil Industry, Solar Energy Industry, and Mining Occupations. Curriculum for Petroleum, Mining and Solar Energy Secretaries. July 1, 1977-June 30, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Gloria E.

    This document is a packet of instructional materials for training secretaries and clerks for the petroleum, mining, and solar energy fields. Developed by Eastern New Mexico University and the New Mexico State Department of Vocational Education, and aimed at New Mexico industry, the curriculum is divided into three units of petroleum, mining, and…

  19. Airflow energy harvesting with high wind velocities for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Z. J.; Tuddenham, S. B.; Zhu, M.

    2016-11-01

    An airflow energy harvester capable of harvesting energy from vortices at high speed is presented in this paper. The airflow energy harvester is implemented using a modified helical Savonius turbine and an electromagnetic generator. A power management module with maximum power point finding capability is used to manage the harvested energy and convert the low voltage magnitude from the generator to a usable level for wireless sensors. The airflow energy harvester is characterized using vortex generated by air hitting a plate in a wind tunnel. By using an aircraft environment with wind speed of 17 m/s as case study, the output power of the airflow energy harvester is measured to be 126 mW. The overall efficiency of the power management module is 45.76 to 61.2%, with maximum power point tracking efficiency of 94.21 to 99.72% for wind speed of 10 to 18 m/s, and has a quiescent current of 790 nA for the maximum power point tracking circuit.

  20. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-03-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  1. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  2. Industrial innovations for tomorrow: Advances in industrial energy-efficiency technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-07-01

    To use slurries efficiently in a process, engineers must be able to determine the particle size distribution. A new particle size sensor is under development, based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical modeling. A field test prototype is being installed at a pilot facility for manufacturing pigments. The mathematical model has also been modified. The sensor is expected to enhance process control in the chemicals industry.

  3. Fostering a Renewable Energy Technology Industry: An InternationalComparison of Wind Industry Policy Support Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Joanna; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-11-15

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in twelve countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which in turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry.

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Graus, Wina; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry--defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the canning, freezing, and drying or dehydrating of fruits and vegetables--consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement isan important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to fruit and vegetable processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in fruit and vegetable processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in fruit and vegetable processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production

  5. Renewable-energy-resource options for the food-processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Clark, M.A.; Inaba, L.K.

    1981-09-01

    The food processing industry generates significant quantities of organic process wastes which often require treatment prior to disposal or result in additional expenses for disposal. The food processing industry also requires fuel and electricity to provide the process energy to convert raw materials into finished food products. Depending on the particular process, organic wastes can represent a potential resource for conversion to energy products that can be used for providing process energy or other energy products. This document reports the results of an evaluation of renewable energy resource options for the food processing industry. The options evaluated were direct combustion for providing process heat, fermentation for ethanol production and anaerobic digestion for generation of methane.

  6. [Reflection on developing bio-energy industry of large oil company].

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiyang; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei; Liu, Shumin; Wang, Hui

    2013-03-01

    China's energy supply becomes more serious nowadays and the development of bio-energy becomes a major trend. Large oil companies have superb technology, rich experience and outstanding talent, as well as better sales channels for energy products, which can make full use of their own advantages to achieve the efficient complementary of exist energy and bio-energy. Therefore, large oil companies have the advantages of developing bio-energy. Bio-energy development in China is in the initial stage. There exist some problems such as available land, raw material supply, conversion technologies and policy guarantee, which restrict bio-energy from industrialized development. According to the above key issues, this article proposes suggestions and methods, such as planting energy plant in the marginal barren land to guarantee the supply of bio-energy raw materials, cultivation of professional personnel, building market for bio-energy counting on large oil companies' rich experience and market resources about oil industry, etc, aimed to speed up the industrialized process of bio-energy development in China.

  7. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  8. Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovation in Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-04

    Under the Recovery Act, AMO provided cost-shared funding for early-stage, low-cost, "concept definition studies" of 47 promising innovations for next-generation manufacturing, energy-intensive processes, advanced materials, and greenhouse gas emissions reduction. The brochure provides information on each of these projects.

  9. India's cement industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's cement sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the aluminum sector increased by 0.8% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's cement sector has been biased towards the use of energy and capital, while it has been material and labor saving. The increase in productivity was mainly driven by a period of progress between 1983 and 1991 following partial decontrol of the cement sector in 1982. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency in the sector. Their analysis shows that the Indian cement sector is moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use. However, substantial further energy savings and carbon reduction potentials still exist.

  10. The Energy Opportunity: A View from an Electric Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Stresses the rapid expansion of electric power use in the United States and contends that the current emphasis must be on expanding the generating capacity of electricity from coal and nuclear fuels. Journal available from Energy Information Associates, Inc., P. O. Box 18076, Capitol Hill Station, Denver, Colorado 80218. (KC)

  11. Energy and Process Assessment Protocol for Industrial Buildings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    96 Appendix F: Use of Thermography in Building Energy Assessment .......................................... 103 Appendix G...users. The fol- lowing data is desirable: • Site master plan and building design drawings that provides architec- tural details (window and floor area... floor or ceiling due to inadequate insulation Poor moisture barriers that allow building com- ponents to become wet Use of single pane windows

  12. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  13. Embodied energy consumption and carbon emissions evaluation for urban industrial structure optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xi; Chen, Zhanming; Li, Jinkai

    2014-03-01

    Cities are the main material processors associated with industrialization. The development of urban production based on fossil fuels is the major contributor to the rise of greenhouse gas density, and to global warming. The concept of urban industrial structure optimization is considered to be a solution to urban sustainable development and global climate issues. Enforcing energy conservation and reducing carbon emissions are playing key roles in addressing these issues. As such, quantitative accounting and the evaluation of energy consumption and corresponding carbon emissions, which are by-products of urban production, are critical, in order to discover potential opportunities to save energy and to reduce emissions. Conventional evaluation indicators, such as "energy consumption per unit output value" and "emissions per unit output value", are concerned with immediate consumptions and emissions; while the indirect consumptions and emissions that occur throughout the supply chain are ignored. This does not support the optimization of the overall urban industrial system. To present a systematic evaluation framework for cities, this study constructs new evaluation indicators, based on the concepts of "embodied energy" and "embodied carbon emissions", which take both the immediate and indirect effects of energy consumption and emissions into account. Taking Beijing as a case, conventional evaluation indicators are compared with the newly constructed ones. Results show that the energy consumption and emissions of urban industries are represented better by the new indicators than by conventional indicators, and provide useful information for urban industrial structure optimization.

  14. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  15. Marketing passive solar energy to the building industry

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, P.

    1981-01-01

    The first national marketing effort of the passive solar design concept which was conducted in 1980-1981 is examined. The prime audiences for this program were builders, remodelers, building material distributors and dealers, architects and the home buying public. To effectively implement this publicity campaign, four steps were necessary: 1. catch the audience's attention; 2. convey a direct and clear message; 3. reinforce the message; and 4. motivate the audience to action. While there are many different avenues to approach any target audience, SRA chose its proven methods of reaching the building community. Trade press, direct mail, industry events, conferences, editorial supplements and newspaper services were used to implement this highly successful program. How each strategy was chosen and implemented will be discussed. The results of the program will be displayed and examined.

  16. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for SelectedIndustrial Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky,Christina; Zhou, Nan

    2007-06-05

    "World best practice" energy intensity values, representingthe most energy-efficient processes that are in commercial use in atleast one location worldwide, are provided for the production of iron andsteel, aluminium, cement, pulp and paper, ammonia, and ethylene. Energyintensity is expressed in energy use per physical unit of output for eachof these commodities; most commonly these are expressed in metric tonnes(t). The energy intensity values are provided by major energy-consumingprocesses for each industrial sector to allow comparisons at the processlevel. Energy values are provided for final energy, defined as the energyused at the production facility as well as for primary energy, defined asthe energy used at the production facility as well as the energy used toproduce the electricity consumed at the facility. The "best practice"figures for energy consumption provided in this report should beconsidered as indicative, as these may depend strongly on the materialinputs.

  17. Certifying Industrial Energy Efficiency Performance: AligningManagement, Measurement, and Practice to Create Market Value

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Williams, Robert

    2007-07-01

    More than fifteen years after the launch of programs in theU.K. and U.S., industry still offers one of the largest opportunities forenergy savings worldwide. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimatesthe savings potential from cost-optimization of industrial motor-drivensystems alone at 7 percent of global electricity use. The U.S. Departmentof Energy (USDOE) Industrial Technologies Program estimates 7 percentsavings potential in total US industrial energy use through theapplication of proven best practice. Simple paybacks for these types ofprojects are frequently two years or less. The technology required toachieve these savings is widely available; the technical skills requiredto identify energy saving opportunities are known and transferable.Although programs like USDOE's Best Practices have been highlysuccessful, most plants, as supported by 2002 MECS data, remain eitherunaware or unmotivated to improve their energy efficiency--as evidencedby the 98 percent of US industrial facilities reporting to MECS say thatthey lack a full-time energy manager. With the renewed interest in energyefficiency worldwide and the emergence of carbon trading and newfinancial instruments such as white certificates1, there is a need tointroduce greater transparency into the way that industrial facilitiesidentify, develop, and document energy efficiency projects. Historically,industrial energy efficiency projects have been developed by plantengineers, frequently with assistance from consultants and/or supplierswith highly specialized technical skills. Under this scenario,implementation of energy efficiency improvements is dependent onindividuals. These individuals typically include "champions" within anindustrial facility or corporation, working in cooperation withconsultants or suppliers who have substantial knowledge based on years ofexperience. This approach is not easily understood by others without thisspecialized technical knowledge, penetrates the market fairly slowly

  18. The Role of Emerging Technologies in Improving Energy Efficiency:Examples from the Food Processing Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lung, Robert Bruce; Masanet, Eric; McKane, Aimee

    2006-05-01

    For over 25 years, the U.S. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has championed the application of emerging technologies in industrial plants and monitored these technologies impacts on industrial energy consumption. The cumulative energy savings of more than 160 completed and tracked projects is estimated at approximately 3.99 quadrillion Btu (quad), representing a production cost savings of $20.4 billion. Properly documenting the impacts of such technologies is essential for assessing their effectiveness and for delivering insights about the optimal direction of future technology research. This paper analyzes the impacts that several emerging technologies have had in the food processing industry. The analysis documents energy savings, carbon emissions reductions and production improvements and assesses the market penetration and sector-wide savings potential. Case study data is presented demonstrating the successful implementation of these technologies. The paper's conclusion discusses the effects of these technologies and offers some projections of sector-wide impacts.

  19. Industrial Energy-Efficiency Improvement Program. Annual report to the Congress and the President 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The industrial energy efficiency improvement program to accelerate market penetration of new and emerging industrial technologies and practices which will improve energy efficiency; encourage substitution of more plentiful domestic fuels; and enhance recovery of energy and materials from industrial waste streams is described. The role of research, development, and demonstration; technology implementation; the reporting program; and progress are covered. Specific reports from the chemicals and allied products; primary metals; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass, paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metals; transportation equipment; machinery (except electrical); textile mill products; rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products are discussed. Additional data from voluntary submissions, a summary on progress in the utilization of recovered materials, and an analysis of industrial fuel mix are briefly presented. (MCW)

  20. Research and development separation technology: The DOE Industrial Energy Conservation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    This brochure summarizes the Office of Industrial Programs' RandD efforts in the advancement of separation technology. The purpose of this brochure is to provide interested parties with information on federal industrial energy conservation activities in separation technology. The brochure is comprised of the following sections: Separation Technology, summarizes the current state of separation technology and its uses. Potential Energy Savings, discusses the potential for industrial energy conservation through the implementation of advanced separation processes. Office of Industrial Programs' RandD Efforts in Separation Technology Development, describes the separation RandD projects conducted by IP. RandD Data Base, lists contractor, principal investigator, and location of each separation-related RandD effort sponsored by IP.

  1. Energy efficiency business options for industrial end users in Latin American competitive energy markets: The case of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botero, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Energy markets today in Latin America and worldwide are being restructured from monopolies, either state-owned or privately-owned, to be more openly competitive and incorporate more participation from the private sector. Thus, the schemes that were formerly developed to foster end use energy efficiency are no longer applicable because they were based on mandatory regulations made with political decisions, without sufficiently considering economic feasibility. A consensus exists that the only way energy efficiency could survive in this new paradigm is by being market oriented, giving better services, and additional options to users. However; there is very little information on what end users prefer, and which options would most satisfy customers. Using Colombia as a case study, this research determines and categorizes the energy efficiency business options for large energy end users that can freely participate in the competitive energy market. The energy efficiency market is understood as a market of services aiming to increase efficiency in energy use. These services can be grouped into seven business options. A survey, following the descriptive method, was sent to energy end users in order to determine their preferences for specific energy efficiency business options, as well as the decision-making criteria taken into account for such options. This data was categorized in ten industry groups. As a conclusion, energy efficiency providers should adapt not only to the economic activity or processes of each customer, but also to the potential business options. It was also found that not all industries consider performance contracting as their most preferred option, as a matter of fact, some industries show much higher preference for conventional business options. Among end users, the divergence in option preferences contrasted with the convergence in decision-making criteria. The decision-making criteria "cost-benefit ratio" overwhelmed all other criterion. End users

  2. NYSERDA's Green Jobs-Green New York Program: Extending Energy Efficiency Financing To Underserved Households

    SciTech Connect

    Zimring, Mark; Fuller, Merrian

    2011-01-24

    The New York legislature passed the Green Jobs-Green New York (GJGNY) Act in 2009. Administered by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), GJGNY programs provide New Yorkers with access to free or low-cost energy assessments,1 energy upgrade services,2 low-cost financing, and training for various 'green-collar' careers. Launched in November 2010, GJGNY's residential initiative is notable for its use of novel underwriting criteria to expand access to energy efficiency financing for households seeking to participate in New York's Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program.3 The GJGNY financing program is a valuable test of whether alternatives to credit scores can be used to responsibly expand credit opportunities for households that do not qualify for traditional lending products and, in doing so, enable more households to make energy efficiency upgrades.

  3. US energy industry financial developments, First quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-19

    This report traces key developments in US energy companies` financial performance for the first quarter of 1995. Financial data (only available for publicly-traded US companies) are included in two broad groups -- fossil fuel production and rate-regulated utilities. All financial data are taken from public sources such as corporate reports and press releases, energy trade publications, and The Wall Street Journal`s Earnings Digest. Return on equity is calculated from data available from Standard and Poor`s Compustat data service. Since several major petroleum companies disclose their income by lines of business and geographic area, these data are also presented in this report. Although the disaggregated income concept varies by company and is not strictly comparable to corporate income, relative movements in income by lines of business and geographic area are summarized as useful indicators of short-term changes in the underlying profitability of these operations.

  4. Energy-materials industry in the Tenth Federal Reserve District

    SciTech Connect

    Allman, D.N.

    1982-01-01

    The Tenth District's role as an energy supplier changed between 1960 and 1980. The seven states (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Wyoming) making up the District produced the equivalent of 6.8 billion barrels of crude oil, or 37.4% of the total US output in 1980. Although production of energy materials grew steadily during the 1960s, most of the growth following the 1973 oil embargo has outpaced that of the US as a whole. This article traces the changes in production and value of crude oil, natural gas, coal, and uranium for the District and the individual states. Only crude oil has declined in importance. 6 references, 3 figures, 6 tables. (DCK)

  5. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the U.S. Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, Colin; Boardman, Richard; McKellar, Michael; Sabharwall, Piyush; Ruth, Mark; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon

    2016-12-01

    This report quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the industrial sector and identifies opportunities for non-GHG-emitting thermal energy sources to replace the most significant GHG-emitting U.S. industries based on targeted, process-level analysis of industrial heat requirements. The intent is to provide a basis for projecting opportunities for clean energy use. This provides a prospectus for small modular nuclear reactors (including nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems), solar industrial process heat, and geothermal energy. This report provides a complement to analysis of process-efficiency improvement by considering how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions.

  6. 78 FR 26711 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC65 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Showerheads, Faucets, Water Closets... test procedures for showerheads, faucets, water closets, urinals and commercial prerinse spray...

  7. Industrial Arts Instructional Tasks/Competencies for Energy and Power. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA.

    This instructional task/competency package is designed to help teachers and administrators in developing competency-based instructional materials for an energy and power course. Part 1 contains a description of the industrial arts program and a course description, instructional task/competency list, and content outline for energy and power. The…

  8. Industrial Technology. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of a series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides learning activities for teachers to use with students in industrial arts/technology education. Each of the 17…

  9. Industrial Technology. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching industrial arts/technology education. The activities are intended to present energy…

  10. Energy Conservation: A Workshop for Selected Eastern U.S. Industrial Arts Teacher Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenig, Robert E., Ed.

    This set of 25 instructional modules was produced by a group of industrial arts teacher educators, local teachers, and supervisors from eastern United States. Topic areas of these modules include: societal implications of the energy situation; awareness of energy terms, supply, and use; assessment of conventional and selected renewable alternative…

  11. Science for Energy Technology: Strengthening the Link Between Basic Research and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    The nation faces two severe challenges that will determine our prosperity for decades to come: assuring clean, secure, and sustainable energy to power our world, and establishing a new foundation for enduring economic and jobs growth. These challenges are linked: the global demand for clean sustainable energy is an unprecedented economic opportunity for creating jobs and exporting energy technology to the developing and developed world. But achieving the tremendous potential of clean energy technology is not easy. In contrast to traditional fossil fuel-based technologies, clean energy technologies are in their infancy, operating far below their potential, with many scientific and technological challenges to overcome. Industry is ultimately the agent for commercializing clean energy technology and for reestablishing the foundation for our economic and jobs growth. For industry to succeed in these challenges, it must overcome many roadblocks and continuously innovate new generations of renewable, sustainable, and low-carbon energy technologies such as solar energy, carbon sequestration, nuclear energy, electricity delivery and efficiency, solid state lighting, batteries and biofuels. The roadblocks to higher performing clean energy technology are not just challenges of engineering design but are also limited by scientific understanding.Innovation relies on contributions from basic research to bridge major gaps in our understanding of the phenomena that limit efficiency, performance, or lifetime of the materials or chemistries of these sustainable energy technologies. Thus, efforts aimed at understanding the scientific issues behind performance limitations can have a real and immediate impact on cost, reliability, and performance of technology, and ultimately a transformative impact on our economy. With its broad research base and unique scientific user facilities, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) is ideally positioned to address these needs. BES has laid

  12. Detection of spatially extended sources in high energy astrophysics with special application to lunar occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenke, Peter Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Occultation is a technique that enables image reconstruction and source identification with a non-imaging detector. Such an approach is well suited for a future survey mission in nuclear astrophysics. In particular, the Lunar Occultation Technique (LOT) utilizes the Moon as an occulting object and is the basis of a new gamma-ray survey mission concept, the Lunar OCcultation Observer (LOCO). Techniques utilizing the LOT to detect spatially extended emission, from the Galactic plane or Galactic Center region, have been developed. Given knowledge of detector position in lunar orbit, combined with lunar ephemeris and relevant coordinate transformations, occultation time series can be used to reconstruct skymaps of these extended Galactic emitters. Monte-Carlo Markov Chains (MCMC), incorporating the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm for parametric model testing, form the basis of the technique. Performance of the imaging methodology, and its application to nuclear astrophysics will be presented.

  13. Industrial innovations for tomorrow: Advances in industrial energy-efficiency technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    Stimulated by public demand and state and federal legislation, industry has begun to develop bio- and photo- degradable plastics. so far, however, none of these degradable plastics meets all of the criteria for success - adequate physical and mechanical properties for the desired use, cost-effectiveness, and 100% degradability. Polylactic acid (PLA) plastic is one degradable plastic that shows promise. It has the desired properties and is 100% degradable. However, PLA plastic made by conventional techniques is not cost effective. Made from lactic acid, which is typically made form petroleum using a very costly synthesis process. Lactic acid can also be made from carbohydrates (starches), found in food processing wastes such as potato wastes, cheese whey, and sorghum. Conversion of starch to simple sugars, and fermentation of these sugars can produce lactic acid.

  14. Energy conservation: Industry measures. January 1985-September 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 85-Sep 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment, and program overviews regarding industrial energy conservation measures. Topics include case histories and energy audits in a variety of industries, financial and investment aspects, and descriptions of specific energy conservation projects undertaken in the United States and abroad. The food, metals, pulp and paper, wood, and textile industries are among the industries discussed. (Contains 196 citations with title list and subject index.)

  15. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirements of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its model. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects.

  16. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry: An ENERGY STAR? Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, Adrian; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. dairy processing industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the conversion of raw milk to consumable dairy products—consumes around $1.5 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. dairy processing industry to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. dairy processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to dairy processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in dairy processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in dairy processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. dairy processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  17. Energy use reduction potential in the beet sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, T.S.; Heist, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Process energy use data are presented for most of the forty operating beet sugar factories in the United States. Sixty percent of the processing capacity is in states that actively pursue cogeneration projects. Most of the present factories cogenerate steam and electricity for their own use. Fossil fuel boilers and low- to medium-pressure steam turbines are used exclusively for this purpose. Three alternative cogeneration technologies are evaluated, with economic feasibility found to depend on the price at which excess electricity can be sold.

  18. Energy use reduction potential in the beet sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, T.S.; Cleary, M.

    1985-01-01

    Process energy use data are presented for most of the forty operating beet sugar factories in the United States. Sixty percent of the processing capacity is in states that actively pursue cogeneration projects. Most of the present factories cogenerate steam and electricity for their own use. Fossil fuel boilers and low- to medium-pressure steam turbines are used exclusively for this purpose. Three alternative cogeneration technologies are evaluated, with economic feasibility found to depend on the price at which excess electricity can be sold.

  19. Producing bio-based bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology saves energy and combats climate change.

    PubMed

    Hermann, B G; Blok, K; Patel, M K

    2007-11-15

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and calculated their CO2 emissions and fossil energy use. Savings of more than 100% in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are already possible with current state of the art biotechnology. Substantial further savings are possible for the future by improved fermentation and downstream processing. Worldwide CO2 savings in the range of 500-1000 million tons per year are possible using future technology. Industrial biotechnology hence offers excellent opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and decreasing dependence on fossil energy sources and therefore has the potential to make inroads into the existing chemical industry.

  20. BEST Winery Guidebook: Benchmarking and Energy and Water SavingsTool for the Wine Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Radspieler, Anthony; Healy,Patrick; Zechiel, Susanne

    2005-10-15

    Not all industrial facilities have the staff or the opportunity to perform a detailed audit of their operations. The lack of knowledge of energy efficiency opportunities provides an important barrier to improving efficiency. Benchmarking has demonstrated to help energy users understand energy use and the potential for energy efficiency improvement, reducing the information barrier. In California, the wine making industry is not only one of the economic pillars of the economy; it is also a large energy consumer, with a considerable potential for energy-efficiency improvement. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Fetzer Vineyards developed an integrated benchmarking and self-assessment tool for the California wine industry called ''BEST''(Benchmarking and Energy and water Savings Tool) Winery. BEST Winery enables a winery to compare its energy efficiency to a best practice winery, accounting for differences in product mix and other characteristics of the winery. The tool enables the user to evaluate the impact of implementing energy and water efficiency measures. The tool facilitates strategic planning of efficiency measures, based on the estimated impact of the measures, their costs and savings. BEST Winery is available as a software tool in an Excel environment. This report serves as background material, documenting assumptions and information on the included energy and water efficiency measures. It also serves as a user guide for the software package.

  1. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  2. 30 CFR 285.116 - Requests for information on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alternative Energy Program that promote development of the industry in a safe and environmentally responsible... offshore renewable energy industry. 285.116 Section 285.116 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE...

  3. Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

  4. Assessing Energy Efficiency Opportunities in US Industrial and Commercial Building Motor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Prakash; Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul

    2015-09-01

    In 2002, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) published an energy efficiency assessment of U.S. industrial sector motor systems titled United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. The assessment advanced motor system efficiency by providing a greater understanding of the energy consumption, use characteristics, and energy efficiency improvement potential of industrial sector motor systems in the U.S. Since 2002, regulations such as Minimum Energy Performance Standards, cost reductions for motor system components such as variable frequency drives, system-integrated motor-driven equipment, and awareness programs for motor system energy efficiency have changed the landscape of U.S. motor system energy consumption. To capture the new landscape, the USDOE has initiated a three-year Motor System Market Assessment (MSMA), led by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The MSMA will assess the energy consumption, operational and maintenance characteristics, and efficiency improvement opportunity of U.S. industrial sector and commercial building motor systems. As part of the MSMA, a significant effort is currently underway to conduct field assessments of motor systems from a sample of facilities representative of U.S. commercial and industrial motor system energy consumption. The Field Assessment Plan used for these assessments builds on recent LBNL research presented at EEMODS 2011 and EEMODS 2013 using methods for characterizing and determining regional motor system energy efficiency opportunities. This paper provides an update on the development and progress of the MSMA, focusing on the Field Assessment Plan and the framework for assessing the global supply chain for emerging motors and drive technologies.

  5. 76 FR 25622 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Mail: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J...: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW... of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program,...

  6. 78 FR 25627 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... of utilities, as well as historical State commercial energy price data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This approach calculates energy expenses based on actual energy prices that customers are... Navigator \\14\\ to calculate commercial natural gas prices, and EIA's State Energy Data System (SEDS) \\15\\...

  7. NREL's Industry Growth Forum Boosts Clean Energy Commercialization Efforts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    For more than a decade, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Industry Growth Forum has been the nation's premier event for early-stage clean energy investment. The forum features presentations from the most innovative, promising, and emergent clean energy companies; provocative panels led by thought leaders; and organized networking opportunities. It is the perfect venue for growing cleantech companies to present their business to a wide range of investors.

  8. Electrochemical Energy Storage Technologies and the Automotive Industry

    ScienceCinema

    Mark Verbrugge

    2016-07-12

    The first portion of the lecture will relate global energy challenges to trends in personal transportation. Following this introduction, a short overview of technology associated with lithium ion batteries for traction applications will be provided. Last, I shall present new research results that enable adaptive characterization of lithium ion cells. Experimental and modeling results help to clarify the underlying electrochemistry and system performance. Specifically, through chemical modification of the electrodes, it is possible to place markers within the electrodes that signal the state of charge of a battery through abrupt voltage changes during cell operation, thereby allowing full utilization of the battery in applications. In closing, I shall highlight some promising materials research efforts that are expected to lead to substantially improved battery technology

  9. Repetitive high energy pulsed power technology development for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, L.X.; Reed, K.R.; Kaye, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    The technology base for Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power (RHEPP) was originally developed to support defense program applications. As RHEPP technology matures, its potential for use in commercial applications can be explored based on inherent strengths of high average power, high dose rate, cost efficient scaling with power, and potential for long life performance. The 300 kW, 2 MeV RHEPP II accelerator is now in operation as a designated DOE User Facility, exploring applications where high dose-rate (> 10{sup 8} Gy/s) may be advantageous, or very high average power is needed to meet throughput requirements. Material surface and bulk property modification, food safety, and large-scale timber disinfestation are applications presently under development. Work is also in progress to generate the reliability database required for the design of 2nd generation systems.

  10. Electrochemical Energy Storage Technologies and the Automotive Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verbrugge

    2009-11-24

    The first portion of the lecture will relate global energy challenges to trends in personal transportation. Following this introduction, a short overview of technology associated with lithium ion batteries for traction applications will be provided. Last, I shall present new research results that enable adaptive characterization of lithium ion cells. Experimental and modeling results help to clarify the underlying electrochemistry and system performance. Specifically, through chemical modification of the electrodes, it is possible to place markers within the electrodes that signal the state of charge of a battery through abrupt voltage changes during cell operation, thereby allowing full utilization of the battery in applications. In closing, I shall highlight some promising materials research efforts that are expected to lead to substantially improved battery technology

  11. 75 FR 11164 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources; Notice Extending Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Power Administration (BPA) filed a motion requesting an extension of at least fourteen days.\\2\\ \\1\\ Integration of Variable Energy Resources, 130 FERC ] 61,053 (2010). \\2\\ BPA indicates, however, that...

  12. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Development of a Stabilized Light Water Reactor Fuel Matrix for Extended Burnup

    SciTech Connect

    BD Hanson; J Abrefah; SC Marschman; SG Prussin

    2000-09-08

    The main objective of this project is to develop an advanced fuel matrix capable of achieving extended burnup while improving safety margins and reliability for present operations. In the course of this project, the authors improve understanding of the mechanism for high burnup structure (HBS) formation and attempt to design a fuel to minimize its formation. The use of soluble dopants in the UO{sub 2} matrix to stabilize the matrix and minimize fuel-side corrosion of the cladding is the main focus.

  13. DOE PLANT-WIDE ENERGY ASSESSMENT RESULTS RELATED TO THE U. S. AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Kissock, Arvind Thekdi, Len Bishop

    2006-01-05

    Forty-nine plant-wide energy efficiency assessments have been undertaken under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Industrial Technologies Program. Plant-wide assessments are comprehensive, systematic investigations of plant energy efficiency, including plant utility systems and process operations. Assessments in industrial facilities have highlighted opportunities for implementing best practices in industrial energy management, including the adoption of new, energy-efficient technologies and process and equipment improvements. Total annual savings opportunities of $201 million have been identified from the 40 completed assessments. Many of the participating industrial plants have implemented efficiency-improvement projects and already have realized total cost savings of more than $81 million annually. This paper provides an overview of the assessment efforts undertaken and presents a summary of the major energy and cost savings identified to date. The paper also discusses specific results from assessments conducted at four plants in the automotive manufacturing operations and supporting industries. These particular assessments were conducted at facilities that produce engine castings, plastic films used for glass laminates, forged components, and at a body spray painting plant.

  14. Impacts of urban forests on offsetting carbon emissions from industrial energy use in Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Kong, Zheng-hong; Escobedo, Francisco J; Gao, Jun

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified carbon storage and sequestration by urban forests and carbon emissions from energy consumption by several industrial sources in Hangzhou, China. Carbon (C) storage and sequestration were quantified using urban forest inventory data and by applying volume-derived biomass equations and other models relating net primary productivity (NPP) and mean annual biomass increments. Industrial energy use C emissions were estimated by accounting for fossil fuel use and assigning C emission factors. Total C storage by Hangzhou's urban forests was estimated at 11.74 Tg C, and C storage per hectare was 30.25 t C. Carbon sequestration by urban forests was 1,328, 166.55 t C/year, and C sequestration per ha was 1.66 t C/ha/year. Carbon emissions from industrial energy use in Hangzhou were 7 Tg C/year. Urban forests, through sequestration, annually offset 18.57% of the amount of carbon emitted by industrial enterprises, and store an amount of C equivalent to 1.75 times the amount of annual C emitted by industrial energy uses within the city. Management practices for improving Hangzhou's urban forests function of offsetting C emissions from energy consumption are explored. These results can be used to evaluate the urban forests' role in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  15. 78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency... collection process to consider amending the energy conservation standards for commercial packaged boilers... Technologies Office, Mailstop EE-2J, Framework Document for Commercial Packaged Boilers, Docket No....

  16. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, C; Vestergaard, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Sehested, J

    2016-04-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced energy diet after LW nadir compared with a standard diet throughout lactation. The objective of the present study was to examine how such an individualized feeding strategy affects plasma indicators of energy status. It was hypothesized that an energy-enriched diet until LW nadir will reduce the severity of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two partially mixed rations were used, one with a high energy density (HD) and a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio, and one with a lower energy density (LD, control diet) and a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio. Half of the cows were offered the HD diet until they reached at least 42 days in milk and a LW gain⩾0 kg/day based on a 5-days LW average, and were then shifted to the LD diet (strategy HD-LD). The other half of the cows were offered the LD diet throughout lactation (control strategy LD-LD). Weekly blood samples were drawn for analysis of plasma metabolites and hormones. Before the shift in diet, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected by the feeding strategy. To conclude, in early lactation, the energy-enriched diet reduced the negative energy balance. Plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows from

  17. Energy-efficient approach to minimizing the energy consumption in an extended job-shop scheduling problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dunbing; Dai, Min

    2015-09-01

    The traditional production planning and scheduling problems consider performance indicators like time, cost and quality as optimization objectives in manufacturing processes. However, environmentally-friendly factors like energy consumption of production have not been completely taken into consideration. Against this background, this paper addresses an approach to modify a given schedule generated by a production planning and scheduling system in a job shop floor, where machine tools can work at different cutting speeds. It can adjust the cutting speeds of the operations while keeping the original assignment and processing sequence of operations of each job fixed in order to obtain energy savings. First, the proposed approach, based on a mixed integer programming mathematical model, changes the total idle time of the given schedule to minimize energy consumption in the job shop floor while accepting the optimal solution of the scheduling objective, makespan. Then, a genetic-simulated annealing algorithm is used to explore the optimal solution due to the fact that the problem is strongly NP-hard. Finally, the effectiveness of the approach is performed smalland large-size instances, respectively. The experimental results show that the approach can save 5%-10% of the average energy consumption while accepting the optimal solution of the makespan in small-size instances. In addition, the average maximum energy saving ratio can reach to 13%. And it can save approximately 1%-4% of the average energy consumption and approximately 2.4% of the average maximum energy while accepting the near-optimal solution of the makespan in large-size instances. The proposed research provides an interesting point to explore an energy-aware schedule optimization for a traditional production planning and scheduling problem.

  18. Techno-Economic Simulation Approach in Preparation of Employing Renewable Energies for Process Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Jun Hyung; Lee, Soo bin; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lee, In-Beum

    2016-11-21

    The energy system of process industry are faced with a new unprecedented challenge. Renewable energies should be incorporated but single of them cannot meet its energy demand of high degree and a large quantity. This paper investigates a simulation framework to compute the capacity of multiple energy sources including solar, wind power, diesel and batteries. The framework involves actual renewable energy supply and demand profile generation and supply demand matching. Eight configurations of different supply options are evaluated to illustrate the applicability of the proposed framework with some remarks.

  19. Joint Solar Power Industry and Department of Energy Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Steve; Myers, Daryl

    2009-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has embarked on a collaborative effort with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of concentrating solar thermal power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result will be high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  20. Energy use pattern in rice milling industries-a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K; Jogdand, S V; Agrawal, A K

    2014-11-01

    Rice milling industry is one of the most energy consuming industries. Like capital, labour and material, energy is one of the production factors which used to produce final product. In economical term, energy is demand-derived goods and can be regarded as intermediate good whose demand depends on the demand of final product. This paper deals with various types of energy pattern used in rice milling industries viz., thermal energy, mechanical energy, electrical energy and human energy. The important utilities in a rice mill are water, air, steam, electricity and labour. In a rice mill some of the operations are done manually namely, cleaning, sun drying, feeding paddy to the bucket elevators, weighing and packaging, etc. So the man-hours are also included in energy accounting. Water is used for soaking and steam generation. Electricity is the main energy source for these rice mills and is imported form the state electricity board grids. Electricity is used to run motors, pumps, blowers, conveyors, fans, lights, etc. The variations in the consumption rate of energy through the use of utilities during processing must also accounted for final cost of the finished product. The paddy milling consumes significant quantity of fuels and electricity. The major energy consuming equipments in the rice milling units are; boilers and steam distribution, blowers, pumps, conveyers, elevators, motors, transmission systems, weighing, etc. Though, wide variety of technologies has been evolved for efficient use of energy for various equipments of rice mills, so far, only a few have improved their energy efficiency levels. Most of the rice mills use old and locally available technologies and are also completely dependent on locally available technical personnel.

  1. Extending Energy Optimization in Goal-Directed Aiming from Movement Kinematics to Joint Angles.

    PubMed

    Burkitt, James J; Bongers, Raoul M; Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve; Lyons, James L

    2017-01-01

    Energy optimization in goal-directed aiming has been demonstrated as an undershoot bias in primary movement endpoint locations, especially in conditions where corrections to target overshoots must be made against gravity. Two-component models of upper limb movement have not yet considered how joint angles are organized to deal with the energy constraints associated with moving the upper limb in goal-directed aiming tasks. To address this limitation, participants performed aiming movements to targets in the up and down directions with the index finger and two types of rod extensions attached to the index finger. The rod extensions were expected to invoke different energy optimizing strategies in the up and down directions by allowing the distal joints the opportunity to contribute to end effector displacement. Primary movements undershot the farthest target to a greater extent in the downward direction compared to the upward direction, showing that movement kinematics optimize energy expenditure in consideration of the effects of gravity. As rod length increased, shoulder elevation was optimized in movements to the far-up target and elbow flexion was optimally minimized in movements to the far-down target. The results suggest energy optimization in the control of joint angles independent of the force of gravity.

  2. Extended Energy Divide-and-Conquer Method Based on Charge Conservation.

    PubMed

    Song, Guo-Liang; Li, Zhen Hua; Fan, Kang-Nian

    2013-04-09

    The divide-and-conquer (DC) scheme, the most popular linear-scaling method, is very important in the quantum mechanics computation of large systems. However, when a chemical system is divided into subsystems, its covalent bonds are often broken and then capped by complementary atoms/groups. In this paper, we show that the charge transfer between subsystems and the complementary atoms/groups causes the nonconservation of the total charge of the whole system, and this is the main source of error for the computed total energy. On the basis of this finding, an extension of the many-body expansion method (energy-based divide-and-conquer, EDC) utilizing charge conservation (E-EDC) is proposed. In the E-EDC method, initially the total energies of the whole system at different many-body correction levels are computed according to the EDC scheme. The total charges of the whole system, that is, the sum of the charges of the subsystems without cap atoms/groups at different many-body correction levels, are also computed. Then the total energy is extrapolated to the value at which the net charge of the whole system equals to the real value. Other properties such as atomic forces can also be extrapolated in a similar way. In the test of 24 and 32 glycine oligomers, this scheme reduces the error of the total energy by about 40-70%, but the computational cost is almost the same as that of the EDC scheme.

  3. The extended Lennard-Jones potential energy function: A simpler model for direct-potential-fit analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajigeorgiou, Photos G.

    2016-12-01

    An analytical model for the diatomic potential energy function that was recently tested as a universal function (Hajigeorgiou, 2010) has been further modified and tested as a suitable model for direct-potential-fit analysis. Applications are presented for the ground electronic states of three diatomic molecules: oxygen, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen fluoride. The adjustable parameters of the extended Lennard-Jones potential model are determined through nonlinear regression by fits to calculated rovibrational energy term values or experimental spectroscopic line positions. The model is shown to lead to reliable, compact and simple representations for the potential energy functions of these systems and could therefore be classified as a suitable and attractive model for direct-potential-fit analysis.

  4. Accurate Hartree-Fock energy of extended systems using large Gaussian basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paier, Joachim; Diaconu, Cristian V.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Guidon, Manuel; Vandevondele, Joost; Hutter, Jürg

    2009-11-01

    Calculating highly accurate thermochemical properties of condensed matter via wave-function-based approaches (such as, e.g., Hartree-Fock or hybrid functionals) has recently attracted much interest. We here present two strategies providing accurate Hartree-Fock energies for solid LiH in a large Gaussian basis set and applying periodic boundary conditions. The total energies were obtained using two different approaches, namely, a supercell evaluation of Hartree-Fock exchange using a truncated Coulomb operator and an extrapolation toward the full-range Hartree-Fock limit of a Padé fit to a series of short-range screened Hartree-Fock calculations. These two techniques agreed to significant precision. We also present the Hartree-Fock cohesive energy of LiH (converged to within sub-millielectron volt) at the experimental equilibrium volume as well as the Hartree-Fock equilibrium lattice constant and bulk modulus.

  5. Constraining Energy Consumption of China's Largest IndustrialEnterprises Through the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming EnterpriseProgram

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Wang, Xuejun

    2007-06-01

    Between 1980 and 2000, China's energy efficiency policiesresulted in a decoupling of the traditionally linked relationship betweenenergy use and gross domestic product (GDP) growth, realizing a four-foldincrease in GDP with only a doubling of energy use. However, during Chinas transition to a market-based economy in the 1990s, many of thecountry's energy efficiency programs were dismantled and between 2001 and2005 China's energy use increased significantly, growing at about thesame rate as GDP. Continuation of this one-to-one ratio of energyconsumption to GDP given China's stated goal of again quadrupling GDPbetween 2000 and 2020 will lead to significant demand for energy, most ofwhich is coal-based. The resulting local, national, and globalenvironmental impacts could be substantial.In 2005, realizing thesignificance of this situation, the Chinese government announced anambitious goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20percent between 2005 and 2010. One of the key initiatives for realizingthis goal is the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises program. Thecomprehensive energy consumption of these 1000 enterprises accounted for33 percent of national and 47 percent of industrial energy usage in 2004.Under the Top-1000 program, 2010 energy consumption targets wereannounced for each enterprise. Activities to be undertaken includebenchmarking, energy audits, development of energy saving action plans,information and training workshops, and annual reporting of energyconsumption. This paper will describe the program in detail, includingthe types of enterprises included and the program activities, and willprovide an analysis of the progress and lessons learned todate.

  6. Reagan's energy war: can deregulation and the Pentagon save the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Feeney, A.

    1981-11-01

    Mr. Feeney feels that Administration energy policies claiming to protect democracy and reduce government interference will transfer money and political control from the people to the energy corporations and the Pentagon. Critics deplore the hard-path approach of downgrading conservation and solar energy in favor of nuclear energy, which some see as setting the stage for a nuclear war in this decade. They see the plan to abolish DOE as providing an opportunity to bail out the nuclear industry, bury environmental and alternative energy research, and block regulations. Critics question why Reagan's devotion to the free market is not applied to the nuclear industry, although they disagree on the linkage with nuclear weapons of new fuel cycle proposals and the use of national security to solve the waste disposal problem by nationalizing and militarizing the fuel cycle. (DCK)

  7. Extended bulk defects induced by low-energy ions during partially ionized beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.I.; Wong, J.; Borrego, J.M.; Lu, T.

    1988-08-15

    The study of possible defects generated by low-energy ions during partially ionized beam (PIB) depositions was performed. No defects were observed when acceleration voltage was set lower than 1 kV. Surprisingly, several deep levels were detected up to the depth of 4000 A in the 3-kV sample. However, these levels can be annealed out at a relatively low temperature of 400 /sup 0/C. It is concluded in this study that, by properly choosing the ion energy range, PIB deposition will not cause severe damage to the substrate and can be a viable technique for growing heterostructures.

  8. Current Size and Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. Energy Service Company Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, Elizabeth; Larsen, Peter H.; Goldman, Charles A.; Gilligan, Donald

    2013-06-27

    In this study, we analyze the market size, growth projections and industry trends in the U.S. ESCO industry, drawing on information from interviews with ESCO executives conducted in late 2012. We define ESCOs as energy service companies for whom performance -based contracting is a key business activity; 45 companies met our definition of an ESCO. We were able to interview 35 of these companies, which represents ~78% response rate. The non-respondent ESCOs were small companies in terms of revenue, representing about 2% of industry revenues.

  9. Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.W.

    1997-07-01

    This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

  10. U.S. Energy Service Company (ESCO) Industry: Recent Market Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, Elizabeth; Larsen, Peter H.; Carvallo, Juan Pablo; Goldman, Charles A.; Gilligan, Donald

    2016-10-01

    This study presents an analysis of the market size, growth projections and industry trends of the U.S. Energy Service Company (ESCO) industry, drawing on information provided by ESCO executives in late 2015. We define ESCOs as energy service companies for whom performance-based contracting is a core business offering. We identified forty-seven firms that met our definition of an ESCO.1 Forty-three of these companies responded to our requests for information, representing a 91% response rate.2 We also report 2014 ESCO industry revenues by market segment, region and business activity type, and for new versus existing customers. Finally, we report on use of tax incentives and financing tools, and incorporation of non-energy benefits into performance-based project economics. We summarize key findings below.

  11. Status and prospect of NDT technology for nuclear energy industry in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Innovative energy technology is considered to be one of the key solutions for meeting the challenges of climate change and energy security, which is why global leaders are focusing on enhancing energy technology R&D. In accordance with the global movements to accelerate energy R&D, the Korean government has made significant investments in a broad spectrum of energy R&D programs, including energy efficiency, resources, CCS, new and renewable energy, power generation and electricity delivery, nuclear power and nuclear waste management. In order to manage government sponsored energy R&D programs in an efficient and effective way, the government established the Korea Institute of Energy technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) in 2009. Main activities of KETEP include developing energy technology roadmaps, planning, evaluating, and managing R&D programs, fostering experts in the field of energy, promoting international cooperation programs, gathering and analyzing energy statistics, and supporting infrastructure and commercialization. KETEP assists the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy in developing national R&D strategies while also working with researchers, universities, national institutes and the private sector for their successful energy technology and deployment. This presentation consists of three parts. First, I will introduce the characteristics of energy trends and mix in Korea. Then, I'll speak about the related national R&D strategies of energy technology. Finally, I'll finish up with the status and prospect of NDT technology for nuclear energy industry in Korea. The development of the on-line structural integrity monitoring systems and the related techniques in Korean nuclear power plant for the purpose of condition based maintenance is introduced. The needs of NDT techniques for inspection and condition monitoring for GEN IV including SFR, small module reactor etc., are also discussed.

  12. Environmental profile of latent energy storage materials applied to industrial systems.

    PubMed

    López-Sabirón, Ana M; Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Mainar-Toledo, M D; Ferreira, Victor J; Ferreira, Germán

    2014-03-01

    Industry sector is an intensive-energy consumer and approximately 20-50% of industrial energy consumption is lost as waste heat. Therefore, there is a great potential for reducing energy consumption and, subsequently, decreasing the fossil fuels used if this lost energy can be recovered. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) based on Latent Heat Storage systems (LHS) using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) has become one of the most feasible solutions in achieving energy savings through waste heat recovery, especially when there is a mismatch between the supply and consumption of energy processes. In this paper, a shell and tube heat exchanger incorporating PCMs has been considered to store the excess energy available in an industrial process. Several attempts have been made to design the most appropriate system considering many cost-benefit and technical criteria to maximise the heat recovery. However, the environmental criterion also is an important factor when determining whether this technology is not only energy and cost-efficient but also environmentally friendly, considering the whole life of the system from its manufacture to its disposal. To this end, this research includes a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to determine whether the energy savings of conventional fuels during the operation stage are large enough to balance the environmental impact originated in an industrial TES system including the manufacture, use and disposal phases. Inputs and outputs of each management stage have been defined, and the inventory emissions calculated by SIMAPRO v7.3.2. A midpoint and endpoint approaches have been carried out using two methods, CML 2001 and Eco-indicator 99, respectively. As a preliminary result, a promising reduction in the overall impacts was obtained by the use of this technology. From the environmental impact results, a matrix of possible technical solutions is displayed, to improve the environmental performance.

  13. NICHE: Using Cherenkov radiation to extend Telescope Array to sub-PeV energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Douglas; Krizmanic, John; Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Abu-Zayyad, Tareq; Belz, John; Thomson, Gordon

    2016-03-01

    The Non-Imaging CHErenkov (NICHE) Array will measure the flux and nuclear composition evolution of cosmic rays (CRs) from below 1 PeV to 1 EeV. NICHE will be co-sited with the Telescope Array (TA) Low Energy (TALE) extension, and will observe events simultaneously with the TALE telescopes acting in imaging-Cherenkov mode. This will be the first hybrid-Cherenkov (simultaneous imaging and non-imaging Cherenkov) measurements of CRs in the Knee region of the CR energy spectrum. NICHE uses easily deployable detectors to measure the amplitude and time-spread of the air-shower Cherenkov signal to achieve an event-by-event measurement of Xmax and energy, each with excellent resolution. First generation detectors are under construction and will form an initial prototype array (j-NICHE) that will be deployed in Summer 2016. In this talk, the NICHE design, array performance, prototype development, and status will be discussed as well as NICHE's ability to measure the cosmic ray nuclear composition as a function of energy.

  14. Post-GW energies from an extended Bethe-Salpeter scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggio, Emanuele; Kresse, Georg

    Hedin's breakthrough in many-body physics is a computationally manageable scheme to implicitly account for many-body effects thanks to the introduction of a self-energy, whose expression is known but in practice approximated by truncation at some order in the inter-particle interaction. Hedin's scheme allows the computation of quasi-particle addition and removal energies. The introduction of an added particle (or hole) to the system will trigger the formation of higher order neutral excitations (particle/hole pairs formation). The widespread GW approximation only partially accounts for these effects by replacing the bare interparticle interaction with a dressed one. Other effects are contained in the vertex function and are typically disregarded.In the present work, we move beyond the GW level by including vertex effects in the self-energy. This is implemented by expressing the self-energy in terms of the reducible two-particle scattering amplitude. The latter is related to the kernel of the Bethe-Salpeter equation and to the corresponding polarisation propagator. The proposed implementation allows us to evaluate the quality of quasi-particle spectra for a range of realistic solids and molecular systems.

  15. 75 FR 56506 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline... . Natalia Susak, 202-482-4423, Natalia.Susak@trade.gov . U.S. Commercial Service Saudi Arabia Contacts:...

  16. Management of old landfills by utilizing forest and energy industry waste flows.

    PubMed

    Niutanen, Ville; Korhonen, Jouni

    2002-05-01

    The lack of landfill capacity, forthcoming EU waste disposal and landfill management legislation and the use of non-renewable and energy intensive natural resources for the end-treatment of old landfills increase pressures to develop new landfill management methods. This paper considers a method for the end-management of old landfills in Finland, which is based on the utilization of forest and paper industry waste flows, wastes from paper recycling (de-inking) and wastes from forest industry energy production. Fibre clay wastes from paper mills, de-inking sludges from de-inking of recovered waste paper and incineration ash from forest industry power plants serve to substitute the use of natural clay for the building of landfill structures for closed landfills. Arguably, this method is preferable to existing practices of natural clay use for landfill building, because it (1) substitutes non-renewable natural clay, (2) consumes less energy and generates less CO2 emissions than the use of natural clay, and (3) eliminates considerable amounts of wastes from paper production, paper consumption and from forest industry energy production. Some difficulties in the application of the method are considered and the waste flow utilization is incorporated into a local forest industry recycling network.

  17. Electric Industry Structure and Regulatory Responses in a High Distributed Energy Resources Future

    SciTech Connect

    Corneli, Steve; Kihm, Steve; Schwartz, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of distributed energy resources (DERs) that can generate, manage and store energy on the customer side of the electric meter is widely recognized as a transformative force in the power sector. This report focuses on two key aspects of that transformation: structural changes in the electric industry and related changes in business organization and regulation that are likely to result from them. Both industry structure and regulation are inextricably linked. History shows that the regulation of the power sector has responded primarily to innovation in technologies and business models that created significant structural changes in the sector’s cost and organizational structure.

  18. Lost carbon emissions: The role of non-manufacturing 'other industries' and refining in industrial energy use and carbon emissions in IEA countries

    SciTech Connect

    Murtishaw, Scott; Schipper, Lee; Unander, Fridtjof; Karbuz, Sohbet; Khrushch, Marta

    2000-05-01

    We present a review of trends in energy use and output in branches of industry not often studied in detail: petroleum refining and what we call the other industries--agriculture, mining, and construction. From a sample of IEA countries we analyze eight with the most complete data from the early 1970s to the mid-1990s. We carry out a decomposition analysis of changes in energy use and carbon emissions in the ''other industries'' sector. We also review briefly the impact of including refining in the evolution of manufacturing energy use, usually studied without refining. Despite many data problems, we present our results as a way of enticing others to study these important ''lost'' sectors more carefully. We have five basic findings. First, ''other industries'' tends to be a minor consumer of energy in many countries, but in some, particularly Denmark, the US, and Australia, mining or agriculture can be a major sector too large to be overlooked. Second, refining is an extremely energy intensive industry which despite a relatively low share of value added consumes as much as 20 percent of final energy use in manufacturing. Third, as a result of a slower decline in the carbon-intensity of these industries vis-a-vis the manufacturing industries, their share of industrial emissions has been rising. Fourth, for other industries variation in per capita output plays a relatively small role in differentiating per capita carbon emissions compared to the impact of subsectoral energy intensities. Finally, including this energy in CO2 calculations has little impact on overall trends, but does change the magnitude of emissions in most countries significantly. Clearly, these industries provide important opportunities for searching for carbon emissions reductions.

  19. Extended performance gas Cherenkov detector for gamma-ray detection in high-energy density experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, H. W. Kim, Y. H.; Young, C. S.; Fatherley, V. E.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Batha, S. H.; Malone, R. M.; Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Stoeffl, W.; Zylstra, A. B.; Shmayda, W. T.

    2014-11-15

    A new Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) with low-energy threshold and high sensitivity, currently known as Super GCD (or GCD-3 at OMEGA), is being developed for use at the OMEGA Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Super GCD is designed to be pressurized to ≤400 psi (absolute) and uses all metal seals to allow the use of fluorinated gases inside the target chamber. This will allow the gamma energy threshold to be run as low at 1.8 MeV with 400 psi (absolute) of C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, opening up a new portion of the gamma ray spectrum. Super GCD operating at 20 cm from TCC will be ∼400 × more efficient at detecting DT fusion gammas at 16.7 MeV than the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic at NIF (GRH-6m) when operated at their minimum thresholds.

  20. Extended performance gas Cherenkov detector for gamma-ray detection in high-energy density experimentsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Young, C. S.; Fatherley, V. E.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Malone, R. M.; Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Stoeffl, W.; Zylstra, A. B.; Shmayda, W. T.; Batha, S. H.

    2014-11-01

    A new Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) with low-energy threshold and high sensitivity, currently known as Super GCD (or GCD-3 at OMEGA), is being developed for use at the OMEGA Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Super GCD is designed to be pressurized to ≤400 psi (absolute) and uses all metal seals to allow the use of fluorinated gases inside the target chamber. This will allow the gamma energy threshold to be run as low at 1.8 MeV with 400 psi (absolute) of C2F6, opening up a new portion of the gamma ray spectrum. Super GCD operating at 20 cm from TCC will be ˜400 × more efficient at detecting DT fusion gammas at 16.7 MeV than the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic at NIF (GRH-6m) when operated at their minimum thresholds.

  1. Extended performance gas Cherenkov detector for gamma-ray detection in high-energy density experiments.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, H W; Kim, Y H; Young, C S; Fatherley, V E; Lopez, F E; Oertel, J A; Malone, R M; Rubery, M S; Horsfield, C J; Stoeffl, W; Zylstra, A B; Shmayda, W T; Batha, S H

    2014-11-01

    A new Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) with low-energy threshold and high sensitivity, currently known as Super GCD (or GCD-3 at OMEGA), is being developed for use at the OMEGA Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Super GCD is designed to be pressurized to ≤400 psi (absolute) and uses all metal seals to allow the use of fluorinated gases inside the target chamber. This will allow the gamma energy threshold to be run as low at 1.8 MeV with 400 psi (absolute) of C2F6, opening up a new portion of the gamma ray spectrum. Super GCD operating at 20 cm from TCC will be ∼400 × more efficient at detecting DT fusion gammas at 16.7 MeV than the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic at NIF (GRH-6m) when operated at their minimum thresholds.

  2. The role of universities in energy and environmental R & D: An extended outline

    SciTech Connect

    Drucker, H.

    1995-12-31

    Issues related to university research and development roles in energy and environmental areas are very briefly outlined in the paper. Fundamental issues discussed include basic versus applied science, and applied science versus technology development. Some specific issues appropriate for university research are identified, such as desulfurizing coal and managing mixed wastes in groundwater. The Plant Biotechnology consortium is described as a model that builds on university strengths in basic and applied technology.

  3. Calorimetric measurement of electron energy deposition in extended media. Theory vs experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, G.J.; Ruggles, L.E.; Miller, G.H.; Halbleib, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A new calorimetric technique has been developed for measuring electron energy deposition profiles in one dimension. The experimental procedures and theoretical analyses required in the application of the new method are reviewed. Extensive results are presented for electron energy deposition profiles in semi-infinite homogeneous and multilayer configurations. These data cover a range of elements from beryllium through uranium at source energies from 0.3 to 1.0 MeV (selected data at 0.5 and 0.1 MeV) and at incident angles from 0/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/. In every case, the experimental profiles are compared with the predictions of a coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport code. Overall agreement between theory and experiment is very good. However, there appears to be a tendency for the theoretical profiles to be higher near the peaks and lower near the tails, especially in high-Z materials. There is also a discrepancy between theory and experiment in low-Z materials near high-Z/low-Z interfaces.

  4. Investigation of point and extended defects in electron irradiated silicon—Dependence on the particle energy

    SciTech Connect

    Radu, R.; Pintilie, I.; Nistor, L. C.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.; Makarenko, L. F.

    2015-04-28

    This work is focusing on generation, time evolution, and impact on the electrical performance of silicon diodes impaired by radiation induced active defects. n-type silicon diodes had been irradiated with electrons ranging from 1.5 MeV to 27 MeV. It is shown that the formation of small clusters starts already after irradiation with high fluence of 1.5 MeV electrons. An increase of the introduction rates of both point defects and small clusters with increasing energy is seen, showing saturation for electron energies above ∼15 MeV. The changes in the leakage current at low irradiation fluence-values proved to be determined by the change in the configuration of the tri-vacancy (V{sub 3}). Similar to V{sub 3}, other cluster related defects are showing bistability indicating that they might be associated with larger vacancy clusters. The change of the space charge density with irradiation and with annealing time after irradiation is fully described by accounting for the radiation induced trapping centers. High resolution electron microscopy investigations correlated with the annealing experiments revealed changes in the spatial structure of the defects. Furthermore, it is shown that while the generation of point defects is well described by the classical Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL), the formation of small defect clusters is better described by the “effective NIEL” using results from molecular dynamics simulations.

  5. Energy optimization of water and wastewater management for municipal and industrial applications conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Energy Optimization of Water and Wastewater Management for Municipal and Industrial Applications, Conference, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The conference was organized and coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The conference focused on energy use on conservation in water and wastewater. The General Session also reflects DOE's commitment to the support and development of waste and wastewater systems that are environmentally acceptable. The conference proceedings are divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the General Session and Sessions 1 to 5. Volume 2 covers Sessions 6 to 12. Separate abstracts are prepared for each item within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  6. Energy optimization of water and wastewater management for municipal and industrial applications conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Energy Optimization of Water and Wastewater Management for Municipal and Industrial Applications Conference, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The conference was organized and coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The conference focused on energy use and conservation in water and wastewater. The General Session also reflects DOE's commitment to the support and development of waste and wastewater systems that are environmentally acceptable. The conference proceedings are divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the General Session and Sessions 1 to 5. Volume 2 covers Sessions 6 to 12. Separate abstracts are prepared for each item within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  7. Extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and hidden local symmetry of low energy QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamatsu, M.

    1996-11-01

    Using the standard auxiliary field method, we derive from the extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model an effective meson action containing vector and axial-vector mesons in addition to Goldstone bosons. The vector and axial-vector mesons in this effective action transform as gauge fields of hidden local symmetry Glocal=[U(n)L×U(n)R]local. Here, the realization of enlarged hidden local symmetry is accomplished via the introduction of two kinds of ``compensating'' fields. For obtaining the intrinsic-parity-violating part of the action, we generalize the standard gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten action such that it also contains two kinds of ``compensators'' in addition to the usual Goldstone bosons as well as the vector and axial-vector mesons. This generalized gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten action turns out to have Gglobal×Glocal symmetry, where Gglobal is the usual U(n)L×U(n)R global chiral symmetry while Glocal is the U(n)L×U(n)R hidden local symmetry. This means that Glocal has no gauge anomaly and its associated vector and axial-vector mesons can be regarded as gauge bosons of Glocal. The introduction of the coupling with the external electroweak fields requires us to gauge some appropriate subgroup of Gglobal. To make it consistent with the anomaly structure of QCD is a nontrivial problem. We explain how this can be done, following the recent suggestion by several authors.

  8. Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-07

    AMO is developing advanced technologies that cut energy use and carbon emissions in some of the most energy-intensive processes within U.S. manufacturing. The brochure describes the AMO R&D projects that address these challenges.

  9. Bonneville Power Administration and the Industrial Technologies Program Leverage Support to Overcome Energy Efficiency Barriers in the Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-18

    Through its Energy Smart Industrial program, BPA is informing and assisting utilities and industries to have a better understanding of the benefits that come from participating in energy-savings programs. Read about how BPA is encouraging energy efficiency projects through its utilities.

  10. 19 CFR 12.50 - Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to energy conservation or labeling standards. 12.50 Section 12.50 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... MERCHANDISE Consumer Products and Industrial Equipment Subject to Energy Conservation Or Labeling Standards § 12.50 Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling...

  11. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trebilcox, G. J.; Lundberg, W. L.

    1981-03-01

    The canning segment of the food processing industry is a major energy user within that industry. Most of its energy demand is met by hot water and steam and those fluids, in addition to product cooling water, eventually flow from the processes as warm waste water. To minimize the possibility of product contamination, a large percentage of that waste water is sent directly to factory drains and sewer systems without being recycled and in many cases the thermal energy contained by the waste streams also goes unreclaimed and is lost from further use. Waste heat recovery in canning facilities can be performed economically using systems that employ thermal energy storage (TES). A project was proposed in which a demonstration waste heat recovery system, including a TES feature, would be designed, installed and operated.

  12. Water and Energy Sustainability: A Balance of Government Action and Industry Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Grunewald

    2009-12-31

    By completing the tasks and subtasks of the project, the Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC) through its state regulatory agency members and oil and gas industry partners, will bring attention to water quality and quantity issues and make progress toward water and energy sustainability though enhanced water protection and conservation thus enhancing the viability of the domestic fossil fuel industry. The project contains 4 major independent Tasks. Task 1 - Work Plan: Water-Energy Sustainability: A Symposium on Resource Viability. Task 2 - Work Plan: A Regional Assessment of Water and Energy Sustainability. Task 3 - Work Plan: Risk Based Data Management System-Water Water and Energy Module. Task 4 - Work Plan: Identification and Assessment of States Regulatory Programs Regarding Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems. Each task has a specific scope (details given).

  13. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Baking Industry: An ENERGY STAR® Guide for Plant and Energy Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Therkelsen, Peter; Worrell, Ernst

    2012-12-28

    The U.S. baking industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the manufacture of commercial bakery products such as breads, rolls, frozen cakes, pies, pastries, and cookies and crackers—consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in food processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. A summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency is also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. baking industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  14. Technology transfer of energy efficient technologies in industry: A review of trends and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; van Berkel, Rene; Fengqi, Zhou; Menke, Christoph; Schaeffer, Roberto; Williams, Robert O.

    2000-03-01

    In 1995, industry accounted for 41 percent of global energy use. Although the efficiency of industrial processes has increased greatly during the past decades, energy efficiency improvements remain the major opportunity to reduce CO2 emissions. Industrialization may affect the environment adversely, stressing the need for transfer of cleaner technologies to developing countries. A review of trends, barriers and opportunities for technology transfer is presented. Technology transfer is a process involving assessment, agreement, implementation, evaluation and adaptation, and repetition. Institutional barriers and policies influence the transaction process. Investments in industrial technology are dominated by the private sector. In industry, energy efficiency is often the result of investments in modern equipment, stressing the importance and need for environmentally sound and long-term investment policies. The interactive and dynamic character of technology transfer stresses the need for innovative and flexible approaches, through partnerships between various stakeholders. Adaptation of technology to local conditions is essential, but practices vary widely. Countries that spend on average more on adaptation, seem to be more successful in technology transfer, hence successful technology transfer depends on transfer of technological capabilities.

  15. Second biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Second Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, Environment, Agriculture, and Industry which was held August 21-24, 1995. The volume contains copies of full papers as provided by the researchers. Individual papers were separately indexed and abstracted for the database.

  16. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

  17. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model`s parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

  18. Occupations in energy-related industries: opportunities for minority youth. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-19

    This study of job opportunities in the energy industry for minority youth (16 to 24 years old) was precipitated by two factors: (1) the unusually high unemployment rate for minority youth in the United States; and (2) the question of whether or not the expanding domestic energy industry offered job opportunities to assist in reducing that high unemployment rate. As recently as March 16, 1981, US Department of Labor Secretary Raymond Donovan expressed the Reagan Administration's determination to tackle the persistent problems of minority teen-age unemployment, which has been running at a national average of 40.8% in 1981, having reached 43% in some urban areas during the years 1976 and 1980. Secretary Donovan emphasized his approach would be to encourage jobs for youth in private industry. Through the development of an analytical model, Minority-Emphasized Regional Demand and Supply Analysis, this study attempts a projection of job opportunities and minority youth availability in the energy industries in 18 energy producing states.

  19. 77 FR 22568 - Madison Paper Industries, FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC, Merimil Limited Partnership; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Partnership; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On March 29, 2007, the Madison Paper Industries, FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC, and Merimil Limited Partnership, licensees for the Brassua... Partnership are authorized to continue operation of the Brassua Hydroelectric Project, until such time as...

  20. 76 FR 34914 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Proposed Determination of Set-Top Boxes and Network Equipment... tentatively that set-top boxes and network equipment qualify as a covered product under Part A of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended. DOE has determined that set-top boxes...

  1. 78 FR 73915 - Community Alliance, Inc., Defi Global, Inc., Easy Energy, Inc., Industry Concept Holdings, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Community Alliance, Inc., Defi Global, Inc., Easy Energy, Inc., Industry Concept Holdings, Inc... concerning the securities of Community Alliance, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  2. Application and energy saving potential of superheated steam drying in the food industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Robinson, A.

    1996-12-31

    The possibilities of using superheated steam in heat and mass transfer processes such as drying have lately been investigated and tested by several industries. The mode of operation, energy saving potential, advantages of and problems with this media in contact with foodstuffs and food waste sludge are discussed in this article.

  3. 78 FR 49202 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Industrial Equipment: Proposed Determination of Natural Draft Commercial Packaged Boilers as Covered... commercial packaged boilers meet the criteria for covered equipment under Part A-1 of Title III of the Energy... 20585-0121. Telephone: (202) 586-8654. Email: commercial_packaged_boilers@ee.doe.gov . Mr. Eric Stas,...

  4. Energy saving membrane treatment of high organic load industrial effluents: from lab to pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mafalda Pessoa; Xin, Gang; Crespo, João G

    2013-12-15

    In this study, a nanofiltration unit was implemented at an industrial site, for the treatment of industrial wastewater generated during rubber tubing extrusion. The aim was to reduce the energy input required, while assuring a final effluent quality that meets the requirements of environmental legislation. In a first stage, two membrane process treatments, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, were evaluated at laboratory scale in order to assess the rejection of pollutants and maximise permeate throughput. Permeate generated from nanofiltration using either an NF90 or an NF270 membrane were shown to meet the effluent discharge requirements (<2000 mg COD/l). The less restrictive membrane, NF270, was chosen for study in a pilot plant at the industrial site, due to its higher membrane permeability. The pilot nanofiltration unit was integrated into the treatment plant operation aiming at optimising the process in terms of the efficiency of pollutant removal with minimal energy input. A feasibility study was performed for this case-study and it was concluded that the energy expenditure of the new process represents only 62% of the current energy consumption of the treatment plant. The proposed solution in this work may be retrofitted to full scale wastewater treatment processes, and may be applicable to industries that employ similar manufacturing processes, and face similar difficulties.

  5. Role of gas cooling in tomorrow`s energy services industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    This article discusses the marketing approach and opportunities for suppliers and manufacturers of gas cooling equipment to partner with energy service companies (ESCOs). The author`s viewpoint is that in educating and partnering with ESCOs the gas cooling industry enables their technology to reach its potential in the projects that the ESCOs develop.

  6. Power/Energy (Industrial Arts). Vocational Education Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1723.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist industrial arts practitioners in improving instruction in the areas of energy and power technology. Included in the first part of the guide are a course flow chart, a course description, a discussion of target grade levels and prerequisites, course goals and objectives, an introduction, and a course…

  7. Conserving Electrical Energy in Commerce and Industry. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module contains readings which explain the need to conserve electricity and describe how major electric energy users (the industrial and commercial groups) use and conserve electricity. The module also contains 10 self-check questions (with answers) and a list of references. Students completing the module should be able to: (1) compare the…

  8. 78 FR 48821 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... submission of comments by August 12, 2013. Thereafter, the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA), on behalf... Part 430 RIN 1904-AD04 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Proposed Determination of Computers as a Covered Consumer Product AGENCY: Office...

  9. Effects of levomilnacipran extended-release on motivation/energy and functioning in adults with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Thase, Michael E; Gommoll, Carl; Chen, Changzheng; Kramer, Kenneth; Sambunaris, Angelo

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this post-hoc analysis was to investigate the relationship between motivation/energy and functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Data were taken from a phase 3 trial of levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) in adults with MDD (NCT01034462; N=429) that used the 18-item Motivation and Energy Inventory (MEI) to assess motivation/energy. Two subgroups with lower and higher motivation/energy were defined using baseline MEI total scores (≤28 and >28, respectively). Change from baseline in the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) total score was analyzed in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population and both subgroups. Path analyses were carried out in the ITT population and a lower MEI subgroup to assess the direct and indirect effects of levomilnacipran ER on SDS total score change. In the ITT population and the lower MEI subgroup, significant differences were found between levomilnacipran ER and placebo for changes in the SDS total score (-2.6 and -3.9, both P<0.01), but not in the higher MEI subgroup. The indirect effect of levomilnacipran ER on SDS total score improvement, as mediated by MEI total score change, was 79.9% in the lower MEI subgroup and 67.2% in the ITT population. Levomilnacipran ER was previously shown to improve motivation/energy in adults with MDD. The current analysis indicates that improvements in functional impairment were considerably mediated by improvements in motivation/energy, particularly in patients with lower motivation/energy at baseline.

  10. Effects of levomilnacipran extended-release on motivation/energy and functioning in adults with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gommoll, Carl; Chen, Changzheng; Kramer, Kenneth; Sambunaris, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this post-hoc analysis was to investigate the relationship between motivation/energy and functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Data were taken from a phase 3 trial of levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) in adults with MDD (NCT01034462; N=429) that used the 18-item Motivation and Energy Inventory (MEI) to assess motivation/energy. Two subgroups with lower and higher motivation/energy were defined using baseline MEI total scores (≤28 and >28, respectively). Change from baseline in the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) total score was analyzed in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population and both subgroups. Path analyses were carried out in the ITT population and a lower MEI subgroup to assess the direct and indirect effects of levomilnacipran ER on SDS total score change. In the ITT population and the lower MEI subgroup, significant differences were found between levomilnacipran ER and placebo for changes in the SDS total score (−2.6 and −3.9, both P<0.01), but not in the higher MEI subgroup. The indirect effect of levomilnacipran ER on SDS total score improvement, as mediated by MEI total score change, was 79.9% in the lower MEI subgroup and 67.2% in the ITT population. Levomilnacipran ER was previously shown to improve motivation/energy in adults with MDD. The current analysis indicates that improvements in functional impairment were considerably mediated by improvements in motivation/energy, particularly in patients with lower motivation/energy at baseline. PMID:27455513

  11. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    1999-08-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of the U.S. cement industry, identifying cost-effective energy efficiency measures and potentials. The authors assess this industry at the aggregate level (Standard Industrial Classification 324), which includes establishments engaged in manufacturing hydraulic cements, including Portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana when reviewing industry trends and when making international comparisons. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1997, primary physical energy intensity for cement production (SIC 324) dropped 30%,from 7.9 GJ/t to 5.6 GJ/t, while carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption (carbon dioxide emissions expressed in tons of carbon per ton cement) dropped 25%, from 0.16 tC/ton to 0.12 tC/ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and clinker calcination dropped 17%, from 0.29 tC/ton to 0.24 tC/ton. They examined 30 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. They constructed an energy conservation supply curve for U.S. cement industry which found a total cost-effective reduction of 0.6 GJ/ton of cement consisting of measures having a simple payback period of 3 years or less. This is equivalent to potential energy savings of 11% of 1994 energy use for cement making and a savings of 5% of total 1994 carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. cement industry. Assuming the increased production of blended cement in the U.S., as is common in many parts of the world, the technical potential for energy efficiency improvement would not change considerably. However, the cost-effective potential, would increase to 1.1 GJ/ton cement or 18% of total energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 16%.

  12. Image-spectroscopy--II. The removal of plural scattering from extended energy-filtered series by Fourier deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P J; Midgley, P A

    2001-08-01

    The increased spectral information obtained by acquiring an EFTEM image-series over several hundred eV allows plural scattering to be removed from loss images using standard deconvolution techniques developed for the quantification of EEL spectra. In this work, both Fourier-log and Fourier-ratio deconvolution techniques have been applied successfully to such image-series. Application of the Fourier-log technique over an energy-loss range of several hundred eV has been achieved by implementation of a novel method that extends the effective dynamic range of EFTEM image-series acquisition by over four orders of magnitude. Experimental results show that the removal of plural scattering from EFTEM image-series gives a significant improvement in quantification for thicker specimen regions. Further, the recovery of the single-scattering distribution using the Fourier-log technique over an extended energy-loss range is shown to result in an increase in both the ionisation-edge jump-ratio and the signal-to-noise ratio.

  13. Save Energy Now Assessment Helps Expand Energy Management Program at Shaw Industries

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    The Shaw Industries carpet manufacturing plant #20 in Dalton, Georgia, optimized boiler operation and installed waste heat exchangers on two processes in the dye house and an economizer on one boiler, for a payback of 1.7 years. These results prompted plant #4, also located in Dalton, to participate in an assessment.

  14. Radio Telescopes Extend Astronomy's Best "Yardstick," Provide Vital Tool for Unraveling Dark Energy Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-06-01

    Radio astronomers have directly measured the distance to a faraway galaxy, providing a valuable "yardstick" for calibrating large astronomical distances and demonstrating a vital method that could help determine the elusive nature of the mysterious Dark Energy that pervades the Universe. Galaxy UGC 3789 Visible-light image of UGC 3789 CREDIT: STScI "We measured a direct, geometric distance to the galaxy, independent of the complications and assumptions inherent in other techniques. The measurement highlights a valuable method that can be used to determine the local expansion rate of the Universe, which is essential in our quest to find the nature of Dark Energy," said James Braatz, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), who presented the work to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Pasadena, California. Braatz and his colleagues used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), and the Effelsberg Radio Telescope of the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Germany to determine that a galaxy dubbed UGC 3789 is 160 million light-years from Earth. To do this, they precisely measured both the linear and angular size of a disk of material orbiting the galaxy's central black hole. Water molecules in the disk act as masers to amplify, or strengthen, radio waves the way lasers amplify light waves. The observation is a key element of a major effort to measure the expansion rate of the Universe, known as the Hubble Constant, with greatly improved precision. That effort, cosmologists say, is the best way to narrow down possible explanations for the nature of Dark Energy. "The new measurement is important because it demonstrates a one-step, geometric technique for measuring distances to galaxies far enough to infer the expansion rate of the Universe," said Braatz. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The VLBA Very Long Baseline Array CREDIT: NRAO

  15. Excitation energies from extended random phase approximation employed with approximate one- and two-electron reduced density matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Koushik; Pernal, Katarzyna

    2012-11-01

    Starting from Rowe's equation of motion we derive extended random phase approximation (ERPA) equations for excitation energies. The ERPA matrix elements are expressed in terms of the correlated ground state one- and two-electron reduced density matrices, 1- and 2-RDM, respectively. Three ways of obtaining approximate 2-RDM are considered: linearization of the ERPA equations, obtaining 2-RDM from density matrix functionals, and employing 2-RDM corresponding to an antisymmetrized product of strongly orthogonal geminals (APSG) ansatz. Applying the ERPA equations with the exact 2-RDM to a hydrogen molecule reveals that the resulting ^1Σ _g^+ excitation energies are not exact. A correction to the ERPA excitation operator involving some double excitations is proposed leading to the ERPA2 approach, which employs the APSG one- and two-electron reduced density matrices. For two-electron systems ERPA2 satisfies a consistency condition and yields exact singlet excitations. It is shown that 2-RDM corresponding to the APSG theory employed in the ERPA2 equations yields excellent singlet excitation energies for Be and LiH systems, and for the N2 molecule the quality of the potential energy curves is at the coupled cluster singles and doubles level. ERPA2 nearly satisfies the consistency condition for small molecules that partially explains its good performance.

  16. Who reports high company performance? A quantitative study of Chinese listed companies in the energy industry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Daoyan; Chen, Hong; Long, Ruyin

    2016-01-01

    In the increasingly competitive environment, top managers' background characteristics are undoubtedly vital factors for company performance. This study examines whether the performance of Chinese listed companies in the energy industry differs with respect to top managers' background characteristics and explores the exact distribution interval of top managers' background characteristics when company performance reaches the highest level. The initial sample was collected from the CSMAR database (2005-2014) for listed companies in the energy industry. After removing the outlier and missing data, the final number of observations was determined as 780. Descriptive statistics were used to investigate the present distribution of top managers' background characteristics, factor analysis was used to determine the dimensions of company performance, and one-way ANOVA was used to analyze the differences in company performance and its dimensions with respect to top managers' background characteristics. The findings show that both the age and length of service of top managers present an increasing trend over the years of the study period, whereas the educational level shows no significant changes. The performance of listed companies has three dimensions: profit performance, growth performance, and operating performance. Companies behave differently with regard to their top managers' background characteristics; when the top manager is 40-45 years old, with a doctoral degree and above, and in the 2nd-3rd year of his service period, his company will achieve a higher level of performance. This study contributes to the growing literature on company performance in the Chinese energy industry by demonstrating the differences in the performance of Chinese listed companies in the energy industry with regard to top managers' background characteristics, and reaching conclusions on the optimum distribution interval of top managers' background characteristics when company performance

  17. Electrical/Electronic Technology (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for an electrical/electronic technology course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a…

  18. Jordanian industrial sector future energy consumption: Potential savings and environmental impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallat, Yousef; Al-Ghandoor, Ahmed; Salaymah, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes and evaluates impacts of introducing some efficient measures on the future fuel and electricity demands and associated reduction in GHG emissions. Without employing most effective energy conservation measures, energy demand is expected to rise by approximately 38% within 12 years time. Consequently, associated GHG emissions resulting from activities within the industrial sector are predicted to rise by 33% for the same period. However, if recommended energy management measures are implemented on a gradual basis, electricity and fuel consumptions as well as GHG emissions are forecasted to increase at a lower rate.

  19. Materials Flows Through Industry Tool to Track Supply Chain Energy Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Alberta; Mann, Margaret; Gelman, Rachel; Lewis, John; Benson, David; Cresko, Joe; Ma, Seungwook

    2014-10-01

    In evaluating next-generation materials and processes, the supply chain can have a large impact on the life cycle energy impacts. The Materials Flow through Industry (MFI) tool was developed for the Department of Energy's Advanced Manufacturing Office to be able to evaluate the energy impacts of the U.S. supply chain. The tool allows users to perform process comparisons, material substitutions, and grid modifications, and to see the effects of implementing sector efficiency potentials (Masanet, et al. 2009). This paper reviews the methodology of the tool and provides results around specific scenarios.

  20. Case history studies of energy conservation improvements in the dairy industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Presented are ten case histories about energy-efficient technologies implemented by the dairy industry. For each case is presented: the name and location of the company, and its product line; energy consumption and costs at the plant before and after implementation of energy-conserving technology; the factors that prompted the investment; and product quality as a result of the new equipment. The measures presented are: refrigeration compressor replacement, turbulators in boiler tubes, stack exchange on boilers, reverse osmosis, six-effect evaporator, multi-effect evaporator with thermal vapor recompressor, spray dryer heat recovery, efficient compressor operations, mechanical vapor recompression evaporator, preheated spray dryer air with recoverable waste heat. (LEW)

  1. The insurance and risk management industries: new players in thedelivery of energy-efficient and renewable energy products andservices

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2001-11-26

    The insurance industry is typically considered to have little concern about energy issues. However, the historical involvement by insurers and allied industries in the development and deployment of familiar loss-prevention technologies such as automobile air bags, fire prevention/suppression systems, and anti-theft devices, shows that this industry has a tradition of utilizing technology to improve safety and otherwise reduce the likelihood of losses for which they would otherwise have to pay. Through an examination of the connection between risk management and energy efficiency, we have identified nearly 80 examples of energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies that offer''loss-prevention'' benefits, and have mapped these opportunities onto the appropriate segments of the very diverse insurance sector (life, health,property, liability, business interruption, etc.). Some insurers and risk managers are beginning to recognize these previously un-noticed benefits.This paper presents the business case for insurer involvement in energy efficiency and documents case studies of insurer efforts along these lines. We review steps taken by 52 forward-looking insurers and reinsurers, 5 brokers, and 7 insurance organizations, and 13non-insurance organizations in the energy-efficiency arena. The approaches can be grouped into the categories of: information, education,and demonstration; financial incentives; specialized policies and products; direct investment to promote energy efficiency and renewables; value-added customer services and inspections; efficient codes,standards, and policies; research and development; and in-house energy management in insurer-owned properties. Specific examples include reduced premiums for architects and engineers who practice building commissioning(reduces risk of property loss and liability-related claims), insurer promotion of improved indoor air quality practices (mitigating life,health, and liability risks), and insurer promotion of

  2. Human skin permeation of neutral species and ionic species: extended linear free-energy relationship analyses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Keda; Chen, Ming; Scriba, Gerhard K E; Abraham, Michael H; Fahr, Alfred; Liu, Xiangli

    2012-06-01

    The permeability, K(p), of some ionized solutes (including nine acids and nine bases) through human epidermis membrane was measured in this work. Combined with the experimental K(p) data set for neutral species created by Abraham and Martins and reliable K(p) data for ionic species from the literature, a linear free-energy relationship (LFER) analysis was conducted. The values of log K(p) for 118 compounds have been correlated with solute descriptors to yield an LFER equation that incorporates neutral species and ionic species, with R(2) = 0.861 and SD = 0.462 log units. The equation can be used to predict K(p) for neutral species and ionic species, as well as partly ionized solutes. Predicted values for the passive permeation of the sodium ion and the tetraethylammonium ion are in good accord with the experimental values. It was observed that neutral acids and bases are more permeable than their ionized forms, and that the ratio depends on the actual structure. The correlation between human skin permeation and water-organic solvent/artificial membrane partitions was investigated by comparison of the coefficients in the LFER equations. Partition into cerasome is a reasonable model for partition into skin, and using cerasome as a surrogate for the partitioning process, we separate permeation into partition and diffusion processes. We show that the poor permeability of ionic species is largely due to slow diffusion through the stratum corneum. This is especially marked for a number of protonated base cations.

  3. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Energieverbruik in de textielnijverheid (The consumption of energy in the textile industry). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bettens, G.

    1984-01-01

    Figures are given for the consumption and cost of energy in the Belgian textile industry. The main energy users are identified as the wet processes such as dyeing. A brief survey of mechanical processes such as yarn and fabric manufacture is given showing where economies can be made by running at a slower speed and using modern machinery. The wet processes are dealt with in more detail and general indications are given of how economies in energy consumption can be made. Modifying processes, reducing water consumption and improving drying techniques are three examples. The principles are outlined of heat recovery giving figures from industry of the kind of savings that can be made using heat exchangers.

  5. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this report is to help focus the federal programs in biomass energy, by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid-1979. In addition, the industry's perceptions of government activities are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations, as listed in Exhibit 1. Interview findings have been supplemented by research of recent literature. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry; (2) what are the companies doing; (3) what are their objectives and strategies; and (4) what are the implications for government policy. This executive summary provides highlights of the key findings and conclusions. The summary discussion is presented in seven parts: (1) overview of the biomass field; (2) structure of the biomass industry today; (3) corporate activities in biomass-related areas; (4) motivations for these activities; (5) industry's outlook on the future for energy-from-biomass; (6) industry's view of government activities; and (7) implications for Federal policy.

  6. Long-Term US Industrial Energy Use and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Marshall A.; Sinha, Paramita; Smith, Steven J.; Lurz, Joshua P.

    2007-12-03

    We present a description and scenario results from our recently-developed long-term model of United States industrial sector energy consumption, which we have incorporated as a module within the ObjECTS-MiniCAM integrated assessment model. This new industrial model focuses on energy technology and fuel choices over a 100 year period and allows examination of the industrial sector response to climate policies within a global modeling framework. A key challenge was to define a level of aggregation that would be able to represent the dynamics of industrial energy demand responses to prices and policies, but at a level that remains tractable over a long time frame. In our initial results, we find that electrification is an important response to a climate policy, although there are services where there are practical and economic limits to electrification, and the ability to switch to a low-carbon fuel becomes key. Cogeneration of heat and power using biomass may also play a role in reducing carbon emissions under a policy constraint.

  7. The Challenges and Opportunities for Extending Plant Genomics to Climate (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, David

    2013-03-01

    David Weston of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on "The challenges and opportunities for extending plant genomics to climate" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  8. Industrial waste materials and by-products as thermal energy storage (TES) materials: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Andrea; Miró, Laia; Gil, Antoni; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; Barreneche, Camila; Calvet, Nicolas; Py, Xavier; Fernández, A. Inés; Grágeda, Mario; Ushak, Svetlana; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of potential materials for thermal energy storage (TES) have been identify depending on the implemented TES method, Sensible, latent or thermochemical. In order to improve the efficiency of TES systems more alternatives are continuously being sought. In this regard, this paper presents the review of low cost heat storage materials focused mainly in two objectives: on the one hand, the implementation of improved heat storage devices based on new appropriate materials and, on the other hand, the valorisation of waste industrial materials will have strong environmental, economic and societal benefits such as reducing the landfilled waste amounts, reducing the greenhouse emissions and others. Different industrial and municipal waste materials and by products have been considered as potential TES materials and have been characterized as such. Asbestos containing wastes, fly ashes, by-products from the salt industry and from the metal industry, wastes from recycling steel process and from copper refining process and dross from the aluminium industry, and municipal wastes (glass and nylon) have been considered. This work shows a great revalorization of wastes and by-product opportunity as TES materials, although more studies are needed to achieve industrial deployment of the idea.

  9. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production.

    PubMed

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu, Xinmei; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester.

  10. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Federal programs in biomass energy are defined by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid 1979. The industry's perceptions of government activites are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities, petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry? (2) what are the companies doing? (3) what are their objectives and strategies? (4) what are the implications for government policy?

  11. AY 2007-2008 Achieving U.S. Energy Security: Energy Industry Sector Report Seminar 8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    2008 ABSTRACT: The source of U.S. national security strength stems in large part from the nation’s economic foundation; the ability to generate and...exploit inexpensive energy underpins that strength. Therefore, the United States has a vital interest in ensuring the viability and stability of...relationships with nations that broaden our energy portfolio to maintain diversity of source; 3.) Increase the U.S.’ global leadership role in

  12. An Assessment of the Effects of Vegetation on Water and Energy Budgets over an Extended Period of Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X.; Liang, X.

    2011-12-01

    Plants play an important role in the water and energy cycle in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. Incorporating eco-hydrological processes into a land surface model facilitates understanding of the interactions among vegetation, soil, surface and subsurface processes. In this study the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model is extended to include process-based parameterizations of eco-hydrological processes, including hydraulic redistribution, storage flow, and photosynthesis. An explicit representation of the interactions between eco-hydrological processes and the groundwater table dynamics are also included. The new model has been tested using observed data from the Duke Forest Loblolly Pine (US-Dk3) site located in North Carolina, USA. The model simulated soil water content, carbon assimilation and energy results are compared to the observations at different time scales. Impacts of the processes of the hydraulic redistribution and plant storage flow, in combination with heterogeneities of soil properties and groundwater table depths, on the water and energy budgets are examined through a series of comprehensive sensitivity analyses. The model is also employed to investigate impacts of interactions between groundwater table dynamics and plant transpiration over sustained drought periods. Results and new insights will be presented and discussed.

  13. Long-range energy transfer and ionization in extended quantum systems driven by ultrashort spatially shaped laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Paramonov, Guennaddi K; Bandrauk, André D; Kühn, Oliver

    2011-05-21

    The processes of ionization and energy transfer in a quantum system composed of two distant H atoms with an initial internuclear separation of 100 atomic units (5.29 nm) have been studied by the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Thereby it has been assumed that only one of the two H atoms was excited by temporally and spatially shaped laser pulses at various laser carrier frequencies. The quantum dynamics of the extended H-H system, which was taken to be initially either in an unentangled or an entangled ground state, has been explored within a linear three-dimensional model, including the two z coordinates of the electrons and the internuclear distance R. An efficient energy transfer from the laser-excited H atom (atom A) to the other H atom (atom B) and the ionization of the latter have been found. It has been shown that the physical mechanisms of the energy transfer as well as of the ionization of atom B are the Coulomb attraction of the laser driven electron of atom A by the proton of atom B and a short-range Coulomb repulsion of the two electrons when their wave functions strongly overlap in the domain of atom B.

  14. China's Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises Program:Reducing Energy Consumption of the 1000 Largest Industrial Enterprises in China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Price, Lynn; Wang, Xuejun; Yun, Jiang

    2008-06-02

    In 2005, the Chinese government announced an ambitious goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% between 2005 and 2010. One of the key initiatives for realizing this goal is the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises program. The energy consumption of these 1000 enterprises accounted for 33% of national and 47% of industrial energy usage in 2004. Under the Top-1000 program, 2010 energy consumption targets were determined for each enterprise. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the program design and initial results, given limited information and data, in order to understand the possible implications of its success in terms of energy and carbon dioxide emissions reductions and to recommend future program modifications based on international experience with similar target-setting agreement programs. Even though the Top-1000 Program was designed and implemented rapidly, it appears that--depending upon the GDP growth rate--it could contribute to somewhere between approximately 10% and 25% of the savings required to support China's efforts to meet a 20% reduction in energy use per unit of GDP by 2010.

  15. Extending standard testing period in honeybees to predict lifespan impacts of pesticides and heavy metals using dynamic energy budget modelling

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, H.; Lahive, E.; Horton, A. A.; Robinson, A. G.; Svendsen, C.; Rortais, A.; Dorne, J.- L.; Baas, J.; Spurgeon, D. J.; Heard, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Concern over reported honeybee (Apis mellifera spp.) losses has highlighted chemical exposure as a risk. Current laboratory oral toxicity tests in A. mellifera spp. use short-term, maximum 96 hour, exposures which may not necessarily account for chronic and cumulative toxicity. Here, we use extended 240 hour (10 day) exposures to examine seven agrochemicals and trace environmental pollutant toxicities for adult honeybees. Data were used to parameterise a dynamic energy budget model (DEBtox) to further examine potential survival effects up to 30 day and 90 day summer and winter worker lifespans. Honeybees were most sensitive to insecticides (clothianidin > dimethoate ≫ tau-fluvalinate), then trace metals/metalloids (cadmium, arsenic), followed by the fungicide propiconazole and herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). LC50s calculated from DEBtox parameters indicated a 27 fold change comparing exposure from 48 to 720 hours (summer worker lifespan) for cadmium, as the most time-dependent chemical as driven by slow toxicokinetics. Clothianidin and dimethoate exhibited more rapid toxicokinetics with 48 to 720 hour LC50s changes of <4 fold. As effects from long-term exposure may exceed those measured in short-term tests, future regulatory tests should extend to 96 hours as standard, with extension to 240 hour exposures further improving realism. PMID:27995934

  16. Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the US Fluid Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this report is to estimate the impact (energy, emissions and economics) of United Fluid power (hydraulic and pneumatic actuation) is the generation, control, and application of pumped or compressed fluids when this power is used to provide force and motion to mechanisms. This form of mechanical power is an integral part of United States (U.S.) manufacturing and transportation. In 2008, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, sales of fluid power components exceeded $17.7B, sales of systems using fluid power exceeded $226B. As large as the industry is, it has had little fundamental research that could lead to improved efficiency since the late 1960s (prior to the 1970 energy crisis). While there have been some attempts to replace fluid powered components with electric systems, its performance and rugged operating condition limit the impact of simple part replacement. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Fluid Power Association (NFPA) collaborated with 31 industrial partners to collect and consolidate energy specific measurements (consumption, emissions, efficiency) of deployed fluid power systems. The objective of this study was to establish a rudimentary order of magnitude estimate of the energy consumed by fluid powered systems. The analysis conducted in this study shows that fluid powered systems consumed between 2.0 and 2.9 Quadrillion (1015) Btus (Quads) of energy per year; producing between 310 and 380 million metric tons (MMT) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). In terms of efficiency, the study indicates that, across all industries, fluid power system efficiencies range from less than 9% to as high as 60% (depending upon the application), with an average efficiency of 22%. A review of case studies shows that there are many opportunities to impact energy savings in both the manufacturing and transportation sectors by the development and deployment of energy efficient fluid power components and systems.

  17. Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model (18-sector version)

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.H.; Thimmapuram, P.; Fisher, R.E.; Maciorowski, W.

    1993-05-01

    The new 18-sector Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model is designed for convenient study of future industrial energy consumption, taking into account the composition of production, energy prices, and certain kinds of policy initiatives. Electricity and aggregate fossil fuels are modeled. Changes in energy intensity in each sector are driven by autonomous technological improvement (price-independent trend), the opportunity for energy-price-sensitive improvements, energy price expectations, and investment behavior. Although this decision-making framework involves more variables than the simplest econometric models, it enables direct comparison of an econometric approach with conservation supply curves from detailed engineering analysis. It also permits explicit consideration of a variety of policy approaches other than price manipulation. The model is tested in terms of historical data for nine manufacturing sectors, and parameters are determined for forecasting purposes. Relatively uniform and satisfactory parameters are obtained from this analysis. In this report, LIEF is also applied to create base-case and demand-side management scenarios to briefly illustrate modeling procedures and outputs.

  18. Voluntary agreements for increasing energy-efficiency in industry: Case study of a pilot project with the steel industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2003-03-01

    China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly-growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. China's industrial sector is heavily dependent on the country's abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. While tremendous energy conservation and environmental protection achievements were realized in the industrial sector in the past, there remains a great gulf between the China's level of energy efficiency and that of the advanced countries of the world. Internationally, significant energy efficiency improvement in the industrial sector has been realized in a number of countries using an innovative policy mechanism called Voluntary Agreements. This paper describes international experience with Voluntary Agreements in the industrial sector as well as the development of a pilot program to test the use of such agreements with two steel mills in Shandong Province, China.

  19. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    The motor vehicle industry in the U.S. spends about $3.6 billion on energy annually. In this report, we focus on auto assembly plants. In the U.S., over 70 assembly plants currently produce 13 million cars and trucks each year. In assembly plants, energy expenditures is a relatively small cost factor in the total production process. Still, as manufacturers face an increasingly competitive environment, energy efficiency improvements can provide a means to reduce costs without negatively affecting the yield or the quality of the product. In addition, reducing energy costs reduces the unpredictability associated with variable energy prices in today?s marketplace, which could negatively affect predictable earnings, an important element for publicly-traded companies such as those in the motor vehicle industry. In this report, we first present a summary of the motor vehicle assembly process and energy use. This is followed by a discussion of energy efficiency opportunities available for assembly plants. Where available, we provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have listed costs and typical payback periods. We include experiences of assembly plants worldwide with energy efficiency measures reviewed in the report. Our findings suggest that although most motor vehicle companies in the U.S. have energy management teams or programs, there are still opportunities available at individual plants to reduce energy consumption cost effectively. Further research on the economics of the measures for individual assembly plants, as part of an energy management program, is needed to assess the potential impact of selected technologies at these plants.

  20. Promoting emerging energy-efficiency technologies and practices by utilities in a restructured energy industry: A report from California

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, Edward L.

    2000-07-01

    The potential energy savings from emerging technologies (i.e., those technologies emerging from research and development) represent a significant resource to California and the US This paper describes how California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) have been promoting emerging technologies over the last three years to increase energy efficiency in the buildings sector. During these years, the IOUs have experienced significant changes in their regulatory environment as part of the restructuring of the energy industry in California. These regulatory changes have impacted the way emerging technologies are treated by the regulatory community and the IOUs. After reviewing these changes, the paper concludes by discussing potential opportunities to improve the market penetration of emerging technologies.

  1. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu Xinmei; Bjoernsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas

  2. Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: a historical perspective and future opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbles, John

    2000-09-01

    The U.S. steel industry has taken enormous strides over the past decades to reduce its energy consumption; since the end of World War II, the industry has reduced its energy intensity (energy use per shipped ton) by 60 percent. Between 1990 and 1998 alone, intensity has dropped from 20 to 18 million Btu (MBtu) per ton. This figure is projected to decrease to 15 MBtu/ton by 2010 with an asymptotic trend towards 14 MBtu/ton. Domestic shipments are projected to flatten out over the next decade to around 105 million tons which means that total energy consumption will also decrease. Historically, the steel industry has accounted for about 6 percent of U.S. energy consumption. Today, that figure is less than 2 percent and will decrease further to 1.5 percent by 2010. The primary causes for the decrease in energy consumption since WWII are: The use of pellets in the blast furnace and the application of new technology in the ironmaking process to further reduce fuel rates per net ton of hot metal (NTHM); The total replacement of the open hearth process by basic oxygen and electric furnaces; The almost total replacement of ingot casting by continuous casting (which improved yield dramatically and thus reduced the tons of raw steel required per ton of shipments); and The growth of the electric furnace sector of the industry at the expense of hot metal-based processes (which has also stimulated scrap recycling so that about 55 percent of ''new'' steel is now melted from scrap steel). This report focuses on the concept of good practices (i.e., those that are sustainable and can use today's technology). If all the industry could operate on this basis, the additional savings per ton could total 2 MBtu, As further restructuring occurs and the swing from hot metal-based to electric furnace-based production continues, the average consumption will approach the good practice energy per ton. Further savings will accrue through new technology, particularly in the areas of reduced blast

  3. Characterization of extended range Bonner Sphere Spectrometers in the CERF high-energy broad neutron field at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosteo, S.; Bedogni, R.; Caresana, M.; Charitonidis, N.; Chiti, M.; Esposito, A.; Ferrarini, M.; Severino, C.; Silari, M.

    2012-12-01

    The accurate determination of the ambient dose equivalent in the mixed neutron-photon fields encountered around high-energy particle accelerators still represents a challenging task. The main complexity arises from the extreme variability of the neutron energy, which spans over 10 orders of magnitude or more. Operational survey instruments, which response function attempts to mimic the fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficient up to GeV neutrons, are available on the market, but their response is not fully reliable over the entire energy range. Extended range rem counters (ERRC) do not require the exact knowledge of the energy distribution of the neutron field and the calibration can be done with a source spectrum. If the actual neutron field has an energy distribution different from the calibration spectrum, the measurement is affected by an added uncertainty related to the partial overlap of the fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion curve and the response function. For this reason their operational use should always be preceded by an "in-field" calibration, i.e. a calibration made against a reference instrument exposed in the same field where the survey-meter will be employed. In practice the extended-range Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (ERBSS) is the only device which can serve as reference instrument in these fields, because of its wide energy range and the possibility to assess the neutron fluence and the ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) values with the appropriate accuracy. Nevertheless, the experience gained by a number of experimental groups suggests that mandatory conditions for obtaining accurate results in workplaces are: (1) the use of a well-established response matrix, thus implying validation campaigns in reference monochromatic neutrons fields, (2) the expert and critical use of suitable unfolding codes, and (3) the performance test of the whole system (experimental set-up, elaboration and unfolding procedures) in a well

  4. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, III, William R.; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Xu, Tengfang

    2012-12-03

    India’s cement industry is the second largest in the world behind China with annual cement production of 168 Mt in 2010 which accounted for slightly greater than six percent of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. To produce that amount of cement, the industry consumed roughly 700 PJ of fuel and 14.7 TWh of electricity. We identified and analyzed 22 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the Indian cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model and compared to an electricity price forecast the cumulative cost-effective plant-level electricity savings potential for the Indian cement industry for 2010- 2030 is estimated to be 83 TWh, and the cumulative plant-level technical electricity saving potential is 89 TWh during the same period. The grid-level CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 82 Mt CO2 and the electric grid-level CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 88 Mt CO2. Compared to a fuel price forecast, an estimated cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 1,029 PJ with associated CO2 emission reduction of 97 Mt CO2 during 2010-2030 is possible. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Indian cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost over the next twenty years.

  5. Improved Methods for Identifying, Applying, and Verifying Industrial Energy Efficiency Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Andrew Chase

    Energy efficiency is the least expensive source of additional energy capacity for today's global energy expansion. Energy efficiency offers additional benefits of cost savings for consumers, reduced environmental impacts, and enhanced energy security. The challenges of energy efficiency include identifying potential efficiency measures, quantifying savings, determining cost effectiveness, and verifying savings of installed measures. This thesis presents three separate chapters which address these challenges. The first is a paper presented at the 2014 industrial energy technology conference (IETC) that details a compressed air system project using the systems approach to identify cost effective measures, energy intensity to project savings, and proper measurement and verification (M&V) practices to prove that the savings were achieved. The second is a discussion of proper M&V techniques, how these apply to international M&V protocols, and how M&V professionals can improve the accuracy and efficacy of their M&V activities. The third is an energy intensity analysis of a poultry processing facility at a unit operations level, which details the M&V practices used to determine the intensities at each unit operation and compares these to previous works.

  6. 76 FR 76174 - Request for Information on the State of the Offshore Renewable Energy Industry-Auction Format...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Request for Information on the State of the Offshore Renewable Energy... auction formats which may be used to issue commercial renewable energy leases on the Outer Continental... offshore renewable energy industry, including economic matters that promote or detract from...

  7. 30 CFR 585.116 - Requests for information on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... received, the Director may evaluate potential refinements to the OCS Alternative Energy Program that... offshore renewable energy industry. 585.116 Section 585.116 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES...

  8. 30 CFR 585.116 - Requests for information on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... received, the Director may evaluate potential refinements to the OCS Alternative Energy Program that... offshore renewable energy industry. 585.116 Section 585.116 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES...

  9. 30 CFR 585.116 - Requests for information on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... received, the Director may evaluate potential refinements to the OCS Alternative Energy Program that... offshore renewable energy industry. 585.116 Section 585.116 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES...

  10. Energy efficient--advanced oxidation process for treatment of cyanide containing automobile industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mudliar, R; Umare, S S; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2009-05-30

    Destruction of cyanide (CN) from an automobile industry wastewater by advance oxidation process (AOP) has been evaluated. The operating conditions (in an indigenously designed photoreactor) for three different treatment strategies have been optimized. The treatment strategies involved use of, ultra violet light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and ozone (O(3)) in various combinations. Treatment of automobile industry wastewater (250 mg/L CN) showed fastest CN destruction, which was significantly (P<0.05) faster than that observed with synthetic wastewater (with similar CN concentration). A combined application of H(2)O(2)/O(3) was found to be the best option for maximum CN destruction. This treatment allows CN to reach the regional/international limit (of 0.02 mg/L) for safe industrial wastewater discharges to the receiving water bodies. The specific energy consumption by the photoreactor following this treatment was comparable to that obtained by conventional treatments, which use photocatalyst. Since the present treatment does not use catalyst, it provides an excellent energy efficient and economical option for treatment and safe disposal of CN containing industrial wastewater.

  11. Could energy-intensive industries be powered by carbon-free electricity?

    PubMed

    MacKay, David J C

    2013-03-13

    While the main thrust of the Discussion Meeting Issue on 'Material efficiency: providing material services with less material production' was to explore ways in which society's net demand for materials could be reduced, this review examines the possibility of converting industrial energy demand to electricity, and switching to clean electricity sources. This review quantifies the scale of infrastructure required in the UK, focusing on wind and nuclear power as the clean electricity sources, and sets these requirements in the context of the decarbonization of the whole energy system using wind, biomass, solar power in deserts and nuclear options. The transition of industry to a clean low-carbon electricity supply, although technically possible with several different technologies, would have very significant infrastructure requirements.

  12. First Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this second volume cover Transportation Fuels, and Chemicals and Products. Transportation Fuels topics include: Biodiesel, Pyrolytic Liquids, Ethanol, Methanol and Ethers, and Commercialization. The Chemicals and Products section includes specific topics in: Research, Technology Transfer, and Commercial Systems. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. A simulation of energy utilization and technological change in the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, B.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    The ITEMS software package is used to simulate adoption of energy-efficient technologies in the paper industry under several scenarios. The simulation is calibrated so that the reference year replicates the 1991 fuel utilization and end use patterns in the paper industry. This paper describes the main features of the ITEMS, including its technology database, the manner in which it simulates the key process steps in producing paper products, and the decision-making rules use in ITEMS regarding technology adoption. In addition, the paper describes the pulp and paper-making technologies included in the simulation. The value of ITEMS in assessing the impacts of R and D investments in energy-efficiency and other policy options is examined.

  14. Utilization of industrial dairy waste as microalgae cultivation medium : a potential study for sustainable energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurmayani, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Putra, R. H.

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae is one of biodiesel resources and call as third generation biofuel. Biodiesel is one alternative energy that being developed. So study about resource of biodiesel need a development, for the example is development the basic material such as microalgae. In this paper we explain the potential use of dairy waste from industry as a cultivation medium of microalgae for biodiesel production. Dairy waste from dairy industry contains 34.98% protein, 4.42% lactose, 9.77% fiber, 11.04% fat, 2.33% calcium, 1.05% phosfor, and 0.4 % magnesium, meaning that the dairy waste from dairy industry has a relatively high nutrient content and complete from a source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus as macro nutrients. The method in this paper is literature review to resulting a new conclusion about the potency of waste water from dairy industry as microalgae cultivation medium. Based on the study, the dairy waste from dairy industry has potency to be used as cultivation medium of Botryococcus braunii in the production of biodiesel, replacing the conventional cultivation medium.

  15. Industry/government collaborations on short-rotation woody crops for energy, fiber and wood products

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Berg, S.

    1996-12-31

    More than twenty-five organizations can be identified in the US and Canada that have research plantings of 20 ha in size or greater of short-rotation woody crops and most of those are well-established forest products companies. In 1990, only 9 forest products companies had commercial or substantial research plantings of short-rotation woody crops. The recent harvest and use of hybrid poplars for pulp and paper production in the Pacific Northwest has clearly stimulated interest in the use of genetically superior hybrid poplar clones across North America. Industry and government supported research cooperatives have been formed to develop sophisticated techniques for producing genetically superior hybrid poplars and willows suited for a variety of locations in the US. While the primary use of commercially planted short-rotation woody crops is for pulp and paper, energy is a co-product in most situations. A document defining a year 2020 technology vision for America`s forest, wood and paper industry affirms that {open_quotes}biomass will be used not only for building materials and paper and paperboard products, but also increasingly for steam, power, and liquid fuel production.{close_quotes} To accomplish the goals of {open_quotes}Agenda 2020{close_quotes} a new collaborative research effort on sustainable forestry has been initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA). Both the new and old collaborative efforts are focusing on achieving substantial and sustainable gains in U.S. wood production for both energy and traditional wood products. AF&PA and DOE hope that industry and government partnerships addressing the competitiveness and energy efficiency of U.S. industries, can serve as a model for future research efforts.

  16. Development of a Neural Network-Based Renewable Energy Forecasting Framework for Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soobin; Ryu, Jun-Hyung; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lee, In-Beum

    2016-06-25

    This paper presents a neural network-based forecasting framework for photovoltaic power (PV) generation as a decision-supporting tool to employ renewable energies in the process industry. The applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated by comparing its performance against other methodologies such as linear and nonlinear time series modelling approaches. A case study of an actual PV power plant in South Korea is presented.

  17. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  18. Scenario and multiple criteria decision analysis for energy and environmental security of military and industrial installations.

    PubMed

    Karvetski, Christopher W; Lambert, James H; Linkov, Igor

    2011-04-01

    Military and industrial facilities need secure and reliable power generation. Grid outages can result in cascading infrastructure failures as well as security breaches and should be avoided. Adding redundancy and increasing reliability can require additional environmental, financial, logistical, and other considerations and resources. Uncertain scenarios consisting of emergent environmental conditions, regulatory changes, growth of regional energy demands, and other concerns result in further complications. Decisions on selecting energy alternatives are made on an ad hoc basis. The present work integrates scenario analysis and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to identify combinations of impactful emergent conditions and to perform a preliminary benefits analysis of energy and environmental security investments for industrial and military installations. Application of a traditional MCDA approach would require significant stakeholder elicitations under multiple uncertain scenarios. The approach proposed in this study develops and iteratively adjusts a scoring function for investment alternatives to find the scenarios with the most significant impacts on installation security. A robust prioritization of investment alternatives can be achieved by integrating stakeholder preferences and focusing modeling and decision-analytical tools on a few key emergent conditions and scenarios. The approach is described and demonstrated for a campus of several dozen interconnected industrial buildings within a major installation.

  19. Comparative analysis of energy data bases for the industrial and commercial sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Belzer, D.B.; Bohn, A.A.

    1986-12-01

    Energy data bases for the industrial and commercial sectors were analyzed to determine how valuable this data might be for policy analysis. The approach is the same for both end-use sectors: first a descrption or overview of relevant data bases identifies the available data; the coverage and methods used to generate the data are then explained; the data are then characterized and examples are provided for the major data sets under consideration. A final step assesses the data bases under consideration and draws conclusions. There are a variety of data bases considered for each of the end-use sectors included in this report. Data bases for the industrial sector include the National Energy Accounts, process-derived data bases such as the Drexel data base and data obtained from industry trade associations. For the commercial sector, three types of data bases are analyzed: the Nonresidential Building Energy Consumption Surveys, Dodge Construction Data and the Building Owners and Manager's Association Experience Exchange Report.

  20. Analysis of energy use in building services of the industrial sector in California: A literature review and a preliminary characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Borgers, T.; Gadgil, A.; Sezgen, O.

    1991-04-01

    Energy use patterns in many of California's fastest-growing industries are not typical of those in the mix of industries elsewhere in the US. Many California firms operate small and medium-sized facilities, often in buildings used simultaneously or interchangeably for commercial (office, retail, warehouse) and industrial activities. In these industrial subsectors, the energy required for building services'' to provide occupant comfort and necessities (lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.) may be at least as important as the more familiar process energy requirements -- especially for electricity and on-peak demand. In this report, published or unpublished information on energy use for building services in the industrial sector have been compiled and analyzed. Seven different sources of information and data relevant to California have been identified. Most of these are studies and/or projects sponsored by the Department of Energy, the California Energy Commission, and local utilities. The objectives of these studies were diverse: most focused on industrial energy use in general, and, in one case, the objective was to analyze energy use in commercial buildings. Only one of these studies focused directly on non-process energy use in industrial buildings. Our analysis of Northern California data for five selected industries shows that the contribution of total electricity consumption for lighting ranges from 9.5% in frozen fruits to 29.1% in instruments; for air-conditioning, it ranges from nonexistent in frozen fruits to 35% in instrument manufacturing. None of the five industries selected had significant electrical space heating. Gas space heating ranges from 5% in motor vehicles facilities to more than 58% in the instrument manufacturing industry. 15 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. U.S. Energy Service Company Industry: Market Size and Project Performance from 1990-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Satchwell, Andrew

    2012-08-21

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry is an example of a private sector business model where energy savings are delivered to customers primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. This study was conceived as a snapshot of the ESCO industry prior to the economic slowdown and the introduction of federal stimulus funding mandated by enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). This study utilizes two parallel analytic approaches to characterize ESCO industry and market trends in the U.S.: (1) a ?top-down? approach involving a survey of individual ESCOs to estimate aggregate industry activity and (2) a ?bottom-up? analysis of a database of ~;;3,250 projects (representing over $8B in project investment) that reports market trends including installed EE retrofit strategies, project installation costs and savings, project payback times, and benefit-cost ratios over time. Despite the onset of a severe economic recession, the U.S. ESCO industry managed to grow at about 7percent per year between 2006 and 2008. ESCO industry revenues were about $4.1 billion in 2008 and ESCOs anticipate accelerated growth through 2011 (25percent per year). We found that 2,484 ESCO projects in our database generated ~;;$4.0 billion ($2009) in net, direct economic benefits to their customers. We estimate that the ESCO project database includes about 20percent of all U.S. ESCO market activity from 1990-2008. Assuming the net benefits per project are comparable for ESCO projects that are not included in the LBNL database, this would suggest that the ESCO industry has generated ~;;$23 billion in net direct economic benefits for customers at projects installed between 1990 and 2008. There is empirical evidence confirming that the industry is evolving by installing more comprehensive and complex measures?including onsite generation and measures to address deferred maintenance?but this evolution has significant implications for customer project

  2. Energy balance and economic feasibility of shallow geothermal systems for winery industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Mazarrón, F.; Almoguera-Millán, J.; García-Llaneza, J.; Perdigones, A.

    2012-04-01

    The search of energy efficient solutions has not yet been accomplished in agro-food constructions, for which technical studies and orientations are needed to find energy efficient solutions adapted to the environment. The main objective of this investigation is to evaluate the effectiveness of using shallow geothermal energy for the winery industry. World wine production in 2009 stood at 27100 millions of litres [1]. World spends 320 billion Euros on wine a year, according to industry insiders. On average, it is estimated that producing 1 litre of wine sold in a 75 cl glass bottle costs around 0.5-1.2 Euros /litre [2]. The process of ageing the wine could substantially increase production costs. Considering the time required for the aging of wine (months or years) and the size of the constructions, the use of an air conditioning system implies a considerable increase in energy consumption. Underground wine cellars have been in use for centuries for making and ageing wine. Ground thermal inertia provides protection from outdoor temperature oscillation and maintains thermal stability without energy consumption [3]. Since the last century, production of wine has moved to buildings above ground that have several advantages: lower construction cost, more space, etc. Nevertheless, these constructions require a large energy consumption to maintain suitable conditions for the ageing and conservation of wine. This change of construction techniques is the cause of an increase in energy consumption in modern wineries. The use of shallow geothermal energy can be a good alternative to take advantage of the benefits of aboveground buildings and underground constructions simultaneously. Shallow geothermal systems can meet the needs of heating and cooling using a single installation, maintaining low energy consumption. Therefore, it could be a good alternative to conventional HVAC systems. The main disadvantage of geothermal systems is the high cost of investment required. This

  3. Extended Adaptive Biasing Force Algorithm. An On-the-Fly Implementation for Accurate Free-Energy Calculations.

    PubMed

    Fu, Haohao; Shao, Xueguang; Chipot, Christophe; Cai, Wensheng

    2016-08-09

    Proper use of the adaptive biasing force (ABF) algorithm in free-energy calculations needs certain prerequisites to be met, namely, that the Jacobian for the metric transformation and its first derivative be available and the coarse variables be independent and fully decoupled from any holonomic constraint or geometric restraint, thereby limiting singularly the field of application of the approach. The extended ABF (eABF) algorithm circumvents these intrinsic limitations by applying the time-dependent bias onto a fictitious particle coupled to the coarse variable of interest by means of a stiff spring. However, with the current implementation of eABF in the popular molecular dynamics engine NAMD, a trajectory-based post-treatment is necessary to derive the underlying free-energy change. Usually, such a posthoc analysis leads to a decrease in the reliability of the free-energy estimates due to the inevitable loss of information, as well as to a drop in efficiency, which stems from substantial read-write accesses to file systems. We have developed a user-friendly, on-the-fly code for performing eABF simulations within NAMD. In the present contribution, this code is probed in eight illustrative examples. The performance of the algorithm is compared with traditional ABF, on the one hand, and the original eABF implementation combined with a posthoc analysis, on the other hand. Our results indicate that the on-the-fly eABF algorithm (i) supplies the correct free-energy landscape in those critical cases where the coarse variables at play are coupled to either each other or to geometric restraints or holonomic constraints, (ii) greatly improves the reliability of the free-energy change, compared to the outcome of a posthoc analysis, and (iii) represents a negligible additional computational effort compared to regular ABF. Moreover, in the proposed implementation, guidelines for choosing two parameters of the eABF algorithm, namely the stiffness of the spring and the mass

  4. Energy harvesting performance of a broadband electromagnetic vibration energy harvester for powering industrial wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Long; Chen, Renwen; Xia, Huakang; Zhang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-04-01

    To supply power to wireless sensor networks, a type of broadband electromagnetic vibration energy harvester (VEH) using bistable vibration scavenging structure is proposed. It consists of a planar spring, an electromagnetic transducer with an annular magnetic circuit, and a coil assembly with a ferrite bobbin inside. A nonlinear magnetic force respecting to the relative displacement is generated by the ferrite bobbin, and to broaden the working frequency bandwidth of the VEH. Moreover, the ferrite bobbin increases the magnetic flux linkage gradient of the coil assembly in its moving region, and further to improve its output voltage. The dynamic behaviors of the VEH are analyzed and predicted by finite element analysis and ODE calculation. Validation experiments are carried out and show that the VEH can harvest high energy in a relatively wide excitation frequency band. The further test shows that the load power of the VEH with a load resistor of 90Ω can reach 10mW level in a wide frequency bandwidth when the acceleration level of the harmonic excitation is 1g. It can ensure the intermittent work of many sensors as well as wireless communication modules at least.

  5. Trends in the development of industrially assimilated renewable energy: the problem of resource restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizhegorodtsev, R. M.; Ratner, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of the development of wind and solar energy and potential resource restrictions of the dissemination of these technologies of energy generation associated with intensive use of rare earth metals and some other mineral resources are presented. The technological prospects of various directions of decisions of the problem of resource restrictions, including escalating of volumes of extraction and production of necessary mineral components, creating substitutes of scarce materials and development of recycling are considered. The bottlenecks of each of the above-mentioned decisions were founded. Conclusions are drawn on the prospects of development of the Russian high-tech sectors of the economy in the context of the most probable decisions of the problem of resource restrictions of wind and solar energy. An increase in extraction and production of rare earth metals and some other materials, stimulation of domestic research and development (R&D) to create the permanent magnets of new types and new technologies of wind-powered generation, and reduction of the resource-demand and technology development of recycling the components of power equipment are the most prospective directions of progress. The innovations in these directions will be in demand on the European, Chinese, and North American markets in the near decades due to the end of the life cycle (approximately 30 years) of wind and solar energy projects started at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries (the beginning of exponential growth in plants). The private investors and relevant regional and federal government agencies can use the qualitative characteristics of the dynamics of industrially assimilated renewable energy to choose the most promising investment orientations in energy projects and selection of the most economically sound development methods of energy and related industries.

  6. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations. Volume III. Energy data on 15 selected states' manufacturing subsector

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    An examination is made of the current and future energy demands, and uses, and cost to characterize typical applications and resulting services in the US and industrial sectors of 15 selected states. Volume III presents tables containing data on selected states' manufacturing subsector energy consumption, functional uses, and cost in 1974 and 1976. Alabama, California, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, West Virginia, and Wisconsin were chosen as having the greatest potential for replacing conventional fuel with solar energy. Basic data on the quantities, cost, and types of fuel and electric energy purchased by industr for heat and power were obtained from the 1974 and 1976 Annual Survey of Manufacturers. The specific indutrial energy servic cracteristics developed for each selected state include. 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuels and electricity consumption by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (quantity and relative share); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuel consumption by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (quantity and relative share); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector average cost of purchsed fuels and electricity per million Btu by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (in 1976 dollars); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuels and electric energy intensity by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (in 1976 dollars); manufacturing subsector average annual growth rates of (1) fuels and electricity consumption, (2) fuels and electric energy intensity, and (3) average cost of purchased fuels and electricity (1974 to 1976). Data are compiled on purchased fuels, distillate fuel oil, residual ful oil, coal, coal, and breeze, and natural gas. (MCW)

  7. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Rockoff, Alexandra; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities for industrial refrigerated warehouses in California. The report describes refrigerated warehouses characteristics, energy use and demand, and control systems. It also discusses energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities and provides analysis results from three demand response studies. In addition, several energy efficiency, load management, and demand response case studies are provided for refrigerated warehouses. This study shows that refrigerated warehouses can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for open automated demand response (OpenADR) at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to OpenADR due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  8. Revisiting the emissions-energy-trade nexus: evidence from the newly industrializing countries.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khalid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Kyophilavong, Phouphet

    2016-04-01

    This paper applies Pedroni's panel cointegration approach to explore the causal relationship between trade openness, carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth for the panel of newly industrialized economies (i.e., Brazil, India, China, and South Africa) over the period of 1970-2013. Our panel cointegration estimation results found majority of the variables cointegrated and confirm the long-run association among the variables. The Granger causality test indicates bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption. A unidirectional causality is found running from trade openness to carbon dioxide emission and energy consumption and economic growth to carbon dioxide emissions. The results of causality analysis suggest that the trade liberalization in newly industrialized economies induces higher energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, the causality results are checked using an innovative accounting approach which includes forecast-error variance decomposition test and impulse response function. The long-run coefficients are estimated using fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) method, and results conclude that the trade openness and economic growth reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the long run. The results of FMOLS test sound the existence of environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. It means that trade liberalization induces carbon dioxide emission with increased national output, but it offsets that impact in the long run with reduced level of carbon dioxide emissions.

  9. Compound heat pump gas turbine: an approach to energy conservation for process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Fejer, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A compound heat pump gas turbine engine is proposed to achieve energy conservation in industrial processes that require cooling or refrigeration as well as electric power and process heat. This novel machine is basically the combination of a reversed cycle Brayton engine driven by a gas tubine, with the two engines having a common compressor. Because of this arrangement, the machine is very compact and should be relatively inexpensive to produce. Also, it can be adapted to a variety of fuels. The thermodynamic cycle and some performance characteristics of the compound engine are presented and the potential of such a machine for a meat packing plant is demonstrated. It was concluded from this study that this engine layout will result in significant reductions in engine cost, compared with systems consisting of separate components for power generation, refrigeration, and process heating. In addition, significant savings in energy consumption may be realized. Furthermore, it appears that engines of this type can be made to meet widely differing specifications as far as the split between process heat refrigeration and shaftpower is concerned. Finally, the engine can be made up of compressors, turbine stages, and heat exchangers of relatively simple design without penalties in economy, because the energy savings are achieved in this type of engine by reduction or complete elimination of waste heat, rather than high efficiencies of engine components. The possible energy savings for the meat packing industry indicate that the compound heat pump gas turbine deserves further study, including its cost, operating expenses, and environmental aspects. (LCL)

  10. An Assessment of Energy-Related Career Paths of Senior Industrial Assessment Center Program Alumni

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.A.

    2003-10-20

    The purpose of this study was to assess the career paths of alumni from the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program. IAC was originally named the Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) program when it began in association with four schools in 1976. The current IAC program provides funding to 26 engineering colleges, located in centers across the United States, to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small- to medium-sized manufacturing establishments within their respective regions. Through part-time employment with the university, students receive training and in turn conduct assessments for local manufacturers, under the direct supervision of engineering faculty. Annually, IAC participants conduct over 700 assessments, and each assessment generates recommendations for energy savings, energy cost savings, and waste and productivity cost savings customized for individual clients. An earlier study determined that energy savings could be attributed to alumni of the IAC program who take their IAC experiences with them to the professional workplace. During their careers, the alumni conduct additional energy assessments as well as influence energy efficiency through design, teaching and training, and other activities. Indeed, a significant level of program benefits can be attributed to the alumni. This project addressed such specific questions as: How many years after graduation are IAC alumni involved in energy-efficiency activities? What different methods do they use to influence energy-efficiency decisions? To answer these questions, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UT) surveyed IAC senior alumni, defined as those who graduated in 1995 or earlier. Section 2 describes the survey used in this research. The actual survey can be found in Appendix A. Section 3 describes our approach to data collection. Section 4 presents descriptive statistics about the senior alumni who responded to the survey. Section 5

  11. Anaerobic digestion of municipal, industrial, and livestock wastes for energy recovery and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Sax, R.I.; Lusk, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    The degradation of carbonaceous organic material by anaerobic bacteria leads to the production of methane gas (biogas) at the theoretical stoichiometric conversion rate of 0.35-cubic meters of methane per kilogram of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reasonably close proximity to the site of this digestion process. The untreated biogas generated from anaerobic digestion typically contains from 55% to 75% methane content, with the balance consisting mainly of carbon dioxide and a small, but important, amount of hydrogen sulfide. The untreated biogas is normally saturated with water vapor at the temperature of the digestion process which typically is in the mesophilic range 25 to 38 degrees Celsius. This overview paper describes the types of anaerobic technologies which are presently used for the digestion of various type of municipal, industrial and livestock manure wastes, summarizes the principal developments which have taken place in the field during the past several years, and discusses the energy recovery economics for each of the three usage applications. The paper stratifies the use of anaerobic digestion technology for the treatment of wastewaters from industry (an application which has increased dramatically during the past decade) by geographical region, by industry type, very various categories of food processing, and by technology type, in all cases taking account of system size to emphasize the economics of energy production.

  12. Developing software for energy conservation in the process industries: two case studies. Capsule report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1980-02-01

    Increases in energy cost occurring simultaneously with greatly decreasing computer costs have opened opportunities for applications of computers for industrial energy conversation. The documentation of savings related to past projects is a useful first step in determining the most attractive future applications of computers. The use of computers in the control of a textile dyehouse and in the drying of citrus pulp and the resulting economic gains and energy conservation in these applications are discussed. The overall impact of the control system in the dyehouse was a 23% increase in production per unit of resource consumed, and a payback period for the control system of less than two years. In the drying operations process reliability and safety improved, fuel consumption decreased and production yield increased. (LCL)

  13. Case history studies of energy conservation improvements in the meat industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Presented are case histories for ten energy-efficient technologies implemented by the meat industry. For each case is presented: the name and location of the plant, name of plant employee contact with address and telephone number, energy consumption and costs at the plant before and after implementation of energy-conserving technology, description of the investment decision process, and changes in production or product quality as a result of the new equipment. The measures presented are: continuous rendering, high-pressure return on the boiler, heat recovery from condensate return and flash steam, continuous whole blood processing, preheating of process water with recovered refrigeration waste heat, continuous rendering of poultry scraps, electrical stimulation of beef, preheating and storing process water with recovered refrigeration waste heat, microcomputer control system, and housekeeping improvements. (LEW)

  14. Through the Past Decade: How Advanced Energy Design Guides have influenced the Design Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing; Athalye, Rahul A.

    2015-07-31

    Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs) were originally developed intended to provide a simple approach to building professionals seeking energy efficient building designs better than ASHRAE Standard 90.1. Since its first book was released in 2004, the AEDG series provided inspiration for the design industry and were seen by designers as a starting point for buildings that wished to go beyond minimum codes and standards. In addition, U.S. Department of Energy’s successful Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program leveraged many of the recommendations from the AEDGs to achieve 50% energy savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 for prototypical designs of large commercial entities in the retail, banking and lodging sectors. Low-energy technologies and strategies developed during the CBP process have been applied by commercial partners throughout their national portfolio of buildings. Later, the AEDGs served as the perfect platform for both Standard 90.1 and ASHRAE’s high performance buildings standard, Standard 189.1. What was high performance a few years ago, however, has become minimum code today. Indeed, most of the prescriptive envelope component requirements in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 are values recommended in the 50% AEDGs several years ago. Similarly, AEDG strategies and recommendations have penetrated the lighting and HVAC sections of both Standard 189.1 and Standard 90.1. Finally, as we look to the future of codes and standards, the AEDGs are serving as a blueprint for how minimum code requirements could be expressed. By customizing codes to specific building types, design strategies tailored for individual buildings could be prescribed as minimum code, just like in the AEDGs. This paper describes the impact that AEDGs have had over the last decade on the design industry and how they continue to influence the future of codes and Standards. From design professionals to code officials, everyone in the building industry has been affected by the AEDGs.

  15. Iowa Lakes Community College: Partnerships for Academic and Economic Success in a Rapidly Evolving Wind-Energy Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohni, Mary; Rogers, Jolene; Zeitz, Al

    2007-01-01

    Iowa Lakes Community College responded to a national need for wind-energy technicians. The Wind-Energy and Turbine Program aligned industry and academic competencies with experiential learning components to foster exploration of additional renewable energy applications. Completers understand both the physical and academic rigor a career in wind…

  16. 30 CFR 285.116 - Requests for information on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Director may evaluate potential refinements to the OCS Alternative Energy Program that promote development... offshore renewable energy industry. 285.116 Section 285.116 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE...

  17. WWREX: A case study in the development of Internet E-Commerce in the energy industry

    SciTech Connect

    Yeich, K.; Horner, D.; Dunn, A.

    1998-12-31

    Even more so than the World Wide Web, the utility industry is undergoing a massive deregulation that is turning it into a Wild West environment that has fostered fierce competition, new technology and new services in the energy marketplace. It has become increasingly complex for consumers, suppliers and utilities to buy and sell energy at the best prices. With the help of the Internet, Per-Se Technologies and North American Power have developed the World Wide Retail Energy eXchange (WWREX): a real-time, Web-based electronic commerce application that matches suppliers of electricity and natural gas with potential customers online. This service is the first online application to facilitate the buying and selling of energy via the Internet. Designed to take advantage of the deregulated utilities marketplace, REX benefits multiple market players. With REX, business energy consumers can buy energy at the best price, from multiple suppliers and with significant time and cost reductions. Suppliers can instantly access new customer bases and close efficient, bulk transactions without the traditional sales and marketing costs associated with selling to a diverse set of consumers. The challenges and solutions of this project illustrate the technologies and techniques in creating a viable E-Commerce application. The resulting system provides effective electronic commerce and solves a critical business need at a relatively low cost.

  18. Extending the Coyote emulator to dark energy models with standard w0-wa parametrization of the equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casarini, L.; Bonometto, S. A.; Tessarotto, E.; Corasaniti, P.-S.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss an extension of the Coyote emulator to predict non-linear matter power spectra of dark energy (DE) models with a scale factor dependent equation of state of the form w = w0+(1-a)wa. The extension is based on the mapping rule between non-linear spectra of DE models with constant equation of state and those with time varying one originally introduced in ref. [40]. Using a series of N-body simulations we show that the spectral equivalence is accurate to sub-percent level across the same range of modes and redshift covered by the Coyote suite. Thus, the extended emulator provides a very efficient and accurate tool to predict non-linear power spectra for DE models with w0-wa parametrization. According to the same criteria we have developed a numerical code that we have implemented in a dedicated module for the CAMB code, that can be used in combination with the Coyote Emulator in likelihood analyses of non-linear matter power spectrum measurements. All codes can be found at https://github.com/luciano-casarini/pkequal.

  19. Research and development in sensor technology: The DOE industrial energy conservation program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    Sensor technology is an important component of modern day process technologies. It lends itself to further research and development with the potential for increased energy efficiency and productivity. Sensors are used by industry in practically every aspect of the production process. The utilization of automatic control systems and the anticipation of increased future applications of computers in production processes have highlighted the importance of research in this area. Recognizing this need, IP has funded a series of targeted projects to develop process-specific sensors as well as sensors for generic applications. This brochure describes, in summary form, the Office of Industrial Programs' research and development (R and D) efforts in the advancement of sensor technology.

  20. Study of the Utah uranium-milling industry. Volume II. Utah energy resources: uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Millar, R.D.; Neilson, L.T.; Turley, R.E.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a general overview of the uranium mining and milling industry and its history and present status with particular reference to Utah. This volume serves two purposes: (1) it serves as a companion volume to Volume I, which is a policy analysis; and (2) it serves as one of a set of energy resource assessment studies previously performed by the authors. The following topics are covered: development of the uranium industry on the Colorado Plateau with emphasis on Utah; geology of uranium; uranium reserves; uranium exploration in Utah; uranium ore production and mining operation in Utah; uranium milling operations in Utah; utilization of uranium; uranium mill tailings; and future outlook. Appendices on pricing of uranium and incentives for production since World War II are also presented.