Science.gov

Sample records for industry groundwater research

  1. GAS INDUSTRY GROUNDWATER RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Steven B. Hawthorne; Ted R. Aulich

    2000-10-01

    The objective of the research described in this report was to provide data and insights that will enable the natural gas industry to (1) significantly improve the assessment of subsurface glycol-related contamination at sites where it is known or suspected to have occurred and (2) make scientifically valid decisions concerning the management and/or remediation of that contamination. The described research was focused on subsurface transport and fate issues related to triethylene glycol (TEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and ethylene glycol (EG). TEG and DEG were selected for examination because they are used in a vast majority of gas dehydration units, and EG was chosen because it is currently under regulatory scrutiny as a drinking water pollutant. Because benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively referred to as BTEX) compounds are often very closely associated with glycols used in dehydration processes, the research necessarily included assessing cocontaminant effects on waste mobility and biodegradation. BTEX hydrocarbons are relatively water-soluble and, because of their toxicity, are of regulatory concern. Although numerous studies have investigated the fate of BTEX, and significant evidence exists to indicate the potential biodegradability of BTEX in both aerobic and anaerobic environments (Kazumi and others, 1997; Krumholz and others, 1996; Lovely and others, 1995; Gibson and Subramanian, 1984), relatively few investigations have convincingly demonstrated in situ biodegradation of these hydrocarbons (Gieg and others, 1999), and less work has been done on investigating the fate of BTEX species in combination with miscible glycols. To achieve the research objectives, laboratory studies were conducted to (1) characterize glycol related dehydration wastes, with emphasis on identification and quantitation of coconstituent organics associated with TEG and EG wastes obtained from dehydration units located in the United States and Canada, (2) evaluate

  2. Groundwater Molybdenum from Emerging Industries in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuo-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Min; Kao, Jimmy C M; Lin, Kae-Long

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the influence of emerging industries development on molybdenum (Mo) groundwater contamination. A total of 537 groundwater samples were collected for Mo determination, including 295 samples from potentially contaminated areas of 3 industrial parks in Taiwan and 242 samples from non-potentially contaminated areas during 2008-2014. Most of the high Mo samples are located downstream from a thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) panel factory. Mean groundwater Mo concentrations from potentially contaminated areas (0.0058 mg/L) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those from non-potentially contaminated areas (0.0022 mg/L). The highest Mo wastewater concentrations in the effluent from the optoelectronics industry and following wastewater batch treatment were 0.788 and 0.0326 mg/L, respectively. This indicates that wastewater containing Mo is a possible source of both groundwater and surface water contamination. Nine samples of groundwater exceed the World Health Organization's suggested drinking water guideline of 0.07 mg/L. A non-carcinogenic risk assessment for Mo in adults and children using the Mo concentration of 0.07 mg/L yielded risks of 0.546 and 0.215, respectively. These results indicate the importance of the development of a national drinking water quality standard for Mo in Taiwan to ensure safe groundwater for use. According to the human health risk calculation, the groundwater Mo standard is suggested as 0.07 mg/L. Reduction the discharge of Mo-contaminated wastewater from factories in the industrial parks is also the important task in the future.

  3. Poultry Industry Energy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The poultry industry, a multi-billion dollar business in the United States, uses great amounts of energy in such operations as broiler growing, feed manufacturing, poultry processing and packing. Higher costs and limited supply of fuels common to the industry are predicted, so poultry producers are seeking ways to reduce energy expenditure. NASA is providing assistance to Delmarva Poultry Industry, Inc., an association of some 4,000 growers and suppliers in one of the nation's largest poultry production areas. Delmarva is the East Coast peninsula that includes Delaware and parts of Maryland and Virginia. The upper right photo shows a weather station in the Delmarva area (wind indicator on the pole, other instruments in the elevated box). The station is located at the University of Maryland's Broiler Sub-station, Salisbury; Maryland, where the university conducts research on poultry production and processing. The sub-station is investigating ways of conserving energy in broiler production and also exploring the potential of solar collectors as an alternative energy source. For these studies, it is essential that researchers have continuous data on temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction, solar intensity and cloud cover. Equipment to acquire such data was loaned and installed by NASA's Wallops Flight Center, Wallops Island, Virginia.

  4. Industry Invests in Research Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploch, Margie

    1983-01-01

    Universities and industry are forging new relationships to support academic research and industrial research and development, including the establishment of university/cooperative research centers. Discusses various cooperative projects at these research centers. Includes a list of representative R&D centers in biotechnology, building…

  5. Future research needs involving pathogens in groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of groundwater by enteric pathogens has commonly been associated with disease outbreaks. Proper management and treatment of pathogen sources are important barriers to preventing groundwater contamination. However, non-point sources of pathogen contamination are frequently difficult to ...

  6. Research Projects in Industrial Technology.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Industrial Technology Section.

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this booklet is to briefly describe ongoing and completed projects being carried out by Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Industrial Technology Section. In the Pacific Northwest, the industrial sector is the largest of the four consuming sectors. It accounted for thirty-nine percent of the total firm demand in the region in 1987. It is not easy to asses the conservation potential in the industrial sector. Recognizing this, the Northwest Power Planning Council established an objective to gain information on the size, cost, and availability of the conservation resource in the industrial sector, as well as other sectors, in its 1986 Power Plan. Specifically, the Council recommended that BPA operate a research and development program in conjunction with industry to determine the potential costs and savings from efficiency improvements in industrial processes which apply to a wide array of industrial firms.'' The section, composed of multidisciplinary engineers, provides technical support to the Industrial Programs Branch by designing and carrying out research relating to energy conservation in the industrial sector. The projects contained in this booklet are arranged by sector --industrial, utility, and agricultural -- and, within each sector, chronologically from ongoing to completed, with those projects completed most recently falling first. For each project the following information is given: its objective approach, key findings, cost, and contact person. Completed projects also include the date of completion, a report title, and report number.

  7. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  8. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, G. Tamma; Rao, V. V. S. Gurunadha; Ranganathan, K.

    2013-06-01

    One of the highly polluted areas in India located at Ranipet occupies around 200 tanneries and other small scale chemical industries. Partially treated industrial effluents combined with sewage and other wastes discharged on the surface cause severe groundwater pollution in the industrial belt. This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for the major physico-chemical variables. The water quality variables such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Iron (Fe2 + ), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6 + ), at most of the sampling locations exceeded the ISI and WHO guideline levels for drinking water. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis were applied to identify the major factors (variables) corresponding to the different source of variation in groundwater quality. The water quality of groundwater is influenced by both anthropogenic and chemical weathering. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from TDS, Cr6 + and Fe2 + , which are associated with sewage and pollution of tannery waste. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as agricultural, natural weathering process.

  9. Future research needs involving pathogens in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2016-12-01

    Contamination of groundwater by enteric pathogens has commonly been associated with disease outbreaks. Proper management and treatment of pathogen sources are important prerequisites for preventing groundwater contamination. However, non-point sources of pathogen contamination are frequently difficult to identify, and existing approaches for pathogen detection are costly and only provide semi-quantitative information. Microbial indicators that are readily quantified often do not correlate with the presence of pathogens. Pathogens of emerging concern and increasing detections of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in groundwater are topics of growing concern. Adequate removal of pathogens during soil passage is therefore critical for safe groundwater extraction. Processes that enhance pathogen transport (e.g., high velocity zones and preferential flow) and diminish pathogen removal (e.g., reversible retention and enhanced survival) are of special concern because they increase the risk of groundwater contamination, but are still incompletely understood. Improved theory and modeling tools are needed to analyze experimental data, test hypotheses, understand coupled processes and controlling mechanisms, predict spatial and/or temporal variability in model parameters and uncertainty in pathogen concentrations, assess risk, and develop mitigation and best management approaches to protect groundwater.

  10. IMPACT OF LEATHER PROCESSING INDUSTRIES ON CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION IN GROUNDWATER SOUTH OF CHENNAI CITY, INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, L.; Brindha, K.; G. Rajesh, V.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater quality is under threat due to disposal of effluents from a number of industries. Poor practice of treatment of wastes from tanning industries or leather processing industries lead to pollution of groundwater. This study was carried out with the objective of assessing the impact of tanneries on groundwater quality in Chromepet area which is a part of the metropolitan area of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This area serves as the home town for a number of small and large scale tanning industries. People in certain parts of this area depend on the groundwater for their domestic needs as there is no piped drinking water supply system. Topographically this region is generally flat with gentle slope towards east and north east. The charnockite rocks occur as basement at the depth of about 15m from the surface of this area. Weathered charnockite rock occurs at the depth from 7m to 15m from the ground surface. The upper layer consists of loamy soil. Groundwater occurs in the unconfined condition at a depth from 0.5m to 5m. Thirty six groundwater samples were collected during March 2008 and the groundwater samples were analysed for their heavy metal (chromium) content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) recommended the maximum permissible limit of chromium in drinking water as 0.05 mg/l. Considering this, it was found that 86% of the groundwater samples possessed concentration of chromium above the maximum permissible limit recommended by BIS. The tanneries use chrome sulphate to strengthen the leather and make it water repellent. The excess of chromium gets washed off and remains in the wastewater. This wastewater is disposed into open uncovered drains either untreated or after partial treatment. Thus the chromium leaches through the soil and reaches the groundwater table. Apart from this, there is also huge quantity of solid waste resulting from the hides and skins which are dumped off without suitable treatment. The

  11. History of ground-water contamination and summary of ground-water investigations through 1985 at four industrial sites, Logan Township, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.C.; Hochreitner, J.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Investigations of potential sources of groundwater contamination conducted by various regulatory agencies and consultants at four industrial sites in Logan Township, New Jersey found groundwater contamination at all four sites and at properties adjoining two of the sites. The four sites directly overlie the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system, the Township's sole source of potable water. One site was a waste-oil processing and storage facility. The major source of groundwater contamination at the site is a lagoon containing waste oil. Groundwater within 1,000 ft of the lagoon is contaminated. The second site is used to maintain, dispatch, and clean chemical-transportation tanks. Potential sources of groundwater contamination at the site include former wastewater lagoons, leaking storage drums, and leaking tank trucks. Groundwater at and immediately north of the property is contaminated. Organic compounds are manufactured at the third site. Potential sources of groundwater contamination at this site include landfilled industrial wastes. Groundwater underlying the property is contaminated, but there is no evidence of offsite groundwater contamination from this source. The fourth site is used to treat and dispose of hazardous wastes. The major source of groundwater contamination at this site is landfilled residue from waste-treatment processes. Groundwater underlying the property is contaminated, but there is no evidence of off-site groundwater contamination from this source.

  12. Groundwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. The Office of Groundwater & Soil Remediation Fiscal Year 2011 Research & Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, Kurt D.; Chamberlain, Grover S.; Aylward, R. S.; Cercy, Mike; Seitz, Roger; Ramirez, Rosa; Skubal, Karen L.; Marble, Justin; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Liang, Liyuan; Pierce, Eric M.

    2011-12-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation supports applied research and technology development (AR&TD) for remediation of environments contaminated by legacy nuclear waste. The program centers on delivering advanced scientific approaches and technologies from highly-leveraged, strategic investments that maximize impact to reduce risk and life-cycle cleanup costs. The current groundwater and soil remediation program consists of four applied programmatic areas: • Deep Vadose Zone – Applied Field Research Initiative • Attenuation Based Remedies – Applied Field Research Initiative • Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants – Applied Field Research Initiative • Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management. This paper provides an overview of the applied programmatic areas, fiscal year 11 accomplishments, and their near-term technical direction.

  14. One research from turkey on groundwater- level changes related earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirmizitas, H.; Göktepe, G.

    2003-04-01

    Groundwater levels are recorded by limnigraphs in drilling wells in order to determine groundwater potential accurately and reliable under hydrogeological studies in Turkey State Haydraulic Works (DSI) set the limnigraphs to estimate mainly groundwater potential. Any well is drilled to determine and to obtain data on water level changes related earthquake up today. The main purpose of these studies are based on groundwater potential and to expose the hydrodynamic structure of an aquifer. In this study, abnormal oscillations, water rising and water drops were observed on graphs which is related with water level changes in groundwater. These observations showed that, some earthquakes has been effective on water level changes. There is a distance ranging to 2000 km between this epicentral and water wells. Water level changes occur in groundwater bearing layers that could be consisting of grained materials such as, alluvium or consolidated rocks such as, limestones. The biggest water level change is ranging to 1,48 m on diagrams and it is recorded as oscillation movement. Water level changes related earthquake are observed in different types of movements below in this research. 1-Rise-drop oscillation changes on same point. 2-Water level drop in certain periods or permanent periods after earthquakes. 3-Water level rise in certain periods or permanent periods after earthquakes. (For example, during Gölcük Earthquake with magnitude of 7.8 on August, 17, 1999 one artesian occured in DSI well ( 49160 numbered ) in Adapazari, Dernekkiri Village. Groundwater level changes might easily be changed because of atmosferic pressure that comes in first range, precipitation, irrigation or water pumping. Owing to relate groundwater level changes with earthquake on any time, such changes should be observed accurately, carefully and at right time. Thus, first of all, the real reason of this water level changes must be determined From 1970 to 2001 many earthquakes occured in Turkey

  15. Groundwater flow in the Venice lagoon and remediation of the Porto Marghera industrial area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beretta, Giovanni Pietro; Terrenghi, Jacopo

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to determine the groundwater flow in a large area of the Venice (northeast Italy) lagoon that is under great anthropogenic pressure, which is influencing the regional flow in the surficial aquifer (about 30 m depth). The area presents several elements that condition the groundwater flow: extraction by means of drainage pumps and wells; tidal fluctuation; impermeable barriers that define part of the coastline, rivers and artificial channels; precipitation; recharge, etc. All the elements were studied separately, and then they were brought together in a numerical groundwater flow model to estimate the impact of each one. Identification of the impact of each element will help to optimise the characteristics of the Porto Marghera remediation systems. Longstanding industrial activity has had a strong impact on the soil and groundwater quality, and expensive and complex emergency remediation measures in problematic locations have been undertaken to ensure the continuity of industrial and maritime activities. The land reclamation and remediation works withdraw 56-74% of the water budget, while recharge from the river accounts for about 21-48% of the input. Only 21-42% of groundwater in the modelled area is derived from natural recharge sources, untouched by human activity. The drop of the piezometric level due to the realization of the upgradient impermeable barrier can be counteracted with the reduction of the pumping rate of the remediation systems.

  16. Industrial utilization research, September 1993. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Gas Research Institute's industrial utilization research program is described. Its three primary objectives are: to maintain the dominant position of natural gas in traditional industrial applications by developing technologies that improve productivity and product quality, and lower emissions and costs; to develop new applications for gas which provide significant environmental, productivity, quality, and economic benefits to users; to ensure that industrial gas equipment remains economically competitive and can meet ever-tightening emission standards in the future by improving burners, controls, and materials. The discussion of the objectives, issues, benefits, goals, accomplishments, and research strategies is illustrated with the contract summaries and arranged according to the five project areas: Industrial Combustion, Metals Industrial Processes, Nonmetals Industrial Processes, Industrial Materials, and Industrial Controls.

  17. Review of sources of ground-water contamination from light industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    The document addresses the potential impact of light industrial activities on wellhead protection areas. The term light industry refers to industrial, commercial, or retail establishments that manage substances or engage in manufacturing, fabrication, or service activities that are one step or more removed from the production of primary products from raw material. These activities, which may pose a potential threat to ground-water quality, are minimally-regulated or non-regulated by Federal laws. Several States and local governments have adopted innovative approaches for controlling light industries. These approaches may involve source identification, zoning and other controls to limit land uses in wellhead areas, and public education and technology transfer to encourage industries to adopt management controls. Other jurisdictions have also placed strict prohibitions on activities that are allowed in wellhead areas, including restricting specific light industry types.

  18. Research to More Effectively Manage Critical Ground-Water Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    As the regional management agency for two of the most heavily used ground-water basins in California, the Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRD) plays a vital role in sheparding the water resources of southern Los Angeles County. WRD is using the results of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies to help more effectively manage the Central and West Coast basins in the most efficient, cost-effective way. In partnership with WRD, the USGS is using the latest research tools to study the geohydrology and geochemistry of the two basins. USGS scientists are: *Drilling and collecting detailed data from over 40 multiple-well monitoring sites, *Conducting regional geohydrologic and geochemical analyses, *Developing and applying a computer simulation model of regional ground-water flow. USGS science is providing a more detailed understanding of ground-water flow and quality. This research has enabled WRD to more effectively manage the basins. It has helped the District improve the efficiency of its spreading ponds and barrier injection wells, which replenish the aquifers and control seawater intrusion into the ground-water system.

  19. Spatial variability and long-term analysis of groundwater quality of Faisalabad industrial zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Muhammad Salman; Nasir, Abdul; Rashid, Haroon; Shah, Syed Hamid Hussain

    2016-09-01

    Water is the basic necessity of life and is essential for healthy society. In this study, groundwater quality analysis was carried out for the industrial zone of Faisalabad city. Sixty samples of groundwater were collected from the study area. The quality maps of deliberately analyzed results were prepared in GIS. The collected samples were analyzed for chemical parameters and heavy metals, such as total hardness, alkalinity, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, lead, and fluoride, and then, the results were compared with the WHO guidelines. The values of these results were represented by a mapping of quality parameters using the ArcView GIS v9.3, and IDW was used for raster interpolation. The long-term analysis of these parameters has been carried out using the `R Statistical' software. It was concluded that water is partially not fit for drinking, and direct use of this groundwater may cause health issues.

  20. Groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater represents the terrestrial subsurface component of the hydrologic cycle. As such, groundwater is generally in motion, moving from elevated areas of recharge to lower areas of discharge. Groundwater usually moves in accordance with Darcy’s law (Dalmont, Paris: Les Fontaines Publiques de la Ville de Dijon, 1856). Groundwater residence times can be under a day in small upland catchments to over a million years in subcontinental-sized desert basins. The broadest definition of groundwater includes water in the unsaturated zone, considered briefly here. Water chemically bound to minerals, as in gypsum (CaSO4 • 2H2O) or hydrated clays, cannot flow in response to gradients in total hydraulic head (pressure head plus elevation head); such water is thus usually excluded from consideration as groundwater. In 1940, M. King Hubbert showed Darcy’s law to be a special case of thermodynamically based potential field equations governing fluid motion, thereby establishing groundwater hydraulics as a rigorous engineering science (Journal of Geology 48, pp. 785–944). The development of computer-enabled numerical methods for solving the field equations with real-world approximating geometries and boundary conditions in the mid-1960s ushered in the era of digital groundwater modeling. An estimated 30 percent of global fresh water is groundwater, compared to 0.3 percent that is surface water, 0.04 percent atmospheric water, and 70 percent that exists as ice, including permafrost (Shiklomanov and Rodda 2004, cited under Groundwater Occurrence). Groundwater thus constitutes the vast majority—over 98 percent—of the unfrozen fresh-water resources of the planet, excluding surface-water reservoirs. Environmental dimensions of groundwater are equally large, receiving attention on multiple disciplinary fronts. Riparian, streambed, and spring-pool habitats can be sensitively dependent on the amount and quality of groundwater inputs that modulate temperature and solutes

  1. University-Industry Research Relationships. Selected Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. National Science Board.

    The results of a study of university/industry research interactions are presented, along with four reports on collaboration, and an annotated bibliography. The study, "Current U.S University/Industry Research Connections" (Lois S. Peters, Herbert I. Fusfeld, and others), involved on-site interviews with 66 companies and 61 public and…

  2. Research Questions in Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichowski, Chester; Walker, Thomas

    Results are reported of a nationwide survey to identify and categorize research questions related to the trade and industrial education area. (Respondents were members of the Policy and Planning Committee and the Research Committee of the American Vocational Association's Trade and Industrial Division, state and territorial supervisors of trade…

  3. Office of Industrial Technologies research in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) conducts research and development activities which focus on improving energy efficiency and providing for fuel flexibility within US industry in the area of industrial conservation. The mission of OIT is to increase the utilization of existing energy-efficient equipment and to find and promote new, cost-effective ways for industrial facilities to improve their energy efficiency and minimize waste products. To ensure advancement of the technological leadership of the United States and to improve the competitiveness of American industrial products in world markets, OIT works closely with industrial partners, the staffs of the national laboratories, and universities to identify research and development needs and to solve technological challenges. This report contains summaries of the currently active projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technologies.

  4. ESTABLISHMENT OF A GROUNDWATER RESEARCH DATA CENTER FOR VALIDATION OF SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Ground Water Modeling Center has established a Groundwater Research Data Center that provides information on datasets resulting from publicly funded field experiments and related bench studies in soil and groundwater pollution and distributes datasets for tes...

  5. Orthopaedic research and education foundation and industry.

    PubMed

    Wurth, Gene R; Sherr, Judy H; Coffman, Thomas M

    2003-07-01

    Members of orthopaedic industry commit a significant amount of funds each year to support research and education programs that are directly related to their product(s). In addition, industry supports organizations such as the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation. The relationship between the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and industry began in the early 1980s. The support to the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation from industry primarily has come in the form of unrestricted grants. These grants best can be looked at as an investment rather than a contribution. This form of giving, once called corporate philanthropy is more accurately referred to as strategic philanthropy. Members of industry make these investments to enhance their reputations, build brand awareness, market their products and services, improve employee morale, increase customer loyalty, and establish strategic alliances. The specialty of orthopaedics is among the leaders in medicine in the amount of funding raised within the specialty for research and education programs. This is because of the amount of support from members of industry and the surgeons. During the past 15 years, 40% of the annual support to the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation has come from industry and the balance has come from surgeons and members of lay public. Future industry support of the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and other organizations within the specialty of orthopaedics will be dependent on the continued demonstration of tangible returns in areas described.

  6. When Research Criticizes an Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2007-01-01

    When Robert W. Van Kirk released a study in January about selenium contamination in trout streams in southeastern Idaho, he expected some flak from the influential phosphate-mining industry. He did not expect to feel pressured by the administration of his own institution, Idaho State University, where he is an associate professor of mathematics.…

  7. The energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The United states housing industry is undergoing a metamorphosis from hand built to factory built products. Virtually all new housing incorporates manufactured components; indeed, an increasing percentage is totally assembled in a factory. The factory-built process offers the promise of houses that are more energy efficient, of higher quality, and less costly. To ensure that this promise can be met, the US industry must begin to develop and use new technologies, new design strategies, and new industrial processes. However, the current fragmentation of the industry makes research by individual companies prohibitively expensive, and retards innovation. This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: the formation of a steering committee; the development of a multiyear research plan; analysis of the US industrialized housing industry; assessment of foreign technology; assessment of industrial applications; analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools; and assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. Our goal is to develop techniques to produce marketable industrialized housing that is 25% more energy efficient that the most stringent US residential codes now require, and that costs less. Energy efficiency is the focus of the research, but it is viewed in the context of production and design. 63 refs.

  8. Contributions to Industrial-Minerals Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, James D.; Moyle, Phillip R.; Long, Keith R.

    2003-01-01

    Contributions to Industrial-Minerals Research, an ongoing series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Bulletin chapters, presents research strategies, results, and updates of investigations of industrial minerals by USGS scientists and cooperators. Industrial minerals are defined as valuable nonmetallic, nonfuel geologic materials, generally rocks or minerals, used in a wide range of construction and industrial applications-for example, sand, gravel, and crushed rock used as aggregate for construction; limestone used for cement; phosphate for fertilizers and insecticides; and diatomite used for filtration, fillers, and abrasives. The term also comprises some processed materials, such as cement and metallic compounds with major utilization in nonmetallic forms. For example, titanium is commonly grouped with industrial minerals because more than 90 percent of it is sold and utilized in the form of the oxide (TiO2) rather than as Ti metal. Other metals and metallic compounds commonly grouped with industrial minerals include Mn, Cr, Fe oxides, and rare-earth elements (REEs).

  9. From Global to Local and Vice Versa: On the Importance of the `Globalization' Agenda in Continental Groundwater Research and Policy-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonau, Viachaslau; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater is one of the most important environmental resources and its use continuously rises globally for industrial, agricultural, and drinking water supply purposes. Because of its importance, more knowledge about the volume of usable groundwater is necessary to satisfy the global demand. Due to the challenges in quantifying the volume of available global groundwater, studies which aim to assess its magnitude are limited in number. They are further restricted in scope and depth of analysis as, in most cases, they do not explain how the estimates of global groundwater resources have been obtained, what methods have been used to generate the figures and what levels of uncertainty exist. This article reviews the estimates of global groundwater resources. It finds that the level of uncertainty attached to existing numbers often exceeds 100 % and strives to establish the reasons for discrepancy. The outcome of this study outlines the need for a new agenda in water research with a more pronounced focus on groundwater. This new research agenda should aim at enhancing the quality and quantity of data provision on local and regional groundwater stocks and flows. This knowledge enhancement can serve as a basis to improve policy-making on groundwater resources globally. Research-informed policies will facilitate more effective groundwater management practices to ensure a more rapid progress of the global water sector towards the goal of sustainability.

  10. From Global to Local and Vice Versa: On the Importance of the 'Globalization' Agenda in Continental Groundwater Research and Policy-Making.

    PubMed

    Filimonau, Viachaslau; Barth, Johannes A C

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater is one of the most important environmental resources and its use continuously rises globally for industrial, agricultural, and drinking water supply purposes. Because of its importance, more knowledge about the volume of usable groundwater is necessary to satisfy the global demand. Due to the challenges in quantifying the volume of available global groundwater, studies which aim to assess its magnitude are limited in number. They are further restricted in scope and depth of analysis as, in most cases, they do not explain how the estimates of global groundwater resources have been obtained, what methods have been used to generate the figures and what levels of uncertainty exist. This article reviews the estimates of global groundwater resources. It finds that the level of uncertainty attached to existing numbers often exceeds 100 % and strives to establish the reasons for discrepancy. The outcome of this study outlines the need for a new agenda in water research with a more pronounced focus on groundwater. This new research agenda should aim at enhancing the quality and quantity of data provision on local and regional groundwater stocks and flows. This knowledge enhancement can serve as a basis to improve policy-making on groundwater resources globally. Research-informed policies will facilitate more effective groundwater management practices to ensure a more rapid progress of the global water sector towards the goal of sustainability.

  11. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1990-02-01

    This report summarizes three documents: Multiyear Research Plan, Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports, and Volume II Appendices. These documents describe tasks that were undertaken from November 1988 to December 1989, the first year of the project. Those tasks were: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. While this document summarizes information developed in each task area, it doesn't review task by task, as Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports does, but rather treats the subject of energy efficient industrialized housing as a whole to give the reader a more coherent view. 7 figs., 9 refs.

  12. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Mazwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1989-12-01

    This document describes the research work completed in five areas in fiscal year 1989. (1) The analysis of the US industrialized housing industry includes statistics, definitions, a case study, and a code analysis. (2) The assessment of foreign technology reviews the current status of design, manufacturing, marketing, and installation of industrialized housing primarily in Sweden and Japan. (3) Assessment of industrialization applications reviews housing production by climate zone, has a cost and energy comparison of Swedish and US housing, and discusses future manufacturing processes and emerging components. (4) The state of computer use in the industry is described and a prototype design tool is discussed. (5) Side by side testing of industrialized housing systems is discussed.

  13. Superconducting analogue electronics for research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, D.

    2003-12-01

    This paper gives a brief review of superconducting electronics in research and industry. Examples will show how science benefits from the development and how superconducting devices have found their way into industry and to some commercial products. Impact in terms of enabling new research in other fields (e.g. radio astronomy, medicine), in industry (certification, safety, metrology, etc) and in terms of market will be addressed. From the examples, two fields will be emphasized: superconducting detectors for astronomy and the superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) employed for different applications.

  14. Distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surface water, soil, and groundwater within a chemical industry park in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Benhua; Chen, Liang; Huang, Linxian; Wang, Yongseng; Li, Yuehua

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the surface water, soil, and groundwater within a chemical industry park in Eastern China. At least one VOC was detected in each of the 20 sampling sites, and the maximum number of VOCs detected in the surface water, groundwater, and soil were 13, 16, and 14, respectively. Two of the 10 VOCs with elevated concentrations detected in surface water, groundwater, and soil were chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane. The characteristics of VOCs, which include volatility, boiling point, and solubility, could significantly affect their distribution in surface water, soil, and groundwater. However, due to the direct discharging of chemical industry wastewater into surface water, higher concentrations of VOCs (except chloroform) were detected in surface water than in soil and groundwater. Fortunately, the higher volatility of VOCs prevents the VOCs from impacting groundwater, which helps to maintain a lower concentration of VOCs in the groundwater than in both surface water and soil. This is because pollutants with relatively higher boiling points and lower solubilities have higher detection frequencies in soil, and contaminants with relatively lower boiling points and higher solubilities have higher detection frequencies in water, notably in surface water.

  15. Groundwater pollution around an industrial area in the coastal stretch of Maharashtra State, India.

    PubMed

    Naik, Pradeep K; Dehury, Biranchi N; Tiwari, Arun N

    2007-09-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine pollution threat, especially to the groundwater resources, around Tarapur industrial area (also called the Tarapur MIDC area) located on the Arabian Sea Coast in Thane District of Maharashtra State, India and suggest remedial measures that may also be relevant to other industrial areas on the Indian Sea Coast. One hundred and thirty one samples were collected from various sources, such as dugwells, borewells, dug-cum-borewells, effluent sumps, drainage channels (effluent channels), creeks and ocean, for chemical analyses. These analyses show that the area in general is characterized by hard water and high salinity hazard, possibly due to its proximity and hydraulic connection with the sea. Although the potability of groundwater is questionable in certain pockets, it is good enough for irrigation purposes at present. Low pH value and high heavy metal contents in the adjoining Muramba creek water is a matter of great concern and may be attributed to the indiscriminate disposal of industrial effluents to the drainage channels connecting the creek. Muramba Creek is well connected with the Arabian Sea, and there are evidences of seawater intrusion around this creek. Because of the fact that Muramba Creek is highly polluted, and is hydraulically connected with the dugwells and borewells surrounding the creek, it cannot be ruled out that the groundwater around this creek is susceptible to contamination. Unless measures are not taken immediately to stop the indiscriminate disposal of the solid wastes and liquid effluents in open ground and drainage channels, and measures are not taken to maintain the appropriate pH values at the effluent treatment facilities before their disposal, the problem would indeed be formidable one day, and it will be too late then for the authorities to take care of the resulting maladies. Few suggestions have been given for controlling and managing the industrial pollution around the Tarapur MIDC

  16. Geophysical investigation to reveal the groundwater condition at new Borg El-Arab industrial city, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basheer, Alhussein A.; Mansour, Khamis Q.; Abdalla, Mohammed A.

    2014-12-01

    New Borg El-Arab City, 60 km to the southwest of Alexandria City, is one of new industrial cities planned by the Egyptian Government through its program to transfer the population from the condensed Nile Delta to other places in Egypt. Because such a city includes airport, huge buildings, factories, and worker settlements, a careful geophysical study is planned to reveal the groundwater condition. This will help in defining the places of wells that are supposed to be drilled. Therefore more industrial and agricultural activities will be flourished. The present study embraces Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES'es) and Time Domain Electromagnetic sounding (TEM) to investigate the study area. The study aims to delineate the main subsurface conditions from the viewpoint of groundwater location, depth and water quality. Analysis and interpretation of the obtained results reveal that the subsurface consists of five geoelectrical layers with a gentle general slope toward the Mediterranean Sea. The third and the fourth layers in the succession are suggested to be the two water bearing formations of which the third layer is saturated with fresh water overlying saline water at the bottom of the fourth one. It is worth mentioning that the fresh water depth varies between 50 and 354 m under the ground surface. The thickness of the fresh water aquifer varies from 9.5 to 66 m; and the saline water depth varies between 116 and 384 m below the ground surface, the thickness of saline water aquifer differs from 34 to 90.5 m.

  17. Origin and assessment of groundwater pollution and associated health risk: a case study in an industrial park, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyue; Wu, Jianhua; Qian, Hui; Lyu, Xinsheng; Liu, Hongwei

    2014-08-01

    Groundwater quality which relates closely to human health has become as important as its quantity due to the demand for safe water. In the present study, an entropy-weighted fuzzy water quality index (WQI) has been proposed for performing groundwater quality assessment in and around an industrial park, northwest China, where domestic water requirements are solely met by groundwater. The human health risk was assessed with the model recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, the sources of major ions and main contaminants were also analyzed. The study shows that groundwater in the study area has been contaminated conjunctively by natural processes and industrial and agricultural activities. Nitrate, manganese (Mn), fluoride, total dissolved solids, total hardness and sulfate are major contaminants influencing groundwater quality. Nitrate and heavy metals such as Mn are mainly affected by human agricultural activities and industrial production, while other contaminants are mainly originated from mineral weathering and water-rock interactions. The results of water quality assessment suggest that half of the groundwater samples collected are of medium quality thus require pretreatment before human consumption. The mean health risk caused by the consumption of contaminated groundwater in the area is 8.42 × 10(-5) per year which surpasses the maximum acceptable level (5 × 10(-5) per year) recommended by the International Commission on Radiologic Protection. The entropy-weighted fuzzy WQI proposed in this study can not only assign proper weights to parameters but also treat uncertainties associated with water quality classification. This study will be of interest to international environmentalists and hydrogeologists. It will also be useful in regional groundwater management and protection.

  18. Models of Man in Industrial Relations Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Bruce E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Kaufman attempts to identify essential characteristics that distinguish behavioral from nonbehavioral research in industrial relations. He argues that they are distinguished by the psychological model of man that is contained in the theoretical framework used to deduce or test hypotheses. Comments from Lewin, Mincer, and Cummings with Kaufman's…

  19. VET Research for Industry. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This paper was a keynote address at the Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association (AVETRA) conference held in Canberra in April 2012. The author notes that industry is arguably the key stakeholder in the Australian vocational education and training (VET) sector, but is not a single actor nor a disinterested consumer of…

  20. Government-University-Industry-Research Roundtable

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    Roundtable projects active during 1993 are described in this section. Projects completed in prior years are not included here, but publications resulting from them are included in the list of publications which are attached. Such prior projects include nurturing science and engineering talent, research facility financing, multidisciplinary research and education, university-industry-federal laboratory partnerships, and federal-state cooperation in science and technology.

  1. [Research of early-warning method for regional groundwater pollution based on risk management].

    PubMed

    Bai, Li-Ping; Wang, Ye-Yao; Guo, Yong-Li; Zhou, You-Ya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Li, Fa-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply in China, and China's overall situation of groundwater pollution is not optimistic at present. Groundwater pollution risk evaluation and early-warning are the effective measures to prevent groundwater pollution. At present, research of groundwater early-warning method at home and abroad is still at the exploratory stage, and the sophisticated technology has not been developed for reference. This paper briefly described the data and technological demand of the early-warning method in different scales, and the main factors influencing the early-warning results of groundwater pollution were classified as protection performance of geological medium, characteristics of pollution sources, groundwater dynamics and groundwater value. Then the main early-warning indexes of groundwater pollution were screened to establish the early-warning model of regional or watershed scale by the index overlay method. At last, the established early-warning model was used in Baotou plain, and the different early-warning grades were zoned by the model. The research results could provide scientific support for the local management department to protect the groundwater resources.

  2. Industry-university cooperation/research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, Raymond P.

    1991-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the commercial development of space programs through cooperative research with the U.S. universities and industry. The origins of the programs are discussed, beginning with the Communication Satellite Act of 1963. The National Space Policy is outlined, and the creation of NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is emphasized, along with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space. It is noted that the centers are consortia of university, industry, and government involved in commercial-space-technology database development and research and testing of potentially valuable products and services. The center titles, locations, and brief descriptions for such area of research as remote sensing, life sciences, materials processing, space power, space propulsion, materials and space structures, and automation and robotics centers are listed, along with some results of the programs.

  3. [Groundwater].

    PubMed

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.

  4. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  5. Supporting rural wood industry through timber utilization research. Research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Skog, K.

    1991-10-01

    The report evaluates the potential impact of USDA Forest Service wood utilization and wood energy research on rural employment and income. Recent projections suggest employment will decrease in many forest products industries, such as softwood sawmilling, but will eventually increase in softwood plywood and reconstituated panel mills. Forest products industries expected to provide wages exceeding the average manufacturing production wage include logging, softwood sawmills, millwork, softwood plywood--veneer, structural wood members, particle-board, wood partitions, pulp mills, paper mills, and paperboard mills. Industries expected to pay 90 percent of the average manufacturing production wage include wood kitchen cabinets, mobile homes, prefabricated wood buildings, and wood preservatives.

  6. Chromium isotope inventory of Cr(VI)-polluted groundwaters at four industrial sites in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Martinkova, Eva; Chrastny, Vladislav; Stepanova, Marketa; Curik, Jan; Szurmanova, Zdenka; Cron, Marcel; Tylcer, Jiri; Sebek, Ondrej

    2016-04-01

    Chromium is one of the most toxic elements, especially in its dissolved Cr(VI) form. In the Czech Republic (Central Europe), massive contamination of groundwater has been reported at more than 200 industrial operations. Under suitable conditions, i.e., low Eh, and high availability of reductive agents, Cr(VI) in groundwater may be spontaneously reduced to solid, largely non-toxic Cr(III). This process is associated with a Cr isotope fractionation, with the residual liquid Cr(VI) becoming enriched in the heavier isotope 53Cr. At industrial operations that have been closed and/or where no further leakage of Cr(VI) occurs, the contaminated groundwater plume may be viewed as a closed system. At such sites, an increasing degree of Cr(VI) reduction should result in an increasing del53/52Cr value of the residual liquid. Here we present del53/52Cr systematics at four contaminated Czech sites, focusing on groundwaters. At two of the four sites (Zlate Hory, Loucna) we were also able to analyze the source of contamination. Chromium in the electroplating solutes was isotopically relatively light, with del53/52Cr values <1 per mil. At the remaining two sites (Letnany and Velesin), the Cr isotope signature of the source of contamination was not known. At all four sites, most del53/52Cr values were positive, with means higer than 1 per mil: At Zlate Hory, del53/52Cr ranged between -2.2 and +3.0 per mil (mean of +1.5 per mil); at Loucna, del53/52Cr ranged between 0 and +4.0 per mil (mean of +1.7 per mil); at Letnany, del53/52Cr ranged between +2.0 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +3.2 per mil); and at Velesin, del53/52Cr ranged between +0.5 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +2.7 per mil). Cr(VI) reduction may proceed at Zlate Hory and Loucna, where del53/52Cr(VI) values in groundwater were on average higher than those of the contamination source. At these two sites, our Cr isotope data are not consistent with the existing estimates of the amount of dissolved and precipitated Cr: The pool size of

  7. Ground-water research in the U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuinness, C.L.

    1967-01-01

    Ground-water reservoirs and the overlying unsaturated zone-collectively, the "subsurface"-have an enormous capacity to supply water to wells and useful plants, to store water to meet future needs for the same purposes, and, under suitable precautions, to accept wastes. This capacity can be exploited on a maximum scale, however, only on the basis of information one or more orders of magnitude greater than that available at present on the distribution, recoverability, and replenishability of subsurface water. Because usable water must be made available, and waste water must be disposed of, at costs of only a cent or a few cents per cubic meter, there is a critical need for research to devise methods of accomplishing these water-management tasks at reasonable cost. Among the chief target areas for research in subsurface hydrology are permeability distribution, including vertical permeability; prediction of the departure of the storage coefficient from the theoretically "instantaneous" property assumed in flow equations; theory of unsaturated flow based on fundamental soil characteristics that can be measured practicably; geochemical relations including the effects of injecting water of one composition into zones occupied by waters of different composition, generation of acid mine water, occurrence of saline water, and salt-fresh-water relations in coastal and other areas; prediction of the fate of wastes injected underground; geophysical techniques both surface and subsurface to extend, at low cost, information obtained by other means; and practical techniques of artificial recharge, especially through wells. ?? 1967.

  8. [Groundwater organic pollution source identification technology system research and application].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wei, Jia-Hua; Cheng, Zhi-Neng; Liu, Pei-Bin; Ji, Yi-Qun; Zhang, Gan

    2013-02-01

    Groundwater organic pollutions are found in large amount of locations, and the pollutions are widely spread once onset; which is hard to identify and control. The key process to control and govern groundwater pollution is how to control the sources of pollution and reduce the danger to groundwater. This paper introduced typical contaminated sites as an example; then carried out the source identification studies and established groundwater organic pollution source identification system, finally applied the system to the identification of typical contaminated sites. First, grasp the basis of the contaminated sites of geological and hydrogeological conditions; determine the contaminated sites characteristics of pollutants as carbon tetrachloride, from the large numbers of groundwater analysis and test data; then find the solute transport model of contaminated sites and compound-specific isotope techniques. At last, through groundwater solute transport model and compound-specific isotope technology, determine the distribution of the typical site of organic sources of pollution and pollution status; invest identified potential sources of pollution and sample the soil to analysis. It turns out that the results of two identified historical pollution sources and pollutant concentration distribution are reliable. The results provided the basis for treatment of groundwater pollution.

  9. Hydrogeochemical processes and impact of tanning industries on groundwater quality in Ambur, Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Kanagaraj, G; Elango, L

    2016-12-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the hydrogeochemical processes and the impact of tanning industries on groundwater in Ambur, Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Thirty groundwater samples were collected during pre monsoon (July 2015) and post monsoon (January 2016) from the open and shallow wells around this region and were analyzed for major ions and chromium. The major ion concentration follows the order of Na(+) > Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > K(+) (cations) and Cl(-) > HCO3(-) > SO4(2-) > NO3(-) (anions) for both seasons. The high concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-), and Cr around the tannery regions indicate the impact of effluent discharged from tannery units. In general, the groundwater of this study area is of Na(+)-Cl(-) type, which is due to the mixing of tannery effluent and cation exchange process. Ionic ratio indicates that the silicate weathering influences the groundwater chemistry. The permissible limit of chromium in the groundwater exceeds in over 50 % of the sampling wells. The factor analysis reveals that the dominant source for ionic contents is due to tannery effluents and cation exchange processes. To overcome this situation, it is essential to improve the performance of the effluent treatment plants so as to remove the salinity of wastewater and to plan for rainfall recharge structures for improving the groundwater recharge.

  10. The Future of Research in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2006-03-01

    Since 1990 the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly. See, e.g., R. Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000); H. W. Chesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003); C. B. Duke, Creating Economic Value from Research Knowledge (The Industrial Physicist, Aug-Sept. 2004, pp. 29-31). According to Thomas L. Friedman (``The World is Flat,'' Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2005) a new global communications-collaboration platform has ``flattened'' the world. National alarms have been raised about the US capability to compete in this changed environment. See, e.g., ``America's Tech Might Slipping?,'' Business Week, March 14, 2004; ``Globalization and Engineering,'' The Bridge, National Academy of Engineering, Fall 2005; ``Rising Above the Gathering Storm,'' National Academy of Sciences, 2005. In this presentation I indicate why firms perform research and how they generate economic value from it. Then I discuss the profound changes in the environment for these activities since 1990. This leads to a consideration of how firms are modifying their Research and Development activities to deal with this situation. I close by noting implications of these developments on the role of physics and the careers of physical scientists in the 21st century.

  11. Survey of hazardous organic compounds in the groundwater, air and wastewater effluents near the Tehran automobile industry.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Mahdi; Nadafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Nasseri, Simin; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Rastkari, Noushin

    2013-02-01

    Potential of wastewater treatment in car industry and groundwater contamination by volatile organic compounds include perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE) and dichloromethane (DCM) near car industry was conducted in this study. Samples were collected in September through December 2011 from automobile industry. Head-space Gas chromatography with FID detector is used for analysis. Mean PCE levels in groundwater ranged from 0 to 63.56 μg L(-1) with maximum level of 89.1 μg L(-1). Mean TCE from 0 to 76.63 μg L(-1) with maximum level of 112 μg L(-1). Due to the data obtained from pre treatment of car staining site and conventional wastewater treatment in car factory, the most of TCE, PCE and DCM removed by pre aeration. Therefor this materials entry from liquid phase to air phase and by precipitation leak out to the groundwater. As a consequence these pollutants have a many negative health effect on the workers by air and groundwater.

  12. Basic Principles of Industrial Engineering (The National Shipbuilding Research Program)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Basic Principles of Industrial Engineering 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Part II Part III BASIC PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING What is Industrial Engineering Operational Questions for Industrial Engineers

  13. Artificial factors influencing groundwater flows in the industrial complexes at the coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seung Gyu; Kim, Kue-Young; Woo, Nam C.

    2015-04-01

    Underground structures of the industrial complexes constructed along the coastal areas are vulnerable to the chemical degradations by the sea-water intrusion. Thus it is important to understand how the groundwater system has been altered after the facility construction. Based on the analysis of the groundwater fluctuations in the monitoring wells, the study area was divided into two sections, the rainfall impact areas and the tidal impact areas. Tidal impact section shows the hydraulic diffusivity(T /S, m2d-1) ranging from 9.6×102 to 4.6×104, with the minimum and maximum values for PZ-8 and PZ-5 affected by the underground structure and the excavation-backfill materials, respectively. Then, the storage coefficient was estimated from the hydraulic diffusivity using the results of single-well pumping tests. Transmissivities(T) ranged from 1.4×10 to 4.7×102 m2d-1, and the storage coefficients(S) from 0.002 to 0.052. The highest and the lowest transmissivities of PZ-5 and PZ-6 appeared to reflect the hydraulic property of backfill materials used for construction. Therefore, for hydrogeological characterization of the coastal region with large-scale constructions, field data from various tests should be carefully analyzed considering the impact and the interference of the construction activities, including the distance between underground structures and the monitoring wells, the array of structures, locations and depths of excavation and backfill, hydraulic property of backfill material, etc. Key word : hydrogeological characterization, coastal area, construction activity, tidal method, hydraulic diffusivity

  14. Evaluation of groundwater suitability for domestic, irrigational, and industrial purposes: a case study from Thirumanimuttar river basin, Tamilnadu, India.

    PubMed

    Vasanthavigar, M; Srinivasamoorthy, K; Prasanna, M V

    2012-01-01

    The Thirumanimuttar sub-basin forms an important groundwater province in south India, facing serious deficiency in both quality and quantity of groundwater due to increased demand associated with rapid population explosion, agricultural growth and industrial activities. A total of 194 groundwater samples were collected and 15 water quality parameters were analyzed using standard procedures. Na( + ), Cl( - ), Ca(2 + ), HCO(-)(3), Mg(2 + ) and SO(2-)(4) concentration ions are more dominant in both seasons. The total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity was observed good correlation with Na( + ), Cl( - ), HCO(-)(3), Ca(2 + ), Mg(2 + ), Cl( - ), PO(3-)(4) and NO(-)(3) ions indicating dominance of plagioclase feldspar weathering, anthropogenic input and over drafting of groundwater irrespective of seasons. The Hill-Piper diagram indicates alkaline earths exceed the alkalis, an increase of weak acids was noted during both the seasons. For assessing the groundwater for irrigation suitability parameters like total hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate (RSC), permeability index, and sodium percentage are also calculated. Permanent hardness was noted in higher during both the seasons due to discharge of untreated effluents and ion exchange process. The RSC indicates 56% of the samples are not suitable for irrigation purposes in both seasons, if continuously used will affect the crop yield. From the results, nearly 72% of the samples are not suitable for irrigation.

  15. Research opportunities in interdisciplinary ground-water science in the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Caine, J.S.; Wilcox, D.A.; McWreath, H.C.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    This report is written for the scientifically literate reader but is not limited to those who are involved in ground-water science. The report is intended to encourage U.S. Geological Survey scientists to develop a sense of excitement about ground-water science in the agency, to inform scientists about existing and potential ground-water science opportunities, and to engage scientists and managers in interdisciplinary discussions and collaboration. The report is intended for use by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of the Interior management to formulate long-term ground-water science programs and to continue sustained support of ground-water monitoring and research, some of which may not have an immediate impact. Finally, the report can be used to communicate the U.S. Geological Survey's vision of ground-water science to Congress, partners, other agencies, and the research community at large with the goals of enhancing collaborative opportunities, sharing information, and maintaining dialogue regarding the directions of U.S. Geological Survey ground-water science.

  16. Environmental Remediation Technologies Derived from Space Industry Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Sauser, Brian; Helminger, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Beginning in the 1950s and 1960s, an abundance of effort and initiative was focused on propelling the space industry outward for planetary exploration and habitation. During these early years, the push to take space science to new levels indirectly contributed to the evolution of another science field that would not fully surface until the early 1980s, environmental remediation. This field is associated with the remediation or cleanup of environmental resources such as groundwater, soil, and sediment. Because the space-exploration initiative began prior to the establishment of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in December of 1970, many NASA Centers as well as space-related support contractors allowed for the release of spent chemicals into the environment. Subsequently, these land owners have been directed by the EPA to responsibly initiate cleanup of their impacted sites. This paper will focus on the processes and lessons learned with the development, testing, and commercialization initiatives associated with four remediation technologies. The technologies include installation techniques for permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), the use of ultrasound to improve long-term performance of PRBs, emulsified zero-valent iron for product-level solvent degradation, and emulsion technologies for application to metal and polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated media. Details of the paper cover technology research, evaluation, and testing; contracts and grants; and technology transfer strategies including patenting, marketing, and licensing.

  17. Industrial Location Research Studies: Reports 17-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantus Co., Inc., New York, NY.

    Nine industrial-location research studies of the Appalachian region are presented in this document. These studies relate to the casting, plastic, metal, and food industries. Each study devotes sections to (1) a profile of the industry, (2) the industry's prospects for growth, (3) technology and trends, (4) primary factors influencing selection of…

  18. [Justice challenges of pharmaceutical industry global research].

    PubMed

    Páez Moreno, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    International research projects sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry are a recent modality of biomedical research, which is driven by interests that are not only scientific, but also commercial. This combination of interests is one of the natural consequences of globalization, which has brought unquestionable benefits for the world, but has also created a wider gap between the wealthy and the poor. Given that globalization has been led by the the world's leading economies, the level of injustice in the world has increased, often to the favor of the already wealthy. Globalization has a well-established dynamics, whose main characteristic is domain over the following: technological innovation, the organization of the production of goods and services, human needs, and consumption. International biomedical research fits well in this dynamics, and the result is often a poor distribution of benefits, added to a loss of scientific integrity for the sake of commercial interests. This phenomenon raises many ethical questions and it demands a reflection from different bioethical points of view, particularly an economic ethics and a global justice.

  19. Public health assessment for Rowe Industries Groundwater Contamination, Sag Harbor, Suffolk County, New York, Region 2: CERCLIS Number NYD981486954. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-21

    The public health assessment was developed to address specific concerns that the community surrounding the Rowe Industries Groundwater Contamination National Priorities List (NPL) site has brought to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry`s (ATSDR) attention.

  20. Estimates of Arab world research productivity associated with groundwater: a bibliometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyoud, Shaher H.; Fuchs-Hanusch, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    The sustainable management of groundwater resources is a pressing necessity for most countries. As most of the Arab world is facing severe water scarcity, threats of depletion of non-renewable groundwater, and problems of pollution and salt-water intrusions into groundwater aquifers, much effort should be devoted to eliminate these dangers in advance. This work was devoted to bring up insights into Arab world research activities in groundwater, which is a crucial task to identify their status and can help in shaping up and improving future research activities. A bibliometric analysis has been conducted to track these activities. The study identified 1417 documents which represent 3.3% of global research productivity. Egypt was the most productive country (313; 22.1%), followed by Saudi Arabia (254; 17.9%). Total citations were 9720 with an average of 6.9. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 39, and the highest one was 22 for Egypt. The most common subject category was Environmental Science, and the most productive journal was Arabian Journal of Geosciences (99; 7.0%). In international research collaboration, France was the most collaborated country with Arab world (125; 8.8%), followed by the United States (113; 8.0%). The most productive institution was King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia (66; 4.7%). The outcomes shows remarkable improvements in groundwater research activities originated from the Arab world. Even though, constructive efforts should be pursued vigorously to bridge the gaps in groundwater-based research. Moreover, promotion of better evaluation tools to assess the risks arising from the mismanagement of groundwater resources is required urgently.

  1. University/Industry Research Ties Still Viewed with Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkowski, Wil

    1984-01-01

    Examines issues and trends related to university/industry research relationships. Indicates that critics insist that universities are violating obligations to science and society by marketing expertise to industry. In addition, small colleges feel left out of the trend. (JN)

  2. Preliminary investigation of groundwater flow and trichloroethene transport in the Surficial Aquifer System, Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Jeffrey N.; Davis, J. Hal

    2016-05-16

    The August 20, 2001, groundwater flow model simulator and the 2001 trichloroethene transport simulator were applied to a groundwater extraction and treatment system that existed in 2011. Furnished trichloroethene source areas and concentrations in the 2001 simulator were replaced with different, furnished, hypothetical source areas and concentrations. Forcing in 2001 was replaced with forcing in 2011. No trichloroethene concentrations greater than 3 µg/L were simulated as discharging to the Mississippi River during applications of the 2001 simulator to the 2011 groundwater extraction and treatment system. These applications were not intended to represent historical conditions. Differences between furnished and actual trichloroethene sources may explain differences between measurements and simulation results for the 2001 trichloroethene transport simulator. Causes of differences between furnished and actual trichloroethene sources may cause differences between hypothetical application results and the performance of the actual U.S. Department of the Navy groundwater extraction and treatment system at the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant. Other limitations may also cause differences between application results and performance.

  3. Radiological Monitoring Results for Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2012-October 31, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1 (formerly LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  4. Radiological Monitoring Results for Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2011-October 31, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Mike lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1 (formerly LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  5. Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: May 1, 2010-October 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (#LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  6. Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2010-October 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (No.LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  7. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower

    2015-01-01

    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub

  8. Research and development in the textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    1987-06-01

    Included in the portfolio of IP's projects are the R and D activities for several advanced technologies targeted at the textile industry, one of the top ten energy intensive industries in the country. These R and D projects have primarily been aimed at improving the energy efficiency and productivity of textile production processes. Many projects in this area have been successfully completed, and some have resulted in the development and implementation of new technologies (e.g., foam processing) for various process steps. Other projects have produced technical results that have later been utilized by the industry in other capacities (e.g., hyperfiltration). Several projects at various stages of development are currently underway. This brochure describes the Office of Industrial Programs' R and D activities relevant to the textile industry. The brochure is comprised of the following: Industry Update, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Potential Energy Savings in the Textile Industry, Office of Industrial Programs, R and D Efforts, and R and D Data Base.

  9. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1989-01-01

    This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

  10. A study of trace element contamination using multivariate statistical techniques and health risk assessment in groundwater of Chhaprola Industrial Area, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Ramanathan, A L; Tripathi, Ritu; Farswan, Sandhya; Kumar, Devendra; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2017-01-01

    This study is an investigation on spatio-chemical, contamination sources (using multivariate statistics), and health risk assessment arising from the consumption of groundwater contaminated with trace and toxic elements in the Chhaprola Industrial Area, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. In this study 33 tubewell water samples were analyzed for 28 elements using ICP-OES. Concentration of some trace and toxic elements such as Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb and U exceeded their corresponding WHO (2011) guidelines and BIS (2012) standards while the other analyzed elements remain below than those values. Background γ and β radiation levels were observed and found to be within their acceptable limits. Multivariate statistics PCA (explains 82.07 cumulative percent for total 6 of factors) and CA indicated (mixed origin) that natural and anthropogenic activities like industrial effluent and agricultural runoff are responsible for the degrading of groundwater quality in the research area. In this study area, an adult consumes 3.0 L (median value) of water therefore consuming 39, 1.94, 1461, 0.14, 11.1, 292.6, 13.6, 23.5 μg of Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb and U from drinking water per day respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) value exceeded the safe limit of 1 which for As, B, Al, Cr, Mn, Cd, Pb and U at few locations while hazard index (HI) > 5 was observed in about 30% of the samples which indicated potential health risk from these tubewells for the local population if the groundwater is consumed.

  11. Industrial Technologies Program Research Plan for Energy-Intensive Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Chapas, Richard B.; Colwell, Jeffery A.

    2007-10-01

    In this plan, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) identifies the objectives of its cross-cutting strategy for conducting research in collaboration with industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories to develop technologies that improve the efficiencies of energy-intensive process industries.

  12. Industry Perceptions of University-Industry Relationships Related to Agricultural Biotechnology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenna, Leland L.; Welsh, Rick; Lacy, William B.; Biscotti, Dina

    2007-01-01

    Following a rise in university-industry relationships (UIRs), scholars began questioning the efficacy of those relationships, as well as whether industry and university research interests and integrity are being compromised. Although many of these studies focus on the university, few examine the perspectives of industry participants. We conducted…

  13. Aerospace Industry and Research. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackin, T. E.

    This book, to be used in the Air Force ROTC program only, discusses various aspects of the aerospace industry and its importance to the society. Not only does a modern and strong aerospace technology help in national defense, but it is a major economic industry as well. The vast number of people employed could shake the roots of economic…

  14. Norwegian Field Research Projects in Industrial Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qvale, Thoralf Ulrik

    The Industrial Democracy Programme (IDP) of Norway seeks to create conditions for a self-supporting change process in industry, rather than implementing a ready-made model, believing that it is more valuable for employees to learn to change their organization than for the specific solution to be found. The central problems, therefore, have been to…

  15. [Clinical researchers and pharmaceutical industry. Dangerous liaisons].

    PubMed

    Roos, J C

    1999-08-07

    Pharmaceutical industry and physician-investigators are mutually dependent for the development of new drugs and clinical trials of such drugs. Under pressure of increasing market orientation, clinical scientific investigations shift more and more from fundamental to clinical drug trials, the results of which sometimes do not justify the excitement with which they are presented in the scientific and lay press. More room and means should be given to less market oriented studies, addressing more fundamental clinical problems. Financial affiliation with the industry may influence the doctors' mind and the presentation and type of investigation. Apart from this type of intellectual subjection there is a form of financial subjugation of doctors to the industry, by participating in so-called 'postmarketing surveillance studies' which they in fact are not, that have no scientific value whatsoever, but only serve the financial interest of the participating doctor and the industry.

  16. Developing and Managing University-Industry Research Collaborations through a Process Methodology/Industrial Sector Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philbin, Simon P.

    2010-01-01

    A management framework has been successfully utilized at Imperial College London in the United Kingdom to improve the process for developing and managing university-industry research collaborations. The framework has been part of a systematic approach to increase the level of research contracts from industrial sources, to strengthen the…

  17. Characterising groundwater-dominated lowland catchments: the UK Lowland Catchment Research Programme (LOCAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; Peach, D.; Binley, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a major UK initiative to address deficiencies in understanding the hydro-ecological response of groundwater-dominated lowland catchments. The scope and objectives of this national programme are introduced and focus on one of three sets of research basins - the Pang/Lambourn Chalk catchments, tributaries of the river Thames in southern England. The motivation for the research is the need to support integrated management of river systems that have high ecological value and are subject to pressures that include groundwater abstraction for water supply, diffuse pollution, and land use and climate change. An overview of the research programme is provided together with highlights of some current research findings concerning the hydrological functioning of these catchments. Despite the importance of the Chalk as a major UK aquifer, knowledge of the subsurface movement of water and solutes is poor. Solute transport in the dual porosity unsaturated zone depends on fracture/matrix interactions that are difficult to observe; current experimental and modelling research supports the predominance of matrix flow and suggests that slow migration of a time-history of decades of nutrient loading is occurring. Groundwater flows are complex; catchments vary seasonally and are ill-defined and karst features are locally important. Groundwater flow pathways are being investigated using natural and artificial geochemical tracers based on experimental borehole arrays; stream-aquifer interaction research is using a combination of geophysics, borehole array geochemistry and longitudinal profiles of stream flow and solutes. A complex picture of localised subsurface inflows, linked to geological controls and karst features, and significant longitudinal groundwater flow below the river channel is emerging. Management implications are discussed. Strategies to control surface application of nutrients are expected to have little effect on groundwater quality for several

  18. The Evolution of University and Industry Research Relationships. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Martha L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a review of the literature on the development of university and industry research cooperation and conflict up to the early 1980's. The founding of both research universities and industrial America, two world wars, the space race, and protest movements provide points of reference for this period. (MVL)

  19. Worldwide Directory of Mineral Industries Education and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlbier, Herbert; And Others

    Presented is background knowlege of the institutions of the world involved in mineral industry education and research, including detailed information on the professional staff, research activities, and capabilities of the various mineral industry departments of these institutions. Also included is information on special interest within a…

  20. Hot topics for watermelon research: A survey of the industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is critical for public researchers to address the needs of the industry with which they cooperate. While most active researchers believe that they are serving the needs of the industry, an occasional survey can be a useful tool to monitor and prioritize those needs. A survey was compiled after ...

  1. External research and energy efficiency in the process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Kaarsberg, T.M.; Foust, T.D.

    1997-07-01

    The process industries in the US are under enormous pressure. These industries, even more than US industry on average, face skyrocketing environmental costs, a rapidly changing electricity market, potential climate change policies, aging infrastructure and strong international competition. To be profitable they must reduce their costs and environmental impacts while increasing their product quality, turnaround time, productivity and output. Most of these industries have already cut costs and labor as much as possible. Therefore, to survive, these industries must innovate. History shows that industries that are the most innovative are the most successful. These industries are vital to the US economy. For example, the metals, pulp and paper, chemicals and the petroleum refining industries account for more than $800 billion in products shipped and employ more than three million workers. Although the US has shifted dramatically toward services with 77% of workers and 74% of GDP now in the service sector, what many have missed is that the process industries are important customers for many of these new services. ServOnly the last two years of NSF industrial R and D data provide any breakout of non-manufacturing R and D. This paper discusses the past, current and possible future role of eternal research and development (R and D)--much of which is now in the service sector--in fostering innovation and thus energy efficiency in these industries. The authors suggest that these industries are more innovative than previously thought because of external research.

  2. Research and Exploration for Operational Research Education in Industry and Engineering Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yu-hua; Wang, Feng-ming; Du, Gang

    2007-01-01

    On the basic of exploring the relationship of industry engineering and operational research technique, the thesis analyzes the location and utility of the operational research education in the whole industry engineering subject education. It brings forward the system design about operational research and relative class among industry engineering…

  3. Industry Participation in Defence Research and Development,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    a proposal to extend the powers of the Australian Industry Development Corporation ( AIDC ) to increase the Corporation’s activities in the provision...the proposal to extend the powers of th AIDC to fill this role. Recommendation 2 a. That the Government develop a single venture capital institution in...Corporation ( AIDC ) be extended to enable the development of its venture capital activities; and c. That businesses financed though AIDC have the right to

  4. Groundwater-Seepage Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walthall, Harry G.; Reay, William G.

    1993-01-01

    Instrument measures seepage of groundwater into inland or coastal body of water. Positioned at depth as great as 40 meters, and measures flow at low rate and low pressure differential. Auxiliary pressure meter provides data for correlation of flow of groundwater with tides and sea states. Seepage meter operates independently for several weeks. Its sampling rate adjusted to suit hydrologic conditions; to measure more frequently when conditions changing rapidly. Used in water-quality management and for biological and geological research. Potential industrial uses include measurement of seepage of caustic and corrosive liquids.

  5. Academic-industry Collaborations in Translational Stroke Research.

    PubMed

    Boltze, Johannes; Wagner, Daniel-Christoph; Barthel, Henryk; Gounis, Matthew J

    2016-08-01

    Academic-industry collaborations are an emerging format of translational stroke research. Next to classic contract research models, a multitude of collaboration models has been developed, some of which even allowing for multinational or intercontinental research programs. This development has recently been paralleled by first successful attempts to overcome the translational stroke research road block, such as the unprecedented success of novel endovascular approaches or the advent of the multicenter preclinical trial concept. While the first underlines the role of the industry as a major innovation driver in stroke research, the latter will require enrollment of industrial partners for optimal output. Moreover, academic-industry partnerships are invaluable to bridge the translational "valley of death" as well as funding gaps in times of dwindling public funding and declining high risk capital investments. However, these collaborations are also subject to relevant challenges because interests, values, and aims often significantly differ between cademia and industry. Here, we describe common academic-industry collaboration models as well as associated benefits and challenges in the stroke research arena. We also suggest strategies for improved planning, implementation, guidance, and utilization of academic-industry collaborations to the maximum mutual benefit.

  6. Strategies for transdisciplinary research on peri-urban groundwater management in the Ganges delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, Leon; Thissen, Wil; Gomes, Sharlene; Banerjee, Poulomi; Narain, Vishal; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Hasan, Rezaul; Barua, Anamika; Alam Khan, Shah; Bhattacharya, Samir; Kempers, Remi; Banerjee, Parthasarathi; Hossain, Zakir; Majumdar, Binoy; Hossain, Riad

    2016-04-01

    Transdisciplinary science transcends disciplinary boundaries. The reasons to engage in transdisciplinary science are many and include the desire to nurture a more direct relationship between science and society, as well as the desire to explain phenomena that cannot be explained by any of the existing disciplinary bodies of knowledge in isolation. Both reasons also reinforce each other, as reality often features a level of complexity that demands and inspires the combination of scientific knowledge from various disciplines. The challenge in transdisciplinary science, however, is not so much to cross disciplinary boundaries, but to ensure an effective connection between disciplines. This contribution reports on the strategy used in a transdisciplinary research project to address groundwater management in peri-urban areas in the Ganges delta. Groundwater management in peri-urban areas in rapidly urbanizing deltas is affected by diverse forces such as rapid population growth, increased economic activity and changing livelihood patterns, and other forces which result in a growing pressure on available groundwater resources. Understanding the intervention possibilities for a more sustainable groundwater management in these peri-urban areas requires an understanding of the dynamic interplay between various sub-systems, such as the physical groundwater system, the water using activities in households and livelihoods, and the institutional system of formal and informal rules that are used by various parties to access groundwater resources and to distribute the associated societal and economic costs and benefits. The ambition in the reported project is to contribute both new scientific knowledge, as well as build capacity with peri-urban stakeholders to improve the sustainability and equitability of local groundwater management. This is done by combining science and development activities, led by different organizations. The scientific component further consists of three

  7. Twenty years of global groundwater research: A Science Citation Index Expanded-based bibliometric survey (1993-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Beibei; Loáiciga, Hugo A.; Wang, Zhen; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Hong, Song

    2014-11-01

    A bibliometric analysis was conducted to evaluate groundwater research from different perspectives in the period 1993-2012 based on the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) database. The bibliometric analysis summarizes output, categorical, geographical, and institutional patterns, as well as research hotspots in global groundwater studies. Groundwater research experienced notable growth in the past two decades. “Environmental sciences”, “water resources” and “multidisciplinary geosciences” were the three major subject categories. The Journal of Hydrology published the largest number of groundwater-related publications in the surveyed period. Major author clusters and research regions are located in the United States, Western Europe, Eastern and Southern Asia, and Eastern Australia. The United States was a leading contributor to global groundwater research with the largest number of independent and collaborative papers, its dominance affirmed by housing 12 of the top 20 most active institutions reporting groundwater-related research. The US Geological Survey, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the USDA Agricultural Research Service were the three institutions with the largest number of groundwater-related publications. A keywords analysis revealed that groundwater quality and contamination, effective research technologies, and treatment technologies for water-quality improvement were the main research areas in the study period. Several keywords such as “arsenic”, “climate change”, “fluoride”, “groundwater management”, “hydrogeochemistry”, “uncertainty”, “numerical modeling”, “seawater intrusion”, “adsorption”, “remote sensing”, “land use”, “USA”(as study site), and “water supply” received dramatically increased attention during the study period, possibly signaling future research trends.

  8. Visual Narrative Research Methods as Performance in Industrial Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Laurel H.; McDonagh, Deana

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses teaching empathic research methodology as performance. The authors describe their collaboration in an activity to help undergraduate industrial design students learn empathy for others when designing products for use by diverse or underrepresented people. The authors propose that an industrial design curriculum would benefit…

  9. MATWIN: bridging the gap between academic research and industry.

    PubMed

    Reiffers, Josy; Robert, Lucia

    2015-09-16

    MATWIN (Maturation and Accelerating Translation With INdustry) is part of the nationwide effort to support cancer innovation. This unique program is willing to support innovative research projects providing tools, resources, and staff dedicated to project leaders wishing to optimize the industrial attractiveness of their project. The overall objective is clear: fight cancer always more effectively.

  10. The Ceiling to Coproduction in University-Industry Research Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Angela; Parker, Rachel; Cox, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into government attempts at bridging the divide between theory and practice through university-industry research collaboration modelled under engaged scholarship. The findings are based on data sourced from interviews with 47 academic and industry project leaders from 23 large-scale research…

  11. Panel Discussion on Industrial Research for Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Brent

    2014-03-01

    The session organizers invite all industrial researchers and those who might be interested in a career in industrial research for an open discussion on careers in industry. The topics covered will be flexible based on audience interest, but are expected to include career paths, resume building, networking, interviewing, and transitioning out of academia.

  12. PERVAPORATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this presentation is to describe research activities with USDPA's NRMRL Prevaporation Team pertaining to industrial waste. The presentation will provide a brief introduction to pervaporation technology theory and applications. Pervaporation is a membrane separ...

  13. Review of industrial and research applications of thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlstrom, John

    1990-10-01

    The background and advantages of commercial thermography are reviewed, and applications of thermography in basic research, product development, and medicine are discussed. Industrial applications of thermography to preventive maintenance and production monitoring are also covered.

  14. Research by industry at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The world`s foremost facility for research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, is operated by the National Synchrotron Light Source dept. This pamphlet described the participating research teams that built most of the beam lines, various techniques for studying materials, treatment of materials, and various industrial research (catalysis, pharmaceuticals, etc.).

  15. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and overview of the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). It covers the University of Nebraska's areas of research, and its outreach to students at Native American schools as part of AERIAL. The report contains three papers: "Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Application" (White Paper), "Validated Numerical Models for the Convective Extinction of Fuel Droplets (CEFD)", and "The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center".

  16. Assessment of industrial attitudes toward generic research needs in tribology

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, L.B.; Zlotnick, M.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    Based on extended discussions during visits with 27 companies representing 13 different parts of the tribology industry (such as bearings, lubricants, coatings, powerplants), it is apparent that only a tiny fraction of the large sums publicly reported as R and D expenditures by industry are used to fund generic tribology research. For example, of the greater than $2 B expenditures reported for R and D in the lubricants sector for 1982, the estimated total for generic tribology research was $12 M. This was the largest expenditure in any sector of the tribology industry and one-third of the total of $36 M. In the automotive industry out of a reported expenditure of $4 B, the estimated generic tribology research was $3 M. In some segments of the tribology industry, for example coatings and filters, there were no expenditures on generic research. There was little tendency to improve the state of the art of the tribology industry through long-term investment in generic R and D in ways that would foster innovation and productivity of energy conservation technology. Expenditures were oriented to development of specific commercial and military products, or to basic research focused on unspecified far term results, although useful spin-off of military developments into commercial fields sometimes occurs. There was a broad consensus in the companies visited that existing research results were not always made easily accessible to potential users in industry. The implication was that industry might benefit more if a larger fraction of the funds were devoted to putting the research results into a form design and development engineers could more readily apply. The need for a more effective presentation of research results was expressed with greater urgency at the smaller companies, but there seemed to be a broad consensus on the need for improvement. Recommendations are given.

  17. Industry Support of Medical Research: Important Opportunity or Treacherous Pitfall?

    PubMed

    Tierney, William M; Meslin, Eric M; Kroenke, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceutical and device manufacturers fund more than half of the medical research in the U.S. Research funding by for-profit companies has increased over the past 20 years, while federal funding has declined. Research funding from for-profit medical companies is seen as tainted by many academicians because of potential biases and prior misbehavior by both investigators and companies. Yet NIH is encouraging partnerships between the public and private sectors to enhance scientific discovery. There are instances, such as methods for improving drug adherence and post-marketing drug surveillance, where the interests of academician researchers and industry could be aligned. We provide examples of ethically performed industry-funded research and a set of principles and benchmarks for ethically credible academic-industry partnerships that could allow academic researchers, for-profit companies, and the public to benefit.

  18. Detection of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in surface water, soil, and groundwater in a chemical industrial park in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Benhua; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Jianfeng; Huang, Linxian; Chen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    China is suffering from serious water and soil pollution, especially in the North China Plain. This work investigated semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in surface water, groundwater and soil within a chemical industrial park in Eastern China, for which the volatile organic compound (VOC) results have been previously reported. A total of 20 samples were collected from the field, and analyzed in the laboratory. A 100% detection frequency of SVOCs in samples from this chemical industrial park was observed (same as VOCs). Moreover, the detection frequency of 113 SVOCs in each sample reached 15.93, 12.39 and 20.35% for surface water, groundwater and soil, respectively. The most detected SVOCs in the park included N-containing SVOCs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, organic pesticides and polychlorodiphenyls. The elevated detecting frequencies and concentration levels of SVOCs identified in the groundwater were attributed to the intensive chemical production activities in the park. In addition, the agricultural activities in the area might also have contributed to the SVOCs to the groundwater. The results of VOCs and SVOCs from this and previous studies suggest that the groundwater in this industrial park has been severely contaminated, and the contamination likely spreads beyond the park. Imminent hydrogeological assessments and remedial actions are warranted to eliminate the source and mitigate the potential plume expansion beyond the park boundary.

  19. Technology Roadmap Research Program for the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph R. Vehec

    2010-12-30

    The steel industry's Technology Roadmap Program (TRP) is a collaborative R&D effort jointly sponsored by the steel industry and the United States Department of Energy. The TRP program was designed to develop new technologies to save energy , increase competitiveness, and improve the environment. TRP ran from July, 1997 to December, 2008, with a total program budget of $38 million dollars. During that period 47 R&D projects were performed by 28 unique research organizations; co-funding was provided by DOE and 60 industry partners. The projects benefited all areas of steelmaking and much know-how was developed and transferred to industry. The American Iron and Steel Institute is the owner of all intellectual property developed under TRP and licenses it at commercial rates to all steelmakers. TRP technologies are in widespread use in the steel industry as participants received royalty-free use of intellectual property in return for taking the risk of funding this research.

  20. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  1. Engineered passive bioreactive barriers: risk-managing the legacy of industrial soil and groundwater pollution.

    PubMed

    Kalin, Robert M

    2004-06-01

    Permeable reactive barriers are a technology that is one decade old, with most full-scale applications based on abiotic mechanisms. Though there is extensive literature on engineered bioreactors, natural biodegradation potential, and in situ remediation, it is only recently that engineered passive bioreactive barrier technology is being considered at the commercial scale to manage contaminated soil and groundwater risks. Recent full-scale studies are providing the scientific confidence in our understanding of coupled microbial (and genetic), hydrogeologic, and geochemical processes in this approach and have highlighted the need to further integrate engineering and science tools.

  2. Ground-water quality and trends at two industrial wastewater-injection sites in northwestern Florida, 1975-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from two synthetic-fiber manufacturing plants has been injected into the Lower Floridan aquifer near Pensacola, Florida, since 1963, and near Milton, Florida, since 1975. Trend analysis of selected water-quality characteristics in water from four monitoring wells at each of these plants indicates that injected wastewater has affected ground-water quality in the Lower Floridan aquifer, which contains nonpotable water, up to 1.5 miles from the injection wells at the plant near Pensacola and at least 0.3 mile from the injection wells at the plant near Milton. No evidence for upward seepage of injected wastewater through the overlying Bucatunna Clay to the Upper Floridan aquifer was found at either of the plants.

  3. Water-elevation, stream-discharge, and ground-water quality data in the Alaska Railroad Industrial Area, Fairbanks, Alaska, May 1993 to May 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kriegler, A.T.; Lilly, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    From May 1993 to May 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining and Water Management collected data on ground-water and surface-water elevations, stream discharge, and ground-water quality in the Alaska Railroad Industrial area in Fairbanks, Alaska. The data- collection efforts were coordinated with environmental efforts being made in the study area by the Alaska Railroad Corporation. These data were collected as part of an effort to characterize the hydrogeology of the Alaska Railroad Industrial area and to define the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons in the area. Ground-water data were collected at 52 observation wells, surface-water data at 12 sites, stream discharge data at 9 sites, and chemical water-quality data at 32 observation wells.

  4. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana; Hernandez, Daniela Quintanilla; Hagemann, Timo; Heins, Anna-Lena; Larsson, Hilde; Mears, Lisa; Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V

    2014-06-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same maturity as traditional chemical processes, particularly when it comes to using engineering tools such as mathematical models and optimization techniques. This perspective starts with a brief overview of these engineering tools. However, the main focus is on a description of some of the most important engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because of their wide applications as cell factories and therefore their relevance in a White Biotechnology context. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is introduced as a promising tool that can be used to support the scaling up and scaling down of bioreactors, and for studying mixing and the potential occurrence of gradients in a tank.

  5. Research approach to teaching groundwater biodegradation in karst aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, L.; Byl, T.; Painter, R.

    2006-01-01

    TSU in partnership with the USGS has conducted extensive research regarding biode??gradation of contaminants in karst aquifers. This research resulted in the development of a numerical approach to modeling biodegradation of contaminants in karst aquifers that is taught to environmental engineering students in several steps. First, environmental engineering students are taught chemical-reaction engineering principles relating to a wide variety of environmental fate and transport issues. Second, as part of TSU's engineering course curriculum, students use a non-ideal flow laboratory reactor system and run a tracer study to establish residence time distribution (RTD). Next, the students couple that formula to a first-order biodegradation rate and predict the removal of a biodegradable contaminant as a function of residence time. Following this, students are shown data collected from karst bedrock wells that suggest that karst aquifers are analogous to non-ideal flow reactors. The students are challenged to develop rates of biodegradation through lab studies and use their results to predict biodegradaton at an actual contaminated karst site. Field studies are also conducted to determine the accuracy of the students' predictions. This academic approach teaches biodegradation processes, rate-kinetic processes, hydraulic processes and numerical principles. The students are able to experience how chemical engineering principles can be applied to other situations, such as, modeling biodegradation of contaminants in karst aquifers. This paper provides background on the chemical engineering principles and karst issues used in the research-enhanced curriculum. ?? American Society for Engineering Education, 2006.

  6. Groundwater monitoring program plan and conceptual site model for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center in Iraq.

    SciTech Connect

    Copland, John Robin; Cochran, John Russell

    2013-07-01

    The Radiation Protection Center of the Iraqi Ministry of Environment is developing a groundwater monitoring program (GMP) for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located near Baghdad, Iraq. The Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center was established in about 1960 and is currently being cleaned-up and decommissioned by Iraqs Ministry of Science and Technology. This Groundwater Monitoring Program Plan (GMPP) and Conceptual Site Model (CSM) support the Radiation Protection Center by providing: A CSM describing the hydrogeologic regime and contaminant issues, recommendations for future groundwater characterization activities, and descriptions of the organizational elements of a groundwater monitoring program. The Conceptual Site Model identifies a number of potential sources of groundwater contamination at Al-Tuwaitha. The model also identifies two water-bearing zones (a shallow groundwater zone and a regional aquifer). The depth to the shallow groundwater zone varies from approximately 7 to 10 meters (m) across the facility. The shallow groundwater zone is composed of a layer of silty sand and fine sand that does not extend laterally across the entire facility. An approximately 4-m thick layer of clay underlies the shallow groundwater zone. The depth to the regional aquifer varies from approximately 14 to 17 m across the facility. The regional aquifer is composed of interfingering layers of silty sand, fine-grained sand, and medium-grained sand. Based on the limited analyses described in this report, there is no severe contamination of the groundwater at Al-Tuwaitha with radioactive constituents. However, significant data gaps exist and this plan recommends the installation of additional groundwater monitoring wells and conducting additional types of radiological and chemical analyses.

  7. Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater around Industrial Estate vs Residential Areas in Coimbatore, India

    PubMed Central

    Mohankumar, K.; Rao, N. Prasada

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Water is the vital resource, necessary for all aspects of human and ecosystem survival and health. Depending on the quality, bore water may be used for human consumption, irrigation purposes and livestock watering. The quality of bore water can vary widely depending on the quality of ground water that is its source. Pollutants are being added to the ground water system through human and natural processes. Solid waste from industrial units is being dumped near the factories, which react with percolating rainwater and reaches the ground water. The percolating water picks up a large number of heavy metals and reaches the aquifer system and contaminates the ground water. The usage of the contaminated bore water causes the diseases. Mercury, Arsenic and Cadmium are used or released by many industries. Aim This study was conducted to investigate the pollution of bore water in the industrial region (Kurichi Industrial Cluster) of Coimbatore, in the state of Tamilnadu, India. Materials and Methods Four samples were taken from residential areas around Kurichi Industrial Cluster and analysed to find the concentrations of Mercury, Arsenic and Cadmium. Four more samples were taken from other residential regions far from the industrial estate and served as control. Samples were analysed using Atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Results We found that the ground water of the areas surrounding the industrial cluster does not contain significant amount of those metals. Instead, Heavy metal contamination of ground water were observed in some residential areas of coimbatore. Conclusion The regulatory measures to contain and prevent ground water contamination by industries undertaken by Tamilnadu pollution control board may have lead to absence of heavy metal contamination in Kurichi Industrial cluster, Coimbatore, India. PMID:27190788

  8. Groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.H.; Giger, W.; McCarty, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a collection of 28 selected papers presented at the First International Conference on Groundwater Quality Research, at Rice University in October 1981. Several studies provide an overview of chemical and microbial contamination. Local groundwater pollution problems in the Netherlands and metals motility in New Zealand are described. In addition, the effects to groundwater quality due to the discharge of treated wastewaters in the Netherlands, Great Britain, and Houston, Texas are described. Mathematical models are presented that can be used to simulate and predict the transport of contaminants in a saturated groundwater system. Studies describing the sorption of halogenated hydrocarbons, the survival and transport of pathogenic bacteria, the biodegradation of contaminants, and anaerobic transformation in subsurface environments are included. Other topics of discussion include methods for obtaining representative groundwater samples, methods for assessing groundwater problems, methods for designing and constructing microcosms and the microbial characterization of subsurface systems.

  9. Groundwater protection and unconventional gas extraction: the critical need for field-based hydrogeological research.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R E; Gorody, A W; Mayer, B; Roy, J W; Ryan, M C; Van Stempvoort, D R

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas extraction from tight sandstones, shales, and some coal-beds is typically accomplished by horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing that is necessary for economic development of these new hydrocarbon resources. Concerns have been raised regarding the potential for contamination of shallow groundwater by stray gases, formation waters, and fracturing chemicals associated with unconventional gas exploration. A lack of sound scientific hydrogeological field observations and a scarcity of published peer-reviewed articles on the effects of both conventional and unconventional oil and gas activities on shallow groundwater make it difficult to address these issues. Here, we discuss several case studies related to both conventional and unconventional oil and gas activities illustrating how under some circumstances stray or fugitive gas from deep gas-rich formations has migrated from the subsurface into shallow aquifers and how it has affected groundwater quality. Examples include impacts of uncemented well annuli in areas of historic drilling operations, effects related to poor cement bonding in both new and old hydrocarbon wells, and ineffective cementing practices. We also summarize studies describing how structural features influence the role of natural and induced fractures as contaminant fluid migration pathways. On the basis of these studies, we identify two areas where field-focused research is urgently needed to fill current science gaps related to unconventional gas extraction: (1) baseline geochemical mapping (with time series sampling from a sufficient network of groundwater monitoring wells) and (2) field testing of potential mechanisms and pathways by which hydrocarbon gases, reservoir fluids, and fracturing chemicals might potentially invade and contaminate useable groundwater.

  10. Research Models of the Future for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Gerald V.

    This paper presents three different aspects of research in industrial and organizational psychology. First, characteristics of major advances in science, and in the social and behavioral sciences are given, including: (1) team research is more common for major advances; and (2) young men under 35 are responsible for many major contributions.…

  11. Strategies for implementing zero discharge in an industrial smelter : 1. Managing fluroide in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagnitti, F.; Salzman, S.; Thwaites, L.; Allinson, G.; Le Blanc, M.; Hill, J.; Doerr, S.; de Rooij, G.

    2003-04-01

    The Portland Aluminium smelter produces approximately 75 ML of process wastewater each year. This is combined with storm water runoff from the site to give an annual production of 715 ML. In common with many other smelters, this wastewater stream is currently discharged to the ocean. However, although the quality of the water Portland Aluminium discharges currently meets all Australian Environmental Protection Agency license requirements, this mode of release is unlikely to be acceptable in the near future, and alternative disposal options for the water are required. The Portland smelter has developed strategies which will enable it to achieve zero-discharge within 5 years. These strategies include separating process water from storm water, recycling storm water, construction of evaporation ponds to receive process water, irrigation of process water and storm water on lands within the site and maintenance of important wetland functions. The poster presents a summary of the management strategies currently being trialed and in particular focuses on modeling the spatial and temporal variations of fluoride found in the shallow groundwater and the implications of achieving zero-discharge. The poster also discusses the possible impacts on the distribution of fluoride and other solutes in the vadose zone by the irrigation of treated process water on blue-gum plantations. Computer simulations indicate that irrigation of process water (either treated or untreated) on the land poses no significant long-term threat to regional or surficial groundwater. However the impacts of increased solute transport through the vadose zone on changes in soil structure and nutrition require further investigation.

  12. 76 FR 22751 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Referendum Procedures... 0581-AD03 Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order... Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order (Order) is favored by...

  13. Developing a Collaborative Research Environment for a Study of Coastal Groundwater Hydraulics: Benin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, S. E.; Boukari, M.; Yalo, N.

    2011-12-01

    The city of Cotonou, Benin, has a population between 1.5 and 2 million people served by groundwater wells. Recent evidence suggests that salinity is increasing in a series of wells which border a salt-water lake. Modeling and field characterization of this complex groundwater system is targeted at providing the national water agency in Benin with assessment of multiple management strategies to reduce the impact of saline inflows from the lake. Research efforts have evolved through development of collaboration among colleagues from the Universite d'Abomey-Calavi (Benin) and the University of Notre Dame (USA): participants have included faculty and students (undergraduate and graduate) from both institutions. The combined research team has provided the ability to: (i) identify funding opportunities through multiple funding sources, (ii) establish long-term monitoring in the lake and groundwater systems through field measurements by Benin partners, (iii) introduce new tools (numerical and instrumentation) through professional contacts and suppliers in the U.S., (iv) establish site security (for long-term installation of equipment) through local knowledge of customs and cultural requirements, and (v) interpret data and management strategies from multiple viewpoints. The project has provided for collection of high-quality data that have provided opportunities to improve both the conceptual model of the local hydrogeology and the field strategies used to characterize both parameters and boundary conditions impacting flow to the water-supply wells.

  14. The Competition for Industry Research Funding: How Satisfied Are University Commercial Research Clients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Troy

    2009-01-01

    Constrained public funding for universities and the emphasis placed on university-industry interactions mean that universities are increasingly required to compete for industrial funds for research. This in turn means that universities need to develop a customer service culture in order to be competitive and attractive to industry. Many studies…

  15. Progress, opportunities, and key fields for groundwater quality research under the impacts of human activities in China with a special focus on western China.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyue; Tian, Rui; Xue, Chenyang; Wu, Jianhua

    2017-03-10

    Groundwater quality research is extremely important for supporting the safety of the water supply and human health in arid and semi-arid areas of China. This review article was constructed to report the latest research progress of groundwater quality in western China where groundwater quality is undergoing fast deterioration because of fast economic development and extensive anthropogenic activities. The opportunities brought by increasing public awareness of groundwater quality protection were also highlighted and discussed. To guide and promote further development of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, ten key groundwater quality research fields were proposed. The review shows that the intensification of human activities and the associated impacts on groundwater quality in China, especially in western China, has made groundwater quality research increasingly important, and has caught the attention of local, national, and international agencies and scholars. China has achieved some progress in groundwater quality research in terms of national and regional laws, regulations, and financial supports. The future of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, is promising reflected by the opportunities highlighted. The key research fields proposed in this article may also inform groundwater quality protection and management at the national and international level.

  16. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.; O'Neil, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium (NSGC) & EPSCoR programs at the University of Nebraska at Omaha are involved in a variety of innovative research activities. Such research is supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) and collaborative seed funds. AERIAL is a comprehensive, multi-faceted, five year NASA EPSCoR initiative that contributes substantially to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA while intensifying Nebraska s rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL includes three major collaborative research teams (CRTs) whose nexus is a common focus in aeronautics research. Each CRT - Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Airborne Remote Sensing for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications (ARS), and Numerical Simulation of the Combustion of Fuel Droplets: Finite Rate Kinetics and Flame Zone Grid Adaptation (CEFD) -has a distinct research agenda. This program provides the template for funding of new and innovative research that emphasizes aerospace technology.

  17. Phosphor Technology Center of Excellence: research, education, industrial interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Christopher J.

    1994-04-01

    A review is given of the participants and the research, education and industrial mission of the center. The Phosphor Technology Center of Excellence is established at the Georgia Institute of Technology with the University of Georgia, University of Florida, Pennsylvania State University, David Sarnoff Research Center and the American Display Consortium being charter members. The research mission addresses short, medium and long term needs in five technological areas; cathode ray tube, electroluminescence, field emission devices, plasma display panels and active-matrix liquid crystal display back-light phosphors through interactive university/industry technology groups. Outreach activities include the establishment of a phosphor database, industry analysis and short courses in addition to the conventional university education role. Specific science and technology programs are briefly described.

  18. The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable was created just over a decade ago to provide a unique forum for dialogue among top government, university, and industry leaders of the national science and technology enterprise. The purpose is to facilitate personal working relationships and exchange of ideas about issues, problems, and promising opportunities that are facing those charged with developing and deploying science and technology resources. The open dialogue and informal exchange of ideas preclude a process of making formal recommendations or offering specific advice. Instead, the Roundtable seeks to stimulate new approaches by dissemination of its discussions, and pro-active contacts with organizations that may want to build on the idea base it establishes. After introductory material on the structure and operation of the Roundtable, accomplishments on current projects are described. Projects include: Stresses on research and education at colleges and universities; Formulating US research policies within an international context; The Federal Demonstration project, designed to improve the management of federally-funded research; Analysis of the costs of research in industrial, academic, and federal labs; Industry-university research collaborations; and Public stakeholding in America`s investment in science and technology.

  19. The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable was created just over a decade ago to provide a unique forum for dialogue among top government, university, and industry leaders in the national science and technology enterprise. The purpose is to facilitate personal working relationships and exchange of ideas about issues, problems, and promising opportunities facing those charged with developing and deploying science and technology resources. In 1996, Council meetings focused on the following: (1) the impact of information technology on the structure of research and educational organizations; (2) ways to improve communication between the science and engineering community and the public; and (3) new approaches both to measuring the results of research investments, and to communicating those metrics to non-technical decision-makers and to the public. Significant milestones were also achieved in four major projects, representing, impart, follow-up activity from previous Council Meeting discussions: (1) facilitating the Federal Demonstration Partnership, designed to maximize the efficiency of the federal research support system; (2) compiling results of a regional workshop on experiences in industry-university collaborative organization; (3) publishing the results of a study comparing the cost structures for research performed in the industrial, academic, and government laboratory sector; and (4) catalyzing, and participating in, a series of campus-based convocations on stresses being experienced in the research university environment.

  20. Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Natural and Social Sciences – Status and Trends Exemplified in Groundwater Research

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social sciences, is perceived as crucial to solving the significant challenges facing humanity. However, despite the need for such collaboration being expressed more frequently and intensely, it remains unclear to what degree such collaboration actually takes place, what trends and developments there are and which actors are involved. Previous studies, often based on bibliometric analysis of large bodies of literature, partly observed an increase in interdisciplinary collaboration in general, but in particular, the collaboration among distant fields was less explored. Other more qualitative studies found that interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social scientists was not well developed, and obstacles abounded. To shed some light on the actual status and developments of this collaboration, we performed an analysis based on a sample of articles on groundwater research. We first identified journals and articles therein that potentially combined natural and social science aspects of groundwater research. Next, we analysed the disciplinary composition of their authors’ teams, cited references, titles and keywords, making use of our detailed personal expertise in groundwater research and its interdisciplinary aspects. We combined several indicators developed from this analysis into a final classification of the degree of multidisciplinarity of each article. Covering the period between 1990 and 2014, we found that the overall percentage of multidisciplinary articles was in the low single-digit range, with only slight increases over the past decades. The interdisciplinarity of individuals plays a major role compared to interdisciplinarity involving two or more researchers. If collaboration with natural sciences takes place, social science is represented most often by economists. As a side result, we found that journals publishing multidisciplinary research had lower impact

  1. Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Natural and Social Sciences - Status and Trends Exemplified in Groundwater Research.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Roland; Seidl, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social sciences, is perceived as crucial to solving the significant challenges facing humanity. However, despite the need for such collaboration being expressed more frequently and intensely, it remains unclear to what degree such collaboration actually takes place, what trends and developments there are and which actors are involved. Previous studies, often based on bibliometric analysis of large bodies of literature, partly observed an increase in interdisciplinary collaboration in general, but in particular, the collaboration among distant fields was less explored. Other more qualitative studies found that interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social scientists was not well developed, and obstacles abounded. To shed some light on the actual status and developments of this collaboration, we performed an analysis based on a sample of articles on groundwater research. We first identified journals and articles therein that potentially combined natural and social science aspects of groundwater research. Next, we analysed the disciplinary composition of their authors' teams, cited references, titles and keywords, making use of our detailed personal expertise in groundwater research and its interdisciplinary aspects. We combined several indicators developed from this analysis into a final classification of the degree of multidisciplinarity of each article. Covering the period between 1990 and 2014, we found that the overall percentage of multidisciplinary articles was in the low single-digit range, with only slight increases over the past decades. The interdisciplinarity of individuals plays a major role compared to interdisciplinarity involving two or more researchers. If collaboration with natural sciences takes place, social science is represented most often by economists. As a side result, we found that journals publishing multidisciplinary research had lower impact

  2. Emerging trends in contract research industry in India.

    PubMed

    Drabu, Sushma; Gupta, Alka; Bhadauria, Anupama

    2010-09-01

    A Contract Research Organization (CRO) is a service organization that provides support to the pharmaceutical industry and offers a wide range of "outsourced" pharmaceutical research services to aid in R&D process and is thus an essential tool for undertaking clinical trials in the present scenario when high stakes are involved in the drug discovery process. This industry also offers a safe option of investment as the industry is largely recession-proof, with a significant upscale growth. Presently India occupies a very small pie of the global market share in the Clinical Trials Industry but it is estimated to conduct nearly 5% of global clinical trials by 2012. The global CRO industry valued $18 bn in 2008 and the market is expected to grow at an annual rate of 14% between 2009 and 13. Top multinational pharmaceuticals companies are venturing into the Indian business, in collaboration with the Indian Drug Companies. According to a recent study by Mckinsey & Company, the Indian Clinical Research Industry can attract $1.5 bn of revenue from US and EU by 2010. Such an increase in outsourcing from the western countries has led the global pharma companies and Indian entrepreneurs to set up Contract Research Organizations (CROs) in India. To bring this into realization and fulfil the market demand, while simultaneously aiding in improving the country's economical standards and market position, joint and well-coordinated efforts on part of the government, industry, and working professionals are needed in terms of regulatory affairs, audits, transparency in work affairs, garnering patient confidence, and pharmacovigilance.

  3. Integrating multi-technique research on industry-specific attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Shena, C.; Goldsmith, M.; Banks, J.

    1994-11-01

    Consolidated Edison Company is the supplier of electricity, natural gas, steam and related services to thousands of businesses and a population of more than seven million in New York City and Westchester County. Nearly 52% of the more than 28,000 manufacturing firms in New York State are served by Con Edison, with the majority of these firms in the printing/publishing or apparel industries. Recognizing the need to better understand these important customers, Con Edison undertook a research effort to investigate opportunities for serving the apparel and printing/publishing industries more effectively. The research found that new technology was the greatest need within both industries, followed closely by skilled labor, lower operating costs, and access to capital. Also found was a commonly voiced sentiment for the need of leadership from an organization capable of bringing all the necessary elements together for the benefit of the industries. Con Edison concluded that program initiatives designed for one industry are applicable, in whole or part, to the other. Furthermore, combining internal resources under programs geared to targeted industries may be the optimal approach for Con Edison.

  4. Reclamation and groundwater restoration in the uranium milling industry: An assessment of UMTRCA, title II

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    In 1978, Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) to regulate the disposal and reclamation of uranium mill tailings.This article examines the implementation of this legislation through eight cases of uranium mills in New Mexico, Wyoming, and Utah now being reclaimed. The eight cases examined here make up an important part of the total reclamation picture in the uranium milling industry.

  5. Midstream modulation in biotechnology industry: redefining what is 'part of the job' of researchers in industry.

    PubMed

    Flipse, Steven M; van der Sanden, Maarten C A; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2013-09-01

    In response to an increasing amount of policy papers stressing the need for integrating social and ethical aspects in Research and Development (R&D) practices, science studies scholars have conducted integrative research and experiments with science and innovation actors. One widely employed integration method is Midstream Modulation (MM), in which an 'embedded humanist' interacts in regular meetings with researchers to engage them with the social and ethical aspects of their work. While the possibility of using MM to enhance critical reflection has been demonstrated in academic settings, few attempts have been made to examine its appropriateness in industry. This paper describes the outcomes of a case study aiming to find out firstly whether MM can effectively be deployed to encourage and facilitate researchers to actively include social and ethical aspects in their daily R&D practice, and secondly to what extent the integration activities could form an integral part of the engaged industrial researchers' professional activities. Our data show that after MM, researchers display increased reflexive awareness on the social and ethical aspects of their work and acknowledge the relevance and utility of such aspects on their daily practice. Also, all participants considered actively reflecting on social and ethical aspects to be part of their work. Future research on the role of MM in industrial settings could focus on how to embed social and ethical integration as a regular part of innovation practice. We suggest that one possibility would be through aligning social and ethical aspects with innovation Key Performance Indicators.

  6. IFP: Standing at the intersection between research and industry

    SciTech Connect

    Riviere, C.

    1995-08-01

    Since its formation in 1944, Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) has pursued a wide range of research and development, training and information activities, servicing the complete chain of petroleum operations, ranging from exploration to the many uses of petroleum products. Standing at the intersection between research and industry, IFP combines basic research and applied industrial research. One of it roles is to contribute to renewing reserves by developing innovative technologies and to ensure the better technico-economic accessibility of discovered reserves. In exploration and reservoir engineering, the R&D program is mainly focused on subjects contributing to the development of methodologies and tools for a better assessment of petroleum resources of sedimentary basins, structural imaging, reservoir characterization, improved oil recovery, well productivity and a more intensive integration of the geosciences: geology/geophysics/reservoir engineering. Environmental protection is a subject of permanent concern at IFP. A part of the program is focused on the restoration of polluted environments. The determination to ensure the optimum dissemination of its scientific and technological patrimony in industry has justified the organization of large-scale industrial action. IFP represents an independent research center unrivaled in Europe. This situation has enabled it to emerge strongly as a leading figure in international scientific and technical circles.

  7. An Integrated Approach to Quantify Groundwater - Surface Water Interactions: the Norman Research Site, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, I.; Phanikumar, M. S.; Masoner, J.; Cozzarelli, I.; McGuire, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    An intensive investigation of hydrogeologic and biogeochemical processes controlling contaminant migration and attenuation is in progress at the Norman Landfill Research Site in Oklahoma. The site involves a wetland that overlies a landfill leachate plume. The wetland-aquifer system actively exchanges contaminants and nutrients. These chemicals move from the wetland to the aquifer and vice versa depending on the groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) exchange rate and flow direction. The GW-SW flux has to be quantified to better understand the fate and transport of contaminants and nutrients. Different types of data have been collected at the site over a period of ten years including meteorological data, isotopic composition of water samples, water levels, pan evaporation rates, and seepage fluxes. This paper reports the development and application of a process-based water balance model based on long-term climate, soil, vegetation and hydrological dynamics of the system to determine the GW-SW flow rates. Our integrated approach involved model evaluation by means of the following independent measurements: (a) groundwater inflow calculation using stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen ( ) (b) seepage flux measurements in the wetland hyporheic sediment and c) pan evaporation measurements on land and in the wetland. The approach was found to be useful for identifying the dominant hydrological processes at the site, including recharge and subsurface flows. Recharge results from the model compared well with estimates obtained using isotope methods from previous studies and allowed us to identify specific annual signatures of this important process during the period of study. Results indicate that subsurface flow components in the system are seasonal and readily respond to rainfall events. The wetland water balance is dominated by local groundwater inputs and regional groundwater flow contributes little to the overall water balance.

  8. Accumulation of Metals in Soils, Groundwater and Edible Parts of Crops Grown Under Long-Term Irrigation with Sewage Mixed Industrial Effluents.

    PubMed

    Yadav, R K; Minhas, P S; Lal, Khajanchi; Chaturvedi, R K; Yadav, Gajender; Verma, T P

    2015-08-01

    Farmers in developing countries irrigate crops using raw urban and industrial effluents with consequent risks from metal contamination. Therefore, soils, crops and groundwater from an effluent irrigation use site were assessed for Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb. Total and available contents of metals in soil followed the order Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd. Crops accumulated more Pb, followed by Cd, Ni and Cr. Pb exceeded the permissible limit with wastewater irrigation only, but Cd exceeded the limit even with combined irrigations of wastewater and groundwater. Among crops, sugar beet assimilated highest Cd (3.14 μg g(-1)) and Pb (6.42 μg g(-1)) concentrations. Legumes accumulated more metals than cereals. Long-term use of wastewater and its conjunctive use with groundwater led to toxic accumulations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr. Cd with higher availability and mobility indices and lower toxicity limit, posed the maximum risk of food-chain contamination.

  9. A Groundwater project for K-12 schools: Bringing research into the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodak, C. M.; Walsh, M.; Gensic, J.

    2011-12-01

    Simple water quality test kits were used in a series of K-12 classrooms to demonstrate scientific processes and to motivate learning in K-12 students. While focused on student learning, this project also allowed collection of regional data on groundwater quality (primarily nitrate) in the study area. The project consisted of development and administration of a weeklong groundwater quality unit introduced to K-12 schools in northern Indiana and taught by a graduate student in an engineering discipline. The structure of the week started with an introduction to basic groundwater concepts modified for the specific grade level; for this project the students ranged from grades 4-12. In addition to groundwater basics, the purpose of the collection of the water quality data, as well as relevance to the research of the graduate student, were outlined. The students were then: (i) introduced to two simple water quality testing methods for nitrates, (ii) required to hypothesize as to which method will likely be "better" in application, and (iii) asked to practice using these two methods under laboratory conditions. Following practice, the students were asked to discuss their hypotheses relative to what was observed during the practice focusing on which testing method was more accurate and/or precise. The students were then encouraged to bring water samples from their home water system (many of which are on private wells) to analyze within groups. At the end of the week, the students shared their experience in this educational effort, as well as the resulting nitrate data from numerous groundwater wells (as collected by the students). Following these discussions the data were added to an online database housed on a wiki sponsored by the Notre Dame Extended Research Community (http://wellhead.michianastem.org/home). These data were plotted using the free service MapAList to visually demonstrate to the students the spatial distribution of the data and how their results have

  10. Research and Development in the Educational Materials Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie Corp. of New York, NY.

    Under the sponsorship of the Carnegie Corporation and the Ford Foundation, a study was instituted to examine research and development in the educational materials industry. Using the open-ended interview method, data was collected from executives of major book publishers and their subsidiaries, and producers of materials other than books.…

  11. THE POTATO SYSTEMS PLANNER: A CASE OF INDUSTRY DRIVEN RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing profitable crop rotations is a top research priority for the potato industry. An interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 rotations for their impacts on potato yield and quality, nutrient availability, plant diseases, soil ...

  12. Using Live Cases for Teaching, Industry Collaboration, and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukkanen, Mikko; Mattila, Pekka; Salo, Jari; Tikkanen, Henrikki

    2013-01-01

    The use of live cases in marketing teaching has been suggested as a way to provide students with interesting and relevant course work while collaborating on live case exercises also provides industry partners with valuable new ideas for innovation and development. When properly conducted, live cases can also be used for conducting research by the…

  13. Research and Development and the Chemical Industry: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschbacher, Pam

    This paper describes the research and development (R & D) strategy employed in a major chemical manufacturing corporation and compares the strategy to that which is generally used in educational R & D efforts. The paper underscores development practices in the chemical industry as they relate to devleopment activities in education. Some of the…

  14. Industry Research and Recommendations for New Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, B.; Leach, M.; Gregory, N.; Pless, S.; Selkowitz, S.; Matthew, P.

    2014-05-01

    Researchers evaluated industry needs and developed logic models to support possible future commercial new construction research and deployment efforts that could be led or supported by DOE's Commercial Building Integration program or other national initiatives. The authors believe that these recommendations support a proposed course of action from the current state of commercial building energy efficiency to a possible long-term goal of achieving significant market penetration of cost-effective NZE buildings in all building sectors and climates by 2030.

  15. Groundwater composition near the nickel—copper smelting industry on the Kola Peninsula, central Barents Region (NW Russia and NE Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Caritat, Patrice; Danilova, Svetlana; Jæger, Øystein; Reimann, Clemens; Storrø, Gaute

    1998-07-01

    The chemical composition of 185 groundwater samples collected from two catchments in the extreme NE Norway and NW Russia over the period April 1994 to November 1995 is reported in terms of Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO 3, P, Pb, PO 4,Rb, S, Sb, Se, Si, SO 4, Sr, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V and Zn concentrations (as determined by ICP-MS, ICP-AES and IC), pH and electrical conductance. One catchment (C2) is located in Russia 5 km downwind of the nickel—copper ore smelting industry in Monchegorsk, which is a major SO 2 and trace metal emission source, the other (C5) is located in Norway 30 km off-wind from the nickel-copper ore smelter in Nikel and 52 km off-wind from the nickel—copper ore roasting plant of Zapoljarniy, which are also significant emitters of inorganic atmospheric pollutants. Groundwater chemistry mostly reflects the mineralogical composition of the gabbro aquifer in C2 and the Quaternary deposits in C5, although groundwater in C2 also shows signs of incipient contamination from surface waters (heavy metals, sulphate, chloride). Groundwater in C2 appears to have been acidified by S-compounds emitted from Monchegorsk, but the groundwater's capacity to neutralise incoming acidity has not been exhausted. In C5, groundwater has not been acidified to any extent and has a high acid neutralising capacity. This study demonstrates that the geological substrate of a catchment is a fundamental control on how groundwater responds to atmospheric pollution, even if the latter is severe.

  16. [Application of bioinformatics in researches of industrial biocatalysis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui-Min; Luo, Hui; Shi, Yue; Sun, Xu-Dong; Shen, Zhong-Yao

    2004-05-01

    Industrial biocatalysis is currently attracting much attention to rebuild or substitute traditional producing process of chemicals and drugs. One of key focuses in industrial biocatalysis is biocatalyst, which is usually one kind of microbial enzyme. In the recent, new technologies of bioinformatics have played and will continue to play more and more significant roles in researches of industrial biocatalysis in response to the waves of genomic revolution. One of the key applications of bioinformatics in biocatalysis is the discovery and identification of the new biocatalyst through advanced DNA and protein sequence search, comparison and analyses in Internet database using different algorithm and software. The unknown genes of microbial enzymes can also be simply harvested by primer design on the basis of bioinformatics analyses. The other key applications of bioinformatics in biocatalysis are the modification and improvement of existing industrial biocatalyst. In this aspect, bioinformatics is of great importance in both rational design and directed evolution of microbial enzymes. Based on the successful prediction of tertiary structures of enzymes using the tool of bioinformatics, the undermentioned experiments, i.e. site-directed mutagenesis, fusion protein construction, DNA family shuffling and saturation mutagenesis, etc, are usually of very high efficiency. On all accounts, bioinformatics will be an essential tool for either biologist or biological engineer in the future researches of industrial biocatalysis, due to its significant function in guiding and quickening the step of discovery and/or improvement of novel biocatalysts.

  17. Industrial Research of Condensing Unit for Natural Gas Boiler House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Blumberga, Dagnija; Talcis, Normunds; Laicane, Ilze

    2012-12-01

    In the course of work industrial research was carried out at the boiler plant A/S "Imanta" where a 10MW passive condensing economizer working on natural gas was installed after the 116MW water boiler. The work describes the design of the condensing economizer and wiring diagram. During the industrial experiment, the following measurements were made: the temperature of water before and after the economizer; the ambient temperature; the quantity of water passing through the economizer; heat, produced by the economizer and water boilers. The work summarizes the data from 2010-2011.

  18. Guidelines for industry-sponsored research at universities.

    PubMed

    Varrin, Robert D; Kukich, Diane S

    1985-01-25

    The authors postulate that, as the number of university-industry cooperative research programs increases, the potential for problems arising from the inherent differences between the two types of organizations will increase as well. They maintain that success in such relationships can be promoted by anticipating problems and developing guidelines for averting or dealing effectively with them. Ten such guidelines are presented, concerning publication rights, patent ownership, copyright, confidentiality agreements, research units, faculty consultants and entrepreneurs, international agreements, sharing of personnel and equipment, and model research agreements.

  19. Hydrogeologic Setting, Ground-Water Flow, and Ground-Water Quality at the Langtree Peninsula Research Station, Iredell County, North Carolina, 2000-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pippin, Charles G.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; Heller, Matthew J.; Schelgel, Melissa E.

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year intensive field study (2000-2005) of a complex, regolith-fractured bedrock ground-water system was conducted at the Langtree Peninsula research station on the Davidson College Lake Campus in Iredell County, North Carolina. This research station was constructed as part of the Piedmont and Mountains Resource Evaluation Program, a cooperative study being conducted by the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. Results of the study characterize the distinction and interaction of a two-component ground-water system in a quartz diorite rock type. The Langtree Peninsula research station includes 17 monitoring wells and 12 piezometers, including 2 well transects along high to low topographic settings, drilled into separate parts of the ground-water-flow system. The location of the research station is representative of a metaigneous intermediate (composition) regional hydrogeologic unit. The primary rock type is mafic quartz diorite that has steeply dipping foliation. Primary and secondary foliations are present in the quartz diorite at the site, and both have an average strike of about N. 12 degree E. and dip about 60 degree in opposite directions to the southeast (primary) and the northwest (secondary). This rock is cut by granitic dikes (intrusions) ranging in thickness from 2 to 50 feet and having an average strike of N. 20 degree W. and an average dip of 66 degree to the southwest. Depth to consolidated bedrock is considered moderate to deep, ranging from about 24 to 76 feet below land surface. The transition zone was delineated and described in each corehole near the well clusters but had a highly variable thickness ranging from about 1 to 20 feet. Thickness of the regolith (23 to 68 feet) and the transition zone do not appear to be related to topographic setting. Delineated bedrock fractures are dominantly low angle (possibly stress relief), which were observed to be open to partially open at depths of

  20. INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AT THE EASTERN TELEGRAPH COMPANY, 1872-1929

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    By the late nineteenth century the submarine telegraph cable industry, which had blossomed in the 1850s, had reached what historians regard as technological maturity. For a host of commercial, cultural and technical reasons, the industry seems to have become conservative in its attitude towards technological development, which is reflected in the small scale of its staff and facilities for research and development. This paper argues that the attitude of the cable industry towards research and development was less conservative and altogether more complex than historians have suggested. Focusing on the crucial case of the Eastern Telegraph Company, the largest single operator of submarine cables, it shows how the company encouraged inventive activity among outside and in-house electricians and, in 1903, established a small research laboratory where staff and outside scientific advisors pursued new methods of cable signalling and cable designs. The scale of research and development at the Eastern Telegraph Company, however, was small by comparison to that of its nearest competitor, Western Union, and dwarfed by that of large electrical manufacturers. This paper explores the reasons for this comparatively weak provision but also suggests that this was not inappropriate for a service-sector firm. PMID:25977587

  1. INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AT THE EASTERN TELEGRAPH COMPANY, 1872-1929.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    By the late nineteenth century the submarine telegraph cable industry, which had blossomed in the 1850s, had reached what historians regard as technological maturity. For a host of commercial, cultural and technical reasons, the industry seems to have become conservative in its attitude towards technological development, which is reflected in the small scale of its staff and facilities for research and development. This paper argues that the attitude of the cable industry towards research and development was less conservative and altogether more complex than historians have suggested. Focusing on the crucial case of the Eastern Telegraph Company, the largest single operator of submarine cables, it shows how the company encouraged inventive activity among outside and in-house electricians and, in 1903, established a small research laboratory where staff and outside scientific advisors pursued new methods of cable signalling and cable designs. The scale of research and development at the Eastern Telegraph Company, however, was small by comparison to that of its nearest competitor, Western Union, and dwarfed by that of large electrical manufacturers. This paper explores the reasons for this comparatively weak provision but also suggests that this was not inappropriate for a service-sector firm.

  2. Pulsed Power Applications in Basic Research and Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, , Jr.

    1996-05-01

    Pulsed power science, with its unique capability to generate high particle flux and radiation density, is largely a result of nuclear weapons development. Starting in the 1960s, research support by the Department of Defense, Department of Energy and counterparts abroad has created an extensive technology base. The recent dramatic changes in the world political makeup has spurred the pursuit of new directions in pulsed power research. This symposium gathers a cross section of experts from industry, universities and national laboratories to look beyond nuclear weapons simulation to the range of opportunities - from industrial processing to interdisciplinary physics research. The talks emphasize two major motivations for the pulsed power approach. First, it can lead to compact and inexpensive systems for generating high voltages and large-volume plasmas. Second, pulsed power technology yields power levels unattainable by any other approach. This advantage is evident in several talks on industrial processes that benefit strongly on dose rate effects. The presentations summarize the current state of applications and present a vision of the future in pulsed power research.

  3. Management of the industry/research organization interface

    SciTech Connect

    John, B.; Spiliopoulos, J.M.; Beazley, J.; Harvey, T.J.M.; Gillies, A.D.S.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of a consultancy undertaken to assess management processes in research projects to improve communication between research organizations and the mining industry through the development of an improved mode of operation and customer interface is discussed. The consultancy was conducted using the Nadler and Tushman Congruency Model of Organizational Behavior to assess components of a project's inputs, transformation process and outputs for their degree of congruence or fit. As an example the University of Queensland (UQ) managed ACARP project Maximizing Coal Production in the Presence of Hydrogen Sulfide (H{sub 2}S) Seam Gas was used for illustration. An action research process was used to collect data on the project organization and history, observations made of group project meetings and interviews undertaken with project staff and representatives of the mining industry and the UQ. The findings highlighted major differences in culture between the university and industry, inadequate planning and strategy development, ineffective inter-group communication, high and conflicting demands on time, and in some cases a poor fit between individuals and tasks. Recommendations proposed to address these issues are presented as two groups, those applicable to the current H{sub 2}S Project and those for future similar research projects. They involve improved strategies for inter-group and interpersonal communication, role clarification, project administration and organizational learning and assessment. The proposed interventions are relatively simple, easily implemented and inexpensive. They have the potential to improve the fit between the components of the organization as well as between the organization and its environment, enhance efficiency and effectiveness and improve the relationship between the university and industry to ensure future collaborative research projects and access to external funding.

  4. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program. Annual report, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  5. Tobacco industry consumer research on socially acceptable cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Ling, P; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe tobacco industry consumer research to inform the development of more "socially acceptable" cigarette products since the 1970s. Methods: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results: 28 projects to develop more socially acceptable cigarettes were identified from Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, British American Tobacco, and Lorillard tobacco companies. Consumer research and concept testing consistently demonstrated that many smokers feel strong social pressure not to smoke, and this pressure increased with exposure to smoking restrictions. Tobacco companies attempted to develop more socially acceptable cigarettes with less visible sidestream smoke or less odour. When presented in theory, these product concepts were very attractive to important segments of the smoking population. However, almost every product developed was unacceptable in actual product tests or test markets. Smokers reported the complete elimination of secondhand smoke was necessary to satisfy non-smokers. Smokers have also been generally unwilling to sacrifice their own smoking satisfaction for the benefit of others. Many smokers prefer smoke-free environments to cigarettes that produce less secondhand smoke. Conclusions: Concerns about secondhand smoke and clean indoor air policies have a powerful effect on the social acceptability of smoking. Historically, the tobacco industry has been unable to counter these effects by developing more socially acceptable cigarettes. These data suggest that educating smokers about the health dangers of secondhand smoke and promoting clean indoor air policies has been difficult for the tobacco industry to counter with new products, and that every effort should be made to pursue these strategies. PMID:16183968

  6. The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable: 1988 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable was created to provide a forum where scientists, engineers, administrators, and policy makers from government, universities, and industry can come together on an ongoing basis to explore ways to improve the productivity of the nation's research enterprise. The object is to try to understand issues, to inject imaginative thought into the system, and to provide a setting for seeking common ground. The Roundtable does not make recommendations, nor offer specific advice. It develops options and brings all interested parties together. The uniqueness of the Roundtable is in the breadth of its membership and in the continuity with which it can address issues. The Roundtable is sponsored by the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and the Institute of Medicine.

  7. First NASA/Industry High Speed Research Program Nozzle Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long-Davis, Mary Jo

    1999-01-01

    The First High Speed Research (HSR) Nozzle Symposium was hosted by NASA Lewis Research Center on November 17-19, 1992 in Cleveland, Ohio, and was sponsored by the HSR Source Noise Working Group. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a national forum for the government, industry, and university participants in the program to present and discuss important low noise nozzle research results and technology issues related to the development of appropriate nozzles for a commercially viable, environmentally compatible, U.S. High-Speed Civil Transport. The HSR Phase I research program was initiated in FY90 and is approaching the first major milestone (end of FY92) relative to an initial FAR 36 Stage 3 nozzle noise assessment. Significant research results relative to that milestone were presented. The opening session provided a brief overview of the Program and status of the Phase H plan. The next five sessions were technically oriented and highlighted recent significant analytical and experimental accomplishments. The last Session included a panel discussion by the Session Chairs, summarizing the progress seen to date and discussing issues relative to further advances in technology necessary to achieve the Program Goals. Attendance at the Symposium was by invitation only and included only industry, academic, and government participants who are actively involved in the High-Speed Research Program. The technology presented in this meeting is considered commercially sensitive.

  8. Designing Research to Improve Students' Learning: "Industry/University" Collaborations for Educating Teacher-Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    University/industry partnerships provide a vehicle for synthesizing knowledge from the fields of teachers' professional learning, higher degree research training and research impact. This analysis outlines a conceptual framework for having a direct research impact on socio-cultural, economic and environmental learning (SEEL). The particular case…

  9. Federal laboratory nondestructive testing research and development applicable to industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.A.; Moore, N.L.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents the results of a survey of nondestructive testing (NDT) and related sensor technology research and development (R and D) at selected federal laboratories. Objective was to identify and characterize NDT activities that could be applied to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in US manufacturing. Numerous federally supported R and D programs were identified in areas such as acoustic emissions, eddy current, radiography, computer tomography and ultrasonics. A Preliminary Findings Report was sent to industry representatives, which generated considerable interest.

  10. Health Risk Assessment Research on Heavy Metals Ingestion Through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for the Residents in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Liping; Wang, Yeyao; Guo, Yongli; Zhou, Youya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng; Xie, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Drinking groundwater is a significant pathway for human exposure to heavy metals. To evaluate the health effect of some heavy metals ingestion through the groundwater drinking pathway, the authors collected 35 groundwater samples from the drinking water wells of local residents and the exploitation wells of waterworks in Baotou, China. The monitoring results indicate that the groundwater had been polluted by heavy metals in some regions of the study area. A health risk assessment model derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was used to determine the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic effects to residents who drink groundwater. All the respondents in the study area were at potential risk of carcinogenic health effects from arsenic when using the lowest safe standard for carcinogenic risk (1E-06). The hazard quotient values for noncarcinogenic health risk of arsenic exceeded 1 in 14.3% of the sampling wells in the study area. The research results could provide baseline data for groundwater utilization and supervision in the Baotou plain area.

  11. HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, R.

    2014-02-01

    Today there is a great consensus that water resources research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW) are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specialisations of hydrology with different focus, yet similar theory, concepts, methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focusses on the regional scale (areas of approx. 103 to 106 km2), which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology) and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualisation of integration schemes. It is also discussed that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and the society in general. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have thus developed

  12. The Office of Groundwater & Soil Remediation Fiscal Year 2011 Research & Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, Kurt D.; Chamberlain, Skip; Aylward, R. S.; Cercy, Mike; Seitz, Roger; Ramirez, Rosa; Skubal, Karen L.; Marble, Justin; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Liang, Liyuan; Pierce, Eric M.

    2011-03-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation supports technology development and technical assistance for the remediation of environments contaminated by legacy nuclear waste. The core of the program is centered on delivering proactive, responsive expertise and technologies with highly-leveraged, carefully selected investments that maximum impact on life-cycle cleanup costs and risks across the DOE complex. The program currently focuses on four main priorities: improved sampling and characterization strategies, advanced predictive capabilities, enhanced remediation methods, and improved long-term performance evaluation and monitoring. In FY 2010, the program developed a detailed research and development (R and D) plan in support of a larger initiative to integrate R and D efforts across EM. This paper provides an overview of the priority action areas and the program's near-term technical direction.

  13. Groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Haimes, Y. . Dept. of Systems Engineering)

    1986-01-01

    The subject of these conference proceedings is the groundwater contamination. It is by nature multifarious - dealing with detection and monitoring, prevention, abatement and containment, and correction and restoration of contaminated groundwater - it intrinsically encompasses myriad disciplines, and it involves all levels of government. Also, the subject of groundwater contamination is complex because decisions concerning groundwater pollution control that are scientifically sound, technologically within the state of the art, economically feasible, politically tractable, legally sustainable, socially acceptable, morally accountable, and organizationally implementable must be grounded on appropriate information and intelligence bases in their respective areas - science, technology, economics, politics, the law, society, ethics, and management. Indeed, the human health effects (e.g., cancer, damage to the central nervous system, liver and kidney damage) and non-health effects (economic hardship to industry, agriculture, households, and municipalities; environmental impacts; social impacts) necessitate that we, as a society, address in a somber way the following variations of the same question: How safe is safe enough How clean is safe enough The enormous cost - in billions of dollars over the next decade - that various studies project for the prevention, detection and monitoring, abatement and containment, and correction and restoration of groundwater contamination make an answer to these questions even more urgent. There are sixteen papers in these proceedings.

  14. Evaluation of groundwater quality in and around Peenya industrial area of Bangalore, South India using GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Pius, Anitha; Jerome, Charmaine; Sharma, Nagaraja

    2012-07-01

    Groundwater resource forms a significant component of the urban water supply. Declining groundwater levels in Bangalore Urban District is generally due to continuous overexploitation during the last two decades or more. There is a tremendous increase in demand in the city for good quality groundwater resource. The present study monitors the groundwater quality using geographic information system (GIS) techniques for a part of Bangalore metropolis. Thematic maps for the study area are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets on 1:50,000 scale using MapInfo software. Physicochemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations form the attribute database for the study, based on which spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using MapInfo GIS software. Water quality index was then calculated by considering the following water quality parameters--pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate and sulphate to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The water quality index for these samples ranged from 49 to 502. The high value of water quality index reveals that most of the study area is highly contaminated due to excessive concentration of one or more water quality parameters and that the groundwater needs pretreatment before consumption.

  15. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  16. Microfluidics—from fundamental research to industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    The advance of microfluidics started in the early 1980s. At the time, researchers realized that many processes and reactions in chemistry and biology, which typically take place on small length scales, can be defined, controlled and understood much better when using tools on equally small length scales. Reactions and reaction kinetics rely on (gradual) concentration differences and microfluidics provides the unique possibility to establish exactly such gradients of solutes, ion concentrations, pH value and so on. Nowadays the variety of specific microfluidic methods is large. In principle, they can be divided into two groups: (i) monophase flow, where miscible (e.g. aqueous) fluids are mixed, mostly by diffusion owing to the laminar flow on small length scales and (ii) multiphase flow, the most prominent example of which is probably droplet microfluidics, where water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions are used to encapsulate chemical or biological systems and separate them from each other, much like in 'micron-scale test tubes'. Now, 30 years later, microfluidic techniques are seriously considered for industrial applications, although some important steps in the upscaling process are still missing. The purpose of this special issue is to shed light on the different aspects in microfluidics research starting from fundamental research reaching all the way to industrial applications. The study by Toma and co-workers takes advantage of the controlled diffusive mixing when co-flowing aqueous, miscible solutions. They combine microfluidics with optical, spectroscopic and scattering techniques to study DNA packing. Nunes et al review the different regimes when replacing one of the fluids by an oil phase and varying flow rates and device geometries with a particular emphasis on using multiphase microfluidics for synthesis of particles or fibres. Going into the third dimension by fabricating microfluidic devices with several layers, producing emulsions can also be achieved by

  17. Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lexchin, Joel; Bero, Lisa A; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Clark, Otavio

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether funding of drug studies by the pharmaceutical industry is associated with outcomes that are favourable to the funder and whether the methods of trials funded by pharmaceutical companies differ from the methods in trials with other sources of support. Methods Medline (January 1966 to December 2002) and Embase (January 1980 to December 2002) searches were supplemented with material identified in the references and in the authors' personal files. Data were independently abstracted by three of the authors and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results 30 studies were included. Research funded by drug companies was less likely to be published than research funded by other sources. Studies sponsored by pharmaceutical companies were more likely to have outcomes favouring the sponsor than were studies with other sponsors (odds ratio 4.05; 95% confidence interval 2.98 to 5.51; 18 comparisons). None of the 13 studies that analysed methods reported that studies funded by industry was of poorer quality. Conclusion Systematic bias favours products which are made by the company funding the research. Explanations include the selection of an inappropriate comparator to the product being investigated and publication bias. PMID:12775614

  18. Public health assessment for Rowe industries groundwater contamination, Sag Harbor, Suffolk County, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS NYD981486954. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-16

    The Rowe Industries Site, which is on the National Priorities List, is in Sag Harbor, Suffolk County, New York. On-site subsurface soils and on and off site surface water, sediments, and groundwater are contaminated with volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). A potential public health threat exists for residents of houses adjacent to the site whose homes may be accumulating volatile organic vapor levels from contaminated soil gas. Based on the information reviewed, the site currently poses an indeterminate public health hazard. There is a potential for further exposure to contaminated media through ingestion, dermal absorption and inhalation if no remedial actions are taken.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF : ANALYTIC ELEMENT MODELING OF GROUND-WATER FLOW AND HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several advances in the analytic element method have been made to enhance its performance and facilitate three-dimensional ground-water flow modeling in a regional aquifer setting. First, a new public domain modular code (ModAEM) has been developed for modeling ground-water flow ...

  20. Phreatophytic vegetation and groundwater fluctuations: a review of current research and application of ecosystem response modeling with an emphasis on great basin vegetation.

    PubMed

    Naumburg, Elke; Mata-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Hunter, Rachael G; McLendon, Terry; Martin, David W

    2005-06-01

    Although changes in depth to groundwater occur naturally, anthropogenic alterations may exacerbate these fluctuations and, thus, affect vegetation reliant on groundwater. These effects include changes in physiology, structure, and community dynamics, particularly in arid regions where groundwater can be an important water source for many plants. To properly manage ecosystems subject to changes in depth to groundwater, plant responses to both rising and falling groundwater tables must be understood. However, most research has focused exclusively on riparian ecosystems, ignoring regions where groundwater is available to a wider range of species. Here, we review responses of riparian and other species to changes in groundwater levels in arid environments. Although decreasing water tables often result in plant water stress and reduced live biomass, the converse is not necessarily true for rising water tables. Initially, rising water tables kill flooded roots because most species cannot tolerate the associated low oxygen levels. Thus, flooded plants can also experience water stress. Ultimately, individual species responses to either scenario depend on drought and flooding tolerance and the change in root system size and water uptake capacity. However, additional environmental and biological factors can play important roles in the severity of vegetation response to altered groundwater tables. Using the reviewed information, we created two conceptual models to highlight vegetation dynamics in areas with groundwater fluctuations. These models use flow charts to identify key vegetation and ecosystem properties and their responses to changes in groundwater tables to predict community responses. We then incorporated key concepts from these models into EDYS, a comprehensive ecosystem model, to highlight the potential complexity of predicting community change under different fluctuating groundwater scenarios. Such models provide a valuable tool for managing vegetation and

  1. New Technology Industries. Skills Task Force Research Paper 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Chris

    This paper provides an overview of the growth of new technology industries in Great Britain and the skills needed for these industries. The industries are advanced materials, biotechnology, and opto-electronics. The report profiles the current status, expected growth, and skills needed for each of these industry sectors. It also points out the…

  2. HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, R.

    2014-07-01

    Today there is a great consensus that water resource research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW) are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specializations of hydrology with a different focus yet similar theory, concepts, and methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focuses on the regional scale (areas of approximately 103 to 106 km2), which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically where the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology) and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualization of integration schemes. The fact that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with the social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and society in general, is also discussed. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to the integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings

  3. 2002 Industry Analysis Research Paper: Global Environment, Global Industry, and Global Security: Managing the Crossroads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    further be subdivided into hazardous and non-hazardous varieties, customarily disposed of by landfill, incineration, or recycling • Soil/ groundwater ... pollution results from dumping waste solids or liquids on the ground. Correction of this problem requires (usually) digging the contaminated soil up and

  4. Industry Research and Recommendations for Small Buildings and Small Portfolios

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, Rois; Hendron, Bob; Pless, Shanti; Huppert, Mark; Cochrane, Ric

    2013-12-01

    Small buildings have been left behind in the energy efficiency marketplace because financial and technical resources have flowed to larger commercial buildings. DOE's Building Technologies Office works with the commercial building industry to accelerate the uptake of energy efficiency technologies and techniques in existing and new commercial buildings (DOE 2013). BTO recognizes the SBSP sector'spotential for significant energy savings and the need for investments in resources that are tailored to this sector's unique needs. The industry research and recommendations described in this report identify potential approaches and strategic priorities that BTO could explore over the next 3-5 years that will support the implementation of high-potential energy efficiency opportunities for thisimportant sector. DOE is uniquely positioned to provide national leadership, objective information, and innovative tools, technologies, and services to support cost-effective energy savings in the fragmented and complex SBSP sector. Properly deployed, the DOE effort could enhance and complement current energy efficiency approaches. Small portfolios are loosely and qualitatively defined asportfolios of buildings that include only a small number of small buildings. This distinction is important because the report targets portfolio owners and managers who generally do not have staff and other resources to track energy use and pursue energy efficiency solutions.

  5. Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1994-11-01

    In November 1994, the forest products industry published Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry, which articulated the industry's vision. This document set the foundation for collaborative efforts between the industry and the federal government.

  6. Nanotechnology research and development for military and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffin, Paul B.; Brantley, Christina L.; Edwards, Eugene; Roberts, J. Keith; Chew, William; Warren, Larry C.; Ashley, Paul R.; Everitt, Henry O.; Webster, Eric; Foreman, John V.; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Crutcher, Sihon H.; Temmen, Mark G.; Varadan, Vijay; Hayduke, Devlin; Wu, Pae C.; Khoury, Christopher G.; Yang, Yang; Kim, Tong-Ho; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Brown, April S.; Callahan, John

    2011-04-01

    Researchers at the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) have initiated multidiscipline efforts to develop nano-based structures and components for insertion into advanced missile, aviation, and autonomous air and ground systems. The objective of the research is to exploit unique phenomena for the development of novel technology to enhance warfighter capabilities and produce precision weapons. The key technology areas that the authors are exploring include nano-based microsensors, nano-energetics, nano-batteries, nano-composites, and nano-plasmonics. By integrating nano-based devices, structures, and materials into weaponry, the Army can revolutionize existing (and future) missile systems by significantly reducing the size, weight and cost. The major research thrust areas include the development of chemical sensors to detect rocket motor off-gassing and toxic industrial chemicals; the development of highly sensitive/selective, self-powered miniaturized acoustic sensors for battlefield surveillance and reconnaissance; the development of a minimum signature solid propellant with increased ballistic and physical properties that meet insensitive munitions requirements; the development of nano-structured material for higher voltage thermal batteries and higher energy density storage; the development of advanced composite materials that provide high frequency damping for inertial measurement units' packaging; and the development of metallic nanostructures for ultraviolet surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The current status of the overall AMRDEC Nanotechnology research efforts is disclosed in this paper. Critical technical challenges, for the various technologies, are presented. The authors' approach for overcoming technical barriers and achieving required performance is also discussed. Finally, the roadmap for each technology, as well as the overall program, is presented.

  7. [Example of product development by industry and research solidarity].

    PubMed

    Seki, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    When the industrial firms develop the product, the research result from research institutions is used or to reflect the ideas from users on the developed product would be significant in order to improve the product. To state the software product which developed jointly as an example to describe the adopted development technique and its result, and to consider the modality of the industry solidarity seen from the company side and joint development. The software development methods have the merit and demerit and necessary to choose the optimal development technique by the system which develops. We have been jointly developed the dose distribution browsing software. As the software development method, we adopted the prototype model. In order to display the dose distribution information, it is necessary to load four objects which are CT-Image, Structure Set, RT-Plan, and RT-Dose, are displayed in a composite manner. The prototype model which is the development technique was adopted by this joint development was optimal especially to develop the dose distribution browsing software. In a prototype model, since the detail design was created based on the program source code after the program was finally completed, there was merit on the period shortening of document written and consist in design and implementation. This software eventually opened to the public as an open source. Based on this developed prototype software, the release version of the dose distribution browsing software was developed. Developing this type of novelty software, it normally takes two to three years, but since the joint development was adopted, it shortens the development period to one year. Shortening the development period was able to hold down to the minimum development cost for a company and thus, this will be reflected to the product price. The specialists make requests on the product from user's point of view are important, but increase in specialists as professionals for product

  8. 75 FR 45130 - Guidance for Industry and Researchers on the Radioactive Drug Research Committee: Human Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Drug Research Committee: Human Research Without an Investigational New Drug Application; Availability... Drug Research Committee: Human Research Without an Investigational New Drug Application.'' This... committee, or ] whether research studies must be conducted under an investigational new drug...

  9. Experimental research on a slope destabilization process with a movement of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, N.; Ishizawa, T.; Fukuzono, T.

    2014-12-01

    In Japan, many slope disasters occur by typhoon, long-term rainfall and short-time heavy rainfall, where properties and lives have been annually lost. Slope failure is still the main one of the natural disasters.Slope failure mechanism is not understood well, for example, it unable to predict the timing of failure. Therefore, a method with extensometers were applied for prediction of slope collapse.However, the accurate prediction is very difficult because the allowable time for warning is sometimes too short.The warning system must be improved for the specific each slope.New rational index to predict slope failure with early stage also must be studied through such experiments. Slope failure(shallow landslide) occurs on the weathered layer with a thickness of about 1 to 2m.In such conditions, ease of infiltration by heavy rainfall makes land collapsing quite often and repeatedly. Mechanism of slope failure is induced by 1) water pressure or table by rainfall, 2) reduction of strength like cohesion, 3)increase of self weight by water. This must be verified. So we conducted the large-scale model slope test with rainfall to understand the process of slope destabilization by large-scale rainfall simulator at National research Institute for earth science and disaster prevention. We will express the part of the results to discuss the mechanism of slope failure. In one of the main results, complex movement of groundwater in the slope play the main roll of slope destabilization.

  10. Hydrogeology, groundwater seepage, nitrate distribution, and flux at the Raleigh hydrologic research station, Wake County, North Carolina, 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Bolich, Richard E.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2013-01-01

    rom 2005 to 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, conducted a study to describe the geologic framework, measure groundwater quality, characterize the groundwater-flow system, and describe the groundwater/surface-water interaction at the 60-acre Raleigh hydrogeologic research station (RHRS) located at the Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant in eastern Wake County, North Carolina. Previous studies have shown that the local groundwater quality of the surficial and bedrock aquifers at the RHRS had been affected by high levels of nutrients. Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data were collected from 3 coreholes, 12 wells, and 4 piezometers at 3 well clusters, as well as from 2 surface-water sites, 2 multiport piezometers, and 80 discrete locations in the streambed of the Neuse River. Data collected were used to evaluate the three primary zones of the Piedmont aquifer (regolith, transition zone, and fractured bedrock) and characterize the interaction of groundwater and surface water as a mechanism of nutrient transport to the Neuse River. A conceptual hydrogeologic cross section across the RHRS was constructed using new and existing data. Two previously unmapped north striking, nearly vertical diabase dikes intrude the granite beneath the site. Groundwater within the diabase dike appeared to be hydraulically isolated from the surrounding granite bedrock and regolith. A correlation exists between foliation and fracture orientation, with most fractures striking parallel to foliation. Flowmeter logging in two of the bedrock wells indicated that not all of the water-bearing fractures labeled as water bearing were hydraulically active, even when stressed by pumping. Groundwater levels measured in wells at the RHRS displayed climatic and seasonal trends, with elevated groundwater levels occurring during the late spring and declining to a low in the late fall. Vertical

  11. TRANSFERABILITY OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT SKILLS IN THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    industry scientists and engineers . Studies performed by four aerospace contractors for the State of California are used as case examples of the...transferability of industry scientists and engineers , the four California studies are inconclusive; (2) the largest group of scientists and engineers in the... industry , those engaged in design and development , may well be the least transferable; and (3) civilian-public projects are unlikely to become in the next 5 years or so a significant part of the industry’s

  12. Integrated design optimization research and development in an industrial environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, V.; German, Marjorie D.; Lee, S.-J.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is given of a design optimization project that is in progress at the GE Research and Development Center for the past few years. The objective of this project is to develop a methodology and a software system for design automation and optimization of structural/mechanical components and systems. The effort focuses on research and development issues and also on optimization applications that can be related to real-life industrial design problems. The overall technical approach is based on integration of numerical optimization techniques, finite element methods, CAE and software engineering, and artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts. The role of each of these engineering technologies in the development of a unified design methodology is illustrated. A software system DESIGN-OPT has been developed for both size and shape optimization of structural components subjected to static as well as dynamic loadings. By integrating this software with an automatic mesh generator, a geometric modeler and an attribute specification computer code, a software module SHAPE-OPT has been developed for shape optimization. Details of these software packages together with their applications to some 2- and 3-dimensional design problems are described.

  13. ESRO/ESA and Denmark. Participation by research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmandsen, Preben

    2003-09-01

    These notes are prepared to give an impression of considerations and activities in Denmark related to ESRO and ESA, roughly in the period 1964 to 1990. In a number of chapters we consider early space-related research in Denmark, the initial phase of the ESRO era and the following period, including the phase of transition from ESRO to ESA when Denmark seriously considered leaving the space co-operation. A chapter gives examples of activities in the ESA era within space science and astronomy, Earth Observation and microgravity, followed by a final one dealing with the national management of optional programmes and the involvement by industry. In drafting the notes we have taken advantage of the work carried out in the Introductory Studies carried out to secure and place in order the archives of the Danish Space Research Advisory Committee. In this connection excerpts of individual documents (mostly minutes of meetings, letters and reports) were taken. To a great extent they form the basis for many of the points made in the notes.

  14. Industry-funded dermatologic research within academia in the United States: fiscal and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Blank, I H

    1992-03-01

    Private-sector funding of biomedical research within academia may come from industry, foundations, the dermatologists themselves, and the public at large. Industry-funding is of benefit to both academia and industry. Industry may fund clinical and basic research and product testing. Industry is more willing to fund product testing and clinical research than basic research. Funds for dermatologic research may be obtained from manufacturers of drugs, medical devices, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents. Questions of academic freedom arise when research is funded by industry. The results of academic research are in the public domain; the results of intramural industry research are often proprietary, i.e., "trade secrets." When there is industry funding within academia, any restraints on publication should be held to a minimum and be temporary. Publication should occur in a timely fashion, although recognizing the need for delayed publication if the results concern patentable material. When there is a consultantship, pre-arranged terms of agreement may restrict communication. Patents usually are held by the investigator's institution. The funding company may be granted world-wide, royalty-bearing licenses. Conflicts of interest may arise during any research endeavor; this warrants close attention when the research is industry funded. Stock ownership, speaker fees, blind contracts, etc., should be avoided. In any communication, funding agreements should be stated. Indirect costs are a "necessary evil." There are non-research expenditures associated with all research projects for which the institution is justified in requesting compensation. Indirect costs must have definite connections to a project. As industrial funding of research within academia increases, various facets of the academia-industry relationship are receiving increasing attention. Several aspects of conflicts of interest and indirect costs must yet be resolved. When faced openly and directly, all of these

  15. An Opportunity for Industry-Academia Partnership: Training the Next Generation of Industrial Researchers in Characterizing Higher Order Protein Structure.

    PubMed

    Bain, David L; Brenowitz, Michael; Roberts, Christopher J

    2016-12-01

    Training researchers for positions in the United States biopharmaceutical industry has long been driven by academia. This commentary explores how the changing landscape of academic training will impact the industrial workforce, particularly with regard to the development of protein therapeutics in the area of biophysical and higher order structural characterization. We discuss how to balance future training and employment opportunities, how academic-industrial partnerships can help young scientists acquire the skills needed by their future employer, and how an appropriately trained workforce can facilitate the translation of new technology from academic to industrial laboratories. We also present suggestions to facilitate the coordinated development of industrial-academic educational partnerships to develop new training programs, and the ability of students to locate these programs, through the development of authoritative public resources.

  16. Biobased industrial products. Priorities for research and commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    2000-01-01

    Biological sciences are likely to make the same impact on the formation of new industries in the next century as the physical and chemical sciences have had on industrial development throughout the century now coming to a close. The biological sciences, when combined with recent and future advances in process engineering, can become the foundation for producing a wide variety of industrial products from renewable plant resources. These "biobased industrial products" will include liquid fuels, chemicals, lubricants, plastics, and building materials. For example, genetically engineered crops currently under development include rapeseed that produces industrial oils, corn that produces specialty chemicals, and transgenic plants that produce polyesters. Except perhaps for large-scale production of bioenergy crops, the land and other agricultural resources of the United States are sufficient to satisfy current domestic and export demands for food, feed, and fiber and still produce the raw materials for most biobased industrial products.

  17. Diaphragm Pressure Wave Generator Developments at Industrial Research Ltd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughley, A. J.; Emery, N.; Glasson, N. D.

    2010-04-01

    Industrial Research Ltd (IRL) have been developing a unique diaphragm based pressure wave generator technology for pulse tube and Stirling cryocoolers. Our system uses a metal diaphragm to separate the clean cryocooler gas circuit from a conventionally lubricated mechanical driver, thus producing a clean pressure wave with a long life drive that does not require the precision manufacture and associated costs of large linear motors. The first successful diaphragm pressure wave generator produced 3.2 kW of acoustic power at an electro-acoustic efficiency of 72% with a swept volume of 200 ml and a prototype has now accumulated over 2500 hours running. This paper describes recent developments in the technology. To explore scaling, a small diaphragm pressure wave generator with a swept volume of 20 ml has been constructed and has delivered 454 W of acoustic power at an electro-acoustic efficiency of 60%. Improvements have been made to the hydraulic force amplifier mechanism for driving the diaphragms resulting in a cheaper and lighter mechanism than the mechanical linkage originally used. To meet a customer's specific requirements, the 200 ml pressure wave generator's stroke was extended to achieve 240 ml of swept volume thereby increasing its acoustic power delivery to 4.1 kW without compromising efficiency.

  18. Nanoscience and nanotechnologies in food industries: opportunities and research trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita; Chakraborty, Arkadyuti Roy; Melvin Samuel, S.; Ramalingam, Chidambaram; Shanker, Rishi; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2014-06-01

    Nanomaterials have gained importance in various fields of science, technology, medicine, colloid technologies, diagnostics, drug delivery, personal care applications and others due to their small size and unique physico-chemical characteristic. Apart from above mentioned area, it is also extensively being used in food sector specifically in preservation and packaging. The future applications in food can also be extended to improve the shelf life, food quality, safety, fortification and biosensors for contaminated or spoiled food or food packaging. Different types and shapes of nanomaterials are being employed depending upon the need and nature of the food. Characterisation of these nanomaterials is essential to understand the interaction with the food matrix and also with biological compartment. This review is focused on application of nanotechnology in food industries. It also gives insight on commercial products in market with usage of nanomaterials, current research and future aspects in these areas. Currently, they are being incorporated into commercial products at a faster rate than the development of knowledge and regulations to mitigate potential health and environmental impacts associated with their manufacturing, application and disposal. As nanomaterials are finding new application every day, care should be taken about their potential toxic effects.

  19. Research on Computer-based Creative Industries Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuqin, Sun

    In recent years, creative industries based on the computer technology is booming and leads a new trend in this field. This creative industries considers innovation as a driving force. It combines the various cultural art resources with the latest computer technology, estabilshes new production and consumption patterns, promotes new industrial clusters, cultivates new consumer groups and generates enormous economic and social value. Therefore, computer-based creative industries is not only a cultural or educational philosophy, but also a development strategy with practical and sustainable features.

  20. Advanced technology options for industrial heating equipment research

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.C.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents a strategy for a comprehensive program plan that is applicable to the Combustion Equipment Program of the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies (the program). The program seeks to develop improved heating equipment and advanced control techniques which, by improvements in combustion and beat transfer, will increase energy-use efficiency and productivity in industrial processes and allow the preferred use of abundant, low grade and waste domestic fuels. While the plan development strategy endeavors to be consistent with the programmatic goals and policies of the office, it is primarily governed by the needs and concerns of the US heating equipment industry. The program, by nature, focuses on energy intensive industrial processes. According to the DOE Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), the industrial sector in the US consumed about 21 quads of energy in 1988 in the form of coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. This energy was used as fuels for industrial boilers and furnaces, for agricultural uses, for construction, as feedstocks for chemicals and plastics, and for steel, mining, motors, engines and other industrial use over 75 percent of this energy was consumed to provide heat and power for manufacturing industries. The largest consumers of fuel energy were the primary metals, chemical and allied products, paper and allied products, and stone, clay and glass industry groups which accounted for about 60% of the total fuel energy consumed by the US manufacturing sector.

  1. Industrial Hygiene Group: 1986 Annual report on research and special activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ettinger, H.J.

    1987-11-01

    This report details all the 1986 research activities and some selected operational programs of the Industrial Hygiene Group. During 1986, research studies were directed at: respiratory protection, personal protective clothing, applied industrial hygiene, and aerosols and air cleaning. In several instances, the transfer of technology, previously developed by the Industrial Hygiene Group, is described together with the application of research developments to operational health protection programs.

  2. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  3. The Future for Industrial Engineers: Education and Research Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mummolo, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    EU graduation and the recruitment of industrial engineers (IEs) have been investigated. An increasing demand is observed for graduates in almost all industrial engineering (IE) subjects. The labour market in the EU is evolving towards the service sector even if manufacturing still represents a significant share of both IE employment and gross…

  4. Recreation as an Industry. Appalachian Research Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan (Robert R.) Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The role which recreation as an industry can play in economic development of an area -- through creation of jobs, generation of incomes, and stimulation of public and private investment -- is the primary concern of this 1966 study. The document establishes the tourism-recreation industry as being resource-based, with enterprises which are mainly…

  5. Industrial Location Research Studies: Reports 9-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantus Co., Inc., New York, NY.

    Eight studies identify, examine, and evaluate significant elements of industry-location decisions as they relate directly or indirectly to public investment policies and activities that may be considered as economic growth stimulants for the Appalachian region. Examined in the document are the chlor-alkali industry; the manufacturing of trucks,…

  6. White light interferometer: applications in research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sujit

    2015-06-01

    Applications of interferometer are countless both in the research and commercial world. Laser sources offer precise measurements of relative path difference between two interfering beams. An exciting example is LIGO (laser Interferometer for Gravitational Observatory), which is aiming to resolve length change as small as 10-19 m over a 4 km length for detection of gravitational waves. However, laser is a disadvantage for microscopic imaging and surface topography applications usually required in semiconductor industry. A different approach for microscopy is to use white light in place of laser. White light due to its limited temporal coherence offers a multitude of benefits for imaging applications. An immediate benefit from white light is the sharp localisation of interference fringe that makes the 3D topography construction or OCT (Optical Coherence Topography) realisable using a Scanning White Light Interferometer (SWLI) imager. In Mirau Mode, SWLI performs high resolution imaging; whereas in Michelson mode Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS) is realised. SWLI can easily be modified into PUPS (Pupil Plane SWLI) for Ellipsometry. Superimposing Michelson Interferometer known as VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any reflector) can form interference fringes even in presence of wide angle light scattered from a moving illuminated object. This paper describes work undertaken at Nanometrics (UK) on simulation of SWLI fringes including high Numerical Aperture (NA) applications, thin film characterisation, OCT generation and Zemax modelling of compact dispersion-free vibration-immune Fourier-Transformed spectrometer. VISAR as a modified Mach-Zehnder Interferometer is also discussed based on the work at Rutherford-Appleton laboratory (UK).

  7. Family planning programs in industrial establishments: an operations research study.

    PubMed

    Cabigon, J; Magsino, E

    1993-01-01

    An operations research study in the Philippines sought to uncover determinants of the sustainability of employment-based family planning (FP) programs offered in industrial settings where the Philippine Center for Population and Development (PCPD) had provided assistance in implementing Responsible Parenthood/FP-Maternal Health (RP/FP-MH) Programs. Qualitative data were gathered through observations and interviews with the target population and with company management and program implementers. Based on this study, the following recommendations were made: 1) training outputs should be echoed to employees immediately; 2) RP/FP-MCH team members should be recruited from each level of the work force; 3) an appropriate IEC (information, education, and communication) strategy should be devised to respond to the short time-frame in which employees can participate; 4) team-building training should be incorporated as a regular activity early in the contract period; 5) sectoral targeting should be used within a given company; 6) training programs should be designed for each of the three types of team members and should overlap the basic topics; 7) teamwork and mutual assistance should be encouraged; 8) the work of the teams should be rewarded; 9) commendable initiative of liaison officers should be sustained; 10) representatives of the PCPD should maintain a close relationship with the teams through PCPD staff visits to the companies; 11) management requires more intensive orientation on the RP/FP-MH program; 12) PCPD support should be withdrawn gradually until the companies are able to sustain the program themselves; 13) it may be helpful to require a company to meet rigid criteria in order to take part in the PCPD project; 14) OR should be continued; and 15) the concept and practice of quality of care should be introduced to service delivery and training of staff and motivators.

  8. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. ); Sen, R.K. and Associates, Washington, DC )

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  9. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L.; Sen, R.K.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  10. Hydrochemistry and quality assessment of groundwater in the Ardabil area, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghazadeh, N.; Chitsazan, M.; Golestan, Y.

    2016-11-01

    In the study area, groundwater is the main water resource for various purposes such as drinking, agriculture and industrial. To evaluate the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater and suitability for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes, seventy-seven samples were collected and analyzed for various ions. Results show that, groundwater in the study area is mainly hard to very hard, and slightly alkaline-fresh to brackish in nature. According to the hydrochemistry diagrams, the main groundwater types are Ca, Mg-HCO3, Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl. Calculation of mineral saturation index indicate that the groundwater samples are saturated with respect to carbonate minerals and under-saturated with respect to sulfate minerals such as gypsum and anhydride. The mineral weathering, mixing, ion exchange and anthropogenic activity are the dominant hydrogeochemical natural processes. Results of investigating the quality of heavy metals and calculating the heavy metal index indicated that the groundwater of study area is not contaminated with heavy metals. In this research, the various indices were used to determine the quality of groundwater for various uses. Calculate the indices and comparison results with the WHO standards to determine the quality of groundwater for various uses indicated that the most of the groundwater in study area is chemically suitable for drinking, industrial and agricultural uses.

  11. Use of ground-water tracers to evaluate the hydraulic connection between Key Cave and the proposed industrial site near Florence, Alabama, 2000 and 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidd, Robert E.; Taylor, Charles J.; Stricklin, Victor E.

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to attract new industries and jobs, the city of Florence, Alabama has proposed development of an industrial park southwest of the city. Carbonate rock under-lines the area and sinkholes, springs, caves, and sinking streams are common. Key Cave, located about 5 miles southwest of the proposed park, is the only know habitat for the Alabama Cavefish (Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni). The Alabama Cavefish is a Federally designated Endangered Species, and Key Cave has been designated as Critical Habitat. The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the city of Florence and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assist in determining if a hydraulic connection exists between the proposed industrial park and Key Cave. Dye tracing methods were used in the investigation to determine if a hydraulic connection exists. Dye tracing is a technique that involves labeling a discrete quantity of ground water with a fluorescent dye so that its flow in the subsurface can be tracked to a ground-water discharge point. Monitoring for dyes involved the use of passive dye detectors placed in springs, wells, caves and surface streams. During the passage of ground water containing fluorescent dye, the dye is absorbed and concentrated on the detectors. Spectrofluorometric analyses of the detectors determines the presence or absence of dye. Dye injected in well I-1 on January 10, 2001, was recovered from site 67, Cypress Creek at General John Coffee Highway (State Highway 20) on January 17, 2001. No dye was recovered from site 68, Cypress Creek at Waterloo Road (County Road 14), indicating an east-southeast flow path from well I-1 to Cypress Creek. No positive dye recovery was made from dye injected in well I-2 on January 10, 2001. Water samples collected from the well February 1 and 15, 2001, showed little movement into the ground-water system. Dye injected in well I-3 on January 10, 2001, was recovered at two sites in Key Cave and at other locations. This test indicates a hydraulic

  12. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations to evaluate groundwater influences on GHG emissions at the national research site Skogaryd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Klemedtsson, Leif; Sturkell, Erik; Nyström, Elin; Barthel, Roland

    2015-04-01

    The overall objective of the presented study is to explore the impact of groundwater fluctuations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from peatlands and in particular from drained organic soils. The hypothesis is that drained organic soils react sensitively to changing water content, i.e. that frequent changes of groundwater level enhance the emissions of GHG from these soils and thus contribute significantly to global warming. The area under investigation is based at the Skogaryd Research Catchment (within Swedish Infrastructure for Ecosystem Sciences, SITES) in western Sweden (Meyer, et al., 2013), which was recently assigned the status of a national research site by the Swedish research council (www.vr.se). Skogaryd is a unique place in Sweden for doing research on organic soils as the area was simultaneously afforested in the 1960s and the drained fertile soils have a different land-use history. The ditching for drainage purposes throughout the entire area has had and still has a huge influence on groundwater level, which in turn is assumed to trigger GHG emissions from the organic soils at Skogaryd. To address the influence of groundwater dynamics on GHG emissions in this system, a characterisation of the subsurface using electrical resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements was carried out. These geophysical measurements were combined with drilling along them to allow for ground truthing. An average peat thickness of around 3 m was estimated for the field site. Below the peat follows a fine sand layer, which reaches a maximum thickness of around 1.0 m right at the valley borders and thins out significantly towards the middle of the valley. Below the fine sand layer follows a layer of marine clay, which extends down to the bedrock at depths between 12 and 15 m below ground surface. The results show that the peat layer in Skogaryd forms an isolated hydraulic system without interaction with deeper or regional groundwater systems. The continuously

  13. [Assessment of shallow groundwater nitrate concentrations in typical terrestrial ecosystems of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) during 2004-2009].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Min; Yuan, Guo-Fu; Wang, Sheng-Zhong; Liu, Wen-Hua

    2011-10-01

    The nitrate-N (NO3(-) -N) concentrations of 38 shallow groundwater wells from 31 of the typical terrestrial ecosystems on Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) were assessed using the monitoring data from 2004 to 2009. The results showed that the average values of NO3(-) -N concentrations were significantly higher in the agricultural (4.85 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.42 mg x L(-1)), desert (oasis) (3.72 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.42 mg x L(-1)) and urban ecosystems (3.77 mg x L(-1) 0.51 mg x L(-1)) than in the grass (1.59 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.35 mg L(-1)) and forest ecosystems (0.39 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.03 mg x L(-1)). Nitrate was the major form of nitrogen, with between 56% to 88% of nitrogen in the nitrate-N form in the shallow groundwater of desert (oasis), urban and agricultural ecosystems. Nitrate-N concentrations for some agricultural ecosystems (Ansai, Yanting, Yucheng) and desert (oasis) ecosystems (Cele, Linze, Akesu) analysis exceeded the 10 mg x L(-1) World Health Organization drinking water standards between 14.3% and 84.6%. Significant seasonality was found in Ansai, Fengqiu, Yanting agricultural ecosystems and the Beijing urban ecosystem using the relatively high frequency monitoring data, with the higher nitrate concentrations usually found during summer and winter months. The monitoring results indicated that the shallow groundwater of agricultural ecosystems was contaminated by agricultural management practices, i.e. fertilization, while the shallow groundwater of forest ecosystems was under natural condition with no contamination from human activities.

  14. Conducting industrial and organizational psychological research: institutional review of research in work organizations.

    PubMed

    Ilgen, D R; Bell, B S

    2001-01-01

    Although informed consent is a primary mechanism for ensuring the ethical treatment of human participants in research, both federal guidelines and American Psychological Association ethical standards recognize that exceptions to it are reasonable under certain conditions. However, agreement about what constitutes a reasonable exception to informed consent is sometimes lacking. We presented the same protocols to samples of respondents drawn from 4 populations: Institutional review board (IRB) members, managers, employees, and university faculty who were not members of IRBs. Differences in perceptions of IRB members from the other samples with respect to the risks of the protocols without informed consent and on the feasibility of conducting the research in employment organizations are discussed in terms of implications for industrial and organizational psychology research.

  15. 2008-2010 Research Summary: Analysis of Demand Response Opportunities in California Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Goli, Sasank; Olsen, Daniel; McKane, Aimee; Piette, Mary Ann

    2011-08-01

    This report describes the work of the Industrial Demand Response (DR) Team of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) from 2008-2010, in the context of its mandate to conduct and disseminate research that broadens the knowledge base of DR strategies, with a focus on the Industrial-Agricultural-Water (IAW) sector. Through research and case studies of industrial sectors and entities, the DRRC-IAW Team continued to assimilate knowledge on the feasibility of industrial DR strategies with an emphasis on technical and economic evaluation and worked to encourage implementation of these strategies.

  16. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal Acquisition... engineering, development, or research capability....

  17. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal Acquisition... engineering, development, or research capability....

  18. 77 FR 43416 - ITS Industry Forum on Connected Vehicles: Moving From Research Towards Implementation; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ITS Industry Forum on Connected Vehicles: Moving From Research Towards Implementation; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: ITS Joint Program Office, Research and Innovative Technology Administration,...

  19. Nutrition professionals are obligated to follow ethical guidelines when conducting industry-funded research.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A; Karmally, Wahida; O'Neil, Carol E

    2011-12-01

    Although disclosure of all funding sources, including those from industry, is mandatory for publication, it is no longer adequate. Given the skepticism surrounding industry-funded research, we need guidelines for communication with funding organizations and publication venues, and we need to safeguard and preserve research and scientific integrity.

  20. 48 CFR 6.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services. 6.302-3 Section 6.302-3 Federal... Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-3 Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or... achieve industrial mobilization, (ii) To establish or maintain an essential engineering, research,...

  1. University-Industry Research Partnerships in Australia: Extent, Benefits and Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed Australian universities about industry research support. Found that such support offered additional resources, enhanced student career opportunities, application of basic research to industry problems, less red tape than government funding, and enhanced university prestige. Problems included threats to autonomy, undesirable consequences…

  2. 48 CFR 6.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services. 6.302-3 Section 6.302-3 Federal... Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-3 Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or... achieve industrial mobilization, (ii) To establish or maintain an essential engineering, research,...

  3. 48 CFR 6.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services. 6.302-3 Section 6.302-3 Federal... Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-3 Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or... achieve industrial mobilization, (ii) To establish or maintain an essential engineering, research,...

  4. 48 CFR 6.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services. 6.302-3 Section 6.302-3 Federal... Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-3 Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or... achieve industrial mobilization, (ii) To establish or maintain an essential engineering, research,...

  5. Working Together, Creating Knowledge: The University-Industry Research Collaboration Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum, Washington, DC.

    This document provides a detailed assessment of the opportunities and challenges facing university-industry research collaborations. This report represents a synthesis of the work and findings of this initiative. It analyzes several of the critical issues facing research collaborations between industry and universities and offers suggestions to…

  6. The Effects of University-Industry Relationships and Academic Research on Scientific Performance: Synergy or Substitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manjarres-Henriquez, Liney; Gutierrez-Gracia, Antonio; Carrion-Garcia, Andres; Vega-Jurado, Jaider

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates whether university-industry relationships (UIR) and academic research activities have complementary effects on the scientific production of university lecturers. The analysis is based on a case study of two Spanish universities. We find that the effects of R&D contracts with industry, and academic research activity on…

  7. Constituting the Significance and Value of Research: Views from Information Technology Academics and Industry Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Christine; Pham, Binh; Stoodley, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The information technology research community, comprising both academic and industry stakeholders, is responding to national and international imperatives that challenge disparate groups to work together. In this article it is shown how, within both academic and industrial contexts, researchers interpret, or constitute, the significance and value…

  8. University-Industry Research Collaboration: A Model to Assess University Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Di Costa, Flavia

    2011-01-01

    Scholars and policy makers recognize that collaboration between industry and the public research institutions is a necessity for innovation and national economic development. This work presents an econometric model which expresses the university capability for collaboration with industry as a function of size, location and research quality. The…

  9. University-Industry Research Relationships in Biotechnology: Implications for the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents an analysis of a survey of University-Industry Research Relationships (UIRR) in biotechnology that involved over 1200 university faculty. Findings indicated that researchers with industrial support published at higher rates, patented more frequently, participated in more administrative and professional activities, and earned more than…

  10. Educational Research in Latin America: From the Artisan to the Industrial Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes Latin American educational research phases--the artisan and industrial. During the artisan phase (1950s-early 1970s), university scholars conducted isolated projects with limited access to information. Research centers, government supports, and information networks characterize the industrial period (post-mid 1970s). Argues information…

  11. Spatial Distribution of Uranium in Groundwater and Associated Geologic Material at the NABIR Field Research Center Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D. H.; Watson, D. B.

    2001-05-01

    The Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research Program (NABIR) has established a Field Research Center (FRC) on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The FRC provides a site for investigators to conduct research and obtain samples related to in situ bioremediation. This site is in the form of four buried unlined ponds where uranium and other contaminants were disposed in nitric acid for 32 years. In 1984, the ponds were neutralized with limestone, RCRA capped and paved with a parking lot. Analysis of groundwater and geologic material sampled from the site show that uranium is preferentially migrating away from the ponds and towards the nearby Bear Creek. Preferential flow appears to be associated with an ancient buried stream bed and remnant fractures in the saprolite where the uranium content of the groundwater is as high as 7 ppm. Due to the greater discharge of the contaminant source in this portion of the regolith, there is higher weathering of the shallow regolith (top 20 ft)and a greater accumulation of uranium compared to other sections of geologic material surrounding the disposal site.

  12. Research on groundwater radon as a fluid phase precursor to earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, T.; Sun, L.

    1986-11-10

    Groundwater radon monitoring work carried out in southern California by the University of Southern California since 1974 is summarized here. This effort began with a sampling network over a locked segment of the San Andreas fault from Tejon to Cajon and was later expanded to cover part of the southern Transverse Mountain ranges. Groundwater samples were brought back weekly to the laboratory for high precision scintillation counting. Needs for more frequent sampling and less labor prompted the development of an economical and field worthy instrument known as the continuous radon monitor. About 10 have been installed in the network since early 1980. The groundwater radon content was found to show anomalous increases (mostly at a single station) before a number of moderate and nearby earthquakes. Our work is hampered by a lack of large earthquakes that may have a regional impact on radon anomalies and by the complexity of the underground hydrological regime. To circumvent this difficulty, we have chosen to monitor only deep artesian wells or hot spring wells.

  13. Selected Research Tools in Economics, Labor and Industrial Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Ronald J.

    Twenty-two indexing and abstracting services and general reference sources in the areas of labor and industrial relations are listed in this selective bibliography for users of State University of New York at Albany Libraries. Classification numbers are included for each source and most have annotations. Materials are listed under four…

  14. Changing Skills in Metalworking Industries: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchiers, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    Transformations in the French metalworking industries have given rise to numerous studies on employment and job content in metallurgy over the past decade. One study related technical transformations to changes in the skills content of certain categories of workers. Although automation results in the elimination of certain know-how belonging to an…

  15. Optics At The Arctic Circle, An Example Of Application-Oriented Research Generating New Industrial Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammasniemi, Jorma; Myllyla, Risto; Hannula, Tapio

    1989-04-01

    This paper discusses research/industry interaction in application-oriented research groups specializing in the development of optoelectronic instruments and measurement methods. The research groups are working in Oulu, a city in Northern Finland, in an industrial environment consisting originally of pulp and paper industries together with metalworking and engineering industries. These established industrial areas are active in adopting new technologies for automation and process renewal. Furthermore, new emerging businesses are being generated through pilot installations and new product ideas created by research groups. The technologies considered are optical and infrared process analyzers, semiconductor laser-based dimension measurements and optoelectronic hybrid module fabrication. Examples of new products and enterprises employing these technologies are given. Additional skills and education especially in miniature optics and related constructions, are considered important for the future.

  16. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Beef Promotion Operating Committee § 1260.169 Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information....

  17. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Beef Promotion Operating Committee § 1260.169 Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information....

  18. Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) Year 2 Report and Year 3 Proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary M.; Gogos, Geroge; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.

    2003-01-01

    The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL): a comprehensive, multi-faceted NASA EPSCoR 2000 initiative, contributes to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA while intensifying Nebraska s rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL enables Nebraska researchers to: (a) continue strengthening their collaborative relationships with NASA Field Centers, Codes, and Enterprises; (b) increase the capacity of higher education throughout Nebraska to invigorate and expand aeronautics research; and (c) expedite the development of aeronautics-related research infrastructure and industry in the state. This report contains a summary of AERIAL's activities and accomplishments during the second year of implementation. The AERIAL Year 3 proposal is also included.

  19. Occupational Exposures in the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry: State of the Science and Research Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Witter, Roxana Z.; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S.

    2015-01-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. PMID:24634090

  20. Occupational exposures in the oil and gas extraction industry: State of the science and research recommendations.

    PubMed

    Witter, Roxana Z; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S

    2014-07-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example.

  1. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry`s view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R&D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  2. Carbon transformations by attached bacterial populations in granitic groundwater from deep crystalline bed-rock of the Stripa research mine.

    PubMed

    Ekendahl, S; Pedersen, K

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents and compares the assimilation rates of CO2 and lactate, and the lactate respiration rates, of attached bacterial populations growing in slowly flowing groundwater (1-3 mm s-1) from deep crystalline bed-rock of the Stripa research mine, Sweden. The bacteria studied grew in anoxic, high-pH (9-10) and low-redox artesian groundwater flowing up through tubing from two levels of a borehole designated V2, 812-820 m and 970-1240 m below ground. Bacteria were allowed to attach to and grow on sterile glass microscope slides in laminar-flow reactors connected to the flowing groundwater. Total numbers of bacteria were counted by acridine orange direct counts. The bacteria grew slowly, with doubling times of 34 d at 10 degrees C for the 812-820 m population, 23 d for the 970-1240 m population at 10 degrees C and 16 d for this population at 20 degrees C. Numbers of attached bacteria reached between 10(6) and 10(7) bacteria cm-2. The populations at the two levels of the borehole were different in physiology as well as in phylogeny and reflected the heterogeneity between the sampling levels. The earlier proposed presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria could not be confirmed. This is discussed in relation to results from 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies. The CO2 assimilation rates (as mol CO2 cm-2 h-1, using liquid scintillation techniques) increased with depth and temperature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Energy Saving Separations Technologies for the Petroleum Industry: An Industry-University-National Laboratory Research Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Dorgan, John R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Way, J. Douglas

    2003-03-28

    This project works to develop technologies capable of replacing traditional energy-intensive distillations so that a 20% improvement in energy efficiency can be realized. Consistent with the DOE sponsored report, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, the approach undertaken is to develop and implement entirely new technology to replace existing energy intensive practices. The project directly addresses the top priority issue of developing membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project is organized to rapidly and effectively advance the state-of-the-art in membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project team includes ChevronTexaco and BP, major industrial petroleum refiners, who will lead the effort by providing matching resources and real world management perspective. Academic expertise in separation sciences and polymer materials found in the Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Department of the Colorado School of Mines is used to invent, develop, and test new membrane materials. Additional expertise and special facilities available at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are also exploited in order to effectively meet the goals of the project. The proposed project is truly unique in terms of the strength of the team it brings to bear on the development and commercialization of the proposed technologies.

  4. Distribution of U and REE on colloids in granitic groundwater and quality-controlled sampling at the Mizunami underground research laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munemoto, Takashi; Ohmori, Kazuaki; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2014-12-01

    Colloids and their association with analogue elements, uranium, and rare earth elements (REEs), in deep granitic groundwater were investigated at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). Groundwater was sampled from underground boreholes and gallery walls, and the colloids were separated by size-fractionated ultrafiltration (pore sizes, 0.2 μm, 10 kDa, and 1 kDa). For the groundwater sampled from fractures in excavation walls, the size-fractionated concentrations of the colloid-forming elements were approximately constant relative to different size fractions (0.2 μm, 200 kDa, 50 kDa, and 10 kDa). The contamination of Fe- and Al-bearing materials was insignificant in the filtered groundwater from fracture seepages. Changes in the concentrations of U in the groundwater sampled from boreholes and excavation walls were associated with the Al-bearing colloids, Fe-bearing colloids, and organic matter. The REE-bearing material(s) that were >0.2 μm in size were mobile in the deep granitic groundwater, rather than occurring in association with Al-bearing, Fe-bearing colloids, and organic matter. It is suggested that sampling from water-conducting fractures in host rock and colloid elimination in borehole are important components of water quality control in geochemical investigations.

  5. 76 FR 21712 - Meeting of the Ocean Research and Resources Advisory Industry Sub-Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Meeting of the Ocean Research and Resources Advisory Industry Sub-Panel AGENCY... Advisory Industry Sub-Panel will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The...

  6. 77 FR 36606 - Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development Forum, Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline... a Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development (R&D) Forum. The R&D Forums are held... pipeline safety and with protecting the environment. The forum allows public, government and...

  7. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal Acquisition... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 206.302-3 Industrial mobilization;...

  8. A Low-cost Method to Identify Tubewells for Longitudinal Research on Arsenic in Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Rashid, Mahbubur; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Labrique, Alain B.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of arsenic in tubewell groundwater from the shallow aquifers of Bangladesh could result in up to 300,000 arsenic-related cancer cases over the next four decades. Understanding the magnitude and temporal dynamics of this exposure, via longitudinal studies, is imperative for planning effective mitigation and management strategies. Appropriate methods are needed to identify tubewells for longitudinal sampling. A plastic band marked with a unique identification number was developed, and various methods for attaching the band to the tubewell were tested, resulting in the choice of a galvanized-iron split-rivet. Two follow-up surveys at two and 14 months post-banding assessed the durability and longevity under field conditions in the JiVitA Project area in rural, northwestern Bangladesh. After two months, ~96.0% of the original bands on 1,063 tubewells were functional, although the rivets were partially corroded. After 14 months, ~65% of a subsample of the bands were functional. With further improvements to the rivets, these bands offer an inexpensive, durable, enumeration technology for longitudinal studies on groundwater arsenic. PMID:18330072

  9. [Research on contribution decomposition by industry to China's carbon intensity reduction and carbon emission growth].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing-Jing; Ye, Bin; Ji, Jun-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-01

    The binding carbon intensity index and the pilot "cap-and-trade" emission trading scheme are two important approaches currently applied by China to mitigate its greenhouse gases emissions. It is of great significance to research the influence mechanism of related factors by industry on the dynamics of national carbon intensity and emission, not only for setting industry-specified intensity reduction target but also for setting industry coverage of the ETS. Two LMDI models were applied in this paper to decompose industry contributions to the changes of China's carbon intensity and carbon emission during the period of 1996-2010. Empirical results showed that: The decline of national carbon intensity was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value proportions of all industries, and the impact of industry carbon intensities was larger. The increase of national carbon emission was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value of all industries. The former had inhibitory effect whist the latter had decisive promoting effect. The five industries making the largest contribution to the changes of national carbon emission and carbon intensity included industries of electricity, nonmetal mineral, ferrous metal, transportation service, chemical materials, which were followed by the industries of agriculture, coal mining and processing, petroleum and natural gas extraction. Petroleum refining and coking industry and construction industry made small contribution to the decline of national carbon intensity, but made large contribution to the growth of national carbon emission. The contributions of service industries to national carbon emission growth showed a rising trend, especially those of transportation service industry, wholesaling, retailing and catering service industry.

  10. Industrial Hygiene Group annual research report, FY 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.O.; Ettinger, H.J.

    1982-10-01

    Field studies have been performed at several oil shale facilities to identify unique industrial hygiene problems and provide input to inhalation toxicology studies aimed at evaluating the hazards of materials associated with this developing technology. Aerosol physics support has also been provided to develop aerosol generation and animal exposure techniques for evaluating the toxicity of oil shale materials and manmade mineral fibers. As part of the effort to assure a safe, orderly, and timely development of various synfuels, field evaluation of indicator-sampling procedures was perfomed, and industrial hygiene work practices for two synfuel technologies are being prepared. Respirator studies are used to evaluate the performances of special devices (some of which are not in the existing government approval schedules) and of a proposed test procedures for self-contained breathing apparatus. An approval procedure is being developed for air-purifying respirators required for protection against radioiodine, evaluating the adequacy of respirator programs at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities, and developing a program for respirator use under emergency situations. A new aerosol size-characterization stack sampler has been designed, and potential instrument changes to aerosol size monitoring for filter testing are being evaluated. Material permeability tests have identified the protection afforded by protective clothing materials, and improved analytical procedures have been developed for pentachlorophenol and plutonium.

  11. Effects of three phosphate industrial sites on ground-water quality in central Florida, 1979 to 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Sutcliffe, Horace

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, and water quality data and information on test holes collected in the vicinity of gypsum stack complexes at two phosphate chemical plants and one phosphatic clayey waste disposal pond at a phosphate mine and beneficiation plant in central Florida are presented. The data were collected from September 1979 to October 1980 at the AMAX Phosphate, Inc. chemical plant, Piney Point; the USS Agri-Chemicals chemical plant, Bartow; and the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation Clear Springs mine, Bartow. Approximately 5,400 field and laboratory water quality determinations on water samples collected from about 100 test holes and 28 surface-water , 5 rainfall, and other sampling sites at phosphate industry beneficiation and chemical plant waste disposal operations are tabulated. Maps are included to show sampling sites. (USGS)

  12. Promoting the Success of US Industry/University Research Centres. The Role of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tornatzky, Louis; Lovelace, Kay; Gray, Denis O.; Walters, S. George; Geisler, Eliezer

    1999-01-01

    Leadership in industry-university research centers often involves helping constituencies with conflicting priorities deal with challenges, necessitating a participatory leadership style. Other challenges include exercising intrapreneurship, creating a compelling technical vision, and spanning organizational boundaries. (SK)

  13. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary M.; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; O'Neil, Patrick D.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.

    This document contains four papers on aeronautics education, research, and partnerships that partly supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). The paper "2002 AERIAL Monograph" (Brent D. Bowen, Jocelyn S. Nickerson, Mary M. Fink, et al.) presents an overview of research and development in the…

  14. Trends to 1982 in Industrial Support of Basic Research. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report analyzes recent trends in company-funded basic research support and incorporates findings from a special mail survey and personal interviews with research and development (R&D) officials of 54 firms. The report also provides insight into industry/university cooperative basic research efforts. Following an introduction, the report…

  15. Effects of Changes in Irrigation Practices and Aquifer Development on Groundwater Discharge to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve near Salinas, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1990, about 75 acres of black mangroves have died in the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve near Salinas, Puerto Rico. Although many factors can contribute to the mortality of mangroves, changes in irrigation practices, rainfall, and water use resulted in as much as 25 feet of drawdown in the potentiometric surface of the aquifer in the vicinity of the reserve between 1986 and 2002. To clarify the issue, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study to ascertain how aquifer development and changes in irrigation practices have affected groundwater levels and groundwater flow to the Mar Negro area of the reserve. Changes in groundwater flow to the mangrove swamp and bay from 1986 to 2004 were estimated in this study by developing and calibrating a numerical groundwater flow model. The transient simulations indicate that prior to 1994, high irrigation return flows more than offset the effect of reduced groundwater withdrawals. In this case, the simulated discharge to the coast in the modeled area was 19 million gallons per day. From 1994 through 2004, furrow irrigation was completely replaced by micro-drip irrigation, thus eliminating return flows and the simulated average coastal discharge was 7 million gallons per day, a reduction of 63 percent. The simulated average groundwater discharge to the coastal mangrove swamps in the reserve from 1986 to 1993 was 2 million gallons per day, compared to an average simulated discharge of 0.2 million gallons per day from 1994 to 2004. The average annual rainfall for each of these periods was 38 inches. The groundwater discharge to the coastal mangrove swamps in the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve was estimated at about 0.5 million gallons per day for 2003-2004 because of higher than average annual rainfall during these 2 years. The groundwater flow model was used to test five alternatives for increasing

  16. Occupational lung disease in the South African mining industry: research and policy implementation.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jill; Davies, Tony; Rees, David

    2011-01-01

    South African miners face an epidemic of occupational lung diseases. Despite a plethora of research on the mining industry, and the gold mining industry in particular, research impact (including disease surveillance) on policy implementation and occupational health systems performance lags. We describe the gold mining environment, and research on silicosis, tuberculosis, HIV and AIDS, and compensation for occupational disease including initiatives to influence policy and thus reduce dust levels and disease. As these have been largely unsuccessful, we identify possible impediments, some common to other low- and middle-income countries, to the translation of research findings and policy initiatives into effective interventions.

  17. International space research perspectives of commercialization for German industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    A brief overview of space flight activities is presented. West German contributions to satellite mapping, communication satellites, navigation, Spacelab, diffusion under weightlessness, crystal growth in space, metal bonding, and biochemistry are described. The future of the research in the space station is analyzed.

  18. Applied Operations Research: Augmented Reality in an Industrial Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality is the application of computer generated data or graphics onto a real world view. Its use provides the operator additional information or a heightened situational awareness. While advancements have been made in automation and diagnostics of high value critical equipment to improve readiness, reliability and maintenance, the need for assisting and support to Operations and Maintenance staff persists. AR can improve the human machine interface where computer capabilities maximize the human experience and analysis capabilities. NASA operates multiple facilities with complex ground based HVCE in support of national aerodynamics and space exploration, and the need exists to improve operational support and close a gap related to capability sustainment where key and experienced staff consistently rotate work assignments and reach their expiration of term of service. The initiation of an AR capability to augment and improve human abilities and training experience in the industrial environment requires planning and establishment of a goal and objectives for the systems and specific applications. This paper explored use of AR in support of Operation staff in real time operation of HVCE and its maintenance. The results identified include identification of specific goal and objectives, challenges related to availability and computer system infrastructure.

  19. Nuclear Industry Support Services by the Buffalo Materials Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, L.G. )

    1993-01-01

    The Buffalo Materials Research Center (BMRC) is located on the campus of the State University of New York at Buffalo, Principal facilities within BMRC include a 2-MW PULSTAR, low-enrichment reactor, an electron accelerator, and irradiated materials remote testing facilities. The reactor and the materials testing facilities have been utilized extensively in support of the power reactor community since 1961. This paper briefly highlights the nature and scope of this service. The BMRC is operated for the university by Buffalo Materials Research, Inc., a private for-profit company, which is a subsidiary of Materials Engineering Associates, Inc. (MEA), a Maryland-based materials testing company. A primary mission of MEA has been research on the effects of neutron irradiation on reactor structural materials, including those used for pressure vessel and piping systems. The combined resources of MEA and BMRC have played a pivotal role in the assessment of reactor pressure vessel safety both in the United States and abroad and in the development of new radiation-resistant steels.

  20. Emerging organic contaminants in surface water and groundwater: a first overview of the situation in Italy.

    PubMed

    Meffe, Raffaella; de Bustamante, Irene

    2014-05-15

    This paper provides the first review of the occurrence of 161 emerging organic compounds (EOCs) in Italian surface water and groundwater. The reported EOCs belong to the groups of industrials, pharmaceuticals, estrogens and illicit drugs. Occurrence of 137 pesticides was also reported. The reviewed research works have been published between 1997 and 2013. The majority of the studies have been carried out in Northern Italy (n. 30) and to a lower extent in Central Italy (n. 13). Only a limited number of research studies report EOC concentrations in water resources of Southern Italy. The EOCs that have been more frequently studied are in the following descending order, pesticides (16), pharmaceuticals (15), industrials (13), estrogens (7) and illicit drugs (2). Research activities investigating the EOC occurrence in surface water are more numerous than those in groundwater. This is consistent with the higher complexity involved in groundwater sampling and EOC detection. Among the reported EOCs, industrials and pesticides are those occurring in both surface water and groundwater with the highest concentrations (up to 15 × 10(6) and 4.78 × 0(5)ng L(-1), respectively). Concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface water reach a maximum of 3.59 × 10(3)ng L(-1), whereas only the antimicrobial agent josamycin has been encountered in groundwater with a concentration higher than 100 ng L(-1). Both estrogens and illicit drugs appeared in surface water with concentrations lower than 50 ng L(-1). Groundwater concentrations for estrogens were measured to be below the detection limits, whereas illicit drugs have so far not been studied in groundwater. The present review reveals the serious contamination status of Italian surface water and groundwater especially by pesticides, industrials and to a lower extent by pharmaceuticals and the necessity to foster the research on EOC occurrence in Italian water resources, in particular in Southern Italy where a limited number of

  1. Selected Aspects of Assessment/Improvement of Academic Research Quality, Also of Industrial Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemala, Marek

    2016-06-01

    In terms of publishing and commercialisation of academic research results, there may be more preferred qualitative research in the long term. But, not every research can be focused only on the quality of its outputs, but each output of the research, however, should have an adequate quality and added value. The main research question of this article may be determined as follows - How can the quality of academic research be better evaluated and thus improved, also in the area of Industrial management? It is not the intention of this article to perform statistical research in the field yet, but this study is based on empirical data and results.

  2. Translational research in the pharmaceutical industry: from theory to reality.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Stefan R; Roblin, David; O'Connell, Damian

    2007-05-01

    Translational research is the collaboration between scientists and clinicians to identify novel targets and develop biomarkers that increase confidence in rationale and therefore help select the mechanisms that are most likely to lead to breakthrough therapies. Here, we describe examples of the utility of linked preclinical and clinical biomarkers to measure pharmacological effects, to estimate clinical dose range, to determine efficacy, and to determine differentiation compared with existing therapies. The use of pharmacogenomics to identify novel drug targets and define enriched patient subpopulations is also discussed. We illustrate how biomarkers and a deep understanding of disease biology are used to discover additional indications for licensed drugs.

  3. Nebraska Initiative for Aerospace Research and Industrial Development (NIARID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent; Reichenbach, Steve; Ianno, Ned; Farr, Lynne; Tarry, Scott; Narayanan, Ram; Lehrer, Henry

    2002-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

  4. Scientific research and corporate influence: smoking, mental illness, and the tobacco industry.

    PubMed

    Hirshbein, Laura

    2012-07-01

    Mentally ill individuals have always smoked at high rates and continue to do so, despite public health efforts to encourage smoking cessation. In the last half century, the tobacco industry became interested in this connection, and conducted and supported psychiatric and basic science research on the mental health implications of smoking, long before most mental health professionals outside the industry investigated this issue. Initially, representatives of tobacco industry research organizations supported genetics and psychosomatic research to try to disprove findings that smoking causes lung cancer. Tobacco industry research leaders engaged with investigators because of shared priorities and interests in the brain effects of nicotine. By the 1980s, collaborative funding programs and individual company research and development teams engaged in intramural and extramural basic science studies on the neuropharmacology of nicotine. When mental health researchers outside the industry became interested in the issue of the mentally ill and smoking in the mid-1990s, they increasingly explained it in terms of a disease of nicotine addiction. Both the idea that smoking/nicotine does something positive for the mentally ill and the conclusion that it is the result of nicotine dependence have the potential to support corporate agendas (tobacco or pharmaceutical).

  5. Scientific Research and Corporate Influence: Smoking, Mental Illness, and the Tobacco Industry

    PubMed Central

    Hirshbein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Mentally ill individuals have always smoked at high rates and continue to do so, despite public health efforts to encourage smoking cessation. In the last half century, the tobacco industry became interested in this connection, and conducted and supported psychiatric and basic science research on the mental health implications of smoking, long before most mental health professionals outside the industry investigated this issue. Initially, representatives of tobacco industry research organizations supported genetics and psychosomatic research to try to disprove findings that smoking causes lung cancer. Tobacco industry research leaders engaged with investigators because of shared priorities and interests in the brain effects of nicotine. By the 1980s, collaborative funding programs and individual company research and development teams engaged in intramural and extramural basic science studies on the neuropharmacology of nicotine. When mental health researchers outside the industry became interested in the issue of the mentally ill and smoking in the mid-1990s, they increasingly explained it in terms of a disease of nicotine addiction. Both the idea that smoking/nicotine does something positive for the mentally ill and the conclusion that it is the result of nicotine dependence have the potential to support corporate agendas (tobacco or pharmaceutical). PMID:21596723

  6. Applications of nuclear physics to interdisciplinary research and to industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey

    2000-04-01

    Techniques that have been developed to understand nuclear structure can be used for interdisciplinary research and to determine useful properties. Both microscopic and macroscopic techniques can be used. The introduction discusses the diversity of fields that can benefit from applying nuclear physics techniques. Three current areas of research are used as illustrations. The use of gamma-ray spectroscopy following thermal neutron capture to better understand the formation and evolution of planetary bodies. Such measurements can be performed from orbit, on landers or on rovers, but each type of measurement puts different constraints on the instrument design. Nuclear resonant reaction analysis has recently been used to better understand the chemical kinetics in the curing of cement. Elemental concentrations of hydrogen have been measured with a spatial resolution of a few nanometers at the grain surface and about 20 nanometers at a depth of about two microns as a function of time during the reaction. Finally, x-ray techniques are being developed to provide an x-ray fluorescence instrument that can be used safely and reliably at a crime scene for investigative purposes. Unique problems of applying laboratory techniques to random, human-occupied locations and the requirements for providing a technically viable analysis that will be accepted by our legal system will be discussed.

  7. Internal tobacco industry research on olfactory and trigeminal nerve response to nicotine and other smoke components.

    PubMed

    Megerdichian, Christine L; Rees, Vaughan W; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

    2007-11-01

    Evidence has shown that factors other than the central pharmacological effects of nicotine are important in promoting smoking behavior. One such non-nicotine effect includes sensory stimulation, which may promote smoking by developing learned associations with nicotine's rewarding effects, or by constituting a rewarding experience independent of nicotine. The present study used internal tobacco industry documents to examine industry efforts to understand and manipulate stimulation of the sensory nerves by tobacco smoke, and the influence of sensory stimulation on smoker behavior. Research focused on sensory nerves of the head and neck, including the olfactory nerve, which carries flavor and odor, and the trigeminal nerve, which carries irritant information. The tobacco industry maintained a systematic research program designed to elucidate an understanding of responses of sensory nerves to nicotine and other components of tobacco smoke, and attempted to develop nicotine-like compounds that would enhance sensory responses in smokers. Industry research appeared intended to aid in the development of new products with greater consumer appeal. The potential influence of sensory response in enhancing nicotine dependence through an associative mechanism was acknowledged by the tobacco industry, but evidence for research in this area was limited. These findings add to evidence of industry manipulation of sensory factors to enhance smoking behavior and may have implications for development of more effective treatment strategies, including more "acceptable" nicotine replacement therapies.

  8. Federal agencies active in chemical industry-related research and development

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-29

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 calls for a program to further the commercialization of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies for the industrial sector.. The primary objective of the Office of Industrial Technologies Chemical Industry Team is to work in partnership with the US chemical industry to maximize economic, energy, and environmental benefits through research and development of innovative technologies. This document was developed to inventory organizations within the federal government on current chemical industry-related research and development. While an amount of funding or number of projects specifically relating to chemical industry research and development was not defined in all organizations, identified were about 60 distinct organizations representing 7 cabinet-level departments and 4 independent agencies, with research efforts exceeding $3.5 billion in fiscal year 1995. Effort were found to range from less than $500 thousand per year at the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior to over $100 million per year at the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The total number of projects in these programs exceeded 10,000. This document is complete to the extent that agencies volunteered information. Additions, corrections, and changes are encouraged and will be incorporated in future revisions.

  9. Interaction between Research and Education: Can Industry Cooperation Improve the Link?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljunggren, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to provide a new perspective on current shifts in knowledge production through analysing the relationship between research and education. The study, based on interviews and questionnaires, focuses on the interaction within applied research centres with a close industry cooperation. The results suggest that the interaction…

  10. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization, engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Industrial mobilization, engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal..., engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services....

  11. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization, engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Industrial mobilization, engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal..., engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services....

  12. NASA/Army Rotorcraft Technology. Volume 3: Systems Integration, Research Aircraft, and Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This is part 3 of the conference proceedings on rotorcraft technology. This volume is divided into areas on systems integration, research aircraft, and industry. Representative titles from each area are: system analysis in rotorcraft design, the past decade; rotorcraft flight research with emphasis on rotor systems; and an overview of key technology thrusts at Bell Helicopter Textron.

  13. Industrial and Academic Collaboration: Hybrid Models for Research and Innovation Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Sara; Mayer, Igor; Arnab, Sylvester; Marshall, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how, in the light of global economic downturn and rising student populations, new academic-industrial models for research collaboration based upon specific technological expertise and knowledge can be developed as potential mechanisms for preserving and extending central university research infrastructure. The paper explores…

  14. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and..., research, consumer information, and industry information activities with respect to soybean and soybean..., marketing and utilization of soybean and soybean products and the creation of new products thereof, to...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and..., research, consumer information, and industry information activities with respect to soybean and soybean..., marketing and utilization of soybean and soybean products and the creation of new products thereof, to...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and..., research, consumer information, and industry information activities with respect to soybean and soybean..., marketing and utilization of soybean and soybean products and the creation of new products thereof, to...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and..., research, consumer information, and industry information activities with respect to soybean and soybean..., marketing and utilization of soybean and soybean products and the creation of new products thereof, to...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and..., research, consumer information, and industry information activities with respect to soybean and soybean..., marketing and utilization of soybean and soybean products and the creation of new products thereof, to...

  19. 78 FR 19713 - Possible Role of Independent Third Parties in Industry-Sponsored Tobacco Product Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ...-Sponsored Tobacco Product Research; Establishment of a Public Docket; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and...-party governance of industry-sponsored tobacco product research. DATES: Submit electronic or written... to regulate the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products to protect public...

  20. Out of the Ivory Tower: Characteristics of Institutions Meeting the Research Needs of Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tornquist, Kristi M.; Kallsen, Lincoln A.

    1994-01-01

    Citation analysis of 92 articles published about the aircraft and electronic equipment industries investigated the higher education institutions with which cited authors were associated. Results indicated research expenditures, faculty quality and salary, and land-grant status were predictors of research use; urban location and presence of…

  1. 76 FR 22757 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1217 RIN 0581-AD03 Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Maureen T. Pello, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Branch, Fruit...

  2. Nutrition professionals are obligated to follow ethical guidelines when conducting industry-funded research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fiscal climate for research reflects the increasing difficulty in obtaining competitive government and foundation funds. Thus, nutrition professionals conducting research may need to work with industry. However, there is a growing concern about real or perceived conflicts of interest and the pot...

  3. Industrial Internet of Things-Based Collaborative Sensing Intelligence: Framework and Research Challenges.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanfang; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Shu, Lei; Crespi, Noel

    2016-02-06

    The development of an efficient and cost-effective solution to solve a complex problem (e.g., dynamic detection of toxic gases) is an important research issue in the industrial applications of the Internet of Things (IoT). An industrial intelligent ecosystem enables the collection of massive data from the various devices (e.g., sensor-embedded wireless devices) dynamically collaborating with humans. Effectively collaborative analytics based on the collected massive data from humans and devices is quite essential to improve the efficiency of industrial production/service. In this study, we propose a collaborative sensing intelligence (CSI) framework, combining collaborative intelligence and industrial sensing intelligence. The proposed CSI facilitates the cooperativity of analytics with integrating massive spatio-temporal data from different sources and time points. To deploy the CSI for achieving intelligent and efficient industrial production/service, the key challenges and open issues are discussed, as well.

  4. Industrial Internet of Things-Based Collaborative Sensing Intelligence: Framework and Research Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuanfang; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Shu, Lei; Crespi, Noel

    2016-01-01

    The development of an efficient and cost-effective solution to solve a complex problem (e.g., dynamic detection of toxic gases) is an important research issue in the industrial applications of the Internet of Things (IoT). An industrial intelligent ecosystem enables the collection of massive data from the various devices (e.g., sensor-embedded wireless devices) dynamically collaborating with humans. Effectively collaborative analytics based on the collected massive data from humans and devices is quite essential to improve the efficiency of industrial production/service. In this study, we propose a collaborative sensing intelligence (CSI) framework, combining collaborative intelligence and industrial sensing intelligence. The proposed CSI facilitates the cooperativity of analytics with integrating massive spatio-temporal data from different sources and time points. To deploy the CSI for achieving intelligent and efficient industrial production/service, the key challenges and open issues are discussed, as well. PMID:26861345

  5. Research on the competitiveness and development strategy of china's modern coal chemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Han, Y. J.; Yu, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    China's modern coal chemical industry has grown into a certain scale after over a decade of development, and remarkable progress has been made in key technologies. But as oil price collapsed since 2015, the economic benefit of the industry also slumped, with loud controversies in China over the necessity of modern coal chemical industry. The research believes that the modern coal chemical industry plays a positive role in the clean and sustainable exploitation of coal in China. It makes profit when oil price is no lower than 60/bbl, and outperforms petrochemical in terms of cost effectiveness when the price is between 60/bbl and 80/bbl. Given the low oil price and challenges posed by environmental protection and water restraints, we suggest that the state announce a guideline quickly, with adjusted tax policies and an encouragement to technological innovation, so that the modern coal chemical industry in China can grow sound and stable.

  6. Innovative methods to stabilize liquid membranes for removal of radionuclides from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Lokhandwala, K.

    1997-10-01

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, Membrane Technology Research, Inc., is developing a stable liquid membrane for extracting uranium and other radionuclides from groundwater. The improved membrane can also be applied to separation of other metal ions from aqueous streams in industrial operations.

  7. Integrated groundwater quality management in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartjes, F. A.; Otte, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater assessments and remediations are approached at the scale of individual groundwater plumes. In urban areas, however, this management of individual groundwater plumes is often problematic for technical, practical or financial reasons, since the groundwater quality is often affected by a combination of sources, including (former) industrial activities, spills and leachate from uncontrolled landfills and building materials. As a result, often a whole series of intermingling contamination plumes is found in large volumes of groundwater. In several countries in the world, this led to stagnation of groundwater remediation in urban areas. Therefore, in the Netherlands there is a tendency managing groundwater in urban areas from an integrated perspective and on a larger scale. This so-called integrated groundwater quality management is often more efficient and hence, cheaper, since the organisation of the management of a cluster of groundwater plumes is much easier than it would be if all individual groundwater plumes were managed at different points in time. Integrated groundwater quality management should follow a tailor-made approach. However, to facilitate practical guidance was developed. This guidance relates to the delineation of the domain, the management of sources for groundwater contamination, procedures for monitoring, and (risk-based) assessment of the groundwater quality. Function-specific risk-based groundwater quality criteria were derived to support the assessment of the groundwater quality.

  8. The State of the Industry and Research in Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, G.

    2007-12-01

    Development of airborne geophysical methods has tended to proceed in rushes of energy, when many new systems are developed for the same application simultaneously along many pathways. The tremendous growth of airborne EM through the '50s to '70s was followed by natural selection in the '80s and '90s down to two styles: fixed-wing aircraft with high-powered time domain systems (FTEM) offering depth of exploration but poor spatial resolution, and helicopter-borne frequency-domain systems (HFEM) offering the best resolution but poor depth of exploration. At the end of the '90s there was an incredible spurt of energy toward helicopter time domain development, spurred technological advances in electronics and materials. By 2007 there were 8 systems operational. Perhaps the most daring current research is toward airborne EM systems utilizing ambient EM fields as sources. Magnetic sensors are almost universally cesium-vapor total field sensors (0.01nT sampled at 0.1s). Because the limitation on target detection is ambient, in-band noise, there is little to gain from producing higher-sensitivity meters. Data quality improvements are being sought by measuring horizontal and vertical gradients more accurately. The new wave of research for magnetic surveys is the measurement of vector or tensor magnetic data with directional sensors, generally either fluxgates or SQUIDS. Magnetometers on autonomous aircraft are newly available. Gamma Ray Spectrometry surveys with sodium-iodide crystal detectors give good performance, and the low cost allows for large volumes to make up for the relatively low sensitivity. The last few years have seen development of new systems in which each crystal in the detector array is monitored, calibrated and stabilized individually using natural radiation. Airborne gravity systems available use the LaCoste zero-length pendulum, or orthogonal accelerometers. Separation of gravity from acceleration is generally done with platforms stabilized for both

  9. From biomedical-engineering research to clinical application and industrialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Tetsushi; Aoyagi, Takao

    2012-12-01

    The rising costs and aging of the population due to a low birth rate negatively affect the healthcare system in Japan. In 2011, the Council for Science and Technology Policy released the 4th Japan's Science and Technology Basic Policy Report from 2011 to 2015. This report includes two major innovations, 'Life Innovation' and 'Green Innovation', to promote economic growth. Biomedical engineering research is part of 'Life Innovation' and its outcomes are required to maintain people's mental and physical health. It has already resulted in numerous biomedical products, and new ones should be developed using nanotechnology-based concepts. The combination of accumulated knowledge and experience, and 'nanoarchitechtonics' will result in novel, well-designed functional biomaterials. This focus issue contains three reviews and 19 original papers on various biomedical topics, including biomaterials, drug-delivery systems, tissue engineering and diagnostics. We hope that it demonstrates the importance of collaboration among scientists, engineers and clinicians, and will contribute to the further development of biomedical engineering.

  10. Nutrition labelling: a review of research on consumer and industry response in the global South

    PubMed Central

    Mandle, Jessie; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Michalow, Julia; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify peer-reviewed research on consumers’ usage and attitudes towards the nutrition label and the food industry's response to labelling regulations outside Europe, North America, and Australia and to determine knowledge gaps for future research. Design Narrative review. Results This review identified nutrition labelling research from 20 countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. Consumers prefer that pre-packaged food include nutrition information, although there is a disparity between rates of use and comprehension. Consumer preference is for front-of-pack labelling and for information that shows per serving or portion as a reference unit, and label formats with graphics or symbols. Research on the food and beverage industry's response is more limited but shows that industry plays an active role in influencing legislation and regulation. Conclusions Consumers around the world share preferences with consumers in higher income countries with respect to labelling. However, this may reflect the research study populations, who are often better educated than the general population. Investigation is required into how nutrition labels are received in emerging economies especially among the urban and rural poor, in order to assess the effectiveness of labelling policies. Further research into the outlook of the food and beverage industry, and also on expanded labelling regulations is a priority. Sharing context-specific research regarding labelling between countries in the global South could be mutually beneficial in evaluating obesity prevention policies and strategies. PMID:25623608

  11. Land-Grant University-Industry Relationships in Biotechnology: A Comparison with the Non-Land-Grant Research Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, James; Kenney, Martin

    1990-01-01

    Presents study of industrial involvement in biotechnology research, comparing faculty surveys from land-grant colleges of agriculture and nonagricultural research universities. Agricultural biotechnologists report higher industrial involvement and more optimism about it. Industrial funding levels shown as significant factor in activities and…

  12. Sources of Ideas for Applied University Research, and their Effect on the Application of Findings in Australian Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Carmel; Kench, Robin

    1984-01-01

    Explored the adoption of 17 projects by industry and whether the origin of the research ideas was a significant factor. Projects were either initiated by industry alone, by universities alone, or by universities with input from industry from the earliest stages of the research. (JN)

  13. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  14. Careers in Industry: Pioneering Spirit Prevails at the Carlsberg Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Skadhauge, Birgitte; Haldrup, Anna; Olsen, Ole

    2016-10-01

    The founder of the Carlsberg brewery, J.C Jacobsen, recognized the value of private-public partnership and established the Carlsberg Foundation in 1876 with the single aim of applying research and innovation to brew the best beer. One hundred and forty years on, Jacobsen's vision still prevails, and in this interview three scientists from the Carlsberg Research Laboratory (Birgitte Skadhauge, Anna Haldrup, and Ole Olsen) share their experience about finding a career at the crossroads between industry and basic research.

  15. An Integrated Approach to Determine Ground-water Surface Water Flux in a Contaminated Aquifer-Wetland System at the Norman Landfill Research Site, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, I.; Phanikumar, M.; McGuire, J. T.; Masoner, J.; Cozzarelli, I.

    2008-12-01

    An area of research in progress at the Norman Landfill Research Site in Oklahoma involves a small wetland that overlies a landfill leachate plume. The wetland-aquifer system actively exchanges contaminants and nutrients. These chemicals move from the wetland to the aquifer and vice versa depending on the ground- water/surface-water exchange rate and flow direction. The ground-water/surface-water flow has to be quantified in order to better understand the influence of contaminants and nutrients on the transport and fate of landfill leachates. Different types of data have been collected at the site over a period of ten years including isotopic composition of water samples, ion concentrations, water levels, evaporative and seepage fluxes and meteorological variables. After identifying key processes influencing the water exchange between the wetland and ground-water based on time series analysis, we used process-based modeling to determine the ground-water/surface-water flow rates in the system using an integrated water balance model. Other methods used to constrain processes and parameters in the study include: (a) ground-water inflow calculation with stable environmental isotopes mass balance (b) ground-water input to the wetland with solute mass balance, and (c) Darcy's flow calculation of ground-water/surface-water exchange based on measurements from a network of piezometers. Preliminary results show that it is possible to differentiate between regional and local ground-water influences, as well as precipitation and evapotranspiration contributions in the exchange behavior.

  16. Computer-model analysis of ground-water flow and simulated effects of contaminant remediation at Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Rene A.; Braun, Christopher L.

    2000-01-01

    In June 1993, the Department of the Navy, Southern Division Naval Facilities Engineering Command (SOUTHDIV), began a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) of the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant (NWIRP) in north-central Texas. The RFI has found trichloroethene, dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, as well as chromium, lead, and other metallic residuum in the shallow alluvial aquifer underlying NWIRP. These findings and the possibility of on-site or off-site migration of contaminants prompted the need for a ground-water-flow model of the NWIRP area. The resulting U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model: (1) defines aquifer properties, (2) computes water budgets, (3) delineates major flowpaths, and (4) simulates hydrologic effects of remediation activity. In addition to assisting with particle-tracking analyses, the calibrated model could support solute-transport modeling as well as help evaluate the effects of potential corrective action. The USGS model simulates steadystate and transient conditions of ground-water flow within a single model layer.The alluvial aquifer is within fluvial terrace deposits of Pleistocene age, which unconformably overlie the relatively impermeable Eagle Ford Shale of Late Cretaceous age. Over small distances and short periods, finer grained parts of the aquifer are separated hydraulically; however, most of the aquifer is connected circuitously through randomly distributed coarser grained sediments. The top of the underlying Eagle Ford Shale, a regional confining unit, is assumed to be the effective lower limit of ground-water circulation and chemical contamination.The calibrated steady-state model reproduces long-term average water levels within +5.1 or –3.5 feet of those observed; the standard error of the estimate is 1.07 feet with a mean residual of 0.02 foot. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 0.75 to 7.5 feet per day, and average about 4 feet per day. Specific yield values range from 0

  17. Hydrogeologic setting, ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at the Lake Wheeler Road research station, 2001-03 : North Carolina Piedmont and Mountains Resource Evaluation Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Bolich, Richard E.; Huffman, Brad A.

    2005-01-01

    Results of a 2-year field study of the regolith-fractured bedrock ground-water system at the Lake Wheeler Road research station in Wake County, North Carolina, indicate both disconnection and interaction among components of the ground-water system. The three components of the ground-water system include (1) shallow, porous regolith; (2) a transition zone, including partially weathered rock, having both secondary (fractures) and primary porosity; and (3) deeper, fractured bedrock that has little, if any, primary porosity and is dominated by secondary fractures. The research station includes 15 wells (including a well transect from topographic high to low settings) completed in the three major components of the ground-water-flow system and a surface-water gaging station on an unnamed tributary. The Lake Wheeler Road research station is considered representative of a felsic gneiss hydrogeologic unit having steeply dipping foliation and a relatively thick overlying regolith. Bedrock foliation generally strikes N. 10? E. to N. 30? E. and N. 20? W. to N. 40? W. to a depth of about 400 feet and dips between 70? and 80? SE. and NE., respectively. From 400 to 600 feet, the foliation generally strikes N. 70? E. to N. 80? E., dipping 70? to 80? SE. Depth to bedrock locally ranges from about 67 to 77 feet below land surface. Fractures in the bedrock generally occur in two primary sets: low dip angle, stress relief fractures that cross cut foliation, and steeply dipping fractures parallel to foliation. Findings of this study generally support the conceptual models of ground-water flow from high to low topographic settings developed for the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Provinces in previous investigations, but are considered a refinement of the generalized conceptual model based on a detailed local-scale investigation. Ground water flows toward a surface-water boundary, and hydraulic gradients generally are downward in recharge areas and upward in discharge areas; however, local

  18. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water

  19. Career Opportunities for Geoscientists in the Petroleum Service Sector: A Perspective from an Industrial Research Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, P.; Schwartz, L.

    2001-05-01

    The petroleum service sector provides client oil and gas companies with the measurements and services necessary to find and extract hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs. These services encompass a range of geophysical and petrophysical measurements ranging from the well bore to seismic scale. As the easily extracted oil and gas reserves are being depleted, new technologies allow geoscientists to tap reservoirs that were previously economically unattractive. Much of the industrial research that leads to these new technologies stems not from the oil companies themselves, but from the oilfield service companies. Schlumberger has traditionally been a leader of developing new technology for hydrocarbon exploitation, exemplified by its strong commitment to supporting research and development through the ups and downs in the oil industry. As a recent hire in a petroleum industry research lab, I will provide the perspective of a fairly recent graduate on careers in the petroleum industry. Specific attention will be given to significant industry trends that will shape the careers of petroleum geoscientists in the future and the skills and attitudes necessary to be successful.

  20. Benchmarking the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in Arab world by utilizing bibliometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Zyoud, Shaher H; Al-Rawajfeh, Aiman E; Shaheen, Hafez Q; Fuchs-Hanusch, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    Rapid population growth, worsening of the climate, and severity of freshwater scarcity are global challenges. In Arab world countries, where water resources are becoming increasingly scarce, the recycling of industrial wastewater could improve the efficiency of freshwater use. The benchmarking of scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world is an initiative that could support in shaping up and improving future research activities. This study assesses the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world. A total of 2032 documents related to industrial wastewater were retrieved from 152 journals indexed in the Scopus databases; this represents 3.6 % of the global research output. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 70. The total number of citations, at the time of data analysis, was 34,296 with an average citation of 16.88 per document. Egypt, with a total publications of 655 (32.2 %), was ranked the first among the Arab countries followed by Saudi Arabia 300 (14.7 %) and Tunisia 297 (14.6 %). Egypt also had the highest h-index, assumed with Saudi Arabia, the first place in collaboration with other countries. Seven hundred fifteen (35.2 %) documents with 66 countries in Arab/non-Arab country collaborations were identified. Arab researchers collaborated mostly with researchers from France 239 (11.7 %), followed by the USA 127 (6.2 %). The top active journal was Desalination 126 (6.2 %), and the most productive institution was the National Research Center, Egypt 169 (8.3 %), followed by the King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia 75 (3.7 %). Environmental Science was the most prevalent field of interest 930 (45.8 %). Despite the promising indicators, there is a need to close the gap in research between the Arab world and the other nations. Optimizing the investments and developing regional experiences are key factors to promote the scientific research.

  1. Geophysical and stratigraphical research into deep groundwater and intruding seawater in the mediterranean area (the Salento Peninsula, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margiotta, S.; Negri, S.

    2005-01-01

    Geological, geophysical and hydrological surveys were performed in an area between Lecce to the North and Otranto to the South on the Lower Adriatic coast of Italy in order to verify the ``state of health'' of the ground water in the deep aquifer, which is characterised by Mesozoic carbonatic formations and is permeable due to fracturing and karstic phenomena. This area was chosen because it is highly urbanised, and contains many wells, some of which were intensively studied from a geological and hydro-geological point of view in 1987. The first phase of the research consisted of a stratigraphical and geological study, based on geological surveys of the surface and the subsoil by direct observation of borehole cores and the collection and analysis of existing stratigraphical data on wells in the area. The stratigraphical and hydrogeological data are kept in the archives of local agencies. The collected data were organised in a single database managed by an appropriate software (ARCVIEW). Numerous geological cross sections of the territory were studied in order to characterise the subsoil. Subsequently, multi-parameter surveys (O2, pH, temperature, TDS, conductivity) were carried out on the water-column of certain wells selected from those studied in 1987. This was to verify possible changes in the state of the groundwater since 1987. The surveys were carried out in two different periods (May and September) in order to identify potential differences between rainy and dry periods. Moreover, electrical tomography was used to characterise the various subsurface geological formations and possible saline water intrusion where direct information collected from the wells was lacking. From the research conducted it was possible to effect a stratigraphical characterisation of the subsoil and to verify overexploitation of the water resources resulting from the increasing number of wells, and the consequent deterioration of the aquifer due to saline water intrusion. The

  2. Center for Semiconductor Materials and Device Modeling: expanding collaborative research opportunities between government, academia, and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perconti, Philip; Bedair, Sarah S.; Bajaj, Jagmohan; Schuster, Jonathan; Reed, Meredith

    2016-09-01

    To increase Soldier readiness and enhance situational understanding in ever-changing and complex environments, there is a need for rapid development and deployment of Army technologies utilizing sensors, photonics, and electronics. Fundamental aspects of these technologies include the research and development of semiconductor materials and devices which are ubiquitous in numerous applications. Since many Army technologies are considered niche, there is a lack of significant industry investment in the fundamental research and understanding of semiconductor technologies relevant to the Army. To address this issue, the US Army Research Laboratory is establishing a Center for Semiconductor Materials and Device Modeling and seeks to leverage expertise and resources across academia, government and industry. Several key research areas—highlighted and addressed in this paper—have been identified by ARL and external partners and will be pursued in a collaborative fashion by this Center. This paper will also address the mechanisms by which the Center is being established and will operate.

  3. Research Interactions between Industry and Higher-Education: An Examination of the Major Legal Issues Involved in Four Representative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Bernard Dinsmore

    The use of complex research agreements for joint research activities between industry and universities is assessed, with attention to the legal rights of the contracting parties. The focus is research relationships between a university and a company or an individual scientist and industry. The historical development and legal foundation of…

  4. Simplified Method for Groundwater Treatment Using Dilution and Ceramic Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, S.; Ariff, N. A.; Kadir, M. N. Abdul; Denan, F.

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is one of the natural resources that is not susceptible to pollutants. However, increasing activities of municipal, industrial, agricultural or extreme land use activities have resulted in groundwater contamination as occured at the Research Centre for Soft Soil Malaysia (RECESS), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). Thus, aims of this study is to treat groundwater by using rainwater and simple ceramic filter as a treatment agent. The treatment uses rain water dilution, ceramic filters and combined method of dilute and filtering as an alternate treatment which are simple and more practical compared to modern or chemical methods. The water went through dilution treatment processes able to get rid of 57% reduction compared to initial condition. Meanwhile, the water that passes through the filtering process successfully get rid of as much as 86% groundwater parameters where only chloride does not pass the standard. Favorable results for the combination methods of dilution and filtration methods that can succesfully eliminate 100% parameters that donot pass the standards of the Ministry of Health and the Interim National Drinking Water Quality Standard such as those found in groundwater in RECESS, UTHM especially sulfate and chloride. As a result, it allows the raw water that will use clean drinking water and safe. It also proves that the method used in this study is very effective in improving the quality of groundwater.

  5. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: IN-SITU MITIGATION OF MERCURY CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER IN KAZAKHSTAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) OIA receives funding from the U.S. State Department's Bio-Chem Redirect program to engage former Soviet biological and chemical weapons scientists in civilian research in environmental monitoring and remediation. Scientists in t...

  6. Cooperative Science: A National Study of University and Industry Researchers. Case Studies. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Elmima C.; And Others

    This report presents nine case studies of Industry/University Cooperative Research (IUCR) projects supported during 1978-1980 by the National Science Foundation. The intent of this document is to provide readers with a qualitative picture of cooperative science as practiced under the IUCR program. The information presented in this report is…

  7. The Teaching-Research-Industry-Learning Nexus in Information and Communications Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Tanya; Armarego, Jocelyn; Koppi, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The teaching-research nexus concept has been extensively examined in the higher education literature, and the importance of industry linkages in information and communications technology (ICT) education has also been widely discussed. However, to date there has been little recognition of the full extent of relationships between aspects of…

  8. Research on the Textbook Publishing Industry in the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review published research literature about the publishing process and the roles of participants in this process on the textbook publishing industry in the USA. The contents of books, collected works, reports and journal articles were analysed, and summaries of the contents were then organised chronologically to…

  9. Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Student Learning in Industrially Situated Virtual Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretsky, Milo D.; Kelly, Christine; Gummer, Edith

    2011-01-01

    The instructional design and the corresponding research on student learning of two virtual laboratories that provide an engineering task situated in an industrial context are described. In this problem-based learning environment, data are generated dynamically based on each student team's distinct choices of reactor parameters and measurements.…

  10. Eco-Driven Chemical Research in the Boundary between Academia and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines and discusses the views on science and society held among PhD students working in two different industrially and environmentally driven research programmes in the broad area of green chemistry. It is based on thirteen in-depth interviews. The analysis shows three main ways of handling the situation as "post-academic"…

  11. R&D Characteristics and Organizational Structure: Case Studies of University-Industry Research Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Maureen McArthur

    2013-01-01

    Within the past few decades, university-industry research centers have been developed in large numbers and emphasized as a valuable policy tool for innovation. Yet little is known about the heterogeneity of organizational structure within these centers, which has implications regarding policy for and management of these centers. This dissertation…

  12. Training in Business and Industry. Selected Research Papers, 1995. AERA Special Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin, Ed.

    This document contains 7 of the 10 papers presented at the 1995 program of the American Educational Research Association's special interest group, Training in Business and Industry. The following papers are included: "A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Integrating Evaluation and Training" (Jo D. Gallagher); "Comparing Managers and…

  13. Industrial Research and Development Labs: How They Inform Science and Technology Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Marc J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between science and technology in industrial research laboratories, comparing the lab as "ivory tower" with the customer-oriented science approach. Describes similar patterns in science and technology curricula. Concludes that mutual commitment and shared project work would benefit integration of science and…

  14. 78 FR 24152 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information...: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35), this document announces the Agricultural...

  15. Careers in Online. . .Fourth in a Series: Planning and Research & Development Jobs in the Online Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Donna R.

    1984-01-01

    The first in a series on specific careers in online, this article examines jobs representing the online industry innovators and initiators. Highlights include the online job stream, the Research and Development/Planning job cluster, job interviews, work environment, organizational structure, getting in, moving up, perks and perils, and getting…

  16. Setting up spaces for collaboration in industry between researchers from the natural and social sciences.

    PubMed

    Flipse, Steven M; van der Sanden, Maarten C A; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2014-03-01

    Policy makers call upon researchers from the natural and social sciences to collaborate for the responsible development and deployment of innovations. Collaborations are projected to enhance both the technical quality of innovations, and the extent to which relevant social and ethical considerations are integrated into their development. This could make these innovations more socially robust and responsible, particularly in new and emerging scientific and technological fields, such as synthetic biology and nanotechnology. Some researchers from both fields have embarked on collaborative research activities, using various Technology Assessment approaches and Socio-Technical Integration Research activities such as Midstream Modulation. Still, practical experience of collaborations in industry is limited, while much may be expected from industry in terms of socially responsible innovation development. Experience in and guidelines on how to set up and manage such collaborations are not easily available. Having carried out various collaborative research activities in industry ourselves, we aim to share in this paper our experiences in setting up and working in such collaborations. We highlight the possibilities and boundaries in setting up and managing collaborations, and discuss how we have experienced the emergence of 'collaborative spaces.' Hopefully our findings can facilitate and encourage others to set up collaborative research endeavours.

  17. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, C.; López de Ipiña, J.; Galarza, N.; Hargreaves, B.; Weager, B.; Breen, C.

    2011-07-01

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  18. 77 FR 31368 - Guidance on Meetings With Industry and Investigators on the Research and Development of Tobacco...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance on Meetings With Industry and Investigators on the... guidance for industry entitled ``Meetings with Industry and Investigators on the Research and Development... development or marketing of tobacco products. The guidance is intended to assist persons seeking a...

  19. Groundwater Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Sean A.

    A good introductory groundwater textbook must strike a delicate balance in presenting the basics of the physical, chemical, geological, mathematical, and engineering aspects of the groundwater field without being too lengthy or overly detailed. Charles Fitts states that his motivation for writing Groundwater Science was to be able to “…teach concepts and quantitative analyses with a clear, lean, but thorough book.” He has succeeded in striking this balance of having just the right amount of information, and has met his goals of producing a concise book that can be used to teach the concepts and analyses necessary for the study of groundwater.Overall, Groundwater Science would serve well as the text for an introductory groundwater course at the college senior or first-year graduate level. The author and the publisher have made excellent use of two-color, gray and blue-scale images throughout the book. The graphics are crisp and explanatory. Data sets needed to work some of the problems in the book are available as text files from its Web site (http://www.academicpress.com/groundwater). I found these files to be complete and easy to understand. The references are up to date and point the reader to additional information across a wide range of groundwater issues, and also provide a number of examples to illustrate different points made in the book.

  20. Driving research in infant and children's nutrition: a perspective on industry.

    PubMed

    Rai, Deshanie; Larson, Brian

    2009-05-01

    As part of the workshop entitled "Early Risk Determinants and Later Health Outcomes: Implications for Research Prioritization and the Food Supply" (8-9 July 2008, Washington, DC), which was cosponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute of North America and the International Life Sciences Institute Research Foundation, representatives of the food industry discussed the practical application of nutrition science. Nutrition plays a key role in guiding health outcomes throughout the life cycle. In particular, the prenatal, postnatal, and early childhood periods are extremely sensitive to the presence of appropriate nutrition. A growing body of evidence shows that early nutrition may program the unborn and the infant's key physiologic systems, including the endocrine, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems, to influence later life outcomes. While scientists in academia continue to explore the multifactorial nature of early risk determinants and later life outcomes at a mechanistic and basic science level, it is important to understand the potential of the infant and child food industries to address questions such as what factors have been noted to drive research in these sectors of the food industry. How can scientists in these industries work alongside the scientists in academia and in government to set priorities, make decisions around these health issues, and translate academic insights into innovative nutritional solutions for the benefit of public health? Given the commitment of the infant and child food industries to deliver scientifically supported early life nutrition, it is easy to understand why this industry would work in partnership with both the scientists in academia and the government to identify a means of addressing the fundamental questions of this workshop.

  1. Development of an ultrasonic process for detoxifying groundwater and soil: Laboratory research

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.M.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting laboratory research to study the effectiveness of a new technique in which ultrasonic energy is used to convert chlorinated organic compounds into nonhazardous end products. Destruction efficiencies of greater than 99% were achieved for the organic compounds in aqueous solution. Key process parameters, such as solution pH values, steady-state temperatures under operating conditions, ultrasonic-power intensities, and oxidant concentrations, were investigated. In addition, a detailed chemical-kinetic mechanism for the destruction of the organic compounds under an ultrasonic filed was developed and incorporated into a computational model. The agreement between the model and experimental results is generally good.

  2. More regulation of industry-supported biomedical research: are we asking the right questions?

    PubMed

    Fry-Revere, Sigrid; Malmstrom, David Bjorn

    2009-01-01

    Industry-sponsored biomedical research is under the microscope. In an attempt to achieve just results in extraordinary cases, critics are suggesting regulations that would pervert the U.S. clinical trial process. However, the arguments made to justify such regulation are weak at best. All the proposals to regulate industry sponsorship of clinical trials that we surveyed (over a hundred articles and ten books, most written in the past decade) suffer from some form of fallacious reasoning. In the interest of advocating sound policy, this article points out some of the most common reasoning errors found in the literature on financial conflicts of interest in clinical trials.

  3. Research and development in sensor technology: The DOE industrial energy conservation program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    Sensor technology is an important component of modern day process technologies. It lends itself to further research and development with the potential for increased energy efficiency and productivity. Sensors are used by industry in practically every aspect of the production process. The utilization of automatic control systems and the anticipation of increased future applications of computers in production processes have highlighted the importance of research in this area. Recognizing this need, IP has funded a series of targeted projects to develop process-specific sensors as well as sensors for generic applications. This brochure describes, in summary form, the Office of Industrial Programs' research and development (R and D) efforts in the advancement of sensor technology.

  4. Patient Outcomes as Transformative Mechanisms to Bring Health Information Technology Industry and Research Informatics Closer Together.

    PubMed

    Krive, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fast pace of recent innovation within the health information technology and research informatics domains, there remains a large gap between research and academia, while interest in translating research innovations into implementations in the patient care settings is lacking. This is due to absence of common outcomes and performance measurement targets, with health information technology industry employing financial and operational measures and academia focusing on patient outcome concerns. The paper introduces methodology for and roadmap to introduction of common objectives as a way to encourage better collaboration between industry and academia using patient outcomes as a composite measure of demonstrated success from health information systems investments. Along the way, the concept of economics of health informatics, or "infonomics," is introduced to define a new way of mapping future technology investments in accordance with projected clinical impact.

  5. The use of stem cells in biomedical research. Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) position statement.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    On March 22, 1999, Carl B. Feldbaum, President of the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), submitted comments to the National Bioethics Advisory Committee (NBAC) in response to their request for comments on stem cell research. In the statement submitted to Harold Shapiro, PhD (Chair, NBAC), Mr. Feldbaum made clear that BIO members want to ensure that the promise of new therapies and cures from research using stem cells is realized in a responsible and ethical way. In addition, all BIO members are committed to ensuring that every avenue of promising research can be responsibly explored to improve the health of individuals living with currently intractable diseases.

  6. Applications of Groundwater Helium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Hilton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Helium abundance and isotope variations have widespread application in groundwater-related studies. This stems from the inert nature of this noble gas and the fact that its two isotopes ? helium-3 and helium-4 ? have distinct origins and vary widely in different terrestrial reservoirs. These attributes allow He concentrations and 3He/4He isotope ratios to be used to recognize and quantify the influence of a number of potential contributors to the total He budget of a groundwater sample. These are atmospheric components, such as air-equilibrated and air-entrained He, as well as terrigenic components, including in situ (aquifer) He, deep crustal and/or mantle He and tritiogenic 3He. Each of these components can be exploited to reveal information on a number of topics, from groundwater chronology, through degassing of the Earth?s crust to the role of faults in the transfer of mantle-derived volatiles to the surface. In this review, we present a guide to how groundwater He is collected from aquifer systems and quantitatively measured in the laboratory. We then illustrate the approach of resolving the measured He characteristics into its component structures using assumptions of endmember compositions. This is followed by a discussion of the application of groundwater He to the types of topics mentioned above using case studies from aquifers in California and Australia. Finally, we present possible future research directions involving dissolved He in groundwater.

  7. Science for Energy Technology: Strengthening the Link Between Basic Research and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    The nation faces two severe challenges that will determine our prosperity for decades to come: assuring clean, secure, and sustainable energy to power our world, and establishing a new foundation for enduring economic and jobs growth. These challenges are linked: the global demand for clean sustainable energy is an unprecedented economic opportunity for creating jobs and exporting energy technology to the developing and developed world. But achieving the tremendous potential of clean energy technology is not easy. In contrast to traditional fossil fuel-based technologies, clean energy technologies are in their infancy, operating far below their potential, with many scientific and technological challenges to overcome. Industry is ultimately the agent for commercializing clean energy technology and for reestablishing the foundation for our economic and jobs growth. For industry to succeed in these challenges, it must overcome many roadblocks and continuously innovate new generations of renewable, sustainable, and low-carbon energy technologies such as solar energy, carbon sequestration, nuclear energy, electricity delivery and efficiency, solid state lighting, batteries and biofuels. The roadblocks to higher performing clean energy technology are not just challenges of engineering design but are also limited by scientific understanding.Innovation relies on contributions from basic research to bridge major gaps in our understanding of the phenomena that limit efficiency, performance, or lifetime of the materials or chemistries of these sustainable energy technologies. Thus, efforts aimed at understanding the scientific issues behind performance limitations can have a real and immediate impact on cost, reliability, and performance of technology, and ultimately a transformative impact on our economy. With its broad research base and unique scientific user facilities, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) is ideally positioned to address these needs. BES has laid

  8. Social responsibility and research ethics in community-driven studies of industrialized hog production.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Environmental health research can document exposures and health effects that result from inequitable relationships between communities of low income or people of color and the institutions that derive benefits (profits, federal and state funding or services, avoidance of wastes) from activities and policies that burden these communities. Researchers, most of whom work in relatively privileged institutions, are placed in situations of conflicting loyalties if they conduct research in collaboration with, or on behalf of, communities burdened by environmental injustices. These conflicts can threaten the self-interest of researchers and may raise social and ethical issues that do not typically arise in research projects that respond to the agendas of institutions. This article describes how we addressed issues of research ethics and social responsibility in environmental health research on industrialized hog production in North Carolina. Researchers and institutional review boards are not well prepared to address ethical issues when interests of entire communities, as well as individual research participants, are involved. Community-driven research partnerships can help address problems in research ethics and can enhance the social responsibility of researchers and their institutions. PMID:12003746

  9. Research vulnerability: an illustrative case study from the South African mining industry.

    PubMed

    Horn, Lyn

    2007-12-01

    The concept of 'vulnerability' is well established within the realm of research ethics and most ethical guidelines include a section on 'vulnerable populations'. However, the term 'vulnerability', used within a human research context, has received a lot of negative publicity recently and has been described as being simultaneously 'too broad' and 'too narrow'. The aim of the paper is to explore the concept of research vulnerability by using a detailed case study - that of mineworkers in post-apartheid South Africa. In particular, the usefulness of Kipnis's taxonomy of research vulnerability will be examined. In recent years the volume of clinical research on human subjects in South Africa has increased significantly. The HIV and TB pandemics have contributed to this increase. These epidemics have impacted negatively on the mining industry; and mining companies have become increasingly interested in research initiatives that address these problems. This case study explores the potential research vulnerability of mineworkers in the context of the South African mining industry and examines measures that can reduce this vulnerability.

  10. Groundwater recharge in the tropics: a pan-African analysis of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in sub-Saharan Africa where rainfall and river discharge are unreliable and per-capita reservoir storage is among the lowest in the world. Groundwater is widely considered a distributed, low-cost and climate-resilient option to meet rapidly growing freshwater demand and alleviate endemic poverty by expanding access to safe water and improving food security through irrigation. Recent research indicates that groundwater storage in Africa is about 100 times greater than annual river discharge yet major uncertainties remain in the magnitude and nature of replenishment through recharge as well as the impacts of land-use and climate change. Here, we present newly compiled, multi-decadal observations of groundwater levels from 5 countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger, Tanzania, Uganda) and paired measurements of stable isotope ratios of O and H in precipitation and groundwater at 11 locations. These data reveal both a distinct bias in groundwater recharge to intensive rainfall and rapid recharge pathways (e.g. focused, macropore flow) that are inconsistent with conventional recharge models assuming pore-matrix flow defined by the Darcy-Richards equation. Further the records highlight the substantial influence of land-use change (e.g. conversion of natural, perennial cover to croplands) on groundwater recharge. The compiled observations also provide, for the first time, a pan-African baseline to evaluate the performance of large-scale hydrological models and Land-Surface Models incorporating groundwater in this region. Our results suggest that the intensification of precipitation brought about by global warming favours groundwater replenishment in sub-Saharan Africa. As such, groundwater may prove to be a climate-resilient source of freshwater in the tropics, enabling adaptive strategies such as groundwater-fed irrigation and sustaining domestic and industrial water supplies.

  11. An update to returning genetic research results to individuals: perspectives of the industry pharmacogenomics working group.

    PubMed

    Prucka, Sandra K; Arnold, Lester J; Brandt, John E; Gilardi, Sandra; Harty, Lea C; Hong, Feng; Malia, Joanne; Pulford, David J

    2015-02-01

    The ease with which genotyping technologies generate tremendous amounts of data on research participants has been well chronicled, a feat that continues to become both faster and cheaper to perform. In parallel to these advances come additional ethical considerations and debates, one of which centers on providing individual research results and incidental findings back to research participants taking part in genetic research efforts. In 2006 the Industry Pharmacogenomics Working Group (I-PWG) offered some 'Points-to-Consider' on this topic within the context of the drug development process from those who are affiliated to pharmaceutical companies. Today many of these points remain applicable to the discussion but will be expanded upon in this updated viewpoint from the I-PWG. The exploratory nature of pharmacogenomic work in the pharmaceutical industry is discussed to provide context for why these results typically are not best suited for return. Operational challenges unique to this industry which cause barriers to returning this information are also explained.

  12. Defense, basic, and industrial research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Longshore, A.; Salgado, K.

    1995-10-01

    The Workshop on Defense, Basic, and Industrial Research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss the use of neutrons in science-based stockpile stewardship, The workshop began with presentations by government officials, senior representatives from the three weapons laboratories, and scientific opinion leaders. Workshop participants then met in breakout sessions on the following topics: materials science and engineering; polymers, complex fluids, and biomaterials; fundamental neutron physics; applied nuclear physics; condensed matter physics and chemistry; and nuclear weapons research. They concluded that neutrons can play an essential role in science-based stockpile stewardship and that there is overlap and synergy between defense and other uses of neutrons in basic, applied, and industrial research from which defense and civilian research can benefit. This proceedings is a collection of talks and papers from the plenary, technical, and breakout session presentations. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. The metalcasting industry and future research on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santner, Joe; Overfelt, Tony

    2000-01-01

    Fourteen million tons of castings are used annually in ninety percent of all manufactured goods and in all manufacturing machinery making metalcasting the manufacturing backbone of America. There are approximately 3,000 foundries located in 49 states directly providing employment to 200,000 people and indirectly supporting transportation, petrochemical, construction, and other end-user industries. The Solidification Design Center (SDC) began a pioneering effort to address metalcasting industry technical needs to maintain US global leadership in quality, price, and delivery. While individual companies have interacted in the past with the Auburn University SDC, eighty-percent of the foundries employ less than 100 individuals while only six-percent of the foundries employ more than 250 persons. The American Foundrymen's Society (AFS) formed the Solidification Design and Control Consortium to reach the small businesses in the U.S. metalcasting industry. Over a century of operation has proved the AFS committee structure to be a robust management tool. The recognized metalcasting industry technical needs and the unique opportunities that low earth orbit offers foundry process research are described in the present paper. In addition, the metalcasting approach to prioritize proposals, transfer technology developed within the small business community, and the metalcasting industry concerns regarding working with a government aerospace program are also discussed. .

  14. Researcher Practice: Embedding Creative Practice within Doctoral Research in Industrial Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the potential for a researcher to use their own creative practice as a method of data collection. Much of the published material in this field focuses on more theoretical positions, with limited use being made of specific PhDs that illustrate the context in which practice was undertaken by the researcher. It explores…

  15. Coordinating ‘Ethical’ Clinical Trials: The Role of Research Coordinators in the Contract Research Industry

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jill A.

    2010-01-01

    Change in the way new drugs are developed, including the privatization of clinical trials, has altered the arrangement and roles of health care professions. In this article I examine one aspect of this change: the role of research coordinators in the conduct of contract research in the United States. My focus on coordinators highlights the ethical conflicts embedded in clinical trials. I describe the ways in which coordinators experience and contend with the conflict between research and care and show how their construction of ethics is distinct from institutional conceptions formally associated with human subjects research. My analysis demonstrates how the coordinators' focus on ethics is a response to their role conflict and an attempt to reinsert individualized care into the context of research. PMID:17184412

  16. Academia, advocacy, and industry: a collaborative method for clinical research advancement.

    PubMed

    Vanzo, Rena J; Lortz, Amanda; Calhoun, Amy R U L; Carey, John C

    2014-07-01

    Professionals who work in academia, advocacy, and industry often carry out mutually exclusive activities related to research and clinical care. However, there are several examples of collaboration among such professionals that ultimately allows for improved scientific and clinical understanding. This commentary recounts our particular experience (a collaboration between geneticists at the Universities of Minnesota and Utah, the 4p- Support Group, and Lineagen, Inc) and reviews other similar projects. We formally propose this collaborative method as a conduit for future clinical research programs. Specifically, we encourage academicians, directors of family/advocacy/support groups, and members of industry to establish partnerships and document their experiences. The medical community as a whole will benefit from such partnerships and, specifically, families will teach us lessons that could never be learned in a laboratory or textbook.

  17. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  18. Industrial research on the quality of brake shoes meant for rolling stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, E.; Pascu, L.; Socalici, A.; Lascufoni, A.

    2016-02-01

    Brake shoes wear appears as a normal exploitation process and depends both on the braking force and on the material the shoe is made of. Brake shoes are made of molded sulfurous cast iron. The industrial research and experiments aim at determining the specific characteristics of the phosphorous cast iron (chemical and structural homogeneity, hardness) and their optimization in view of improving the quality of the brake shoes meant for the rolling stock

  19. Views from academia and industry on skills needed for the modern research environment.

    PubMed

    Talgar, Cigdem P; Goodey, Nina M

    2015-01-01

    Reports from employers of higher education graduates indicate the existence of a considerable gap between the skills required by employers and those possessed by recent graduates. As a first step toward closing this gap, this study aims to determine its origin. Interviews with nine research-active biochemistry professionals were used to identify the most important skills for biochemistry students to succeed in research positions postgraduation. The results of these interviews were used to develop a survey, which was then administered to a larger group of biochemistry faculty and industry professionals. The output of the survey was a list of 52 skills valued by biochemistry professionals and rated by perceived importance. Importantly, the survey results also afford a comparative look at the prioritization of skills by two key populations: the academic faculty training students and the industry professionals hiring them. While there are many areas of agreement between these two populations, the survey also reveals areas were priorities diverge. The discrepancies found here suggest that the skills gap manifest at the point of employment may stem directly from differences in prioritization between the academic and industrial environments. This article aims to provide insight into the needs and requirements of the modern biochemical research environment, and invites debate concerning the preparation students receive in academia. Moreover, the results presented herein point to a need for further exploration of the possible misalignment of these two critical environments for young scientists.

  20. Public-private partnerships: the evolving role of industry funding in nutrition research.

    PubMed

    Zachwieja, Jeffrey; Hentges, Eric; Hill, James O; Black, Richard; Vassileva, Maria

    2013-09-01

    The global burdens of morbidity and mortality associated with obesity-related chronic diseases are crippling public health and are predicted to exponentially increase over the next 3 decades. Meanwhile, the resources necessary to conduct research that may offer solutions to the obesity epidemic continue to decline and funding has become increasingly difficult to secure. Alternative models for funding nutrition and health research are necessary to make considerable and timely progress to improve public health. Key stakeholders include, but are not limited to, government agencies, foundations, private industry, and nongovernmental organizations.

  1. The social and political context of the tobacco epidemic: nursing research and scholarship on the tobacco industry.

    PubMed

    Malone, Ruth E

    2009-01-01

    Context matters in addressing tobacco as a global nursing issue. The tobacco epidemic and its resulting health consequences are in great measure the result of industrial decisions over the past century that included deliberately enhancing the addictiveness of cigarettes, marketing them aggressively to vulnerable groups, hiding or manipulating knowledge about the products' harmfulness, and undermining public health efforts. The efforts of the tobacco industry to perpetuate the idea that smoking is solely a problem of individual behavior, or even a "right," still creates barriers to understanding the larger social and political context within which individuals use and attempt to quit tobacco. Nurses have been among the researchers worldwide who are studying tobacco industry activities and their role in policy and public health. This chapter reviews data sources, methods, and analytic approaches for conducting research using documents from the tobacco industry, and provides an overview of research conducted by nurses on this topic. Much of the nursing research to date on the tobacco industry focuses in four broad areas: (1) tobacco industry influence on policy; (2) tobacco industry strategic responses to public health efforts, including use of front groups and attempts to divide and conquer public health advocates; (3) tobacco industry targeting of marginalized groups; and (4) tobacco industry influence on science. Implications of this work for nursing practice, research, and policy intervention are discussed.

  2. Utilization of the Cornell University research reactors in support of the Nuclear Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Aderhold, A.C. )

    1993-01-01

    Cornell University is licensed to operate two research reactor facilities on its main campus in Ithaca, New York: a 500-kW pulsing TRIGA and a 100-W zero-power reactor (ZPR). The initial criticality of both reactors took place in 1962, and the utilization of each has been, and continues to be, dedicated to the teaching and research programs of Cornell's many academic departments. As the nation's nuclear power industry grew, the demand for services at research and test reactors increased. As a result, and in large part because of special design features of the TRIGA, Cornell responded to a few requests for reactor testing services while maintaining the policy that these services would not interfere with teaching and research programs. The frequency of service requests suddenly mushroomed in November of 1989, when the nation's major testing reactor was shut down for repairs. In spite of a small staff of two full-time reactor operators, a decision was made to support the nuclear industry to the fullest extent possible without jeopardizing Cornell's teaching and research programs. This turned into a monumental task of tight scheduling and meeting precise deadlines. It could only be accomplished by working late evenings and weekends and, on a number of occasions, staying at the facility for up to 5 days continuously.

  3. Press Releases Issued by Supplements Industry Organisations and Non-Industry Organisations in Response to Publication of Clinical Research Findings: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Michael T. M.; Gamble, Greg; Bolland, Mark J.; Grey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary supplement use is increasing despite lack of evidence of benefits, or evidence of harm. Press releases issued by the supplements industry might contribute to this situation by using ‘spin’ (strategies to hype or denigrate findings) to distort the results of clinical studies. We assessed press releases issued in response to publication of clinical studies on dietary supplements. Methods and Findings We analyzed 47 supplements industry press releases and 91 non-industry press releases and news stories, generated in response to 46 clinical studies of dietary supplements published between 1/1/2005 and 5/31/2013. The primary outcome was ‘spin’ content and direction. We also assessed disposition towards use of dietary supplements, reporting of study information, and dissemination of industry press releases. More supplements industry press releases (100%) contained ‘spin’ than non-industry media documents (55%, P<0.001). Hyping ‘spin’ scores were higher in industry than non-industry media documents for studies reporting benefit of supplements (median ‘spin’ score 3.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.5 vs 0.5, 0–1.0; P<0.001). Denigratory ‘spin’ scores were higher in industry than non-industry media documents for studies reporting no effect (6.0, 5.0–7.0 vs 0, 0–0; P<0.001) or harm (6.0, 5.5–7.5 vs 0, 0–0.5; P<0.001) from a supplement. Industry press releases advocated supplement use in response to >90% of studies that reported no benefit, or harm, of the supplement. Industry press releases less frequently reported study outcomes, sample size, and estimates of effect size than non-industry media documents (all P<0.001), particularly for studies that reported no benefit of supplements. Industry press releases were referenced by 148 news stories on the websites of 6 organizations that inform manufacturers, retailers and consumers of supplements. Conclusions Dietary supplements industry press releases issued in response to clinical research

  4. Clinical Pharmacology Research Internships at the Interface between Academia and Industry: Students' Perceptions and Scientific Output.

    PubMed

    Goulooze, Sebastiaan C; Franson, Kari L; Cohen, Adam F; Rissmann, Robert

    2017-01-08

    The Centre for Human Drug Research (CHDR) is a non-profit clinical research institute at the interface between academia and the pharmaceutical industry. CHDR hosts a research internship programme for undergraduate (bio)medical students. The aim of this study was (i) to investigate the student perceptions of the undergraduate research internship and (ii) to quantify the scientific output related to these internships. We surveyed former interns at the CHDR from the year 2007 to 2014 and quantified their scientific output with a PubMed search. There was a response rate to the survey of 61%, with a good overall rating of the internships. Many students considered their internship at CHDR to be (much) more broad (55%) and with a (much) stricter planning (48%), compared to previous internships at academic research groups. In turn, there were many aspects reported to be similar to academic research internships such as focus on research methodology and 'outcome-drivenness'. Twenty-four per cent of the internships resulted in a co-authorship on papers published in peer-reviewed journals with an average impact factor of 3.3. In conclusion, with appropriate management and supervision, effective research electives are possible in the more commercial environment of a clinical research organization.

  5. Dissemination of research results from Lund University to industry and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahlander, Mirka

    2016-07-01

    Sweden is top ranked as the third most innovative nation in the world according to Global Innovation Index 2015. The academic staff at Swedish universities has the right to their inventions (research-ownership of patent rights) as opposed to far more diffuse university-ownership. Since 1977 the Swedish Higher Education Act imposes Swedish universities a so-called Third task. In addition to education and research they shall collaborate with the society and to inform the society about their activities. How does the largest university in Scandinavia deal with dissemination of research results to industry and society? The presentation will touch upon technology transfer, professional education and regional development as well as commercialization of research results.

  6. [Medical research and the pharmaceutical industry. Uneasy bedfellows or a prenuptial agreement?].

    PubMed

    Cohen, A F

    2001-07-28

    Recent publications in medical journals and the media seem to indicate that there are a number of major problems in the relationship between researchers and the pharmaceutical sector. Results of research allegedly are influenced or manipulated, the right to publish the results are taken away from the researchers, and all this for money. The underlying data do not seem to indicate that this is a very common problem, but rather a generalisation of incidents. To efficiently develop medicines in future requires an ever-growing amount of academic know-how that these companies simply lack; in modern pharmaceutical development there are many opportunities to connect academic and industrial research programmes, resulting in synergy rather than an academic sell-out. All parties concerned should make transparent and clear agreements.

  7. Discharge and travel-time determinations in the Royal Spring groundwater basin, Kentucky. Research report July 1983-August 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Thrailkill, J.; Gouzie, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Groundwater flow in many karst regions, including the Inner Bluegrass Karst Region of central Kentucky in which the study area was located, is unlike groundwater flow in granular aquifers. At least the major flows are turbulent and often with a free surface in large conduits, and applying concepts based on Darcy's Law to describe and model these flows is inappropriate. Parameters such as linear velocity, channel geometry, and conveyance used to describe surface stream flows are more applicable, and the primary objective of the project was to estimate these in a groundwater basin using the travel time of dye slugs and discharges obtained by dye dilution. These data were also needed to determine the travel time-discharge relationship required to manage contaminant spills and evaluate methods of enhancing low flows in the basin, the second and third objective of the project. These latter two objectives are of importance because the flow in the Royal Spring groundwater basin that was investigated is used as a municipal water supply.

  8. Alcohol industry influence on UK alcohol policy: A new research agenda for public health

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris; McCambridge, Jim

    2012-01-01

    The British government has been criticised for according industry interests too much weight in alcohol policy-making. Consequently, it has been argued that alcohol strategy in the UK is built around policies for which the evidence base is weak. This has clear implications for public health. The purpose of this commentary is to map recent developments in UK alcohol policy and related debates within the alcohol policy literature, thus laying the foundations for a systematic examination of the influence of the alcohol industry on alcohol policy. It highlights the changing structure of the industry and summarises what is known about the positions and strategies of industry actors towards alcohol policy. In so doing, it aims to contribute not just to debates about alcohol policy, but to a broader understanding of health policy processes and the relationships between government and other stakeholders. It advances a new research agenda focused on the role of corporate actors in the field of alcohol policy and public health more broadly. PMID:22815594

  9. Advancing Global Capacity for Engineering Education Research: Relating Research to Practice, Policy and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesiek, Brent K.; Borrego, Maura; Beddoes, Kacey

    2010-01-01

    Findings are presented from a series of moderated interactive sessions held at international engineering education conferences between July 2007 and December 2008, where attendees discussed the current state and future trajectory of engineering education research. More specifically, this study examines how session attendees described: (1) the…

  10. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  11. Applied groundwater modeling, 2nd Edition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Mary P.; Woessner, William W.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    This second edition is extensively revised throughout with expanded discussion of modeling fundamentals and coverage of advances in model calibration and uncertainty analysis that are revolutionizing the science of groundwater modeling. The text is intended for undergraduate and graduate level courses in applied groundwater modeling and as a comprehensive reference for environmental consultants and scientists/engineers in industry and governmental agencies.

  12. Salinity Impacts of the Indian Ocean Tsunami on Groundwater and Local Water Supply - Lessons Learned from Integrated Research and Support to Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villholth, K. G.; Vithanage, M.; Goswami, R. R.; Jeyakumar, P.; Manamperi, S.

    2008-05-01

    Huge devastation and human tragedy followed the Dec. 26, 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Sri Lanka was one of the hardest hit, with an estimated death toll of 31,000 people. Of immediate concern after the catastrophic event was the destruction of the traditional water supply system based on private shallow open wells in the rural and semi-urban areas of the coastal belt. Practically all wells within the reach of the flooding waves (up to a couple of km's inland) were inundated and filled with saltwater and contaminated with solid matter, pathogens, and other unknown chemicals, leaving the water unfit for drinking. It was estimated early on that the tsunami waves contaminated more than 50,000 wells in coastal Sri Lanka. This initial figure is highly underestimated, however, as the present research found that the total number of affected wells was more in the range of half a million. The total number of people affected by disruption in well water supply could have been in the range of 2.5 million. The present paper summarizes the outcomes and experiences gained from comprehensive research, collaboration and support work in eastern Sri Lanka related to the impact of the tsunami on groundwater, particularly with respect to salinity, and the destruction and rehabilitation of the local water supply systems. The area in focus was characterized by sandy, shallow, unconfined aquifers bounded by seawater and inland brackish lagoons and representative of the hydro-geological, climatic, demographic and land use setting on the east coast of Sri Lanka. Field monitoring investigations in shallow domestic wells showed that the salinity imprint of the tsunami on groundwater and water supply were detectable up to 1.5 years after the event. Field results also indicated that the well cleaning efforts which were quickly resorted to as part of the emergency and remediation activities were not efficient in terms of reducing salinity impacts. Rainfall was the most significant and

  13. Twenty-First Century Research Needs in Electrostatic Processes Applied to Industry and Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, M. K.; Sims, R. A.; Biris, A. S.; Srirama, P. K.; Saini, D.; Yurteri, C. U.; Trigwell, S.; De, S.; Sharma, R.

    2005-01-01

    From the early century Nobel Prize winning (1923) experiments with charged oil droplets, resulting in the discovery of the elementary electronic charge by Robert Millikan, to the early 21st century Nobel Prize (2002) awarded to John Fenn for his invention of electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy and its applications to proteomics, electrostatic processes have been successfully applied to many areas of industry and medicine. Generation, transport, deposition, separation, analysis, and control of charged particles involved in the four states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma are of interest in many industrial and biomedical processes. In this paper, we briefly discuss some of the applications and research needs involving charged particles in industrial and medical applications including: (1) Generation and deposition of unipolarly charged dry powder without the presence of ions or excessive ozone, (2) Control of tribocharging process for consistent and reliable charging, (3) Thin film (less than 25 micrometers) powder coating and Powder coating on insulative surfaces, (4) Fluidization and dispersion of fine powders, (5) Mitigation of Mars dust, (6) Effect of particle charge on the lung deposition of inhaled medical aerosols, (7) Nanoparticle deposition, and (8) Plasma/Corona discharge processes. A brief discussion on the measurements of charged particles and suggestions for research needs are also included.

  14. In Situ Treatment of Chromium-Contaminated Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Fruchter, Jonathan S. )

    2002-12-01

    In Situ Treatment of Chromate Contaminated Groundwater Jonathan S. Fruchter Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Abstract of paper published in Environmental Science and Technology, 2002 Although not as common as solvent or fuel products contamination, chromate (chromium (VI)) contamination of groundwater is relatively widespread. Chromate has a variety of industrial uses, including chrome plating, steel making, and use as a corrosion inhibitor, wood preservative, well-drilling fluid additive, biocide, and as a pigment in paints and primers. EPA has estimated that as many as 1300 sites in the United States may have groundwater contaminated with chromate. The paper discusses a number of approaches to in situ treatment of chromate contamination in groundwater aquifers. The approaches include various types of chemical treatments, biological treatments and natural attenuation. The strengths and weaknesses of each method are discussed and compared. Field examples of two types of chemical treatment, in situ redox manipulation and chemically enhanced pump and treat are presented. It is concluded that in situ methods show promise, but can be difficult to implement due to site-specific conditions and limited long-term experience with these methods. As more performance and cost data are acquired for the demonstrations that are ongoing, and continuing research increases our understanding of subsurface processes, in situ treatment methods for chromium (VI) contamination in groundwater should gain wider acceptance.

  15. Funding of Parkinson research from industry and US federal and foundation sources.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, E Ray; Thompson, Joel P; Frasier, Mark; Sherer, Todd; Fiske, Brian; Nicholson, Sean; Johnston, S Claiborne; Holloway, Robert G; Moses, Hamilton

    2009-04-15

    Funding for biomedical and neuroscience research has increased over the last decade but without a concomitant increase in new therapies. This study's objectives were to determine the level and principal sources of recent funding for Parkinson disease (PD) research and to determine the current state of PD drug development. We determined the level and principal sources of recent funding for PD research from the following sources: US federal agencies, large PD foundations based in the United States, and global industry. We assessed the status of PD drug development through the use of a proprietary drug pipeline database. Funding for PD research from the sources examined was approximately $1.1 billion in 2003 and $1.2 billion in 2005. Industry accounted for 77% of support from 2003 to 2005. The number of drugs in development for PD increased from 67 in 2003 to 97 in 2007. Of the companies with at least one compound in development for PD in 2007, most were small (62% had annual revenue of less than $100 million), and most (53%) were based outside the United States. These companies will likely require partnerships to drive successful development of new PD therapies.

  16. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zenone, Chester; Anderson, Gary S.

    1978-01-01

    Present deficiencies in the ground-water information base are obvious limiting factors to ground-water development in Alaska. There is a need to extend the ground-water data-collection network and to pursue special research into the quantitative aspects of ground-water hydrology in cold regions, particularly the continuous permafrost zone.

  17. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program, Center for Housing Innovation, University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.Z.

    1990-01-01

    This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. The current research program, under the guidance of a steering committee composed of industry and government representatives, focuses on three interdependent concerns -- (1) energy, (2) industrial process, and (3) housing design. Building homes in a factory offers the opportunity to increase energy efficiency through the use of new materials and processes, and to increase the value of these homes by improving the quality of their construction. Housing design strives to ensure that these technically advanced homes are marketable and will meet the needs of the people who will live in them.

  18. "Multidimensional reflectometry for industry" (xD-Reflect) an European research project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höpe, Andreas; Koo, Annette; Verdu, Francisco M.; Leloup, Frédéric B.; Obein, Gaël.; Wübbeler, Gerd; Campos, Joaquín.; Iacomussi, Paola; Jaanson, Priit; Källberg, Stefan; Šmíd, Marek

    2014-02-01

    The European Metrology Research Program (EMRP) is a metrology-focused program of coordinated Research and Development (RD) funded by the European Commission and participating countries within the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET). It supports and ensures research collaboration between them by launching and managing different types of project calls. Within the EMRP Call 2012 "Metrology for Industry", the joint research project (JRP) entitled "Multidimensional Reflectometry for Industry" (xD-Reflect) was submitted by a consortium of 8 National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and 2 universities and was subsequently funded. The general objective of xD-Reflect is to meet the demands from industry to describe the overall macroscopic appearance of modern surfaces by developing and improving methods for optical measurements which correlate with the visual sensation being evoked. In particular, the project deals with the "Goniochromatism", "Gloss" and "Fluorescence" properties of dedicated artifacts, which will be investigated in three main work packages (WP). Two additional transversal WP reinforce the structure: "Modelling and Data Analysis" with the objective to give an irreducible set of calibration schemes and handling methods and "Visual Perception", which will produce perception scales for the different visual attributes. Multidimensional reflectometry involves the enhancement of spectral and spatial resolution of reference gonioreflectometers for BRDF measurements using modern detectors, conoscopic optical designs, CCD cameras, line scan cameras, and modern light sources in order to describe new effects like sparkle and graininess/coarseness. More information and updated news concerning the project can be found on the xD-Reflect website http://www.xdreflect.eu/.

  19. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  20. Method for analysis of psychopharmaceuticals in real industrial wastewater and groundwater with suspended organic particulate matter using solid phase extraction disks extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Křesinová, Zdena; Linhartová, Lucie; Petrů, Klára; Krejčová, Lucie; Šrédlová, Kamila; Lhotský, Ondřej; Kameník, Zdeněk; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    A rapid and reliable analytical method was developed for the quantitative determination of psychopharmaceuticals, their precursors and by-products in real contaminated samples from a pharmaceutical company in Olomouc (Czech Republic), based on SPE disk extraction and detection by ultra performance liquid chromatography, combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The target compounds were quantified in the real whole-water samples (water including suspended particles), both in the presence of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and high concentrations of other organic pollutants. A total of nine compounds were analyzed which consisted of three commonly used antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants and antipsychotics), one antitussive agent and five by-products or precursors. At first, the SPE disk method was developed for the extraction of water samples (dissolved analytes, recovery 84-104%) and pressurised liquid extraction technique was verified for solid matrices (sludge samples, recovery 81-95%). In order to evaluate the SPE disk technique for whole water samples containing SPM, non contaminated groundwater samples were also loaded with different amounts (100 and 300mgL(-1)) of real contaminated sludge originating from the same locality. The recoveries from the whole-water samples obtained by SPE disk method ranged between 67 and 119% after the addition of the most contaminated sludge. The final method was applied to several real groundwater (whole-water) samples from the industrial area and high concentrations (up to 10(3)μgL(-1)) of the target compounds were detected. The results of this study document and indicate the feasibility of the SPE disk method for analysis of groundwater.

  1. Streamflow depletion by wells--Understanding and managing the effects of groundwater pumping on streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Paul M.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2012-11-02

    Groundwater is an important source of water for many human needs, including public supply, agriculture, and industry. With the development of any natural resource, however, adverse consequences may be associated with its use. One of the primary concerns related to the development of groundwater resources is the effect of groundwater pumping on streamflow. Groundwater and surface-water systems are connected, and groundwater discharge is often a substantial component of the total flow of a stream. Groundwater pumping reduces the amount of groundwater that flows to streams and, in some cases, can draw streamflow into the underlying groundwater system. Streamflow reductions (or depletions) caused by pumping have become an important water-resource management issue because of the negative impacts that reduced flows can have on aquatic ecosystems, the availability of surface water, and the quality and aesthetic value of streams and rivers. Scientific research over the past seven decades has made important contributions to the basic understanding of the processes and factors that affect streamflow depletion by wells. Moreover, advances in methods for simulating groundwater systems with computer models provide powerful tools for estimating the rates, locations, and timing of streamflow depletion in response to groundwater pumping and for evaluating alternative approaches for managing streamflow depletion. The primary objective of this report is to summarize these scientific insights and to describe the various field methods and modeling approaches that can be used to understand and manage streamflow depletion. A secondary objective is to highlight several misconceptions concerning streamflow depletion and to explain why these misconceptions are incorrect.

  2. A high resolution (1 km) groundwater model for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Verkaik, Jarno; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Erkens, Gilles; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is important in many parts of Indonesia. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and industrial activities. During times of drought, it sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus support ecosystem habitat and biodiversity as well as preventing hazardous forest fire. Besides its importance, groundwater is known as a vulnerable resource as unsustainable groundwater exploitation and management occurs in many areas of the country. Therefore, in order to ensure sustainable management of groundwater resources, monitoring and predicting groundwater changes in Indonesia are imperative. However, large extent groundwater models to assess these changes on a regional scale are almost non-existent and are hampered by the strong topographical and lithological transitions that characterize Indonesia. In this study, we built an 1 km resolution groundwater model for the entire Indonesian archipelago (total inland area: about 2 million km2). We adopted the approaches of Sutanudjaja et al. (2011, 2014a) and de Graaf et al. (2014) in order to make a MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000) groundwater model by using only global datasets. Aquifer schematization and properties of the groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2011; Hartmann & Moorsdorf, 2012; Gleeson et al., 2014). We forced the groundwater model with the recent output of global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB version 2.0 (Sutanudjaja et al., 2014b; van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term average of groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from channel discharge. Simulation results were promising. The MODFLOW model converged with realistic aquifer properties (i.e. transmissivities) and produced reasonable groundwater head spatial distribution reflecting the positions of major groundwater bodies and surface water bodies in the country. In Vienna, we aim to show and demonstrate these

  3. First NASA/Industry High-Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of documents presented at the First NASA/Industry High Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop held on February 27-29, 1996 at NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together the broad spectrum of aerodynamicists, engineers, and scientists working within the Configuration Aerodynamics element of the HSR Program to collectively evaluate the technology status and to define the needs within Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis Methodology, Aerodynamic Shape Design, Propulsion/Airframe Integration (PAI), Aerodynamic Performance, and Stability and Control (S&C) to support the development of an economically viable High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. To meet these objectives, papers were presented by representative from NASA Langley, Ames, and Lewis Research Centers; Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Northrop-Grumman, Lockheed-Martin, Vigyan, Analytical Services, Dynacs, and RIACS.

  4. First NASA/Industry High-Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop. Pt. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of documents presented at the First NASA Industry High Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop held on February 27-29, 1996 at NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together the broad spectrum of aerodynamicists, engineers, and scientists working within the Configuration Aerodynamics element of the HSR Program to collectively evaluate the technology status and to define the needs within Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis Methodology, Aerodynamic Shape Design, Propulsion/Airframe Integration (PAI), Aerodynamic Performance, and Stability and Control (S&C) to support the development of an economically viable High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. To meet these objectives, papers were presented by representatives from NASA Langley, Ames, and Lewis Research Centers; Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Northrop-Grumman, Lockheed-Martin, Vigyan, Analytical Services, Dynacs, and RIACS.

  5. First NASA/Industry High-Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of documents presented at the First NASA/Industry High Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop held on February 27-29, 1996 at NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together the broad spectrum of aerodynamicists, engineers, and scientists working within the Configuration Aerodynamics element of the HSR Program to collectively evaluate the technology status and to define the needs within Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis Methodology, Aerodynamic Shape Design, Propulsion/Airframe Integration (PAI), Aerodynamic Performance, and Stability and Control (S&C) to support the development of an economically viable High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. To meet these objectives, papers were presented by representative from NASA Langley, Ames, and Lewis Research Centers; Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Northrop-Grumman, Lockheed-Martin, Vigyan, Analytical Services, Dynacs, and RIACS.

  6. The use of participant-observation protocol in an industrial engineering research.

    PubMed

    Silveira e Silva, Renato da; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal; D'Afonseca e Silva, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Based on literature, this article aims to present the "participant-observation' research protocol, and its practical application in the industrial engineering field, more specifically within the area of design development, and in the case shown by this article, of interiors' design. The main target is to identify the concept of the method, i.e., from its characteristics to structure a general sense about the subject, so that the protocol can be used in different areas of knowledge, especially those ones which are committed with the scientific research involving the expertise from researchers, and subjective feelings and opinions of the users of an engineering product, and how this knowledge can be benefic for product design, contributing since the earliest stage of design.

  7. Scenarios of bioenergy development impacts on regional groundwater withdrawals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation increases agricultural productivity, but it also stresses water resources (Huffaker and Hamilton 2007). Drought and the potential for drier conditions resulting from climate change could strain water supplies in landscapes where human populations rely on finite groundwater resources for drinking, agriculture, energy, and industry (IPCC 2007). For instance, in the North American Great Plains, rowcrops are utilized for livestock feed, food, and bioenergy production (Cassman and Liska 2007), and a large portion is irrigated with groundwater from the High Plains aquifer system (McGuire 2011). Under projected future climatic conditions, greater crop water use requirements and diminished groundwater recharge rates could make rowcrop irrigation less feasible in some areas (Rosenberg et al. 1999; Sophocleous 2005). The Rainwater Basin region of south central Nebraska, United States, is an intensively farmed and irrigated Great Plains landscape dominated by corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) production (Bishop and Vrtiska 2008). Ten starch-based ethanol plants currently service the region, producing ethanol from corn grain (figure 1). In this study, we explore the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a drought-tolerant alternative bioenergy feedstock, to impact regional annual groundwater withdrawals for irrigation under warmer and drier future conditions. Although our research context is specific to the Rainwater Basin and surrounding North American Great Plains, we believe the broader research question is internationally pertinent and hope that this study simulates similar research in other areas.

  8. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater in Spain: a review of sources, recent occurrence and fate in a European context.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Anna; Vàzquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesus; López de Alda, Miren; Pujades, Estanislao; Barceló, Damià

    2012-12-01

    This paper reviewed the presence of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) that have been found in the groundwater in Spain in both, rural and urban areas. The list of compounds included pesticides, pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs), selected industrial compounds, drugs of abuse (DAs), estrogens, personal care products and life-style compounds. The main sources of pollution and possible pathways have been summarised in this review. EOCs are likely to enter to the aquifer mainly through the effluents of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and are present in groundwater at concentrations of ng/L to μg/L. The most studied compounds in Spanish groundwater were pesticides followed by industrial compounds and PhACs. It is important to mention that compared to other water bodies, such as rivers, groundwater is considerably less contaminated, which may be indicative of the natural attenuation capacity of the aquifers. However, some EOCs have sometimes been detected at higher concentration levels in the aquifer than in the rivers, indicating the need for further research to understand their behaviour in the aquifers. For a wide array of compounds, their maximum concentrations show values above the European groundwater quality standard for individual pesticides (0.1 μg/L). Therefore, to preserve groundwater quality against deterioration it is necessary to define environmental groundwater thresholds for the non-regulated compounds.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey ground-water studies in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, M.D.; Van Denburgh, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater is an important natural resource in Nevada. In 1985, groundwater provided 24% of the total water withdrawn, and supplied about 40% of the State 's population. Public supply and self-supplied domestic use accounted for about 12% of the groundwater withdrawn, and self-supplied industrial and mining use was about 3%. The major issues related to groundwater in Nevada are: groundwater availability; natural and artificial groundwater recharge; underground storage of hazardous wastes; organic and inorganic trace constituents in groundwater; and geothermal groundwater systems. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is actively conducting 30 hydrologic investigations in Nevada, of which 18 are related to groundwater quantity and quality. Three examples of ongoing groundwater studies by the USGS that are designed to address specific groundwater issues in Nevada are discussed: carbonate-rock aquifers in eastern and southern Nevada; groundwater quality in the Carson River basin, Nevada-California; and groundwater in Honey Lake Valley, Nevada-California. (Lantz-PTT)

  10. Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) Progress Report and Proposal for Funding Continuation NASA Nebraska EPSCoR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent; Fink, Mary; Gogos, George; Moussavi, Massoum; Nickerson, Jocelyn; Rundquist, Donald; Russell, Valerie; Tarry, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL), which began as a comprehensive, multi-faceted NASA EPSCoR 2000 initiative, has contributed substantially to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA, while intensifying Nebraska's rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL has enabled Nebraska researchers to: (a) continue strengthening their collaborative relationships with NASA Field Centers, Codes, and Enterprises; (b) increase the capacity of higher education throughout Nebraska to invigorate and expand aeronautics research; and (c) expedite the development of aeronautics-related research infrastructure and industry in the state. Nebraska has placed emphasis on successfully securing additional funds from non-EPSCoR and non-NASA sources. AERIAL researchers have aggressively pursued additional funding opportunities offered by NASA, industry, and other agencies. This report contains a summary of AERIAL's activities and accomplishments during its first three years of implementation.

  11. [Clinical researchers and the pharmaceutic industry. The research contract is not an addendum].

    PubMed

    Cohen, A F

    1999-06-26

    The relation between a pharmaceutical company and a clinical investigator combines a certain form of entrepreneurship with scientific endeavour. Both parties are concerned with the content of the clinical study as well as with its business aspects. A good contract is essential for the project to succeed. In three cases based on actual experience the contract failed. In the first case, dosage miscalculation in the hospital pharmacy led to side effects in patients as a consequence of which the study was stopped. The pharmaceutical company sued the investigator. In the second case the investigator published data in a congress abstract, which prevented a patent by the company. In the third case scientific information was published by the company with the principal investigator featuring in the acknowledgement section of the article only. Investigators should have their own standard contract ready, and they should invest time and energy in understanding the contracts of the research they are carrying out.

  12. Application of Accelerators in research and Industry: Proceedings of the fourteenth International Conference. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, J.L.; Morgan, I.

    1997-08-01

    The fourteenth International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry was held in November, 1996 in Texas, USA. The United States Department of Energy was one of the sponsors of this conference. The conference was widely attended by accelerator scientists throughout the world. The topics discussed included a wide range of applications spanning the fields from Art History to Zoology. An overview of the Design Project for the National spallation Neutron Source was presented in one of the plenary sessions, as was a summary of Accelerated Beams of Radioactive Ions. Accelerator based Atomic Physics had the most sessions. The subject of accelerator Technology covered topics such as new accelerators, beam handling systems, ion sources, detector, spectrometers, and magnets etc. Radioactive Beams and Nuclear Physics were also topics of several sessions. New Research Opportunities for Nuclear structure, Nuclear Astrophysics, Material Science, and the future facilities and applications of Accelerated Beams of Radioactive ions were discussed. These proceedings represent the papers presented at this exciting conference which summarized the State of the Art technology of Accelerator applications in research and Industry. These proceedings contain 341 papers, out of which, 99 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  13. Use and abuse of statistics in tobacco industry-funded research on standardised packaging.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Anthony A; Diethelm, Pascal; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Watt, Hilary C; McKee, Martin

    2015-09-01

    In this commentary we consider the validity of tobacco industry-funded research on the effects of standardised packaging in Australia. As the first country to introduce standardised packs, Australia is closely watched, and Philip Morris International has recently funded two studies into the impact of the measure on smoking prevalence. Both of these papers are flawed in conception as well as design but have nonetheless been widely publicised as cautionary tales against standardised pack legislation. Specifically, we focus on the low statistical significance of the analytical methods used and the assumption that standardised packaging should have an immediate large impact on smoking prevalence.

  14. Beneath the surface of global change: Impacts of climate change on groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Timothy R.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Kooi, Henk; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Hiscock, Kevin M.; Treidel, Holger; Aureli, Alice

    2011-08-01

    SummaryGlobal change encompasses changes in the characteristics of inter-related climate variables in space and time, and derived changes in terrestrial processes, including human activities that affect the environment. As such, projected global change includes groundwater systems. Here, groundwater is defined as all subsurface water including soil water, deeper vadose zone water, and unconfined and confined aquifer waters. Potential effects of climate change combined with land and water management on surface waters have been studied in some detail. Equivalent studies of groundwater systems have lagged behind these advances, but research and broader interest in projected climate effects on groundwater have been accelerating in recent years. In this paper, we provide an overview and synthesis of the key aspects of subsurface hydrology, including water quantity and quality, related to global change. Adaptation to global change must include prudent management of groundwater as a renewable, but slow-feedback resource in most cases. Groundwater storage is already over-tapped in many regions, yet available subsurface storage may be a key to meeting the combined demands of agriculture, industry, municipal and domestic water supply, and ecosystems during times of shortage. The future intensity and frequency of dry periods combined with warming trends need to be addressed in the context of groundwater resources, even though projections in space and time are fraught with uncertainty. Finally, potential impacts of groundwater on the global climate system are largely unknown. Research to improve our understanding of the joint behaviors of climate and groundwater is needed, and spin-off benefits on each discipline are likely.

  15. Research utilization in the building industry: decision model and preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Johnson, D.R.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1985-10-01

    The Research Utilization Program was conceived as a far-reaching means for managing the interactions of the private sector and the federal research sector as they deal with energy conservation in buildings. The program emphasizes a private-public partnership in planning a research agenda and in applying the results of ongoing and completed research. The results of this task support the hypothesis that the transfer of R and D results to the buildings industry can be accomplished more efficiently and quickly by a systematic approach to technology transfer. This systematic approach involves targeting decision makers, assessing research and information needs, properly formating information, and then transmitting the information through trusted channels. The purpose of this report is to introduce elements of a market-oriented knowledge base, which would be useful to the Building Systems Division, the Office of Buildings and Community Systems and their associated laboratories in managing a private-public research partnership on a rational systematic basis. This report presents conceptual models and data bases that can be used in formulating a technology transfer strategy and in planning technology transfer programs.

  16. The Tobacco Industry, Researchers, and Ethical Access to UK Biobank: Using the Public Interest and Public Good

    PubMed Central

    van der Eijk, Yvette

    2014-01-01

    We have asked whether the strategic purpose of the tobacco industry is something that a public resource, such as UK Biobank, should support. Tobacco industry health research has been known to work irreconcilably with the purposes of such institutions, which can be surmised as for the public good and defined to improve the provision, diagnosis, and treatment of illness and the promotion of health throughout society. We have isolated possible conflicts of interest that underlie vested research agendas of the tobacco industry and that may extend to tobacco industry–funded researchers. With respect to research, we find that the tobacco industry is entirely at odds with the purposes of public biobanking. PMID:25122018

  17. A Typology of Research Training in University-Industry Collaboration: The Case of Life Sciences in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Kuang-Hsu

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the educational implications of research collaboration between university and industry for the research training of doctoral students. It is concerned with the issues of how research training is constructed in such collaborations and what might be the effects of collaboration on doctoral students' learning. The study adopts a…

  18. [Incentives and disincentives for research and development of new drugs by the pharmaceutical industry].

    PubMed

    Curcio, Pasqualina Curcio

    2008-10-01

    The authors present a model with factors that influence research and development decisions by the pharmaceutical industry: risk of disease transmission and possibility of control; case-fatality and the presence of cure or treatments; income; number of persons who demand the medicine; and opportunity costs for the company. Companies tend to invest in markets with inelastic demand (highly contagious diseases with no possibility of controlling transmission and/or very lethal diseases without treatment) and/or where there is a large population or high per capita income. Companies tend not to invest in markets where marginal costs exceed marginal income, particularly when costs increase permanently as a consequence of rising opportunity costs generated by foregoing profit in other markets. In such cases, policies to subsidize R&D are not effective, and policies must be orientated towards strengthening basic and applied research by public institutions.

  19. Tobacco Industry Consumer Research on Smokeless Tobacco Users and Product Development

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Adrienne B.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, RJ Reynolds (RJR) and Philip Morris have both introduced new smokeless “snus” tobacco products. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents describing the history of RJR and Philip Morris's consumer research, smokeless product development, and marketing strategies. We found that RJR had invested in smokeless research, development, and marketing since 1968. RJR first targeted low-income males through sampling and sponsorship at fishing, rodeo, and baseball events, and through advertising portraying the user as “hard working.” In the early 1990s, Philip Morris and RJR hoped to attract more urban, female smokeless users. The current “snus” campaigns appear to appeal to these targeted consumers and smokers in smoke-free environments. These efforts may expand the tobacco market and undermine smoking cessation. PMID:19910355

  20. Tobacco industry consumer research on smokeless tobacco users and product development.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Adrienne B; Ling, Pamela M

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, RJ Reynolds (RJR) and Philip Morris have both introduced new smokeless "snus" tobacco products. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents describing the history of RJR and Philip Morris's consumer research, smokeless product development, and marketing strategies. We found that RJR had invested in smokeless research, development, and marketing since 1968. RJR first targeted low-income males through sampling and sponsorship at fishing, rodeo, and baseball events, and through advertising portraying the user as "hard working." In the early 1990s, Philip Morris and RJR hoped to attract more urban, female smokeless users. The current "snus" campaigns appear to appeal to these targeted consumers and smokers in smoke-free environments. These efforts may expand the tobacco market and undermine smoking cessation.

  1. Applications of Combustion Research on the International Space Station to Industrial Processes on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is to conduct research and educate students in scientific areas related to combustion. The center focuses on those areas where results can be applied to the development of commercial products and processes and where the research can benefit from the unique properties of space. The center is planning combustion-related research aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that will further this mission. The research will be conducted in the two ISS facilities designed for combustion experiments, Space-DRUMSTM and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) of the Fluids and Combustion Facility. Space-DRUMSTM is a containerless processing facility employing dynamic acoustic positioning. Guigne International, Ltd. of St. John's, Newfoundland, a CCACS member, is developing the facility in partnership with Astrium Space- Infrastructure and Teledyne Brown Engineering. This universal processing facility can handle large samples with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station and no contamination from the experimental processing chamber. The CCACS research to be done in Space-DRUMSTM includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials, nanoparticle synthesis, catalytic combustion, fluid physics and granular materials. The launch of Space-DRUMSTM to the ISS is currently scheduled for ULF-1 in January of 2003. The CIR is being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center, and is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. The CCACS research to be done in the CIR includes water mist fire suppression, flame synthesis of ceramic powders, nanoparticle synthesis and catalytic combustion. The CIR is currently under development, with an expected launch date in the 2005 timeframe. The applications of this combustion research in manufacturing and processing industries are far

  2. Industry-sponsored research on the potential health and environmental effects of selected brominated flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Hardy, M L; Biesemeier, J; Manor, O; Gentit, W

    2003-09-01

    Modern fire-fighting techniques, equipment and fire-resistant building design has lead to less destruction than in the previous centuries. However, a high fuel load in either a residence or a commercial building can overwhelm even the best firefighters or building construction, and factors affecting the fuel load have changed in recent decades. The fire load in a typical home has doubled over the last 50 years, furnishings typically include those made of petrochemicals that can behave as if containing built-in accelerant, and modern energy-efficient buildings are less able to disperse heat in the event of a fire. Flame retardant chemicals (FRs) are one means used to reduce the risk of fire. FRs are typically added or incorporated chemically into a polymer to slow or hinder the ignition or growth of a fire in low-to-moderate cost commodity polymers. One type of FR contains bromine atoms as the active moiety. The FR industry, either as individual companies or as consortia, has conducted a broad range of studies on the commercial deca-, octa- and pentabromodiphenyl oxide/ether, tetrabromobisphenol A and hexabromocyclododecane products. These five products have data in excess of the OECD Screening Informational Data Set (SIDS) and the U.S. High Production Volume (HPV) program, and sufficient data for the performance of formal EU risk assessments. The objective of this paper is to present the range of data developed by industry consortia and to provide sources for the information. We hope to facilitate further research by assembling references to industry consortia-sponsored research here.

  3. Groundwater Governance in the United States: Common Priorities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Megdal, Sharon B; Gerlak, Andrea K; Varady, Robert G; Huang, Ling-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is a critical component of the water supply for agriculture, urban areas, industry, and ecosystems, but managing it is a challenge because groundwater is difficult to map, quantify, and evaluate. Until recently, study and assessment of governance of this water resource has been largely neglected. A survey was developed to query state agency officials about the extent and scope of groundwater use, groundwater laws and regulations, and groundwater tools and strategies. Survey responses revealed key findings: states' legal frameworks for groundwater differ widely in recognizing the hydrologic connection between surface water and groundwater, the needs of groundwater-dependent ecosystems, and the protection of groundwater quality; states reported a range in capacity to enforce groundwater responsibilities; and states have also experienced substantial changes in groundwater governance in the past few decades. Overall, groundwater governance across the United States is fragmented. States nevertheless identified three common priorities for groundwater governance: water quality and contamination, conflicts between users, and declining groundwater levels. This survey represents an initial step in a broader, continuing effort to characterize groundwater governance practices in the United States.

  4. Mapping the Use of Engineered NM in Quebec's Industries and Research Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostiguy, Claude; Emond, Claude; Dossa, Inès; Malki, Yasmina; Boily, Chantale; Roughley, David; Plavski, Anton; Endo, Charles-Anica

    2013-04-01

    Engineered NanoMaterials (NM) offer an opportunity to develop a wide variety of new products with unique properties but many studies have shown potential OHS risks specific to NM. Addressing these risks requires knowledge about release of NM into the workplaces. This research aimed to map the state of nanotechnology OHS practices in Quebec through a questionnaire following a first contact by telephone when possible and by compiling the type and volumes of NM used as well as gathering information related to the working conditions and OHS aspects. This survey was conducted among 1310 Quebec industries and 653 researchers working in different specialties potentially involved in the development/production/distribution/integration of NM and use of NM containing products. Overall, 90 questionnaires, including 51 from the industries, were completed. These showed that NM are mainly used into the powder form, in many different sectors and deserve a wide range of markets. The prevention measures implemented vary widely from a workplace to another but about one third of the participants report that they have implemented NP adapted prevention measures but they remain worried on some specific operations. More than 50% of the participants request more information about the safe laboratory/plant design, toxicity, regulation, good work practices and prevention measures, efficiency of personal protective equipment and environmental impacts.

  5. Health technology assessment and comparative effectiveness research: a pharmaceutical industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yanni; Thomas, Adrian

    2013-08-01

    We briefly review the characteristics of several established health technology assessment (HTA) programs in industrialized societies including Germany, the UK and France. Special attention is paid on two issues: the position of HTA in coverage decision making and the role of economic assessment in evaluation processes. Although law makers in the USA have barred the use of NICE's cost/quality-adjusted life year or similar health economics approaches by public payers for coverage decision making, there are suggestions of prioritizing relative efficacy evaluation over economic assessment under a comparative effectiveness research (CER) framework to inform payment rates of public payers (an approach similar to German and French HTA processes). However, such an approach is unlikely to prove viable. It should also be noted that, if cost considerations are made explicit in US CER policy decisions, CER may become an unsustainable approach undermined by a conflicting emphasis on both cost containment and a demand for costly comparative evidence. On the other hand, properly designed CER initiatives can serve as a facilitator of more efficient research activities and drug development models. With these points in mind, the likely pathway of US CER is explored and the plausible impact on industry innovation is discussed.

  6. Marketing alcohol to young people: implications for industry regulation and research policy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M C; Hastings, G; Wheeler, C; Eadie, D; Mackintosh, A M

    2000-12-01

    This paper focuses on the marketing of alcohol to young people in the United Kingdom, but the lessons that emerge have international significance. Alcohol is a global enterprise and recent consolidation means that it is controlled by a decreasing number of expanding multi-nationals. Alcohol companies are able to allocate significant resources to researching consumer preferences, developing new products and promoting them on an international level. Recent years have seen a growth in the value that youth culture attaches to brand labels and symbols and a move away from the healthy-living ethos. The alcohol industry's response to these trends has been to design alcoholic beverages that appeal to young people, using well-informed and precisely targeted marketing strategies. This has led to growing concerns about the implications for public health and a demand for tighter controls to regulate alcohol marketing practices. In the United Kingdom, controls on alcohol are piecemeal and reactive and the current system of voluntary regulation appears ineffective. This paper argues for more research to establish current industry practice and inform the development of a comprehensive regulatory structure and system of monitoring.

  7. Developing a high resolution groundwater model for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, E.; de Graaf, I. E.; Alberti, K.; Van Beek, L. P.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is important in many parts of Indonesia. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and industrial activities. During times of drought, it sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus support ecosystem habitat and biodiversity, as well as preventing hazardous forest fire. Besides its importance, groundwater is known as a vulnerable resource as unsustainable groundwater exploitation and management occurs in many areas of the country. Therefore, in order to ensure sustainable management of groundwater resources, monitoring and predicting groundwater changes in Indonesia are imperative. However, large-extent groundwater models to assess these changes on a regional scale are almost non-existent and are hampered by the strong topographical and lithological transitions that characterize Indonesia. In this study, we built an 1 km resolution of steady-state groundwater model for the entire Indonesian archipelago (total inland area: about 2 million km2). Here we adopted the approach of Sutanudjaja et al. (2011) in order to make a MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) groundwater model by using only global datasets. Aquifer schematization and properties of the groundwater model were developed from available global lithological map (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moorsdorf, 2012). We forced the groundwater model with the output from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. Results are promising. The MODFLOW model can converge with realistic aquifer properties (i.e. transmissivities) and produce reasonable groundwater head spatial distribution that reflects the positions of major groundwater bodies and surface water bodies in the country. For this session, we aim to demonstrate and discuss the results and the prospects of this modeling study. References: D

  8. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of groundwater in aguanaval and chupaderos aquifers (Mexico)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate regional groundwater assessment studies are essential for the correct groundwater management by policy/decision makers; increased use of groundwater resources and drought have led to concern about the future availability of groundwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environ...

  9. Resurrecting Legacy Code Using Ontosoft Knowledge-Sharing and Digital Object Management to Revitalize and Reproduce Software for Groundwater Management Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, N.; Gentle, J.; Pierce, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Software code developed for research is often used for a relatively short period of time before it is abandoned, lost, or becomes outdated. This unintentional abandonment of code is a valid problem in the 21st century scientific process, hindering widespread reusability and increasing the effort needed to develop research software. Potentially important assets, these legacy codes may be resurrected and documented digitally for long-term reuse, often with modest effort. Furthermore, the revived code may be openly accessible in a public repository for researchers to reuse or improve. For this study, the research team has begun to revive the codebase for Groundwater Decision Support System (GWDSS), originally developed for participatory decision making to aid urban planning and groundwater management, though it may serve multiple use cases beyond those originally envisioned. GWDSS was designed as a java-based wrapper with loosely federated commercial and open source components. If successfully revitalized, GWDSS will be useful for both practical applications as a teaching tool and case study for groundwater management, as well as informing theoretical research. Using the knowledge-sharing approaches documented by the NSF-funded Ontosoft project, digital documentation of GWDSS is underway, from conception to development, deployment, characterization, integration, composition, and dissemination through open source communities and geosciences modeling frameworks. Information assets, documentation, and examples are shared using open platforms for data sharing and assigned digital object identifiers. Two instances of GWDSS version 3.0 are being created: 1) a virtual machine instance for the original case study to serve as a live demonstration of the decision support tool, assuring the original version is usable, and 2) an open version of the codebase, executable installation files, and developer guide available via an open repository, assuring the source for the

  10. Is poor research the cause of the declining productivity of the pharmaceutical industry? An industry in need of a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Sams-Dodd, Frank

    2013-03-01

    For the past 20 years target-based drug discovery has been the main research paradigm used by the pharmaceutical industry and billions of dollars have been invested into this approach. However, recent industry data strongly indicate that the target-based approach is not an effective drug discovery paradigm and is likely to be the cause of the productivity crisis the industry is experiencing. However, from a theoretical and scientific perspective the target-based approach appears sound, so why is it not more successful? The purpose of this paper is first to analyse the real-life implementation of the target-based approach to identify possible reasons for the high failure rate and second to suggest changes to the drug discovery approach, which can improve productivity.

  11. Groundwater resource development

    SciTech Connect

    Hamill, L.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides engineers with a treatment of the steps involved in the exploration and evaluation of aquifers, the construction and testing of water supply boreholes, and the management of the resource. The important subjects of water quality criteria, pollution hazards and modeling techniques are also included. Contents: Development of Groundwater Resources; Groundwater: Fundamentals; Groundwater Exploration; Assessment of Aquifer Recharge and Potential Well Yield; Groundwater Quality; Well Design and Construction; Aquifer Hydraulics and Pumping Tests; Groundwater Pollution; Groundwater Management; Groundwater Modeling Techniques.

  12. A high resolution global scale groundwater model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.; Sutanudjaja, E. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is the world's largest accessible source of fresh water. It plays a vital role in satisfying needs for drinking water, agriculture and industrial activities. During times of drought groundwater sustains baseflow to rivers and wetlands, thereby supporting ecosystems. Most global scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, mainly due to lack of geohydrological data at the global scale. For the simulation of lateral flow and groundwater head dynamics a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system is needed, especially for GHMs that run at finer resolution. In this study we present a global scale groundwater model (run at 6' as dynamic steady state) using MODFLOW to construct an equilibrium water table at its natural state as the result of long-term climatic forcing. The aquifer schematization and properties were based on available global datasets of lithology and transmissivities combined with estimated aquifer thickness of an upper unconfined aquifer. The model is forced with outputs from the land-surface model PCR-GLOBWB, specifically with net recharge and surface water levels. A sensitivity analysis, in which the model was run with various parameter settings, showed variation in saturated conductivity causes most of the groundwater level variations. Simulated groundwater heads were validated against reported piezometer observations. The validation showed that groundwater depths are reasonably well simulated for many regions of the world, especially for sediment basins (R2 = 0.95). The simulated regional scale groundwater patterns and flowpaths confirm the relevance of taking lateral groundwater flow into account in GHMs. Flowpaths show inter-basin groundwater flow that can be a significant part of a basins water budget and helps to sustain river baseflow, explicitly during times of droughts. Also important aquifer systems are recharged by inter-basin groundwater flows that positively affect water

  13. Oahu Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for the island of Oahu. Data is from the following sources: Rotzoll, K., A.I. El-Kadi. 2007. Numerical Ground-Water Flow Simulation for Red Hill Fuel Storage Facilities, NAVFAC Pacific, Oahu, Hawaii - Prepared TEC, Inc. Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.; Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume VII – Island of Oahu Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2009. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. December 2009.

  14. Current developments in groundwater ecology--from biodiversity to ecosystem function and services.

    PubMed

    Griebler, Christian; Malard, Florian; Lefébure, Tristan

    2014-06-01

    Groundwater ecosystems constitute the largest terrestrial freshwater biome. They are dark, extremely low in energy and do not provide much space but they contain an unexpectedly high diversity of living forms showing characteristic adaptive features. The restricted accessibility along with the enormous 'invisible' heterogeneity challenged for a long time testing of scientific theories and unraveling of ecosystem functioning. Triggered by an improved interdisciplinarity, comprehensive sampling strategies and current developments in biotechnology and statistical analysis, groundwater ecology gains momentum entering a new era of research. We are only beginning to understand adaptive mechanisms, species distribution patterns and ecosystem functioning. Ninety-five percent of global liquid freshwater is stored in the terrestrial subsurface constituting a major source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes. There is an urgent need to integrate evolutionary and ecological research for developing a holistic perspective of the functional roles of biodiversity and ecosystem services and predicting global changes under alternative groundwater resource use scenarios.

  15. Hydrogeological conceptual model determined from baseline and construction phase groundwater pressure and surface tilt-meter data at the Mizunami underground research laboratory, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Shinji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Salden, Walter; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Arai, Takashi; Matsuki, Koji

    2007-07-01

    A hydrogeological conceptual model has been developed based on pressure responses observed at multilevel pressure monitoring zones in seven boreholes and surface tilt data in and around the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory site. Pressure changes caused by some earthquakes, cross-hole hydraulic testing, and shaft excavation activities are considered. Surface tilt has been measured from the half way of the shaft excavation phase. The shaft excavation has been commenced from July 2003 with two shafts (Main shaft and Ventilation shaft). By the end of October 2005, discharging of water in the shafts has been halted at the depths of 172 m and 191 m respectively to allow modifications to be made to the water treatment facility due to an excess of F and B concentration in the water. This results in the recovery of the groundwater levels and filling of the underground workings. Beginning in February 2006 pumping has been resumed and the underground workings have been re-occupied. Continuous groundwater pressure and surface tilt measurements with some numerical analysis during the shaft excavation phase show the existence of the flow barrier fault predicted from the surface-based investigation phase and hydraulic parameter around the shafts. (authors)

  16. Information for Industrial Development,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Information processing, *Technology transfer, * Industries , Information transfer, Industrial engineering , Planning, Research management, Investments...Operation, Industrial production, Data bases, Information systems, User needs, Symposia

  17. [Research practices of conversion efficiency of resources utilization model of castoff from Chinese material medica industrialization].

    PubMed

    Duan, Jin-Ao; Su, Shu-Lan; Guo, Sheng; Liu, Pei; Qian, Da-Wei; Jiang, Shu; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Tang, Yu-Ping; Wu, Qi-Nan

    2013-12-01

    The industrialization chains and their products, which were formed from the process of the production of medicinal materials-prepared drug in pieces and deep processed product of Chinese material medica (CMM) resources, have generated large benefits of social and economic. However, The large of herb-medicine castoff of "non-medicinal parts" and "rejected materials" produced inevitably during the process of Chinese medicinal resources produce and process, and the residues, waste water and waste gas were produced during the manufactured and deep processed product of CMM. These lead to the waste of resources and environmental pollution. Our previous researches had proposed the "three utilization strategies" and "three types of resources models" of herb-medicine castoff according to the different physicochemical property of resources constitutes, resources potential and utility value of herb-medicine castoff. This article focus on the conversion efficiency of resources model and analysis the ways, technologies, practices, and application in herb-medicine cast off of the conversion efficiency of resources model based on the recycling economy theory of resources and thoughts of resources chemistry of CMM. These data may be promote and resolve the key problems limited the industrialization of Chinese material medica for long time and promote the realization of herb-medicine castoff resources utilization.

  18. [The investment of pharmaceutical industry in hospital clinical research: an estimate for france in 2010].

    PubMed

    Fagnani, Francis

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the investment of pharmaceutical industry in hospital clinical research in France for 2010. The method consisted in combining data extracted from various sources about volumes of patients and unit costs per patient according to phase (I, II and II) and therapeutic domains. The numbers of French patients enrolled were estimated through an extraction of the National Institute of Health (NIH) database. Unit costs per patient were estimated from a sample of 54 clinical studies covering the most frequent combinations of phases and therapeutic domains and documented independently by 5 international companies. We identified 1, 178 clinical studies ongoing in 2010, having included a total of about 73, 000 French patients. Among these studies, 40.3% and 12.8% concerned Onco-Haematology and Rare Diseases respectively. The total annual investment from industry was estimated at 488 million euros, comprising 83.6 M€ of medical honoraria (17%), 73 M€ of hospital extra cost (15%), 99 M€ of drug provision (20%) and 232 M€ of internal cost for french affiliates (48%).

  19. Industry research on the use and effects of levulinic acid: a case study in cigarette additives.

    PubMed

    Keithly, Lois; Ferris Wayne, Geoffrey; Cullen, Doris M; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-10-01

    Public health officials and tobacco researchers have raised concerns about the possible contributions of additives to the toxicity of cigarettes. However, little attention has been given to the process whereby additives promote initiation and addiction. Levulinic acid is a known cigarette additive. Review of internal tobacco industry documents indicates that levulinic acid was used to increase nicotine yields while enhancing perceptions of smoothness and mildness. Levulinic acid reduces the pH of cigarette smoke and desensitizes the upper respiratory tract, increasing the potential for cigarette smoke to be inhaled deeper into the lungs. Levulinic acid also may enhance the binding of nicotine to neurons that ordinarily would be unresponsive to nicotine. These findings held particular interest in the internal development of ultralight and so-called reduced-exposure cigarette prototypes. Industry studies found significantly increased peak plasma nicotine levels in smokers of ultralight cigarettes following addition of levulinic acid. Further, internal studies observed changes in mainstream and sidestream smoke composition that may present increased health risks. The use of levulinic acid illustrates the need for regulatory authority over tobacco products as well as better understanding of the role of additives in cigarettes and other tobacco products.

  20. From "Inspiration-driven" Research to "Industrial-strength" Research: Applying User-developed Climate Analytics at Large scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, A.; Mason, E. E.; Langenhorst, A. R.; Balaji, V.; Nikonov, S.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous climate models, several parameters output from a vast range of climate scenarios -- most likely motivates a climate scientist to analyze a suite of available data to research and address a plethora of scientific questions, eg. occurrence of El Niño events or simply validate and compute specialized metrics for a specific climate field. Providing a platform for our scientists to work with data from different models both in-house and extending a similar approach to the application of climate analysis on data from different modeling centers is a key goal that will be addressed in this presentation. Model intercomparison projects, Earth System Grid Federation and knowledge exchange within the climate science community have all enabled successful establishment of "data standards and controlled vocabulary" . This opens key possibilities to facilitate techniques used to "explore" dataset(s) in the Big-Data archive and perform climate analyses following a simple, standardized templated approach. A typical pattern of use would be where the scientist works with a few datasets interactively to refine and extract a signal of a particular climate phenomenon. At this point data access patterns are random, as the analysis is exploratory. We call this the "inspiration-driven" phase of research. Subsequently, the scientist would need to apply her analysis to a much wider set of data: different models and scenarios from CMIP5 for example. This can be thought of as the "industrial" phase of research. We provide a pathway for user-developed analyses to transition from inspiration to industry. We will illustrate techniques being adopted at GFDL to develop analysis through interactive computational exploration on selected data; Provide analysis capabilities in batch workflows (using: Flexible Runtime Environment) and also web-based with data exploration mechanisms tapped from GFDL's Curator infrastructure. Comparing climate data both at the inter and intra-laboratory level

  1. Influence of seawater intrusion on microbial communities in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Unno, Tatsuya; Kim, Jungman; Kim, Yumi; Nguyen, Son G; Guevarra, Robin B; Kim, Gee Pyo; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater is the sole source of potable water on Jeju Island in the Republic of (South) Korea. Groundwater is also used for irrigation and industrial purposes, and it is severely impacted by seawater intrusion in coastal areas. Consequently, monitoring the intrusion of seawater into groundwater on Jeju is very important for health and environmental reasons. A number of studies have used hydrological models to predict the deterioration of groundwater quality caused by seawater intrusion. However, there is conflicting evidence of intrusion due to complicated environmental influences on groundwater quality. Here we investigated the use of next generation sequencing (NGS)-based microbial community analysis as a way to monitor groundwater quality and detect seawater intrusion. Pristine groundwater, groundwater from three coastal areas, and seawater were compared. Analysis of the distribution of bacterial species clearly indicated that the high and low salinity groundwater differed significantly with respect to microbial composition. While members of the family Parvularculaceae were only identified in high salinity water samples, a greater percentage of the phylum Actinobacteria was predominantly observed in pristine groundwater. In addition, we identified 48 shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with seawater, among which the high salinity groundwater sample shared a greater number of bacterial species with seawater (6.7%). In contrast, other groundwater samples shared less than 0.5%. Our results suggest that NGS-based microbial community analysis of groundwater may be a useful tool for monitoring groundwater quality and detect seawater intrusion. This technology may also provide additional insights in understanding hydrological dynamics.

  2. Science First: Contributions of a University-Industry Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program to Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Ted K.; Kennedy, Kevin M.; Davis, Paul R.; Lloyd, Larry L.; Gwebu, Nokuthula; Last, Jerold A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how public policy establishing the University of California Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program helped to establish the state's environmental technology industry. The multidisciplinary "science-push" program generated economic development benefits including leveraged research funding and at least 200 new private…

  3. Sustainable groundwater management system based on the regional hydrological cycle in the warm humid country, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, J.; Crest Kumamoto Groundwater Team

    2011-12-01

    The increase of precipitation variability with the global warming and the rapid population growth lead to the shortage of water resources on a global scale. Groundwater bocome attracted as a relatively stable water resource because of its larger reservoir and a longer residence time. As our country belongs to a warm humid climate with much precipitation and a steep topography, the regional hydrological cycle is extremely active. Surface water could be taken easily and was often used to a water supply until now, but recently groundwater is taking the place of surface water because of the stability of water supply. While in our hydro-climatic condition, the sustainable use of groundwater is possible under the appropriative management, that is, groundwater pumping rate does not exceed the recharge rate in a basin. For the sustainable use of groundwater resources, this project aims to develop new technologies relating to the quantity and quality aspects of groundwater resources. For the precise understanding of groundwater flow system, new technologies will be developed, like frequency changeable electric resistivity exploration method to evaluate an aquifer structure. There are many problems about groundwater quality including nitrate-nitrogen contamination and toxic substances from the domestic and industrial waste disposals. It is necessary to understand the production mechanism to prevent groundwater contamination and the degradation process of nitrate-nitrogen contamination to improve the water quality. Therefore this project will develop new technologies including the reduction of NO3=N and natural toxic substances loads before groundwater recharge, the on-site removal of contaminants from aquifers, and simple and effective equipment to improve groundwater quality after pumping. Furthermore, this project will also develop a new biological monitoring technique for local groundwater users to notice the contamination at a glance; change colar fish by specific ion

  4. New customizable phased array UT instrument opens door for furthering research and better industrial implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Dao, Gavin; Ginzel, Robert

    2014-02-18

    Phased array UT as an inspection technique in itself continues to gain wide acceptance. However, there is much room for improvement in terms of implementation of Phased Array (PA) technology for every unique NDT application across several industries (e.g. oil and petroleum, nuclear and power generation, steel manufacturing, etc.). Having full control of the phased array instrument and customizing a software solution is necessary for more seamless and efficient inspections, from setting the PA parameters, collecting data and reporting, to the final analysis. NDT researchers and academics also need a flexible and open platform to be able to control various aspects of the phased array process. A high performance instrument with advanced PA features, faster data rates, a smaller form factor, and capability to adapt to specific applications, will be discussed.

  5. Aerodynamical Probation Of Semi-Industrial Production Plant For Centrifugal Dust Collectors’ Efficiency Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buligin, Y. I.; Zharkova, M. G.; Alexeenko, L. N.

    2017-01-01

    In previous studies, experiments were carried out on the small-size models of cyclonic units, but now there completed the semi-industrial pilot plant ≪Cyclone≫, which would allow comparative testing of real samples of different shaped centrifugal dust-collectors and compare their efficiency. This original research plant is patented by authors. The aim of the study is to improve efficiency of exhaust gases collecting process, by creating improved designs of centrifugal dust collectors, providing for the possibility of regulation constructive parameters depending on the properties and characteristics of air-fuel field. The objectives of the study include identifying and studying the cyclonic apparatus association constructive parameters with their aerodynamic characteristics and dust-collecting efficiency. The article is very relevant, especially for future practical application of its results in dust removal technology.

  6. Research, Commercialization, & Workforce Development in the Polymer/Electronics Recycling Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Carl Irwin; Rakesh Gupta; Richard Turton; GangaRao Hota; Cyril Logar; Tom Ponzurick; Buddy Graham; Walter Alcorn; Jeff Tucker

    2006-02-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Recycling Center for End-of-Life Electronics (MARCEE) was set up in 1999 in response to a call from Congressman Alan Mollohan, who had a strong interest in this subject. A consortium was put together which included the Polymer Alliance Zone (PAZ) of West Virginia, West Virginia University (WVU), DN American and Ecolibrium. The consortium developed a set of objectives and task plans, which included both the research issues of setting up facilities to demanufacture End-of-Life Electronics (EoLE), the economics of the demanufacturing process, and the infrastructure development necessary for a sustainable recycling industry to be established in West Virginia. This report discusses the work of the MARCEE Project Consortium from November 1999 through March 2005. While the body of the report is distributed in hard-copy form the Appendices are being distributed on CD's.

  7. High-Throughput Industrial Coatings Research at The Dow Chemical Company.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tzu-Chi; Malvadkar, Niranjan A; Drumright, Ray; Cesaretti, Richard; Bishop, Matthew T

    2016-09-12

    At The Dow Chemical Company, high-throughput research is an active area for developing new industrial coatings products. Using the principles of automation (i.e., using robotic instruments), parallel processing (i.e., prepare, process, and evaluate samples in parallel), and miniaturization (i.e., reduce sample size), high-throughput tools for synthesizing, formulating, and applying coating compositions have been developed at Dow. In addition, high-throughput workflows for measuring various coating properties, such as cure speed, hardness development, scratch resistance, impact toughness, resin compatibility, pot-life, surface defects, among others have also been developed in-house. These workflows correlate well with the traditional coatings tests, but they do not necessarily mimic those tests. The use of such high-throughput workflows in combination with smart experimental designs allows accelerated discovery and commercialization.

  8. Research in industrial and organizational psychology from 1963 to 2007: changes, choices, and trends.

    PubMed

    Cascio, Wayne F; Aguinis, Herman

    2008-09-01

    The authors conducted a content analysis of all articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology from January 1963 to May 2007 (N = 5,780) to identify the relative attention devoted to each of 15 broad topical areas and 50 more specific subareas in the field of industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology. Results revealed that (a) some areas have become more (or less) popular over time, whereas others have not changed much, and (b) there are some lagged relationships between important societal issues that involve people and work settings (i.e., human-capital trends) and I-O psychology research that addresses them. Also, much I-O psychology research does not address human-capital trends. Extrapolating results from the past 45 years to the next decade suggests that the field of I-O psychology is not likely to become more visible or more relevant to society at large or to achieve the lofty goals it has set for itself unless researchers, practitioners, universities, and professional organizations implement significant changes. In the aggregate, the changes address the broad challenge of how to narrow the academic-practitioner divide.

  9. Science for the stewardship of the groundwater resources of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Masterson, John P.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is the sole source of drinking water and a major source of freshwater for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Groundwater discharged from aquifers also supports freshwater pond and stream ecosystems and coastal wetlands. Six hydraulically distinct groundwater-flow systems (lenses) have been delineated on Cape Cod. Of the approximately 450 million gallons per day of water that enters these lenses as recharge from precipitation, about 69 percent discharges directly to the coast, about 24 percent discharges to streams, and almost 7 percent is withdrawn by public-supply wells. In most areas, groundwater in the sand and gravel aquifers is shallow and susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources and saltwater intrusion. Continued land development and population growth on Cape Cod have created concerns that potable water will become less available and that the quantity and quality of water flowing to natural discharge areas such as ponds, streams, and coastal waters will continue to decline. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been investigating groundwater and surface-water resources on Cape Cod for more than 50 years. Recent studies highlighted in this fact sheet have focused on the sources of water to public-supply wells, ponds, streams, and coastal areas; the transport and discharge of nitrogen derived from domestic and municipal disposal of wastewater; and the effects of climate change on groundwater and surface-water resources. Other USGS activities include long-term monitoring of groundwater and pond levels and field research on groundwater contamination at the USGS Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Research Site (http://ma.water.usgs.gov/MMRCape/) near the Joint Base Cape Cod (JBCC), formerly the Massachusetts Military Reservation.

  10. Development Problems With Component Construction. Proceedings of Conference of the Building Research Institute, Division of Engineering and Industrial Research (Fall 1959).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Publication of conference papers includes--(1) an overview of the ceiling system complex by a lighting manufacturer, (2) review of problems influencing the development of roofing systems, (3) description of cooperative research within the cement industry, and (4) description of joint research development of structural ceramic panels. Included…

  11. Compendium of ordinances for groundwater protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    Groundwater is an extremely important resource in the Tennessee Valley. Nearly two-thirds of the Tennessee Valley's residents rely, at least in part, on groundwater supplies for drinking water. In rural areas, approximately ninety-five percent of residents rely on groundwater for domestic supplies. Population growth and economic development increase the volume and kinds of wastes requiring disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal problems associated with increases in conventional wastewater and solid waste, technological advancements in recent decades have resulted in new chemicals and increased usage in agriculture, industry, and the home. Unfortunately, there has not been comparable progress in identifying the potential long-term effects of these chemicals, in managing them to prevent contamination of groundwater, or in developing treatment technologies for removing them from water once contamination has occurred. The challenge facing residence of the Tennessee Valley is to manage growth and economic and technological development in ways that will avoid polluting the groundwater resource. Once groundwater has been contaminated, cleanup is almost always very costly and is sometimes impractical or technically infeasible. Therefore, prevention of contamination -- not remedial treatment--is the key to continued availability of usable groundwater. This document discusses regulations to aid in this prevention.

  12. Groundwater Monitoring and Control Before Decommissioning of the Research Reactor VVR-S from Magurele-Bucharest

    SciTech Connect

    Dragusin, Mitica

    2008-01-15

    The research reactor type VVR-S (tank type, water is cooler, moderator and reflector, thermal power- 2 MW, thermal energy- 9. 52 GW d) was put into service in July 1957 and, in December 1997 was shout down. In 2002, Romanian Government decided to put the research reactor in the permanent shut-down in order to start the decommissioning. This nuclear facility was used in nuclear research and radioisotope production for 40 years, without events, incidents or accidents. Within the same site, in the immediate vicinity of the research reactor, there are many other nuclear facilities: Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant, Tandem Van der Graaf heavy ions accelerator, Cyclotron, Industrial Irradiator, Radioisotope Production Center. The objectives of this work were dedicated on the water underground analyses described in the following context: - presentation of the approaches in planning the number of drillings, vertical soil profiles (characteristics, analyses, direction of the flow of underground water, uncertainties in measurements); - presentation of the instrumentation used in analyses of water, soil and vegetation samples - analyses and final conclusions on results of the measurements; - comparison of the results of measurements on underground water from drillings with the measurements results on samples from the town and the system of drinking water - supplied from the second level of underground water. According to the analysis, in general, no values higher than the Minimum Detectable Activity were detected in water samples (MDA) for Pb{sup 212}, Bi{sup 214}, Pb{sup 214}, Ac{sup 228}, but situated under values foreseen in drinking water. Distribution of Uranium As results of the Uranium determination, values higher than 0,004 mg/l (4 ppb) were detected, values that represent the average contents in the underground water. The higher values, 2-3 times higher than background, were detected in the water from the drillings F15, F12, F5, F13, drillings located between RWTP

  13. Groundwater resources management through the applications of simulation modeling: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay

    2014-11-15

    The global population is increasing rapidly and expected to touch the 9.5 billion mark by 2050 from the current 7.2 billion. The management of the groundwater resources is a challenging task worldwide against the backdrop of the growing water demand for industrial, agricultural, and domestic uses and shrinking resources. Moreover, this task has been hampered significantly due to declining/rising groundwater levels and associated contamination. A broad range of solutions could be considered to address the aforementioned problems of groundwater management, but the effectiveness of all the solutions and their combinations cannot be verified with field experiments. Given their predictive capability, simulation models are often the only viable means of providing input to management decisions, as they can forecast the likely impacts of a particular water management strategy. This paper presents a comprehensive review on the simulation modeling applications for the management of groundwater resources. The past papers on the overview of groundwater simulation models, use of remote sensing and GIS in groundwater modeling, and application of simulation models in arid and semiarid regions are described in detail. Conclusions are drawn where gaps exist and more research needs to be focused.

  14. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program. Industry, university and research interest in the US Department of Energy ECUT biocatalysis research activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a Research Opportunity Notice (RON) disseminated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program's Biocatalysis Research Activity are presented. The RON was issued in late April of 1983 and solicited expressions of interest from petrochemical and chemical companies, bioengineering firms, biochemical engineering consultants, private research laboratories, and universities for participating in a federal research program to investigate potential applications of biotechnology in producing chemicals. The RON results indicate that broad interest exists within the nation's industry, universities, and research institutes for the Activity and its planned research and development program.

  15. Review of available fluid sampling tools and sample recovery techniques for groundwater and unconventional geothermal research as well as carbon storage in deep sedimentary aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff-Boenisch, Domenik; Evans, Katy

    2014-05-01

    Sampling fluids from deep wells and subsequent sample treatment prior to gas and liquid analysis requires special equipment and sampling techniques to account for the relatively high temperatures, pressures, and potential gas content present at depth. This paper reviews five major sampling methodologies, ranging from different in situ wireline samplers to producing pumps and the U-tube and discusses their advantages and drawbacks in the light of three principal applications, deep groundwater research, unconventional geothermal exploration, and carbon storage. Geochemical modelling is used to investigate the probability of decarbonation and concomitant carbonate scaling during sampling in geothermal and carbon sequestration applications. The two principal sample recovery techniques associated with the fluid samplers are also presented.

  16. The Use of Contact Lenses in Industrial Environments: An Assessment of Current Research and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Terry

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to dispel rumors concerning contact lenses and tries to supply prudent-use practices for allowing contact lenses in industry and laboratories. Discusses federal regulations that impact the use of contact lenses in industry, policy statements from medical organizations on use of contact lenses in industrial environments, and the…

  17. Therapeutic Ultrasound Research And Development From An Industrial And Commercial Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seip, Ralf

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to share the challenges and opportunities as viewed from an industrial and commercial perspective that one encounters when performing therapeutic ultrasound research, development, manufacturing, and sales activities. Research in therapeutic ultrasound has become an active field in the last decade, spurred by technological advances in the areas of transducer materials, control electronics, treatment monitoring techniques, an ever increasing number of clinical applications, and private and governmental funding opportunities. The development of devices and methods utilizing therapeutic ultrasound to cure or manage disease is being pursued by startup companies and large established companies alike, driven by the promise of profiting at many levels from this new and disruptive technology. Widespread penetration within the clinical community remains elusive, with current approaches focusing on very specific applications and niche markets. Challenges include difficulties in securing capital to develop the technology and undertake costly clinical trials, a regulatory landscape that varies from country to country, resistance from established practitioners, and difficulties in assembling a team with the right mix of technological savvy and business expertise. Success is possible and increasing, however, as evidenced by several companies, initiatives, and products with measurable benefits to the patient, clinician, and companies alike.

  18. Machine-related injuries in the US mining industry and priorities for safety research.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Todd; Coleman, Patrick; Martini, Laura

    2011-03-01

    Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studied mining accidents that involved a worker entangled in, struck by, or in contact with machinery or equipment in motion. The motivation for this study came from the large number of severe accidents, i.e. accidents resulting in a fatality or permanent disability, that are occurring despite available interventions. Accident descriptions were taken from an accident database maintained by the United States Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, and 562 accidents that occurred during 2000-2007 fit the search criteria. Machine-related accidents accounted for 41% of all severe accidents in the mining industry during this period. Machinery most often involved in these accidents included conveyors, rock bolting machines, milling machines and haulage equipment such as trucks and loaders. The most common activities associated with these accidents were operation of the machine and maintenance and repair. The current methods to safeguard workers near machinery include mechanical guarding around moving components, lockout/tagout of machine power during maintenance and backup alarms for mobile equipment. To decrease accidents further, researchers recommend additional efforts in the development of new control technologies, training materials and dissemination of information on best practices.

  19. The interface between publicly funded and industry-funded research in pediatric psychopharmacology: opportunities for integration and collaboration.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Heiligenstein, John H; Riddle, Mark A; Greenhill, Laurence L; Fegert, Jörg M

    2004-07-01

    Pediatric psychopharmacology research is undergoing a major expansion consequent to increasing use of psychotropic medications in children and recent legislative incentives to industry. In this rapidly changing context, the interface between publicly and privately funded research needs to be reconsidered to integrate activities and avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. Once, by default, the almost exclusive domain of public research, child research is now increasingly funded by industry. There are, however, important issues unlikely to be addressed through private funding for which public support is needed, such as direct comparisons between active medications, between pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, or between combined and single treatment modalities; development of effective treatment strategies for patients unresponsive to first-line treatments; development of better research methods to assess efficacy and safety; identification of moderators and mechanisms of treatment response; and impact of treatment on illness course and prognosis. Industry-sponsored research is limited by the restricted access to proprietary databases, which impedes independent analyses and meta-analyses. Translation of basic neuroscience discoveries into treatment applications for children with mental illness is a critical area of inquiry that can benefit from integration of efforts and collaborations among academia, government, and industry.

  20. The pharmaceutical industry and the German National Socialist Regime: I.G. Farben and pharmacological research.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, F; García-García, P; Alamo, C

    2009-02-01

    Before the National Socialist party came to power, the German pharmaceutical industry constituted an international reference as far as the development of new medicines was concerned, having been responsible for synthetic analgesics (phenacetin, phenazones, acetylsalicylic acid), arsphenamine, barbiturates and sulfonamides. The year 1925 saw the founding of I.G. Farben (Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG), a conglomerate of companies that would monopolize the country's chemical production and come to own all its major pharmaceutical industries. During the World War II, I.G. Farben participated in numerous operations associated with the criminal activities of the Nazi executive, including the use of slave labour in plants built close to concentration camps, such as that at Auschwitz. With regard to medical and pharmacological research projects, I.G. Farben became involved in experimental programmes using patients from the Nazi regime's euthanasia programmes and healthy subjects recruited without their consent from concentration camps, on whom various pharmacological substances were tested, including sulfamide and arsenical derivatives and other preparations whose composition is not precisely known (B-1012, B-1034, 3382 or Rutenol, 3582 or Acridine), generally in relation to the treatment of infectious diseases, such as typhus, erysipelas, scarlet fever or paratyphoid diarrhoea. Furthermore, I.G. Farben played a decisive role in the German army's chemical warfare programme, contributing to the development of the first two neurotoxic substances, later known as 'nerve agents', tabun and sarin. Some of these activities came to light as a result of the one the famous Nuremberg Trials in 1947, which saw 24 executives and scientists from I.G. Farben brought to justice for, among other offences, the use of slave labour in the concentration camps and forced experimentation with drugs on prisoners.

  1. The past suppression of industry knowledge of the toxicity of benzene to humans and potential bias in future benzene research.

    PubMed

    Infante, Peter F

    2006-01-01

    Petrochemical industry representatives often withhold information and misinterpret positive evidence of toxicity of benzene, even from their own research, also discouraging or delaying disclosure of findings of adverse effects to the public. They now appear to be attempting to influence study results in industry's favor by offering predetermined conclusions about study results as part of an effort to draw financial support for the studies. The American Petroleum Institute is currently raising funds for benzene research being conducted in China for which it has already announced the intended conclusions.

  2. Estimated public-water supply and industrial-commercial ground-water withdrawals and returns in Nassau County, Long Island, New York, 1973-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snavely, D.S.; Williams, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Nassau County, New York depends upon ground water for its freshwater supply. The primary water uses are for public-water supply and industrial-commercial purposes, which together accounted for 202 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) in 1975. Public-water suppliers withdrew 85 percent of their water from the Magothy Formation. About 133 Mgal/d was returned to the ground after use in 1975, and about 69; Mgal/d was discharged to tidewater. In addition, about 34 Mgal/d infiltrated into sewerlines in 1975 and was also discharged to tidewater. Because of the importance of this freshwater supply, the New York State Department of Environmental conservation reviews applications for the installation of wells and compiles data on pumpage throughout Long Island. It also reviews applications to discharge wastewater into the surface water and ground water of the State. This report summarizes the data filed with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation for Nassau County during 1973-79. It presents data and estimates on withdrawals for public and industrial-commercial supply, returns to the ground, and discharges through sewer systems. It also includes information on population and land use. (USGS)

  3. [Construction of groundwater contamination prevention mapping system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contamination prevention mapping is an important component of groundwater contamination geological survey and assessment work, which could provide the basis for making and implementing groundwater contamination prevention planning. A groundwater contamination prevention mapping system was constructed in view of the synthetic consideration on nature perspective derived from groundwater contamination sources and aquifer itself, social-economic perspective, policy perspective derived from outside. During the system construction process, analytic hierarchy process and relevant overlaying principles were used to couple groundwater contamination risk assessment, groundwater value as well as wellhead protection area zoning. Data processing and visualization of mapping results were achieved in the GIS environment. The research on groundwater contamination prevention mapping in Beijing Plain indicated that the final groundwater prevention map was in accordance with the actual conditions and well reflected the priorities of groundwater prevention, which could play a guidance role in designing and implementing further practical prevention and supervision measures. Besides, because of the dynamical properties of the system components, it was suggested to analyze the update frequency of the mapping.

  4. Industrial Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demain, Arnold L.; Solomon, Nadine A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of the field of industrial microbiology, providing historical backgrounds of scientific discoveries in the field and descriptions of industrially important microorganisms. Applied research in industry is also detailed, with mention of gene amplification, DNA recombination, pharmaceutical approaches, and detoxification and…

  5. PREFACE: Applications of Novel Scintillators for Research and Industry (ANSRI 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    Scintillator detectors are used widely in the field of γ- and X-ray spectroscopy, particularly in the mid 1900s when the invention of NaI(Tl) by nobel laureate Robert Hofstadter in 1948, spurred the creation of new scintillator materials. In the development of such new scintillators, important characteristics such as its intrinsic efficiency, position sensitivity, robustness, energy and timing response, light output, etc, need to be addressed. To date, these requirements cannot be met by a single type of scintillator alone and therefore the development of an ''ideal'' scintillator remains the holy grail of nuclear instrumentation. Consequently, the last two decades have seen significant progress in the development of scintillator crystals, driven largely by technological advances. Conventional inorganic scintillators such as NaI(Tl) and BGO are now being replaced with better, novel organic, inorganic, ceramic and plastic scintillators offering a wider variety of options for many applications. The workshop on the Applications of Novel Scintillators in Research and Industry was held at University College Dublin in January 2015 and covered a wide range of topics that characterise modern advances in the field of scintillator technology. This set of proceedings covers areas including the growth, production and characterisation of such contemporary scintillators, along with their applications in various fields, such as; Medical Imaging; Defence/Security; Astrophysics; and Nuclear/Particle Physics. We would like to thank all those who presented their recent results on their research at the workshop. These proceedings atest to the excitement and interest in such a broad field, that pervades the pursuit of the development of novel materials for future applications. We would also like to thank Professor Luigi Piro, for giving an interesting public talk during the conference, and to the Institute of Physics Ireland Group for supporting the event. We thank ORTEC for

  6. Research on chemical characteristics of soil salt crusts with saline groundwater drip-irrigation in the Tarim Desert Highway Shelterbelt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianguo; Xu, Xinwen; Lei, Jiaqiang; Li, Shengyu

    2013-01-01

    Soil salt crusts are special layers at soil surface which are widely distributed in the Trim Desert Highway Shelterbelt under drip-irrigation with high salinity groundwater. In order to reveal annual variation of their chemical characteristics, soil salt crusts in shelterbelt of different ages in hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert were sampled. SOM, total salt, inions and pH were analyzed. Following results were obtained. SOM of salt crusts increased with the shelterbelt ages, but increasing trend became lower gradually. Total salt, ions, and pH of salt crusts reduced gradually with the shelterbelt ages. Total salt of salt crusts in shelterbelt of different ages was much higher than shifting sandy land. Ions were higher than shifting sandy land, Cl(-), Na(+), and SO4 (2-) increased more obvious, then Mg(2+), K(+), Ca(2+) and HCO3 (-), CO3 (2-) was little and nearly had no change. pH was all alkaline, pH of salt crusts in shelterbelt of 11 years was even lower than shifting sandy land. We can include that the quality of shallow soil (0~30 cm) in the Trim Desert Highway Shelterbelt becomes better gradually.

  7. Responding to Agenda 2020: A technology vision and research agenda for America`s forest, wood and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, K.S.

    1995-03-01

    This document presents project summaries that demonstrate specific capabilities of interest to the forest, wood and paper industry in areas where PNL offers significant depth of experience or unique expertise. Though PNL possesses a wide range of capabilities across many of the technology-related issues identified by the industry, this document focuses on capabilities that meet the specific forest, wood and paper industry needs of the following research areas: forest inventory; human and environmental effects; energy and environmental tradeoffs; reduction of impacts of liquid effluent; solid wastes; removal of non-process elements in pulp and paper operations; life cycle assessment; and process measurement and controls. In addition, PNL can provide the forest, wood and paper industry with support in areas such as strategic and program planning, stakeholder communications and outreach, budget defense and quality metrics. These are services PNL provides directly to several programs within DOE.

  8. Integrated groundwater management: An overview of concepts and challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jakeman, Anthony J; Barreteau, Olivier; Hunt, Randall J.; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Ross, Andrew; Jakeman, Anthony J; Barreteau, Olivier; Hunt, Randall J.; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Ross, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Managing water is a grand challenge problem and has become one of humanity’s foremost priorities. Surface water resources are typically societally managed and relatively well understood; groundwater resources, however, are often hidden and more difficult to conceptualize. Replenishment rates of groundwater cannot match past and current rates of depletion in many parts of the world. In addition, declining quality of the remaining groundwater commonly cannot support all agricultural, industrial and urban demands and ecosystem functioning, especially in the developed world. In the developing world, it can fail to even meet essential human needs. The issue is: how do we manage this crucial resource in an acceptable way, one that considers the sustainability of the resource for future generations and the socioeconomic and environmental impacts? In many cases this means restoring aquifers of concern to some sustainable equilibrium over a negotiated period of time, and seeking opportunities for better managing groundwater conjunctively with surface water and other resource uses. However, there are many, often-interrelated, dimensions to managing groundwater effectively. Effective groundwater management is underpinned by sound science (biophysical and social) that actively engages the wider community and relevant stakeholders in the decision making process. Generally, an integrated approach will mean “thinking beyond the aquifer”, a view which considers the wider context of surface water links, catchment management and cross-sectoral issues with economics, energy, climate, agriculture and the environment. The aim of the book is to document for the first time the dimensions and requirements of sound integrated groundwater management (IGM). The primary focus is on groundwater management within its system, but integrates linkages beyond the aquifer. The book provides an encompassing synthesis for researchers, practitioners and water resource managers on the concepts and

  9. Awareness and enforcement of guidelines for publishing industry-sponsored medical research among publication professionals: the Global Publication Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Elizabeth; Woolley, Karen; Adshead, Viv; Cairns, Angela; Fullam, Josh; Gonzalez, John; Grant, Tom; Tortell, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To gather information about current practices and implementation of publication guidelines among publication professionals working in or for the pharmaceutical industry. Design/setting Web-based survey publicised via email and social media to members of the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) and other organisations from November 2012 to February 2013. Participants 469 individuals involved in publishing industry-sponsored research in peer-reviewed journals, mainly working in pharmaceutical or device companies (‘industry’, n=144), communication agencies (‘agency’, n=238), contract research organisations (CRO, n=15) or as freelancers (n=34). Most respondents (78%) had worked on medical publications for ≥5 years and 62% had a PhD/MD. Results Over 90% of industry, agency and CRO respondents routinely refer to Good Publication Practice (GPP2) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ Uniform Requirements. Most respondents (78% industry, 79% agency) received mandatory training on ethical publication practices. Over 90% of respondents’ companies had publication guidelines or policies and required medical writing support to be acknowledged in publications (96% industry, 99% agency). Many industry respondents used publication management tools to monitor compliance with company guidelines and about half (46%) stated that their company had formal publication audits. Fewer agencies audited adherence to guidelines but 20% of agency respondents reported audits of employees and 6% audits of freelancers. Of concern, 37% of agency respondents reported requests from authors or sponsors that they believed were unethical, although 93% of these requests were withdrawn after respondents explained the need for compliance with guidelines. Most respondents’ departments (63% industry, 58% agency, 60% CRO) had been involved in publishing studies with negative or inconclusive results. Conclusions Within this sample

  10. The use of zero-valent iron for groundwater remediation and wastewater treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Fu, Fenglian; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Liu, Hong

    2014-02-28

    Recent industrial and urban activities have led to elevated concentrations of a wide range of contaminants in groundwater and wastewater, which affect the health of millions of people worldwide. In recent years, the use of zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the treatment of toxic contaminants in groundwater and wastewater has received wide attention and encouraging treatment efficiencies have been documented. This paper gives an overview of the recent advances of ZVI and progress obtained during the groundwater remediation and wastewater treatment utilizing ZVI (including nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI)) for the removal of: (a) chlorinated organic compounds, (b) nitroaromatic compounds, (c) arsenic, (d) heavy metals, (e) nitrate, (f) dyes, and (g) phenol. Reaction mechanisms and removal efficiencies were studied and evaluated. It was found that ZVI materials with wide availability have appreciable removal efficiency for several types of contaminants. Concerning ZVI for future research, some suggestions are proposed and conclusions have been drawn.

  11. Occurrence of pesticides in groundwater and sediments and mineralogy of sediments and grain coatings underlying the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Hladik, Michelle; Boehlke, Adam R.; Fishman, Neil S.; Battaglin, William A.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected from June through October 2007 from seven plots at the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, and analyzed for a suite of pesticides (including fungicides) and other physical and chemical parameters (including sediment mineralogy) by the U.S. Geological Survey. Plots were selected for inclusion in this study on the basis of the crops grown and the pesticides used. Forty-one pesticides were detected in 14 water samples; these include 5 fungicides, 13 herbicides, 1 insecticide, and 22 pesticide degradates. The following pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected in 50 percent or more of the groundwater samples: 1-amide-4-hydroxy-chorothalonil, alachlor sulfonic acid, metolachlor oxanilic acid, metolachlor sulfonic acid, metalaxyl, and simazine. Dissolved-pesticide concentrations ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 36 micrograms per liter (for metolachlor sulfonic acid, a degradate of the herbicide metolachlor). The total number of pesticides found in groundwater samples ranged from 0 to 29. Fourteen pesticides were detected in sediment samples from continuous cores collected within each of the seven sampled plots; these include 4 fungicides, 2 herbicides, and 7 pesticide degradates. Pesticide concentrations in sediment samples ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 34.2 nanograms per gram (for azoxystrobin). The total number of pesticides found in sediment samples ranged from 0 to 8. Quantitative whole-rock and grain-coating mineralogy of sediment samples were determined by x-ray diffraction. Whole-rock analysis indicated that sediments were predominantly composed of quartz. The materials coating the quartz grains were removed to allow quantification of the trace mineral phases present.

  12. Human interactions with ground-water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-Water could be considered as an immense reservoir, from which only a certain amount of water can be withdrawn without affecting the quantity and quality of water. This amount is determined by the characteristics of the environment in which ground-water occurs and by the interactions of ground-water with precipitation, surface water, and people. It should be recognized that quantity and quality of ground-water are intimately related and should be considered accordingly. Quantity refers to usable water and water is usable for any specific purpose only so long as its quality has not deteriorated beyond acceptable limits. Thus an overall quantitative and qualitative management of ground water is inevitable, and its should also involve the uses of ground-water reservoirs for purposes other than water supply. The main objective of ground-water management is to ensure that ground-water resources will be available in appropriate time and in appropriate quantity and quality to meet the most important demands of our society. Traditional, and obvious uses of ground-water are the extraction of water for water supplies (domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial) and the natural discharge feeding lakes and maintaining base flow of streams. Not so obvious are the uses of ground-water reservoirs, the very framework within which ground-water occurs and moves, and in which other fluids or materials can be stored. In the last two decades, ground-water reservoirs have been intensively considered for many other purposes than water supplies. Diversified and very often conflicting uses need to be evaluated and dealt with in the most efficient way in order to determine the importance of each possible use, and to assign priorities of these uses. With rising competition for the use of ground-water reservoirs, we will also need to increase the potential for effective planning of ground-water development and protection. Man's development and use of ground-water necessarily

  13. Assessing the research and education needs of the organic dairy industry in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Brito, A F; Townson, L L; Townson, D H

    2013-01-01

    certification were more interested in field testing of new organic products. Opportunities for educational programs included learning about direct marketing possibilities (76% respondents) and providing training to regional veterinarians interested in organic remedies (91%). In conclusion, the information obtained from the current needs assessment provides a foundation for future research proposals and educational outreach programs, germane to stakeholder needs, which could benefit the organic dairy industry within the region and beyond.

  14. The advancement of probiotics research and its application in fish farming industries.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Goutam; Ray, Arun Kumar

    2017-01-23

    Fish are always susceptible to a variety of lethal diseases caused by different types of bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic agents. The unscientific management practises such as, over feeding, high stock densities and destructive fishing techniques increase the probability of disease symptoms in aquaculture industries. According to Food and Agriculture Association (FAO), each and every year several countries such as China, India, Norway, Indonesia, etc. face a huge loss in aquaculture production due to mainly bacterial and viral diseases. The use of antibiotics is a common practise in fish farming sectors to control the disease outbreak. However, the antibiotics are not long term friend because it creates selective pressure for emergence of drug resistant bacteria. Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer several beneficial effects to host (enhances immunity, helps in digestion, protects from pathogens, improves water quality, promotes growth and reproduction) and can be used as an alternative of antibiotics. In recent year, a wide range of bacteria have reported as potential probiotics candidates in fish farming sectors, however, Lactobacillus sp. and Bacillus sp. gain special attention due to their high antagonistic activities, extracellular enzyme production and availability. In this present review, we have summarized the recent advancement in aquaculture probiotics research and its impact on fish health, nutrition, immunity, reproduction and water quality.

  15. Impact of Corporate Governance on Research and Development Investment in the Pharmaceutical Industry in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Munjae

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the corporate governance of pharmaceutical companies on research and development (R&D) investment. Methods The period of the empirical analysis is from 2000 to 2012. Financial statements and comments in general, and internal transactions were extracted from TS-2000 of the Korea Listed Company Association. Sample firms were those that belong to the medical substance and drug manufacturing industries. Ultimately, 786 firm-year data of 81 firms were included in the sample (unbalanced panel data). Results The shareholding ratio of major shareholders and foreigners turned out to have a statistically significant influence on R&D investment (p < 0.05). No statistical significance was found in the shareholding ratio of institutional investors and the ratio of outside directors. Conclusion The higher the shareholding ratio of the major shareholders, the greater the R&D investment. There will be a need to establish (or switch to) a holding company structure. Holding companies can directly manage R&D in fields with high initial risks, and they can diversify these risks. The larger the number of foreign investors, the greater the R&D investment, indicating that foreigners directly or indirectly impose pressure on a manager to make R&D investments that bring long-term benefits. PMID:26473092

  16. Spanish activities (research and industrial applications) in the field of microwave material treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Catala Civera, J.M.; Reyes Davo, E.R. de los

    1996-12-31

    The GCM (Microwave Heating Group) within the Communications Department at the Technical University of Valencia is dedicated to the study of microwaves and their use in the current industrial processes in the Valencian Community and in Spain. To this end, a microwave heating laboratory has been developed and the benefits of incorporating microwave technologies into current industrial processes have been demonstrated. In this paper some of the industrial applications which are being investigated are presented.

  17. Perspectives on stimulating industrial research and development for neglected infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Webber, D.; Kremer, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent thinking on stimulating industrial research and development (R&D) for neglected infectious diseases and argues that it is critical to enlarge the value of the market for medicines and vaccines through, for example, global purchase funds. The most important economic barriers to R&D are that the commercial markets are small and that individual purchasing power is severely limited, even though the number of patients may be very large. Since R&D costs for all diseases are high, this means that returns will not cover investments. Various mechanisms have been proposed to address this economic imbalance (accepting that other barriers will also need to be considered). Economic devices which reduce the costs of R&D--push factors--are useful, but our review suggests that high costs do not explain the shortfall in R&D. Economic devices which address the lack of viable markets have been termed pull factors and are designed to create or secure a market, thereby improving the likelihood of a return on investments. One pull mechanism is the commitment in advance to purchase a product that meets specified criteria, if invented. The purchase-precommitment approach has a number of attractive features. For example, it only rewards successful outputs rather than supporting research that may not succeed. Pull programmes effectively mimic the market and lead companies to favour lines of attack that they believe will lead to marketable products. Overall, a combination of push and pull mechanisms is likely to represent an attractive approach. This could combine, for example, increased funding for public laboratories, public-private partnerships in R&D, purchases of underutilized existing products, and a precommitment to purchase new drugs and vaccines when developed. PMID:11545330

  18. Development and Testing of a Moving Granular Bed Filter at the Taiwan Industrial Technology Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.Y.; Hsiau, S-S.; Lee, H-T.; Smid, J.; Wu, T-C.

    2002-09-18

    The main purpose of developing high temperature gas cleaning technologies are to clean the gas under high temperature in order to be cost effective and to improve energy efficiency. Moving granular bed filters are technically and economically applicable for high temperature cleaning system because of low cost, possible to keep operation at a constant pressure drop, simple structure, easy in operation and maintenance, no high risk internals, and more tolerant to process thermal flow. Energy and Resource Laboratories, Taiwan Industrial Technology Research Institute (ERL/ITRI) has been developing a moving granular bed filter (MGBF) for BIGCC(Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) high temperature gas cleanup. The filter granules move downwards directed by louver-like guide plates and the hot gases penetrate the MGBF horizontally. Filtration mechanisms include collection of the dust cake over the bed media surface and deep bed filtration. Stagnant zones of filter granules combining with the dusts always exist along the louver walls. Such stagnant zones often corrode the louver-like guide plates, increase the system pressure drop and decrease the total reaction efficiency that may endanger MGBF operation. Series louver and inert structure research that modify the granular flow pattern have been designed to eliminate the formation of these stagnant zones. By connecting to an auxiliary dust/bed media separation system, MGBF can be operated continuously at a stable pressure drop with a stable high efficiency. There are several MGBF R&D activities in progress: (1) a 3-dimensional cold flow system for testing the MGBF filtration efficiency; (2) a high temperature gas cleanup experimental system that has been designed and installed; (3) a 2-dimensional flow pattern experimental system for approving design concepts.

  19. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Drinking Purposes Using GIS Modelling (case Study: City of Tabriz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeihouni, M.; Toomanian, A.; Shahabi, M.; Alavipanah, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    Tabriz is the largest industrial city in North West of Iran and it is developing rapidly. A large proportion of water requirements for this city are supplied from dams. In this research, groundwater quality assessed through sampling 70 wells in Tabriz and its rural areas. The purposes of this study are: (1) specifying spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as Chloride, Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, hardness and sulphate (2) mapping groundwater quality for drinking purpose by employing Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method in the study area using GIS and Geosatistics. We utilized an interpolation technique of ordinary kriging for generating thematic map of each parameter. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality esaeicni from North to South and from West to East of the study area. The areas located in Center, South and South West of the study area have the optimum quality for drinking purposes which are the best locations to drill wells for supplying water demands of Tabriz city. In critical conditions, the groundwater quality map as a result of this research can be taken into account by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company as decision support system to drill new wells or selecting existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz city.

  20. The silence: the asbestos industry and early occupational cancer research--a case study.

    PubMed Central

    Lilienfeld, D E

    1991-01-01

    To gain insight into corporate activities regarding the identification of occupational carcinogens earlier in this century, the actions of one industry, the asbestos industry, were reviewed. This industry, in concert with many of its insurers, systematically developed and then suppressed information on the carcinogenicity of asbestos. The development of warnings for those exposed to the asbestos was delayed. As a result, millions of workers were exposed to the carcinogen and hundreds of thousands died. These events are placed into the context of similar activities in other industries during this time. Images p792-a p793-a p796-a PMID:2029056

  1. Utilization of Research Results in the Building Industry. A State of the Art Survey. Final Report for Period October 1972-June 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Duncan M.

    A problem in the building industry is the lack of coordination of research efforts and the time lag between the completion of research and the incorporation of the results in practice. A partial solution is attempted in this survey of current and past research dealing with innovation and other problems in the building industry and related…

  2. Global Climate Responses to Anthropogenic Groundwater Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y.; Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a groundwater exploitation scheme is incorporated into the earth system model, Community Earth System Model 1.2.0 (CESM1.2.0), which is called CESM1.2_GW, and the climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal are then investigated on global scale. The scheme models anthropogenic groundwater exploitation and consumption, which are then divided into agricultural irrigation, industrial use and domestic use. A group of 41-year ensemble groundwater exploitation simulations with six different initial conditions, and a group of ensemble control simulations without exploitation are conducted using the developed model CESM1.2_GW with water supplies and demands estimated. The results reveal that the groundwater exploitation and water consumption cause drying effects on soil moisture in deep layers and wetting effects in upper layers, along with a rapidly declining groundwater table in Central US, Haihe River Basin in China and Northern India and Pakistan where groundwater extraction are most severe in the world. The atmosphere also responds to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation. Cooling effects on lower troposphere appear in large areas of North China Plain and of Northern India and Pakistan. Increased precipitation occurs in Haihe River Basin due to increased evapotranspiration from irrigation. Decreased precipitation occurs in Northern India because water vapor here is taken away by monsoon anomalies induced by anthropogenic alteration of groundwater. The local reducing effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on total terrestrial water storage evinces that water resource is unsustainable with the current high exploitation rate. Therefore, a balance between slow groundwater withdrawal and rapid human economic development must be achieved to maintain a sustainable water resource, especially in over-exploitation regions such as Central US, Northern China, India and Pakistan.

  3. A Preliminary Exploration of Operating Models of Second Cycle/Research Led Open Education Involving Industry Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Scientists from five Swedish universities were interviewed about open second cycle education. Research groups and scientists collaborate closely with industry, and the selection of scientists for the study was made in relation to an interest in developing technology-enhanced open education, indicated by applications for funding from the Knowledge…

  4. When Triple Helix Unravels: A Multi-Case Analysis of Failures in Industry-University Cooperative Research Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Denis; Sundstrom, Eric; Tornatzky, Louis G.; McGowen, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative research centres (CRCs) increasingly foster Triple Helix (industry-university-government) collaboration and represent significant vehicles for cooperation across sectors, the promotion of knowledge and technology transfer and ultimately the acceleration of innovation. A growing social science literature on CRCs focuses on their…

  5. Trade and Industrial Education Research Committee. Proceedings of the Carrousel Session, American Vocational Association (Dallas, Texas, December 8, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Gene L., Ed.

    These proceedings contain the texts of five research reports that were presented at a conference dealing with trade and industrial education. The following papers are included: "A Survey of Teacher Attitudes and Beliefs Related to the Use of Microcomputers in Vocational Education," by Steve Chi-Yin Yuen; "Retraining for Robotics and Other Forms of…

  6. Exploring the Mechanisms of Knowledge Transfer in University-Industry Collaborations: A Study of Companies, Students and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Christian; Cappelen, Katja

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses mechanisms, enablers and barriers for knowledge transfer in university-industry collaboration projects involving companies, students and researchers. Data is collected through 35 qualitative interviews with Danish and Norwegian representatives from the above categories. All respondents have been involved in collaborative…

  7. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for industry from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and training (VET) and…

  8. University-Industry Partnerships: A Study of How Top American Research Universities Establish and Maintain Successful Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigge, George W.; Torraco, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative research study utilized the grounded theory tradition to examine organizational structures and processes in a purposefully selected sample of American universities that have established and maintained partnerships with industry. Institutional leaders from the corporate relations offices from fifteen of the top research…

  9. An Industry/Academe Consortium for Achieving 20% wind by 2030 through Cutting-Edge Research and Workforce Training

    SciTech Connect

    Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Marr, Jeffrey D.G.; Milliren, Christopher; Kaveh, Mos; Mohan, Ned; Stolarski, Henryk; Glauser, Mark; Arndt, Roger

    2013-12-01

    In January 2010, the University of Minnesota, along with academic and industry project partners, began work on a four year project to establish new facilities and research in strategic areas of wind energy necessary to move the nation towards a goal of 20% wind energy by 2030. The project was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy with funds made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. $7.9M of funds were provided by DOE and $3.1M was provided through matching funds. The project was organized into three Project Areas. Project Area 1 focused on design and development of a utility scale wind energy research facility to support research and innovation. The project commissioned the Eolos Wind Research Field Station in November of 2011. The site, located 20 miles from St. Paul, MN operates a 2.5MW Clipper Liberty C-96 wind turbine, a 130-ft tall sensored meteorological tower and a robust sensor and data acquisition network. The site is operational and will continue to serve as a site for innovation in wind energy for the next 15 years. Project Areas 2 involved research on six distinct research projects critical to the 20% Wind Energy by 2030 goals. The research collaborations involved faculty from two universities, over nine industry partners and two national laboratories. Research outcomes include new knowledge, patents, journal articles, technology advancements, new computational models and establishment of new collaborative relationships between university and industry. Project Area 3 focused on developing educational opportunities in wind energy for engineering and science students. The primary outcome is establishment of a new graduate level course at the University of Minnesota called Wind Engineering Essentials. The seminar style course provides a comprehensive analysis of wind energy technology, economics, and operation. The course is highly successful and will continue to be offered at the University. The vision of U.S. DOE to

  10. Catering and Hospitality Industry--Key Facts and Figures. Research Report. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjivassiliou, Kari

    According to reliable statistical information from a wide variety of sources, the hospitality industry in the United Kingdom is a significant growth industry that employed more than 2 million people (7% of the country's work force) in 1994. Of those individuals, 685,000 were employed in catering services sectors (with hospitals, retirement/nursing…

  11. Adult Literacy: Industry-Based Training Programs. Research and Development Series No. 265C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Ernest L.; And Others

    Nine industry-based adult literacy programs across the country were studied to identify exemplary training programs and practices that business and industry trainers, planners, and policymakers and individuals in the public education sector alike could replicate in designing adult literacy programs. Training programs offered by the following…

  12. Research on the Industry-Academia-Research Cooperation Mechanism of Local University and College--Take Changchun University of Science and Technology as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Qiong; Li, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Local university and college take as their own responsibilities to serve local economy and promote social development. For them, the cooperation mechanism "Industry-Academia-Research" is not only inevitable to keep up with the development of the times and education, but also necessary to adapt themselves to market demands. It is also the…

  13. Factors controlling the regional distribution of vanadium in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michael T; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Although the ingestion of vanadium (V) in drinking water may have possible adverse health effects, there have been relatively few studies of V in groundwater. Given the importance of groundwater as a source of drinking water in many areas of the world, this study examines the potential sources and geochemical processes that control the distribution of V in groundwater on a regional scale. Potential sources of V to groundwater include dissolution of V rich rocks, and waste streams from industrial processes. Geochemical processes such as adsorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, and chemical transformations control V concentrations in groundwater. Based on thermodynamic data and laboratory studies, V concentrations are expected to be highest in samples collected from oxic and alkaline groundwater. However, the extent to which thermodynamic data and laboratory results apply to the actual distribution of V in groundwater is not well understood. More than 8400 groundwater samples collected in California were used in this study. Of these samples, high (> or =50 microg/L) and moderate (25 to 49 microg/L) V concentrations were most frequently detected in regions where both source rock and favorable geochemical conditions occurred. The distribution of V concentrations in groundwater samples suggests that significant sources of V are mafic and andesitic rock. Anthropogenic activities do not appear to be a significant contributor of V to groundwater in this study. High V concentrations in groundwater samples analyzed in this study were almost always associated with oxic and alkaline groundwater conditions, which is consistent with predictions based on thermodynamic data.

  14. Climate change and groundwater ecohydrology: Simulating subsurface flow and discharge zones in Covey Hill, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levison, J.; Larocque, M.; Ouellet, M.; van Waterschoot, L.

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 2 billion people use groundwater and in Canada it is the potable water supply for about 30% of the population. Groundwater is also used in industrial and agricultural applications, and contributes to important hydrological habitats for various species. Limited research has been conducted to determine the potential impacts of climate change on groundwater. Local studies are crucial to better understand how, for example, increased duration and frequency of storms or drought periods may affect groundwater dependent ecosystems in order to anticipate and mitigate the impacts. Thus, the aim of this research is to explore the effects of climate change on a groundwater-surface water interacting system that supports a fragile ecosystem. This research is used to inform ecological conservation measures. The research site is the 17500 ha Covey Hill Natural Laboratory, which is located on the Quebec, Canada and New York State, USA border in the Chateauguay River watershed. At various locations within the Natural Laboratory there is continuous monitoring of groundwater levels and river flows. Covey Hill is an important recharge zone for the regional aquifer and provides habitat for endangered salamanders in discharge zones. Two hydrogeological models were constructed to represent flow at the site. First, a three-dimensional, finite difference model was developed using MODFLOW software to simulate overall groundwater flow at the research site. Second, a smaller-scale, discrete fracture, transient, three-dimensional, finite difference, integrated model was developed using HydroGeoSphere software to represent in better detail flow from bedrock springs that occur at mid-slope and provide the habitat for endangered salamanders. The models were used to: 1) observe groundwater flow under current climate conditions; 2) quantify water dynamics in response to climate change using 10 scenarios from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (for 1971-2000 and 2041-2070 time periods); and 3

  15. America's water: Agricultural water demands and the response of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, M.; Parthasarathy, V.; Etienne, E.; Russo, T. A.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

    2016-07-01

    Agricultural, industrial, and urban water use in the conterminous United States (CONUS) is highly dependent on groundwater that is largely drawn from nonsurficial wells (>30 m). We use a Demand-Sensitive Drought Index to examine the impacts of agricultural water needs, driven by low precipitation, high agricultural water demand, or a combination of both, on the temporal variability of depth to groundwater across the CONUS. We characterize the relationship between changes in groundwater levels, agricultural water deficits relative to precipitation during the growing season, and winter precipitation. We find that declines in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer and around the Mississippi River Valley are driven by groundwater withdrawals used to supplement agricultural water demands. Reductions in agricultural water demands for crops do not, however, lead to immediate recovery of groundwater levels due to the demand for groundwater in other sectors in regions such as Utah, Maryland, and Texas.

  16. Selection of melter systems for the DOE/Industrial Center for Waste Vitrification Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.

    1993-12-31

    The EPA has designated vitrification as the best developed available technology for immobilization of High-Level Nuclear Waste. In a recent federal facilities compliance agreement between the EPA, the State of Washington, and the DOE, the DOE agreed to vitrify all of the Low Level Radioactive Waste resulting from processing of High Level Radioactive Waste stored at the Hanford Site. This is expected to result in the requirement of 100 ton per day Low Level Radioactive Waste melters. Thus, there is increased need for the rapid adaptation of commercial melter equipment to DOE`s needs. DOE has needed a facility where commercial pilot scale equipment could be operated on surrogate (non-radioactive) simulations of typical DOE waste streams. The DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research (Center) was established in 1992 at the Clemson University Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Clemson, SC, to address that need. This report discusses some of the characteristics of the melter types selected for installation of the Center. An overall objective of the Center has been to provide the broadest possible treatment capability with the minimum number of melter units. Thus, units have been sought which have broad potential application, and which had construction characteristics which would allow their adaptation to various waste compositions, and various operating conditions, including extreme variations in throughput, and widely differing radiological control requirements. The report discusses waste types suitable for vitrification; technical requirements for the application of vitrification to low level mixed wastes; available melters and systems; and selection of melter systems. An annotated bibliography is included.

  17. Groundwater remediation: the next 30 years.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Paul W; Newell, Charles J

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater remediation technologies are designed, installed, and operated based on the conceptual models of contaminant hydrogeology that are accepted at that time. However, conceptual models of remediation can change as new research, new technologies, and new performance data become available. Over the past few years, results from multiple-site remediation performance studies have shown that achieving drinking water standards (i.e., Maximum Contaminant Levels, MCLs) at contaminated groundwater sites is very difficult. Recent groundwater research has shown that the process of matrix diffusion is one key constraint. New developments, such as mass discharge, orders of magnitude (OoMs), and SMART objectives are now being discussed more frequently by the groundwater remediation community. In this paper, the authors provide their perspectives on the existing "reach MCLs" approach that has historically guided groundwater remediation projects, and advocate a new approach built around the concepts of OoMs and mass discharge.

  18. Spatiotemporal Groundwater-Level Change for the Evaluation of Groundwater Use and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, K. C.; Willman, S.; Fernald, A.; Archambault, S.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainability of water resources is a particular concern in arid and semiarid regions including the southwestern USA. With increasing water needs and diminishing supplies due to drought, surface water shortfalls are leading to increased groundwater extraction. Groundwater extraction may provide short-term resiliency of the hydrologic system at the cost of long-term resource sustainability. Proactive conjunctive use of surface and subsurface water requires research-based information. The inaccessibility and variability in groundwater data can make it challenging to examine impacts of drought, changes in agriculture, and population variability. The purpose of this study was to advance our understanding of changes in groundwater levels and how they relate to water use dynamics. We utilized both spatial and temporal methods for evaluation of changes in groundwater level data. We compiled monitoring data provided by several government agencies in New Mexico, simulated, with loess regression, the temporal trends between data collection periods, and used geographic information system software to spatially represent changes in groundwater levels for various time intervals. Wells located closer to major rivers typically had lower rates of decrease in groundwater elevation. Areas without surface water had higher rates of groundwater elevation decrease. Several regions had reversals in groundwater-change trends from increasing groundwater elevation to decreasing and vice versa. There were some anomalously increasing groundwater elevations even when overall groundwater elevations decreased in certain areas. The rate of water-level change as a function of time shows promise for evaluation of groundwater use and dynamics, thus providing the basis for improved groundwater sustainability.

  19. The handbook of groundwater engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Delleur, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    From an engineering perspective, this book provides a practical treatment of groundwater flow; substance transport, well construction, groundwater production, site characterization, and remediation of groundwater pollution.

  20. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  1. The spatial and seasonal variability of the groundwater chemistry and quality in the exploited aquifer in the Daxing District, Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yuanzheng; Lei, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Li, Muzi; Wang, Jinsheng; Teng, Yanguo

    2015-02-01

    The aquifer in the Beijing Plain is intensively used as a primary source to meet the growing needs of the various sectors (drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes). The analysis of groundwater chemical characteristics provides much important information useful in water resources management. To characterize the groundwater chemistry, reveal its spatial and seasonal variability, and determine its quality suitability for domestic and agricultural uses, a total of 200 groundwater samples were collected in June and October 2012 from 100 exploited wells in Daxing District, Beijing, China. All of the indices (39 items) listed in the Quality Standard for Groundwater of China (QSGC) as well as eight additional common parameters were tested and analyzed for all samples, based on which research target was achieved. The seasonal effect on the groundwater chemistry and quality was very slight, whereas the spatial changes were very obvious. The aquifer is mainly dominated by HCO3-Ca·Mg-type water. Of the 39 quality indices listed in QSGC, 28 indices of all of the samples for the 2 months can be classified into the excellent level, whereas the remaining 11 indices can be classified into different levels with the total hardness, NO3, NO2, and Fe being the worst, mainly distributed in the residential and industrial land. According to the general quality index, the groundwater can be classified from good to a relatively poor level, mainly from southeast to northwest. Furthermore, the relatively poor-level area in the northwest expands to the southeast more than in the past years, to which people should pay attention because this reverse spatial distribution relative to the natural law indicates an obvious, anthropogenic impact on the groundwater. In addition, the groundwater in this area is generally very suitable for irrigation year-round. Nevertheless, we recommend performing agricultural water-saving measures for the sustainable development of water and urbanization

  2. Research and development separation technology: The DOE Industrial Energy Conservation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    This brochure summarizes the Office of Industrial Programs' RandD efforts in the advancement of separation technology. The purpose of this brochure is to provide interested parties with information on federal industrial energy conservation activities in separation technology. The brochure is comprised of the following sections: Separation Technology, summarizes the current state of separation technology and its uses. Potential Energy Savings, discusses the potential for industrial energy conservation through the implementation of advanced separation processes. Office of Industrial Programs' RandD Efforts in Separation Technology Development, describes the separation RandD projects conducted by IP. RandD Data Base, lists contractor, principal investigator, and location of each separation-related RandD effort sponsored by IP.

  3. Groundwater flow, variability, and transport pathways in the Mar Negro of the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (JBNERR) is a semi-enclosed ecosystem along the southeast coast of Puerto Rico. Agriculture, including vegetable, row crop, tree fruit, pasture, and poultry, is an important land use within the watershed. To better understand the potential impact of ...

  4. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  5. Problems of monitoring and long-term risk assessment for groundwater from high-volume solid waste sites in industrialized and developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twardowska, Irena; Singh, Gulab; Tripathi, Prem S. M.

    1999-12-01

    Despite considerable research effort put into characterizing environmental aspects of disposal and construction with high- volume 'non-hazardous' waste materials, there is still lack of satisfactory knowledge of their life cycle leaching behavior in the actual field conditions. This often results in false- negative errors in the long-term environment impact assessment (EIA) and severe damage to the renewable ground water resources in the area of the disposal sites either in the operational or post-closure period. This statement has been exemplified in two case studies: (1) Powerplant ash pond under operation sited in the Erai River basin (Maharastra, India), with open water circuit; (2) Reclaimed fly ash (FA) pond in a post-closure period at the dewatering stage sited in a sand quarry (Silesia, Poland). In the first case, EIA on the basis of the monitoring of entirely excess water discharged into the river, caused serious failure in preventing deterioration of usable ground water resources in several communities within and down-gradient of the FA pond. The second case study based on screening pore solution along the vertical profiles of the FA pond displayed deep transformation of FA properties in the post-closure period. At this stage, FA acidification and massive heavy metal release from its matrix due to the change of the saturation zone conditions into the vadose zone occurred. These examples clearly show a need of properly designed and operated life cycle screening/monitoring of the large-volume waste sites to provide an early alert to prevent degradation of recoverable ground water resources. Some concepts of cost-effective monitoring/screening for an early alert have been proposed.

  6. Potential Health Effects from Groundwater Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyer, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the growing awareness of potential toxicological effects of synthetic organic chemicals contaminating groundwater. Problems concerning pesticides, chlorination, epidemiologic studies, cancer, nephrotoxicity, and considerations of risk are addressed. Additional research in this area is advocated. (DH)

  7. Spatial distribution, temporal variation, and sources of heavy metal pollution in groundwater of a century-old nonferrous metal mining and smelting area in China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xing; Chen, Zhihua; Luo, Zhaohui

    2014-12-01

    This study first presents the spatial distribution, temporal variation, and sources of heavy metal pollution in groundwater of a nonferrous metal mine area in China. Unconfined groundwater was polluted by Pb, Zn, As, and Cu, in order, while confined karst water in the mines showed pollution in the following sequence: Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, and As. Pollution by Pb was widespread, while Zn, As, Cu, and Cd were found to be high in the north-central industrial region and to decrease gradually with distance from smelters and tailings. Vertically, more Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd have accumulated in shallow Quaternary groundwater, while more As have migrated into the deeper fracture groundwater in the local discharge area. Zn, Cd, and Cu concentrations in groundwater along the riverside diminished owing to reduced wastewater drainage since 1977, while samples in the confluence area were found to have increasing contents of Pb, Zn, As, Cu, and Cd since industrialization began in the 1990s. Sources of heavy metals in groundwater were of anthropogenic origin except for Cr. Pb originated primarily from airborne volatile particulates, wastewater, and waste residues and deposited continuously, while Zn, Cd, and Cu were derived from the wastewater of smelters and leakage of tailings, which corresponded to the related soil and surface residue researches. Elevated As values around factories might be the result of chemical reactions. Flow patterns in different hydrogeological units and adsorption capability of from Quaternary sediments restricted their cross-border diffusion.

  8. Examining the link between cash flow, market value, and research and development investment spending in the medical device industry.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Bryan P; Santerre, Rexford E

    2013-02-01

    Unlike the pharmaceutical industry, no empirical research has focused on the factors influencing research and development (R&D) spending in the medical device industry. To fill that gap, this study examines how R&D spending is influenced by prior year cash flow and corporate market value using multiple regression analysis and a panel data set of medical device companies over the period 1962-2008. The empirical findings suggest that the elasticities of R&D spending with respect to cash flow and corporate market value equal 0.58 and 0.31, respectively. Moreover, based upon these estimates, simulations show that the recently enacted excise tax on medical devices, taken alone, will reduce R&D spending by approximately $4 billion and thereby lead to a minimum loss of $20 billion worth of human life years over the first 10 years of its enactment.

  9. 76 FR 53816 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1217 RIN 0581-AD03 Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer... INFORMATION CONTACT: Maureen T. Pello, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Division, Fruit and... This rule establishes a Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and...

  10. UMTA’s Research and Development Program Should Pay Closer Attention to Transit Industry Needs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-20

    found that UMTA has not established an agency research policy or procedures that would provide its research offices and staff with standard criteria...for planning and carrying out their research activities. An agency research policy would be difficult to establish given UNTA’s current organizational...carrying out the agency’s research activities, an agency research policy could not be developed. Thus, other than formal statements made from time to

  11. Groundwater Modeling in Coastal Arid Regions Under the Influence of Marine Saltwater Intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Marc; Kolditz, Olaf; Grundmann, Jens; Liedl, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The optimization of an aquifer's "safe yield", especially within agriculturally used regions, is one of the fundamental tasks for nowaday's groundwater management. Due to the limited water ressources in arid regions, conflict of interests arise that need to be evaluated using scenario analysis and multicriterial optimization approaches. In the context of the government-financed research project "International Water Research Alliance Saxony" (IWAS), the groundwater quality for near-coastal, agriculturally used areas is investigated under the influence of marine saltwater intrusion. Within the near-coastal areas of the study region, i.e. the Batinah plains of Northern Oman, an increasing agricultural development could be observed during the recent decades. Simultaneously, a constant lowering of the groundwater table was registered, which is primarily due to the uncontrolled and unsupervised mining of the aquifers for the local agricultural irrigation. Intensively decreased groundwater levels, however, cause an inversion of the hydraulic gradient which is naturally aligned towards the coast. This, in turn,leads to an intrusion of marine saltwater flowing inland, endangering the productivity of farms near the coast. Utilizing the modeling software package OpenGeoSys, which has been developed and constantly enhanced by the Department of Environmental Informatics at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ; Kolditz et al., 2008), a three-dimensional, density-dependent model including groundwater flow and mass transport is currently being built up. The model, comprehending three selected coastal wadis of interest, shall be used to investigate different management scenarios. The main focus of the groundwater modelling are the optimization of well positions and pumping schemes as well as the coupling with a surface runoff model, which is also used for the determination of the groundwater recharge due to wadi runoff downstream of retention dams. Based on

  12. How to create innovation by building the translation bridge from basic research into medicinal drugs: an industrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Germann, Paul G; Schuhmacher, Alexander; Harrison, Juan; Law, Ronald; Haug, Kevin; Wong, Gordon

    2013-03-05

    The global healthcare industry is undergoing substantial changes and adaptations to the constant decline of approved new medical entities. This decrease in internal research productivity is resulting in a major decline of patent-protected sales (patent cliff) of most of the pharmaceutical companies. Three major global adaptive trends as driving forces to cope with these challenges are evident: cut backs of internal research and development jobs in the western hemisphere (Europe and USA), following the market growth potential of Asia by building up internal or external research and development capabilities there and finally, 'early innovation hunting' with an increased focus on identifying and investing in very early innovation sources within academia and small start-up companies. Early innovation hunting can be done by different approaches: increased corporate funding, establishment of translational institutions to bridge innovation, increasing sponsored collaborations and formation of technology hunting groups for capturing very early scientific ideas and concepts. This emerging trend towards early innovation hunting demands special adaptations from both the pharmaceutical industry and basic researchers in academia to bridge the translation into new medicines which deliver innovative medicines that matters to the patient. This opinion article describes the different modalities of cross-fertilisation between basic university or publicly funded institutional research and the applied research and development activities within the pharmaceutical industry. Two key factors in this important translational bridge can be identified: preparation of both partnering organisations to open up for new and sometime disruptive ideas and creation of truly trust-based relationships between the different groups allowing long-term scientific collaborations while acknowledging that value-creating differences are an essential factor for successful collaboration building.

  13. How to create innovation by building the translation bridge from basic research into medicinal drugs: an industrial perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The global healthcare industry is undergoing substantial changes and adaptations to the constant decline of approved new medical entities. This decrease in internal research productivity is resulting in a major decline of patent-protected sales (patent cliff) of most of the pharmaceutical companies. Three major global adaptive trends as driving forces to cope with these challenges are evident: cut backs of internal research and development jobs in the western hemisphere (Europe and USA), following the market growth potential of Asia by building up internal or external research and development capabilities there and finally, ‘early innovation hunting’ with an increased focus on identifying and investing in very early innovation sources within academia and small start-up companies. Early innovation hunting can be done by different approaches: increased corporate funding, establishment of translational institutions to bridge innovation, increasing sponsored collaborations and formation of technology hunting groups for capturing very early scientific ideas and concepts. This emerging trend towards early innovation hunting demands special adaptations from both the pharmaceutical industry and basic researchers in academia to bridge the translation into new medicines which deliver innovative medicines that matters to the patient. This opinion article describes the different modalities of cross-fertilisation between basic university or publicly funded institutional research and the applied research and development activities within the pharmaceutical industry. Two key factors in this important translational bridge can be identified: preparation of both partnering organisations to open up for new and sometime disruptive ideas and creation of truly trust-based relationships between the different groups allowing long-term scientific collaborations while acknowledging that value-creating differences are an essential factor for successful collaboration building. PMID

  14. Research on the property improvement of PVC using red mud in industrial waste residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xiaopeng; Li, Xingang; Shuai, Songxian

    2015-07-01

    Red mud is a red solid power waste that is discharged in the aluminium refinery industry during production. It is a strong alkali and can be categorized as polluting industrial residue. How to make comprehensive use of red mud has become a worldwide issue. In this paper, we put red mud into PVC (polyvinyl chloride polymer), taking advantage of the complicated chemical properties of red mud derived from the Bayer process. The results are compared with silica fume, coal ash and calcium carbonate under the same experimental conditions, which shows that improvement of PVC plastication can be achieved by adding red mud.

  15. The California Central Coast Research Partnership: Building Relationships, Partnerships, and Paradigms for University-Industry Research Collaboration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-28

    production of microalgae-based biofuels in closed-loop tubular photobioreactors and microalgae production in a vertical photobioreactor. Ilhami...Burd, D.V.M. 394 Assessment of single-use cold-chain packaging and logistics for temperature sensitive products . Jay Singh, Ph.D., Industrial...health. Michael W. Black, Ph.D., Biological Sciences 433 Extended shelf-life, performance-enhancing, dairy-based food products for the warfighter

  16. Beyond knowledge transfer: The social construction of autonomous academic science in university-industry agricultural biotechnology research collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscotti, Dina Louise

    Autonomy is a social product. Although some might view autonomy as the absence of social interference in individual action, it is in fact produced through social institutions. It enables social actors to act; it is the justification for the allocation of enormous public resources into institutions classified as "public" or "nonprofit;" it can lead to innovation; and, significantly, it is key to the public acceptance of new technologies. In this dissertation, I analyze the social construction of autonomy for academic science in U.S. university-industry agricultural biotechnology research collaborations. University-industry relationships (UIRs) are a site of concern about the influence of commercial interests on academic science. Agricultural biotechnology is a contentious technology that has prompted questions about the ecological and public health implications of genetically-modified plants and animals. It has also spurred awareness of the industrialization of agriculture and accelerating corporate control of the global food system. Through analysis of in-depth interviews with over 200 scientists and administrators from nine U.S. research universities and thirty agricultural biotechnology companies, I find that both the academy and industry have a vested interest in the social construction of the academy as an autonomous space from which claims to objective, disinterested scientific knowledge can be made. These claims influence government regulation, as well as grower and public acceptance of agricultural biotechnology products. I argue that the social production of autonomy for academic science can be observed in narratives and practices related to: (1) the framing of when, how and why academic scientists collaborate with industry, (2) the meanings ascribed to and the uses deemed appropriate for industry monies in academic research, and (3) the dissemination of research results into the public domain through publications and patents. These narratives and practices

  17. Development of an ultrasonic process for detoxifying groundwater and soil: Laboratory research. Annual report for fiscal year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.M.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting laboratory research to study the effectiveness of a new technique in which ultrasonic energy is used to convert chlorinated organic compounds into nonhazardous end products. Destruction efficiencies of greater than 99% were achieved for the organic compounds in aqueous solution. Key process parameters, such as solution pH values, steady-state temperatures under operating conditions, ultrasonic-power intensities, and oxidant concentrations, were investigated. In addition, a detailed chemical-kinetic mechanism for the destruction of the organic compounds under an ultrasonic filed was developed and incorporated into a computational model. The agreement between the model and experimental results is generally good.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Flow and Optimization of Groundwater Withdrawal in the Guadalupe Valley Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, R.; Kretzschmar, T.

    2006-12-01

    A regional groundwater flow model was developed, in order to evaluate the water table behavior in the region of the Guadalupe Valley, in Baja California, Mexico. The State of Baja California has been subject to an increment of the agricultural, urban and industrials activities, implicating a growing water-demand. However, the State is characterized by its semi-arid climate with low surface water availability; therefore, has resulted in an extensive use of groundwater in local aquifer. Water level measurements indicate there has been a decline in water levels in the Guadalupe Valley for the past 20 years. This study describes the use of groundwater optimization modeling to efficiently allocate the groundwater resources in the Guadalupe Valley. A 2- Dimensional groundwater flow was used along with optimization techniques to evaluate the effects of the current groundwater management alternative and to determine the optimal withdrawal rates for a variety of management alternatives in the Guadalupe Valley Aquifer. For all simulations, the objective of the optimization was to maximize total groundwater withdrawals. Both steady-state and transient calibration were carried out in order to obtain the best possible match to measured levels in the Guadalupe Valley Aquifer. The results of this simulation-optimization are as follows: (1) probably this should be an integrated hydrogeological evaluation that determines the conditions of the groundwater resource and permits planning a management of the Guadalupe Valley Aquifer; (2) a satisfactory match between calculated and measured water levels in the Guadalupe Valley Aquifer.

  19. Maximizing industry benefit through cooperation between federal, state and private-sector floricultural research efforts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    he USDA-ARS Greenhouse Production Research Group was established to provide a federally funded research emphasis on greenhouse crop production. It has focused on broad production issues (nutrition, water management, and energy conservation) by coordinating research between in-house researchers, Uni...

  20. Incorporating uncertainty into high-resolution groundwater supply models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rahman, A.; Hartono, S.; Carlson, D.; Willson, C.S.; ,

    2003-01-01

    Groundwater modeling is a useful tool for evaluating whether an acquifer system is capable of supporting groundwater withdrawals over long periods of time and what effect, if any, such activity will have on the regional flow dynamics as well as on specific public water, agricultural and industrial supplies. An overview is given of an ongoing groundwater modeling study of the Chicot Aquifer in southwestern Louisiana where a low-resolution groundwater model is being used to study the regional flow in the Chicot acquifer and to provide boundary conditions for higher-resolution inset models created using telescopic mesh refinement (TMR).

  1. Experiences with groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses developments in combating groundwater contamination. The papers include: Regulation of Groundwater; Utility Experiences Related to Existing and Proposed Drinking Water Regulations; Point-of-Use Treatment Technology to Control Organic and Inorganic Contamination; Hazardous Waste Disposal Practices and Groundwater Contamination; Reverse Osmosis Treatment to Control Inorganic and Volatile Organic Contamination; The Dilemma of New Wells Versus Treatment; Characteristics and Handling of Wastes From Groundwater Treatment Systems; and Removing Solvents to Restore Drinking Water at Darien, Connecticut.

  2. Future of groundwater modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, Christian D.; Panday, Sorab

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing need to better manage water resources, the future of groundwater modeling is bright and exciting. However, while the past can be described and the present is known, the future of groundwater modeling, just like a groundwater model result, is highly uncertain and any prediction is probably not going to be entirely representative. Thus we acknowledge this as we present our vision of where groundwater modeling may be headed.

  3. Education, Industrialization and Technical Progress in Mexico. IIEP Research Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padua, Jorge

    This report attempts to analyze the contributions of the educational system and job training programs to industrialization and technical progress in the Conubal zone of the Lower Balsas River of Mexico. The first of the study's three sections consists of two chapters that provide general background. Chapter 1, "Theories of Development and the…

  4. The California Central Coast Research Partnership: Building Relationships, Partnerships and Paradigms for University-Industry Collaboration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-25

    Ph.D. Biotechnology Institute, Inc., specializes in the use of genetically modified plants to produce non-food products , for example, industrial...treatment), Cerulean Pharmaceutical (animal science), Chandler-May (aerospace), Clorox (consumer products ), Cree (LED technology) DayOne Response Inc...medical devices) Lansmont Corporation (force protection), Maersk (shipping containers), MicroBioEngineering (algae production ), Monsanto (agriculture

  5. Why We Need to Think beyond the "Industry" in Alcohol Research and Policy Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, Clare

    2011-01-01

    The alcohol policy debate demands greater critical reflection on the complex and disaggregated nature of the alcohol industries in contrast to their frequent characterization as a coherent, monolithic and singular entity with a common goal. Such reflection is necessary in order to rethink the linked assumption that drinkers are vulnerable victims…

  6. Practical Guidance for Strengthening Private Industry Councils. Research and Evaluation Report Series 91-C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This document is divided into three volumes. Volume I describes what exemplary Private Industry Councils (PICS) do, Volume II explains why they are effective, and Volume III tells how to implement exemplary practice. Volume I contains case studies of 10 exemplary PICs organized by 7 topics areas (history and structure, policies and program…

  7. Industry Restructuring and Job Loss: Helping Older Workers Get Back into Employment. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Victor J.; Bowman, Kaye

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation and increased competition bring with them many benefits for business, consumers and the economy. But they can also result in the restructuring of industries not able to compete with changing economic markets. In the past, Australia has witnessed restructuring in many high-profile businesses, especially those in its manufacturing…

  8. Practical Problems in the Cement Industry Solved by Modern Research Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Robertson, Les D.

    1972-01-01

    Practical chemical problems in the cement industry are being solved by such techniques as infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption and arc spectroscopy, thermally evolved gas analysis, Mossbauer spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. (CP)

  9. A NASA/University/Industry Consortium for Research on Aircraft Ice Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, Glen W.

    1989-01-01

    From 1982 through 1987, an unique consortium was functioning which involved government (NASA), academia (Wichita State Univ.) and twelve industries. The purpose was the development of a better ice protection systems for aircraft. The circumstances which brought about this activity are described, the formation and operation recounted, and the effectiveness of the ventue evaluated.

  10. Work-Based Research Degrees: Systematic Cultivation through a University-Industry Network Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sense, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to expound on an innovative approach to cultivating work-based Doctorates and Masters of Philosophy degrees, which involves close collaboration between industry organisations and a tertiary institution. This paper also reports on an examination of the programme's structural ability to help develop the learning…

  11. Ground-water data for Michigan, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to make available the records of water levels in principal aquifers of the State through 1976 and to compile related data, such as records of ground-water pumpage. Also included in the report are data on municipal, public, and industrial water-supply facilities. Records of water levels in areas of heavy pumpage and in areas where changes are principally due to natural influences are illustrated or tabulated to allow comparison between these types of water-level fluctuations. Water levels and related data provide a record for the evaluation of available ground-water supplies. The long-term records serve as a framework to which short-term records may be related. This report is written for persons, municipalities, industries, institutions, consultants, drillers, and hydrologists interested in the groundwater resources of the State.

  12. Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: study design, ethics, and methodology.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, Julie; Hoban, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    The trafficking of women and children for work in the globalized sex industry is a global social problem. Quality data is needed to provide a basis for legislation, policy, and programs, but first, numerous research design, ethical, and methodological problems must be addressed. Research design issues in studying women trafficked for sex work (WTSW) include how to (a) develop coalitions to fund and support research, (b) maintain a critical stance on prostitution, and therefore WTSW (c) use multiple paradigms and methods to accurately reflect WTSW's reality, (d) present the purpose of the study, and (e) protect respondents' identities. Ethical issues include (a) complications with informed consent procedures, (b) problematic access to WTSW (c) loss of WTSW to follow-up, (d) inability to intervene in illegal acts or human rights violations, and (e) the need to maintain trustworthiness as researchers. Methodological issues include (a) constructing representative samples, (b) managing media interest, and (c) handling incriminating materials about law enforcement and immigration.

  13. Evaluating Adult Groundwater Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerakis, Argyrios

    1998-01-01

    One-day groundwater education workshops held to educate soil conservation personnel were assessed for effect on participant knowledge using a quasiexperimental design. Participants were tested on their groundwater knowledge and attitude toward groundwater conservation before and after the training. Participant scores improved significantly in only…

  14. Patient Engagement Practices in Clinical Research among Patient Groups, Industry, and Academia in the United States: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sophia K.; Selig, Wendy; Harker, Matthew; Roberts, Jamie N.; Hesterlee, Sharon; Leventhal, David; Klein, Richard; Patrick-Lake, Bray; Abernethy, Amy P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patient-centered clinical trial design and execution is becoming increasingly important. No best practice guidelines exist despite a key stakeholder declaration to create more effective engagement models. This study aims to gain a better understanding of attitudes and practices for engaging patient groups so that actionable recommendations may be developed. Methods Individuals from industry, academic institutions, and patient groups were identified through Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative and Drug Information Association rosters and mailing lists. Objectives, practices, and perceived barriers related to engaging patient groups in the planning, conduct, and interpretation of clinical trials were reported in an online survey. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of survey data followed a literature review to inform survey questions. Results Survey respondents (n = 179) valued the importance of involving patient groups in research; however, patient group respondents valued their contributions to research protocol development, funding acquisition, and interpretation of study results more highly than those contributions were valued by industry and academic respondents (all p < .001). Patient group respondents placed higher value in open communications, clear expectations, and detailed contract execution than did non–patient group respondents (all p < .05). Industry and academic respondents more often cited internal bureaucratic processes and reluctance to share information as engagement barriers than did patient group respondents (all p < .01). Patient groups reported that a lack of transparency and understanding of the benefits of collaboration on the part of industry and academia were greater barriers than did non–patient group respondents (all p< .01). Conclusions Despite reported similarities among approaches to engagement by the three stakeholder groups, key differences exist in perceived barriers and benefits to partnering with

  15. Research on the factors of return on equity: empirical analysis in Chinese port industries from 2000-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Port industries are the basic industries in the national economy. The industries have become the most modernized departments in every country. The development of the port industry is not only advantageous to promote the optimizing arrangement of social resources, but also to promote the growth of foreign trade volume through enhancing the transportation functions. Return on equity (ROE) is a direct indicator related to the maximization of company's wealth. It makes up the shortcomings of earnings per share (EPS). The aim of this paper is to prove the correlation between ROE and other financial indicators by choosing the listed port companies as the research objectives and selecting the data of these companies from 2000 to 2008 as empirical sample data with statistical analysis of the chartered figure and coefficient. The detailed analysis method used in the paper is the combination of trend analysis, comparative analysis and the ratio of the factor analysis method. This paper analyzes and compares all these factors and draws the conclusions as follows: Firstly, ROE has a positive correlation with total assets turnover, main profit margin and fixed asset ratio, while has a negative correlation with assets liabilities ratio, total assets growth rate and DOL. Secondly, main profit margin has the greatest positive effect on ROE among all these factors. The second greatest factor is total assets turnover, which shows the operation capacity is also an important indicator after the profitability. Thirdly, assets liabilities ratio has the greatest negative effect on ROE among all these factors.

  16. Research on the factors of return on equity: empirical analysis in Chinese port industries from 2000-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Port industries are the basic industries in the national economy. The industries have become the most modernized departments in every country. The development of the port industry is not only advantageous to promote the optimizing arrangement of social resources, but also to promote the growth of foreign trade volume through enhancing the transportation functions. Return on equity (ROE) is a direct indicator related to the maximization of company's wealth. It makes up the shortcomings of earnings per share (EPS). The aim of this paper is to prove the correlation between ROE and other financial indicators by choosing the listed port companies as the research objectives and selecting the data of these companies from 2000 to 2008 as empirical sample data with statistical analysis of the chartered figure and coefficient. The detailed analysis method used in the paper is the combination of trend analysis, comparative analysis and the ratio of the factor analysis method. This paper analyzes and compares all these factors and draws the conclusions as follows: Firstly, ROE has a positive correlation with total assets turnover, main profit margin and fixed asset ratio, while has a negative correlation with assets liabilities ratio, total assets growth rate and DOL. Secondly, main profit margin has the greatest positive effect on ROE among all these factors. The second greatest factor is total assets turnover, which shows the operation capacity is also an important indicator after the profitability. Thirdly, assets liabilities ratio has the greatest negative effect on ROE among all these factors.

  17. The California Central Coast Research Partnership: Building Relationships, Partnerships, and Paradigms for University-Industry Research Collaboration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-30

    plug, plug / silicone paste, plug / aquarium sealant). The best material combination was plug / epoxy, which survived all testing. We completed...Research. Research areas include nanotechnology; smart materials ; communications; computing; command and control; sensors; coastal monitoring; haptics... materials ; communications; computing; command and control; sensors; coastal monitoring; haptics; force protection; human performance; ESTOL; rockets

  18. The New Zealand framework for government and private sector research, and its operation with respect to the upstream petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    The New Zealand government has replaced its science bureaucracy with ten Crown Research Institutes, which are structured as government-owned limited-liability companies. Government research funding is allocated by a Foundation, while a small Ministry has been retained to deal exclusively with science policy. As a Crown Research Institute, the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences gains approximately 70% of its revenues from contracts with the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology, and the remainder from a wide range of consultancy services to several industries. Petroleum exploration and development is a particular focus, and applied research and consultancy activities in basin analysis, source rock and reservoir systems, thermal modelling etc. are underpinned by research programmes in related fundamental areas such as paleontology and deep crustal structure. Situated on an active plate boundary with a complex configuration and history of development, New Zealand serves as a natural laboratory in which to develop and test models of deformation and depositional systems. The Institute`s private-sector research funding, in many cases in collaboration with international partners, addresses such topics as Quaternary sequence stratigraphy, deep-water depositional systems, basin thermal modelling and charge prediction (including distribution of inert gases). The results of this research are applicable world-wide. Insights from active tectonic and depositional processes in New Zealand improve the effectiveness of exploration and development in older or less understood basins which have developed in complex subduction and strike-slip tectonic settings.

  19. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Z-Area Saltstone Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wells , D.

    2002-07-23

    Groundwater monitoring has been conducted at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility since 1987. At that time, groundwater monitoring was not required by the industrial landfill regulations, but a modest monitoring program was required by the operating permit. In 1996 SRS proposed a program based on direct push sampling. This program called for biennial direct push sampling within 25 feet of each waste-containing cell with additional samples being taken in areas where excessive cracking had been observed. The direct push proposal was accepted by The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Regulations were revised in 1998 and now include requirements for groundwater monitoring. The major elements of those regulations and their application at Z-Area are discussed. These are a point of compliance, groundwater protection standards, the groundwater monitoring system, sampling and analysis, and data evaluation and reporting.

  20. Pilot survey results to prioritize research needs in the watermelon industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is useful for researchers of any commodity to occasionally survey their clientele to monitor for new developments and make sure their research is focused on major problems. A discussion at the Watermelon Research and Development Working Group meeting in Asheville, NC (2006) led to the development...

  1. Resolving complex research data management issues in biomedical laboratories: Qualitative study of an industry-academia collaboration.

    PubMed

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L; Bova, G Steven; Wang, Jian; Ackerman, Christopher F; Berlinicke, Cynthia A; Chen, Steve H; Lindvall, Mikael; Zack, Donald J

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a distributed collaborative effort between industry and academia to systematize data management in an academic biomedical laboratory. Heterogeneous and voluminous nature of research data created in biomedical laboratories make information management difficult and research unproductive. One such collaborative effort was evaluated over a period of four years using data collection methods including ethnographic observations, semi-structured interviews, web-based surveys, progress reports, conference call summaries, and face-to-face group discussions. Data were analyzed using qualitative methods of data analysis to (1) characterize specific problems faced by biomedical researchers with traditional information management practices, (2) identify intervention areas to introduce a new research information management system called Labmatrix, and finally to (3) evaluate and delineate important general collaboration (intervention) characteristics that can optimize outcomes of an implementation process in biomedical laboratories. Results emphasize the importance of end user perseverance, human-centric interoperability evaluation, and demonstration of return on investment of effort and time of laboratory members and industry personnel for success of implementation process. In addition, there is an intrinsic learning component associated with the implementation process of an information management system. Technology transfer experience in a complex environment such as the biomedical laboratory can be eased with use of information systems that support human and cognitive interoperability. Such informatics features can also contribute to successful collaboration and hopefully to scientific productivity.

  2. Resolving Complex Research Data Management Issues in Biomedical Laboratories: Qualitative Study of an Industry-Academia Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L.; Bova, G. Steven; Wang, Jian; Ackerman, Christopher F.; Berlinicke, Cynthia A.; Chen, Steve H.; Lindvall, Mikael; Zack, Donald J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a distributed collaborative effort between industry and academia to systematize data management in an academic biomedical laboratory. Heterogeneous and voluminous nature of research data created in biomedical laboratories make information management difficult and research unproductive. One such collaborative effort was evaluated over a period of four years using data collection methods including ethnographic observations, semi-structured interviews, web-based surveys, progress reports, conference call summaries, and face-to-face group discussions. Data were analyzed using qualitative methods of data analysis to 1) characterize specific problems faced by biomedical researchers with traditional information management practices, 2) identify intervention areas to introduce a new research information management system called Labmatrix, and finally to 3) evaluate and delineate important general collaboration (intervention) characteristics that can optimize outcomes of an implementation process in biomedical laboratories. Results emphasize the importance of end user perseverance, human-centric interoperability evaluation, and demonstration of return on investment of effort and time of laboratory members and industry personnel for success of implementation process. In addition, there is an intrinsic learning component associated with the implementation process of an information management system. Technology transfer experience in a complex environment such as the biomedical laboratory can be eased with use of information systems that support human and cognitive interoperability. Such informatics features can also contribute to successful collaboration and hopefully to scientific productivity. PMID:26652980

  3. Research advances of antimicrobial peptides and applications in food industry and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shuo; Xu, Huanli; Wang, Fengshan

    2010-06-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are produced by a wide range of organisms and serve as their natural defenses against infection caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi. Because of the positively charge and amphipathic structure, AMPs kill target cells through diverse and complex mechanisms once in a target membrane and these special mechanisms are considered to be the critical factors for the less tendency of drug resistance development. Thus AMPs may become a new generation of promising antimicrobial agents in future anti-infection application. Additionally, AMPs can also be used in food industry and agriculture. On the basis of discussing the structural features, action mechanisms and sources, the applications of AMPs were reviewed in this paper, including in food industry, feedstuff, cultivation of disease-resistant transgenic plant, cultivation of transgenic animal, and aquaculture, especially the patented applications.

  4. Continuation of Research, Commercialization, and Workforce Development in the Polymer/Electronics Recycling Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mel Croucher; Rakesh Gupta; Hota GangaRao; Darran Cairns; Jinzing Wang; Xiaodong Shi; Jason Linnell; Karen Facemyer; Doug Ritchie; Jeff Tucker

    2009-09-30

    The MARCEE Project was established to understand the problems associated with electronics recycling and to develop solutions that would allow an electronics recycling industry to emerge. While not all of the activities have been funded by MARCEE, but through private investment, they would not have occurred had the MARCEE Project not been undertaken. The problems tackled and the results obtained using MARCEE funds are discussed in detail in this report.

  5. Space industrialization. Volume 1: An overview. [Marekt research, technology assessment, and economic impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Benefits accruing to the United States from the investment of public and private resources in space industralization are projected. The future was examined to characterize resource pressures, requirements and supply (population, energy, materials, food). The backdrop of probable events, attitudes, and trends against which space industralization will evolve were postulated. The opportunities for space industry that would benefit earth were compiled and screened against terrestrial alternatives. A cursory market survey was conducted for the selected services and products provided by these initiatives.

  6. Aerospace Systems Technical Research Operation Services (ASTROS) Industry Day (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Mechanics • RQRO – Experimental Demonstrations – World-Class Facilities & Testing Support For Rocket Propulsion Technologies and Systems...10x, reducing s/c propellant 10x, enabling lighter and/or more capable s/c Transition? In-House: • Test facilities • 8 vacuum chambers • Thruster...and facility operations for demonstrating next generation rocket propulsion technologies • Early Industry Involvement – Encourage competition

  7. The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Research and Development Leading to a Revolution in Technology and Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    likely. Some examples of areas being emphasized include the following: (1) creation of highly uniform arrays of carbon nanotubes with an electronic...Work on the development of multimodal carbon nanotube sensing platforms continues with industry partners. The emphasis of these efforts is on...Nanotechnology Initiative—Supplement to the President’s 2011 Budget 20 • For structural components, the program will emphasize the use of carbon nanotube threads

  8. Groundwater quality and simulation of sources of water to wells in the Marsh Creek valley at the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Appalachian Research Laboratory, Tioga County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.; Breen, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a November 2010 snapshot of groundwater quality and an analysis of the sources of water to wells at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Northern Appalachian Research Laboratory (NARL) near Wellsboro, Pennsylvania. The laboratory, which conducts fisheries research, currently (2011) withdraws 1,000 gallons per minute of high-quality groundwater from three wells completed in the glacial sand and gravel aquifer beneath the Marsh Creek valley; a fourth well that taps the same aquifer provides the potable supply for the facility. The study was conducted to document the source areas and quality of the water supply for this Department of Interior facility, which is surrounded by the ongoing development of natural gas from the Marcellus Shale. Groundwater samples were collected from the four wells used by the NARL and from two nearby domestic-supply wells. The domestic-supply wells withdraw groundwater from bedrock of the Catskill Formation. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, radiochemicals, dissolved gases, and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in water and carbon in dissolved carbonate to document groundwater quality. Organic constituents (other than hydrocarbon gases) associated with hydraulic fracturing and other human activities were not analyzed as part of this assessment. Results show low concentrations of all constituents. Only radon, which ranged from 980 to 1,310 picocuries per liter, was somewhat elevated. These findings are consistent with the pristine nature of the aquifer in the Marsh Creek valley, which is the reason the laboratory was sited at this location. The sources of water and areas contributing recharge to wells were identified by the use of a previously documented MODFLOW groundwater-flow model for the following conditions: (1) withdrawals of 1,000 to 3,000 gallons per minute from the NARL wells, (2) average or dry hydrologic conditions, and (3) withdrawals of 1,000 gallons per minute from a new

  9. Drilling effect on subsurface microbial community structure in groundwater from the -250 m gallery at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ise, K.; Amano, Y.; Sasaki, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    The deep geological disposal system is regarded as the most secure and practical disposal method of high-level radioactive waste in the world. In this disposal system, preservation of reducing condition is one of the key requirements, because most of radionuclides have low solubilities in such condition. However, the host rocks near the shafts and galleries would be affected by oxidization during the construction and operation period of a repository (for about 50 years). Therefore, the recovery of reducing condition after closing the repository should be verified. During the recovery processes, it is considered that microbial activities play important roles, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we monitored the changes in microbial communities by molecular method to evaluate microbial response toward the oxygen stress. The groundwater samples were collected from a borehole of 250 m depth at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, for two years immediately after drilling of a borehole without any contamination as much as possible. Immediately after drilling of the borehole, the phylotype related to Arcobacter spp. was dominated about 65 % of the total clone library. Arcobacter spp. is known as sulfide oxidizer and which can growth chemoautotrophically. Half a year later, the phylotype related to Azoarcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. known as nitrate reducing bacteria increased, instead of the phylotype related to Arcobacter spp. One year later, in addition to nitrate reducing bacteria, phylotype related to Dethiobacterspp. known as thiosulfate reducing bacteria was dominantly detected. Two years later, most of detected clones were related to uncultured species such as candidate division WS6 and JS1 which are detected frequently in deep-sea sediments. Our results indicate that these redox sequential reactions could contribute to the recovery and maintenance of reducing conditions and provide a conceptual model for evaluating the capacity to

  10. User Research Challenges in Harsh Environments: A Case Study in Rock Crushing Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palviainen, Janno; Leskinen, Hannele

    Rock crushing is an atypical part of process automation industry. Process automation deals with physical processes that are continuous in time and space and in which the product flows through the operations [3]. The typical areas of the industry are electricity generation and distribution, chemical manufacturing fabrication of cloth, metal wire, paper etc. Normally these large scale. systems are run by automation which is controlled in dedicated control rooms by well trained operators. At the quarries, there are often neither control rooms nor trained operators. In fact, the operators sometimes have no formal or informal training for their task except the help from their coworkers while they are working. In some market areas, the operators cannot even read. The operators are also not necessarily dedicated to operate the process and control the automation system, but to do other tasks and react to alarms and problems when they occur. Also, while most of process automation control is done indoors, this industry operates outdoors and may also have the automation system VI under normal weather conditions, leaving little chance for the operators to use paper and pen or paper manuals.

  11. Groundwater in geologic processes, 2nd edition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Sanford, Ward E.; Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the role of Groundwater in Geologic Processes has increased steadily over the past few decades. Hydrogeologists and geologists are now actively exploring the role of groundwater and other subsurface fluids in such fundamental geologic processes as crustal heat transfer, ore deposition, hydrocarbon migration, earthquakes, tectonic deformation, diagenesis, and metamorphism.Groundwater in Geologic Processes is the first comprehensive treatment of this body of inquiry. Chapters 1 to 4 develop the basic theories of groundwater motion, hydromechanics, solute transport, and heat transport. Chapter 5 applies these theories to regional groundwater flow systems in a generic sense, and Chapters 6 to 13 focus on particular geologic processes and environments. Relative to the first edition of Groundwater in Geologic Processes , this second edition includes a much more comprehensive treatment of hydromechanics (the coupling of groundwater flow and deformation). It also includes new chapters on "compaction and diagenesis," "metamorphism," and "subsea hydrogeology." Finally, it takes advantage of the substantial body of published research that has appeared since the first edition in 1998. The systematic presentation of theory and application, and the problem sets that conclude each chapter, make this book ideal for undergraduate- and graduate-level geology courses (assuming that the students have some background in calculus and introductory chemistry). It also serves as an invaluable reference for researchers and other professionals in the field

  12. Groundwater age for identification of baseline groundwater quality and impacts of land-use intensification - The National Groundwater Monitoring Programme of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Daughney, Christopher J.

    2012-08-01

    -use water, are 0.25 and 2.5 mg/L NO3-N, respectively. The change in groundwater quality from pristine baseline to low-intensity impact around 1880 coincides with the start of the meat export industry. The change in groundwater quality from low to high intensity landuse impact around 1955 coincides with the start of industrialised agriculture. No elevated levels of phosphate, a main compound in agricultural fertilisers and, together with nitrogen, a trigger of algae blooms in lakes, were found in young groundwater. This implies that fertiliser phosphate from non-point sources is still retained in the soil and has not yet reached the saturated groundwater systems. The source of elevated PO4, observed only in old groundwater, is therefore due purely to natural geochemical factors.

  13. Groundwater chemical and microbiological composition in Aptian-Cenomanian deposits (Kaimisovsky oil-gas bearing province)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalivaiko, N. G.; Dutova, E. M.; Spiridonov, T. S.; Pokrovsky, D. S.; Pokrovskiy, V. D.

    2016-09-01

    This paper reveals the investigation results of the groundwater chemical and microbiological composition in Aptian-Cenomanian deposits, Kaimisovsky oil-gas bearing province. The mineral-forming behavior of the groundwater was evaluated. It was determined that the diversity of microbial communities could be corrosive- harmful for the groundwater used in reservoir pressure maintenance systems. According to the research results it is necessary to study the groundwater microorganisms in Aptian-Cenomanian deposits and their influence on groundwater itself.

  14. Petrophysical analysis of geophysical logs of the National Drilling Company-U.S. Geological Survey ground-water research project for Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Petricola, Mario

    1994-01-01

    A program of borehole-geophysical logging was implemented to supply geologic and geohydrologic information for a regional ground-water investigation of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Analysis of geophysical logs was essential to provide information on geohydrologic properties because drill cuttings were not always adequate to define lithologic boundaries. The standard suite of logs obtained at most project test holes consisted of caliper, spontaneous potential, gamma ray, dual induction, microresistivity, compensated neutron, compensated density, and compensated sonic. Ophiolitic detritus from the nearby Oman Mountains has unusual petrophysical properties that complicated the interpretation of geophysical logs. The density of coarse ophiolitic detritus is typically greater than 3.0 grams per cubic centimeter, porosity values are large, often exceeding 45 percent, and the clay fraction included unusual clays, such as lizardite. Neither the spontaneous-potential log nor the natural gamma-ray log were useable clay indicators. Because intrinsic permeability is a function of clay content, additional research in determining clay content was critical. A research program of geophysical logging was conducted to determine the petrophysical properties of the shallow subsurface formations. The logging included spectral-gamma and thermal-decay-time logs. These logs, along with the standard geophysical logs, were correlated to mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry as determined from sidewall cores. Thus, interpretation of lithology and fluids was accomplished. Permeability and specific yield were calculated from geophysical-log data and correlated to results from an aquifer test. On the basis of results from the research logging, a method of lithologic and water-resistivity interpretation was developed for the test holes at which the standard suite of logs were obtained. In addition, a computer program was developed to assist in the analysis of log data. Geohydrologic properties were

  15. Government-industry-uUniversity and rResearch lLaboratories cCoordination for new product development: Session 2. Government research laboratory perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1997-09-01

    This talk is the second in an expanded series of presentations on the Government-Industry-University and Research Laboratories Coordination for new product development, which is a timely and important public policy issue. Such interactions have become particularly timely in light of the present decline in funding for research and development (R&D) in the nation`s budget and in the private sector. These interactions, at least in principle, provide a means to maximize benefits for the greater good of the nation by pooling the diminishing resources. National laboratories, which traditionally interacted closely with the universities in educational training, now are able to also participate closely with industry in joint R&D thanks to a number of public laws legislated since the early 80s. A review of the experiences with such interactions at Argonne National Laboratory, which exemplifies the national laboratories, shows that, despite differences in their traditions and the missions, the national laboratory-industry-university triangle can work together.

  16. The strategic research agenda of the Technology Platform Photonics21: European component industry for broadband communications and the FP 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thylén, Lars

    2006-07-01

    The design and manufacture of components and systems underpin the European and indeed worldwide photonics industry. Optical materials and photonic components serve as the basis for systems building at different levels of complexity. In most cases, they perform a key function and dictate the performance of these systems. New products and processes will generate economic activity for the European photonics industry into the 21 st century. However, progress will rely on Europe's ability to develop new and better materials, components and systems. To achieve success, photonic components and systems must: •be reliable and inexpensive •be generic and adaptable •offer superior functionality •be innovative and protected by Intellectual Property •be aligned to market opportunities The challenge in the short-, medium-, and long-term is to put a coordinating framework in place which will make the European activity in this technology area competitive as compared to those in the US and Asia. In the short term the aim should be to facilitate the vibrant and profitable European photonics industry to further develop its ability to commercialize advances in photonic related technologies. In the medium and longer terms the objective must be to place renewed emphasis on materials research and the design and manufacturing of key components and systems to form the critical link between science endeavour and commercial success. All these general issues are highly relevant for the component intensive broadband communications industry. Also relevant for this development is the convergence of data and telecom, where the low cost of data com meets with the high reliability requirements of telecom. The text below is to a degree taken form the Strategic Research Agenda of the Technology Platform Photonics 21 [1], as this contains a concerted effort to iron out a strategy for EU in the area of photonics components and systems.

  17. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS.

    PubMed

    Krishna, R; Iqbal, J; Gorai, A K; Pathak, G; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table (D), net recharge (R), aquifer media (A), soil media (S), topography or slope (T), impact of vadose zone (I) and hydraulic Conductivity(C)] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management.

  18. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, R.; Iqbal, J.; Pathak, G.; Tuluri, F.; Tchounwou, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table (D), net recharge (R), aquifer media (A), soil media (S), topography or slope (T), impact of vadose zone (I) and hydraulic Conductivity(C)] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management. PMID:26557470

  19. The California Central Coast Research Partnership: Building Relationships, Partnerships and Paradigms for University-Industry Research Collaboration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-26

    research reports ............................................................ 28-655 1. Results of CADRC research - Knowledge management using semantic... management team, operational since January 󈧆, continues to lead the project and develop the collaborative relationships between the educational and...for the project, valued at -$1.5 million "o provided assistance in financial management of the project "o contributed $90,000 for a pre-feasibility

  20. CFC concentrations in fresh groundwater in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikše, J.; DÄ`liĆa, A.; Babre, A.; RetiÄ·e, I.; Raga, B.; PÄ`rkone, E.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main issues in groundwater studies is groundwater age, also known as residence time. This is important for investigating the groundwater filtration rate and to solve variety issues of groundwater use, management and protection. Groundwater age studies in Latvia have been rare, and the latest study, which defined the new results of age of groundwater using CFC dating method, was during years 2002 - 2006 and it was carried out by Denmark and Greenland Geological Survey (GEUS) and the Latvian State Geological Survey as a joint study on the impact of agriculture on groundwater quality in Latvia. Within the project "Interdisciplinary research groups and model system for groundwater studies" (PUMA) the studies of groundwater age by CFCs and 3H methods is continued. The concentration of tritium will be determined in about 60 samples, but the CFC concentration is now analyzed in 39 samples because previous studies have shown that Latvian CFC method is appropriate for aquifers to an average depth of 30-50 m. CFCs concentrations were analyzed in the laboratory at GEUS after Busenberg and Plummer described method by gas chromatography equipped with an EDC detector. Interpretation of the results was carried out by laboratory expert Troels Laier. Samples are taken on both from the unconfined aquifer and the first confined aquifer, the sampling interval varies from 5-10 m up to 120-130 m for tritium analysis and up to 80 m depth for most CFC analysis except one sample that comes from 128 m depth. It is stated that most of determined groundwater from both - confined and unconfined aquifer - has residence time of 35-55 years. So far, the results suggest that groundwater movement is fairly rapid in places where fractured dolomite forms the aquifer as the water residence time at 60-70 m depth is only 35-55 years. On the other hand, the composition of overlying Quaternary deposits (clay, glacial till loam or sand, sand - gravel sediments) has great importance on variations