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Sample records for ineel subregional conceptual

  1. INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report; Volume 1 - Summary of Existing Knowledge of Natural and Anthropogenic Influences Governing Subsurface Contaminant Transport in the INEEL Subregion of the Eastern Snake River Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Wichlacz, Paul Louis; Orr, Brennan

    2002-08-01

    The National Research Council has defined a conceptual model as ''an evolving hypothesis identifying the important features, processes, and events controlling fluid flow and contaminant transport of consequence at a specific field site in the context of a recognized problem''. Presently, several subregional conceptual models are under development at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Additionally, facility-specific conceptual models have been described as part of INEEL environmental restoration activities. Compilation of these models is required to develop a comprehensive conceptual model that can be used to strategically plan for future groundwater research activities at the INEEL. Conceptual models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the INEEL include the description of the geologic framework, matrix hydraulic properties, and inflows and outflows. They also include definitions of the contaminant source term and contaminant transport mechanisms. The geologic framework of the INEEL subregion is described by the geometry of the system, stratigraphic units within the system, and structural features that affect groundwater flow and contaminant transport. These elements define geohydrologic units that make up the Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA). The United States Geological Survey (USGS) conceptual model encompasses approximately 1,920 mi2 of the eastern Snake River Plain. The Waste Area Group (WAG)-10 model includes the USGS area and additional areas to the northeast and southeast. Both conceptual models are bounded to the northwest by the Pioneer Mountains, Lost River Range, and Lemhi Mountains. They are bounded to the southeast by groundwater flow paths determined from aquifer water-level contours. The upgradient extent of the USGS model is a water-level contour that includes the northeastern boundary of the INEEL. The WAG-10 model includes more of the Mud Lake area to utilize previous estimates of underflow into the

  2. INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report Volume 2: Summary of Existing Knowledge of Geochemical Influences on the Fate and Transport of Contaminants in the Subsurface at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul L. Wichlacz; Robert C. Starr; Brennon Orr

    2003-09-01

    This document summarizes previous descriptions of geochemical system conceptual models for the vadose zone and groundwater zone (aquifer) beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The primary focus is on groundwater because contaminants derived from wastes disposed at INEEL are present in groundwater, groundwater provides a pathway for potential migration to receptors, and because geochemical characteristics in and processes in the aquifer can substantially affect the movement, attenuation, and toxicity of contaminants. The secondary emphasis is perched water bodies in the vadose zone. Perched water eventually reaches the regional groundwater system, and thus processes that affect contaminants in the perched water bodies are important relative to the migration of contaminants into groundwater. Similarly, processes that affect solutes during transport from nearsurface disposal facilities downward through the vadose zone to the aquifer are relevant. Sediments in the vadose zone can affect both water and solute transport by restricting the downward migration of water sufficiently that a perched water body forms, and by retarding solute migration via ion exchange. Geochemical conceptual models have been prepared by a variety of researchers for different purposes. They have been published in documents prepared by INEEL contractors, the United States Geological Survey (USGS), academic researchers, and others. The documents themselves are INEEL and USGS reports, and articles in technical journals. The documents reviewed were selected from citation lists generated by searching the INEEL Technical Library, the INEEL Environmental Restoration Optical Imaging System, and the ISI Web of Science databases. The citation lists were generated using the keywords ground water, groundwater, chemistry, geochemistry, contaminant, INEL, INEEL, and Idaho. In addition, a list of USGS documents that pertain to the INEEL was obtained and manually searched

  3. INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report Volume 3: Summary of Existing Knowledge of Natural and Anthropogenic Influences on the Release of Contaminants to the Subsurface Environment from Waste Source Terms at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul L. Wichlacz

    2003-09-01

    This source-term summary document is intended to describe the current understanding of contaminant source terms and the conceptual model for potential source-term release to the environment at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), as presented in published INEEL reports. The document presents a generalized conceptual model of the sources of contamination and describes the general categories of source terms, primary waste forms, and factors that affect the release of contaminants from the waste form into the vadose zone and Snake River Plain Aquifer. Where the information has previously been published and is readily available, summaries of the inventory of contaminants are also included. Uncertainties that affect the estimation of the source term release are also discussed where they have been identified by the Source Term Technical Advisory Group. Areas in which additional information are needed (i.e., research needs) are also identified.

  4. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  5. Summary of Vadose -- Zone Conceptual Models for Flow and Contaminant Transport and 1999 - 2003 Progress on Resolving Deficiencies in Understanding the Vadose Zone at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Starr; Dana L. Dettmers; Brennon R. Orr; Thomas R. Wood

    2003-12-01

    The thick vadose zone that underlies the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been recognized both as an avenue through which contaminants disposed at or near the ground surface can migrate to groundwater in the underlying Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, and as a barrier to the movement of contaminants into the aquifer. Flow and contaminant transport in the vadose zone at the INEEL is complicated by the highly heterogeneous nature of the geologic framework and by the variations in the behavior of different contaminants in the subsurface. The state of knowledge concerning flow and contaminant transport in the vadose zone at and near the INEEL IN 1999 was summarized in Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (Wood et al., 2000). These authors identified deficiencies in knowledge of flow and contaminant transport processes in the vadose zone, and provided recommendations for additional work that should be conducted to address these deficiencies. In the period since (Wood et al., 2000) was prepared, research has been published that, to some degree, address these deficiencies. This document provides a bibliography of reports, journal articles, and conference proceedings published 1999 through mid-2003 that are relevant to the vadose zone at or near the INEEL and provides a brief description of each work. Publications that address specific deficiencies or recommendations are identified, and pertinent information from selected publications is presented.

  6. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will

  7. INEEL Summary on Calcination

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, Dirk

    2003-12-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing to recover 235U and 80Kr began at the INEEL in 1953. The resulting acidic high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLW) was stored in stainless steel tanks in underground concrete vaults. A fluidized-bed calcination process was developed during the 1950s to form a granular calcine solid from the acidic HLW with a seven-fold volume reduction. An engineering-scale demonstration, the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) was constructed and operated in 1963. After the successful demonstration of the process, the WCF was continued as a production facility through 1981, Calcining 15,000 m3 of HLW to 2,160 m3 of calcine.1 The New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) was designed and constructed based on the operating experience of the WCF, and began operation in 1982. With a rated capacity of 3,000 gallons/day, the NWCF continued waste processing operations through May of 2000, resulting in an additional 2,226 m3 of calcine (total current inventory of 4,386 m3).2 During waste processing at the NWCF, sodium-bearing waste (SBW) from decontamination activities was blended with HLW to minimize alkali (sodium and potassium) concentrations in the calciner feed solution. This was necessary due to the propensity of sodium and potassium nitrates to melt in the calciner, causing the bed to agglomerate and interfere with fluidization. However, near the end of HLW processing, work was initiated to modify the calcination process to treat SBW directly, blending it with chemical additives such as aluminum nitrate rather than lower alkali content HLW liquids. The result of this development effort was to increase the operating temperature of the calciner from 500°C to 600°C. The 600°C SBW flowsheet was successfully demonstrated at the NWCF during two separate trials during 1999 and 2000.3, 4 The conclusion from these demonstrations was that operating the existing NWCF at 600°C is a viable method for solidifying SBW, and this concept is currently being evaluated

  8. INEEL Vadose Zone Research Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, G.; Hull, L.; Ansley, S.; Versteeg, R.; Scott, C.; Street, L.

    2003-12-01

    The Vadose Zone Research Park was developed to address mission critical issues related to operations, waste management, and environmental restoration at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are located over thick vadose zones. The research park provides instrumentation and facilities for scientists to address vadose zone processes that are important in assessing operational activities, remedial measures, and long-term stewardship of DOE lands. The park, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is strategically located along the Big Lost River, an intermittent river, and around two new percolation ponds. This location provides the opportunity to study variable recharge from the river, continuous recharge from the ponds, and the interactions between the two sources. Drilling began in September 2000 and was completed in June 2001. Thirty one wells and instrumented boreholes have been installed at the park to monitor perched water, measure moisture movement, collect water and gas samples, and study intra-well geophysical properties. Nine of the boreholes, ranging in depth from 150 ft to 504 ft below land surface (bls), are instrumented to monitor moisture in the vadose zone. Instruments include: tensiometers, moisture content sensors, suction lysimeters, temperature sensors, gas ports and electrodes for electrical resistance tomography. Electrodes are evenly spaced throughout the borehole with hydrologic instruments concentrated in and near the sedimentary interbeds-discontinuous layers of silts and clays that occur between some basalt flows. Eighteen monitoring wells, ranging in depth from 60 ft to 250 ft bls, are completed with 4 or 6 inch PVC casing, and generally include an electrical resistivity electrode array attached to the casing. Three bore holes are constructed for testing cross-hole ground penetrating radar as well as for testing new nuclear logging tools being designed at the INEEL. The remaining borehole contains only

  9. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    SciTech Connect

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  10. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  11. INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kooda, K. E.; Galloway, K.; McCray, C. W.; Aitken, D. W.

    2003-02-26

    Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

  12. INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kooda, Kevin Evan; Mc Cray, Casey William; Aitken, Darren William; Galloway, Kelly

    2003-02-01

    Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

  13. INEEL Institutional Plan - FY 2000-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Enge, Ray Stevenson

    1999-11-01

    In this first Institutional Plan prepared by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC, for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the INEEL will focus it's efforts on three strategic thrusts; (1) Environmental Management stewardship for DOE-EM, (2) Nuclear reactor technology for DOE-Nuclear Energy (NE), and (3) Energy R&D, demonstration, and deployment (initial focus on biofuels and chemical from biomass). The first strategic thrust focuses on meeting DOE-EM's environmental cleanup and long-term stewardship needs in a manner that is safe, cost-effective, science-based, and approved by key stakeholders. The science base at the INEEL will be further used to address a grand challenge for the INEEL and the DOE complex - the development of a fundamental scientific understanding of the migration of subsurface contaminants. The second strategic thrust is directed at DOE-NE's needs for safe, economical, waste-minimized, and proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies. As NE lead laboratories, the INEEL and ANL will pursue specific priorities. The third strategic thrust focuses on DOE's needs for clean, efficient, and renewable energy technology. As an initial effort, the INEEL will enhance its capability in biofuels, bioprocessing, and biochemicals. The content of this Institutional Plan is designed to meet basic DOE requirements for content and structure and reflect the key INEEL strategic thrusts. Updates to this Institutional Plan will offer additional content and resource refinements.

  14. Implementation of the INEEL safety analyst training standard

    SciTech Connect

    E. E. Hochhalter

    2000-04-28

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed.

  15. Implementation of the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Hochhalter, E Eugene

    2000-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed.

  16. 24. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING BLOWER BUILDING. INEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING BLOWER BUILDING. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-4407. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Thomas Ronald; Bates, Dona Louise; Bishop, Carolyn Wagoner; Heard, Robert Eugene; Hubbell, Joel Michael; Hull, Laurence Charles; Lehman, Richard Michael; Magnuson, Swen O; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Mccarthy, James Michael; Porro, Indrek; Ritter, Paul David; Roddy, Michael Scott; Singler, Robert Edward; Smith, Richard Paul

    2000-08-01

    Subsurface contamination in the vadose zone, that portion of the subsurface pathway between land surface and an underlying aquifer, poses environmental problems at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in eastern Idaho and across the U.S. Department of Energy complex. Assessing potential adverse impacts from these contaminated sites requires an understanding of the mechanisms controlling contaminant transport. Currently, vadose zone experts at the INEEL cannot with confidence predict the movement of water and contaminants in the complex, heterogeneous, fractured subsurface at the INEEL, especially within the vadose zone. In the draft version (Revision 1) of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, deficiencies in scientific understanding of flow and transport processes in the vadose zone at the INEEL were identified and grouped into 13 categories and recommendations were provided to address each of the deficiencies. The draft document provided the basis for an INEEL Vadose Zone Workshop that was conducted October 20 and 21, 1999, in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The workshop was conducted to group and rank the previously identified deficiencies and for the subsequent development of science plans to address the deficiencies that limit reliable predictions of water and contaminant movement in the subsurface. The workshop participants, comprising INEEL and scientists and project managers and non-INEEL scientists knowledgeable about the vadose zone, developed science- and technology-based recommendations derived through a series of technical sessions at the workshop. In this document, the final version of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, the draft document has been incorporated, largely intact, as well as the results from the workshop. The workshop participants grouped the deficiencies in vadose zone understanding at the INEEL into seven categories. These seven categories will be the focus areas of five science plans that are being developed to

  18. Soil Stabilization and Revegetation at the INEEL Recommendations for Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Blew, R.D.; Jackson, M.R.; Forman, A.D.

    2003-03-24

    Soil stabilization for the INEEL Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) has mostly been by revegetation, but has experienced only limited success. The purpose of this report is to discuss issues associated with revegetation failures and to explore possible remedies.

  19. 34. DOOR AND WINDOW DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200063300287106358. FLUOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DOOR AND WINDOW DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106358. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-8. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. 33. ROOF PLAN AND DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200063300287106357. FLUOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. ROOF PLAN AND DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106357. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-7. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. 27. ELEVATIONS OF EAST AND WEST SIDES. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. ELEVATIONS OF EAST AND WEST SIDES. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106355. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. 28. NORTH AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS AND TWO SECTIONS. INEEL DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. NORTH AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS AND TWO SECTIONS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106356. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. 35. MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200063300287106359. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106359. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-9. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Capturing subregional variability in regional-scale climate change vulnerability assessments of natural resources.

    PubMed

    Buotte, Polly C; Peterson, David L; McKelvey, Kevin S; Hicke, Jeffrey A

    2016-03-15

    Natural resource vulnerability to climate change can depend on the climatology and ecological conditions at a particular site. Here we present a conceptual framework for incorporating spatial variability in natural resource vulnerability to climate change in a regional-scale assessment. The framework was implemented in the first regional-scale vulnerability assessment conducted by the US Forest Service. During this assessment, five subregional workshops were held to capture variability in vulnerability and to develop adaptation tactics. At each workshop, participants answered a questionnaire to: 1) identify species, resources, or other information missing from the regional assessment, and 2) describe subregional vulnerability to climate change. Workshop participants divided into six resource groups; here we focus on wildlife resources. Participants identified information missing from the regional assessment and multiple instances of subregional variability in climate change vulnerability. We provide recommendations for improving the process of capturing subregional variability in a regional vulnerability assessment. We propose a revised conceptual framework structured around pathways of climate influence, each with separate rankings for exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. These revisions allow for a quantitative ranking of species, pathways, exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity across subregions. Rankings can be used to direct the development and implementation of future regional research and monitoring programs. The revised conceptual framework is equally applicable as a stand-alone model for assessing climate change vulnerability and as a nested model within a regional assessment for capturing subregional variability in vulnerability.

  5. Understanding Fluid and Contaminant Movement in the Unsaturated Zone Using the INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, J. M.; Mattson, E. D.; Sisson, J. B.; Magnuson, S. O.

    2002-02-26

    DOE has hundreds of contaminated facilities and waste sites requiring cleanup and/or long-term monitoring. These contaminated sites reside in unsaturated soils (i.e. the vadose zone) above the water table. Some of these sites will require active remediation activities or removal while other sites will be placed under institutional controls. In either case, evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation strategy or institutional controls will require monitoring. Classical monitoring strategies implemented at RCRA/CERCLA sites require ground water sampling for 30 years following closure. The overall effectiveness of ground water sampling is diminished due to the fact that by the time you detect chemical transport from a waste site, a major contamination plume likely exists in the vadose zone and the aquifer. This paper suggests a more effective monitoring strategy through monitoring near the contaminant sites within the vadose zone. Vadose zone monitoring allows for quicker detection of potential contaminant transport. The INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) is becoming an accepted, cost effective monitoring technology for assessing contaminant transport at DOE facilities. This paper describes the technologies employed in the VZMS and describes how it was used at several DOE facilities. The INEEL VZMS has provided the information in developing and validating both conceptual and risk assessment models of contaminant transport at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Hanford site. These DOE sites exhibit a broad range of meteorologic, hydrologic and geologic conditions representative of various common geologic environments. The VZMS is comprised of advanced tensiometers, water content sensors, temperature sensors and soil and gas samplers. These instruments are placed at multiple depths in boreholes and allows for the detection of water movement in the

  6. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report for 2002

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Venhuizen

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2002. Topics covered include computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and boron analytical chemistry.

  7. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    2003-05-23

    This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2002. Topics covered include computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and boron analytical chemistry.

  8. Technical Status Report: Preliminary Glass Formulation Report for INEEL HAW

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.; Reamer, I.; Vienna, J.; Crum, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    This study was performed by a team comprising experts in glass chemistry, glass technology, and statistics at both SRTC and PNNL. This joint effort combined the strengths of each discipline and site to quickly develop a glass formulation for specific INEEL HAW.

  9. 29 CFR 102.4 - Region; subregion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Region; subregion. 102.4 Section 102.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Definitions § 102.4 Region; subregion. The term region as used herein shall mean that part of the United States or any Territory...

  10. Preliminary Environmental Flow and Transport Modeling at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, Swen O; Mccarthy, James Michael; Navratil, James Dale

    1999-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is located in southeastern Idaho in the USA. The primary mission since the laboratory was founded in 1949 has been nuclear reactor research. Fifty-two reactors have been built and operated on the INEEL. Other principal activities at the laboratory have been reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Low-level radioactive waste generated on site and mixed and transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats plutonium processing facility in Colorado has been disposed on the INEEL at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Waste disposal at the RWMC began in 1952 with shallow land burial in pits and trenches. The INEEL was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. The resulting environmental assessments of the potential negative health impacts of disposed waste at the RWMC have required the use of predictive numerical simulations. A petroleum reservoir simulator called TETRAD was modified for use in simulating environmental flow and transport. Use of this code has allowed the complex subsurface stratigraphy to be simulated, including an extensive region of unsaturated fractured basalt. Dual continual simulation approaches have been used to assess combined aqueous- and gaseous-phase transport of volatile organic compounds as well as dissolved-phase transport of radionuclides. Calibration of the simulator to available monitoring data has increased the confidence in the simulator results to the point where the model sensitivities are being used to direct additional characterization efforts. Eventually, as the model calibration improves and confidence in the model predictions increases, the simulator will be used as a decision tool for selecting remedial alternatives for the wastes buried at the RWMC. An overview of the overall program including a summary of laboratory actinide migration studies will be presented.

  11. 1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    1999-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  12. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  13. Completion of the INEEL's WERF Incinerator Trial Burn

    SciTech Connect

    C. K. Branter; D. A. Conley; D. R. Moser; S. J. Corrigan

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes the successes and challenges associated with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) hazardous and mixed waste incinerator. Topics to be discussed include facility modifications and problems, trial burn results and lessons learned in each of these areas. In addition, a number of challenges remain including completion and final issue of the RCRA Permit and implementation of all the permit requirements. Results from the trial burn demonstrated that the operating conditions and procedures will result in emissions that are satisfactorily protective of human health, the environment, and are in compliance with Federal and State regulations.

  14. Completion of the INEEL's WERF Incinerator Trial Burn

    SciTech Connect

    Branter, Curtis Keith; Conley, Dennis Allen; Corrigan, Shannon James; Moser, David Roy

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes the successes and challenges associated with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) hazardous and mixed waste incinerator. Topics to be discussed include facility modifications and problems, trial burn results and lessons learned in each of these areas. In addition, a number of challenges remain including completion and final issue of RCRA Permit and implementation of all the permit requirements. Results from the trial burn demonstrated that the operating conditions and procedures will result in emissions that are satisfactorily protective of human health, the environment, and are in compliance with Federal and State regulations.

  15. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, James R.

    2002-04-30

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2001. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, and neutron source design and demonstration are described. Contributions in the fields of physics and biophysics include development of advanced patient treatment planning software, feasibility studies of accelerator neutron source technology for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT), and completion of major modifications to the research reactor at Washington State University to produce an epithermal-neutron beam for NCT research applications.

  16. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, James Robert

    2002-04-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2001. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, and neutron source design and demonstration are described. Contributions in the fields of physics and biophysics include development of advanced patient treatment planning software, feasibility studies of accelerator neutron source technology for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT), and completion of major modifications to the research reactor at Washington State University to produce an epithermal-neutron beam for NCT research applications.

  17. Underwater Coatings Testing for INEEL Fuel Basin Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Julia L. Tripp

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature.

  18. Applying INEEL Research and Technologies to Improve LLW Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Roger R. Seitz

    2004-02-01

    The low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is operated in compliance with United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, “Radioactive Waste Management.” DOE Order 435.1 includes requirements to conduct a performance assessment and composite analysis (PA/CA) to project the potential doses that may be received by a member of the public as a result of releases that may occur from the facility and other surrounding sources. Although the PA/CA were deemed sufficient to justify issuing the Disposal Authorization for the disposal facility, the DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities Federal Review Group (LFRG) identified some assumptions that required additional confirmation. Thus, the Disposal Authorization was granted with some conditions that required resolution in order to maintain the capability to operate the LLW disposal facility. This paper summarizes INEEL research and technologies that contributed to successful resolution of all of the conditions imposed on the Disposal Authorization.

  19. Increased Efficiencies in the INEEL SAR/TSR/USQ Process

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Norman Edward

    2002-06-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has implemented a number of efficiencies to reduce the time and cost of preparing safety basis documents. The INEEL is continuing to look at other aspects of the safety basis process to identify other efficiencies that can be implemented and remain in compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 830. A six-sigma approach is used to identify areas to improve efficiencies and develop the action plan for implementation of the new process, as applicable. Three improvement processes have been implemented: The first was the development of standardized Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and technical safety requirement (TSR) documents that all nuclear facilities use, by adding facility-specific details. The second is a material procurement process, which is based on safety systems specified in the individual safety basis documents. The third is a restructuring of the entire safety basis preparation and approval process. Significant savings in time to prepare safety basis document, cost of materials, and total cost of the documents are currently being realized.

  20. Increased Efficiencies in the INEEL SAR/TSR/USQ Process

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.E.

    2002-05-16

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has implemented a number of efficiencies to reduce the time and cost of preparing safety basis documents. The INEEL is continuing to look at other aspects of the safety basis process to identify other efficiencies that can be implemented and remain in compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 830. A six-sigma approach is used to identify areas to improve efficiencies and develop the action plan for implementation of the new process, as applicable. Three improvement processes have been implemented: The first was the development of standardized Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and technical safety requirement (TSR) documents that all nuclear facilities use, by adding facility-specific details. The second is a material procurement process, which is based on safety systems specified in the individual safety basis documents. The third is a restructuring of the entire safety basis preparation and approval process. Significant savings in time to prepare safety basis document, cost of materials, and total cost of the documents are currently being realized.

  1. Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Buchmiller, William C.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Graham, Dennis D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Macisaac, Brett D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Peeler, David K.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Reamer, Irene A.; Workman, R. J.

    2002-08-01

    Studies were performed to develop and test a glass formulation for immobilization of sodium-bearing waste (SBW). SBW is a high soda, acid high activity waste stored at the INEEL in 10 underground tanks. It was determined in previous studies that SBW?s sulfur content dictates the its loading in borosilicate glasses to be melted by currently assumed processes. If the sulfur content (which is ~4.5 mass% SO3 on a non-volatile oxide basis in SBW) of the melter feed is too high then a molten alkali sulfate containing salt phase accumulates on the melt surface. The avoidance of salt accumulation during the melter process and the maximization of sulfur incorporation into the glass melt were the main focus of this development work. A glass was developed for 20 mass% SBW (on a non-volatile oxide basis), which contained 0.91 mass% SO3, that met all the processing and product quality constraint determined for SBW vitrification at a planned INEEL treatment plant?SBW-22-20. This report summarizes the formulation efforts and presents the data developed on a series of glasses with simulated SBW. Summary

  2. A Source Water Assessment of the INEEL: Conjunctive Delineation of a Large Scale Area

    SciTech Connect

    Sehlke, Gerald; Andersen, Bradley Don

    2003-01-01

    Presently, the INEEL operates and monitors 12 Public Water Systems that pump water from 22 wells for at the Site (Table 1). The source of water for each of these facilities is the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Because the INEEL operates Public Water Systems, it is required to conduct source water assessments for those facilities and to develop a Source Water Management Program.

  3. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Lauerhass, Lance; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical information to Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel that is required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and nvironmental Laboratory (INEEL). INEEL considers simulation to have an important role in the integration/optimization of treatment process trains for the High Level Waste (HLW) Program. This project involves a joint Technical Task Plan (TTP ID77WT31, Subtask C) between SRS and INEEL. The work scope of simulation is different at the two sites. This document addresses only the treatment of SBW at INEEL. The simulation model(s) is to be built by SRS for INEEL in FY-2001.

  4. INEEL BNCT Research Program Annual Report, CY-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, James Robert

    2001-03-01

    This report is a summary of the activities conducted in conjunction with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 2000. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, neutron source design and demonstration, and support the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National BNCT Program goals are the goals of this Program. Contributions from the individual contributors about their projects are included, specifically described are the following, chemistry: analysis of biological samples and an infrared blood-boron analyzer, and physics: progress in the patient treatment planning software, measurement of neutron spectra for the Argentina RA-6 reactor, and recalculation of the Finnish research reactor FiR 1 neutron spectra, BNCT accelerator technology, and modification to the research reactor at Washington State University for an epithermal-neutron beam.

  5. Test Summary Report INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification Demonstration RSM-01-1

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, Ronald W.; Perez, Joseph M.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Siemer, Darryl D.; Mccray, John A.

    2001-05-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is storing large amounts of radioactive and mixed wastes. Most of the sodium-bearing wastes have been calcined, but about a million gallons remain uncalcined, and this waste does not meet current regulatory requirements for long-term storage and/or disposal. As a part of the Settlement Agreement between DOE and the State of Idaho, the tanks currently containing SBW are to be taken out of service by December 31, 2012, which requires removing and treatment the remaining SBW. Vitrification is the option for waste disposal that received the highest weighted score against the criteria used. Beginning in FY 2000, the INEEL high-level waste program embarked on a program for technology demonstration and development that would lead to conceptual design of a vitrification facility in the event that vitrification is the preferred alternative for SBW disposal. The Pacific Northwest National Laborator's Research-Scale Melter was used to conduct these initial melter-flowsheet evaluations. Efforts are underway to reduce the volume of waste vitrified, and during the current test, an overall SBW waste volume-reduction factor of 7.6 was achieved.

  6. Soil Stabilization and Revegetation at the INEEL: Recommendations for Improvement - August 16, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Roger D. Blew; Michael R. Jackson; Amy D. Forman

    2003-03-01

    Soil stabilization for the INEEL Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) has mostly been by revegetation, but has experienced only limited success. The purpose of this report is to discuss issues associated with revegetation failures and to explore possible remedies.

  7. Alternative TRUEX-Based Pretreatment Processing of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2000-09-27

    The goals of this study were to demonstrate a selective complexant for separating mercury from the transuranic (TRU) elements in the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process and to demonstrate alternative stripping methods to eliminate phosphorus-containing, actinide stripping agents during TRUEX processing. The work described in this report provides the basis for implementing an improved TRUEX-based flowsheet for processing INEEL sodium-bearing waste using only minor modifications to the current Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) flowsheet design.

  8. Functional subregions of the human entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Maass, Anne; Berron, David; Libby, Laura A; Ranganath, Charan; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) is the primary site of interactions between the neocortex and hippocampus. Studies in rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that EC can be divided into subregions that connect differentially with perirhinal cortex (PRC) vs parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and with hippocampal subfields along the proximo-distal axis. Here, we used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla to identify functional subdivisions of the human EC. In two independent datasets, PRC showed preferential intrinsic functional connectivity with anterior-lateral EC and PHC with posterior-medial EC. These EC subregions, in turn, exhibited differential connectivity with proximal and distal subiculum. In contrast, connectivity of PRC and PHC with subiculum followed not only a proximal-distal but also an anterior-posterior gradient. Our data provide the first evidence that the human EC can be divided into functional subdivisions whose functional connectivity closely parallels the known anatomical connectivity patterns of the rodent and nonhuman primate EC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06426.001 PMID:26052749

  9. Development of Probabilistic Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for Moderate and High Hazard Facilities at INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    S. M. Payne; V. W. Gorman; S. A. Jensen; M. E. Nitzel; M. J. Russell; R. P. Smith

    2000-03-01

    Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) horizontal and vertical response spectra are developed for moderate and high hazard facilities or Performance Categories (PC) 3 and 4, respectively, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The probabilistic DBE response spectra will replace the deterministic DBE response spectra currently in the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Architectural Engineering Standards that govern seismic design criteria for several facility areas at the INEEL. Probabilistic DBE response spectra are recommended to DOE Naval Reactors for use at the Naval Reactor Facility at INEEL. The site-specific Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) developed by URS Greiner Woodward Clyde Federal Services are used as the basis for developing the DBE response spectra. In 1999, the UHS for all INEEL facility areas were recomputed using more appropriate attenuation relationships for the Basin and Range province. The revised UHS have lower ground motions than those produced in the 1996 INEEL site-wide probabilistic ground motion study. The DBE response spectra were developed by incorporating smoothed broadened regions of the peak accelerations, velocities, and displacements defined by the site-specific UHS. Portions of the DBE response spectra were adjusted to ensure conservatism for the structural design process.

  10. Crystalline Phase Separation in Phosphate Containing Waste Glasses: Relevance to INEEL HAW

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-09-21

    As part of the Tanks Focus Area's (TFA) effort to increase waste loading for high-level waste vitrification at various facilities in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, the occurrence of phase separation in waste glasses spanning the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) composition ranges have been studied. The type of phase separation that occurs in the phosphate rich borosilicate waste glasses, such as those investigated for INEEL, crystallizes upon cooling. This type of phase separation mechanism is less well studied than amorphous phase separation in phosphate poor borosilicate waste glasses. Therefore, the type of phase separation, extent, and impact of phase separation on glass durability for a series of INEEL-type glasses were examined and the data statistically analyzed in this study.

  11. Subregional inversion of North African dust sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano, Jerónimo; Boucher, Olivier; Chevallier, Frédéric; Huneeus, Nicolás.

    2016-07-01

    The emission of mineral dust aerosols in arid and semiarid regions is a complex process whose representation in atmospheric models remains crude, due to insufficient knowledge about the aerosol lifting process itself, the lack of global data on soil characteristics, and the impossibility for the models to resolve the fine-scale variability in the wind field that drives some of the dust events. As a result, there are large uncertainties in the total emission flux of mineral dust, its natural variability at various timescales, and the possible contribution from anthropogenic land use changes. This work aims for estimating dust emissions and reduces their uncertainty over the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula—the largest dust source region of the globe. We use a data assimilation approach to constrain dust emission fluxes at a monthly resolution for 18 subregions. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite-derived aerosol optical depth is assimilated in a regional configuration of a general circulation model coupled to an aerosol model. We describe this data assimilation system and apply it for 1 year, resulting in a total mineral dust emissions flux estimate of 2900 Tg yr-1 over the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula for the year 2006. The analysis field of aerosol optical depth shows an improved fit relative to independent Aerosol Robotic Network measurements as compared to the model prior field.

  12. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Douglas Kay; Nickelson, David Frank; Nickelson, Reva Anne; Farnsworth, Richard Kent; Jessmore, James Joseph

    1999-03-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE’s Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  13. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    D.F. Nickelson; D.K. Jorgensen; J.J. Jessmore; R.A. Hyde; R.K. Farnsworth

    1999-02-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  14. Heritability and reliability of automatically segmented human hippocampal formation subregions

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Christopher D.; Hibar, Derrek P.; van Velzen, Laura S.; Zannas, Anthony S.; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; McMahon, Katie; Prasad, Gautam; Kelly, Sinéad; Faskowitz, Joshua; deZubiracay, Greig; Iglesias, Juan E.; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Frodl, Thomas; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Jahanshad, Neda; Schmaal, Lianne; Sämann, Philipp G.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    The human hippocampal formation can be divided into a set of cytoarchitecturally and functionally distinct subregions, involved in different aspects of memory formation. Neuroanatomical disruptions within these subregions are associated with several debilitating brain disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, major depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Multi-center brain imaging consortia, such as the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium, are interested in studying disease effects on these subregions, and in the genetic factors that affect them. For large-scale studies, automated extraction and subsequent genomic association studies of these hippocampal subregion measures may provide additional insight. Here, we evaluated the test–retest reliability and transplatform reliability (1.5 T versus 3 T) of the subregion segmentation module in the FreeSurfer software package using three independent cohorts of healthy adults, one young (Queensland Twins Imaging Study, N = 39), another elderly (Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, ADNI-2, N = 163) and another mixed cohort of healthy and depressed participants (Max Planck Institute, MPIP, N = 598). We also investigated agreement between the most recent version of this algorithm (v6.0) and an older version (v5.3), again using the ADNI-2 and MPIP cohorts in addition to a sample from the Netherlands Study for Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) (N = 221). Finally, we estimated the heritability (h2) of the segmented subregion volumes using the full sample of young, healthy QTIM twins (N = 728). Test–retest reliability was high for all twelve subregions in the 3 T ADNI-2 sample (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.70–0.97) and moderate-to-high in the 4 T QTIM sample (ICC = 0.5–0.89). Transplatform reliability was strong for eleven of the twelve subregions (ICC = 0.66–0.96); however, the hippocampal fissure was not consistently reconstructed across 1.5 T and

  15. Image segmentation on adaptive sub-region smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Junruo; Liu, Xin; He, Kun

    2017-01-01

    To improve the performance of the active contour segmentation on real images, a new segmentation method is proposed. In this model, we construct a function about Gaussian variance according to sub-regions intensity. Further, to avoid the curve vanishing, we design the convergence condition based on the confidence level of segmentation sub-regions. Experimental results show that the proposed method is less sensitive to noise and can suppress inhomogeneous intensity regions efficiently.

  16. Identification of discrete functional subregions of the human periaqueductal gray

    PubMed Central

    Satpute, Ajay B.; Wager, Tor D.; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Bianciardi, Marta; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Buhle, Jason T.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2013-01-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region is organized into distinct subregions that coordinate survival-related responses during threat and stress [Bandler R, Keay KA, Floyd N, Price J (2000) Brain Res 53 (1):95–104]. To examine PAG function in humans, researchers have relied primarily on functional MRI (fMRI), but technological and methodological limitations have prevented researchers from localizing responses to different PAG subregions. We used high-field strength (7-T) fMRI techniques to image the PAG at high resolution (0.75 mm isotropic), which was critical for dissociating the PAG from the greater signal variability in the aqueduct. Activation while participants were exposed to emotionally aversive images segregated into subregions of the PAG along both dorsal/ventral and rostral/caudal axes. In the rostral PAG, activity was localized to lateral and dorsomedial subregions. In caudal PAG, activity was localized to the ventrolateral region. This shifting pattern of activity from dorsal to ventral PAG along the rostrocaudal axis mirrors structural and functional neurobiological observations in nonhuman animals. Activity in lateral and ventrolateral subregions also grouped with distinct emotional experiences (e.g., anger and sadness) in a factor analysis, suggesting that each subregion participates in distinct functional circuitry. This study establishes the use of high-field strength fMRI as a promising technique for revealing the functional architecture of the PAG. The techniques developed here also may be extended to investigate the functional roles of other brainstem nuclei. PMID:24082116

  17. Large-scale Demonstration and Deployment Project for D&D of Fuel Storage Canals and Associated Facilities at INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmill, Larry Joseph

    2001-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA), sponsored a Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) under management of the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The INEEL LSDDP is one of several LSDDPs sponsored by DOE. The LSDDP process integrates field demonstrations into actual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) operations by comparing new or improved technologies against existing baseline technologies using a side-by-side comparison. The goals are (a) to identify technologies that are cheaper, safer, faster, and cleaner (produce less waste), and (b) to incorporate those technologies into D&D baseline operations. The INEEL LSDDP reviewed more than 300 technologies, screened 141, and demonstrated 17. These 17 technologies have been deployed a total of 70 times at facilities other than those where the technology was demonstrated, and 10 have become baseline at the INEEL. Fifteen INEEL D&D needs have been modified or removed from the Needs Management System as a direct result of using these new technologies. Conservatively, the ten-year projected cost savings at the INEEL resulting from use of the technologies demonstrated in this INEEL LSDDP exceeds $39 million dollars.

  18. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  19. Material Property Measurement of Metallic Parts using the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Telschow; R. S. Schley; S. M. Watson; V. A. Deason

    1999-08-22

    Ultrasonic waves form a useful nondestructive evaluation (NDE) probe for determining physical, microstructural, and mechanical properties of materials and parts. Noncontacting laser ultrasonic methods are desired for remote measurements and on-line manufacture process monitoring. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed a versatile new method for detection of ultrasonic motion at surfaces. This method directly images, without the need for scanning, the surface distribution of subnanometer ultrasonic motion. By eliminating the need for scanning over large areas or complex parts, the inspection process can be greatly speeded up. Examples include measurements on parts with complex geometries through resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and of the properties of sheet materials determined through anisotropic elastic Lamb wave propagation. The operation and capabilities of the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera are described along with measurement results.

  20. Material Property Measurement of Metallic Parts using the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Deason, Vance Albert; Schley, Robert Scott; Watson, Scott Marshall

    1999-08-01

    Ultrasonic waves form a useful nondestructive evaluation (NDE) probe for determining physical, microstructural, and mechanical properties of materials and parts. Noncontacting laser ultrasonic methods are desired for remote measurements and on-line manufacture process monitoring. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed a versatile new method for detection of ultrasonic motion at surfaces. This method directly images, without the need for scanning, the surface distribution of subnanometer ultrasonic motion. By eliminating the need for scanning over large areas or complex parts, the inspection process can be greatly speeded up. Examples include measurements on parts with complex geometries through resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and of the properties of sheet materials determined through anisotropic elastic Lamb wave propagation. The operation and capabilities of the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera are described along with measurement results.

  1. INEEL BNCT research program. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1996. Contributions from the individual investigators about their projects are included, specifically, physics: treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry, measurement of the Finnish research reactor epithermal neutron spectrum, BNCT accelerator technology; and chemistry: analysis of biological samples and preparation of {sup 10}B enriched decaborane.

  2. Technical Review of Retrieval and Closure Plans for the INEEL INTEC Tank Farm Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Burks, Barry L.; Quigley, Keith D.; Butterworth, S. W.; Falter, Diedre D.

    2001-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to document the conclusions of a technical review of retrieval and closure plans for the Idaho National Energy and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Tank Farm Facility. In addition to reviewing retrieval and closure plans for these tanks, the review process served as an information exchange mechanism so that staff in the INEEL High Level Waste (HLW) Program could become more familiar with retrieval and closure approaches that have been completed or are planned for underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Hanford sites. This review focused not only on evaluation of the technical feasibility and appropriateness of the approach selected by INEEL but also on technology gaps that could be addressed through utilization of technologies or performance data available at other DOE sites and in the private sector. The reviewers, Judith Bamberger of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Dr. Barry Burks of The Providence Group Applied Technology, have extensive experience in the development and application of tank waste retrieval technologies for nuclear waste remediation.

  3. Behavioral Functions of the CA3 Subregion of the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Raymond P.

    2007-01-01

    From a behavioral perspective, the CA3a,b subregion of the hippocampus plays an important role in the encoding of new spatial information within short-term memory with a duration of seconds and minutes. This can easily be observed in tasks that require rapid encoding, novelty detection, one-trial short-term or working memory, and one-trial cued…

  4. Contributions of Striatal Subregions to Place and Response Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Henry H.; Knowlton, Barbara J.

    2004-01-01

    The involvement of different subregions of the striatum in place and response learning was examined using a T-maze. Rats were given NMDA lesions of the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), anterior dorsomedial striatum (ADMS), posterior dorsomedial striatum (PDMS), or sham surgery. They were then trained to retrieve food from the west arm of the maze,…

  5. Distinct Critical Cerebellar Subregions for Components of Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Freya E.; Grube, Manon; Von Kriegstein, Katharina; Kumar, Sukhbinder; English, Philip; Kelly, Thomas P.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    A role for the cerebellum in cognition has been proposed based on studies suggesting a profile of cognitive deficits due to cerebellar stroke. Such studies are limited in the determination of the detailed organisation of cerebellar subregions that are critical for different aspects of cognition. In this study we examined the correlation between…

  6. Extraction of Plutonium From Spiked INEEL Soil Samples Using the Ligand-Assisted Supercritical Fluid Extraction (LA-SFE) Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.; Holmes, R.G.G.

    1999-08-01

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction for the removal of transuranic contaminations from soils an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) silty-clay soil sample was obtained from near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex area and subjected to three different chemical preparations before being spiked with plutonium. The spiked INEEL soil samples were subjected to a sequential aqueous extraction procedure to determine radionuclide portioning in each sample. Results from those extractions demonstrate that plutonium consistently partitioned into the residual fraction across all three INEEL soil preparations whereas americium partitioned 73% into the iron/manganese fraction for soil preparation A, with the balance partitioning into the residual fraction. Plutonium and americium were extracted from the INEEL soil samples using a ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction efficiencies ranging from 14% to 19%. After a second round wherein the initial extraction parameters were changed, the plutonium extraction efficiencies increased to 60% and as high as 80% with the americium level in the post-extracted soil samples dropping near to the detection limits. The third round of experiments are currently underway. These results demonstrate that the ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique can effectively extract plutonium from the spiked INEEL soil preparations.

  7. Environmental Sampling FY03 Annual Report - Understanding the Movement of Mercury on the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Abbott

    2003-10-01

    Environmental mercury measurements were started in Fy-01 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) to monitor downwind impacts from on-going waste treatment operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) and to improve our scientific understanding of mercury fate and transport in this region. This document provides a summary of the sampling done in FY04. Continuous total gaseous mercury (TGM) measurements were made using a Tekran Model 2537A mercury vapor analyzer during October 2002 and from February through July 2003. The equipment was deployed in a self-contained field trailer at the Experimental Field Station (EFS) four kilometers downwind (northeast) of INTEC. Mercury surface-to-air flux measurements were made in October 2002 and from February through May 2003 to better understand the fate of the estimated 1500 kg of mercury emitted from 36 years of calciner operations at INTEC and to improve our scientific understanding of mercury environmental cycling in this region. Flux was measured using an INEEL-designed dynamic flux chamber system with a Tekran automated dual sampling (TADS) unit. Diel flux was positively correlated with solar radiation (r = 0.65), air temperature (r = 0.64), and wind speed (r = 0.38), and a general linear model for flux prediction at the INEEL was developed. Reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) was measured at EFS in July using a Tekran Model 1130 mercury speciation unit. Based on comparisons with other published data around the U.S., mercury air concentrations and surface flux rates directly downwind from INTEC were not distinguishable from remote area (non-industrial) background levels during the monitoring period.

  8. Using Roadmapping to Meet the Challenge of Implementing the Environmental Management's 2012 Vision at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.; Mascareqas, C.; McNeel, K.; Stiger, S.; Thiel, E.

    2003-02-26

    Soon after becoming the Program Secretarial Officer (PSO) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program, Jessie Roberson initiated a thorough Top-to-Bottom review of the EM Program and challenged the sites to conduct business differently. As an example, she emphasized risk reduction, not just risk management. INEEL's 2070 cleanup baseline was considered too long and must be completed significantly sooner. The cleanup costs must also be significantly reduced from the current baseline of $41 Billion. The challenge is to complete most of the cleanup by 2012 and to reduce the EM footprint at the INEEL to one site area, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), also by 2012. The difficulty of the challenge is increased by the requirement to perform the work within nearly flat budgets. The bottom line: do more work in less time for less money. Further complications were added when funding for EM's technology development program was greatly reduced, cutting out most of the technology support to the operational projects. To face this incredible challenge, the INEEL began a several month effort to develop an implementation strategy and the tactics required for success. The strategies to meet EM's challenge under these constraints require the scope of work to be crisply defined with a clear understanding of the completion criteria. A number of techniques will be discussed in this paper that were used to more fully define the completion criteria as well as redefine the cleanup projects and their system boundaries. The mechanics of redefining and recasting cleanup projects at the INEEL to focus on how all the work fits together for an entire site area along with some of the advantages will be discussed. This paper highlights how roadmapping techniques and processes were used to gather information about the site's cleanup programs, review the system boundaries, identify the project risks to completing the cleanup tasks, and to help

  9. Water temperatures of California streams, San Francisco Bay subregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, J.C.

    1971-01-01

    A summary of water-temperature records is presented for data collected through September 1968 in the San Francisco Bay Subregion of California. This report is one of a series covering the 11 hydrologic subregions of the State and includes data for 87 stream sites. Water temperatures, in degrees Celsius, are summarized by months, years, and for the period of record. A description is included to identify each station where data were collected. A tolerance interval analysis indicated that 99 percent of the point water-temperature observations, determined either with thermograph probes or hand-held thermometers, should be ±0.6°C of the mean water temperature at the 95-percent confidence level. The probable total error ranges from ±0.8°C for periodic data to ±1.4°C for thermograph data.

  10. Comparative paleofloristics of the Albian-early Paleocene in the Anadyr-Koryak and North Alaska Subregions, Part 1: The Anadyr-Koryak Subregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, A. B.

    2007-06-01

    A high-resolution phytostratigraphic scheme based on plant macrofossils is suggested for the first time for the Albian and Upper Cretaceous of the Anadyr-Koryak Subregion of the North Pacific. Seven phytostratigraphic horizons of the subregion are distinguished based on successive stages in flora evolution substantiated by comprehensive data on described floral assemblages.

  11. Suitability of Silica Gel to Process INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste - Letter Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, Robert John; Herbst, Alan Keith

    2000-09-01

    The suitability of using the silica gel process for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) sodium bearing waste was investigated during fiscal year 2000. The study was co-funded by the Tanks Focus Area as part of TTP No. ID-77WT-31 and the High Level Waste Program. The task also included the investigation of possible other absorbents. Scoping tests and examination of past work showed that the silica gel absorption/adsorption and drying method was the most promising; thus only silica gel was studied and not other absorbents. The documentation on the Russian silica gel process provided much of the needed information but did not provide some of the processing detail so these facts had to be inferred or gleaned from the literature.

  12. Materials testing for in situ stabilization treatability study of INEEL mixed wastes soils

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the contaminant-specific materials testing phase of the In Situ Stabilization Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study (TS). The purpose of materials testing is to measure the effectiveness of grouting agents to stabilize Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Acid Pit soils and select a grout material for use in the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Treatability Study within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Test results will assist the selecting a grout material for the follow-on demonstrations described in Test Plan for the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Phases of the In Situ Stabilization Treatability Study at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

  13. Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Ashwin, Ed.; Nersessian, Nancy J., Ed.; Keil, Frank C., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This special issue includes four articles that address issues concerning conceptual change. Topics include analogical reasoning and a case study of Johannes Kepler; conceptual change and wine expertise; the role of extreme case reasoning in instruction for conceptual change; and dynamic science assessment: a new approach for investigating…

  14. Cartilage Loss Occurs in the Same Subregions as Subchondral Bone Attrition: A Within-Knee Subregion-Matched Approach From the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    Neogi, T.; Felson, D.; Niu, J.; Lynch, J.; Nevitt, M.; Guermazi, A.; Roemer, F.; Lewis, C. E.; Wallace, B.; Zhang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Objective By magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), subchondral bone attrition (SBA) can be seen in early osteoarthritis (OA), but the significance of this is unknown. We therefore evaluated whether SBA was associated with cartilage loss within the same subregion of the knee. Methods The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study is a cohort of individuals who have or are at high risk for knee OA. At baseline and 30 months, participants’ knee MRIs were graded using the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score in the 10 subregions of the tibiofemoral joint for cartilage morphology and SBA. We conducted analyses within a knee to eliminate between-person confounding, using an M:N (cases:controls) matched case–control approach with the 10 subregions of a person’s knee forming a matched set. Cases within a knee were defined as subregions with cartilage loss, while controls were subregions in that same knee without cartilage loss. We evaluated the association of cartilage loss over 30 months with the presence of baseline SBA in the same subregion within that knee using conditional logistic regression. Results SBA was associated with an odds ratio of 7.5 (95% confidence interval 5.6 –9.9, P < 0.0001) for cartilage loss in the same subregion compared with subregions without any baseline SBA in our sample of 459 knees from participants, 64% of whom were women, with a mean age of 63 years and a mean body mass index of 30.5 kg/m2. Conclusion SBA is strongly associated with cartilage loss within the same subregion of a knee. SBA may directly influence overlying cartilage loss or serve as a marker of an area undergoing great compressive stress and in which cartilage loss is inevitable. PMID:19877101

  15. Health equity and migrants in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Celia; Healy, Judith

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Migrant health is receiving increasing international attention, reflecting recognition of the health inequities experienced among many migrant populations and the need for health systems to adapt to diverse migrant populations. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) there is increasing migration associated with uneven economic integration and growth, socio-economic vulnerabilities, and disparities between countries. There has been limited progress, however, in improving migrant access to health services in the Subregion. This paper examines the health needs, access barriers, and policy responses to cross-border migrants in five GMS countries. Methods: A review of published literature and research was conducted on migrant health and health service access in Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam, as well as analysis of current migration trends and universal health coverage (UHC) indicators in the Subregion. The review included different migrant types: i.e. migrant workers, irregular migrants, victims of trafficking, refugees and asylum seekers, and casual cross-border migrants. Results: There is substantial diversity in the capacity of GMS health systems to address migrant populations. Thailand has sought to enhance migrant health coverage, including development of migrant health policies/programs, bilateral migrant worker agreements, and migrant health insurance schemes; Viet Nam provides health protection for emigrant workers. Overall, however, access to good quality health care remains weak for many citizens in GMS countries let alone migrants. Migrant workers – and irregular migrants in particular – face elevated health risks yet are not adequately covered and incur high out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for health services. Conclusions: UHC implies equity: UHC is only achieved when everyone has the opportunity to access and use good-quality health care. Efforts to achieve UHC in the GMS require

  16. Determination of the Rate of Formation of Hydroceramic Waste Forms made with INEEL Calcined Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Barry Scheetz; Johnson Olanrewaju

    2001-10-15

    The formulation, synthesis, characterization and hydration kinetics of hydroceramic waste forms designed as potential hosts for existing INEEL calcine high-level wastes have been established as functions of temperature and processing time. Initial experimentations were conducted with several aluminosilicate pozzolanic materials, ranging from fly ash obtained from various power generating coal and other combustion industries to reactive alumina, natural clays and ground bottled glass powders. The final selection criteria were based on the ease of processing, excellent physical properties and chemical durability (low-leaching) determined from the PCT test produced in hydroceramic. The formulation contains vermiculite, Sr(NO32), CsC1, NaOH, thermally altered (calcined natural clay) and INEEL simulated calcine high-level nuclear wastes and 30 weight percent of fluorinel blend calcine and zirconia calcine. Syntheses were carried out at 75-200 degree C at autogeneous water pressure (100% relative humidity) at various time intervals. The resulting monolithic compact products were hard and resisted breaking when dropped from a 5 ft height. Hydroceramic host mixed with fluorinel blend calcine and processed at 75 degree C crumbled into rice hull-side grains or developed scaly flakes. However, the samples equally possessed the same chemical durability as their unbroken counterparts. Phase identification by XRD revealed that hydroceramic host crystallized type zeolite at 75-150 degree C and NaP1 at 175-200 degree C in addition to the presence of quartz phase originating from the clay reactant. Hydroceramic host mixed with either fluorinel blend calcine or zirconia calcine crystallized type A zeolite at 75-95 degree C, formed a mixture of type A zeolite and hydroxysodalite at 125-150 degree C and hydroxysodalite at 175-200 degree C. Quartz, calcium fluoride and zirconia phases from the clay reactant and the two calcine wastes were also detected. The PCT test solution

  17. Distinct critical cerebellar subregions for components of verbal working memory

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Freya E.; Grube, Manon; Von Kriegstein, Katharina; Kumar, Sukhbinder; English, Philip; Kelly, Thomas P.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    A role for the cerebellum in cognition has been proposed based on studies suggesting a profile of cognitive deficits due to cerebellar stroke. Such studies are limited in the determination of the detailed organisation of cerebellar subregions that are critical for different aspects of cognition. In this study we examined the correlation between cognitive performance and cerebellar integrity in a specific degeneration of the cerebellar cortex: Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 6 (SCA6). The results demonstrate a critical relationship between verbal working memory and grey matter density in superior (bilateral lobules VI and crus I of lobule VII) and inferior (bilateral lobules VIIIa and VIIIb, and right lobule IX) parts of the cerebellum. We demonstrate that distinct cerebellar regions subserve different components of the prevalent psychological model for verbal working memory based on a phonological loop. The work confirms the involvement of the cerebellum in verbal working memory and defines specific subsystems for this within the cerebellum. PMID:22133495

  18. Towards migration research networking in Eastern-Southern African subregions.

    PubMed

    Oucho, J O

    1993-01-01

    This article reports efforts made by a small group of Eastern-Southern African (ESA) subregion scholars to adopt a systematic approach to establishing a regional network Migration Network in Eastern and Southern Africa (MINESA). The approach involved: 1) holding a conference at which symptomatic types of internal and international migration would be discussed; 2) publication of the conference proceedings; and 3) establishment of MINESA as a network of policy-oriented research in the two subregions. The first stage has been accomplished, the second is nearly complete, and the third has yet to be undertaken. During the African Population Conference organized by the International Union for Scientific Study of Population in Dakar, Senegal, on 5-9 November 1988, a small group agreed on a timetable to establish MINESA. At the ESA conference, papers were presented on ESA issues; internal migration processes and mechanism; refugee movements and their implications for countries; the effects on the economies of Southern African states, of emigration to the Republic of South Africa (RSA). In a keynote address, Adepoju surveyed migration and development in Western-Central (Middle) Africa and Eastern-Southern Africa, which included colonial and post-colonial historical epochs, internal and international migration, and labor and refugee movements. A paper on Kenya by Oucho discussed the implications for rural-urban balance of internal migration based on 1969 and 1979 censuses. Rural-urban migration from the traditional economy to Nairobi and Mombasa in particular has created an unacceptable rural-urban imbalance, adversely affecting rural development. Eastern and Southern Africa has seen massive and wide spatial dispersal of refugees (victims of wars, drought, and famine). Two papers were presented on Tanzania and one on Uganda. The final set of papers addressed the effects of labor migration to the RSA on Swaziland and Lesotho.

  19. Subregional Anatomical Distribution of T2 Values of Articular Cartilage in Asymptomatic Hips

    PubMed Central

    Surowiec, Rachel K.; Ferro, Fernando P.; Lucas, Erin P.; Saroki, Adriana J.; Dornan, Grant J.; Fitzcharles, Eric K.; Anz, Adam W.; Smith, W. Sean; Wilson, Katharine J.; Philippon, Marc J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A standardized definition of normative T2 values across the articular surface of the hip must be defined in order to fully understand T2 values for detecting early degeneration. Therefore, in this article, we seek to lay foundational methodology for reproducible quantitative evaluation of hip cartilage damage using T2 mapping to determine the normative T2 values in asymptomatic individuals. Design: Nineteen prospectively enrolled asymptomatic volunteers (age 18-35 years, males 10, females 9, alpha angle 49.3º ± 7.2º) were evaluated with a sagittal T2 mapping sequence at 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging. Acetabular and femoral cartilage was manually segmented directly on the second echo of the T2 mapping sequence by 3 raters, twice. Segmentations were divided into 12 subregions modified from the geographic zone method. Median T2 values within each subregion were compiled for further analysis and interrater and intrarater reliability was assessed. Results: In the femur, the posterior-superior subregion was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than those in the posterior-inferior and anterior-inferior subregions. In the acetabulum, the anterior-inferior subregion was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.001) than in the anterior-superior, middle, and posterior-inferior subregions. T2 values of the posterior-superior subregion were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than the anterior-superior, middle, and posterior-inferior subregions. Interrater agreement was generally fair to good. PMID:26069695

  20. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  1. Preliminary formulation studies for a ``hydroceramic`` alternative waste form for INEEL HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Siemer, D.D.; Gougar, M.L.D.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Scheetz, B.E.

    1999-09-01

    Herein the authors discuss scoping studies performed to develop an efficient way to prepare the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) nominally high-level ({approximately}40 W/m{sup 3}) calcined radioactive waste (HLW) and liquid metal (sodium) reactor coolants for disposal. The investigated approach implements the chemistry of Hanford`s cancrinite-making clay reaction process via Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) formed-under-elevated-temperatures-and-pressures concrete monolith-making technology to make hydroceramics (HCs). The HCs differ from conventional Portland cement/blast furnace slag (PC/BFS) grouts in that the binder minerals formed during the curing process are hydrated alkali-aluminosilicates (feldspathoids-sodalites, cancrinites, and zeolites) rather than hydrated calcium silicates (CSH). This is desirable because (a) US defense-type radioactive wastes generally contain much more sodium and aluminum than calcium; (b) sodalites/cancrinites do a much better job of retaining the anionic components of real radioactive waste (e.g., nitrate) than do calcium silicates; (c) natural feldspathoids form from glasses (and therefore are more stable) in that region of the United States where a repository for this sort of waste could be sited; and (d) if eventually deemed necessary, feldspathoid-type concrete wasteforms could be hot-isostatically-pressed into even more durable materials without removing them from their original canisters.

  2. Mapping of contamination at Savannah River Site FBWU by INEEL trolley

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.V.; Gehrke, R.J.; Helmer, R.G.; Josten, N.

    1998-01-01

    The Ford Building Waste Unit (FBWU) 643-11G is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (RCRA/CERCLA) designated site at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. Pre-Work Plan Characterization at the FBWU in May 1996 indicated that radiological contamination was present in surface and near surface soils and identified cesium-137, {sup 137}Cs, the unit specific contaminant, as being primarily in the top 15 cm of soil. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) sent the dig-face trolley system to SRS where it demonstrated its capability over a 6.1-m (20 ft.) x 9.6-m (30 ft.) area to rapidly map the contamination on-line with its large area plastic scintillation detector. Also, an extended-range (10 keV to 3 MeV) Ge detector was used at selected locations to identify and quantify the {sup 137}Cs contamination. The coordinate locations of each measurement acquired in either the scanning or fixed position mode was obtained with a survey system based on radial encoders. Topography measurements were also made during measurements to permit correction of field of view and activity concentrations for changes in the ground to detector distance.

  3. Integration of Environmental Restoration and Decontamination and Dismantlement Requirements at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. Reese; D. J. Kuhns

    1999-02-01

    In 1997, the Environmental Restoration Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) determined that it was necessary to remediate a Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA) site to address the risk of subsurface petroleum contamination to human health and the environment. This cleanup project was conducted utilizing the Non-time Critical Removal Action process. Due to the close proximity (above the contaminated soil) of a number of above ground storage tanks and a building, the CERCLA project team worked closely with the D&D group to ensure all requirements for each program were met. Lessons learned and regulatory requirements are discussed in the paper, including the factors unknown to many ER personnel regarding the steps required to be completed prior to the dismantlement of structures. The paper summarizes the background associated with the site, why the removal action was conducted, the scope of the removal action, and the results. The emphasis of the paper is to discuss the integration between ER and D&D requirements and processes. In the current environment where ER and D&D activities are commingled, it is imperative that ER and D&D personnel are aware of the requirements imposed upon each program. By working together and building upon the strengths of each program, the INEEL�s 1997 removal action was a tremendous success.

  4. Integration of Environmental Restoration and Decontamination and Dismantlement Requirements at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhns, Douglass Jack; Reese, Craig Lyle

    1999-03-01

    In 1997, the Environmental Restoration Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) determined that it was necessary to remediate a Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA) site to address the risk of subsurface petroleum contamination to human health and the environment. This cleanup project was conducted utilizing the Non-time Critical Removal Action process. Due to the close proximity (above the contaminated soil) of a number of above ground storage tanks and a building, the CERCLA project team worked closely with the D&D group to ensure all requirements for each program were met. Lessons learned and regulatory requirements will be discussed in the paper, including the factors unknown to many ER personnel regarding the steps required to be completed prior to the dismantlement of structures. The paper will summarize the background associated with the site, why the removal action was conducted, the scope of the removal action, and the results. The emphasis of the paper will discuss the integration between ER and D&D requirements and processes. In the current environment where ER and D&D activities are commingled, it is imperative that ER and D&D personnel are aware of the requirements imposed upon each program. By working together and building upon the strengths of each program, the INEEL’s 1997 removal action was a tremendous success.

  5. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-02-21

    The technical information required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is presented. The objective of the modeling effort is to provide the predictive capability required to optimize an entire treatment train and assess system-wide impacts of local changes at individual unit operations, with the aim of reducing the schedule and cost of future process/facility design efforts. All the information required a priori for engineers to construct and link unit operation modules in a commercial software simulator to represent the alternative treatment trains is presented. The information is of a mid- to high-level nature and consists of the following: (1) a description of twenty-four specific unit operations--their operating conditions and constraints, primary species and key outputs, and the initial modeling approaches that will be used in the first year of the simulation's development; (2) three potential configurations of the unit operations (trains) and their interdependencies via stream connections; and (3) representative stream compositional makeups.

  6. Sulfur Partitioning During Vitrification of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Darab, John G.; Graham, Dennis D.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Russell, Renee L.; Smith, Harry D.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.

    2001-07-31

    The sodium bearing tank waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains high concentrations of sulfur (roughly 5 mass% of SO3 on a nonvolatile oxide basis). The amount of sulfur that can be feed to the melter will ultimately determine the loading of SBW in glass produced by the baseline (low-temperature, joule-heated, liquid-fed, ceramic-lined) melter. The amount of sulfur which can be fed to the melter is determined by several major factors including: the tolerance of the melter for an immiscible salt layer accumulation, the solubility of sulfur in the glass melt, the fraction of sulfur removed to the off-gas, and the incorporation of sulfur into the glass up to it?s solubility limit. This report summarizes the current status of testing aimed at determining the impacts of key chemical and physical parameters on the partitioning of sulfur between the glass, a molten salt, and the off-gas.

  7. INEEL Biotechnology for Oilfield Application--Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery FY-03 Report

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Bala; D. F. Bruhn; S. L. Fox; K. S. Noah; K. D. Schaller; E. P. Robertson; X. Xie

    2003-11-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Biotechnology for Oilfield Operations program supports development, engineering, and application of biotechnology for exploration and production. This continuing INEEL program also supports mitigation of detrimental field conditions. The program is consistent with the United States Department of Energy mission to ¡§promote activities and policies through its oil technology and natural gas supply programs to enhance the efficiency and environmental quality of domestic oil and natural gas exploration, recovery, processing, transport, and storage.¡¨ In addition, the program directly supports the focus areas of Reservoir Life Extension; Advanced Drilling, Completion and Stimulation Systems; Effective Environmental Protection; and Cross Cutting Areas. The program is enhanced by collaborative relationships with industry and academia. For fiscal year 2003, the program focused on production and characterization of biological surfactants from agricultural residuals and the production and application of reactive microbial polymers. This report specifically details: 1. Use of a chemostat reactor operated in batch mode for producing surfactin, with concomitant use of an antifoam to prevent surfactant loss. The program achieved production and recovery of 0.6 g/L of surfactin per 12 hr. 2. Characterization of surfactin produced from agricultural residuals with respect to its ability to mediate changes in surface tension. Conditions evaluated were salt (as NaCl) from 0 to 10% (w/v), pH from 3 to 10, temperature from 21 to 70¢XC, and combinations of these conditions. When evaluated singularly, pH below 6 and salt concentrations above 30 g/L were found to have an adverse impact on surfactin. Temperatures of 70¢XC for 95 days had no effect. When the effect of temperature was added to the pH experiment, there were no significant changes, and, again, surface tension, at any temperature, increased at pH below 6

  8. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance for the Greater Mekong Subregion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) Identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) Implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) Implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) Increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) Optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) Reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) Reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters are extracted from NASA Earth science data sets. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  9. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ogbu, O; Ajuluchukwu, E; Uneke, C J

    2007-03-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to be responsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection with profuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Some studies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across West Africa. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa were identified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity of resources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise the West African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region. There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care of patients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectious laboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.

  10. New Sericostomatid Caddisflies (Trichoptera) from the Brazilian Subregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzenthal, R. W.; Blahnik, R. J.

    2005-05-01

    The caddisfly family Sericostomatidae, with 20 genera and almost 100 species, is nearly cosmopolitan in distribution, but is absent from the Australasian region, has only a single species in the Oriental region, and occurs only in the southernmost regions of Africa and South America. Within its distribution, it displays 4 centers of species diversity: the southeastern United States, Europe and the western Palearctic, South Africa, and southern Chile. Five genera occur in the Neotropics: Chiloecia (1 species), Grumicha (1 species), Myotrichia (1 species), Notidobiella (3 species), and Parasericostoma (10 species), all occurring in southern Chile, except Grumicha, from southeast Brazil and adjacent Argentina. Recent collecting throughout South America, but especially in SE Brazil, has resulted in the discovery of 4 new species and an extension of the family's range in South America well beyond the Chilean subregion. The new taxa include: 1 new species of Grumicha from southeastern Brazil, 2 new species of Notidobiella from SE Brazil and Ecuador, respectively, and a new species, probably representing a new genus, from Amazonian Brazil. Males, females, and immatures of these new species are described and illustrated. Biogeographical implications suggest both recent dispersal as well as more ancient Gondwanan vicariant patterns.

  11. Formulation Efforts for Direct Vitrification of INEEL Blend Calcine Waste Simulate: Fiscal Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.; Reamer, I. A.

    2001-03-30

    This report documents the results of glass formulation efforts for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) high level waste (HWL) calcine. Two waste compositions were used during testing. Testing started by using the Run 78 calcine composition and switched to simulated Blend calcine composition when it became available. The goal of the glass formulation efforts was to develop a frit composition that will accept higher waste loading that satisfies the glass processing and product acceptance constraints. 1. Melting temperature of 1125 ? 25?C 2. Viscosity between 2 and 10 Pa?s at the melting temperature 3. Liquidus temperature at least 100?C below the melting temperature 4. Normalized release of B, Li and Na each below 1 g/m2 (per ASTM C 1285-97) Glass formulation efforts tested several frit compositions with variable waste loadings of Run 78 calcine waste simulant. Frit 107 was selected as the primary candidate for processing since it met all process and performance criteria up to 45 mass% waste loading. When the simulated Blend calcine waste composition became available Frits 107 and 108 compositions were retested and again Frit 107 remained the primary candidate. However, both frits suffered a decrease in waste loading when switching from the Run 78 calcine to simulated Blend calcine waste composition. This was due to increase concentrations of both F and Al2O3 along with a decrease in CaO and Na2O in the simulate Blend calcine waste all of which have strong impacts on the glass properties that limit waste loading of this type of waste.

  12. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.

    PubMed

    Lyttleton, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  13. State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program - Final Progress Report - 01/01/1996 - 09/30/2000

    SciTech Connect

    Trever, Kathleen

    2000-09-30

    The primary goal is to maintain an independent, impartial, and qualified State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program to assess the potential impacts of present and future Department of Energy (DOE) activities in Idaho; to assure the citizens of Idaho that all present and future DOE activities in Idaho are protective of the health and safety of Idahoans and the environment; and to communicate the findings to the citizens of Idaho in a manner which provides them the opportunity to evaluate impacts of present and future DOE activities in Idaho. This will be accomplished through primary technical work activities and providing clear, factual data and other information to the public.

  14. Subregional structural and connectivity damage in the visual cortex in neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Huanhuan; Zhu, Jiajia; Zhang, Ningnannan; Wang, Qiuhui; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Chunsheng; Sun, Jie; Sun, Xianting; Yang, Li; Yu, Chunshui

    2017-01-01

    Patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) have shown structural and functional impairments in the visual cortex. We aimed to characterize subregional grey matter volume (GMV) and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes in the visual cortex in NMO. Thirty-seven NMO patients and forty-two controls underwent structural and functional MRI scans. The GMV and rsFC of each visual subregion were compared between the groups. Compared with controls, NMO patients had GMV reductions in the bilateral V1, V2, V3d, VP, and LO and in the left V3A. In canonical visual pathways, the relatively low-level subregions showed more significant GMV reductions than did the high-level ones. Regardless of GMV correction, NMO patients showed reduced rsFC in the bilateral LO and V4v and in the left V2. The GMVs of the bilateral V1 and LO and of the left V2 and V3d were negatively correlated with clinical disability in NMO patients; these correlation coefficients were associated with hierarchical positions in the visual pathways. These findings suggest that in NMO, the low-level visual subregions have more severe structural damage; structural damage is not the only factor affecting rsFC alterations of visual subregions; GMV reduction in the low-level visual subregions has the highest predictive value for clinical disability. PMID:28157198

  15. Disrupted resting-state insular subregions functional connectivity in post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youxue; Xie, Bing; Chen, Heng; Li, Meiling; Guo, Xiaonan; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is suggested to be a structural and functional abnormality in the insula. The insula, which consists of distinct subregions with various patterns of connectivity, displays complex and diverse functions. However, whether these insular subregions have different patterns of connectivity in PTSD remains unclear. Investigating the abnormal functional connectivity of the insular subregions is crucial to reveal its potential effect on diseases specifically PTSD. This study uses a seed-based method to investigate the altered resting-state functional connectivity of insular subregions in PTSD. We found that patients with PTSD showed reduced functional connectivity compared with healthy controls (HCs) between the left ventral anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex. The patients with PTSD also exhibited decreased functional connectivity between the right posterior insula and left inferior parietal lobe, and the postcentral gyrus relative to HCs. These results suggest the involvement of altered functional connectivity of insular subregions in the abnormal regulation of emotion and processing of somatosensory information in patients with PTSD. Such impairments in functional connectivity patterns of the insular subregions may advance our understanding of the pathophysiological basis underlying PTSD. PMID:27399097

  16. Disrupted resting-state insular subregions functional connectivity in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youxue; Xie, Bing; Chen, Heng; Li, Meiling; Guo, Xiaonan; Chen, Huafu

    2016-07-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is suggested to be a structural and functional abnormality in the insula. The insula, which consists of distinct subregions with various patterns of connectivity, displays complex and diverse functions. However, whether these insular subregions have different patterns of connectivity in PTSD remains unclear. Investigating the abnormal functional connectivity of the insular subregions is crucial to reveal its potential effect on diseases specifically PTSD. This study uses a seed-based method to investigate the altered resting-state functional connectivity of insular subregions in PTSD. We found that patients with PTSD showed reduced functional connectivity compared with healthy controls (HCs) between the left ventral anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex. The patients with PTSD also exhibited decreased functional connectivity between the right posterior insula and left inferior parietal lobe, and the postcentral gyrus relative to HCs. These results suggest the involvement of altered functional connectivity of insular subregions in the abnormal regulation of emotion and processing of somatosensory information in patients with PTSD. Such impairments in functional connectivity patterns of the insular subregions may advance our understanding of the pathophysiological basis underlying PTSD.

  17. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of INEEL SBW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arlin L. Olson; Nicholas R. Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-12-01

    Sodium bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many studies have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. DOE desired further experimental data, with regard to steam reforming technology, to make informed decisions concerning selection of treatment technology for SBW. Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was performed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel September 27 through October 1, 2004. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, and located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Personnel from Science Applications International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, operated the pilot plant. The pilot scale test was terminated as planned after achieving a total of 100 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation. About 230 kg of SBW surrogate were processed that resulted in about 88 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 62

  18. Curriculum Development for Learning To Live Together: The Caribbean Sub-Region. The Final Report of the Sub-Regional Seminar (Havana, Cuba, May 15-18, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byron, Isabel, Ed.; Rozemeijer, Saskia, Ed.

    A sub-regional seminar based on the theme, "Curriculum Development for Learning to Live Together" (Havana, Cuba, May 15-18, 2001), brought together 20 member states of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's Caribbean Network of Educational Innovation for Development: Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Aruba,…

  19. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  20. Environmental Sampling FY01 Annual Report - Understanding the Movement of Mercury in the Environmental Surrounding the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Michael Lehman

    2001-09-01

    Environmental fate and transport of the toxic air pollutant mercury (Hg) is currently a high-priority regional concern for the INEEL, and national and global concern for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). At the INEEL’s Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), significant quantities (est. 40 kg/year) of Hg may have been released over 37 years of Environmental Management’s (EM) High-Level Waste (HLW) treatment operations. The EPA is very concerned about the continued global buildup of Hg in the atmosphere and aquatic ecosystems, and has recently invested heavily in Hg research to better understand its complex environmental cycling.1,2 The Environmental Sampling work began in FY99 as a joint INEEL/U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) field research effort to (a) better understand the fate and potential impacts of Hg emissions from the INEEL’s HLW treatment operations (operational component) and (b) contribute at a national level to the scientific understanding of local, regional, and global Hg fate and transport (research component). The USGS contributed snow sampling support in the field (Water Resources Division, Salt Lake City) and laboratory analysis of all samples (Wisconsin District Mercury Research Laboratory).

  1. Sub-Regional Assessment of HPV Vaccination Among Female Adolescents in the Intermountain West and Implications for Intervention Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Bodson, Julia; Ding, Qian; Warner, Echo L; Hawkins, Amy J; Henry, Kevin A; Kepka, Deanna

    2017-01-13

    Objectives We investigated the similarities and differences in the factors related to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of female adolescents in three sub-regions of the Intermountain West (IW). Methods We analyzed 2011-2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen data. Respondents (parents) who were living in the IW and who had daughters aged 13-17 years old with provider-verified immunization records were included in our analyses. East, Central, and West sub-regions were defined based on geographic contiguity and similarity in HPV vaccination rates and sociodemographic characteristics. Survey-weighted Chi square tests and multivariable Poisson regressions were performed. Results In all three sub-regions, older teen age and receipt of other recommended adolescent vaccinations were significantly associated with HPV vaccination. In the East sub-region, providers' facility type and source of vaccines were significantly related to HPV vaccination. In the Central sub-region, teens with married parents were significantly less likely to be vaccinated than were those with unmarried parents. In the West sub-region, non-Hispanic teens were significantly less likely to be vaccinated than were Hispanic teens. Conclusions for Practice In order to improve HPV vaccine coverage in the IW, region-wide efforts to target younger teens and to promote the HPV vaccine with other recommended adolescent vaccinations should be supplemented with sub-regional attention to the health care system (East sub-region), to married parents (Central sub-region), and to non-Hispanic teens (West sub-region).

  2. Conceptual Metaphor Meets Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Tamer G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the metaphorical representation of concepts and the appropriation of language-based construals can be hypothesized as additional sources of conceptual change alongside those previously proposed. Analyses of construals implicit in the lay and scientific use of the noun "energy" from the perspective of the theory of conceptual…

  3. The ventral pallidum: Subregion-specific functional anatomy and roles in motivated behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Root, David H.; Melendez, Roberto I.; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Napier, T. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) plays a critical role in the processing and execution of motivated behaviors. Yet this brain region is often overlooked in published discussions of the neurobiology of mental health (e.g., addiction, depression). This contributes to a gap in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. This review is presented to help bridge the gap by providing a resource for current knowledge of VP anatomy, projection patterns and subregional circuits, and how this organization relates to the function of VP neurons and ultimately behavior. For example, ventromedial (VPvm) and dorsolateral (VPdl) VP subregions receive projections from nucleus accumbens shell and core, respectively. Inhibitory GABAergic neurons of the VPvm project to mediodorsal thalamus, lateral hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area, and this VP subregion helps discriminate the appropriate conditions to acquire natural rewards or drugs of abuse, consume preferred foods, and perform working memory tasks. GABAergic neurons of the VPdl project to subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata, and this VP subregion is modulated by, and is necessary for, drug-seeking behavior. Additional circuits arise from nonGABAergic neuronal phenotypes that are likely to excite rather than inhibit their targets. These subregional and neuronal phenotypic circuits place the VP in a unique position to process motivationally-relevant stimuli and coherent adaptive behaviors. PMID:25857550

  4. Functional connectivity of paired default mode network subregions in primary insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xiao; Shao, Yi; Liu, Si-yu; Li, Hai-jun; Wan, Ai-lan; Nie, Si; Peng, De-chang; Dai, Xi-jian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) differences between the paired default mode network (DMN) subregions in patients with primary insomnia (PIs). Methods Forty-two PIs and forty-two age- and sex-matched good sleepers (GSs) were recruited. All subjects underwent the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The seed-based region-to-region FC method was used to evaluate the abnormal connectivity within the DMN subregions between the PIs and the GSs. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the abnormal FC strength within the paired DMN subregions and the clinical features in PIs. Results Compared with the GSs, the PIs showed higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score, Self-Rating Depression Scale score, Self Rating Anxiety Scale score, Self-Rating Scale of Sleep score, and Profile of Mood States score (P<0.001). Compared with the GSs, the PIs showed significant decreased region-to-region FC between the medial prefrontal cortex and the right medial temporal lobe (t=−2.275, P=0.026), and between the left medial temporal lobe and the left inferior parietal cortices (t=−3.32, P=0.001). The abnormal FC strengths between the DMN subregions did not correlate with the clinical features. Conclusion PIs showed disrupted FC within the DMN subregions. PMID:26719693

  5. Hydrothermal transformation and dissolution of hydroceramic waste forms for the INEEL calcined high-level nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olanrewaju, Johnson

    2002-09-01

    The two main objectives of this research were dictated by the chemical composition of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) calcined high-level nuclear waste. The first objective is to develop waste forms specifically to address the immobilization of INEEL sodium-containing calcined waste in order to identify a source material that would be compatible with the established processing requirements for the waste form. These selection criteria include no excessive water demand, proper mineralogical composition of the waste form, low leachability, waste loadings greater than 20 wt% calcine and also readily available to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in large quantities once the pozzolan(s) selection is made. The primary objective aims at studying hydrothermal transformation and kinetics of dissolution of the waste forms. The chemical durability (dissolution) of the waste forms was established by subjecting the samples to modified Product Consistency Test (PCT) for 24 hours at 90°C. The conductivity, pH and species concentrations of the PCT solutions plotted as a function of time decreased nonlinearly with increasing processing time. This trend was observed in all hydroceramic host samples processed from 75 to 200°C. The host mixed with waste samples heat-treated from 75 to 150°C showed decreasing conductivity and pH trend and before reaching a steady state. The increasing trend observed in the 175 and 200°C samples is due to reverse chemical reactions that occur in those samples. From the data collected, it is recommended that a processing regimen be developed that utilizes the addition of calcined Troy clay with a waste loading of 30 wt% and processed between 175 to 200°C for 8 to 10 hours and 100% relative humidity. Based on the analytical concentrations of species measured in the PCT test solutions, hydroceramic waste forms are recommended to be stored/buried in Teflon-lined stainless steel

  6. Subregions of Motion and Elliptic Halo Orbits in the Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campagnola, Stefano; Lo, Martin; Newton, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present regions of motion and periodic orbits in the spatial elliptic restricted three body problem (ER3BP). Periodic orbits and regions of motion are fundamental keys to understand any dynamical system; for this reason the Hill's surfaces or the families of halo orbits have been extensively studied in the frame of the circular restricted three body problem. It is our opinion that their natural extensions to the ER3BP have not been studied enough. We divide the position space into forbidden subregions, subregions of motion and low-velocity subregions.We use these notions to define necessary condition for a transfer trajectory in the ER3BP. Also we compute branches of elliptic halo orbits bifurcating from halo orbits in the circular restricted three body problem. The new periodic orbits have principal periods and stability properties different from those of the originating halo orbit.

  7. Systems Science, Catastrophe Theory, and Sub-regional Climate Change: 5 Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickrey, G.

    2015-12-01

    We have performed 5 studies utilizing catastrophe theory to analyze several anthropogenic and broader biological factors in order to ascertain current and future climate changes for sub-regions generally characterized by the following: Appalachian Tennessee; South Southeastern Alaska; Sierra Nevada California; Ohio River Basin; North Central Illinois. Research to date has demonstrated a direct correlation to IPCC and external data sources; an ability to refine feedback predictions; and accuracy through modeling past-to-present structures. Further verification of process is being pursued. Should the data continue to register as verifiable, the finery will enable accurate analysis of current and future climate conditions in various sub-regions, with the model being replicable and distributable globally through web mechanisms for localized use. Analysis may then be employed as a driver for sub-regional mitigation and adaptation policy-making and programs.

  8. SEPRADYNE/RADUCE HIGH VACUUM THERMAL PROCESS FOR DESTRUCTION OF DIOXINS IN INEEL/WERF FLY ASH.

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS,J.W.; KALB,P.D.; MALKMUS,D.B.

    1999-08-02

    This study investigated the use of an indirectly heated, high temperature (900 C), high vacuum (28 inch Hg) rotary kiln, developed and patented by Raduce, Inc. (subsidiary of Sepradyne Corp.), to treat a dioxin contaminated mixed waste incinerator ash from the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF). A 500 cm{sup 3} bench-scale rotary vacuum thermal desorption and destruction unit (DDU) was used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to demonstrate this thermal treatment process. Dioxins and furans were successfully decomposed at both low (450 C) and high (700-800 C) temperature regimes. In addition, substantial volume and mass reduction of the ash was achieved. Stabilization of the nonvolatile residues by a post-treatment encapsulation process may be required to reduce the leachability of RCRA metals to levels below the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements.

  9. SEPRADYNE/REDUCE HIGH VACUUM THERMAL PROCESS FOR DESTRUCTION OF DIOXINS IN INEEL/WERF FLY ASH.

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS,J.W.; KALB,P.D.; MALKMUS,D.B.

    1999-08-02

    This study investigated the use of an indirectly heated, high temperature (900 C), high vacuum (28'' Hg) rotary kiln, developed and patented by Raduce, Inc. (subsidiary of Sepradyne Corp.), to treat a dioxin contaminated mixed waste incinerator ash from the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF). A 500 cm{sup 3} bench-scale rotary vacuum thermal desorption and destruction unit (DDU) was used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to demonstrate this thermal treatment process. Dioxins and furans were successfully decomposed at both low (450 C) and high (700-800 C) temperature regimes. In addition, substantial volume and mass reduction of the ash was achieved. Stabilization of the nonvolatile residues by a post-treatment encapsulation process may be required to reduce the leachability of RCRA metals to levels below the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements.

  10. T-cell responses to the trypanosome variant surface glycoprotein are not limited to hypervariable subregions.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, Taylor R; Demick, Karen P; Bangs, James D; Forest, Katrina T; Paulnock, Donna M; Mansfield, John M

    2009-01-01

    Variable subregions within the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat displayed by African trypanosomes are predicted sites for T- and B-cell recognition. Hypervariable subregion 1 (HV-1) is localized to an internal amphipathic alpha helix in VSG monomers and may have evolved due to selective pressure by host T-cell responses to epitopes within this subregion. The prediction of T-cell receptor-reactive sites and major histocompatibility complex class II binding motifs within the HV-1 subregion, coupled with the conservation of amino acid residues in other regions of the molecule sufficient to maintain secondary and tertiary VSG structure, prompted us to test the hypothesis that Th cells may preferentially recognize HV-1 subregion peptides. Thus, we examined the fine specificity of VSG-specific T-cell lines, T-cell hybridomas, and Th cells activated during infection. Our results demonstrate that T-cell epitopes are distributed throughout the N-terminal domain of VSG but are not clustered exclusively within HV-1 or other hypervariable subregions. In contrast, T-cell-reactive sites were not detected within the relatively conserved C-terminal domain of VSG. Overall, this study is the first to dissect the fine specificity of T-cell responses to the trypanosome VSG and suggests that evolution of a conserved HV-1 region may be unrelated to selective pressures exerted by host T-cell responses. This study also demonstrates that T cells do not recognize the relatively invariant C-terminal region of the VSG molecule during infection, suggesting that it could serve as a potential subunit vaccine to provide variant cross-specific immunity for African trypanosomiasis.

  11. A one health perspective on HPAI H5N1 in the Greater Mekong sub-region.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Otte, Martin J; Roland-Holst, David; Zilberman, David

    2013-05-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has been a global concern for almost 10 years since its epidemic emergence in South-east Asia in 2003/2004. Despite large investment of resources into the region, the infection has not been eradicated and continues to result in outbreaks in poultry and a small number of human fatalities. This review synthesizes the knowledge base generated by a vast number of research activities conducted in the region and beyond, and adopts an interdisciplinary perspective consistent with the one health paradigm towards analysing the problem and formulating possible policy solutions. A key outcome of the work has been the need to integrate socio-economic and anthropological dimensions with any disease control and prevention activities traditionally informed by primarily epidemiological, virological and pathological attributes of the infection in poultry and wild waterbirds. Recommendations at a broad conceptual level are presented that acknowledge the diversity in the region with respect to livestock production, as well as the changing nature of the risk landscape as a consequence of the rapid economic development which some of the countries in the Greater Mekong sub-region are currently undergoing, as well as their strong trade links with China as the major economic power in East Asia.

  12. Encoding, Consolidation, and Retrieval of Contextual Memory: Differential Involvement of Dorsal CA3 and CA1 Hippocampal Subregions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daumas, Stephanie; Halley, Helene; Frances, Bernard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    Studies on human and animals shed light on the unique hippocampus contributions to relational memory. However, the particular role of each hippocampal subregion in memory processing is still not clear. Hippocampal computational models and theories have emphasized a unique function in memory for each hippocampal subregion, with the CA3 area acting…

  13. Security Challenges in the Gulf of Guinea Sub-Region: Strategy for Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    electricity to countries as far away as Egypt and South Africa.45 All these resources put the sub-region in a high strategic position among global...intended for coastal defense, fishery protection and internal security predominantly on Lake Volta . In 1994, the navy was reorganized into two commands

  14. Language Education, Economic Development and Participation in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruthiaux, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The Mekong has long attracted interest although it remains economically insignificant. A group of riparian states known as the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)--Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and Yunnan Province (China)--now manage aspects of regional development including trade, water management and education. Standard GMS discourse…

  15. Developmental Differences in Relations between Episodic Memory and Hippocampal Subregion Volume during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Tracy; Blankenship, Sarah L.; Mulligan, Elizabeth; Rice, Katherine; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory shows striking improvement during early childhood. However, neural contributions to these behavioral changes are not well understood. This study examined associations between episodic memory and volume of subregions (head, body, and tail) of the hippocampus--a structure known to support episodic memory in school-aged children and…

  16. Efficient Iris Recognition Based on Optimal Subfeature Selection and Weighted Subregion Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ning

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose three discriminative feature selection strategies and weighted subregion matching method to improve the performance of iris recognition system. Firstly, we introduce the process of feature extraction and representation based on scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) in detail. Secondly, three strategies are described, which are orientation probability distribution function (OPDF) based strategy to delete some redundant feature keypoints, magnitude probability distribution function (MPDF) based strategy to reduce dimensionality of feature element, and compounded strategy combined OPDF and MPDF to further select optimal subfeature. Thirdly, to make matching more effective, this paper proposes a novel matching method based on weighted sub-region matching fusion. Particle swarm optimization is utilized to accelerate achieve different sub-region's weights and then weighted different subregions' matching scores to generate the final decision. The experimental results, on three public and renowned iris databases (CASIA-V3 Interval, Lamp, andMMU-V1), demonstrate that our proposed methods outperform some of the existing methods in terms of correct recognition rate, equal error rate, and computation complexity. PMID:24683317

  17. Comprehensive developmental profiles of gene activity in regions and subregions of the Arabidopsis seed

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte, Mark F.; Kirkbride, Ryan C.; Stone, Sandra L.; Pelletier, Julie M.; Bui, Anhthu Q.; Yeung, Edward C.; Hashimoto, Meryl; Fei, Jiong; Harada, Corey M.; Munoz, Matthew D.; Le, Brandon H.; Drews, Gary N.; Brady, Siobhan M.; Goldberg, Robert B.; Harada, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Seeds are complex structures that consist of the embryo, endosperm, and seed-coat regions that are of different ontogenetic origins, and each region can be further divided into morphologically distinct subregions. Despite the importance of seeds for food, fiber, and fuel globally, little is known of the cellular processes that characterize each subregion or how these processes are integrated to permit the coordinated development of the seed. We profiled gene activity genome-wide in every organ, tissue, and cell type of Arabidopsis seeds from fertilization through maturity. The resulting mRNA datasets offer the most comprehensive description of gene activity in seeds with high spatial and temporal resolution, providing unique insights into the function of understudied seed regions. Global comparisons of mRNA populations reveal unexpected overlaps in the functional identities of seed subregions. Analyses of coexpressed gene sets suggest that processes that regulate seed size and filling are coordinated across several subregions. Predictions of gene regulatory networks based on the association of transcription factors with enriched DNA sequence motifs upstream of coexpressed genes identify regulators of seed development. These studies emphasize the utility of these datasets as an essential resource for the study of seed biology. PMID:23319655

  18. Efficient iris recognition based on optimal subfeature selection and weighted subregion fusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; He, Fei; Wang, Hongye; Deng, Ning

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose three discriminative feature selection strategies and weighted subregion matching method to improve the performance of iris recognition system. Firstly, we introduce the process of feature extraction and representation based on scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) in detail. Secondly, three strategies are described, which are orientation probability distribution function (OPDF) based strategy to delete some redundant feature keypoints, magnitude probability distribution function (MPDF) based strategy to reduce dimensionality of feature element, and compounded strategy combined OPDF and MPDF to further select optimal subfeature. Thirdly, to make matching more effective, this paper proposes a novel matching method based on weighted sub-region matching fusion. Particle swarm optimization is utilized to accelerate achieve different sub-region's weights and then weighted different subregions' matching scores to generate the final decision. The experimental results, on three public and renowned iris databases (CASIA-V3 Interval, Lamp, and MMU-V1), demonstrate that our proposed methods outperform some of the existing methods in terms of correct recognition rate, equal error rate, and computation complexity.

  19. Sub-regional integration in Sudan: the key to food security and recovery.

    PubMed

    D'Silva, Brian; Tecosky, Olivia

    2007-03-01

    The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in Sudan has created a new opportunity for peace. Approaches to food security must now be reoriented based on the agro-ecological diversity in Sudan. WFP is in a unique position to catalyse an approach to food security that meets immediate needs and contributes to long-term recovery, in collaboration with the Government of National Unity (GNU) and the Government of South Sudan (GOSS). Aggregate food production in Sudan has increased in the past decade. At sub-regional levels, however, many areas remain food insecure. Major research must be undertaken to identify optimum levels of food production and barriers to access to food at sub-regional levels as a first step towards linking deficit areas with areas of surplus. Initiatives must also be undertaken to facilitate increased integration between sub-regions. Increased sub-regional linkages could ensure more efficient delivery of food in the short term as well as recovery and economic growth in the long term.

  20. Dissociating the semantic function of two neighbouring subregions in the left lateral anterior temporal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Sanjuán, Ana; Hope, Thomas M.H.; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Prejawa, Susan; Oberhuber, Marion; Guerin, Julie; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Green, David W.; Price, Cathy J.

    2015-01-01

    We used fMRI in 35 healthy participants to investigate how two neighbouring subregions in the lateral anterior temporal lobe (LATL) contribute to semantic matching and object naming. Four different levels of processing were considered: (A) recognition of the object concepts; (B) search for semantic associations related to object stimuli; (C) retrieval of semantic concepts of interest; and (D) retrieval of stimulus specific concepts as required for naming. During semantic association matching on picture stimuli or heard object names, we found that activation in both subregions was higher when the objects were semantically related (mug–kettle) than unrelated (car–teapot). This is consistent with both LATL subregions playing a role in (C), the successful retrieval of amodal semantic concepts. In addition, one subregion was more activated for object naming than matching semantically related objects, consistent with (D), the retrieval of a specific concept for naming. We discuss the implications of these novel findings for cognitive models of semantic processing and left anterior temporal lobe function. PMID:25496810

  1. Analyzing Public Sector Education Facilities: A Step Further towards Accessible Basic Education Institutions in Destitute Subregions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpur, Mir Aftab Hussain; Napiah, Madzlan; Chandio, Imtiaz Ahmed; Memon, Irfan Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Rural subregions of the developing countries are suffering from many physical and socioeconomic problems, including scarcity of basic education institutions. The shortage of education institutions extended distance between rural localities and education institutions. Hence, to curb this problem, this research is aimed to deal with the basic…

  2. Dissociating the semantic function of two neighbouring subregions in the left lateral anterior temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Ana; Hope, Thomas M H; Jones, 'Ōiwi Parker; Prejawa, Susan; Oberhuber, Marion; Guerin, Julie; Seghier, Mohamed L; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2015-09-01

    We used fMRI in 35 healthy participants to investigate how two neighbouring subregions in the lateral anterior temporal lobe (LATL) contribute to semantic matching and object naming. Four different levels of processing were considered: (A) recognition of the object concepts; (B) search for semantic associations related to object stimuli; (C) retrieval of semantic concepts of interest; and (D) retrieval of stimulus specific concepts as required for naming. During semantic association matching on picture stimuli or heard object names, we found that activation in both subregions was higher when the objects were semantically related (mug-kettle) than unrelated (car-teapot). This is consistent with both LATL subregions playing a role in (C), the successful retrieval of amodal semantic concepts. In addition, one subregion was more activated for object naming than matching semantically related objects, consistent with (D), the retrieval of a specific concept for naming. We discuss the implications of these novel findings for cognitive models of semantic processing and left anterior temporal lobe function.

  3. Isotopic Evidence for the Impact of Playa Water on Shallow Groundwater Flow in the Snake River Aquifer Beneath the INEEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, M. E.; Depaolo, D. J.; Neher, E. R.

    2002-12-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is located on the Snake River Plain in eastern Idaho. At Test Area North (TAN) on the INEEL, waste consisting of low-level radioactive isotopes, sewage and chlorinated solvents was injected into the upper aquifer through a 95 m well, resulting in a 2 km plume of TCE in the groundwater. The geology consists of fractured basalt flows separated by sedimentary interbeds. The depth to groundwater at the site is 65 m. At 120-160 m depth, a continuous interbed (the Q-R) acts as a confining layer between the upper and lower aquifer. The primary direction of flow in the Snake River Aquifer is NE to SW, but flow at TAN (as defined by the TCE plume) is perpendicular to the regional flow, starting out to the east and bending to the SE. Possible causes of this anomalous flow include injection and/or infiltration of wastewater, infiltration of water from ephemeral playa lakes (dry for the last 50 years due to agricultural diversion), or heterogeneous permeability due to subsurface geological features. Understanding this flow is critical for determining the risk factors associated with the contamination. We have measured the isotopic compositions of surface and groundwater from TAN. Water above the Q-R interbed is evaporated (δ18O values shifted up to 3‰ ). The degree of evaporation increases towards the edge of outline of the closest playa. The 87Sr/86Sr values are very uniform (0.71035+/-0.0001) and are equal to samples from the playa system. Conversely, water beneath the Q-R is not contaminated and is isotopically distinct from the water above the interbed (no evaporation, 87Sr/86Sr values >0.711). The playa water is the primary factor producing the flow patterns observed in the TAN area. Radiocarbon ages calculated from the 14C of DIC are 1800 to 2800 years BP, giving infiltration rates of 2-3 cm/yr. Given the possibility of subsurface DIC exchange with carbonates, these ages should be considered minimum

  4. The Semantic Network at Work and Rest: Differential Connectivity of Anterior Temporal Lobe Subregions

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rebecca L.; Hoffman, Paul; Pobric, Gorana

    2016-01-01

    The anterior temporal lobe (ATL) makes a critical contribution to semantic cognition. However, the functional connectivity of the ATL and the functional network underlying semantic cognition has not been elucidated. In addition, subregions of the ATL have distinct functional properties and thus the potential differential connectivity between these subregions requires investigation. We explored these aims using both resting-state and active semantic task data in humans in combination with a dual-echo gradient echo planar imaging (EPI) paradigm designed to ensure signal throughout the ATL. In the resting-state analysis, the ventral ATL (vATL) and anterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG) were shown to connect to areas responsible for multimodal semantic cognition, including bilateral ATL, inferior frontal gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, angular gyrus, posterior MTG, and medial temporal lobes. In contrast, the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG)/superior temporal sulcus was connected to a distinct set of auditory and language-related areas, including bilateral STG, precentral and postcentral gyri, supplementary motor area, supramarginal gyrus, posterior temporal cortex, and inferior and middle frontal gyri. Complementary analyses of functional connectivity during an active semantic task were performed using a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. The PPI analysis highlighted the same semantic regions suggesting a core semantic network active during rest and task states. This supports the necessity for semantic cognition in internal processes occurring during rest. The PPI analysis showed additional connectivity of the vATL to regions of occipital and frontal cortex. These areas strongly overlap with regions found to be sensitive to executively demanding, controlled semantic processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Previous studies have shown that semantic cognition depends on subregions of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL). However, the network of regions

  5. Supplement analysis for a container system for the management of DOE spent nuclear fuel located at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-12

    The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the NEPA, 40 CFR 1502.9 (c), directs federal agencies to prepare a supplement to an environmental impact statement when an agency makes substantial changes in the Proposed Action that are relevant to environmental concerns, or there are significant new circumstances or information relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the Proposed Action or impacts. When it is unclear whether a supplemental environmental impact statement is required, DOE regulations (10 CFR 1021.314) direct the preparation of a supplement analysis to assist in making that determination. This supplement analysis evaluates the impacts of employing dual-purpose canisters (DPCs) to prepare DOE SNF located at the INEEL for interim onsite storage and transport outside the State of Idaho. Impacts associated with DPC manufacturing, loading and storage of DOE-ID SNF into DPCs, transport of loaded DPCs outside Idaho, and the cumulative impacts are compared with the impacts previously analyzed in the SNF and INEL EIS and the Navy Container System EIS. This SA provides information to determine whether: (1) an existing EIS should be supplemented; (2) a new EIS should be prepared; or (3) no further NEPA documentation is required.

  6. A functionally active presynaptic high-affinity kainate receptor in the rat hippocampal CA3 subregion.

    PubMed

    Malva, J O; Ambrósio, A F; Cunha, R A; Ribeiro, J A; Carvalho, A P; Carvalho, C M

    1995-02-09

    We studied the modulation of the intracellular free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) by kainate/AMPA receptor activation in synaptosomes isolated from whole rat hippocampus, or from its CA1, CA3 or dentate gyrus subregions. The receptor was activated either by 100 microM S-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolopropionic acid (AMPA) (EC50 = 26.6 +/- 4.9 microM) or by 100 microM kainate (EC50 = 0.81 +/- 0.1 microM), but the effects of these agonists were not additive. The response to either AMPA or kainate was competitively inhibited by 10 microM 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dioxine. Higher [Ca2+]i responses to 100 microM AMPA or to 100 microM kainate were observed in the CA3 subregion (43.2 +/- 2.5 nM or 42.8 +/- 2.3 nM, respectively) than in the whole hippocampus (22.4 +/- 1.1 nM or 22.4 +/- 1.6, respectively), in the CA1 subregion (26.4 +/- 1.1 nM or 26.6 +/- 2.6 nM, respectively) or in dentate gyrus (24.6 +/- 1.4 nM or 21.5 +/- 1.0 nM, respectively). These results indicate that the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus is enriched in a presynaptic high-affinity kainate receptor which modulates the [Ca2+]i in nerve terminals.

  7. Multiscale regression model to infer historical temperatures in a central Mediterranean sub-regional area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diodato, N.; Bellocchi, G.; Bertolin, C.; Camuffo, D.

    2010-12-01

    To reconstruct sub-regional European climate over the past centuries, several efforts have been made using historical datasets. However, only scattered information at low spatial and temporal resolution have been produced to date for the Mediterranean area. This paper has exploited, for Southern and Central Italy (Mediterranean Sub-Regional Area), an unprecedented historical dataset as an attempt to model seasonal (winter and summer) air temperatures in pre-instrumental time (back to 1500). Combining information derived from proxy documentary data and large-scale simulation, a statistical methodology in the form of multiscale-temperature regression (MTR)-model was developed to adapt larger-scale estimations to the sub-regional temperature pattern. The modelled response lacks essentially of autocorrelations among the residuals (marginal or any significance in the Durbin-Watson statistic), and agrees well with the independent data from the validation sample (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient >0.60). The advantage of the approach is not merely increased accuracy in estimation. Rather, it relies on the ability to extract (and exploit) the right information to replicate coherent temperature series in historical times.

  8. Subregional Hippocampal Morphology and Psychiatric Outcome in Adolescents Who Were Born Very Preterm and at Term

    PubMed Central

    Cole, James H.; Filippetti, Maria Laura; Allin, Matthew P. G.; Walshe, Muriel; Nam, Kie Woo; Gutman, Boris A.; Murray, Robin M.; Rifkin, Larry; Thompson, Paul M.; Nosarti, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Background The hippocampus has been reported to be structurally and functionally altered as a sequel of very preterm birth (<33 weeks gestation), possibly due its vulnerability to hypoxic–ischemic damage in the neonatal period. We examined hippocampal volumes and subregional morphology in very preterm born individuals in mid- and late adolescence and their association with psychiatric outcome. Methods Structural brain magnetic resonance images were acquired at two time points (baseline and follow-up) from 65 ex-preterm adolescents (mean age = 15.5 and 19.6 years) and 36 term-born controls (mean age=15.0 and 19.0 years). Hippocampal volumes and subregional morphometric differences were measured from manual tracings and with three-dimensional shape analysis. Psychiatric outcome was assessed with the Rutter Parents’ Scale at baseline, the General Health Questionnaire at follow-up and the Peters Delusional Inventory at both time points. Results In contrast to previous studies we did not find significant difference in the cross-sectional or longitudinal hippocampal volumes between individuals born preterm and controls, despite preterm individual having significantly smaller whole brain volumes. Shape analysis at baseline revealed subregional deformations in 28% of total bilateral hippocampal surface, reflecting atrophy, in ex-preterm individuals compared to controls, and in 22% at follow-up. In ex-preterm individuals, longitudinal changes in hippocampal shape accounted for 11% of the total surface, while in controls they reached 20%. In the whole sample (both groups) larger right hippocampal volume and bilateral anterior surface deformations at baseline were associated with delusional ideation scores at follow-up. Conclusions This study suggests a dynamic association between cross-sectional hippocampal volumes, longitudinal changes and surface deformations and psychosis proneness. PMID:26091104

  9. Linkage relationships in the bovine MHC region. High recombination frequency between class II subregions.

    PubMed

    Andersson, L; Lundén, A; Sigurdardottir, S; Davies, C J; Rask, L

    1988-01-01

    Class II genes of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been investigated by Southern blot analysis using human DNA probes. Previous studies revealed the presence of bovine DO beta, DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, and DR beta genes, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms for each of these genes were documented. In the present study, the presence of three additional class II genes, designated DZ alpha, DY alpha, and DY beta, are reported. DZ alpha was assumed to correspond to the human DZ alpha gene while the other two were designated DY because their relationship to human class II genes could not be firmly established. The linkage relationships among bovine class II genes and two additional loci, TCP1B and C4, were investigated by family segregation analysis and analysis of linkage disequilibrium. The results clearly indicated that all these loci belong to the same linkage group. This linkage group is divided into two subregions separated by a fairly high recombination frequency. One region includes the C4, DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, and DR beta loci and the other one is composed of the DO beta, DY alpha, DY beta, and TCP1B loci. No recombinant was observed within any of these subregions and there was a strong or fairly strong linkage disequilibrium between loci within groups. In contrast, as many as five recombinants among three different families were detected in the interval between these subregions giving a recombination frequency estimate of 0.17 +/- 0.07. The fairly high recombination frequency observed between class II genes in cattle is strikingly different from the corresponding recombination estimates in man and mouse. The finding implies either a much larger molecular distance between some of the bovine class II genes or alternatively the presence of a recombinational "hot spot" in the bovine class II region.

  10. Subregional Shape Alterations in the Amygdala in Patients with Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geon Ha; Kang, Hee Jin; Kim, Bori R.; Jeon, Saerom; Im, Jooyeon Jamie; Hyun, Heejung; Moon, Sohyeon; Lim, Soo Mee; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The amygdala has been known to play a pivotal role in mediating fear-related responses including panic attacks. Given the functionally distinct role of the amygdalar subregions, morphometric measurements of the amygdala may point to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying panic disorder. The current study aimed to determine the global and local morphometric alterations of the amygdala related to panic disorder. Methods Volumetric and surface-based morphometric approach to high-resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted images was used to examine the structural variations of the amygdala, with respect to extent and location, in 23 patients with panic disorder and 31 matched healthy individuals. Results There were no significant differences in bilateral amygdalar volumes between patients with panic disorder and healthy individuals despite a trend-level right amygdalar volume reduction related to panic disorder (right, β = -0.23, p = 0.09, Cohen's d = 0.51; left, β = -0.18, p = 0.19, Cohen's d = 0.45). Amygdalar subregions were localized into three groups including the superficial, centromedial, and laterobasal groups based on the cytoarchitectonically defined probability map. Surface-based morphometric analysis revealed shape alterations in the laterobasal and centromedial groups of the right amygdala in patients with panic disorder (false discovery rate corrected p < 0.05). Conclusions The current findings suggest that subregion-specific shape alterations in the right amygdala may be involved in the development and maintenance of panic disorder, which may be attributed to the cause or effects of amygdalar hyperactivation. PMID:27336300

  11. Experimental Studies on a Compact Storage Scheme for Wavelet-based Multiresolution Subregion Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulakidas, A.; Srinivasan, A.; Egecioglu, O.; Ibarra, O.; Yang, T.

    1996-01-01

    Wavelet transforms, when combined with quantization and a suitable encoding, can be used to compress images effectively. In order to use them for image library systems, a compact storage scheme for quantized coefficient wavelet data must be developed with a support for fast subregion retrieval. We have designed such a scheme and in this paper we provide experimental studies to demonstrate that it achieves good image compression ratios, while providing a natural indexing mechanism that facilitates fast retrieval of portions of the image at various resolutions.

  12. Subregional variability in Missouri tornado statistics. Technical report Apr 77-Jun 79

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, S.W.; Darkow, G.L.

    1981-11-01

    The reality of subregional variability in tornado occurrence density as evidenced in the county to county variability in Missouri is examined. Reported tornadoes for the period from 1916 through 1975 were used. Demographic and geographic factors known to impact on tornado reporting efficiencies and accuracies are related to county tornado report densities by step-wise multiple linear regression techniques. The analysis suggests that over 75 percent of the county to county apparent variability in reported tornado densities in Missouri is explainable in terms of variability in population density, other related demographic variables and regional scale geographic factors.

  13. Developmental sex differences in resting state functional connectivity of amygdala sub-regions

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, Gabriela; Cservenka, Anita; Rudolph, Marc D.; Fair, Damien A.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2015-01-01

    During adolescence, considerable social and biological changes occur that interact with functional brain maturation, some of which are sex-specific. The amygdala is one brain area that has displayed sexual dimorphism, specifically in socio-affective (superficial amygdala [SFA]), stress (centromedial amygdala [CMA]), and learning and memory (basolateral amygdala [BLA]) processing. The amygdala has also been implicated in mood and anxiety disorders which also display sex-specific features, most prominently observed during adolescence. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study examined the interaction of age and sex on resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of amygdala sub-regions, BLA and SFA, in a sample of healthy adolescents between the ages 10-16 years (n=122, 71 boys). Whole-brain, voxel-wise partial correlation analyses were conducted to determine RSFC of bilateral BLA and SFA seed regions, created using the Eickhoff-Zilles maximum probability maps based on cytoarchitectonic mapping and FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST). Monte Carlo simulation was implemented to correct for multiple comparisons (threshold of 53 contiguous voxels with a z-value ≥ 2.25). Results indicated that with increasing age, there was a corresponding decrease in RSFC between both amygdala sub-regions and parieto-occipital cortices, with a concurrent increase in RSFC with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Specifically, boys and girls demonstrated increased coupling of mPFC and left and right SFA with age, respectively; however, neither sex showed increased connectivity between mPFC and BLA, which could indicate relative immaturity of fronto-limbic networks that is similar across sex. A dissociation in connectivity between BLA- and SFA- parieto-occipital RSFC emerged, in which girls had weaker negative RSFC between SFA and parieto-occipital regions and boys had weaker negative RSFC of BLA and parieto-occipital regions with

  14. Developmental sex differences in resting state functional connectivity of amygdala sub-regions.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Gabriela; Cservenka, Anita; Rudolph, Marc D; Fair, Damien A; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-07-15

    During adolescence, considerable social and biological changes occur that interact with functional brain maturation, some of which are sex-specific. The amygdala is one brain area that has displayed sexual dimorphism, specifically in socio-affective (superficial amygdala [SFA]), stress (centromedial amygdala [CMA]), and learning and memory (basolateral amygdala [BLA]) processing. The amygdala has also been implicated in mood and anxiety disorders which display sex-specific features, most prominently observed during adolescence. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study examined the interaction of age and sex on resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of amygdala sub-regions, BLA and SFA, in a sample of healthy adolescents between the ages 10 and 16 years (n = 122, 71 boys). Whole-brain, voxel-wise partial correlation analyses were conducted to determine RSFC of bilateral BLA and SFA seed regions, created using the Eickhoff-Zilles maximum probability maps based on cytoarchitectonic mapping and FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST). Monte Carlo simulation was implemented to correct for multiple comparisons (threshold of 53 contiguous voxels with a z-value ≥ 2.25). Results indicated that with increasing age, there was a corresponding decrease in RSFC between both amygdala sub-regions and parieto-occipital cortices, with a concurrent increase in RSFC with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Specifically, boys and girls demonstrated increased coupling of mPFC and left and right SFA with age, respectively; however, neither sex showed increased connectivity between mPFC and BLA, which could indicate relative immaturity of fronto-limbic networks that is similar across sex. A dissociation in connectivity between BLA- and SFA-parieto-occipital RSFC emerged, in which girls had weaker negative RSFC between SFA and parieto-occipital regions and boys had weaker negative RSFC of BLA and parieto-occipital regions with

  15. Drivers of Intra-Summer Seasonality and Daily Variability of Coastal Low Cloudiness in California Subregions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, R. E.; Iacobellis, S.; Gershunov, A.; Williams, P.; Cayan, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Summertime low cloud intrusion into the terrestrial west coast of North America impacts human, ecological, and logistical systems. Over a broad region of the West Coast, summer (May - September) coastal low cloudiness (CLC) varies coherently on interannual to interdecadal timescales and has been found to be organized by North Pacific sea surface temperature. Broad-scale studies of low stratiform cloudiness over ocean basins also find that the season of maximum low stratus corresponds to the season of maximum lower tropospheric stability (LTS) or estimated inversion strength. We utilize a 18-summer record of CLC derived from NASA/NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 4km resolution over California (CA) to make a more nuanced spatial and temporal examination of intra-summer variability in CLC and its drivers. We find that uniform spatial coherency over CA is not apparent for intra-summer variability in CLC. On monthly to daily timescales, at least two distinct subregions of coastal California (CA) can be identified, where relationships between meteorology and stratus variability appear to change throughout summer in each subregion. While north of Point Conception and offshore the timing of maximum CLC is closely coincident with maximum LTS, in the Southern CA Bight and northern Baja region, maximum CLC occurs up to about a month before maximum LTS. It appears that summertime CLC in this southern region is not as strongly related as in the northern region to LTS. In particular, although the relationship is strong in May and June, starting in July the daily relationship between LTS and CLC in the south begins to deteriorate. Preliminary results indicate a moderate association between decreased CLC in the south and increased precipitable water content above 850 hPa on daily time scales beginning in July. Relationships between daily CLC variability and meteorological variables including winds, inland temperatures, relative humidity, and

  16. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  17. MINERALIZING, STEAM REFORMING TREATMENT OF HANFORD LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE (a.k.a. INEEL/EXT-05-02526)

    SciTech Connect

    A. L. Olson; N. R. Soelberg; D. W. Marshall; G. L. Anderson

    2005-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2–5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.4 hours of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved

  18. A new breast cancer risk analysis approach using features extracted from multiple sub-regions on bilateral mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenqing; Tseng, Tzu-Liang B.; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Jianying; Qian, Wei

    2015-03-01

    A novel breast cancer risk analysis approach is proposed for enhancing performance of computerized breast cancer risk analysis using bilateral mammograms. Based on the intensity of breast area, five different sub-regions were acquired from one mammogram, and bilateral features were extracted from every sub-region. Our dataset includes 180 bilateral mammograms from 180 women who underwent routine screening examinations, all interpreted as negative and not recalled by the radiologists during the original screening procedures. A computerized breast cancer risk analysis scheme using four image processing modules, including sub-region segmentation, bilateral feature extraction, feature selection, and classification was designed to detect and compute image feature asymmetry between the left and right breasts imaged on the mammograms. The highest computed area under the curve (AUC) is 0.763 ± 0.021 when applying the multiple sub-region features to our testing dataset. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 0.60 and 0.73, respectively. The study demonstrates that (1) features extracted from multiple sub-regions can improve the performance of our scheme compared to using features from whole breast area only; (2) a classifier using asymmetry bilateral features can effectively predict breast cancer risk; (3) incorporating texture and morphological features with density features can boost the classification accuracy.

  19. Primary analysis of DNA polymorphisms in the TRIM region (MHC subregion) of the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shingo; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Yokoyama, Kana; Tsuda, Kaoru; Hara, Hiromi; Yoshida, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Akira; Mizutani, Makoto; Shiina, Takashi; Kono, Tomohiro; Hanzawa, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Based on sequences of two cosmid clones from Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, Coja), we confirmed that the syntenic cluster, GNB2L1∼BTN1∼BTN2, is located in the quail TRIM subregion of the quail major histocompatibility complex (MHC Coja) region. These cosmids also included four CjBG loci and one CjLEC locus; therefore, the quail TRIM subregion was thought to be adjacent to the BG/LEC subregion. We then identified three polymorphic markers - CjHEP21, CjTRIM39.2 and CjBTN2 - in the TRIM subregion that may be useful for the functional analysis of the MHC-Coja region. We examined MHC-Coja sequences from 321 individual quails sampled from 11 inbred strains, and we found eight alleles for each of the three genes - CjHEP21, CjTRIM39.2 and CjBTN2. These polymorphisms represent the first avian DNA markers in the TRIM subregion. Additionally, we discovered a quail-specific VNTR (variable number of long tandem repeats, 133-137 bp) in intron 7 of CjBTN2. We identified 25 haplotypes in the sample of 321 quail; these haplotypes comprised combinations of all 24 alleles of the three polymorphic genes. We suggest that there are two recombination hotspots, one between each pair of adjacent loci. All strains, except AMRP, contained multiple haplotypes; the AMRP strain contained a single, apparently fixed haplotype.

  20. Lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2007-04-01

    Lightning is a particularly unsettling product of bad weather. It kills more people than other natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes, but, because lightning usually kills people one at a time, it tends to be an underrated hazard. High risk groups are uneducated, unsheltered and rural people. This study was carried out to determine the incidence of lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region. It is a review of records between 1993 and 2004 from the medico-legal autopsies at Umtata General Hospital (UGH). During the study period there were 10,860 autopsies performed on those who died of trauma and other unnatural circumstances which included 151 (1.4%) lightning fatalities. This represents 0.31 deaths per million per year. The highest (0.5/million) was in 1999, and the lowest (0.13/million) in 1997. The age of the victims ranged from 1 to 82 years, with a mean of 22 years. Males and females were almost equally represented (50%). The highest number of deaths (26.5%) was in the age group of 11 to 20 years, and the lowest number (2.7%) in the age group of 70+ years. There is a high incidence of lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa. People need to be educated to disregard the myths of lightning strike.

  1. Extracellular dopamine levels in striatal subregions track shifts in motivation and response cost during instrumental conditioning.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Sean B; Wassum, Kate M; Murphy, Niall P; Balleine, Bernard W; Maidment, Nigel T

    2011-01-05

    Tonic dopamine (DA) signaling is widely regarded as playing a central role in effort-based decision making and in the motivational control of instrumental performance. The current study used microdialysis to monitor changes in extracellular DA levels across subregions of the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum of rats as they lever pressed for food reward on a probabilistic schedule of reinforcement, a procedure that ensured they would experience variation in the amount of effort needed to earn rewards across tests. Each rat was given three tests. Rats were hungry for the first and last test, but were sated on food before the middle test, allowing us to assess the effects of a downshift in motivational state on task performance and conditioning-induced DA efflux. During hungry tests, DA levels rose in both the shell and core of the accumbens and, to a lesser degree, in both the medial and lateral divisions of the dorsal striatum. Interestingly, changes in DA efflux across hungry tests in the accumbens core were negatively correlated with changes in the effort required to obtain rewards. We also found that--across regions--the DA response to instrumental conditioning was attenuated when rats were sated before testing. Furthermore, the effect of satiety on DA efflux in the accumbens shell was positively correlated with its effect on task performance. Together, the results indicate that tonic DA contributes to the control of instrumental performance by conveying information about the costs and benefits of responding to different striatal subregions.

  2. Medial Meniscal Extrusion Relates to Cartilage Loss in Specific Femorotibial Subregions- Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Bloecker, K.; Wirth, W.; Guermazi, A.; Hunter, DJ; Resch, H.; Hochreiter, J.; Eckstein, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medial meniscal extrusion is known to be related to structural progression of knee OA. However, it is unclear whether medial meniscal extrusion is more strongly associated with cartilage loss in certain medial femorotibial subregions than to others. Methods Segmentation of the medial tibial and femoral cartilage (baseline; 1-year follow-up) and the medial meniscus (baseline) was performed in 60 participants with frequent knee pain (age 61.3±9.2y, BMI 31.3±3.9 kg/m2) and with unilateral medial radiographic joint space narrowing (JSN) grade 1–3, using double echo steady state MR-images. Medial meniscal extrusion distance and extrusion area (%) between the external meniscal and tibial margin at baseline, and longitudinal medial cartilage loss in eight anatomical subregions were determined. Results A significant association (Pearson correlation coefficient) was seen between medial meniscus extrusion area in JSN knees and cartilage loss over one year throughout the entire medial femorotibial compartment. The strongest correlation was with cartilage loss in the external medial tibia (r=−0.34 [p<0.01] in JSN, and r=−0.30 [p=0.02] in noJSN knees). Conclusion Medial meniscus extrusion was associated with subsequent medial cartilage loss. The external medial tibial cartilage may be particularly vulnerable to thinning once the meniscus extrudes and its surface is “exposed” to direct, non-physiological, cartilage-cartilage contact. PMID:25988986

  3. Oxytocin differentially alters resting state functional connectivity between amygdala subregions and emotional control networks: Inverse correlation with depressive traits.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Monika; Markett, Sebastian; Kendrick, Keith M; Ditzen, Beate; Liu, Fang; Hurlemann, Rene; Becker, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has received increasing attention for its role in modulating social-emotional processes across species. Previous studies on using intranasal-OT in humans point to a crucial engagement of the amygdala in the observed neuromodulatory effects of OT under task and rest conditions. However, the amygdala is not a single homogenous structure, but rather a set of structurally and functionally heterogeneous nuclei that show distinct patterns of connectivity with limbic and frontal emotion-processing regions. To determine potential differential effects of OT on functional connectivity of the amygdala subregions, 79 male participants underwent resting-state fMRI following randomized intranasal-OT or placebo administration. In line with previous studies OT increased the connectivity of the total amygdala with dorso-medial prefrontal regions engaged in emotion regulation. In addition, OT enhanced coupling of the total amygdala with cerebellar regions. Importantly, OT differentially altered the connectivity of amygdala subregions with distinct up-stream cortical nodes, particularly prefrontal/parietal, and cerebellar down-stream regions. OT-induced increased connectivity with cerebellar regions were largely driven by effects on the centromedial and basolateral subregions, whereas increased connectivity with prefrontal regions were largely mediated by right superficial and basolateral subregions. OT decreased connectivity of the centromedial subregions with core hubs of the emotional face processing network in temporal, occipital and parietal regions. Preliminary findings suggest that effects on the superficial amygdala-prefrontal pathway were inversely associated with levels of subclinical depression, possibly indicating that OT modulation may be blunted in the context of increased pathological load. Together, the present findings suggest a subregional-specific modulatory role of OT on amygdala-centered emotion processing networks in

  4. Conceptual Design of a Very High Temperature Pebble-Bed Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hans D. Gougar; A. M. Ougouag; Richard M. Moore; W. K. Terry

    2003-11-01

    Efficient electricity and hydrogen production distinguish the Very High Temperature Reactor as the leading Generation IV advanced concept. This graphite-moderated, helium-cooled reactor achieves a requisite high outlet temperature while retaining the passive safety and proliferation resistance required of Generation IV designs. Furthermore, a recirculating pebble-bed VHTR can operate with minimal excess reactivity to yield improved fuel economy and superior resistance to ingress events. Using the PEBBED code developed at the INEEL, conceptual designs of 300 megawatt and 600 megawatt (thermal) Very High Temperature Pebble-Bed Reactors have been developed. The fuel requirements of these compare favorably to the South African PBMR. Passive safety is confirmed with the MELCOR accident analysis code.

  5. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-02-16

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system.

  6. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  7. Track analysis of Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) of the Subantarctic subregion of South America.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Érica V; Romano, Gonzalo M; Morrone, Juan J

    2016-06-23

    We analysed distributional data of 30 species of Oribatid mites of the Subantarctic subregion of southern South America in order to contribute to elucidate their biotic evolution. We constructed individual tracks for the species analysed, based on published and unpublished records. After superposing them we obtained six generalized tracks and five nodes. Four generalized tracks (T2, T3, T4 and T6) extend along and near the Andean ranges, whereas two generalized tracks (T1 and T5) may be artefacts caused by the lack of information. The generalized tracks and nodes show the complex relationships of the austral biota, as hypothesized in previous contributions based on other plant and animal taxa.

  8. Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation in the Greater Mekong, Subregion and Russian Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yong; Li, Zengyuan; Sun, Gouqing; Zhang, Zhiyu; Schmullius, Christiane; Meng, Shili; Ma, Zhenyu; Lu, Hao; Li, Shiming; Liu, Qingwang; Bai, Lina; Tian, Xin

    2016-08-01

    Forests play a vital role in sustainable development and provide a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, including essential ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. We summarized works in forest aboveground biomass estimation in Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and Russian Siberia (RuS). Both regions are rich in forest resources. These mapping and estimation works were based on multiple-source remote sensing data and some field measurements. Biomass maps were generated at 500 m and 30 m pixel size for RuS and GMS respectively. With the available of the 2015 PALSAR-2 mosaic at 25 m spacing, Sentinel-2 data at 20 m, we will work on the biomass mapping and dynamic study at higher spatial resolution.

  9. [The Southern Cone Sub-Regional Project on Cystic Echinococcosis Control and Surveillance].

    PubMed

    Irabedra, Pilar; Salvatella, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Southern Cone Sub-Regional Project on Cystic Echinococcosis Control and Surveillance: Argentina, Brasil, Chile and Uruguay, is a joint and collaborative tool with the aim of promoting the implementation or the strengthening of programs for disease control. The paper describes the background, the institutional aspects that regulates the structure and functions, as well as the guidelines defined in the technical and operational project. The article emphasize the achievements through Projects of Technical Cooperation among Countries, and the development of integrated and innovative approaches for prevention and control of the disease and training of human resources of the control programs. Some of the challenges are: to achieve the sustainability of the project, implementation of technical groups for analysis and assessment at request of the countries, improvement of the regional information systems, to continue training human resources of the control programs and to expand and strengthen the technical cooperation among countries.

  10. Animal-adapted members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex endemic to the southern African subregion.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Charlene; Van Helden, Paul; Miller, Michele; Parsons, Sven

    2016-04-26

    Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) cause tuberculosis (TB) in both animals and humans. In this article, three animal-adapted MTC strains that are endemic to the southern African subregion - that is, Mycobacterium suricattae, Mycobacterium mungi, and the dassie bacillus - are reviewed with a focus on clinical and pathological presentations, geographic distribution, genotyping methods, diagnostic tools and evolution. Moreover, factors influencing the transmission and establishment of TB pathogens in novel host populations, including ecological, immunological and genetic factors of both the host and pathogen, are discussed. The risks associated with these infections are currently unknown and further studies will be required for greater understanding of this disease in the context of the southern African ecosystem.

  11. Contributions of subregions of the prefrontal cortex to the theory of mind and decision making.

    PubMed

    Xi, Chunhua; Zhu, Youling; Niu, Chaoshi; Zhu, Chunyan; Lee, Tatia M C; Tian, Yanghua; Wang, Kai

    2011-08-10

    Recent works have suggested an association between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC) and social cognition or decision making. The aim of this study is to investigate the theory of mind and decision making in patients with VMPC lesions and in those with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPC) lesions. Patients with VMPC lesions (n=16) and those with DLPC lesions (n=14) were compared with healthy controls (HC) on faux pas recognition and 2 decision-making tasks. Consistent with previous data, patients with VMPC lesions performed worse on the theory of mind and decision making. Patients with DLPC lesions showed impairments of the theory of mind but performed at control levels on the 2 decision-making tasks. The results supported the view that a separation of function of 2 distinct subregions of the prefrontal cortex is important to the theory of mind and decision making.

  12. Chronic stress induces adrenal hyperplasia and hypertrophy in a subregion-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Figueiredo, Helmer F; Ostrander, Michelle M; Choi, Dennis C; Engeland, William C; Herman, James P

    2006-11-01

    The adrenal gland is an essential stress-responsive organ that is part of both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. Chronic stress exposure commonly increases adrenal weight, but it is not known to what extent this growth is due to cellular hyperplasia or hypertrophy and whether it is subregion specific. Moreover, it is not clear whether increased production of adrenal glucocorticoid after chronic stress is due to increased sensitivity to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) vs. increased maximal output. The present studies use a 14-day chronic variable stress (CVS) paradigm in adult male rats to assess the effects of chronic stress on adrenal growth and corticosterone steroidogenesis. Exogenous ACTH administration (0-895 ng/100 g body wt) to dexamethasone-blocked rats demonstrated that CVS increased maximal plasma and adrenal corticosterone responses to ACTH without affecting sensitivity. This enhanced function was associated with increased adrenal weight, DNA and RNA content, and RNA/DNA ratio after CVS, suggesting that both cellular hyperplasia and hypertrophy occurred. Unbiased stereological counting of cells labeled for Ki67 (cell division marker) or 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (nuclear marker), combined with zone specific markers, showed that CVS induced hyperplasia in the outer zona fasciculata, hypertrophy in the inner zona fasciculata and medulla, and reduced cell size in the zona glomerulosa. Collectively, these results demonstrate that increased adrenal weight after CVS is due to hyperplasia and hypertrophy that occur in specific adrenal subregions and is associated with increased maximal corticosterone responses to ACTH. These chronic stress-induced changes in adrenal growth and function may have implications for patients with stress-related disorders.

  13. Ground-water data as of 1967, Central Coastal Subregion, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bader, J.S.

    1969-01-01

    Most usable ground water in the predominantly mountainous Central Coastal Subregion occurs in alluvium-filled valleys and coastal plains and in deeper aquifers of Quaternary and Tertiary age. The intervening mountainous areas are underlain by consolidated sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks, mainly of Mesozoic age. These older rocks contain only small quantities of recoverable ground water and, therefore, are not considered a major source of ground water. In the Central Coastal Subregion, 24 basins have been identified as significant sources of ground water. The total area of the 24 basins is about 3,500 square miles. The water-bearing deposits range in thickness from about 200 to 4,000 feet. Depending on local conditions, recharge infiltrates at rates of less than 1½ feet per day to more than 10 feet per day in the upper part of alluvial fans and stream channels and at the outcrops of the deeper aquifers. The maximum measured depth to water in the water-bearing deposits is 568 ft. In several valleys there are flowing wells. Total storage capacity of 16 of the basins is more than 20,000,000 acre-feet . The usable storage capacity of 18 of the basins is more than 7,600,000 acre-feet; the limiting factors are sea-water intrusion and high pumping lift. Ground-water temperature ranges from about 55° to about 75°F . The dissolved-solids content of the water is generally less than 800 parts per million, but locally is more than 11,000 parts per million. The predominant water type is calcium bicarbonate, but sodium, magnesium, sulfate, and chloride are present locally in significant quantities. Properly constructed wells in some areas can yield 425 gallons per minute.

  14. Chronic L-dopa decreases serotonin neurons in a subregion of the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Stansley, Branden J; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2014-11-01

    L-Dopa (l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is the precursor to dopamine and has become the mainstay therapeutic treatment for Parkinson's disease. Chronic L-dopa is administered to recover motor function in Parkinson's disease patients. However, drug efficacy decreases over time, and debilitating side effects occur, such as dyskinesia and mood disturbances. The therapeutic effect and some of the side effects of L-dopa have been credited to its effect on serotonin (5-HT) neurons. Given these findings, it was hypothesized that chronic L-dopa treatment decreases 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and the content of 5-HT in forebrain regions in a manner that is mediated by oxidative stress. Rats were treated chronically with l-dopa (6 mg/kg; twice daily) for 10 days. Results indicated that the number of 5-HT neurons was significantly decreased in the DRN after l-dopa treatment compared with vehicle. This effect was more pronounced in the caudal-extent of the dorsal DRN, a subregion found to have a significantly higher increase in the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio in response to acute L-dopa treatment. Furthermore, pretreatment with ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg) or deprenyl (2 mg/kg) prevented the l-dopa-induced decreases in 5-HT neurons. In addition, 5-HT content was decreased significantly in the DRN and prefrontal cortex by l-dopa treatment, effects that were prevented by ascorbic acid pretreatment. Taken together, these data illustrate that chronic L-dopa causes a 5-HT neuron loss and the depletion of 5-HT content in a subregion of the DRN as well as in the frontal cortex through an oxidative-stress mechanism.

  15. Dissociable relations between amygdala subregional networks and psychopathy trait dimensions in conduct‐disordered juvenile offenders

    PubMed Central

    Colins, Olivier F.; Klapwijk, Eduard T.; Veer, Ilya M.; Andershed, Henrik; Popma, Arne; van der Wee, Nic J.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Psychopathy is a serious psychiatric phenomenon characterized by a pathological constellation of affective (e.g., callous, unemotional), interpersonal (e.g., manipulative, egocentric), and behavioral (e.g., impulsive, irresponsible) personality traits. Though amygdala subregional defects are suggested in psychopathy, the functionality and connectivity of different amygdala subnuclei is typically disregarded in neurocircuit‐level analyses of psychopathic personality. Hence, little is known of how amygdala subregional networks may contribute to psychopathy and its underlying trait assemblies in severely antisocial people. We addressed this important issue by uniquely examining the intrinsic functional connectivity of basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala networks in relation to affective, interpersonal, and behavioral traits of psychopathy, in conduct‐disordered juveniles with a history of serious delinquency (N = 50, mean age = 16.83 ± 1.32). As predicted, amygdalar connectivity profiles exhibited dissociable relations with different traits of psychopathy. Interpersonal psychopathic traits not only related to increased connectivity of BLA and CMA with a corticostriatal network formation accommodating reward processing, but also predicted stronger CMA connectivity with a network of cortical midline structures supporting sociocognitive processes. In contrast, affective psychopathic traits related to diminished CMA connectivity with a frontolimbic network serving salience processing and affective responding. Finally, behavioral psychopathic traits related to heightened BLA connectivity with a frontoparietal cluster implicated in regulatory executive functioning. We suggest that these trait‐specific shifts in amygdalar connectivity could be particularly relevant to the psychopathic phenotype, as they may fuel a self‐centered, emotionally cold, and behaviorally disinhibited profile. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4017–4033, 2016. © 2016

  16. Dopamine and conditioned reinforcement. I. Differential effects of amphetamine microinjections into striatal subregions.

    PubMed

    Kelley, A E; Delfs, J M

    1991-01-01

    In the conditioned reinforcement paradigm, animals learn a new instrumental response reinforced solely by conditioned reward (a stimulus that has previously been associated with primary reward). It has been shown that psychostimulants potentiate responding for conditioned reward and there is evidence that the nucleus accumbens is involved in this effect. The present experiments extend this work and examine the roles of various striatal subregions in the enhancement of responding for conditioned reward. In the conditioning phase, hungry rats were trained to associate a light/click stimulus with food delivery, with no levers present in the operant chamber. In the test phase, two levers were present and responding on one provided conditioned reward (presentation of the compound stimulus but no food). During this phase, microinjections of d-amphetamine (0, 0.2, 2.0, 20.0 micrograms/0.5 microliters) were made into seven striatal subregions in separate groups of rats. Injection of amphetamine into the nucleus accumbens elicited a dose-dependent, selective increase in responding for CR. Injections into posterior regions of the striatum had no effect. Significant and selective increases in CR responding were noted after injections into two regions neighboring the nucleus accumbens, the anterior dorsal and the ventromedial striatum, although the magnitude of these effects was considerably less than that following accumbens injections. Injections into ventrolateral regions increased responding in some rats, but this effect was very variable and not selective for the CR lever. These results are interpreted as evidence for functional heterogeneity of the striatum with regard to enhancement of conditioned reinforcement. The findings are discussed in relation to the theory that increased dopaminergic activity in the nucleus accumbens results in amplification of the response to a previously learned reward-related signal.

  17. Enhanced Functional Coupling of Hippocampal Sub-regions in Congenitally and Late Blind Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Guangyang; Yang, Dan; Qin, Wen; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampus has exhibited navigation-related changes in volume and activity after visual deprivation; however, the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes of the hippocampus in the blind remains unknown. In this study, we focused on sub-region-specific rsFC changes of the hippocampus and their association with the onset age of blindness. The rsFC patterns of the hippocampal sub-regions (head, body and tail) were compared among 20 congenitally blind (CB), 42 late blind (LB), and 50 sighted controls (SC). Compared with the SC, both the CB and the LB showed increased hippocampal rsFCs with the posterior cingulate cortex, angular gyrus, parieto-occpital sulcus, middle occipito-temporal conjunction, inferior temporal gyrus, orbital frontal cortex, and middle frontal gyrus. In the blind subjects, the hippocampal tail had more extensive rsFC changes than the anterior hippocampus (body and head). The CB and the LB had similar changes in hippocampal rsFC. These altered rsFCs of the hippocampal sub-regions were neither correlated with onset age in the LB nor the duration of blindness in CB or LB subjects. The increased coupling of the hippocampal intrinsic functional network may reflect enhanced loading of the hippocampal-related networks for non-visual memory processing. Furthermore, the similar changes of hippocampal rsFCs between the CB and the LB suggests an experience-dependent rather than a developmental-dependent plasticity of the hippocampal intrinsic functional network. PMID:28119560

  18. Landowner and permit-holder perceptions of wildlife damage around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A survey of INEEL neighbors about elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, and depredation

    SciTech Connect

    Roush, D.E. Jr.; Beaver, D.E.

    1998-06-01

    Property-owners (N = 220) around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho were surveyed about depredation, control methods and economic issues related to use of the area by elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). Depredation was defined as damage to privately-owned crops, forage, and fences and irrigation equipment by these animals. The focus on the three ungulate species was prompted by concerns that elk, which had recolonized the INEEL since 1984, were responsible for an inordinate amount of unprecedented damage to agricultural operations. As the INEEL is a US Department of Energy (DOE) reserve with little public hunting access, there have been calls for removal of elk from this land. This study`s objective was to quantify the wildlife damage occurring on agricultural operations adjacent to the INEEL and to characterize the damage attributed to each big game species. Responses from 70.2% of the target population indicate an evenness of opinion, by which the authors mean that various opinions were represented equitably, toward these animals and wildlife damage Total estimated wildlife damage in 1996 was between $140,000 and $180,000 It was attributed foremost to elk, although pronghorn antelope were viewed nearly as damaging. Respondents placed high values in big game animals and wished to see them continue to inhabit these lands. For managing depredation, adjusting hunting seasons was preferred.

  19. SUB-REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT (BANGKOK, THAILAND, DECEMBER 7-17, 1965). REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS SUBREGIONAL WORKSHOP, HELD IN 1965 IN BANGKOK, THAILAND, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE UNITED NATIONS, WAS TO ENABLE ADMINITRATORS, OPERATORS, AND EDUCATORS IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND RELATED FIELDS TO REVIEW THE FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF NATIONAL WORKSHOPS ON PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION IN URBAN AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT, TO…

  20. Different Patterns of Cortical Inputs to Subregions of the Primary Motor Cortex Hand Representation in Cebus apella.

    PubMed

    Dea, Melvin; Hamadjida, Adjia; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Quessy, Stephan; Dancause, Numa

    2016-04-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) plays an essential role in the control of hand movements in primates and is part of a complex cortical sensorimotor network involving multiple premotor and parietal areas. In a previous study in squirrel monkeys, we found that the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) projected mainly to 3 regions within the M1 forearm representation [rostro-medial (RM), rostro-lateral (RL), and caudo-lateral (CL)] with very few caudo-medial (CM) projections. These results suggest that projections from premotor areas to M1 are not uniform, but rather segregated into subregions. The goal of the present work was to study how inputs from diverse areas of the ipsilateral cortical network are organized within the M1 hand representation. In Cebus apella, different retrograde neuroanatomical tracers were injected in 4 subregions of the hand area of M1 (RM, RL, CM, and CL). We found a different pattern of input to each subregion of M1. RM receives inputs predominantly from dorsal premotor cortex, RL from PMv, CM from area 5, and CL from area 2. These results support that the M1 hand representation is composed of several subregions, each part of a unique cortical network.

  1. Communication, Conceptualization and Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed, Adel; Hartley, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Learning can be viewed as a communication process that puts the learner in contact with concepts created by others. A result of communication is that an act of interpretation starts, which invokes a process of conceptualization. According to Mayes, successful conceptualization will need the support of learning activities. Hence, machine mediated…

  2. Overlooking the Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leshem, Shosh; Trafford, Vernon

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual framework is alluded to in most serious texts on research, described in some and fully explained in few. However, examiners of doctoral theses devote considerable attention to exploring its function within social science doctoral vivas. A literature survey explores how the conceptual framework is itself conceptualised and explained.…

  3. Model Building for Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David; Strobel, Johannes; Gottdenker, Joshua

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual change is a popular, contemporary conception of meaningful learning. Conceptual change describes changes in conceptual frameworks (mental models or personal theories) that learners construct to comprehend phenomena. Different theories of conceptual change describe the reorganization of conceptual frameworks that results from different…

  4. Implementation of forest cover and carbon mapping in the Greater Mekong subregion and Malaysia project - A case study of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pungkul, S.; Suraswasdi, C.; Phonekeo, V.

    2014-02-01

    The Great Mekong Subregion (GMS) contains one of the world's largest tropical forests and plays a vital role in sustainable development and provides a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, including essential ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, the forest in this Subregion is experiencing deforestation rates at high level due to human activities. The reduction of the forest area has negative influence to the environmental and natural resources issues, particularly, more severe disasters have occurred due to global warming and the release of the greenhouse gases. Therefore, in order to conduct forest management in the Subregion efficiently, the Forest Cover and Carbon Mapping in Greater Mekong Subregion and Malaysia project was initialized by the Asia-Pacific Network for Sustainable Forest Management and Rehabilitation (APFNet) with the collaboration of various research institutions including Institute of Forest Resource Information Technique (IFRIT), Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF) and the countries in Sub region and Malaysia comprises of Cambodia, the People's Republic of China (Yunnan province and Guangxi province), Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The main target of the project is to apply the intensive use of recent satellite remote sensing technology, establishing regional forest cover maps, documenting forest change processes and estimating carbon storage in the GMS and Malaysia. In this paper, the authors present the implementation of the project in Thailand and demonstrate the result of forest cover mapping in the whole country in 2005 and 2010. The result of the project will contribute towards developing efficient tools to support decision makers to clearly understand the dynamic change of the forest cover which could benefit sustainable forest resource management in Thailand and the whole Subregion.

  5. Embodied conceptual combination.

    PubMed

    Lynott, Dermot; Connell, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Conceptual combination research investigates the processes involved in creating new meaning from old referents. It is therefore essential that embodied theories of cognition are able to explain this constructive ability and predict the resultant behavior. However, by failing to take an embodied or grounded view of the conceptual system, existing theories of conceptual combination cannot account for the role of perceptual, motor, and affective information in conceptual combination. In the present paper, we propose the embodied conceptual combination (ECCo) model to address this oversight. In ECCo, conceptual combination is the result of the interaction of the linguistic and simulation systems, such that linguistic distributional information guides or facilitates the combination process, but the new concept is fundamentally a situated, simulated entity. So, for example, a cactus beetle is represented as a multimodal simulation that includes visual (e.g., the shiny appearance of a beetle) and haptic (e.g., the prickliness of the cactus) information, all situated in the broader location of a desert environment under a hot sun, and with (at least for some people) an element of creepy-crawly revulsion. The ECCo theory differentiates interpretations according to whether the constituent concepts are destructively, or non-destructively, combined in the situated simulation. We compare ECCo to other theories of conceptual combination, and discuss how it accounts for classic effects in the literature.

  6. Embodied Conceptual Combination

    PubMed Central

    Lynott, Dermot; Connell, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Conceptual combination research investigates the processes involved in creating new meaning from old referents. It is therefore essential that embodied theories of cognition are able to explain this constructive ability and predict the resultant behavior. However, by failing to take an embodied or grounded view of the conceptual system, existing theories of conceptual combination cannot account for the role of perceptual, motor, and affective information in conceptual combination. In the present paper, we propose the embodied conceptual combination (ECCo) model to address this oversight. In ECCo, conceptual combination is the result of the interaction of the linguistic and simulation systems, such that linguistic distributional information guides or facilitates the combination process, but the new concept is fundamentally a situated, simulated entity. So, for example, a cactus beetle is represented as a multimodal simulation that includes visual (e.g., the shiny appearance of a beetle) and haptic (e.g., the prickliness of the cactus) information, all situated in the broader location of a desert environment under a hot sun, and with (at least for some people) an element of creepy-crawly revulsion. The ECCo theory differentiates interpretations according to whether the constituent concepts are destructively, or non-destructively, combined in the situated simulation. We compare ECCo to other theories of conceptual combination, and discuss how it accounts for classic effects in the literature. PMID:21833267

  7. Different subregional metabolism patterns in patients with cerebellar ataxia by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Oh, Minyoung; Kim, Jae Seung; Oh, Jungsu S; Lee, Chong Sik; Chung, Sun Ju

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated cerebellar subregional metabolic alterations in patients with cerebellar ataxia, a representative disease involving the spinocerebellum. We retrospectively analyzed 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) images in 44 patients with multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C), 9 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) type 2, and 14 patients with SCA type 6 and compared with 15 patients with crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) and 89 normal controls. Cerebellar subregional metabolism was assessed using 13 cerebellar subregions (bilateral anterior lobes [ANT], superior/mid/inferior posterior lobes [SUPP/MIDP/INFP], dentate nucleus [DN], anterior vermis [ANTV], and superior/inferior posterior vermis [SUPV/INFV]) to determine FDG uptake ratios. MSA-C and SCA type 2 showed severely decreased metabolic ratios in all cerebellar subregions compared to normal controls (ANT, 0.58 ± 0.08 and 0.50 ± 0.06 vs. 0.82 ± 0.07, respectively, p < 0.001). SCA type 6 showed lower metabolic ratios in almost all cerebellar subregions (ANT, 0.57 ± 0.06, p < 0.001) except INFV. Anterior-posterior lobe ratio measurements revealed that SCA type 2 (Right, 0.81 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.04, p < 0.001; Left, 0.83 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.04, p = 0.003) and SCA type 6 (Right, 0.72 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.04, p < 0.001; Left, 0.72 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.04, p < 0.001) showed preferential hypometabolism in the anterior lobe compared to normal controls, which was not observed in CCD and MSA-C. Asymmetric indices were higher in CCD and MSA-C than in normal controls (p < 0.001), whereas such differences were not found in SCA types 2 and 6. In summary, quantitative analysis of cerebellar subregional metabolism ratios revealed preferential involvement of the anterior lobe, corresponding to the spinocerebellum, in patients with cerebellar ataxia, whereas patients with CCD and MSA-C exhibited more asymmetric hypometabolism in the posterior lobe.

  8. Different subregional metabolism patterns in patients with cerebellar ataxia by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Seung; Oh, Jungsu S.; Lee, Chong Sik; Chung, Sun Ju

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated cerebellar subregional metabolic alterations in patients with cerebellar ataxia, a representative disease involving the spinocerebellum. We retrospectively analyzed 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) images in 44 patients with multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C), 9 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) type 2, and 14 patients with SCA type 6 and compared with 15 patients with crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) and 89 normal controls. Cerebellar subregional metabolism was assessed using 13 cerebellar subregions (bilateral anterior lobes [ANT], superior/mid/inferior posterior lobes [SUPP/MIDP/INFP], dentate nucleus [DN], anterior vermis [ANTV], and superior/inferior posterior vermis [SUPV/INFV]) to determine FDG uptake ratios. MSA-C and SCA type 2 showed severely decreased metabolic ratios in all cerebellar subregions compared to normal controls (ANT, 0.58 ± 0.08 and 0.50 ± 0.06 vs. 0.82 ± 0.07, respectively, p < 0.001). SCA type 6 showed lower metabolic ratios in almost all cerebellar subregions (ANT, 0.57 ± 0.06, p < 0.001) except INFV. Anterior-posterior lobe ratio measurements revealed that SCA type 2 (Right, 0.81 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.04, p < 0.001; Left, 0.83 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.04, p = 0.003) and SCA type 6 (Right, 0.72 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.04, p < 0.001; Left, 0.72 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.04, p < 0.001) showed preferential hypometabolism in the anterior lobe compared to normal controls, which was not observed in CCD and MSA-C. Asymmetric indices were higher in CCD and MSA-C than in normal controls (p < 0.001), whereas such differences were not found in SCA types 2 and 6. In summary, quantitative analysis of cerebellar subregional metabolism ratios revealed preferential involvement of the anterior lobe, corresponding to the spinocerebellum, in patients with cerebellar ataxia, whereas patients with CCD and MSA-C exhibited more asymmetric hypometabolism in the posterior lobe. PMID:28319124

  9. Conceptualizing Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of theories of the transition to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of transition for adult education.

  10. Conceptualizing and experiencing compassion.

    PubMed

    Condon, Paul; Feldman Barrett, Lisa

    2013-10-01

    Does compassion feel pleasant or unpleasant? Westerners tend to categorize compassion as a pleasant or positive emotion, but laboratory compassion inductions, which present another's suffering, may elicit unpleasant feelings. Across two studies, we examined whether prototypical conceptualizations of compassion (as pleasant) differ from experiences of compassion (as unpleasant). After laboratory-based neutral or compassion inductions, participants made abstract judgments about compassion relative to various emotion-related adjectives, thereby providing a prototypical conceptualization of compassion. Participants also rated their own affective states, thereby indicating experiences of compassion. Conceptualizations of compassion were pleasant across neutral and compassion inductions. After exposure to others' suffering, however, participants felt increased levels of compassion and unpleasant affect, but not pleasant affect. After neutral inductions, participants reported more pleasant than unpleasant affect, with moderate levels of compassion. Thus, prototypical conceptualizations of compassion are pleasant, but experiences of compassion can feel pleasant or unpleasant. The implications for emotion theory in general are discussed.

  11. Conceptual design optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollowell, S. J.; Beeman, E. R., II; Hiyama, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of applying multilevel functional decomposition and optimization techniques to conceptual design of advanced fighter aircraft was investigated. Applying the functional decomposition techniques to the conceptual design phase appears to be feasible. The initial implementation of the modified design process will optimize wing design variables. A hybrid approach, combining functional decomposition techniques for generation of aerodynamic and mass properties linear sensitivity derivatives with existing techniques for sizing mission performance and optimization, is proposed.

  12. Conceptual frameworks in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pundak, David

    2016-06-01

    How to evaluate students' astronomy understanding is still an open question. Even though some methods and tools to help students have already been developed, the sources of students' difficulties and misunderstanding in astronomy is still unclear. This paper presents an investigation of the development of conceptual systems in astronomy by 50 engineering students, as a result of learning a general course on astronomy. A special tool called Conceptual Frameworks in Astronomy (CFA) that was initially used in 1989, was adapted to gather data for the present research. In its new version, the tool included 23 questions, and five to six optional answers were given for each question. Each of the answers was characterized by one of the four conceptual astronomical frameworks: pre-scientific, geocentric, heliocentric and sidereal or scientific. The paper describes the development of the tool and discusses its validity and reliability. Using the CFA we were able to identify the conceptual frameworks of the students at the beginning of the course and at its end. CFA enabled us to evaluate the paradigmatic change of students following the course and also the extent of the general improvement in astronomical knowledge. It was found that the measure of the students’ improvement (gain index) was g = 0.37. Approximately 45% of the students in the course improved their understanding of conceptual frameworks in astronomy and 26% deepened their understanding of the heliocentric or sidereal conceptual frameworks.

  13. Regional Decline of Coral Cover in the Indo-Pacific: Timing, Extent, and Subregional Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, John F.; Selig, Elizabeth R.

    2007-01-01

    Background A number of factors have recently caused mass coral mortality events in all of the world's tropical oceans. However, little is known about the timing, rate or spatial variability of the loss of reef-building corals, especially in the Indo-Pacific, which contains 75% of the world's coral reefs. Methodology/Principle Findings We compiled and analyzed a coral cover database of 6001 quantitative surveys of 2667 Indo-Pacific coral reefs performed between 1968 and 2004. Surveys conducted during 2003 indicated that coral cover averaged only 22.1% (95% CI: 20.7, 23.4) and just 7 of 390 reefs surveyed that year had coral cover >60%. Estimated yearly coral cover loss based on annually pooled survey data was approximately 1% over the last twenty years and 2% between 1997 and 2003 (or 3,168 km2 per year). The annual loss based on repeated measures regression analysis of a subset of reefs that were monitored for multiple years from 1997 to 2004 was 0.72 % (n = 476 reefs, 95% CI: 0.36, 1.08). Conclusions/Significance The rate and extent of coral loss in the Indo-Pacific are greater than expected. Coral cover was also surprisingly uniform among subregions and declined decades earlier than previously assumed, even on some of the Pacific's most intensely managed reefs. These results have significant implications for policy makers and resource managers as they search for successful models to reverse coral loss. PMID:17684557

  14. How to identify rectal sub-regions likely involved in rectal bleeding in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dréan, G.; Acosta, O.; Ospina, J. D.; Voisin, C.; Rigaud, B.; Simon, A.; Haigron, P.; de Crevoisier, R.

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, the de nition of patient-speci c constraints in prostate cancer radiotherapy planning are solely based on dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. Nevertheless those DVH models lack of spatial accuracy since they do not use the complete 3D information of the dose distribution. The goal of the study was to propose an automatic work ow to de ne patient-speci c rectal sub-regions (RSR) involved in rectal bleeding (RB) in case of prostate cancer radiotherapy. A multi-atlas database spanning the large rectal shape variability was built from a population of 116 individuals. Non-rigid registration followed by voxel-wise statistical analysis on those templates allowed nding RSR likely correlated with RB (from a learning cohort of 63 patients). To de ne patient-speci c RSR, weighted atlas-based segmentation with a vote was then applied to 30 test patients. Results show the potentiality of the method to be used for patient-speci c planning of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).

  15. MEMRI is a biomarker defining nicotine-specific neuronal responses in subregions of the rodent brain

    PubMed Central

    Bade, Aditya N; Gendelman, Howard E; Boska, Michael D; Liu, Yutong

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine dependence is defined by dopaminergic neuronal activation within the nucleus accumbens (ACB) and by affected neural projections from nicotine-stimulated neurons. Control of any subsequent neural activities would underpin any smoking cessation strategy. While extensive efforts have been made to study the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction, more limited works were developed to find imaging biomarkers. If such biomarkers are made available, addictive behaviors could be monitored noninvasively. To such ends, we employed manganese (Mn2+)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to determine whether it could be used to monitor neuronal activities after acute and chronic nicotine exposure in rats. The following were observed. Mn2+ infusion identified ACB and hippocampal (HIP) neuronal activities following acute nicotine administration. Chronic exposure was achieved by week long subcutaneously implanted nicotine mini-pump. Here nicotine was shown to activate neurons in the ACB, HIP, and the prefrontal and insular cortex. These are all central nervous system reward regions linked to drug addiction. In conclusion, MEMRI is demonstrated to be a powerful imaging tool to study brain subregion specific neuronal activities affected by nicotine. Thus, we posit that MEMRI could be used to assess smoking-associated tolerance, withdrawal and as such serve as a pre-clinical screening tool for addiction cessation strategies in humans. PMID:28337287

  16. Respiratory, metabolic and cardiac functions are altered by disinhibition of subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Sarah F; Cornish, Jennifer L; Goodchild, Ann K

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is referred to as the visceral motor cortex; however, little is known about whether this region influences respiratory or metabolic outflows. The aim of this study was to describe simultaneous changes in respiratory, metabolic and cardiovascular functions evoked by disinhibition of the medial PFC (mPFC) and adjacent lateral septal nucleus (LSN). In urethane-anaesthetized rats, bicuculline methiodide was microinjected (2 mm; GABA-A receptor antagonist) into 90 sites in the mPFC at 0.72–4.00 mm from bregma. Phrenic nerve amplitude and frequency, arterial pressure, heart rate, splanchnic and lumbar sympathetic nerve activities (SNA), expired CO2, and core and brown adipose tissue temperatures were measured. Novel findings included disturbances to respiratory rhythm evoked from all subregions of the mPFC. Injections into the cingulate cortex evoked reductions in central respiratory function exclusively, whereas in ventral sites, particularly the infralimbic region, increases in respiratory drive and frequency, and metabolic and cardiac outflows were evoked. Disinhibition of sites in surrounding regions revealed that the LSN could evoke cardiovascular changes accompanied by distinct oscillations in SNA, as well as increases in respiratory amplitude. We show that activation of neurons within the mPFC and LSN influence respiratory, metabolic and cardiac outflows in a site-dependent manner. This study has implications with respect to the altered PFC neuronal activity seen in stress-related and mental health disorders, and suggests how basic physiological systems may be affected. PMID:24042503

  17. Age-related changes in glial cells of dopamine midbrain subregions in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Nicholas M; Kordower, Jeffrey H; Collier, Timothy J

    2010-06-01

    Aging remains the strongest risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease (PD), and there is selective vulnerability in midbrain dopamine (DA) neuron degeneration in PD. By tracking normal aging-related changes with an emphasis on regional specificity, factors involved in selective vulnerability and resistance to degeneration can be studied. Towards this end, we sought to determine whether age-related changes in microglia and astrocytes in rhesus monkeys are region-specific, suggestive of involvement in regional differences in vulnerability to degeneration that may be relevant to PD pathogenesis. Gliosis in midbrain DA subregions was measured by estimating glia number using unbiased stereology, assessing fluorescence intensity for proteins upregulated during activation, and rating morphology. With normal aging, microglia exhibited increased staining intensity and a shift to more activated morphologies preferentially in the vulnerable substantia nigra-ventral tier (vtSN). Astrocytes did not exhibit age-related changes consistent with an involvement in regional vulnerability in any measure. Our results suggest advancing age is associated with chronic mild inflammation in the vtSN, which may render these DA neurons more vulnerable to degeneration.

  18. Distribution of Serotonin Transporter Labeled Fibers in Amygdaloid Subregions: Implications for Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Howard; Fudge, Julie L.

    2008-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter 5-HTT mediates responses to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a mainstay treatment in mood disorders. The amygdala, a key emotional processing center, has functional abnormalities in mood disorders, which resolve following successful SSRI treatment. To better understand the effects of SSRIs in mood disorders, we examined the distribution of 5-HTT labeled fibers relative to specific nuclear groups in the amygdala. Methods Immunocytochemical techniques were used to chart 5-HTT labeled fibers in the amygdala in coronal sections through the brain of six adult Macaques. Nissl staining was used to define nuclear groups in the amygdala. Results The serotonin transporter 5-HTT is distributed heterogeneously in the primate amygdala, with the lateral subdivision of the central nucleus, intercalated cell islands, amygdalohippocampal area, and the paralaminar nucleus showing the heaviest concentrations. Conclusions 5HTT-labeled fibers are very densely concentrated in output regions of the amygdala. High concentrations of 5-HTT-positive fibers in the central nucleus indicate that tight regulation of serotonin is critical in modulating fear responses mediated by this nucleus. High concentrations of 5-HTT-labeled fibers in the intercalated islands and parvicellular basal nucleus/paralaminar nucleus, which contain immature -appearing neurons, suggest a potential trophic role for serotonin in these subregions. PMID:16414028

  19. Unique insula subregion resting-state functional connectivity with amygdala complexes in posttraumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Andrew A; Sapru, Iman; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A; Neufeld, Richard W J; Théberge, Jean; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2016-04-30

    The insula and amygdala are implicated in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), where both have been shown to be hyper/hypoactive in non-dissociative (PTSD-DS) and dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS) PTSD patients, respectively, during symptom provocation. However, the functional connectivity between individual insula subregions and the amygdala has not been investigated in persons with PTSD, with or without the dissociative subtype. We examined insula subregion (anterior, mid, and posterior) functional connectivity with the bilateral amygdala using a region-of-interest seed-based approach via PickAtlas and SPM8. Resting-state fMRI was conducted with (n=61) PTSD patients (n=44 PTSD-DS; n=17 PTSD+DS), and (n=40) age-matched healthy controls. When compared to controls, the PTSD-DS group displayed increased insula connectivity (bilateral anterior, bilateral mid, and left posterior) to basolateral amygdala clusters in both hemispheres, and the PTSD+DS group displayed increased insula connectivity (bilateral anterior, left mid, and left posterior) to the left basolateral amygdala complex. Moreover, as compared to PTSD-DS, increased insula subregion connectivity (bilateral anterior, left mid, and right posterior) to the left basolateral amygdala was found in PTSD+DS. Depersonalization/derealization symptoms and PTSD symptom severity correlated with insula subregion connectivity to the basolateral amygdala within PTSD patients. This study is an important first step in elucidating patterns of neural connectivity associated with unique symptoms of arousal/interoception, emotional processing, and awareness of bodily states, in PTSD and its dissociative subtype.

  20. Encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of contextual memory: Differential involvement of dorsal CA3 and CA1 hippocampal subregions

    PubMed Central

    Daumas, Stéphanie; Halley, Hélène; Francés, Bernard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    Studies on human and animals shed light on the unique hippocampus contributions to relational memory. However, the particular role of each hippocampal subregion in memory processing is still not clear. Hippocampal computational models and theories have emphasized a unique function in memory for each hippocampal subregion, with the CA3 area acting as an autoassociative memory network and the CA1 area as a critical output structure. In order to understand the respective roles of the CA3- and CA1-hippocampal areas in the formation of contextual memory, we studied the effects of the reversible inactivation by lidocaine of the CA3 or CA1 areas of the dorsal hippocampus on acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval of a contextual fear conditioning. Whereas infusions of lidocaine never impaired elementary tone conditioning, their effects on contextual conditioning provided interesting clues about the role of these two hippocampal regions. They demonstrated first that the CA3 area is necessary for the rapid elaboration of a unified representation of the context. Secondly, they suggested that the CA1 area is rather involved in the consolidation process of contextual memory. Third, they showed that CA1 or CA3 inactivation during retention test has no effect on contextual fear retrieval when a recognition memory procedure is used. In conclusion, our findings point as evidence that CA1 and CA3 subregions of the dorsal hippocampus play important and different roles in the acquisition and consolidation of contextual fear memory, whereas they are not required for context recognition. PMID:16027176

  1. Genetic cell targeting uncovers specific neuronal types and distinct subregions in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Amanda Q.; Cruz, Julie A.D. Dela; Sun, Yanjun; Holmes, Todd C.; Xu, Xiangmin

    2017-01-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) plays an important role in fear, stress, and anxiety. It contains a collection of sub-nuclei delineated by gross cytoarchitecture features; however, there has yet to be a systematic examination of specific BNST neuronal types and their associated neurochemical makeup. The present study focuses on improved characterization of the anterior BNST based on differing molecular and chemical expression aided by mouse genetics. Specific Cre driver lines crossed with a fluorescent reporter line were used for genetic cell targeting and immunochemical staining. Using this new approach, we were able to robustly identify specific excitatory and inhibitory cell types in the BNST. The presence and distribution of excitatory neurons were firmly established; glutamatergic neurons in the anterior BNST accounted for about 14% and 31% of dorsal and ventral BNST cells, respectively. GABAergic neurons expressing different isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase were found to have differential sub-regional distributions. Almost no parvalbumin-expressing cells were found in the BNST, while somatostatin-expressing cells and calretinin-expressing cells account for modest proportions of BNST cells. In addition, vasoactive intestinal peptide-expressing axonal plexuses were prominent in the oval and juxtacapsular (jc) subregions. In addition, we discovered that corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) expressing cells contain GABAergic and glutamatergic subpopulations. Together, this study reveals new information on excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the BNST, which will facilitate genetic dissection and functional studies of BNST subregions. PMID:26718312

  2. Assessing Malaria Risks in Greater Mekong Subregion based on Environmental Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Soika, Valerii; Adimi, Farida; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health s decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. The NASA Earth science data sets that have been used for malaria surveillance and risk assessment include AVHRR Pathfinder, TRMM, MODIS, NSIPP, and SIESIP. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records. Socioeconomic factors that may influence malaria transmissions will also be incorporated into the predictive models.

  3. Differential roles of medial prefrontal subregions in the regulation of drug seeking.

    PubMed

    Moorman, David E; James, Morgan H; McGlinchey, Ellen M; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2015-12-02

    The prefrontal cortex plays an important role in shaping cognition and behavior. Many studies have shown that medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in seeking, extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rodent models of relapse. Subregions of mPFC appear to play distinct roles in these behaviors, such that the prelimbic cortex (PL) is proposed to drive cocaine seeking and the infralimbic cortex (IL) is proposed to suppress cocaine seeking after extinction. This dichotomy of mPFC function may be a general attribute, as similar dorsal-ventral distinctions exist for expression vs. extinction of fear conditioning. However, other results indicate that the role of mPFC neurons in reward processing is more complex than a simple PL-seek vs. IL-extinguish dichotomy. Both PL and IL have been shown to drive and inhibit drug seeking (and other types of behaviors) depending on a range of factors including the behavioral context, the drug-history of the animal, and the type of drug investigated. This heterogeneity of findings may reflect multiple subcircuits within each of these PFC areas supporting unique functions. It may also reflect the fact that the mPFC plays a multifaceted role in shaping cognition and behavior, including those overlapping with cocaine seeking and extinction. Here we discuss research leading to the hypothesis that dorsal and ventral mPFC differentially control drug seeking and extinction. We also present recent results calling the absolute nature of a PL vs. IL dichotomy into question. Finally, we consider alternate functions for mPFC that correspond less to response execution and inhibition and instead incorporate the complex cognitive behavior for which the mPFC is broadly appreciated.

  4. Differential roles of medial prefrontal subregions in the regulation of drug seeking

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, David E.; James, Morgan H.; McGlinchey, Ellen M.; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex plays an important role in shaping cognition and behavior. Many studies have shown that medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in seeking, extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rodent models of relapse. Subregions of mPFC appear to play distinct roles in these behaviors, such that the prelimbic cortex (PL) is proposed to drive cocaine seeking and the infralimbic cortex (IL) is proposed to suppress cocaine seeking after extinction. This dichotomy of mPFC function may be a general attribute, as similar dorsal-ventral distinctions exist for expression vs. extinction of fear conditioning. However, other results indicate that the role of mPFC neurons in reward processing is more complex than a simple PL-seek vs. IL-extinguish dichotomy. Both PL and IL have been shown to drive and inhibit drug seeking (and other types of behaviors) depending on a range of factors including the behavioral context, the drug-history of the animal, and the type of drug investigated. This heterogeneity of findings may reflect multiple subcircuits within each of these PFC areas supporting unique functions. It may also reflect the fact that the mPFC plays a multifaceted role in shaping cognition and behavior, including those overlapping with cocaine seeking and extinction. Here we discuss research leading to the hypothesis that dorsal and ventral mPFC differentially control drug seeking and extinction. We also present recent results calling the absolute nature of a PL vs. IL dichotomy into question. Finally, we consider alternate functions for mPFC that correspond less to response execution and inhibition and instead incorporate the complex cognitive behavior for which the mPFC is broadly appreciated. PMID:25529632

  5. Sub-Regional Sea Ice Preferences of Pacific Walrus in the Bering Sea Using SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacco, A.; Mahoney, A. R.; Eicken, H.; Johnson, M. A.; Ray, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Pacific walrus (O. r. divergens) uses winter sea ice in the Bering Sea for numerous parts of its natural history including courtship, foraging, and migration. Recent and predicted loss of sea ice has caused the Pacific walrus to be considered for an elevated status under the Endangered Species Act. Study of the ice conditions during this period is required to investigate changes in the Bering Sea ice pack and its effects on walrus sustainability. Using Radarsat-1 data and second-order texture statistics, a classification system was devised to separate sea ice into three distinguishable classes based on walrus needs of open water availability in the pack ice: discontinuous pack ice, continuous pack ice, and open water. Classifications are performed on sub-regional image areas to facilitate classification of heterogeneous seascapes which are thought to be distinguishable by walrus. Spatial, as well as temporal, changes in the seascape cover, based on the classification, are achieved. These results are then combined with ship-based observations of walrus to quantify walrus habitat preference. The three-class algorithm has a success rate of 94% for the discontinuous ice and continuous pack ice. Radarsat-1 images from 2004 - 2008 were analyzed for changes in seasonal and annual discontinuous ice extent. After classification, the spatial extent of discontinuous ice was found to vary throughout 2004 - 2008 in the Bering Sea shelf. Walrus are also shown to prefer discontinuous pack far from the southernmost ice edge. Maps of walrus habitat preference and persistent areas of sea ice seascapes are created and then can be used for the walrus' status consideration under the Endangered Species Act in addition to general species management issues.

  6. Fertility trends and planned parenthood: (summary report on a subregional working group meeting).

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    A German-speaking subregional working group meeting convened by the IPPF Europe Region in October 1978 discussed planned parenthood in low-birth-rate countries. 3 features characterize current fertility behavior in Europe: 1) a trend toward 2-child families; 2) early marriage (average age 23), with fertility confined to the 1st 6 years of marriage and longer birth intervals; and 3) marital fertility as the main birth rate determinant. Regional, social, and political fertility differences are diminishing. It is doubtful that material incentives to have children (e.g., financial assistance, maternity leaves, credit) are effective in the long term. While a connection is often made between the number of women workers and decreased fertility, it is the form rather than the proportion of women in employment that has changed. Even if women returned to the home, desired family size would not necessarily increase. More research is needed on the fertility effect of living accommodations. The meeting adopted 5 standpoints: 1) attempts to use social, economic, or political grounds to restrict people's ability to freely determine family size violate basic human rights; 2) family size decisions are influenced by a series of personal and social factors, with planned parenthood information and methods having no direct influence; 3) the role of planned parenthood is to subject the timing and frequency of births to self-determined planned action; 4) demographic trends should be analyzed so deficiencies in social and family policies noted can be corrected; and 5) planned parenthood cannot be used in the service of political action to decrease or increase population.

  7. A process analysis of the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kesner, Raymond P

    2013-01-01

    From a behavioral perspective, the CA3a,b subregion of the hippocampus plays an important role in the encoding of new spatial information within short-term memory with a duration of seconds and minutes. This can easily be observed in tasks that require rapid encoding, novelty detection, one-trial short-term or working memory, and one-trial cued recall primarily for spatial information. These are tasks that have been assumed to reflect the operations of episodic memory and require interactions between CA3a,b and the dentate gyrus (DG) via mossy fiber inputs into the CA3a,b. The CA3a,b is also important for encoding of spatial information requiring the acquisition of arbitrary and relational associations. All these tasks are assumed to operate within an autoassociative network function of the CA3 region. The CA3a,b also supports retrieval of short-term memory information based on a spatial pattern completion process. Based on afferent inputs into CA3a,b from the DG via mossy fibers and afferents from the entorhinal cortex into CA3a,b as well as reciprocal connections with the septum, CA3a,b can bias the process of encoding utilizing the operation of spatial pattern separation and the process of retrieval utilizing the operation of pattern completion. The CA3a,b also supports sequential processing of information in cooperation with CA1 based on the Schaffer collateral output from CA3a,b to CA1. The CA3c function is in part based on modulation of the DG in supporting pattern separation processes.

  8. A hybrid liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) process in conjunction with membrane distillation (MD) for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste.

    PubMed

    Bader, M S H

    2005-05-20

    A novel hybrid system combining liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) and membrane distillation (MD) is integrated for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste. The integrated system provides a "full separation" approach that consists of three main processing stages. The first stage is focused on the separation and recovery of nitric acid from the bulk of the waste stream using vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). In the second stage, polyvalent cations (mainly TRU elements and their fission products except cesium along with aluminum and other toxic metals) are separated from the bulk of monovalent anions and cations (dominantly sodium nitrate) by a front-end LPP. In the third stage, MD is used first to concentrate sodium nitrate to near saturation followed by a rear-end LPP to precipitate and separate sodium nitrate along with the remaining minor species from the bulk of the aqueous phase. The LPP-MD hybrid system uses a small amount of an additive and energy to carry out the treatment, addresses multiple critical species, extracts an economic value from some of waste species, generates minimal waste with suitable disposal paths, and offers rapid deployment. As such, the LPP-MD could be a valuable tool for multiple needs across the DOE complex where no effective or economic alternatives are available.

  9. Activity reductions in perirhinal cortex predict conceptual priming and familiarity-based recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well established that regions in the medial temporal lobes are critical for explicit memory, recent work has suggested that one medial temporal lobe subregion--the perirhinal cortex (PRC)--may also support conceptual priming, a form of implicit memory. Here, we sought to investigate whether activity reductions in PRC, previously linked to familiarity-based recognition, might also support conceptual implicit memory retrieval. Using a free association priming task, the current study tested the prediction that PRC indexes conceptual priming independent of contributions from perceptual and response repetition. Participants first completed an incidental semantic encoding task outside of the MRI scanner. Next, they were scanned during performance of a free association priming task, followed by a recognition memory test. Results indicated successful conceptual priming was associated with decreased PRC activity, and that an overlapping region within the PRC also exhibited activity reductions that covaried with familiarity during the recognition memory test. Our results demonstrate that the PRC contributes to both conceptual priming and familiarity-based recognition, which may reflect a common role of this region in implicit and explicit memory retrieval.

  10. Activity reductions in perirhinal cortex predict conceptual priming and familiarity-based recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-chun; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well established that regions in the medial temporal lobes are critical for explicit memory, recent work has suggested that one medial temporal lobe subregion – the perirhinal cortex (PRC) – may also support conceptual priming, a form of implicit memory. Here, we sought to investigate whether activity reductions in PRC, previously linked to familiarity-based recognition, might also support conceptual implicit memory retrieval. Using a free association priming task, the current study tested the prediction that PRC indexes conceptual priming independent of contributions from perceptual and response repetition. Participants first completed an incidental semantic encoding task outside of the MRI scanner. Next, they were scanned during performance of a free association priming task, followed by a recognition memory test. Results indicated successful conceptual priming was associated with decreased PRC activity, and that an overlapping region within the PRC also exhibited activity reductions that covaried with familiarity during the recognition memory test. Our results demonstrate that the PRC contributes to both conceptual priming and familiarity-based recognition, which may reflect a common role of this region in implicit and explicit memory retrieval. PMID:24157537

  11. Changing Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    diSessa, Andrea A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews Giyoo Hatano's ground-breaking theoretical, empirical, and methodological contributions to conceptual change research. In particular, his discovery of "vitalism" as part of children's legitimate and distinctive biology at early ages stands as a landmark. In addition, his work reinterpreted childhood "personification," changing…

  12. Evaluating Conceptual Metaphor Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    A major revolution in the study of metaphor occurred 30 years ago with the introduction of "conceptual metaphor theory" (CMT). Unlike previous theories of metaphor and metaphorical meaning, CMT proposed that metaphor is not just an aspect of language, but a fundamental part of human thought. Indeed, most metaphorical language arises from…

  13. Conceptualization of Light Refraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of papers dealing quantitatively with light refraction. Yet the conceptualization of the phenomenon that sets the foundation for a more rigorous math analysis is minimized. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap. (Contains 3 figures.)

  14. Conceptual Distinctions amongst Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; Khemlani, Sangeet; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Glucksberg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as "dogs have four legs" and "mosquitoes carry malaria") are used to talk about "kinds" of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and…

  15. Conceptualizing Functional Neuroplasticity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafman, Jordan

    2000-01-01

    This article introduces a framework for conceptualizing four forms of cognitive neuroplasticity. The concepts include: (1) homologous area adaptivity; (2) cross-modal reassignment; (3) map expansion; and (4) compensatory masquerade. The limitations of each form of plasticity are presented. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  16. Conceptualizing an Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

  17. Developing a Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenner, Kathleen

    1979-01-01

    As a screening tool for curriculum priorities, a pattern of curriculum design and redevelopment for the associate degree technical nursing program was explored. Curriculum developers examined three components: student, setting, and subject. The evolved conceptual framework, based on Orem's self-care theory, of a continuum of nursing assistance is…

  18. Mercury in soils and microbial biomass of the South Kirgizstan subregion of the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadim, Ermakov; Valentina, Danilova; Ul'yana, Gulyaeva

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clear up the role of soil microflora in the mercury concentration by microorganisms as they are related to a problem of the soil remediation. To complete the tasks as assigned, 150 samples of both various soils formed over the ore bodies outside the ore occurrence zones and waste dumps have been taken in the areas of South Kirgizstan Some 45 soil samples (horizon A, 0-20 cm) and dumps were used for microbiological analyses [1, 2]. The soil cover as seen in the work areas is represented by Haplic Calcisols (gray) soils. All the soils are generally calcareous, in some cases salted, and have various compositions. To grow the microbial biomass in order to determine mercury content levels in there, some soil media characterized by natural concentrations, ratios and forms of the compounds of these metals were used The results showed that the mercury concentrations in soils of the sampling area varied from 0.028 to 357.3 mg/kg. The highest metal content indices (up to 357.3 mg/kg) were found for soils formed over ores, and waste dumps. The lowest mercury content (0.028 to 0.066 mg/kg) was found for soils of the control area. The data on mercury and/or antimony accumulation by the biomass of soil microorganisms grown in soil media are represented. The soil samples having various mercury levels were collected in the South Kirgizstan subregion of the biosphere. It was established that the accumulation of the metals by soil microflora depends on their content in the soil, the microorganism growth is strongly inhibited at mercury concentration of 300 mg/kg in soil. A direct and reliable correlation between the metal content level in soils and their concentration by microorganisms is found. Within the background sites a tendency of increase in mercury extraction from the soil with 1 M HCl solution, in particular from salted soils is observed. In contrast, in the conditions of an excess of mercury content in soils of ore grounds, a weak

  19. Functional Linear Model with Zero-value Coefficient Function at Sub-regions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Wang, Naisyin

    2013-01-01

    We propose a shrinkage method to estimate the coefficient function in a functional linear regression model when the value of the coefficient function is zero within certain sub-regions. Besides identifying the null region in which the coefficient function is zero, we also aim to perform estimation and inferences for the nonparametrically estimated coefficient function without over-shrinking the values. Our proposal consists of two stages. In stage one, the Dantzig selector is employed to provide initial location of the null region. In stage two, we propose a group SCAD approach to refine the estimated location of the null region and to provide the estimation and inference procedures for the coefficient function. Our considerations have certain advantages in this functional setup. One goal is to reduce the number of parameters employed in the model. With a one-stage procedure, it is needed to use a large number of knots in order to precisely identify the zero-coefficient region; however, the variation and estimation difficulties increase with the number of parameters. Owing to the additional refinement stage, we avoid this necessity and our estimator achieves superior numerical performance in practice. We show that our estimator enjoys the Oracle property; it identifies the null region with probability tending to 1, and it achieves the same asymptotic normality for the estimated coefficient function on the non-null region as the functional linear model estimator when the non-null region is known. Numerically, our refined estimator overcomes the shortcomings of the initial Dantzig estimator which tends to under-estimate the absolute scale of non-zero coefficients. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated in simulation studies. We apply the method in an analysis of data collected by the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study, where the primary interests are in estimating the strength of association between body mass index in midlife and the quality of life in

  20. Amygdala activation and GABAergic gene expression in hippocampal sub-regions at the interplay of stress and spatial learning

    PubMed Central

    Hadad-Ophir, Osnat; Albrecht, Anne; Stork, Oliver; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2014-01-01

    Molecular processes in GABAergic local circuit neurons critically contribute to information processing in the hippocampus and to stress-induced activation of the amygdala. In the current study, we determined expression changes in GABA-related factors induced in subregions of the dorsal hippocampus as well as in the BLA of rats 5 h after spatial learning in a Morris water maze (MWM), using laser microdissection and quantitative real-time PCR. Spatial learning resulted in highly selective pattern of changes in hippocampal subregions: gene expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) were reduced in the hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG), whereas somatostatin (SST) was increased in the stratum oriens (SO) of CA3. The GABA-synthesizing enzymes GAD65 and GAD67 as well as the neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) were reduced in SO of CA1. In the BLA, expression of GAD65 and GAD67 were reduced compared to a handled Control group. These expression patterns were further compared to alterations in a group of rats that have been exposed to the water maze but were not provided with an invisible escape platform. In this Water Exposure group, no expression changes were observed in any of the hippocampal subregions, but a differential regulation of all selected target genes was evident in the BLA. These findings suggest that expression changes of GABAergic factors in the hippocampus are associated with spatial learning, while additional stress effects modulate expression alterations in the BLA. Indeed, while in both experimental groups plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels were enhanced, only Water Exposure stress activated the basolateral amygdala (BLA), as indicated by increased levels of phosphorylated ERK 1/2. Altered GABAergic function in the BLA may thus contribute to memory consolidation in the hippocampus, in relation to levels of stress and emotionality associated with the experience. PMID:24478650

  1. Conceptual IT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaoudova, Kristina; Stanchev, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The business processes are the key asset for every organization. The design of the business process models is the foremost concern and target among an organization's functions. Business processes and their proper management are intensely dependent on the performance of software applications and technology solutions. The paper is attempt for definition of new Conceptual model of IT service provider, it could be examined as IT focused Enterprise model, part of Enterprise Architecture (EA) school.

  2. PRA and Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMott, Diana; Fuqua, Bryan; Wilson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Once a project obtains approval, decision makers have to consider a variety of alternative paths for completing the project and meeting the project objectives. How decisions are made involves a variety of elements including: cost, experience, current technology, ideologies, politics, future needs and desires, capabilities, manpower, timing, available information, and for many ventures management needs to assess the elements of risk versus reward. The use of high level Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Models during conceptual design phases provides management with additional information during the decision making process regarding the risk potential for proposed operations and design prototypes. The methodology can be used as a tool to: 1) allow trade studies to compare alternatives based on risk, 2) determine which elements (equipment, process or operational parameters) drives the risk, and 3) provide information to mitigate or eliminate risks early in the conceptual design to lower costs. Creating system models using conceptual design proposals and generic key systems based on what is known today can provide an understanding of the magnitudes of proposed systems and operational risks and facilitates trade study comparisons early in the decision making process. Identifying the "best" way to achieve the desired results is difficult, and generally occurs based on limited information. PRA provides a tool for decision makers to explore how some decisions will affect risk before the project is committed to that path, which can ultimately save time and money.

  3. Diffusion tensor imaging of white and grey matter within the spinal cord of normal Beagle dogs: Sub-regional differences of the various diffusion parameters.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hakyoung; Park, Noh-Won; Ha, Yun-Mi; Kim, Jaehwan; Moon, Won-Jin; Eom, Kidong

    2016-09-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an advanced diffusion weighted imaging technique that can identify early stage lesions and Wallerian degeneration within the spinal cord; these changes are difficult to recognise on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The only DTI parameters previously investigated in dogs are fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (MD). The aim of this study was to evaluate multiple DTI parameters in sub-regional areas of the spinal cord in normal Beagles. All imaging data were obtained from the lumbar spinal cord (L1-L3) of ten normal dogs using a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Transverse multi-shot echo planar imaging sequences (b values = 0 and 800 s/mm(2); 12 directions) were used for DTI. Regions of interest were selected from sub-regions of the white and grey matter, and from the whole spinal cord, in the transverse plane in all DTI maps. The DTI parameters in spinal cord sub-regions in the transverse plane were significantly different amongst the white matter, grey matter and whole spinal cord (P < 0.05 for all DTI parameters except MD), as well as between white matter sub-regions (P < 0.05 for most DTI parameters except radial diffusivity, MD and planar index). DTI-based sub-regional analysis of white and grey matter may be useful for regional evaluation of the dog spinal cord.

  4. Differential contributions of subregions of medial temporal lobe to memory system in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: insights from fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiu; Duan, Xujun; Shu, Hao; Wang, Zan; Long, Zhiliang; Liu, Duan; Liao, Wenxiang; Shi, Yongmei; Chen, Huafu; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Altered function of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is a valuable indicator of conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer’s disease. This study is to delineate the functional circuitry of multiple subdivisions of parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus (HIP) and to examine how this knowledge contributes to a more principled understanding of the contributions of its subregions to memory in aMCI. The functional connectivity (FC) analysis was performed in 85 aMCI and 129 healthy controls. The aMCI demonstrated the distinct disruptive patterns of the MTL subregional connectivity with the whole-brain. The right entorhinal cortex (ERC) and perirhinal cortex (PRC) showed increased connectivity with the left inferior and middle occipital gyrus, respectively, which potentially indicated a compensatory mechanism. Furthermore, the right altered MTL subregional FC was associated with episodic memory performance in aMCI. These results provide novel insights into the heterogeneous nature of its large-scale connectivity in MTL subregions in memory system underlying the memory deficits in aMCI. It further suggests that altered FC of MTL subregions is associated with the impairment of the differential encoding stages of memories and the functional changes in the specific right HIP-ERC-PRC-temporal circuitry may contribute to the impairment of episodic memory in aMCI. PMID:27184985

  5. Segmentation of solid subregion of high grade gliomas in MRI images based on active contour model (ACM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seow, P.; Win, M. T.; Wong, J. H. D.; Abdullah, N. A.; Ramli, N.

    2016-03-01

    Gliomas are tumours arising from the interstitial tissue of the brain which are heterogeneous, infiltrative and possess ill-defined borders. Tumour subregions (e.g. solid enhancing part, edema and necrosis) are often used for tumour characterisation. Tumour demarcation into substructures facilitates glioma staging and provides essential information. Manual segmentation had several drawbacks that include laborious, time consuming, subjected to intra and inter-rater variability and hindered by diversity in the appearance of tumour tissues. In this work, active contour model (ACM) was used to segment the solid enhancing subregion of the tumour. 2D brain image acquisition data using 3T MRI fast spoiled gradient echo sequence in post gadolinium of four histologically proven high-grade glioma patients were obtained. Preprocessing of the images which includes subtraction and skull stripping were performed and then followed by ACM segmentation. The results of the automatic segmentation method were compared against the manual delineation of the tumour by a trainee radiologist. Both results were further validated by an experienced neuroradiologist and a brief quantitative evaluations (pixel area and difference ratio) were performed. Preliminary results of the clinical data showed the potential of ACM model in the application of fast and large scale tumour segmentation in medical imaging.

  6. Exploring peronality traits related to dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subregions of humans

    PubMed Central

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Fervaha, Gagan; Chung, Jun Ku; Gerretsen, Philip; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Plitman, Eric; Iwata, Yusuke; Wilson, Alan; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    While several studies have examined how particular personality traits are related to dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability in the striatum of humans, few studies have reported how multiple traits measured in the same persons are differentially related to D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. We examined how personality traits measured with the Karolinska Scales of Personality are related to striatal D2/3R availability measured with [11C]-raclopride in 30 healthy humans. Based on previous literature, five personality traits were hypothesized to be most likely related to D2/3R availability: impulsiveness, monotony avoidance, detachment, social desirability, and socialization. We found self-reported impulsiveness was negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. After controlling for age and gender, monotony avoidance was also negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. Socialization was positively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and putamen. After controlling for age and gender, the relationship between socialization and D2/3R availability in these regions survived correction for multiple comparisons (p-threshold=.003). Thus, within the same persons, different personality traits are differentially related to in vivo D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. PMID:26944295

  7. A national critical loads framework for atmospheric deposition effects assessment: II. Defining assessment end points, indicators, and functional subregions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunsaker, Carolyn; Graham, Robin; Turner, Robert S.; Ringold, Paul L.; Holdren, George R.; Strickland, Timothy C.

    1993-05-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency, with support from the US Department of Energy and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, has been evaluating the feasibility of an effects-based (critical loads) approach to atmospheric pollutant regulation and abatement. The rationale used to develop three of the six steps in a flexible assessment framework (Strickland and others, 1992) is presented along with a discussion of a variety of implementation approaches and their ramifications. The rationale proposes that it is necessary to provide an explicit statement of the condition of the resource that is considered valuable (assessment end point) because: (1) individual ecosystem components may be more or less sensitive to deposition, (2) it is necessary to select indicators of ecosystem condition that can be objectively measured and that reflect changes in the quality of the assessment end point, and (3) acceptable status (i.e., value of indicator and quality of assessment end point at critical load) must be defined. The rationale also stresses the importance of defining the assessment regions and subregions to improve the analysis and understanding of the indicator response to deposition. Subregional definition can be based on a variety of criteria, including informed judgment or quantitative procedures. It also depends on the geographic scale at which exposure and effects models are accurate and on data availability, resolution, and quality.

  8. Subregional-scale groundwater depletion detected by GRACE for both shallow and deep aquifers in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiyong; Pan, Yun; Gong, Huili; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhou, Demin; Zhao, Wenji

    2015-03-01

    This study explores the capability of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to detect heterogeneous groundwater storage (GWS) variations in two subregions of the North China Plain: the Piedmont Plain (PP, ~54,000 km2, mainly exploiting shallow groundwater) and East Central Plain (ECP, ~86,000 km2, mainly exploiting deep groundwater). Results show that the GWS anomalies estimated from GRACE data (2003-2013) agree well with those estimated from in situ observations (2005-2010) for both PP (R2 = 0.91) and ECP (R2 = 0.75). The shallow GWS (2003-2013) in PP declines faster (-46.5 ± 6.8 mm/yr) than the deep GWS in ECP (-16.9 ± 1.9 mm/yr). However, the shallow GWS in PP recovered more quickly especially during the 2008-2011 drought period. Despite its lower magnitude, the GRACE-derived GWS depletion in ECP reveals the overexploitation of deep GWS. This study demonstrated that the heterogeneous GWS variations can potentially be detected by GRACE at the subregional scale smaller than the typical GRACE footprint (200,000 km2).

  9. Rotorcraft Conceptual Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Sinsay, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Requirements for a rotorcraft conceptual design environment are discussed, from the perspective of a government laboratory. Rotorcraft design work in a government laboratory must support research, by producing technology impact assessments and defining the context for research and development; and must support the acquisition process, including capability assessments and quantitative evaluation of designs, concepts, and alternatives. An information manager that will enable increased fidelity of analysis early in the design effort is described. This manager will be a framework to organize information that describes the aircraft, and enable movement of that information to and from analyses. Finally, a recently developed rotorcraft system analysis tool is described.

  10. Rotorcraft Conceptual Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Sinsay, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Requirements for a rotorcraft conceptual design environment are discussed, from the perspective of a government laboratory. Rotorcraft design work in a government laboratory must support research, by producing technology impact assessments and defining the context for research and development; and must support the acquisition process, including capability assessments and quantitative evaluation of designs, concepts, and alternatives. An information manager that will enable increased fidelity of analysis early in the design effort is described. This manager will be a framework to organize information that describes the aircraft, and enable movement of that information to and from analyses. Finally, a recently developed rotorcraft system analysis tool is described.

  11. Dorsal and ventral streams: The distinct role of striatal subregions in the acquisition and performance of goal-directed actions

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Genevra; Leung, Beatrice K.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that distinct neural processes mediate the acquisition and performance of goal-directed instrumental actions. Whereas a cortical-dorsomedial striatal circuit appears critical for the acquisition of goal-directed actions, a cortical-ventral striatal circuit appears to mediate instrumental performance, particularly the motivational control of performance. Here we review evidence that these distinct mechanisms of learning and performance constitute two distinct ‘streams’ controlling instrumental conditioning. From this perspective, the regulation of the interaction between these ‘streams’ becomes a matter of considerable importance. We describe evidence that the basolateral amygdala, which is heavily interconnected with both the dorsal and ventral subregions of the striatum, coordinates this interaction providing input to the final common path to action as a critical component of the limbic-motor interface. PMID:24231424

  12. Hippocampus and subregions of the dorsal striatum respond differently to a behavioral strategy change on a spatial navigation task

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Paul S.; Amemiya, Seiichiro

    2015-01-01

    Goal-directed and habit-based behaviors are driven by multiple but dissociable decision making systems involving several different brain areas, including the hippocampus and dorsal striatum. On repetitive tasks, behavior transitions from goal directed to habit based with experience. Hippocampus has been implicated in initial learning and dorsal striatum in automating behavior, but recent studies suggest that subregions within the dorsal striatum have distinct roles in mediating habit-based and goal-directed behavior. We compared neural activity in the CA1 region of hippocampus with anterior dorsolateral and posterior dorsomedial striatum in rats on a spatial choice task, in which subjects experienced reward delivery changes that forced them to adjust their behavioral strategy. Our results confirm the importance of the hippocampus in evaluating predictive steps during goal-directed behavior, while separate circuits in the basal ganglia integrated relevant information during automation of actions and recognized when new behaviors were needed to continue obtaining rewards. PMID:26084902

  13. Spatial justice and the translation of European strategic planning ideas in the urban sub-region of south Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Dabinett, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses urban planning practices in South Yorkshire to reveal how EU strategic spatial ideas and values are reproduced. Specifically, the paper examines how the notion of spatial justice was interpreted as the organising concepts within the European Spatial Development Perspective became situated within a territory severely affected by deindustrialisation in the 1980s, but subsequently a major beneficiary of EU Structural Fund programmes. The analysis reveals how policy-making at this scale used a construct of polycentric urban development that reasserted a model of economic growth based on the indigenous assets held in city centres at the expense of more redistributive measures targeted at the former coal-mining communities in the sub-region.

  14. Animal-adapted members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex endemic to the southern African subregion.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Charlene; Van Helden, Paul; Miller, Michele; Parsons, Sven

    2016-04-26

    Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) cause tuberculosis (TB) in both animals and humans. In this article, three animal-adapted MTC strains that are endemic to the southern African subregion - that is, Mycobacterium suricattae, Mycobacterium mungi, and the dassie bacillus - are reviewed with a focus on clinical and pathological presentations, geographic distribution, genotyping methods, diagnostic tools and evolution. Moreover, factors influencing the transmission and establishment of TB pathogens in novel host populations, including ecological, immunological and genetic factors of both the host and pathogen, are discussed. The risks associated with these infections are currently unknown and further studies will be required for greater understanding of this disease in the context of the southern African ecosystem.

  15. Tactical missile conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmon, D. R.

    1980-09-01

    This thesis presents the theory necessary for the conceptual design of a tactical missile. The design process begins with the well known linear aerodynamic theory for initial sizing and later includes nonlinear effects to determine the final design of the missile. Where theory does not apply, empirical methods are presented which are known to give accurate results. An air-to-air missile is designed for a specific threat as an example which immediately follows the development of the theory for each section. Several small digital computer programs are presented and used for analysis of specific areas of the design. One large program (AEROL) is used for determining the aerodynamic coefficients of the final design.

  16. Shuttle freezer conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A conceptual design for a kit freezer for operation onboard shuttle was developed. The freezer features a self-contained unit which can be mounted in the orbiter crew compartment and is capable of storing food at launch and returning with medical samples. Packaging schemes were investigated to provide the optimum storage capacity with a minimum weight and volume penalty. Several types of refrigeration systems were evaluated to select one which would offer the most efficient performance and lowest hazard of safety to the crew. Detailed performance data on the selected, Stirling cycle principled refrigeration unit were developed to validate the feasibility of its application to this freezer. Thermal analyses were performed to determine the adequacy of the thermal insulation to maintain the desired storage temperature with the design cooling capacity. Stress analyses were made to insure the design structure integrity could be maintained over the shuttle flight regime. A proposed prototype freezer development plan is presented.

  17. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Carini, John; Choi, Andrew; Dillman, Robert; Griffin, Sean J.; Hanneman, Susan; Mamplata, Caesar; Stanton, Edward

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a Lunar Lander, which can be the primary vehicle to transport the equipment necessary to establish a surface lunar base, the crew that will man the base, and the raw materials which the Lunar Station will process. A Lunar Lander will be needed to operate in the regime between the lunar surface and low lunar orbit (LLO), up to 200 km. This lander is intended for the establishment and operation of a manned surface base on the moon and for the support of the Lunar Space Station. The lander will be able to fulfill the requirements of 3 basic missions: A mission dedicated to delivering maximum payload for setting up the initial lunar base; Multiple missions between LLO and lunar surface dedicated to crew rotation; and Multiple missions dedicated to cargo shipments within the regime of lunar surface and LLO. A complete set of structural specifications is given.

  18. μ-Opioid receptors within subregions of the striatum mediate pair bond formation through parallel yet distinct reward mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Resendez, Shanna L; Dome, Mackenzie; Gormley, Gwen; Franco, Dena; Nevárez, Natalie; Hamid, Arif A; Aragona, Brandon J

    2013-05-22

    The prairie vole is a socially monogamous rodent that is an excellent animal model for studies of the neurobiology of social attachment. Such studies have demonstrated that activation of reward circuitry during social interactions facilitates pair bond formation. Within this circuitry, μ-opioid receptors (MORs) modulate naturally rewarding behavior in an anatomically segregated manner; MORs located throughout the striatum (dorsal striatum, NAc core, and the entire NAc shell) are implicated in general motivational processes, whereas those located specifically within the dorsomedial NAc shell mediate positive hedonics (and are referred to as a "hedonic hotspot"). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether MORs within these distinct subregions differentially mediate pair bond formation. We first used receptor autoradiography to compare MOR binding densities between these regions. MOR binding was significantly higher in the NAc core and dorsomedial NAc shell compared with the ventral NAc shell. We next used partner preference testing to determine whether MORs within these subregions differentially mediate pair bonding. Blockade of MORs using 1 or 3 μg of H-d-Phe-Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 within the dorsal striatum decreased mating during the cohabitation period and inhibited partner preference formation. In contrast, blockade of MORs within dorsomedial NAc shell inhibited partner preference formation without effecting mating behavior, whereas other regions were not involved. Thus, MORs within the dorsal striatum mediate partner preference formation via impairment of mating, whereas those in the dorsomedial NAc shell appear to mediate pair bond formation through the positive hedonics associated with mating.

  19. The CYCOFOS new forecasting systems at regional and sub-regional scales for supporting the marine safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Galanis, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Emmanouil, George; Nikolaidis, Georgios; Lardner, Robin; Sofianos, Sarantis; Stylianou, Stavros; Nikolaidis, Marios

    2016-04-01

    The CYCOFOS new forecasting systems at regional and sub-regional scales for supporting the marine safety George Zodiatis1, Hari Radhakrishnan1, George Galanis1,2, Andreas Nikolaidis1, George Emmanouil1,2, Georgios Nikolaidis1, Robin Lardner1, Sarantis Sofianos3, Stavros Stylianou1 and Marios Nikolaidis1 1Oceanography Centre, University of Cyprus, Nicosia 1678, Cyprus 2 Hellenic Naval Academy, Section of Mathematics, Piraeus 18539, Greece 3 University of Athens, Ocean Physics and Modeling Group, Athens 15784, Greece The Cyprus Coastal Ocean FOrecasting System-CYCOFOS has been providing operational hydrodynamic and sea state forecasts in the Eastern Mediterranean since early 2002. Recently, it has been improved with the implementation of new hydrodynamic, wave and atmospheric models, targeting larger and higher resolution domains at regional and sub-regional scales. For the new CYCOFOS hydrodynamic system a novel parallel version of POM has been implemented. The new flow model covers the Eastern Mediterranean with a resolution of 2 km and the Levantine with 500 m, both nested in Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service-CMEMS. The CYCOFOS hydrodynamic model is coupled with the latest ECMWF WAM model. The surface currents produced from the Copernicus marine service and CYCOFOS has been incorporated in the wave integration, providing a second independent forcing input to the new CYCOFOS wave model, in addition to the winds. The Weather Research and Forecasting atmospheric model-WRF has been implemented in the same domain as SKIRON atmospheric model, in order to provide the backup forcing for the CYCOFOS models. The improved CYCOFOS forecasting data are used for the EU CISE 2020 project to establish an ΕU Common Information Sharing Environment to improve the Maritime Situational Awareness, particularly for SAR operations, as well as for the MEDESS4MS multi model oil spill prediction service, for operational oil spill predictions in the Mediterranean.

  20. Attentional Factors in Conceptual Congruency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Julio; Ouellet, Marc; Roman, Antonio; Valenzuela, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual congruency effects are biases induced by an irrelevant conceptual dimension of a task (e.g., location in vertical space) on the processing of another, relevant dimension (e.g., judging words' emotional evaluation). Such effects are a central empirical pillar for recent views about how the mind/brain represents concepts. In the present…

  1. Further Conceptualization of Treatment Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    A review and extension of previous conceptualizations of treatment acceptability is provided in light of progress within the area of behavior treatment development and implementation. Factors including legislation, advances in research, and service delivery models are examined as to their relationship with a comprehensive conceptualization of…

  2. What Does Conceptual Understanding Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Florence S.; Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2006-01-01

    All advocates of curriculum reform talk about an increased emphasis on conceptual understanding in mathematics. In this article, the authors use many examples to address the following issues: What does conceptual understanding mean, especially in introductory courses such as college algebra, precalculus, or calculus? How do we recognize its…

  3. Development of Water Resources in Appalachia. Main Report. Part 2. Volume 5a. Sub-Regional Plans. Chapters 13 thru 16

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-11-01

    finance, entertainment , and medical and other professional services grew in importance. *i The population:worker ratio in State Planning Sub-region 13...EDUCATION OF PERSONS 25 YRS. AND OVER, 1960 1-8 Years 1-4 Years I or More Yrs. Total Elementary School ligh School of College Number 25,825 17,796

  4. The Effectiveness of Subregional Libraries for the Blind and Physically Handicapped: A Pilot Study, Conducted by Wayne State University Library Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Julianne M.; And Others

    This study provides data on the relative effectiveness of library service to the blind and physically handicapped in two adjoining metropolitan counties in Michigan. Oakland County is served by a subregional program located in a local public library while Macomb County is served by the more remote Michigan Regional Library for the Blind and…

  5. Highest trkB mRNA expression in the entorhinal cortex among hippocampal subregions in the adult rat: contrasting pattern with BDNF mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Tokuyama, W; Hashimoto, T; Li, Y X; Okuno, H; Miyashita, Y

    1998-11-20

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, TrkB, regulate synaptic functions in the hippocampus of the adult rodent. In previous studies, in situ hybridization methods have been used to evaluate regional differences in BDNF and trkB mRNA expression levels in hippocampal subregions. However, these studies have failed to reach consensus regarding the regional differences in the mRNA expression levels. In the present study, we quantitated mRNA expression levels using two different methods, ribonuclease protection assays and a quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction technique, in four hippocampal subregions: the entorhinal cortex, dentate gyrus (DG), CA3 and CA1. These two methods yielded the same results. We found that BDNF and trkB mRNA expression levels did not covary in the four subregions. BDNF and full length trkB (trkB FL) mRNA in the entorhinal cortex and the DG show contrasting expression patterns. The expression level of BDNF mRNA was highest in the DG among the hippocampal subregions and low in the entorhinal cortex and the CA1, whereas the trkB FL mRNA expression level was highest in the entorhinal cortex, low in the DG and lowest in the CA3. These results suggest regional differences in BDNF/TrkB signaling for maintenance and modifiability of neuronal connections in the hippocampal formation.

  6. PHENIX Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nagamiya, Shoji; Aronson, Samuel H.; Young, Glenn R.; Paffrath, Leo

    1993-01-29

    The PHENIX Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the detector design of the PHENIX experiment for Day-1 operation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The CDR presents the physics capabilities, technical details, cost estimate, construction schedule, funding profile, management structure, and possible upgrade paths of the PHENIX experiment. The primary goals of the PHENIX experiment are to detect the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and to measure its properties. Many of the potential signatures for the QGP are measured as a function of a well-defined common variable to see if any or all of these signatures show a simultaneous anomaly due to the formation of the QGP. In addition, basic quantum chromodynamics phenomena, collision dynamics, and thermodynamic features of the initial states of the collision are studied. To achieve these goals, the PHENIX experiment measures lepton pairs (dielectrons and dimuons) to study various properties of vector mesons, such as the mass, the width, and the degree of yield suppression due to the formation of the QGP. The effect of thermal radiation on the continuum is studied in different regions of rapidity and mass. The e[mu] coincidence is measured to study charm production, and aids in understanding the shape of the continuum dilepton spectrum. Photons are measured to study direct emission of single photons and to study [pi][sup 0] and [eta] production. Charged hadrons are identified to study the spectrum shape, production of antinuclei, the [phi] meson (via K[sup +]K[sup [minus

  7. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    ROBINSON,K.

    2006-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has prepared a conceptual design for a world class user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. This facility, called the ''National Synchrotron Light Source II'' (NSLS-II), will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility. Together these will enable the study of material properties and functions with a spatial resolution of {approx}1 nm, an energy resolution of {approx}0.1 meV, and the ultra high sensitivity required to perform spectroscopy on a single atom. The overall objective of the NSLS-II project is to deliver a research facility to advance fundamental science and have the capability to characterize and understand physical properties at the nanoscale, the processes by which nanomaterials can be manipulated and assembled into more complex hierarchical structures, and the new phenomena resulting from such assemblages. It will also be a user facility made available to researchers engaged in a broad spectrum of disciplines from universities, industries, and other laboratories.

  8. ERHIC Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn,V.; Beebe-Wang,J.; Ben-Zvi,I.; Fedotov, A.; Fischer, W.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.N.; MacKay, W.W.; Montag, C.; Pozdeyev, E.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tsentalovich, E.

    2008-08-25

    The conceptual design of the high luminosity electron-ion collider, eRHIC, is presented. The goal of eRHIC is to provide collisions of electrons (and possibly positrons) with ions and protons at the center-of-mass energy range from 25 to 140 GeV, and with luminosities exceeding 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. A considerable part of the physics program is based on polarized electrons, protons and He3 ions with high degree of polarization. In eRHIC electron beam will be accelerated in an energy recovery linac. Major R&D items for eRHIC include the development of a high intensity polarized electron source, studies of various aspects of energy recovery technology for high power beams and the development of compact magnets for recirculating passes. In eRHIC scheme the beam-beam interaction has several specific features, which have to be thoroughly studied. In order to maximize the collider luminosity, several upgrades of the existing RHIC accelerator are required. Those upgrades may include the increase of intensity as well as transverse and longitudinal cooling of ion and proton beams.

  9. The Pan American Health Organization and international health: a history of training, conceptualization, and collective development.

    PubMed

    Auer, Annella; Guerrero Espinel, Juan Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    A constantly changing and increasingly complex global environment requires leaders with special competencies to respond effectively to this scenario. Within this context, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goes beyond traditional leadership training models both in terms of its design as well as its conceptual approach to international health. As an intergovernmental, centenary organization in health, PAHO allows participants a unique vantage point from which to conceptualize, share experiences and develop projects relevant to international health. Derived from over two decades of experience (1985-2006) training professionals through its predessor Training Program in International Health, the Leaders in International Health Program "Edmundo Granda Ugalde" (LIHP) utilizes an innovative design, virtual and practical learning activities, and a problem-based approach to analyze the main concepts, theories, actors, forces, and processes relevant to international health. In collaboration with PAHO/WHO Representative Offices and national institutions, participants develop country projects based on priority health issues, many of which are integrated into the Organization's technical cooperation and/or implemented by relevant ministries and other entities in their respective countries/subregions. A total of 185 participants representing 31 countries have participated in the LIHP since its inception in 2008, building upon the 187 trained through its predecessor. These initiatives have contributed to the development of health professionals in the Region of the Americas devoted to international health, as well as provided important input towards a conceptual understanding of international health by fostering debate on this issue.

  10. The Conceptual Framework of Thematic Mapping in Case Conceptualization.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Charles R; Jeffrey, Christina E

    2017-04-01

    This article, the 3rd in a series of 5, introduces the conceptual framework for thematic mapping, a novel approach to case conceptualization. The framework is transtheoretical in that it is not constrained by the tenets or concepts of any one therapeutic orientation and transdiagnostic in that it conceptualizes clients outside the constraints of diagnostic criteria. Thematic mapping comprises 4 components: a definition, foundational principles, defining features, and core concepts. These components of the framework, deemed building blocks, are explained in this article. Like the foundation of any structure, the heuristic value of the method requires that the building blocks have integrity, coherence, and sound anchoring. We assert that the conceptual framework provides a solid foundation, making thematic mapping a potential asset in mental health treatment.

  11. The Effects of Sub-Regional Climate Velocity on the Distribution and Spatial Extent of Marine Species Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Kleisner, Kristin M.; Fogarty, Michael J.; McGee, Sally; Barnett, Analie; Fratantoni, Paula; Greene, Jennifer; Hare, Jonathan A.; Lucey, Sean M.; McGuire, Christopher; Odell, Jay; Saba, Vincent S.; Smith, Laurel; Weaver, Katherine J.; Pinsky, Malin L.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies illustrate variable patterns in individual species distribution shifts in response to changing temperature. However, an assemblage, a group of species that shares a common environmental niche, will likely exhibit similar responses to climate changes, and these community-level responses may have significant implications for ecosystem function. Therefore, we examine the relationship between observed shifts of species in assemblages and regional climate velocity (i.e., the rate and direction of change of temperature isotherms). The assemblages are defined in two sub-regions of the U.S. Northeast Shelf that have heterogeneous oceanography and bathymetry using four decades of bottom trawl survey data and we explore temporal changes in distribution, spatial range extent, thermal habitat area, and biomass, within assemblages. These sub-regional analyses allow the dissection of the relative roles of regional climate velocity and local physiography in shaping observed distribution shifts. We find that assemblages of species associated with shallower, warmer waters tend to shift west-southwest and to shallower waters over time, possibly towards cooler temperatures in the semi-enclosed Gulf of Maine, while species assemblages associated with relatively cooler and deeper waters shift deeper, but with little latitudinal change. Conversely, species assemblages associated with warmer and shallower water on the broad, shallow continental shelf from the Mid-Atlantic Bight to Georges Bank shift strongly northeast along latitudinal gradients with little change in depth. Shifts in depth among the southern species associated with deeper and cooler waters are more variable, although predominantly shifts are toward deeper waters. In addition, spatial expansion and contraction of species assemblages in each region corresponds to the area of suitable thermal habitat, but is inversely related to assemblage biomass. This suggests that assemblage distribution shifts in

  12. Anatomical connections between the anterior and posterodorsal sub-regions of the medial amygdala: Integration of odor and hormone signals

    PubMed Central

    Maras, Pamela M.; Petrulis, Aras

    2010-01-01

    In many rodent species, such as Syrian hamsters, reproductive behavior requires neural integration of chemosensory information and steroid hormone cues. The medial amygdala processes both of these signals through anatomically distinct sub-regions; the anterior region (MeA) receives substantial chemosensory input, but contains few steroid receptor-labeled neurons, whereas the posterodorsal region (MePD) receives less chemosensory input, but contains dense populations of androgen and estrogen receptors. Importantly, these sub-regions have considerable reciprocal connections, and previous studies in our lab have shown that functional interactions between MeA and MePD are required for the preference to investigate opposite-sex odors in male hamsters. We therefore hypothesized that chemosensory and hormone signals are conveyed directly between MeA and MePD. To test this hypothesis, we injected the retrograde tracer, cholera toxin B (CTB), into either MeA or MePD of male subjects and identified whether retrogradely labeled cells within MePD or MeA, respectively, expressed (1) Fos protein following exposure to female or male odors or (2) androgen receptors (AR). Approximately 36% of CTB-labeled cells within MeA (that project to MePD) also expressed Fos following exposure to either social odor, compared to the only 13% of CTB-labeled cells within MePD (that project to MeA) that also expressed odor-induced Fos. In contrast, 57% of CTB-labeled cells within MePD also contained AR, compared to the 28% of CTB-labeled cells within MeA that were double-labeled for AR/CTB. These results provide the first anatomical evidence that chemosensory and hormone cues are conveyed directly between MeA and MePD. Furthermore, these data suggest that chemosensory information is conveyed primarily from MeA to MePD, whereas hormone information is conveyed primarily from MePD to MeA. More broadly, the interactions between MeA and MePD may represent a basic mechanism by which the brain integrates

  13. The Effects of Sub-Regional Climate Velocity on the Distribution and Spatial Extent of Marine Species Assemblages.

    PubMed

    Kleisner, Kristin M; Fogarty, Michael J; McGee, Sally; Barnett, Analie; Fratantoni, Paula; Greene, Jennifer; Hare, Jonathan A; Lucey, Sean M; McGuire, Christopher; Odell, Jay; Saba, Vincent S; Smith, Laurel; Weaver, Katherine J; Pinsky, Malin L

    2016-01-01

    Many studies illustrate variable patterns in individual species distribution shifts in response to changing temperature. However, an assemblage, a group of species that shares a common environmental niche, will likely exhibit similar responses to climate changes, and these community-level responses may have significant implications for ecosystem function. Therefore, we examine the relationship between observed shifts of species in assemblages and regional climate velocity (i.e., the rate and direction of change of temperature isotherms). The assemblages are defined in two sub-regions of the U.S. Northeast Shelf that have heterogeneous oceanography and bathymetry using four decades of bottom trawl survey data and we explore temporal changes in distribution, spatial range extent, thermal habitat area, and biomass, within assemblages. These sub-regional analyses allow the dissection of the relative roles of regional climate velocity and local physiography in shaping observed distribution shifts. We find that assemblages of species associated with shallower, warmer waters tend to shift west-southwest and to shallower waters over time, possibly towards cooler temperatures in the semi-enclosed Gulf of Maine, while species assemblages associated with relatively cooler and deeper waters shift deeper, but with little latitudinal change. Conversely, species assemblages associated with warmer and shallower water on the broad, shallow continental shelf from the Mid-Atlantic Bight to Georges Bank shift strongly northeast along latitudinal gradients with little change in depth. Shifts in depth among the southern species associated with deeper and cooler waters are more variable, although predominantly shifts are toward deeper waters. In addition, spatial expansion and contraction of species assemblages in each region corresponds to the area of suitable thermal habitat, but is inversely related to assemblage biomass. This suggests that assemblage distribution shifts in

  14. Development of a Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services for Disaster Early Warning and Mitigation in the Ecowas Subregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueye, L. A.; Keita, M. S.; Akinyede, J. O.; Kufoniyi, O.; Erin, G.

    2015-08-01

    The West Africa Sub-region has been crisis and disaster ridden in recent times with enormous challenges for disaster mitigation. The crisis/disasters range from conflicts fuelled by political upheaval to epidemics that take their tolls on the population of some countries in the sub-region. The crisis and disaster events have overwhelming magnitudes and are highly dynamic, requiring a well-articulated plan for immediate response in order to mitigate their effects. A study carried out by the Early Warning Directorate (EWD) of the Economic Commission of West African States (ECOWAS) highlighted the risks and vulnerabilities of the region despite the considerable progress made in development and peace consolidation in some parts of the region. The study identified apparent institutional and infrastructural deficiencies, such as the lack of up-to-date geospatial data and information, and inadequate platforms for data gathering and data sharing among the relevant national agencies, which have made much of the region particularly vulnerable to the emerging threats. It is against the foregoing that the development of a Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services for EWD and the ECOWAS is being proposed. In addition to the resolution of the crucial need of reliable geospatial data capacity of member states, this initiative will spearhead the realisation of a Geospatial Data Infrastructure for ECOWAS Commission, through the appropriate policy formulation and implementation. Through the proper implementation of the Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services, ECOWAS will have the capacity to provide geospatial analysis and mapping support focusing on areas related to conflict prevention and resolution, regional planning for food security, early warning of viral diseases and epidemics, disaster preparedness, mitigation and response, infrastructural development and refugee resettlement, and a host of other vital projects/programmes for promoting ECOWAS regional integration

  15. Electronic aids to conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchard, Eugene E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented in viewgraph form are techniques to improve the conceptual design of complex systems. The paper discusses theory of design, flexible software tools for computer aided design, and methods for enhancing communication among design teams.

  16. Rain-based factors of high agricultural impacts over Senegal. Part I: integration of local to sub-regional trends and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salack, S.; Muller, B.; Gaye, A. T.

    2011-11-01

    The evolution of seasonal cycle and interannual rainfall, the number of rainy days and daily rainfall types, dry spells frequency of occurrence, onset/cessation/length of rainy season, sowing dates, and the duration of the cropping period, are investigated at local (individual sites) and sub-regional scales (four different rainfall zones) using daily records of station data (83 sites) over Senegal. In the limits of a case study, these analyses complement and update previous studies conducted in the extreme Western Sahel (11-16° N and 20° W-10° E). The results unveil noticeable evolution of some of these rain-based factors in the recent periods as compared to the previous dry years. In the regions recording less than 800 mm/year (Sudan and Sahel sub-regions), the positive and statistically significant trends of rainfall amount are associated with new features of increasing frequency of short dry spell category, increasing number of some classes of extreme daily rainfall amounts and shifts in the peak number of rainy days. At sub-regional scales, the starting years (or change points) the magnitude and the signs of the new trends are unevenly distributed in the period post-1990. Earlier and higher amplitude changes are found at local scales and not less than one third of the sites in each sub-regional network are significantly affected. The extreme Southern sub-region exhibits no significant changes. Statistically significant trends are not observed on daily rain records ≤10 mm, onset/cessation dates, successful sowing dates, rainy season length, cropping period, medium and extreme dry spell categories. Rather, some of these factors such as the successful sowing date and the cropping season length exhibit significant variability. The onset (cessation) dates of the rainy season are followed (preceded) by extreme dry spell episodes. In the perspectives of climate impact assessments on the local agriculture a sub-regional periodic synopsis of the major rain

  17. Ecosystem conceptual model- Mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpers, Charles N.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Foe, Chris; Klasing, Susan; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Slotton, Darell G.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2008-01-01

    mercury conceptual model and its four submodels (1. Methylation, 2. Bioaccumulation, 3. Human Health Effects, and 4. Wildlife Heath Effects) can be used to understand the general relationships among drivers and outcomes associated with mercury cycling in the Delta. Several linkages between important drivers and outcomes have been identified as important but highly uncertain (i.e. poorly understood). For example, there may be significant wildlife health effect of mercury on mammals and reptiles in the Delta, but there is currently very little or no information about it. The characteristics of such linkages are important when prioritizing and funding restoration projects and associated monitoring in the Delta and its tributaries.

  18. Possible Source Populations of the White-backed Planthopper in the Greater Mekong Subregion Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang-Yong; Chu, Dong; Yin, Yan-Qiong; Zhao, Xue-Qing; Chen, Ai-Dong; Khay, Sathya; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Kyaw, Mu Mu; Kongchuensin, Manita; Ngo, Vien Vinh; Nguyen, Chung Huy

    2016-12-01

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a serious pest of rice in Asia. However, little is known regarding the migration of this pest insect from the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) including Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and Vietnam, into China’s Yunnan Province. To determine the migration patterns of S. furcifera in the GMS and putative secondary immigration inside China’s Yunnan Province, we investigated the population genetic diversity, genetic structure, and gene flow of 42 S. furcifera populations across the six countries in the GMS by intensive sampling using mitochondrial genes. Our study revealed the potential emigration of S. furcifera from the GMS consists primarily of three major sources: 1) the S. furcifera from Laos and Vietnam migrate into south and southeast Yunnan, where they proceed to further migrate into northeast and central Yunnan; 2) the S. furcifera from Myanmar migrate into west Yunnan, and/or central Yunnan, and/or northeast Yunnan; 3) the S. furcifera from Cambodia migrate into southwest Yunnan, where the populations can migrate further into central Yunnan. The new data will not only be helpful in predicting population dynamics of the planthopper, but will also aid in regional control programs for this economically important pest insect.

  19. A harmonized segmentation protocol for hippocampal and parahippocampal subregions: Why do we need one and what are the key goals?

    PubMed

    Wisse, Laura E M; Daugherty, Ana M; Olsen, Rosanna K; Berron, David; Carr, Valerie A; Stark, Craig E L; Amaral, Robert S C; Amunts, Katrin; Augustinack, Jean C; Bender, Andrew R; Bernstein, Jeffrey D; Boccardi, Marina; Bocchetta, Martina; Burggren, Alison; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chupin, Marie; Ekstrom, Arne; de Flores, Robin; Insausti, Ricardo; Kanel, Prabesh; Kedo, Olga; Kennedy, Kristen M; Kerchner, Geoffrey A; LaRocque, Karen F; Liu, Xiuwen; Maass, Anne; Malykhin, Nicolai; Mueller, Susanne G; Ofen, Noa; Palombo, Daniela J; Parekh, Mansi B; Pluta, John B; Pruessner, Jens C; Raz, Naftali; Rodrigue, Karen M; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Shafer, Andrea T; Steve, Trevor A; Suthana, Nanthia; Wang, Lei; Winterburn, Julie L; Yassa, Michael A; Yushkevich, Paul A; la Joie, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    The advent of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled in vivo research in a variety of populations and diseases on the structure and function of hippocampal subfields and subdivisions of the parahippocampal gyrus. Because of the many extant and highly discrepant segmentation protocols, comparing results across studies is difficult. To overcome this barrier, the Hippocampal Subfields Group was formed as an international collaboration with the aim of developing a harmonized protocol for manual segmentation of hippocampal and parahippocampal subregions on high-resolution MRI. In this commentary we discuss the goals for this protocol and the associated key challenges involved in its development. These include differences among existing anatomical reference materials, striking the right balance between reliability of measurements and anatomical validity, and the development of a versatile protocol that can be adopted for the study of populations varying in age and health. The commentary outlines these key challenges, as well as the proposed solution of each, with concrete examples from our working plan. Finally, with two examples, we illustrate how the harmonized protocol, once completed, is expected to impact the field by producing measurements that are quantitatively comparable across labs and by facilitating the synthesis of findings across different studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Functional contributions and interactions between the human hippocampus and subregions of the striatum during arbitrary associative learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Stark, Craig E L

    2015-08-01

    The hippocampus and striatum are thought to have different functional roles in learning and memory. It is unknown under what experimental conditions their contributions are dissimilar or converge, and the extent to which they interact over the course of learning. In order to evaluate both the functional contributions of as well as the interactions between the human hippocampus and striatum, the present study used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and variations of a conditional visuomotor associative learning task that either taxed arbitrary associative learning (Experiment 1) or stimulus-response learning (Experiment 2). In the first experiment, we observed changes in activity in the hippocampus and anterior caudate that reflect differences between the two regions consistent with distinct computational principles. In the second experiment, we observed activity in the putamen that reflected content specific representations during the learning of arbitrary conditional visuomotor associations. In both experiments, the hippocampus and ventral striatum demonstrated dynamic functional coupling during the learning of new arbitrary associations, but not during retrieval of well-learned arbitrary associations using control variants of the tasks that did not preferentially tax one system versus the other. These findings suggest that both the hippocampus and subregions of the dorsal striatum contribute uniquely to the learning of arbitrary associations while the hippocampus and ventral striatum interact over the course of learning.

  1. A new subregion mesh method for the investigation of the elastic-plastic impact in flexible multibody systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Liu, Jin-Yang; Lu, Guang-Can

    2017-02-01

    Impact processes between flexible bodies often lead to local stress concentration and wave propagation of high frequency. Therefore, the modeling of flexible multibody systems involving impact should consider the local plastic deformation and the strict requirements of the spatial discretization. Owing to the nonlinearity of the stiffness matrix, the reduction of the element number is extremely important. For the contact-impact problem, since different regions have different requirements regarding the element size, a new subregion mesh method is proposed to reduce the number of the unnecessary elements. A dynamic model for flexible multibody systems with elastic-plastic contact impact is established based on a floating frame of reference formulation and complete Lagrange incremental nonlinear finite-element method to investigate the effect of the elastic-plastic deformation as well as spatial discretization. Experiments on the impact between two bodies are carried out to validate the correctness of the elastic-plastic model. The proposed formulation is applied to a slider-crank system with elastic-plastic impact.

  2. Music exposure improves spatial cognition by enhancing the BDNF level of dorsal hippocampal subregions in the developing rats.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yingshou; Chen, Wenxi; Wang, Yanran; Jing, Wei; Gao, Shan; Guo, Daqing; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-03-01

    Previous research has shown that dorsal hippocampus plays an important role in spatial memory process. Music exposure can enhance brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression level in dorsal hippocampus (DH) and thus enhance spatial cognition ability. But whether music experience may affect different subregions of DH in the same degree remains unclear. Here, we studied the effects of exposure to Mozart K.448 on learning behavior in developing rats using the classical Morris water maze task. The results showed that early music exposure could enhance significantly learning performance of the rats in the water maze test. Meanwhile, the BDNF/TrkB level of dorsal hippocampus CA3 (dCA3) and dentate gyrus (dDG) was significantly enhanced in rats exposed to Mozart music as compared to those without music exposure. In contrast, the BDNF/TrkB level of dorsal hippocampus CA1 (dCA1) was not affected. The results suggest that the spatial memory improvement by music exposure in rats may be associated with the enhanced BDNF/TrkB level of dCA3 and dDG.

  3. Immunolocalization of CaMKII and NR2B in hippocampal subregions of rat during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiya; Chang, Lirong; Song, Yizhi; Gao, Xianghong; Ling, Wei; Lu, Tao; Zhang, Yali; Wu, Yan

    2013-04-01

    Although the expression of CaMKII and synaptic-associated proteins has been widely studied, the temporospatial distribution of CaMKII and NMDAR subunits in different hippocampal subregions during postnatal development still lacks detailed information. In this study, we used immunofluorescent staining to assess CaMKII and NR2B expressions and the relationship between them in CA1, CA3, and DG of rat hippocampus on postnatal (P) days: P0, P4, P7, P10, P14, P21, P28, and P56. The results showed that from P0 to P56, CaMKII expression increased gradually, while NR2B expression decreased gradually, and the time points of their expression peak differed in CA1, CA3, and DG during postnatal development. Although the expression of CaMKII was negatively correlated with NR2B in CA1 and DG, the coexpression of CaMKII with NR2B existed in CA1, CA3, and DG during postnatal development. Interestingly, after P21, CaMKII expression and the coexpression of CaMKII with NR2B became obvious in the Stratum lucidum of CA3. The specific temporospatial distribution pattern of CaMKII with NR2B might be related to the different physiological functions during postnatal development. Discovery of the alteration of the relationship between expression of CaMKII and NMDAR subunits may be helpful for understanding mechanisms and therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Refined localization of twenty-one genes in subregion p13.1 of human chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Chelala, C; Imbeaud, S; Devignes, M D; Zoorob, R; Auffray, C

    2001-01-01

    In this report, we describe a refinement of the human transcript map of chromosome 1p13.1, a subregion undergoing many aberrations in various types of human cancers. Publicly available genetic linkage, radiation hybrid and physical maps, as well as cytogenetic and sequence data were used to establish the relative order and orientation of ten known intragenic markers. The complete sequence of genomic clones of the region, available at the Sanger Centre, provided the tool for further studies performed by BLAST analysis against all cDNA sequences registered in the Genexpress Index2. This allowed us to assign to subband 1p13.1 nine of the ten known genes, an additional member of the gene family of one of these genes and eleven new transcripts. The remaining known gene and one additional new transcript map at the 1p13.1 and 1p13.2 boundary. The corresponding genes may be responsible for disorders related to this region. The resulting transcript map of 1p13.1 is presented in the printed article with additional data available on a dedicated Web site at the address http://idefix.upr420.vjf.cnrs.fr/CARTO.

  5. Merge in the Human Brain: A Sub-Region Based Functional Investigation in the Left Pars Opercularis

    PubMed Central

    Zaccarella, Emiliano; Friederici, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Language is thought to represent one of the most complex cognitive functions in humans. Here we break down complexity of language to its most basic syntactic computation which hierarchically binds single words together to form larger phrases and sentences. So far, the neural implementation of this basic operation has only been inferred indirectly from studies investigating more complex linguistic phenomena. In the present sub-region based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we directly assessed the neuroanatomical nature of this process. Our results showed that syntactic phrases—compared to word-list sequences—corresponded to increased neural activity in the ventral-anterior portion of the left pars opercularis [Brodmann Area (BA) 44], whereas the adjacently located deep frontal operculum/anterior insula (FOP/aINS), a phylogenetically older and less specialized region, was found to be equally active for both conditions. Crucially, the functional activity of syntactic binding was confined to one out of five clusters proposed by a recent fine-grained sub-anatomical parcellation for BA 44, with consistency across individuals. Neuroanatomically, the present results call for a redefinition of BA 44 as a region with internal functional specializations. Neurocomputationally, they support the idea of invariance within BA 44 in the location of activation across participants for basic syntactic building processing. PMID:26640453

  6. Cloning and characterization of two overlapping genes in a subregion at 6q21 involved in replicative senescence and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Morelli, C; Magnanini, C; Mungall, A J; Negrini, M; Barbanti-Brodano, G

    2000-07-11

    Two new genes were cloned from region 6q21 and characterized. One gene, C6orf4-6, expresses three mRNA isoforms diverging at the 5' and 3' ends, and encodes two protein isoforms that differ by nine amino acids at their amino terminus. The second gene, C6UAS, is transcribed in the antisense orientation from the complementary strand of C6orf4-6. C6UAS overlaps the second exon of C6orf4, where the start codon of protein isoform 1 is located. C6UAS has no apparent ORF and most likely represents a structural RNA gene that is transcribed but not translated. This feature and the antisense polarity of transcription suggest that C6UAS could play a regulatory role on the expression of C6orf4, as indicated by a significant decrease of endogenous C6orf4 expression after transfection of C6UAS cDNA in human fibroblasts. Neither C6UAS nor C6orf4-6 genes show any homology with known human genes. The two genes were cloned from a subregion at 6q21 containing a replicative senescence gene, a tumor suppressor gene and a gene involved in hereditary schizophrenia. In addition, the common fragile site FRA6F was mapped in the same region. Cloning and characterization of C6orf4-6 and C6UAS may help to clarify the structure and the functional role of this important region.

  7. Perturbed connectivity of the amygdala and its subregions with the central executive and default mode networks in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Oathes, Desmond; Hush, Julia; Darnall, Beth; Charvat, Mylea; Mackey, Sean; Etkin, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Maladaptive responses to pain-related distress, such as pain catastrophizing, amplify the impairments associated with chronic pain. Many of these aspects of chronic pain are similar to affective distress in clinical anxiety disorders. In light of the role of the amygdala in pain and affective distress, disruption of amygdalar functional connectivity in anxiety states, and its implication in the response to noxious stimuli, we investigated amygdala functional connectivity in 17 patients with chronic low back pain and 17 healthy comparison subjects, with respect to normal targets of amygdala subregions (basolateral vs centromedial nuclei), and connectivity to large-scale cognitive-emotional networks, including the default mode network, central executive network, and salience network. We found that patients with chronic pain had exaggerated and abnormal amygdala connectivity with central executive network, which was most exaggerated in patients with the greatest pain catastrophizing. We also found that the normally basolateral-predominant amygdala connectivity to the default mode network was blunted in patients with chronic pain. Our results therefore highlight the importance of the amygdala and its network-level interaction with large-scale cognitive/affective cortical networks in chronic pain, and help link the neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive theories for pain with other clinical states of affective distress.

  8. Possible Source Populations of the White-backed Planthopper in the Greater Mekong Subregion Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-yong; Chu, Dong; Yin, Yan-qiong; Zhao, Xue-qing; Chen, Ai-dong; Khay, Sathya; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Kyaw, Mu Mu; Kongchuensin, Manita; Ngo, Vien Vinh; Nguyen, Chung Huy

    2016-01-01

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a serious pest of rice in Asia. However, little is known regarding the migration of this pest insect from the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) including Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and Vietnam, into China’s Yunnan Province. To determine the migration patterns of S. furcifera in the GMS and putative secondary immigration inside China’s Yunnan Province, we investigated the population genetic diversity, genetic structure, and gene flow of 42 S. furcifera populations across the six countries in the GMS by intensive sampling using mitochondrial genes. Our study revealed the potential emigration of S. furcifera from the GMS consists primarily of three major sources: 1) the S. furcifera from Laos and Vietnam migrate into south and southeast Yunnan, where they proceed to further migrate into northeast and central Yunnan; 2) the S. furcifera from Myanmar migrate into west Yunnan, and/or central Yunnan, and/or northeast Yunnan; 3) the S. furcifera from Cambodia migrate into southwest Yunnan, where the populations can migrate further into central Yunnan. The new data will not only be helpful in predicting population dynamics of the planthopper, but will also aid in regional control programs for this economically important pest insect. PMID:27991532

  9. Disruption of the direct perforant path input to the CA1 subregion of the dorsal hippocampus interferes with spatial working memory and novelty detection.

    PubMed

    Vago, David R; Kesner, Raymond P

    2008-06-03

    Subregional analyses of the hippocampus suggest CA1-dependent memory processes rely heavily upon interactions between the CA1 subregion and entorhinal cortex. There is evidence that the direct perforant path (pp) projection to CA1 is selectively modulated by dopamine while having little to no effect on the Schaffer collateral (SC) projection to CA1. The current study takes advantage of this pharmacological dissociation to demonstrate that local infusion of the non-selective dopamine agonist, apomorphine (10, 15 microg), into the CA1 subregion of awake animals produces impairments in working memory at intermediate (5 min), but not short-term (10 s) delays within a delayed non-match-to-place task on a radial arm maze. Sustained impairments were also found in a novel context with similar object-space relationships. Infusion of apomorphine into CA1 is also shown here to produce deficits in spatial, but not non-spatial novelty detection within an object exploration paradigm. In contrast, apomorphine produces no behavioral deficits when infused into the CA3 subregion or overlying cortex. These behavioral studies are supported by previous electrophysiological data that demonstrate local infusion of the same doses of apomorphine significantly modifies evoked responses in the distal dendrites of CA1 following angular bundle stimulation, but produces no significant effects in the proximal dendritic layer following stimulation of the SC. These results support a modulatory role for dopamine in EC-CA1, but not CA3-CA1 circuitry, and suggest the possibility of a fundamental role for EC-CA1 synaptic transmission in terms of detection of spatial novelty, and intermediate-term, but not short-term spatial working memory or object-novelty detection.

  10. The role of the direct perforant path input to the CA1 subregion of the dorsal hippocampus in memory retention and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Vago, David R; Bevan, Adam; Kesner, Raymond P

    2007-01-01

    Subregional analyses of the hippocampus have suggested a selective role for the CA1 subregion in intermediate/long-term spatial memory and consolidation, but not short-term acquisition or encoding processes. It remains unclear how the direct cortical projection to CA1 via the perforant path (pp) contributes to these CA1-dependent processes. It has been suggested that dopamine selectively modulates the pp projection to CA1 while having little to no effect on the Schaffer collateral (SC) projection to CA1. This series of behavioral and electrophysiological experiments takes advantage of this pharmacological dissociation to demonstrate that the direct pp inputs to CA1 are critical in CA1-dependent intermediate-term retention and retrieval function. Here we demonstrate that local infusion of the nonselective dopamine agonist, apomorphine (10, 15 microg), into the CA1 subregion of awake animals produces impairments in between-day retention and retrieval, sparing within-day encoding of a modified Hebb-Williams maze and contextual conditioning of fear. In contrast, apomorphine produces no deficits when infused into the CA3 subregion. To complement the behavioral analyses, electrophysiological data was collected. In anesthetized animals, local infusion of the same doses of apomorphine significantly modifies evoked responses in the distal dendrites of CA1 following angular bundle stimulation, but produces no significant effects in the more proximal dendritic layer following stimulation of the SC. These results support a modulatory role for dopamine in the EC-CA1, but not CA3-CA1 circuitry, and suggest the possibility of a more fundamental role for EC-CA1 synaptic transmission in terms of intermediate-term, but not short-term spatial memory.

  11. In vivo characterization of basal amino acid levels in subregions of the rat nucleus accumbens: effect of a dopamine D(3)/D(2) agonist.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, P; Shilliam, C S; Hughes, Z A; Shah, A J; Roberts, J C; Atkins, A R; Hunter, A J; Heidbreder, C A

    2001-09-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that two subdivisions of the nucleus accumbens, the dorsolateral core and the ventromedial shell can be distinguished by morphological, immunohistochemical and chemoarchitectural differences. In the present study, we measured basal levels of amino acids in microdialysates from both the shell and core subterritories of the nucleus accumbens in freely moving rats using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The effect of the dopamine D(3)/D(2) receptor agonist quinelorane (30 microg/kg s.c.) was then investigated in both subregions. With the exception of glutamate, histidine, and serine, which showed similar levels in both subterritories, alanine, arginine, aspartate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamine, and tyrosine were significantly higher in the shell compared with the core. In contrast, taurine levels were significantly lower in the shell than in the core. A particularly striking difference across subregions of the nucleus accumbens was observed for basal GABA levels with a shell/core ratio of 18.5. Among all the amino acids investigated in the present study, quinelorane selectively decreased dialysate GABA levels in the core subregion of the nucleus accumbens. The results of the present study point to specific profiles of both shell and core in terms of: (1) basal chemical neuroanatomical markers for amino acids; and (2) GABAergic response to the DA D(3)/D(2) agonist quinelorane.

  12. Extended gene map reveals tripartite motif, C-type lectin, and Ig superfamily type genes within a subregion of the chicken MHC-B affecting infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Shiina, Takashi; Briles, W Elwood; Goto, Ronald M; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Yanagiya, Kazuyo; Shimizu, Sayoko; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Miller, Marcia M

    2007-06-01

    MHC haplotypes have a remarkable influence on whether tumors form following infection of chickens with oncogenic Marek's disease herpesvirus. Although resistance to tumor formation has been mapped to a subregion of the chicken MHC-B region, the gene or genes responsible have not been identified. A full gene map of the subregion has been lacking. We have expanded the MHC-B region gene map beyond the 92-kb core previously reported for another haplotype revealing the presence of 46 genes within 242 kb in the Red Jungle Fowl haplotype. Even though MHC-B is structured differently, many of the newly revealed genes are related to loci typical of the MHC in other species. Other MHC-B loci are homologs of genes found within MHC paralogous regions (regions thought to be derived from ancient duplications of a primordial immune defense complex where genes have undergone differential silencing over evolutionary time) on other chromosomes. Still others are similar to genes that define the NK complex in mammals. Many of the newly mapped genes display allelic variability and fall within the MHC-B subregion previously shown to affect the formation of Marek's disease tumors and hence are candidates for genes conferring resistance.

  13. Enhancing Decision Support For Climate Adaptation At Sub-Regional To Local Scales Through Collaborative And Interdisciplinary Global Change Research And Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.

    2012-12-01

    The science needed to inform society's response to global environmental change is increasingly demanded at sub-regional to local scales, placing a greater burden on the science community to respond to a wide variety of information needs. Oftentimes, communication barriers prevent even the basic articulation of information needs between the user and science research communities, and furthermore there is frequently a mismatch between available scientific talent within a sub region and the scientific resources demanded to respond appropriately to user inquiries. As a result, innovative approaches to the delivery of scientific information in response to user interests and needs at sub-regional to local levels is required. Here, the authors highlight lessons of three examples of delivering usable scientific information within a mountain watershed on questions relating to 1) local biomass energy production; 2) stream and forest health; and 3) watershed scale climate impacts assessment. We report that common elements to the success of these efforts include a) building relationships with both a broad range of disciplines within the science community as well as a wide range of stakeholder groups locally, b) collecting and translating existing monitoring data and filling monitoring gaps, c) gathering interdisciplinary teams to help answer difficult local scale questions not previously treated in literature, and d) communicating results through mechanisms such as stakeholder collaboratives, community forums, and innovative education and outreach products. We find that these components help communities at local to sub-regional scales identify vulnerabilities and adapative strategies.

  14. Conceptual object-oriented design

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, M.A.

    1990-10-01

    Conceptual object-oriented design (COOD) is a methodology that is being used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to study, plan, specify, and document high-level solutions to large-scale information processing problems. COOD embodies aspects of object-oriented program design philosophy (which is being applied to the implementation design of software) to provide enhanced tools and techniques for conceptual design. COOD is targeted at the phase of software development following requirements analysis and prior to implementation or detailed design. This step is necessary, particularly for large-scale information processing systems to achieve the following: allow designers to conceptually work out solutions to information processing problems where innovative thinking is required, allow a structured environment in which to capture design products, and provide a global view of the conceptual solution in an understandable form to the implementors of the solution. This will facilitate their detailed design efforts. The product of COOD is a conceptual design specification.'' This specification is delivered to an implementation team to assist the detailed design process, yet is not a software specification in and of itself.

  15. Conceptual Metaphor and the Study of Conceptual Change: Research Synthesis and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Tamer G.

    2015-01-01

    Many of the goals of research on conceptual metaphor in science education overlap with the goals of research on conceptual change. The relevance of a conceptual metaphor perspective to the study of conceptual change has already been discussed. However, a substantial body of literature on conceptual metaphor in science education has now emerged.…

  16. Conceptual models of information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual information processing issues are examined. Human information processing is defined as an active cognitive process that is analogous to a system. It is the flow and transformation of information within a human. The human is viewed as an active information seeker who is constantly receiving, processing, and acting upon the surrounding environmental stimuli. Human information processing models are conceptual representations of cognitive behaviors. Models of information processing are useful in representing the different theoretical positions and in attempting to define the limits and capabilities of human memory. It is concluded that an understanding of conceptual human information processing models and their applications to systems design leads to a better human factors approach.

  17. Psychiatric disorders: a conceptual taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Zachar, Peter; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2007-04-01

    This article summarizes six conceptual dimensions that underlie common assumptions about what counts as an adequate category of psychiatric disorder. These dimensions are 1) causalism-descriptivism, 2) essentialism-nominalism, 3) objectivism-evaluativism, 4) internalism-externalism, 5) entities-agents, and 6) categories-continua. Four different versions of the medical model are described and compared with respect to these dimensions. The medical models vary in several ways, but all can be considered "essentialistic." As a counter to the essentialist homogeneity among the medical models, two nominalist analyses of psychiatric classification are reviewed. In order to fill out the space defined by the conceptual dimensions, two alternatives to medical model approaches are also described. After making some suggestions about where DSM-V might best be aligned with respect to the conceptual dimensions, the authors review the distinction between empirical and nonempirical aspects of classification--and argue that nonempirical aspects of classification are legitimate and necessary.

  18. Setup Uncertainties of Anatomical Sub-Regions in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients After Offline CBCT Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kranen, Simon van; Beek, Suzanne van; Rasch, Coen; Herk, Marcel van; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To quantify local geometrical uncertainties in anatomical sub-regions during radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Local setup accuracy was analyzed for 38 patients, who had received intensity-modulated radiotherapy and were regularly scanned during treatment with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for offline patient setup correction. In addition to the clinically used large region of interest (ROI), we defined eight ROIs in the planning CT that contained rigid bony structures: the mandible, larynx, jugular notch, occiput bone, vertebrae C1-C3, C3-C5, and C5-C7, and the vertebrae caudal of C7. By local rigid registration to successive CBCT scans, the local setup accuracy of each ROI was determined and compared with the overall setup error assessed with the large ROI. Deformations were distinguished from rigid body movements by expressing movement relative to a reference ROI (vertebrae C1-C3). Results: The offline patient setup correction protocol using the large ROI resulted in residual systematic errors (1 SD) within 1.2 mm and random errors within 1.5 mm for each direction. Local setup errors were larger, ranging from 1.1 to 3.4 mm (systematic) and 1.3 to 2.5 mm (random). Systematic deformations ranged from 0.4 mm near the reference C1-C3 to 3.8 mm for the larynx. Random deformations ranged from 0.5 to 3.6 mm. Conclusion: Head-and-neck cancer patients show considerable local setup variations, exceeding residual global patient setup uncertainty in an offline correction protocol. Current planning target volume margins may be inadequate to account for these uncertainties. We propose registration of multiple ROIs to drive correction protocols and adaptive radiotherapy to reduce the impact of local setup variations.

  19. Subregional differences in the generation of fast network oscillations in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Glykos, Vasileios; Whittington, Miles A; LeBeau, Fiona E N

    2015-01-01

    Fast network oscillations in the beta (20–30 Hz) and low gamma (30–80 Hz) range underlie higher cognitive functions associated with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) including attention and working memory. Using a combination of kainate (KA, 200 nm) and the cholinergic agonist carbachol (Cb, 10 μm) fast network oscillations, in the beta frequency range, were evoked in the rat mPFC in vitro. Oscillations were elicited in the prelimbic (PrL), infralimbic (IL) and the dorsopeduncular (DP) cortex, with the largest oscillations observed in DP cortex. Oscillations in both the PrL and DP were dependent, with slightly different sensitivities, on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and kainate receptors, but only oscillations in the DP were significantly reduced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade. Intracellular recordings showed that 9/20 regular spiking (RS) cells in the PrL exhibited a notable cAMP-dependent hyperpolarisation activated current (Ih) in contrast to 16/17 in the DP cortex. Extracellular single unit recordings showed that the majority of cells in the PrL, and DP regions had interspike firing frequencies (IFFs) at beta (20–30 Hz) frequencies and fired at the peak negativity of the field oscillation. Recordings in DP revealed presumed inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) that were larger in amplitude and more rhythmic than those in the PrL region. Our data suggest that each PFC subregion may be capable of generating distinct patterns of network activity with different cell types involved. Variation in the properties of oscillations evoked in the PrL and DP probably reflects the distinct functional roles of these different PFC regions. PMID:26041504

  20. Genetic Diversity and Lack of Artemisinin Selection Signature on the Plasmodium falciparum ATP6 in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Miao; Wang, Zenglei; Yang, Zhaoqing; Yuan, Lili; Parker, Daniel M.; Putaporntip, Chaturong; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Xangsayarath, Phonepadith; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Moji, Hazuhiko; Dinh Tuong, Trinh; Abe, Tomoko; Nakazawa, Shusuke; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Yan, Guiyun; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Mu, Jianbing; Su, Xin-zhuan; Kaneko, Osamu; Cui, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    The recent detection of clinical Artemisinin (ART) resistance manifested as delayed parasite clearance in the Cambodia-Thailand border area raises a serious concern. The mechanism of ART resistance is not clear; but the P. falciparum sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (PfSERCA or PfATP6) has been speculated to be the target of ARTs and thus a potential marker for ART resistance. Here we amplified and sequenced pfatp6 gene (∼3.6 Kb) in 213 samples collected after 2005 from the Greater Mekong Subregion, where ART drugs have been used extensively in the past. A total of 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including 8 newly found in this study and 13 nonsynonymous, were identified. However, these mutations were either uncommon or also present in other geographical regions with limited ART use. None of the mutations were suggestive of directional selection by ARTs. We further analyzed pfatp6 from a worldwide collection of 862 P. falciparum isolates in 19 populations from Asia, Africa, South America and Oceania, which include samples from regions prior to and after deployments ART drugs. A total of 71 SNPs were identified, resulting in 106 nucleotide haplotypes. Similarly, many of the mutations were continent-specific and present at frequencies below 5%. The most predominant and perhaps the ancestral haplotype occurred in 441 samples and was present in 16 populations from Asia, Africa, and Oceania. The 3D7 haplotype found in 54 samples was the second most common haplotype and present in nine populations from all four continents. Assessment of the selection strength on pfatp6 in the 19 parasite populations found that pfatp6 in most of these populations was under purifying selection with an average dN/dS ratio of 0.333. Molecular evolution analyses did not detect significant departures from neutrality in pfatp6 for most populations, challenging the suitability of this gene as a marker for monitoring ART resistance. PMID:23555629

  1. Fine-mapping markers of lung cancer susceptibility in a sub-region of chromosome 19q13.3 among Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jiaoyang; Wang, Huiwen; Vogel, Ulla; Wang, Chunhong; Ma, Yegang; Hou, Wei; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Li; Li, Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium-mapping studies in Caucasians have indicated anassociation of Chr19q13.3 sub-region spanning ERCC2, PPP1R13L, CD3EAP and ERCC1 with several cancers. To refine the region of association and identify potential causal variations among Asians, we performed a fine-mapping study using 32 (39) SNPs in a 71.654kb sub-region. The study included 384 Chinese lung cancer cases and 387 controls. Seven closely situated SNPs showed significant associations with lung cancer risk in five different genetic models of single-locus associations (adjusted for smoking duration). These were PPP1R13L rs1970764 [OR (95% CI) = 1.58 (1.09-2.29), P = 0.014] in a recessive model and PPP1R13L rs1005165 [OR (95% CI) = 1.25 (1.01-1.54), P = 0.036], CD3EAP rs967591 [OR (95% CI) = 1.40 (1.13-1.75), P = 0.0023], rs735482 [OR (95% CI) = 1.29 (1.03-1.61), P = 0.026], rs1007616 [OR (95% CI) = 0.78 (0.61-1.00), P = 0.046], and rs62109563 [OR (95% CI) = 1.28 (1.03-1.59), P = 0.024] in a log-additive model and ERCC1 rs3212965 [OR (95% CI) = 0.70 (0.52-0.94), P = 0.019] in an over-dominant model. Six-haplotype blocks were determined in the sub-region. Using an alternative approach where we performed a haplotype analysis of all significant polymorphisms, rs1970764 was found to be most consistently associated with lung cancer risk. The combined data suggest that the sub-region with the strongest association to lung cancer susceptibility might locate to the 23.173kb from PPP1R13L intron8 rs1970764 to rs62109563 3′ to CD3EAP. Limited risk loci and span on lung cancer in this sub-region are initially defined among Asians. PMID:27183913

  2. Indexes of severity: conceptual development.

    PubMed Central

    Krischer, J P

    1979-01-01

    A discussion of severity index development is presented in relation to conceptual issues in index definition, analytic issues in index formulation and validation issues in index application. The CHOP index is discussed along with six severity indexes described in an earlier paper dealing with underlying concepts to illustrate the material presented. Replies are provided to specific questions raised in an accompanying paper discussing the Injury Severity Score. This conceptual material is presented to provide a foundation for severity index development, to suggest criteria to be used in their formulation and testing, and to identify analyses that can lead to the successful selection and application of an index for a defined purpose. PMID:468553

  3. Conceptualizing Conceptual Teaching: Practical Strategies for Large Instrumental Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Half a century ago, calls had already been made for instrumental ensemble directors to move beyond performance to include the teaching of musical concepts in the rehearsal hall. Relatively recent research, however, suggests that conceptual teaching remains relatively infrequent during rehearsals. Given the importance of teaching for long-term…

  4. Compact Photon Source Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Degtyarenko, Pavel V.; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2016-04-01

    We describe options for the production of an intense photon beam at the CEBAF Hall D Tagger facility, needed for creating a high-quality secondary K 0 L delivered to the Hall D detector. The conceptual design for the Compact Photon Source apparatus is presented.

  5. Mental Computation and Conceptual Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blote, Anke W.; Klein, Anton S.; Beishuizen, Meindert

    2000-01-01

    Assessed the strategic flexibility of students in mental arithmetic up to the number 100. Results from 60 Dutch second graders show that students' preference for certain mathematical procedures depend on the number characteristics of the problems, indicating that the students had a good conceptual understanding of numbers and procedures. Actual…

  6. Epistemic Motivation and Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Robert A.; And Others

    While the conceptual change model of learning has contributed much to our understanding of how children learn science, recent criticisms of the model point out its lack of attention to motivational issues. This paper examines one such motivational construct of importance to the model: epistemic motivation. After a description of the construct, we…

  7. Conceptualizing the World of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, William H.; Bailey, Larry J.

    1973-01-01

    The conceptual model described here has resulted from the need to organize a body of knowledge related to the world of work which would enable curriculum developers to prepare accurate, realistic instructional materials. The world of work is described by applying Malinowski's scientific study of the structural components of culture. (Author/DS)

  8. The Theory of Conceptual Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergnaud, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    The theory of conceptual fields is a developmental theory. It has two aims: (1) to describe and analyse the progressive complexity, on a long- and medium-term basis, of the mathematical competences that students develop inside and outside school, and (2) to establish better connections between the operational form of knowledge, which consists in…

  9. Conceptual Knowledge of Decimal Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lortie-Forgues, Hugues; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    In two studies (N's = 55 and 54), we examined a basic form of conceptual understanding of rational number arithmetic, the direction of effect of decimal arithmetic operations, at a level of detail useful for informing instruction. Middle school students were presented tasks examining knowledge of the direction of effects (e.g., "True or…

  10. A Taxonomy for Conceptualizing Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seda, E. Elliott

    This paper details the development of a taxonomy for conceptualizing teaching. This taxonomy is presented as a means to help educators understand and interpret what it is they do and continue in the process of searching and understanding. The purpose of developing a taxonomy, the basis for the dimensions--or subject matter--for the taxonomy, and…

  11. Many Mansions: Conceptualizing Translingual Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmetdinova, Alsu; Burdick, Jake

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a vision for fostering multilingualism in schools that extends the notion of translanguaging to include the realm of multilingual curriculum theorizing. We locate our analysis at the intersection of multicultural education, multilingual education, and curriculum studies in order to conceptualize language, culture, and…

  12. MINIMARS conceptual design: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1986-09-01

    This volume contains the following sections: (1) fueling systems; (2) blanket; (3) alternative blanket concepts; (4) halo scraper/direct converter system study and final conceptual design; (5) heat-transport and power-conversion systems; (6) tritium systems; (7) minimars air detritiation system; (8) appropriate radiological safety design criteria; and (9) cost estimate. (MOW)

  13. Teacher Turnover: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Garcia, Cynthia; Slate, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we reviewed the available literature concerning teacher turnover. The seriousness of this issue was addressed as cause for concern is clearly present. Issues we examined in this conceptual analysis were the federal government's role in public education, the No Child Left Behind Act, teacher turnover, teacher retention, teacher…

  14. Conceptual Knowledge in Introductory Calculus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paul; Mitchelmore, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Responses to rate-of-change problems were collected during and after 24 hours of conceptual calculus instruction given to first-year university students. Analysis revealed three categories of error in which variables were treated as symbols to be manipulated rather than quantities to be related. Contains test questions. (Author/MKR)

  15. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S.; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified…

  16. A Behavioral Conceptualization of Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jonathan C.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Raetz, Paige B.

    2008-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 1 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of aphasia is also possible. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes a…

  17. The conceptual representation of number.

    PubMed

    Patson, Nikole D; George, Gerret; Warren, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    The experiments reported here investigated the format of plural conceptual representations using a picture-matching paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences that ended with a singular noun phrase (NP), a two-quantified plural NP, or a plural definite description [The parents handed the child the (two) crayon/s] and then saw a picture of one or multiple referents for the NP. Judgement times to confirm that there was overlap between the pictured object(s) and a noun in the sentence showed an interaction between the NP's number and NP-picture match. For singular NPs and two-quantified NPs, participants were reliably faster to respond "yes" to a picture that had the exact number of objects specified by the NP, but for plural definite descriptions, the effect of the number of pictured items was not reliable. Experiment 2 extended this finding to conceptual plurals. Participants read sentences biased toward either a collective (Together the men carried a box-box is interpreted as singular) or distributed (Each of the men carried a box-box is likely interpreted as plural) reading. Experiment 2 showed the same interaction between NP conceptual plurality and NP-picture match as that in Experiment 1. These results suggest that: (a) our default conceptual representations for plural definite descriptions are no more similar to images of small sets of multiple items than to images of singular items; and (b) the difference between singular and plural conceptual representations is unlikely to be simply the presence or absence of a plural feature. The results are consistent with theories in which plurality is unmarked, such that some plural NPs can refer to singular referents [e.g., Sauerland, U., Anderssen, J., & Yatsushiro, J. (2005). The plural is semantically unmarked. In S. Kepser & M. Reis (Eds.), Linguistic evidence (pp. 413-434). Berlin: de Gruyter].

  18. An analysis of health system resources in relation to pandemic response capacity in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is increasing perception that countries cannot work in isolation to militate against the threat of pandemic influenza. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) of Asia, high socio-economic diversity and fertile conditions for the emergence and spread of infectious diseases underscore the importance of transnational cooperation. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution and inequalities can help determine the need for, and inform decisions regarding, resource sharing and mobilisation. Methods We collected data on healthcare resources deemed important for responding to pandemic influenza through surveys of hospitals and district health offices across four countries of the GMS (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, Vietnam). Focusing on four key resource types (oseltamivir, hospital beds, ventilators, and health workers), we mapped and analysed resource distributions at province level to identify relative shortages, mismatches, and clustering of resources. We analysed inequalities in resource distribution using the Gini coefficient and Theil index. Results Three quarters of the Cambodian population and two thirds of the Laotian population live in relatively underserved provinces (those with resource densities in the lowest quintile across the region) in relation to health workers, ventilators, and hospital beds. More than a quarter of the Thai population is relatively underserved for health workers and oseltamivir. Approximately one fifth of the Vietnamese population is underserved for beds and ventilators. All Cambodian provinces are underserved for at least one resource. In Lao PDR, 11 percent of the population is underserved by all four resource items. Of the four resources, ventilators and oseltamivir were most unequally distributed. Cambodia generally showed higher levels of inequalities in resource distribution compared to other countries. Decomposition of the Theil index suggests that inequalities result principally from differences within, rather

  19. Introductory Students, Conceptual Understanding, and Algorithmic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushkin, David B.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the distinction between conceptual and algorithmic learning and the clarification of what is meant by a second-tier student. Explores why novice learners in chemistry and physics are able to apply algorithms without significant conceptual understanding. (DDR)

  20. Conceptual graphs for semantics and knowledge processing

    SciTech Connect

    Fargues, J.; Landau, M.C.; Dugourd, A.; Catach, L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the representational and algorithmic power of the conceptual graph model for natural language semantics and knowledge processing. Also described is a Prolog-like resolution method for conceptual graphs, which allows to perform deduction on very large semantic domains. The interpreter developed is similar to a Prolog interpreter in which the terms are any conceptual graphs and in which the unification algorithm is replaced by a specialized algorithm for conceptual graphs.

  1. Conceptual Complexity and Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagaseth, Jon A.

    This presentation focuses on a theory of personality development, conceptual systems theory, as a possible resource for the counselor assisting clients in stress. It describes the results of a factor analysis of four measures of conceptual structure which suggested that the construct of conceptual complexity is different from the construct of…

  2. Strategies for Teaching Healthy Behavior Conceptual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloeppel, Tiffany; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2012-01-01

    By definition, conceptual knowledge is rich in relationships and understanding the kind of knowledge that may be transferred between situations. Despite the lack of importance that Conceptual Physical Education has been given in previous physical education reform efforts, research findings have shown that Conceptual Physical Education along with…

  3. Conceptual Level and Teachers' Written Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Susan L.; Yarger, Sam J.

    Teachers devise lesson plans based on one of two "conceptual levels" (degree and kind of materials, diagnosis, student background research, and classroom and time management). Higher conceptual level (HCL) teachers emphasize diagnosis and student characteristics in their plans, while lower conceptual level (LCL) teachers give special consideration…

  4. Using Knowledge Building to Foster Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chwee Beng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hong, Huang-Yao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have been many exchanges of perspectives and debates in the field of conceptual change. Most of the classical views on conceptual change have been criticized, and there have been recent discussions around bridging the cognitive and socio-cultural approaches in the research on conceptual change. On the other hand, researchers…

  5. On the Origins of the Conceptual System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandler, Jean M.

    2007-01-01

    Contrary to the conventional view of infancy as a sensorimotor period without conceptual thought, research over the past 20 years has shown that preverbal infants are capable of at least 3 conceptual functions: forming concepts with which to interpret the world, recall of the past, and engaging in conceptual generalization. Research is described…

  6. Termitotrox cupido sp. n. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae), a new termitophilous scarab species from the Indo-Chinese subregion, associated with Hypotermes termites

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Termitotrox cupido sp. n. is described from Cambodia and represents the first discovery of Termitotrox Reichensperger, 1915 from the Indo-Chinese subregion of the Oriental region. The type series was collected from fungus garden cells of Hypotermes makhamensis Ahmad, 1965 (Isoptera, Termitidae, Macrotermitinae). Hypotermes Holmgren, 1917 was previously an unknown host of Termitotrox species. The new species is readily distinguished from all known congeners by having wing-shaped trichomes on the elytra and is most probably the world’s smallest scarab, at 1.2 mm in length. PMID:23378817

  7. Correlation Between Radiation Dose to {sup 18}F-FDG-PET Defined Active Bone Marrow Subregions and Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Cervical Cancer Patients Treated With Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Brent S.; Liang Yun; Lau, Steven K.; Jensen, Lindsay G.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Hoh, Carl K.; Mell, Loren K.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that radiation dose to {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET)-defined active bone marrow (BM{sub ACT}) subregions is correlated with hematologic toxicity in cervical cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The conditions of 26 women with cervical cancer who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG-PET before treatment with concurrent cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy were analyzed. BM{sub ACT} was defined as the subregion of total bone marrow (BM{sub TOT}) with a standardized uptake value (SUV) equal to or above the mean for that individual. Inactive bone marrow (BM{sub INACT}) was defined as BM{sub TOT} - BM{sub ACT}. Generalized linear modeling was used to test the correlation between BM{sub ACT} and BM{sub INACT} dose-volume metrics and hematologic nadirs, particularly white blood cell count (WBC) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC). Results: Increased BM{sub ACT} mean dose was significantly associated with decreased log(WBC) nadir ({beta} = -0.04; 95% CI, -0.07to -0.01; p = 0.009), decreased log(ANC) nadir ({beta} = -0.05; 95% CI, -0.08 to -0.02; p = 0.006), decreased hemoglobin nadir ({beta} = -0.16; 95% CI, -0.27 to -0.05; p = 0.010), and decreased platelet nadir ({beta} = -6.16; 95% CI, -9.37 to -2.96; p < 0.001). By contrast, there was no association between BM{sub INACT} mean dose and log(WBC) nadir ({beta} = -0.01; 95% CI, -0.06 to 0.05; p = 0.84), log(ANC) nadir ({beta} = -0.03; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.04; p = 0.40), hemoglobin nadir ({beta} = -0.09; 95% CI, -0.31 to 0.14; p = 0.452), or platelet nadir ({beta} = -3.47; 95% CI, -10.44 to 3.50; p = 0.339). Conclusions: Irradiation of BM subregions with higher {sup 18}F-FDG-PET activity was associated with hematologic toxicity, supporting the hypothesis that reducing dose to BM{sub ACT} subregions could mitigate hematologic toxicity. Future investigation should seek to confirm these findings and to identify

  8. SU-F-BRB-01: How Effective Is Abdominal Compression at Reducing Lung Motion? An Analysis Using Deformable Image Registration Within Different Sub-Regions of the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Paradiso, D; Pearce, A; Leszczynski, K; Oliver, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of employing abdominal compression (AC) in reducing motion for the target region and sub-regions of the lung as part of the planning process for radiation therapy. Methods: Fourteen patients with early lung cancer were scanned with 4DCT and it was determined that target motion exceeded our institutional limit of > 8 mm motion and received a repeat 4DCT with AC. For each 4DCT, deformable image registration (DIR) was used to map the max inhale to the max exhale phase to determine the deformation vector fields (DVF). DIR was performed with Morphons and Demons algorithms. The mean DVF was used to represent that sub-region for each patient. The magnitudes of the mean DVF were quantified for the target and 12 sub-regions in the AP, LR SI directions. The sub-regions were contoured on each lung as (add prefix R or L for lung): Upper-Anterior (UA), Upper-Posterior (UP), Mid-Anterior (MA), Mid-Posterior (MP), Lower-Anterior (LA) and Lower-Posterior (LP). Results: The min/max SI motion for the target on the uncompressed 4DCT was 8mm/24.5 mm. The magnitude of decrease in SI was greatest in the RLP region (3.7±4.0mm) followed by target region (3.3±2.2mm) and finally the LLP region (3.0±3.5mm). The magnitude of decrease in 3D vector followed the same trend; RLP (3.5±2.2mm) then GTV (3.5±2.6mm) then LLP (2.7±3.8mm). 79% of the cases had a SI decrease of >12.5%, 43% had a SI decrease of >25% and 21% had a SI decrease of >50% as compared to the motion on the uncompressed 4DCT. Conclusion: AC is useful in reducing motion with the largest decreases observed in the lower posterior regions of the lungs. However, it should be noted that AC will not greatly decrease motion for all cases as 21% of cases did not reduce SI motion more than 12.5% of initial motion.

  9. Conceptual Models for Search Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, D. G.; Efthimiadis, E. N.

    Search engines have entered popular culture. They touch people in diverse private and public settings and thus heighten the importance of such important social matters as information privacy and control, censorship, and equitable access. To fully benefit from search engines and to participate in debate about their merits, people necessarily appeal to their understandings for how they function. In this chapter we examine the conceptual understandings that people have of search engines by performing a content analysis on the sketches that 200 undergraduate and graduate students drew when asked to draw a sketch of how a search engine works. Analysis of the sketches reveals a diverse range of conceptual approaches, metaphors, representations, and misconceptions. On the whole, the conceptual models articulated by these students are simplistic. However, students with higher levels of academic achievement sketched more complete models. This research calls attention to the importance of improving students' technical knowledge of how search engines work so they can be better equipped to develop and advocate policies for how search engines should be embedded in, and restricted from, various private and public information settings.

  10. Conceptual Model of the Geometry and Physics of Water Flow in a Fractured Basalt Vadose Zone: Box Canyon Site, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Faybishenko, Boris; Doughty, Christine; Steiger, Michael; Long, Jane C.S.; Wood, Tom; Jacobsen, Janet; Lore, Jason; Zawislanski, Peter T.

    1999-03-01

    A conceptual model of the geometry and physics of water flow in a fractured basalt vadose zone was developed based on the results of lithological studies and a series of ponded infiltration tests conducted at the Box Canyon site near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. The infiltration tests included one two-week test in 1996, three two-day tests in 1997, and one four-day test in 1997. For the various tests, initial infiltration rates ranged from 4.1 cm/day to 17.7 cm/day and then decreased with time, presumably due to mechanical or microbiological clogging of fractures and vesicularbasalt in the near-surface zone, as well as the effect of entrapped air. The subsurface moisture redistribution was monitored with tensiometers, neutron logging, time domain reflectrometry and ground penetrating radar. A conservative tracer, potassium bromide, was added to the pond water at a concentration of 3 g/L to monitor water flow with electrical resistivity probes and water sampling. Analysis of the data showed evidence of preferential flow rather than the propagation of a uniform wetting front. We propose a conceptual model describing the saturation-desaturation behavior of the basalt, in which rapid preferential flow through vertical column-bounding fractures occurs from the surface to the base of the basalt flow. After the rapid wetting of column-bounding fractures, a gradual wetting of other fractures and the basalt matrix occurs. Fractures that are saturated early in the tests may become desaturated thereafter, which we attribute to the redistribution of water between fractures and matrix. Lateral movement of water was also observed within a horizontal central fracture zone and rubble zone, which could have important implications for contaminant accumulation at contaminated sites.

  11. Brain mediators of cardiovascular responses to social threat, Part I: Reciprocal dorsal and ventral sub-regions of the medial prefrontal cortex and heart-rate reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Tor D.; Waugh, Christian E.; Lindquist, Martin; Noll, Doug C.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Taylor, Stephan F.

    2009-01-01

    Social threat is a key component of mental “stress” and a potent generator of negative emotions and physiological responses in the body. How the human brain processes social context and drives peripheral physiology, however, is relatively poorly understood. Human neuroimaging and animal studies implicate the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), though this heterogeneous region is likely to contain multiple sub-regions with diverse relationships with physiological reactivity and regulation. We used fMRI combined with a novel multi-level path analysis approach to identify brain mediators of the effects of a public speech preparation task (social evaluative threat, SET) on heart rate (HR). This model provides tests of functional pathways linking experimentally manipulated threat, regional fMRI activity, and physiological output, both across time (within person) and across individuals (between persons). It thus integrates time series connectivity and individual difference analyses in the same path model. The results provide evidence for two dissociable, inversely coupled sub-regions of MPFC that independently mediated HR responses. SET caused activity increases in a more dorsal pregenual cingulate region, whose activity was coupled with HR increases. Conversely, SET caused activity decreases in a right ventromedial/medial orbital region, which were coupled with HR increases. Individual differences in coupling strength in each pathway independently predicted individual differences in HR reactivity. These results underscore both the importance and heterogeneity of MPFC in generating physiological responses to threat. PMID:19465137

  12. Neural correlates of specific and general Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer within human amygdalar subregions: a high-resolution fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Prévost, Charlotte; Liljeholm, Mimi; Tyszka, Julian M; O'Doherty, John P

    2012-06-13

    It is widely held that the interaction between instrumental and Pavlovian conditioning induces powerful motivational biases. Pavlovian-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) is one of the key paradigms demonstrating this effect, which can further be decomposed into a general and specific component. Although these two forms of PIT have been studied at the level of amygdalar subregions in rodents, it is still unknown whether they involve different areas of the human amygdala. Using a high-resolution fMRI (hr-fMRI) protocol optimized for the amygdala in combination with a novel free operant task designed to elicit effects of both general and specific PIT, we demonstrate that a region of ventral amygdala within the boundaries of the basolateral complex and the ventrolateral putamen are involved in specific PIT, while a region of dorsal amygdala within the boundaries of the centromedial complex is involved in general PIT. These results add to a burgeoning literature indicating different functional contributions for these different amygdalar subregions in reward-processing and motivation.

  13. Increased tree-ring network density reveals more precise estimations of sub-regional hydroclimate variability and climate dynamics in the Midwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Justin T.; Harley, Grant L.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the historic variability in the hydroclimate provides important information on possible extreme dry or wet periods that in turn inform water management plans. Tree rings have long provided historical context of hydroclimate variability of the U.S. However, the tree-ring network used to create these countrywide gridded reconstructions is sparse in certain locations, such as the Midwest. Here, we increase (n = 20) the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network in southern Indiana and compare a summer (June-August) Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) reconstruction to existing gridded reconstructions of PDSI for this region. We find both droughts and pluvials that were previously unknown that rival the most intense PDSI values during the instrumental period. Additionally, historical drought occurred in Indiana that eclipsed instrumental conditions with regard to severity and duration. During the period 1962-2004 CE, we find that teleconnections of drought conditions through the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation have a strong influence (r = -0.60, p < 0.01) on secondary tree growth in this region for the late spring-early summer season. These findings highlight the importance of continuing to increase the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network used to infer past climate dynamics to capture the sub-regional spatial variability. Increasing the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network for a given region can better identify sub-regional variability, improve the accuracy of regional tree-ring PDSI reconstructions, and provide better information for climatic teleconnections.

  14. Roles of the Different Sub-Regions of the Insular Cortex in Various Phases of the Decision-Making Process

    PubMed Central

    Droutman, Vita; Bechara, Antoine; Read, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a coherent account of the role of the insular cortex (IC) in decision-making. We follow a conceptualization of decision-making that is very close to one previously proposed by Ernst and Paulus (2005): that the decision process is a progression of four phases: (1) re-focusing attention; (2) evaluation; (3) action; and (4) outcome processing, and we present evidence for the insula’s role in all these phases. We review the existing work on insula’s functional anatomy that subdivides the IC into posterior, dorsal anterior and ventral anterior regions. We re-map the results provided by the existing literature into these subdivisions wherever possible, to identify the components’ role in each decision making phase. In addition, we identify a self-regulating quality of the IC focused on harm avoidance. PMID:26635559

  15. Conceptualization and simulation of the Edwards aquifer, San Antonio region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, K.J.; Dutton, A.R.; Hovorka, S.D.; Worthington, S.R.H.; Painter, S.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Numerical ground-water flow models for the Edwards aquifer in the San Antonio region of Texas generally have been based on a diffuse-flow conceptualization. That is, although conduits likely are present, the assumption is that flow in the aquifer predominantly is through a network of small fractures and openings sufficiently numerous that the aquifer can be considered a porous-media continuum at the regional scale. Whether flow through large fractures and conduits or diffuse flow predominates in the Edwards aquifer at the regional scale is an open question. A new numerical ground-water-flow model (Edwards aquifer model) that incorporates important components of the latest information and an alternate conceptualization of the Edwards aquifer was developed. The conceptualization upon which the Edwards aquifer model is based emphasizes conduit development and conduit flow, and the model can be considered a test of one of two reasonable conceptualizations. The model incorporates conduits simulated as generally continuously connected, one-cell-wide (1,320 feet) zones with very large hydraulic-conductivity values (as much as 300,000 feet per day). The locations of the conduits are based on a number of factors, including major potentiometric-surface troughs in the aquifer, the presence of sinking streams, geochemical information, and geologic structures (for example, faults and grabens). The model includes both the San Antonio and Barton Springs segments of the Edwards aquifer in the San Antonio region, Texas, and was calibrated for steady-state (1939-46) and transient (1947-2000) conditions. Transient simulations were conducted using monthly recharge and pumpage (withdrawals) data. The predominantly conduit-flow conceptualization incorporated in the Edwards aquifer model yielded a reasonably good match between measured and simulated hydraulic heads in the confined part of the aquifer and between measured and simulated springflows. The simulated directions of flow in the

  16. Conceptual Structures in Fighter Pilots.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    AA1985CONCEPTUAL STRU CTURES IN FIGHTER PLOTS(U) NEW MEXICO iI 7 AD-A29 885UNIV ALBUQUERQUE DEPT 0F PSYCHOLOGYR WSCHVANEVELD ET AL JUL 83 AFHRL-P-83...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK Department of Psychology AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS New Mexico State University 61102F...Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 2313T313 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE HQ Air Force Human Resources Laboratory (AFSC) July 1983

  17. GCFR steam generator conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, R.A.; Elliott, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) steam generators are large once-through heat exchangers with helically coiled tube bundles. In the GCFR demonstration plant, hot helium from the reactor core is passed through these units to produce superheated steam, which is used by the turbine generators to produce electrical power. The paper describes the conceptual design of the steam generator. The major components and functions of the design are addressed. The topics discussed are the configuration, operating conditions, design criteria, and the design verification and support programs.

  18. Comparative paleofloristics of the Albian-early Paleocene in the Anadyr-Koryak and North Alaska subregions, Part 3: Comparison of floras and floristic changes across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, A. B.

    2007-10-01

    Floras characterizing comparable evolutionary stages in the Anadyr-Koryak and North Alaska subregions of the North Pacific show some essential distinctions despite their similarity in general. Factors responsible for appearance of their distinctive features were most likely the paleoclimatic difference between the subregions and the constrained or even interrupted trans-Beringia migration of plants in particular intervals of geological history. Floras of both subregions survived the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary crisis without essential consequences for their evolution, and amplitude of floristic changes across the boundary was not greater than by evolutionary changes in the crisis-free Late Cretaceous. Evolution of the North Pacific floras near this boundary has been likely controlled by the long-term paleogeographic and paleoclimatic changes and by plants evolution and migration.

  19. Planets, pluralism, and conceptual lineage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusse, Carl

    2016-02-01

    Conceptual change can occur for a variety of reasons; some more scientifically significant than others. The 2006 definition of 'planet', which saw Pluto reclassified as a dwarf planet, is an example toward the more mundane end of the scale. I argue however that this case serves as a useful example of a related phenomenon, whereby what appears to be a single kind term conceals two or more distinct concepts with independent scientific utility. I examine the historical background to this case, as a template for developing additional evidence for pluralist approaches to conceptual disputes within science and elsewhere. "I would like to note that the two speakers who have spoken so far have both done the same extremely insulting gaffe," he said. "They have used the expression 'a physical definition of a planet' - by implication, suggesting that a dynamical definition is not physics!" He said he felt he had to teach the panel "something you should know": that dynamics was indeed physics, and in fact was addressed before solid-state physics in every textbook ever written." (Boyle, 2010, p. 126)

  20. Some sociological ideas for conceptual change research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smardon, Regina

    2008-07-01

    This review takes a critical position with regards to Treagust and Duit's article, Conceptual Change: A discussion of theoretical methodological and practical challenges for science education. It is proposed that conceptual change research in science education might benefit from borrowing concepts currently being developed in the sociology of emotions. It is further suggested that the study of social interaction within evolving emotional cultures is the most promising avenue for developing and extending theories about conceptual change.

  1. Conceptual Foundations of Diffusion in Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Koay, Cheng Guan; Özarslan, Evren

    2016-01-01

    A thorough review of the q-space technique is presented starting from a discussion of Fick's laws. The work presented here is primarily conceptual, theoretical and hopefully pedagogical. We offered the notion of molecular concentration to unify Fick's laws and diffusion MRI within a coherent conceptual framework. The fundamental relationship between diffusion MRI and the Fick's laws are carefully established. The conceptual and theoretical basis of the q-space technique is investigated from first principles. PMID:26997923

  2. Biodiversity of the Deep-Sea Continental Margin Bordering the Gulf of Maine (NW Atlantic): Relationships among Sub-Regions and to Shelf Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Noreen E.; Shea, Elizabeth K.; Metaxas, Anna; Haedrich, Richard L.; Auster, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Background In contrast to the well-studied continental shelf region of the Gulf of Maine, fundamental questions regarding the diversity, distribution, and abundance of species living in deep-sea habitats along the adjacent continental margin remain unanswered. Lack of such knowledge precludes a greater understanding of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem and limits development of alternatives for conservation and management. Methodology/Principal Findings We use data from the published literature, unpublished studies, museum records and online sources, to: (1) assess the current state of knowledge of species diversity in the deep-sea habitats adjacent to the Gulf of Maine (39–43°N, 63–71°W, 150–3000 m depth); (2) compare patterns of taxonomic diversity and distribution of megafaunal and macrofaunal species among six distinct sub-regions and to the continental shelf; and (3) estimate the amount of unknown diversity in the region. Known diversity for the deep-sea region is 1,671 species; most are narrowly distributed and known to occur within only one sub-region. The number of species varies by sub-region and is directly related to sampling effort occurring within each. Fishes, corals, decapod crustaceans, molluscs, and echinoderms are relatively well known, while most other taxonomic groups are poorly known. Taxonomic diversity decreases with increasing distance from the continental shelf and with changes in benthic topography. Low similarity in faunal composition suggests the deep-sea region harbours faunal communities distinct from those of the continental shelf. Non-parametric estimators of species richness suggest a minimum of 50% of the deep-sea species inventory remains to be discovered. Conclusions/Significance The current state of knowledge of biodiversity in this deep-sea region is rudimentary. Our ability to answer questions is hampered by a lack of sufficient data for many taxonomic groups, which is constrained by sampling biases, life

  3. toolkit computational mesh conceptual model.

    SciTech Connect

    Baur, David G.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Cochran, William K.; Williams, Alan B.; Sjaardema, Gregory D.

    2010-03-01

    The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh is a software library intended to support massively parallel multi-physics computations on dynamically changing unstructured meshes. This domain of intended use is inherently complex due to distributed memory parallelism, parallel scalability, heterogeneity of physics, heterogeneous discretization of an unstructured mesh, and runtime adaptation of the mesh. Management of this inherent complexity begins with a conceptual analysis and modeling of this domain of intended use; i.e., development of a domain model. The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh software library is designed and implemented based upon this domain model. Software developers using, maintaining, or extending the Sierra Toolkit computational mesh library must be familiar with the concepts/domain model presented in this report.

  4. A conceptual framework of bonding.

    PubMed

    Gay, J

    1981-01-01

    Nurses involved in maternal-infant child care should objectively analyze any tools that purport to measure attachment and/or bonding. Has the author adequately defined the terms? Are directions given for making concepts operational for the practicing nurse? What are the foundations for placing values on parental behaviors? Do deviant parental behaviors reflect poor attachment or bonding, or are such behaviors merely indicative of limited parental opportunities for acquaintance? The presentation of of any conceptual framework should not be considered complete without empirical testing. Such testing and peer critique of a framework are essential fro any theory of bonding to evolve. With further research into the parental-child relationship, nurses can learn to provide adequate care for facilitating the bonding process in families.

  5. Osmosis and diffusion conceptual assessment.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Kathleen M; Williams, Kathy S; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified from the previously published Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (DODT) and some newly developed items. The ODCA, a validated instrument containing fewer items than the DODT and emphasizing different content areas within the realm of osmosis and diffusion, better aligns with our curriculum. Creation of the ODCA involved removal of six DODT item pairs, modification of another six DODT item pairs, and development of three new item pairs addressing basic osmosis and diffusion concepts. Responses to ODCA items testing the same concepts as the DODT were remarkably similar to responses to the DODT collected from students 15 yr earlier, suggesting that student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis remains elusive.

  6. Conceptual design for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratzer, Louis B.

    1989-01-01

    The designers of aircraft and more recently, aerospace vehicles have always struggled with the problems of evolving their designs to produce a machine which would perform its assigned task(s) in some optimum fashion. Almost invariably this involved dealing with more variables and constraints than could be handled in any computationally feasible way. With the advent of the electronic digital computer, the possibilities for introducing more variable and constraints into the initial design process led to greater expectations for improvement in vehicle (system) efficiency. The creation of the large scale systems necessary to achieve optimum designs has, for many reason, proved to be difficult. From a technical standpoint, significant problems arise in the development of satisfactory algorithms for processing of data from the various technical disciplines in a way that would be compatible with the complex optimization function. Also, the creation of effective optimization routines for multi-variable and constraint situations which could lead to consistent results has lagged. The current capability for carrying out the conceptual design of an aircraft on an interdisciplinary bases was evaluated to determine the need for extending this capability, and if necessary, to recommend means by which this could be carried out. Based on a review of available documentation and individual consultations, it appears that there is extensive interest at Langley Research Center as well as in the aerospace community in providing a higher level of capability that meets the technical challenges. By implication, the current design capability is inadequate and it does not operate in a way that allows the various technical disciplines to participate and cooperately interact in the design process. Based on this assessment, it was concluded that substantial effort should be devoted to developing a computer-based conceptual design system that would provide the capability needed for the near

  7. whoishRisk – an R package to calculate WHO/ISH cardiovascular risk scores for all epidemiological subregions of the world

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Dylan; Lee, Joseph; Bobrovitz, Niklas; Koshiaris, Constantinos; Ward, Alison; Heneghan, Carl

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organisation and International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment charts have been implemented in many low- and middle-income countries as part of the WHO Package of Essential Non-Communicable Disease (PEN) Interventions for Primary Health Care in Low-Resource settings. Evaluation of the WHO/ISH cardiovascular risk charts and their use is a key priority and since they only existed in paper or PDF formats, we developed an R implementation of the charts for all epidemiological subregions of the world. The main strengths of this implementation are that it is built in a free, open-source, coding language with simple syntax, can be downloaded from github as a package (“whoishRisk”), and can be used with a standard computer. PMID:28357040

  8. Age-related differences in medial temporal lobe involvement during conceptual fluency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Dew, Ilana T Z; Cabeza, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Not all memory processes are equally affected by aging. A widely accepted hypothesis is that older adults rely more on familiarity-based processing, typically linked with the perirhinal cortex (PRC), in the context of impaired recollection, linked with the hippocampus (HC). However, according to the dedifferentiation hypothesis, healthy aging reduces the specialization of MTL memory subregions so that they may mediate different memory processes than in young adults. Using fMRI, we tested this possibility using a conceptual fluency manipulation known to induce familiarity-related PRC activity. The study yielded two main findings. First, although fluency equivalently affected PRC in both young (18-28; N=14) and older (62-80; N=15) adults, it also uniquely affected HC activity in older adults. Second, the fluency manipulation reduced functional connectivity between HC and PRC in young adults, but it increased it in older adults. Taken together, the results suggest that aging may result in reduced specialization of the HC for recollection, such that the HC may be recruited when fluency increases familiarity-based responding. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory & Aging.

  9. The perirhinal cortex and conceptual processing: Effects of feature-based statistics following damage to the anterior temporal lobes

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Clarke, Alex; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2015-01-01

    The anterior temporal lobe (ATL) plays a prominent role in models of semantic knowledge, although it remains unclear how the specific subregions within the ATL contribute to semantic memory. Patients with neurodegenerative diseases, like semantic dementia, have widespread damage to the ATL thus making inferences about the relationship between anatomy and cognition problematic. Here we take a detailed anatomical approach to ask which substructures within the ATL contribute to conceptual processing, with the prediction that the perirhinal cortex (PRc) will play a critical role for concepts that are more semantically confusable. We tested two patient groups, those with and without damage to the PRc, across two behavioural experiments – picture naming and word–picture matching. For both tasks, we manipulated the degree of semantic confusability of the concepts. By contrasting the performance of the two groups, along with healthy controls, we show that damage to the PRc results in worse performance in processing concepts with higher semantic confusability across both experiments. Further by correlating the degree of damage across anatomically defined regions of interest with performance, we find that PRc damage is related to performance for concepts with increased semantic confusability. Our results show that the PRc supports a necessary and crucial neurocognitve function that enables fine-grained conceptual processes to take place through the resolution of semantic confusability. PMID:25637774

  10. Neuronal damage in hippocampal subregions induced by various durations of transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils using Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dong-Kun; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Shin, Bich Na; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Choong Hyun; Choi, Jung Hoon; Cho, Yong-Jun; Kang, Il-Jun; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho

    2012-02-09

    Although there are many studies on ischemic brain damage in the gerbil, which is a good model of transient cerebral ischemia, studies on neuronal damage according to the duration of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) time are limited. We carried out neuronal damage in the gerbil hippocampus after various durations of I-R (5, 10, 15 and 20 min) using Fluoro-Jade B (F-J B, a maker for neuronal degeneration) histofluorescence as well as cresyl violet (CV) staining. The changes of CV positive ((+)) neurons were well detected in the hippocampal CA1 region, not in the other regions. F-J B histofluorescence staining showed apparent neuronal damage in all the hippocampal subregions. In the CA1, most of the pyramidal neurons of the stratum pyramidale (SP) were stained with F-J B (about 100/mm(2) in a section), and F-J B(+) neurons in the other ischemia-groups were not changed. In the CA2, a few F-J B(+) neurons were detected in the SP of the 5 min ischemia-group, and F-J B(+) neurons were gradually increased with the longer time of ischemia: in the 20 min ischemia-group, the mean number of F-J B(+) neurons was about 85/mm(2) in a section. In the CA3, some F-J B(+) neurons were observed only in the SP of the 20 min ischemia-group. In the dentate gyrus, some F-J B positive neurons were detected only in the polymorphic layer (PL) of the 5 min ischemia-group, and the number of F-J B(+) neurons were gradually increased with the longer ischemic time. Our findings indicate that F-J B histofluorescence showed a very high quality of neuronal damage in all the hippocampal subregions.

  11. Lesions that functionally disconnect the anterior and posterodorsal sub-regions of the medial amygdala eliminate opposite-sex odor preference in male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Maras, P M; Petrulis, A

    2010-02-17

    In many rodent species, such as Syrian hamsters, reproductive behavior requires neural integration of chemosensory information and steroid hormone cues. The medial amygdala (MA) processes both of these signals through anatomically distinct sub-regions; the anterior region (MeA) receives substantial chemosensory input, but contains few steroid receptor-labeled neurons, whereas the posterodorsal region (MePD) receives less chemosensory input, but contains a dense population of steroid receptors. Importantly, these sub-regions have considerable reciprocal connections, and the goal of this experiment was therefore to determine whether interactions between MeA and MePD are required for male hamsters' preference to investigate female over male odors. To functionally disconnect MeA and MePD, males received unilateral lesions of MeA and MePD within opposite brain hemispheres. Control males received either unilateral lesions of MeA and MePD within the same hemisphere or sham surgery. Odor preferences were measured using a 3-choice apparatus, which simultaneously presented female, male and clean odor stimuli; all tests were done under conditions that either prevented or allowed contact with the odor sources. Under non-contact conditions, males with asymmetrical lesions investigated female and male odors equally, whereas males in both control groups preferred to investigate female odors. Under contact conditions, all groups investigated female odors longer than male odors, although males with asymmetrical lesions displayed decreased investigation of female odors compared to sham males. These data suggest that MeA-MePD interactions are critical for processing primarily the volatile components of social odors and highlight the importance of input from the main olfactory system (MOS) to these nuclei in the regulation of reproductive behavior. More broadly, these results support the role of the MA in integrating chemosensory and hormone information, a process that may underlie

  12. Relationship between variations of (7)Be, (210)Pb and (212)Pb concentrations and sub-regional atmospheric transport: Simultaneous observation at distant locations.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takuya; Kosako, Toshiso; Komura, Kazuhisa

    2010-02-01

    In order to investigate the applicability of (212)Pb as a tracer for atmospheric transport in the sub-regional scale (few hundred kilometers in horizontal direction and up to approximately 1km by height), we measured the air concentrations of the short-lived radionuclide (212)Pb along with the long-lived (7)Be and (210)Pb near the ground surface. For this purpose, simultaneous observations were continued for several days at three locations: a reference point representative for standard land surface atmosphere conditions, a second location at an altitude 650 m near the reference point, and on a solitary island approximately 180 km from the reference point. Measurements of radioactivity in aerosol particle samples collected at intervals of 2-3h with a high-volume air sampler were performed by extremely low background gamma-ray spectrometry with the use of Ge detectors located at the Ogoya Underground Laboratory. Concentration of (7)Be or (210)Pb and their variation patterns was found to be similar among the three points during the whole observation period except for moment of the passage of a cold front. The results indicate that distributions of concentrations of the long-lived nuclides were uniform in this range. On the other hand, concentration levels and the variation patterns of the short-lived (212)Pb differed greatly from one location to another, reflecting differences in geographical location and altitude of the observation points. Additionally, there were certain indications that observed concentration of (212)Pb contained two components: an autogenous component from sources nearby and a heterogenous one from faraway sources carried by atmospheric horizontal transport. Results of this study provide experimental proof that (212)Pb can be used as a tracer of sub-regional atmospheric transport.

  13. Quantitative Comparison of 21 Protocols for Labeling Hippocampal Subfields and Parahippocampal Subregions in In Vivo MRI: Towards a Harmonized Segmentation Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Yushkevich, Paul A.; Amaral, Robert S. C.; Augustinack, Jean C.; Bender, Andrew R.; Bernstein, Jeffrey D.; Boccardi, Marina; Bocchetta, Martina; Burggren, Alison C.; Carr, Valerie A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chetelat, Gael; Daugherty, Ana M.; Davachi, Lila; Ding, Song-Lin; Ekstrom, Arne; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Hassan, Abdul; Huang, Yushan; Iglesias, Eugenio; La Joie, Renaud; Kerchner, Geoffrey A.; LaRocque, Karen F.; Libby, Laura A.; Malykhin, Nikolai; Mueller, Susanne G.; Olsen, Rosanna K.; Palombo, Daniela J.; Parekh, Mansi B; Pluta, John B.; Preston, Alison R.; Pruessner, Jens C.; Ranganath, Charan; Raz, Naftali; Schlichting, Margaret L.; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Singh, Sachi; Stark, Craig E. L.; Suthana, Nanthia; Tompary, Alexa; Turowski, Marta M.; Van Leemput, Koen; Wagner, Anthony D.; Wang, Lei; Winterburn, Julie L.; Wisse, Laura E.M.; Yassa, Michael A.; Zeineh, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE An increasing number of human in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have focused on examining the structure and function of the subfields of the hippocampal formation (the dentate gyrus, CA fields 1–3, and the subiculum) and subregions of the parahippocampal gyrus (entorhinal, perirhinal, and parahippocampal cortices). The ability to interpret the results of such studies and to relate them to each other would be improved if a common standard existed for labeling hippocampal subfields and parahippocampal subregions. Currently, research groups label different subsets of structures and use different rules, landmarks, and cues to define their anatomical extents. This paper characterizes, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the variability in the existing manual segmentation protocols for labeling hippocampal and parahippocampal substructures in MRI, with the goal of guiding subsequent work on developing a harmonized substructure segmentation protocol. METHOD MRI scans of a single healthy adult human subject were acquired both at 3 Tesla and 7 Tesla. Representatives from 21 research groups applied their respective manual segmentation protocols to the MRI modalities of their choice. The resulting set of 21 segmentations was analyzed in a common anatomical space to quantify similarity and identify areas of agreement. RESULTS The differences between the 21 protocols include the region within which segmentation is performed, the set of anatomical labels used, and the extents of specific anatomical labels. The greatest overall disagreement among the protocols is at the CA1/subiculum boundary, and disagreement across all structures is greatest in the anterior portion of the hippocampal formation relative to the body and tail. CONCLUSIONS The combined examination of the 21 protocols in the same dataset suggests possible strategies towards developing a harmonized subfield segmentation protocol and facilitates comparison between published studies. PMID

  14. A Conceptual Data Model of Datum Systems

    PubMed Central

    McCaleb, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    A new conceptual data model that addresses the geometric dimensioning and tolerancing concepts of datum systems, datums, datum features, datum targets, and the relationships among these concepts, is presented. Additionally, a portion of a related data model, Part 47 of STEP (ISO 10303-47), is reviewed and a comparison is made between it and the new conceptual data model.

  15. Some Sociological Ideas for Conceptual Change Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smardon, Regina

    2008-01-01

    This review takes a critical position with regards to Treagust and Duit's article, "Conceptual Change: A discussion of theoretical methodological and practical challenges for science education." It is proposed that conceptual change research in science education might benefit from borrowing concepts currently being developed in the sociology of…

  16. Conceptual Development During the School Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Herbert J.

    This study tested certain implied predictions regarding conceptual learning at each of four sequential levels of development: concrete level, identity level, classificatory level, and formal level. For this purpose, scaled batteries to assess the level of conceptual development of children, kindergarten through high school, were constructed and a…

  17. A Multivariate Model of Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Heddy, Benjamin; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the Cognitive Reconstruction of Knowledge Model (CRKM) model of conceptual change as a framework for developing and testing how key cognitive, motivational, and emotional variables are linked to conceptual change in physics. This study extends an earlier study developed by Taasoobshirazi and Sinatra ("J Res Sci…

  18. Entrepreneurial University Conceptualization: Case of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsi, Jahangir Yadollahi; Imanipour, Narges; Salamzadeh, Aidin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of the present paper is to elaborate an entrepreneurial university conceptualization which could be appropriate for developing countries. A conceptualization which distinguishes between different elements of entrepreneurial universities in developing countries, and identifies the common ones. This conceptualization…

  19. Cultivation Theory and Research: A Conceptual Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Presents a critical analysis of how cultivation (long-term formation of perceptions and beliefs about the world as a result of exposure to media) has been conceptualized in theory and research. Analyses the construct of television exposure. Suggests revisions for conceptualizing the existing theory and extending it. (RS)

  20. On an Actual Apparatus for Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macbeth, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Organizes a reading of the conceptual change literature that brings into view a collection of design specifications for a conceptual change apparatus. Analyzes one such apparatus in the particulars of a science education demonstration program produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Private Universe Project. (Contains 114 references.) (Author/WRM)

  1. Wargaming Effectiveness: Its Conceptualization and Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    wargaming and to explore methods for assessing these constructs. Cognitive task analysis was used to develop a conceptual framework for understanding...the wargaming conceptual framework can be feasible to administer and be reliable and valid assessments of their related psychological constructs. If

  2. Color Word Acquisition: Conceptual or Linguistic Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, Nancy N.

    A study investigated children's difficulty in learning color words and attempted to determine whether the difficulty was perceptual, conceptual, or linguistic. The subjects were 24 two-year-olds, half with knowledge of color words and half without, and a similar control group. The experimental subjects were given conceptual and comprehension tasks…

  3. Determining Students' Conceptual Understanding Level of Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricayir, Hakan; Ay, Selahattin; Comek, Arif; Cansiz, Gokhan; Uce, Musa

    2016-01-01

    Science students find heat, temperature, enthalpy and energy in chemical reactions to be some of the most difficult subjects. It is crucial to define their conceptual understanding level in these subjects so that educators can build upon this knowledge and introduce new thermodynamics concepts. This paper reports conceptual understanding levels of…

  4. Differing contributions of inferior prefrontal and anterior temporal cortex to concrete and abstract conceptual knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Paul; Binney, Richard J; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2015-02-01

    Semantic cognition is underpinned by regions involved in representing conceptual knowledge and executive control areas that provide regulation of this information according to current task requirements. Using distortion-corrected fMRI, we investigated the contributions of these two systems to abstract and concrete word comprehension. We contrasted semantic decisions made either with coherent contextual support, which encouraged retrieval of a rich conceptual representation, or with irrelevant contextual information, which instead maximised demands on control processes. Inferior prefrontal cortex was activated more when decisions were made in the presence of irrelevant context, suggesting that this region is crucial for the semantic control functions required to select appropriate aspects of meaning in the face of competing information. It also exhibited greater activation for abstract words, which reflects the fact that abstract words tend to have variable, context-dependent meanings that place higher demands on control processes. In contrast, anterior temporal regions (ATL) were most active when decisions were made with the benefit of a coherent context, suggesting a representational role. There was a graded shift in concreteness effects in this region, with dorsolateral areas particularly active for abstract words and ventromedial areas preferentially activated by concrete words. This supports the idea that concrete concepts are closely associated with visual experience and abstract concepts with auditory-verbal information; and that sub-regions of the ATL display graded specialisation for these two types of knowledge. Between these two extremes, we identified significant activations for both word types in ventrolateral ATL. This area is known to be involved in representing knowledge for concrete concepts; here we established that it is also activated by abstract concepts. These results converge with data from rTMS and neuropsychological investigations in

  5. Conceptual knowledge in the interpretation of idioms.

    PubMed

    Nayak, N P; Gibbs, R W

    1990-09-01

    The authors examined how people determine the contextual appropriateness of idioms. In Experiment 1, idioms referring to the same temporal stage of a conceptual prototype were judged to be more similar in meaning than idioms referring to different temporal stages. In Experiment 2, idioms in a prototypical temporal sequence were more meaningful than idioms in sentences that violated the temporal sequence. In Experiment 3, idioms referring to the same stage of a conceptual prototype were differentiable on the basis of conceptual information. The conceptual coherence between idioms and contexts facilitated the processing speed of idioms in Experiment 4. Experiment 5 showed that speakers can recover the underlying conceptual metaphors that link an idiom to its figurative meaning. Experiment 6 showed that the metaphoric information reflected in the lexical makeup of idioms also determined the metaphoric appropriateness of idioms in certain contexts.

  6. Developing Coherent Conceptual Storylines: Two Elementary Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuscin, Deborah; Lipsitz, Kelsey; Cisterna-Alburquerque, Dante; Arnone, Kathryn A.; van Garderen, Delinda; de Araujo, Zandra; Lee, Eun Ju

    2016-06-01

    The `conceptual storyline' of a lesson refers to the flow and sequencing of learning activities such that science concepts align and progress in ways that are instructionally meaningful to student learning of the concepts. Research demonstrates that when teachers apply lesson design strategies to create a coherent science content storyline, student learning is positively impacted (Roth et al., 2011). Because the conceptual storyline is often implicit within a lesson, and teachers often have difficulty articulating this aspect of lesson design (Lo et al., 2014), our professional development program engages elementary teachers in analyzing and developing graphic representations of a lesson's conceptual storyline to make that element explicit. In this exploratory study, we present typologies that represent two primary challenges teachers faced in developing coherent conceptual storylines in their lesson design, and examine the extent to which professional development enhanced their capacity to develop a coherent conceptual storyline.

  7. Role of Dopamine Receptors Subtypes, D1-Like and D2-Like, within the Nucleus Accumbens Subregions, Core and Shell, on Memory Consolidation in the One-Trial Inhibitory Avoidance Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manago, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea; De Leonibus, Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrated that dopamine within the nucleus accumbens mediates consolidation of both associative and nonassociative memories. However, the specific contribution of the nucleus accumbens subregions, core and shell, and of D1 and D2 receptors subtypes has not been yet clarified. The aim of this study was, therefore, to directly…

  8. Education For All: A Committment and an Opportunity. National EFA Coordinators Meeting under the Sub-Regional EFA Forum for East and Southeast Asia Final Report (2nd, Bangkok, Thailand, December 10-12, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The working group of Sub-Regional Forum (SRF) and the Thematic Working Group (TWG) on Education for All (EFA) organized the second meeting of the SRF for East and Southeast Asia and the National EFA Coordinators in Bangkok, Thailand December 10-12, 2001. The meeting offered an opportunity for EFA coordinators to reflect on the outcomes of the EFA…

  9. The picture superiority effect in conceptual implicit memory: a conceptual distinctiveness hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Maryellen; Geraci, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    According to leading theories, the picture superiority effect is driven by conceptual processing, yet this effect has been difficult to obtain using conceptual implicit memory tests. We hypothesized that the picture superiority effect results from conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features rather than a picture's semantic features. To test this hypothesis, we used 2 conceptual implicit general knowledge tests; one cued conceptually distinctive features (e.g., "What animal has large eyes?") and the other cued semantic features (e.g., "What animal is the figurehead of Tootsie Roll?"). Results showed a picture superiority effect only on the conceptual test using distinctive cues, supporting our hypothesis that this effect is mediated by conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features.

  10. Psychopharmacological enhancement: a conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a range of new psychotropic agents raises the possibility that these will be used for enhancement purposes (smart pills, happy pills, and pep pills). The enhancement debate soon raises questions in philosophy of medicine and psychiatry (eg, what is a disorder?), and this debate in turn raises fundament questions in philosophy of language, science, and ethics. In this paper, a naturalistic conceptual framework is proposed for addressing these issues. This framework begins by contrasting classical and critical concepts of categories, and then puts forward an integrative position that is based on cognitive-affective research. This position can in turn be used to consider the debate between pharmacological Calvinism (which may adopt a moral metaphor of disorder) and psychotropic utopianism (which may emphasize a medical metaphor of disorder). I argue that psychiatric treatment of serious psychiatric disorders is justified, and that psychotropics are an acceptable kind of intervention. The use of psychotropics for sub-threshold phenomena requires a judicious weighing of the relevant facts (which are often sparse) and values. PMID:22244084

  11. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  12. Conceptual study of ETS-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzai, Takao; Oda, Mitsushige; Wakabayashi, Yasufumi; Imai, Ryouichi

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the Engineering Test Satellite-7 (ETS-7) conceptual study is presented. The Rendezvous and Docking (RVD) experiments will be conducted to verify equipment technologies for navigation, guidance, control algorism, and sensors and to conduct remote control technology experiment using on-orbit image information during the time period from the RVD experiment target separation to its berthing back to the satellite by Global Positioning System (GPS) correlated navigation, and approach by the rendezvous radar and proximity sensors. The space Robot (RBT) experiments will be conducted on the coordinated experiment between the robotic arm control and satellite body attitude control systems, remote control experiment from the earth using on orbit image information with time delay, and on-orbit operation technology using the task board and simulated Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU). An operation system to utilize the intersatellite data relay function of the Communications and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite (COMETS) will be employed. Review was conducted on satellites to satisfy RVD requirements and enable piggy back launch with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The satellite bus system will be constructed by fundamentally utilizing the technologies applied to the Engineering Test Satellite-6 (ETS-6) and the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS). Prospects of realizing operation systems, including experimental window and remote control operation by images were obtained.

  13. Personalizing knowledge delivery services: a conceptual framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majchrzak, Ann; Chelleppa, Ramnath K.; Cooper, Lynne P.; Hars, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Consistent with the call of the Minnesota Symposium for new theory in knowledge management, we offer a new conceptualization of Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) as a portfolio of personalized knowledge delivery services. Borrowing from research on online consumer behavior, we describe the challenges imposed by personalized knowledge delivery services, and suggest design parameters that can help to overcome these challenges. We develop our design constructs through a set of hypotheses and discuss the research implications of our new conceptualization. Finally, we describe practical implications suggested by our conceptualization - practical suggestions that we hope to gain some experience with as part of an ongoing action research project at our partner organization.

  14. Structural Analysis in a Conceptual Design Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Robinson, Jay H.; Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic aircraft designers must shape the outer mold line of the aircraft to improve multiple objectives, such as mission performance, cruise efficiency, and sonic-boom signatures. Conceptual designers have demonstrated an ability to assess these objectives for a large number of candidate designs. Other critical objectives and constraints, such as weight, fuel volume, aeroelastic effects, and structural soundness, are more difficult to address during the conceptual design process. The present research adds both static structural analysis and sizing to an existing conceptual design framework. The ultimate goal is to include structural analysis in the multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic aircraft. Progress towards that goal is discussed and demonstrated.

  15. Conceptual and logical level of database modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunka, Frantisek; Matula, Jiri

    2016-06-01

    Conceptual and logical levels form the top most levels of database modeling. Usually, ORM (Object Role Modeling) and ER diagrams are utilized to capture the corresponding schema. The final aim of business process modeling is to store its results in the form of database solution. For this reason, value oriented business process modeling which utilizes ER diagram to express the modeling entities and relationships between them are used. However, ER diagrams form the logical level of database schema. To extend possibilities of different business process modeling methodologies, the conceptual level of database modeling is needed. The paper deals with the REA value modeling approach to business process modeling using ER-diagrams, and derives conceptual model utilizing ORM modeling approach. Conceptual model extends possibilities for value modeling to other business modeling approaches.

  16. Shuttle mission simulator software conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Software conceptual designs (SCD) are presented for meeting the simulator requirements for the shuttle missions. The major areas of the SCD discussed include: malfunction insertion, flight software, applications software, systems software, and computer complex.

  17. Mental Models, Conceptual Models, and Modelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greca, Ileana Maria; Moreira, Marco Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Reviews science education research into representations constructed by students in their interactions with the world, its phenomena, and artefacts. Features discussions of mental models, conceptual models, and the activity of modeling. (Contains 30 references.) (Author/WRM)

  18. Conceptual design. Final report: TFE Verification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the TFE Conceptual Design, which provided the design guidance for the TFE Verification program. The primary goals of this design effort were: (1) establish the conceptual design of an in-core thermionic reactor for a 2 Mw(e) space nuclear power system with a 7-year operating lifetime; (2) demonstrate scalability of the above concept over the output power range of 500 kW(e) to 5 MW(e); and (3) define the TFE which is the basis for the 2 MW (e) reactor design. This TFE specification provided the basis for the test program. These primary goals were achieved. The technical approach taking in the conceptual design effort is discussed in Section 2, and the results are discussed in Section 3. The remainder of this introduction draws a perspective on the role that this conceptual design task played in the TFE Verification Program.

  19. Pictorial and conceptual representation of glimpsed pictures.

    PubMed

    Potter, Mary C; Staub, Adrian; O'Connor, Daniel H; Potter, Mary C

    2004-06-01

    Pictures seen in a rapid sequence are remembered briefly, but most are forgotten within a few seconds (M. C. Potter. A. Staub, J. Rado. & D. H. O'Connor. 2002). The authors investigated the pictorial and conceptual components of this fleeting memory by presenting 5 pictured scenes and immediately testing recognition of verbal titles (e.g., people at a table) or recognition of the pictures themselves. Recognition declined during testing, but initial performance was higher and the decline steeper when pictures were tested. A final experiment included test decoy pictures that were conceptually similar to but visually distinct from the original pictures. Yeses to decoys were higher than yeses to other distractors. Fleeting memory for glimpsed pictures has a strong conceptual component (conceptual short-term memory), but there is additional highly volatile pictorial memory (pictorial short-term memory) that is not tapped hy a gist title or decoy picture.

  20. Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Suer, A.

    1996-02-28

    This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects.

  1. Mars orbiter conceptual systems design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, W.; Vogl, J.

    1982-01-01

    Spacecraft system and subsystem designs at the conceptual level to perform either of two Mars Orbiter missions, a Climatology Mission and an Aeronomy Mission were developed. The objectives of these missions are to obtain and return data.

  2. Modular biowaste monitoring system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The objective of the study was to define requirements and generate a conceptual design for a Modular Biowaste Monitoring System for specifically supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs.

  3. A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Terrorist Groups,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    This report documents a study undertaken to develop a methodology for analyzing terrorist groups. A conceptual framework for analysis was devised and...terrorist groups and illustrates how that framework can be used to address broad questions about terrorists and their actions. This conceptual ... framework is based on data concerning 150 specific attributes of terrorist groups. These attributes fall into the following categories: (1) Organization; (2

  4. Music-therapy analyzed through conceptual mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Rodolfo; de la Fuente, Rebeca

    2002-11-01

    Conceptual maps have been employed lately as a learning tool, as a modern study technique, and as a new way to understand intelligence, which allows for the development of a strong theoretical reference, in order to prove the research hypothesis. This paper presents a music-therapy analysis based on this tool to produce a conceptual mapping network, which ranges from magic through the rigor of the hard sciences.

  5. Evaluation for potential Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) strains for control of the striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

    2014-06-01

    Trichogramma species and strains differ significantly in host specificity and performance. Nine Trichogramma strains, six of them collected from paddy fields in the Greater Mekong Subregion, were evaluated for performance on eggs of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), in both laboratory and field tests to determine potential Trichogramma strains that can be used in an inundative release in an integrated pest management program. In the laboratory glass vial tests, all strains showed higher parasitism rates on 0-24-h eggs than on the two older age groups (24-48 and 48-72 h). Wasp emergence rate was also higher from parasitized 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs, while Trichogramma immature duration was significantly prolonged on 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs. Parasitism rates differed among Trichogramma strains, with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii CJ strain showing significantly higher parasitism rate than any other strains. In the field tests, parasitism of sentinel striped stem borer eggs by Trichogramma strains released at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 wasps per hectare was low, with marginal yet significant differences between strains. The highest parasitism was achieved by T. chilonis CJ strain at the high and medium release rates. Hence, it can be concluded that T. chilonis CJ strain released at 100,000 wasps per hectare may be a cost-effective control tactic for field releases targeting striped stem borer.

  6. Combining allostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic perspectives to compile subregional records of fluvial responsiveness: The case of the sustainably entrenching Palancia River watershed (Mediterranean coast, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, Peter; Hoinkis, Ralf; Santisteban, Juan I.; Salat, Christina; Mediavilla, Rosa

    2011-06-01

    We use a combined allostratigraphic and morpholithostratigraphic approach to establish a relative stratigraphy of macroscale sediment-landform units in the Mediterranean Palancia River watershed (986-km2, NE Spain). Four alloformations signifying important changes in (sub)regional scale geomorphic valley-floor evolution were identified based on data from 1120 field sites and age determinations, and from analyzing high resolution geodata. The formation of the widespread and thick Pleistocene alloformation can be attributed to climatically-induced excessive sediment supply and flood activities during Pleistocene cold intervals - rather than representing time-lagging response to Plio/Pleistocene neotectonic uplift. Triggered by the turn to Holocene climatic conditions, three successively inset alloformations illustrate how stream grading and floodplain narrowing continuously have progressed over the Holocene. The overall degradational valley-floor evolution in the Holocene is interpreted as a response to the antecedent, overly valley-floor aggradation. Allostratigraphic and morphostratigraphic data suggest that the abandonment of the two earlier Holocene alloformations geomorphologically represents a pulsed turn toward intensified entrenchment rather than pulsed sedimentation. The most important benefit of amalgamating allostratigraphic and (morpho)lithostratigraphic concepts is that allostratigraphic ordering provides a formally conclusive approach to scale up (morpho)lithostratigraphic information from the reach scale to much larger scales of geographical extent. Consequently, applying allostratigraphic principles opens a perspective to moving forward toward analyzing the relationships between climate, neotectonics, sea level change, human impact, and fluvial response in coupled hinterland-coastal systems that require to evaluate sedimentary information at larger spatial scales.

  7. Low genetic diversity of Banana bunchy top virus, with a sub-regional pattern of variation, in Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Mukwa, L F T; Gillis, A; Vanhese, V; Romay, G; Galzi, S; Laboureau, N; Kalonji-Mbuyi, A; Iskra-Caruana, M L; Bragard, C

    2016-12-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), belonging to the genus Babuvirus, is the most devastating and widespread banana virus. Banana and plantain are major crops in terms of household income and food security in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Despite the large area under banana and plantain cultivation in the country, before this study, the genetic characterization of BBTV isolates had only been undertaken for two provinces. In the study presented here, genetic variation in BBTV was assessed from 52 BBTV isolates collected in five out of 11 provinces in DRC (Bandundu, Bas-Congo, Katanga, Kinshasa and Kasaï Oriental) and in two provinces using sequences previously described in databases. Full genome sequencing of DNA-R components was performed, revealing low genetic variation (98-100 % nucleotide identity) among the BBTV isolates detected. The phylogenetic analyses showed that all the DRC isolates were clustered in the South Pacific clade of BBTV. Based on the coding region for the replication initiator protein, haplotype diversity was estimated to be 0.944 ± 0.013, with 30 haplotypes from 68 isolates in DRC. Such diversity shows a haplotype distribution mainly at the sub-regional level in DRC. In addition, the sequence determination from the whole genome of selected isolates confirmed low genetic variation among isolates from seven DRC provinces (97-100 % nucleotide identity). This study strengthened the hypothesis of a single BBTV introduction some time ago, followed by the spread of the virus in the country.

  8. Structural analysis of the HLA-A/HLA-F subregion: Precise localization of two new multigene families closely associated with the HLA class I sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Pichon, L.; Carn, G.; Bouric, P.

    1996-03-01

    Positional cloning strategies for the hemochromatosis gene have previously concentrated on a target area restricted to a maximum genomic expanse of 400 kb around the HLA-A and HLA-F loci. Recently, the candidate region has been extended to 2-3 Mb on the distal side of the MHC. In this study, 10 coding sequences [hemochromatosis candidate genes (HCG) I to X] were isolated by cDNA selection using YACs covering the HLA-A/HLA-F subregion. Two of these (HCG II and HCG IV) belong to multigene families, as well as other sequences already described in this region, i.e., P5, pMC 6.7, and HLA class I. Fingerprinting of the four YACSs overlapping the region was performed and allowed partial localization of the different multigene family sequences on each YAC without defining their exact positions. Fingerprinting on cosmids isolated from the ICRF chromosome 6-specific cosmid library allowed more precise localization of the redundant sequences in all of the multigene families and revealed their apparent organization in clusters. Further examination of these intertwined sequences demonstrated that this structural organization resulted from a succession of complex phenomena, including duplications and contractions. This study presents a precise description of the structural organization of the HLA-A/HLA-F region and a determination of the sequences involved in the megabase size polymorphism observed among the A3, A24, and A31 haplotypes. 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Role of the prelimbic subregion of the medial prefrontal cortex in acquisition, extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine-conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Arturo R; Weber, Suzanne M; Rice, Heather J; Alleweireldt, Andrea T; Neisewander, Janet L

    2003-11-14

    Previous research suggests that the prelimbic subregion of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is necessary for acquisition of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP). Recently, it has been shown that extinguished cocaine-CPP can be reinstated by cocaine priming injections, and that this effect reflects the incentive motivational effects of the cocaine prime. To determine whether the prelimbic cortex is necessary for cocaine-reinstated CPP, rats received bilateral infusions of quinolinic acid (lesion group) or vehicle (sham group) into the prelimbic cortex and were later tested for acquisition, extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine-CPP. Both sham and lesion rats exhibited robust CPP established by systemic injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) following either one or three drug-environment pairings. Following repeated exposure to the cocaine- and saline-paired environments, sham and lesion rats showed similar rates of extinction of cocaine-CPP. In contrast, reinstatement of cocaine-CPP by cocaine priming injections (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) was attenuated in rats with prelimbic cortex lesions relative to sham controls. This finding suggests that the prelimbic cortex is involved in the incentive motivational effects of cocaine priming.

  10. A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Susanne; Nixon, Jane; Keen, Justin; Wilson, Lyn; McGinnis, Elizabeth; Dealey, Carol; Stubbs, Nikki; Farrin, Amanda; Dowding, Dawn; Schols, Jos MGA; Cuddigan, Janet; Berlowitz, Dan; Jude, Edward; Vowden, Peter; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Bader, Dan L; Gefen, Amit; Oomens, Cees WJ; Nelson, E Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Aim This paper discusses the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and proposes a new pressure ulcer conceptual framework. Background Recent work to develop and validate a new evidence-based pressure ulcer risk assessment framework was undertaken. This formed part of a Pressure UlceR Programme Of reSEarch (RP-PG-0407-10056), funded by the National Institute for Health Research. The foundation for the risk assessment component incorporated a systematic review and a consensus study that highlighted the need to propose a new conceptual framework. Design Discussion Paper. Data Sources The new conceptual framework links evidence from biomechanical, physiological and epidemiological evidence, through use of data from a systematic review (search conducted March 2010), a consensus study (conducted December 2010–2011) and an international expert group meeting (conducted December 2011). Implications for Nursing A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework incorporating key physiological and biomechanical components and their impact on internal strains, stresses and damage thresholds is proposed. Direct and key indirect causal factors suggested in a theoretical causal pathway are mapped to the physiological and biomechanical components of the framework. The new proposed conceptual framework provides the basis for understanding the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and has the potential to influence risk assessment guidance and practice. It could also be used to underpin future research to explore the role of individual risk factors conceptually and operationally. Conclusion By integrating existing knowledge from epidemiological, physiological and biomechanical evidence, a theoretical causal pathway and new conceptual framework are proposed with potential implications for practice and research. PMID:24684197

  11. Teacher Candidates' Conceptual Understanding of Conceptual Learning: From Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigler, Ellen A.; Saam, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Education researchers suggest that teacher education candidates be taught that meaningful learning is essential and that conceptual understanding be infused into all lessons. However, many teacher candidates are unable to successfully develop conceptual level lesson plans and some are unable to differentiate between skills and concepts. The…

  12. Ways of Going Wrong in Teaching for Conceptual Change: Report on the Conceptual Change Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward L.; Lott, Gerald W.

    A specific teaching strategy to effect conceptual change used with a single class of fifth grade students was evaluated. The Rand McNally SCIIS "Communities" unit used in this study can be characterized as a conceptual change strategy because it is organized around a three-phase learning cycle designed to move students from…

  13. Conceptual influences on category-based induction

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Davidson, Natalie S.

    2013-01-01

    One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductive inferences. However, there are competing theories to explain this phenomenon, differing in the roles attributed to conceptual information versus perceptual similarity. Seven experiments with 4- to 5-year-old children and adults (N = 344) test these theories by teaching categories for which category membership and perceptual similarity are in conflict, and varying the conceptual basis of the novel categories. Results indicate that for non-natural kind categories that have little conceptual coherence, children make inferences based on perceptual similarity, whereas adults make inferences based on category membership. In contrast, for basic- and ontological-level categories that have a principled conceptual basis, children and adults alike make use of category membership more than perceptual similarity as the basis of their inferences. These findings provide evidence in favor of the role of conceptual information in preschoolers’ inferences, and further demonstrate that labeled categories are not all equivalent; they differ in their inductive potential. PMID:23517863

  14. Role of dopamine receptors subtypes, D1-like and D2-like, within the nucleus accumbens subregions, core and shell, on memory consolidation in the one-trial inhibitory avoidance task.

    PubMed

    Managò, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea; De Leonibus, Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrated that dopamine within the nucleus accumbens mediates consolidation of both associative and nonassociative memories. However, the specific contribution of the nucleus accumbens subregions, core and shell, and of D1 and D2 receptors subtypes has not been yet clarified. The aim of this study was, therefore, to directly compare the effect of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor blockade within the core and the shell subregions of the nucleus accumbens on memory consolidation. Using the one-trial inhibitory avoidance task in CD1 mice, we demonstrated that SCH 23390 (vehicle, 12.5, 25, 50 ng/side) administration within the core, but not the shell, impaired step-through latency 24 h after the administration if injected immediately, but not 120 min post-training. Interestingly, sulpiride (vehicle, 25, 50 ng/side) injection in both the core and the shell of the accumbens affected step-through latency 24 h later; also, in this case the impairment was time dependent. These data provide the most complete and direct demonstration to date that early consolidation of aversive memory requires D2 receptor activation in both nucleus accumbens subregions, and D1 activation selectively in the nucleus accumbens core.

  15. Norepinephrine and dopamine modulate impulsivity on the five-choice serial reaction time task through opponent actions in the shell and core sub-regions of the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Economidou, Daina; Theobald, David E H; Robbins, Trevor W; Everitt, Barry J; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2012-08-01

    Impulsive behavior is a hallmark of several neuropsychiatric disorders (eg, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD). Although dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) have a significant role in the modulation of impulsivity their neural loci of action is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of the selective NE re-uptake inhibitor atomoxetine (ATO) and the mixed DA/NE re-uptake inhibitor methylphenidate (MPH), both with proven clinical efficacy in ADHD, on the number of premature responses on a five-choice serial reaction time task, an operational measure of impulsivity. Microinfusions of ATO into the shell, but not the core, sub-region of the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) significantly decreased premature responding whereas infusions of MPH in the core, but not the shell, sub-region significantly increased premature responding. However, neither ATO nor MPH significantly altered impulsive behavior when infused into the prelimbic or infralimbic cortices. The opposing effects of ATO and MPH in the NAcb core and shell on impulsivity were unlikely mediated by ancillary effects on behavioral activation as locomotor activity was either unaffected, as in the case of ATO infusions in the core and shell, or increased when MPH was infused into either the core and shell sub-region. These findings indicate an apparently 'opponent' modulation of premature responses by NE and DA in the NAcb shell or core, respectively, and suggest that the symptom clusters of hyperactive-impulsive type ADHD may have distinct neural and neurochemical substrates.

  16. Being moved: linguistic representation and conceptual structure.

    PubMed

    Kuehnast, Milena; Wagner, Valentin; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Jacobsen, Thomas; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the organization of the semantic field and the conceptual structure of moving experiences by investigating German-language expressions referring to the emotional state of being moved. We used present and past participles of eight psychological verbs as primes in a free word-association task, as these grammatical forms place their conceptual focus on the eliciting situation and on the felt emotional state, respectively. By applying a taxonomy of basic knowledge types and computing the Cognitive Salience Index, we identified joy and sadness as key emotional ingredients of being moved, and significant life events and art experiences as main elicitors of this emotional state. Metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the semantic field revealed that the core terms designate a cluster of emotional states characterized by low degrees of arousal and slightly positive valence, the latter due to a nearly balanced representation of positive and negative elements in the conceptual structure of being moved.

  17. How Physicists Communicate Conceptual Meaning with Math

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Scott

    2015-04-01

    Physics embeds conceptual meaning within a complex mathematical formalism. In this talk, I present a discourse analysis of faculty teaching with mathematical derivations, rearranging and simplifying equations to illuminate physical principles. Observations are interpreted through the lens of symbolic forms, conceptual and contextual meanings that are embedded in the equation. As an equation is manipulated, different forms are emphasized, subtly changing the physical interpretation. The symbolic forms framework can make explicit the motivations behind the mathematical ``moves'' in a derivation. Some manipulations change the dominant context from physics to mathematics. Other thematic manipulations -- e.g. grouping terms of a common variable -- reveal important conceptual points. While direct observational evidence supports the inference of these motivations, the reasoning is often hidden from the students. The study of mathematical discourse represents a new direction in which physics education researchers can study and inform the classroom.

  18. Enhancing conceptual change using argumentative essays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalman, Calvin S.; Rohar, Shelley; Wells, David

    2004-05-01

    We show the utility of following up collaborative group work with written exercises. In a previous paper we discussed promoting conceptual change using collaborative group exercises in a manner based on the notion of conceptual conflict developed by Hewson and Hewson in which representatives of differing viewpoints debate their outlook. In this paper, we describe an enhancement of this method based on Feyerabend's principle of counterinduction—the process by which one theory or idea is used to affect change in its rival. Students were required to follow up the conceptual conflict exercises with a written critique. Evaluations were done using the same enhanced version of the force concept inventory as administered to the students in the previous study.

  19. Being moved: linguistic representation and conceptual structure

    PubMed Central

    Kuehnast, Milena; Wagner, Valentin; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Jacobsen, Thomas; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the organization of the semantic field and the conceptual structure of moving experiences by investigating German-language expressions referring to the emotional state of being moved. We used present and past participles of eight psychological verbs as primes in a free word-association task, as these grammatical forms place their conceptual focus on the eliciting situation and on the felt emotional state, respectively. By applying a taxonomy of basic knowledge types and computing the Cognitive Salience Index, we identified joy and sadness as key emotional ingredients of being moved, and significant life events and art experiences as main elicitors of this emotional state. Metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the semantic field revealed that the core terms designate a cluster of emotional states characterized by low degrees of arousal and slightly positive valence, the latter due to a nearly balanced representation of positive and negative elements in the conceptual structure of being moved. PMID:25404924

  20. An Empirical Study of Enterprise Conceptual Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anaby-Tavor, Ateret; Amid, David; Fisher, Amit; Ossher, Harold; Bellamy, Rachel; Callery, Matthew; Desmond, Michael; Krasikov, Sophia; Roth, Tova; Simmonds, Ian; de Vries, Jacqueline

    Business analysts, business architects, and solution consultants use a variety of practices and methods in their quest to understand business. The resulting work products could end up being transitioned into the formal world of software requirement definitions or as recommendations for all kinds of business activities. We describe an empirical study about the nature of these methods, diagrams, and home-grown conceptual models as reflected in real practice at IBM. We identify the models as artifacts of "enterprise conceptual modeling". We study important features of these models, suggest practical classifications, and discuss their usage. Our survey shows that the "enterprise conceptual modeling" arena presents a variety of descriptive models, each used by a relatively small group of colleagues. Together they form a "long tail" that extends from "drawings" on one end to "standards" on the other.

  1. Conceptualizing violence for health and medical geography.

    PubMed

    DeVerteuil, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Despite the fact that violence is a major threat to public health, the term itself is rarely considered as a phenomenon unto itself, and rarely figures explicitly in work by health and medical geographers. In response, I propose a definitionally and conceptually more robust approach to violence using a tripartite frame (interpersonal violence, structural violence, mass intentional violence) and suggest critical interventions through which to apply this more explicit and conceptually more robust approach: violence and embodiment via substance abuse in health geography, and structural violence via mental illness in medical geography.

  2. Conceptual Alignment: How Brains Achieve Mutual Understanding.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Verhagen, Lennart; Toni, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    We share our thoughts with other minds, but we do not understand how. Having a common language certainly helps, but infants' and tourists' communicative success clearly illustrates that sharing thoughts does not require signals with a pre-assigned meaning. In fact, human communicators jointly build a fleeting conceptual space in which signals are a means to seek and provide evidence for mutual understanding. Recent work has started to capture the neural mechanisms supporting those fleeting conceptual alignments. The evidence suggests that communicators and addressees achieve mutual understanding by using the same computational procedures, implemented in the same neuronal substrate, and operating over temporal scales independent from the signals' occurrences.

  3. Forebrain Origins of Glutamatergic Innervation to the Rat Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus: Differential Inputs to the Anterior Versus Posterior Subregions

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Jones, Kenneth R.; Ziegler, Dana R.; Cullinan, William E.; Herman, James P.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) regulates numerous homeostatic systems and functions largely under the influence of forebrain inputs. Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter in forebrain, and glutamate neurosignaling in the PVN is known to mediate many of its functions. Previous work showed that vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluTs; specific markers for glutamatergic neurons) are expressed in forebrain sites that project to the PVN; however, the extent of this presumed glutamatergic innervation to the PVN is not clear. In the present study retrograde FluoroGold (FG) labeling of PVN-projecting neurons was combined with in situ hybridization for VGluT1 and VGluT2 mRNAs to identify forebrain regions that provide glutamatergic innervation to the PVN and its immediate surround in rats, with special consideration for the sources to the anterior versus posterior PVN. VGluT1 mRNA colocalization with retrogradely labeled FG neurons was sparse. VGluT2 mRNA colocalization with FG neurons was most abundant in the ventromedial hypothalamus after anterior PVN FG injections, and in the lateral, posterior, dorsomedial, and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei after posterior PVN injections. Anterograde tract tracing combined with VGluT2 immunolabeling showed that 1) ventromedial nucleus-derived glutamatergic inputs occur in both the anterior and posterior PVN; 2) posterior nucleus-derived glutamatergic inputs occur predominantly in the posterior PVN; and 3) medial preoptic nucleus-derived inputs to the PVN are not glutamatergic, thereby corroborating the innervation pattern seen with retrograde tracing. The results suggest that PVN subregions are influenced by varying amounts and sources of forebrain glutamatergic regulation, consistent with functional differentiation of glutamate projections. PMID:21452198

  4. [Mechanism analysis of optimized model of conversion from farmland to forestland in the hill-gully sub-region of Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Li, Shidon; Zhang, Lixia

    2004-09-01

    Conversion from Farmland to Forestland Program (CFF) is one of the six great ecological forest programs in China. This study covered the CFF model area of the hilly-gully sub-region of loess plateau, and introduced system dynamics and other latest theories and methodologies. Based on the analysis of five modules including that of the site observation of field stations and extensive investigations, and over 10000 original data obtained in the fields of natural science, social science and economics, the operational mechanism of the optimized model was studied. The optimized operational models integrated maximized ecological, economic and social benefits, while sustainability concepts were proposed for typical CFF sites: The Pinus tabulaeformis + Platycladus orientalis + Zanthoxylum spp. + Robinia pseudoacacia model at the eroded flat ridges of the middle reaches of the Yellow River. The result showed that the ecological, economic and social benefits of the optimized model reflected by main indexes were the best or better, and in the other models, either individual one was the best or others were not. From the viewpoint of comprehensive comparison of three great benefits, the optimized model was most excellent, and had eminent difference comparing to other ones through F test. The relationship between ecological and social benefit was eminent positive correlative. Social benefit was the same with economical one at some degrees. The relationship between ecological and economical benefit was more complicated. On the whole, they were positive correlative, but the economical benefit was not the greatest when the ecological one was the greatest. In general, from the viewpoint of largest comprehensive benefit, the three great benefits were not all the best, indicating that the combination of the modules must be reasonable. In order to achieve the ultimate goal of CFF, we must choose the optimized combination of ecological, economical and social benefits, and can't only

  5. Agro-biodiversity has increased over a 95 year period at sub-regional and regional scales in southern Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, D.; Bennett, E. M.; Rhemtulla, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Decline in agricultural biodiversity (cultivated species and wild species used for food or that support agro-ecosystem functioning) at the farm scale has fueled concerns about potential negative effects of this biodiversity loss on the ecological and economic sustainability of agro-ecosystems. Despite these concerns, formal assessment of how agro-biodiversity has historically changed at scales larger than individual farms is fragmented. We quantified the changes in the abundance of 10 crop and livestock species, their overall diversity, and the way they were mixed in ‘baskets’ of agricultural products from 1911 to 2006, at a sub-regional (15 Regional County Municipalities) and regional scales. We found that the diversity of agricultural products increased at the regional scale. From 1911 to 1966, the region produced fodder, milk and maple, mixed in two low-diversity baskets. After 1966, the region provided a greater variety of baskets composed of newly introduced cash crops and high-value livestock. All baskets provided were themselves more diverse than historically and varied greatly in composition across space. Increasing regional diversity was related to changes in agricultural policy, while the variation in the composition of baskets produced was related to biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics. Our results indicate that agricultural transformations of the 21th century did not invariably lead to agro-biodiversity loss at large scales. We have also demonstrated that combining diversity measures at multiple scales with the analysis of compositional change of agricultural products over long time periods could improve research on the links between agro-biodiversity dynamics and resilience.

  6. Implication of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the release of noradrenaline in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subregions under oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Milusheva, E A; Baranyi, M

    2003-11-01

    A strong linkage between adrenergic and glutamatergic systems exists in the CNS but it is still unclear whether the excessive release of noradrenaline under ischemic conditions is modulated by excitatory amino acids. We studied the effect of selective glutamate receptor antagonists on the release of [3H]noradrenaline evoked by glucose and oxygen deprivation in hippocampal CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus subregions. The release of glutamate, aspartate and GABA was measured by HPLC. Omission of oxygen and glucose increased the release of [3H]noradrenaline as well as the release of amino acids. Maximum effect on noradrenaline release was observed in CA1 region. The relative increase of the release after 30 min energy deprivation (R(2)) versus the basal release under normal conditions (R(1)), i.e. the R(2)/R(1) ratio was 7.1+/-1.0, 3.87+/-0.4 and 3.26+/-0.27 for CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus, respectively. The [3H]noradrenaline outflow in response to glucose and oxygen deprivation was abolished at low temperature, but not by Ca(2+) removal, suggesting a cytoplasmic release process. In CA1 and CA3 [3H]noradrenaline release was significantly attenuated by MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist. The AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI-53784 had no effect in CA3, but partly reduced noradrenaline release in CA1. Our results suggest that ionotropic glutamate receptors seem to be implicated in the massive cytoplasmic release of noradrenaline in CA1 what may contribute to its selective vulnerability.

  7. Interoception in insula subregions as a possible state marker for depression—an exploratory fMRI study investigating healthy, depressed and remitted participants

    PubMed Central

    Wiebking, Christine; de Greck, Moritz; Duncan, Niall W.; Tempelmann, Claus; Bajbouj, Malek; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interoceptive awareness (iA), the awareness of stimuli originating inside the body, plays an important role in human emotions and psychopathology. The insula is particularly involved in neural processes underlying iA. However, iA-related neural activity in the insula during the acute state of major depressive disorder (MDD) and in remission from depression has not been explored. Methods: A well-established fMRI paradigm for studying (iA; heartbeat counting) and exteroceptive awareness (eA; tone counting) was used. Study participants formed three independent groups: patients suffering from MDD, patients in remission from MDD or healthy controls. Task-induced neural activity in three functional subdivisions of the insula was compared between these groups. Results: Depressed participants showed neural hypo-responses during iA in anterior insula regions, as compared to both healthy and remitted participants. The right dorsal anterior insula showed the strongest response to iA across all participant groups. In depressed participants there was no differentiation between different stimuli types in this region (i.e., between iA, eA and noTask). Healthy and remitted participants in contrast showed clear activity differences. Conclusions: This is the first study comparing iA and eA-related activity in the insula in depressed participants to that in healthy and remitted individuals. The preliminary results suggest that these groups differ in there being hypo-responses across insula regions in the depressed participants, whilst non-psychiatric participants and patients in remission from MDD show the same neural activity during iA in insula subregions implying a possible state marker for MDD. The lack of activity differences between different stimulus types in the depressed group may account for their symptoms of altered external and internal focus. PMID:25914633

  8. Exact and conceptual repetition dissociate conceptual memory tests: problems for transfer appropriate processing theory.

    PubMed

    McDermott, K B; Roediger, H L

    1996-03-01

    Three experiments examined whether a conceptual implicit memory test (specifically, category instance generation) would exhibit repetition effects similar to those found in free recall. The transfer appropriate processing account of dissociations among memory tests led us to predict that the tests would show parallel effects; this prediction was based upon the theory's assumption that conceptual tests will behave similarly as a function of various independent variables. In Experiment 1, conceptual repetition (i.e., following a target word [e.g., puzzles] with an associate [e.g., jigsaw]) did not enhance priming on the instance generation test relative to the condition of simply presenting the target word once, although this manipulation did affect free recall. In Experiment 2, conceptual repetition was achieved by following a picture with its corresponding word (or vice versa). In this case, there was an effect of conceptual repetition on free recall but no reliable effect on category instance generation or category cued recall. In addition, we obtained a picture superiority effect in free recall but not in category instance generation. In the third experiment, when the same study sequence was used as in Experiment 1, but with instructions that encouraged relational processing, priming on the category instance generation task was enhanced by conceptual repetition. Results demonstrate that conceptual memory tests can be dissociated and present problems for Roediger's (1990) transfer appropriate processing account of dissociations between explicit and implicit tests.

  9. Examining the influence of formative assessment on conceptual accumulation and conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Miki K.

    This study explored the effect of formative assessment on student achievement in science. Research in science education has shown that students enter science classrooms with previously formed explanatory models of the natural world; these naive "mental models" have a substantial influence on their learning of scientific conceptions. In general, conceptual change describes the pathway from pre-instructional or prior conceptions to a post-instructional or desired conception. Conceptual change involves a fundamental restructuring of a network of concepts rather than fitting new concepts into an existing conceptual network or structure. Research has shown that conceptual change is difficult to promote; for example, students may accumulate multiple conceptions over the course of instruction, including both new misconceptions and more scientifically-sound conceptions. Hellden and Solomon (2004) found that although students tended to evoke the same, less-scientific conceptions over time, they could produce more scientifically-sound conceptions during interviews with appropriate prompting; thus, students undergo conceptual accumulation rather than conceptual change. Students can recall scientifically-sound conceptions they have learned and may use them to reason, but they do so in partnership or hybridization with their less-scientific prior conceptions. Formative assessment, which focuses on providing immediate feedback by acting upon student understanding during the course of instruction, and conceptual change have both been linked to increased student achievement. Formative assessment is an instructional strategy that helps teachers to assess students' current understanding, identify the gap between current understanding and expected understanding, and provide immediate and useful feedback to students on how to close the gap. Formative assessment ranges from formal (e.g. embedded, planned-for interactions between teacher and entire class) to informal (e.g. on

  10. Towards a Conceptualization of Dialogic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrós, Maria; Flecha, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    In 1968, Freire included in his work the need of dialogue for those acting as leaders. Since then, leadership has been widely addressed by authors around the world and different conceptual frameworks have been developed. Different social and educational movements have granted dialogue a significant role for leading change. Educational research has…

  11. Assessing Intervention Responsiveness: Conceptual and Technical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2003-01-01

    This article explores conceptual and technical issues associated with options for specifying three assessment components for implementing an intervention responsiveness approach to the identification of learning disabilities: the timing of the measurement of student response to intervention; the criterion for demarcating learning as inadequate;…

  12. Re-"Conceptualizing" Procedural Knowledge in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Jon R.

    Many mathematics educators have lost sight of the critical importance of the mathematical understanding which underlies procedural competence, in part because we do not have a language to refer to this kind of understanding. The modal way of categorizing mathematical knowledge--conceptual and procedural knowledge--is limited in that: (a) it is…

  13. Culturally Conscious Organizations: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paula M.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses workplace culture in academic libraries as an aspect of organizational success in achieving on-the-job diversity. It introduces a conceptual framework in the form of selected indicators as measurements of cultural integration in the workplace. Characteristics of organizational cultural health are also identified in order to…

  14. Conceptual Acquisition and Change through Social Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Yoshikazu

    1994-01-01

    Examines the role of social interaction as a facilitator of learning in general and conceptual change in particular. Three conditions are proposed as necessary for social interaction to facilitate knowledge construction--horizontal information, comparable domain knowledge, and availability of cognitive tools. Suggests that these conditions assure…

  15. University Student Conceptual Resources for Understanding Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Hannah C.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2016-01-01

    We report some of the common, prevalent conceptual resources that students used to reason about energy, based on our analysis of written responses to questions given to 807 introductory physics students. These resources include, for example, associating forms of energy with indicators, relating forces and energy, and representing energy…

  16. Developing Coherent Conceptual Storylines: Two Elementary Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanuscin, Deborah; Lipsitz, Kelsey; Cisterna-Alburquerque, Dante; Arnone, Kathryn A.; van Garderen, Delinda; de Araujo, Zandra; Lee, Eun Ju

    2016-01-01

    The "conceptual storyline" of a lesson refers to the flow and sequencing of learning activities such that science concepts align and progress in ways that are instructionally meaningful to student learning of the concepts. Research demonstrates that when teachers apply lesson design strategies to create a coherent science content…

  17. Taming Multivariate Data: Conceptual and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redlinger, Lawrence J.; Wiorkowski, John J.; Moses, Anna I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the conceptual, methodological, and statistical challenges in selecting appropriate peer institutions for comparative purposes. The authors' approach embraces a Western scientific tradition that physical things and phenomena can be "reduced into a set of key variables--identifiable parts--that make key…

  18. Conceptual Design of a Regional Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Regional Council of Governments, CO.

    This report describes the conceptual design of a regional information system, developed in support of the Denver Regional Council of Government's established comprehensive planning work program. It includes a discussion of system objectives, available data sources, recommended system content, software and system maintenance requirements,…

  19. Pictorial and Conceptual Representation of Glimpsed Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Mary C.; Staub, Adrian; O'Connor, Daniel H.

    2004-01-01

    Pictures seen in a rapid sequence are remembered briefly, but most are forgotten within a few seconds (M. C. Potter. A. Staub, J. Rado. & D. H. O'Connor. 2002). The authors investigated the pictorial and conceptual components of this fleeting memory by presenting 5 pictured scenes and immediately testing recognition of verbal titles (e.g., people…

  20. Conceptualizing and Exemplifying Science Teachers' Assessment Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Edward Geaney

    2013-01-01

    Although research in science education has led to new assessment forms and functions, the reality is that little work has been done to unpack and capture what it means for a teacher to develop expertise at assessing science. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, I suggest a conceptualization of assessment expertise that is organized around…

  1. Trade Secrets for Crafting a Conceptual Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamone, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    The author clarifies the distinction between a sound conceptual article and a literature review, outlines the creative process as it applies to written work, and provides "trade secrets" for novice writers on how to enhance their literary creativity and how to confront and solve writing problems. (Author/SR)

  2. Enhancing the Conceptual Understanding of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy

    2003-01-01

    Describes three levels of understanding science: the phenomena (macroscopic), the particle (microscopic), and the symbolic. Suggests that the objective of science instruction at all levels is conceptual understanding of scientific inquiry. Discusses effective instructional strategies, including analogy, collaborative learning, concept mapping,…

  3. An Overview of Conceptual Change Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Gökhan; Clark, Douglas B.

    2007-01-01

    Conceptual change researchers have made significant progress on two prominent but competing theoretical perspectives regarding knowledge structure coherence. These perspectives can be broadly characterized as (1) knowledge-as-theory perspectives and (2) knowledge-as-elements perspectives. These perspectives can be briefly summarized in terms of…

  4. A Conceptual Framework for Defining Pharmaceutical Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Vaughn L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a conceptual framework to help pharmacy students and practitioners identify and document drug-related problems. Presents a preliminary description and taxonomy, using principles established within nursing's diagnostic structure, and discusses implications for contemporary pharmacy practice and education, including delineation of…

  5. Introductory Practice Experiences: A Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Diane E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A conceptual framework for developing pharmacy curricula to provide students with introductory practice experiences (IPEs) is outlined, including the rationale, educational objectives and outcomes, and desired characteristics of these experiences. Pharmacy literature concerning early practice experiences is also reviewed. Models and desired…

  6. High School Students' Physical Education Conceptual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Suzan F.

    2004-01-01

    The value of conceptual physical education knowledge has long been acknowledged (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, 1969; Kneer, 1981; NASPE, 1995) yet has not been formally measured or assessed. Seven multiple choice tests with established validity and reliability (Ayers, 2001b) were used to assess the concepts…

  7. On Automatic Assessment and Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasila, Antti; Malinen, Jarmo; Tiitu, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    We consider two complementary aspects of mathematical skills, i.e. "procedural fluency" and "conceptual understanding," from a point of view that is related to modern e-learning environments and computer-based assessment. Pedagogical background of teaching mathematics is discussed, and it is proposed that the traditional book…

  8. Prospective Teachers' Metaphorical Conceptualizations of Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saban, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the metaphorical images that prospective teachers in Turkey formulated to describe learners. Participants (N = 2847) completed the prompt "A student is like ... because ..." to indicate their conceptualizations of learner. Data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Altogether 98 well-articulated…

  9. International Handbook of Research on Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosniadou, Stella

    2008-01-01

    The study of conceptual change traces its heritage to the notions of paradigm (networks of shared beliefs, concepts, practices) and paradigm shift made famous by Thomas Kuhn in his book, "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions". Kuhn's work was quickly linked to developmental psychology (how knowledge develops) and to science education (teaching…

  10. Effects of Conceptual Complexity on Assertive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruch, Monroe A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compared the assertive behavior of two groups differing in information-processing style. In experiment one, high conceptual-complexity (CC) subjects demonstrated greater content knowledge, direct delivery skill, and fewer negative self-statements. In experiment two, high versus low CC females were more assertive in difficult situations. (Author/RC)

  11. The Global Citizen Conceptualized: Accommodating Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Kathleen; Barker, Michelle; Harris, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Universities' aims for educating global citizens are rarely supported by a theoretical underpinning or evidence of outcomes. This study explored how international higher education experts conceptualize the global citizen or related terms representing the "ideal global graduate." A global notion of citizenship was accepted by the majority…

  12. Conceptual Design of a Prototype LSST Database

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, S; Huber, M E; Cook, K H; Abdulla, G; Brase, J

    2004-10-07

    This document describes a preliminary design for Prototype LSST Database (LSST DB). They identify key components and data structures and provide an expandable conceptual schema for the database. The authors discuss the potential user applications and post-processing algorithm to interact with the database, and give a set of example queries.

  13. Development of a Conceptual Framework of Heat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, John M.

    1988-01-01

    Considers variables which affect the acquisition of the kinetic theory of heat by children who hold alternative viewpoints. Suggests that the articulation of different viewpoints in no way hinders the acquisition of the desired conceptual framework. Emphasizes the benefit to low-reasoning students in particular. (CW)

  14. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Stacy; Bateiha, Summer

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the degree to which prospective elementary teachers had developed a meaningful and conceptual understanding of what integers are and explored their development of models for multiplication with integers that are related to everyday activities. Additionally, this study explored how these understandings informed…

  15. Conceptual Structures in Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cifarelli, Victor

    The processes by which conceptual knowledge is constructed during mathematical problem solving were studied, focusing on the cognitive activity of learners (i.e., the ways they elaborate, reorganize, and reconceptualize their solution activity). Underlying this research is the view that learners' mathematical conceptions evolve from their activity…

  16. Mapping Conceptual Change in Matter and Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellows, Nancy

    To analyze a student's conceptual changes, analyzing transcriptions of writing and verbal statements may not provide enough information. In a study of 25 sixth graders learning about matter and molecules, concept mapping of students' stated ideas was used to analyze the kinds of organizational changes the students made to use new science…

  17. Portfolios: Conceptual Foundations and Functional Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luescher, Andreas; Sinn, John W.

    2003-01-01

    In this article the authors address several important areas that combine to illuminate the portfolio as performance, index, and design. They provide an in-depth look at the conceptual foundation and selected functional implications of portfolios. Accordingly, the foundations laid here may serve as a basis for further development and application to…

  18. Defining Conceptual Understanding in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Thomas A.; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Brandriet, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Among the many possible goals that instructors have for students in general chemistry, the idea that they will better understand the conceptual underpinnings of the science is certainly important. Nonetheless, identifying with clarity what exemplifies student success at achieving this goal is hindered by the challenge of clearly articulating what…

  19. Frequent Collaborative Quiz Taking and Conceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Ali R.

    2015-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study reports on the effectiveness of three assessment strategies for students' performance. The primary goal was to determine whether there are any improvements in students' conceptual learning when a frequent (weekly) quiz is used for grading purposes compared to using midterm and final examinations only. Another goal was…

  20. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Gases Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Pinar Seda; Kaya, Ebru; Geban, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change oriented instruction (CCOI) over traditionally designed chemistry instruction (TDCI) on overcoming 10th grade students' misconceptions on gases concepts. In addition, the effect of gender difference on students' understanding of gases concepts was investigated. The…

  1. Vision: A Conceptual Framework for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkinson, Jennifer Scaturo

    2013-01-01

    Vision is essential to the implementation of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model. Drawing from research in organizational leadership, this article provides a conceptual framework for how school counselors can incorporate vision as a strategy for implementing school counseling programs within the context of practice.…

  2. Intergenerational Practice: Contributing to a Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Sacha; Sousa, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    The ageing of the European population is creating a new demographic mix, increasing the relevance of intergenerational practice (IGP). To date, however, this field lacks an appropriate conceptual framework. This study aims to contribute to such a framework through an integrative review of peer-reviewed papers reporting on IGPs. Fifteen papers were…

  3. Biology Student Teachers' Conceptual Frameworks regarding Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikmenli, Musa

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, biodiversity has received a great deal of attention worldwide, especially in environmental education. The reasons for this attention are the increase of human activities on biodiversity and environmental problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate biology student teachers' conceptual frameworks regarding biodiversity.…

  4. Learning and Unlearning: A Conceptual Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Max

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Organizational learning and unlearning are often viewed as different and distinct concepts in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the unlearning concept and reassess its position vis-à-vis learning, in particular second-order and double-loop learning. Design/methodology/approach The paper entails a conceptual analysis.…

  5. A Conceptual Framework for Job Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughead, Teri A.; Black, David R.

    1990-01-01

    Outlines a conceptual framework for job change analogous to a thermostat, in which job satisfaction is the "thermometer," change in a job or between jobs is the "adjustment lever," and values, life status, readiness to change, and job opportunities are the "controls." (26 references) (SK)

  6. Conceptual Influences on Category-Based Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Davidson, Natalie S.

    2013-01-01

    One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductive inferences. However, there are competing theories to explain this phenomenon, differing in the roles attributed to conceptual information vs. perceptual similarity. Seven experiments with 4- to…

  7. A Conceptual Framework for Primary Source Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensminger, David C.; Fry, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a descriptive conceptual framework to provide teachers with a means of recognizing and describing instructional activities that use primary sources. The framework provides structure for professional development programs that have been established to train teachers to access and integrate primary sources into lessons. The…

  8. Cognitive Efficiency: A Conceptual and Methodological Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Bobby

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive efficiency (CE) is generally defined as qualitative increases in knowledge gained in relation to the time and effort invested in knowledge acquisition. Across disciplines, limited consensus exists concerning the conceptual and measurement properties of CE partly because some researchers indiscriminately use the construct of CE to…

  9. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait

  10. Ghanaian Teacher Trainees' Conceptual Understanding of Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ruby

    2015-01-01

    Chemical stoichiometry is a conceptual framework that encompasses other concepts such as the mole, writing of chemical equations in word and representative form, balancing of equations and the equilibrium concept. The underlying concepts enable students to understand relationships among entities of matter and required amounts for use when…

  11. Flexible Learning Itineraries Based on Conceptual Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agudelo, Olga Lucía; Salinas, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The use of learning itineraries based on conceptual maps is studied in order to propose a more flexible instructional design that strengthens the learning process focused on the student, generating non-linear processes, characterising its elements, setting up relationships between them and shaping a general model with specifications for each…

  12. Collaboration Scripts--A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollar, Ingo; Fischer, Frank; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual analysis of collaboration scripts used in face-to-face and computer-mediated collaborative learning. Collaboration scripts are scaffolds that aim to improve collaboration through structuring the interactive processes between two or more learning partners. Collaboration scripts consist of at least five components:…

  13. Teaching the Conceptual Structure of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richland, Lindsey E.; Stigler, James W.; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2012-01-01

    Many students graduate from K-12 mathematics programs without flexible, conceptual mathematics knowledge. This article reviews psychological and educational research to propose that refining K-12 classroom instruction such that students draw connections through relational comparisons may enhance their long-term ability to transfer and engage with…

  14. Young Children's Conceptual Understanding of Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagli, Ümmühan Yesil; Halat, Erdogan

    2016-01-01

    This study explored 5-6 year-old children's conceptual understanding of one geometric shape, the triangle. It focused on whether children could draw a triangle from memory, and identify triangles of different types, sizes, and orientations. The data were collected from 82 children attending state preschool programs through a one-on-one interview,…

  15. Assessing Students' Conceptual Understanding of Solubility Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raviolo, Andres

    2001-01-01

    Presents a problem on solubility equilibrium which involves macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic levels of representation as a resource for the evaluation of students, and allows for assessment as to whether students have acquired an adequate conceptual understanding of the phenomenon. Also diagnoses difficulties with regard to previous…

  16. Conceptual Resources for Questioning "Child as Educator"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burman, Erica

    2013-01-01

    This paper critically evaluates the ways we look to children to educate us and explores how we might depart from that dynamic, exploring how a range of conceptual frameworks from historical and cultural studies and psychoanalysis might contribute to understanding the problematic of childhood, its problems and its limitations. While "child as…

  17. Leading Generative Groups: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Manuel; Sobel-Lojeski, Karen A.; Reilly, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual model of leadership in generative groups. Generative groups have diverse team members who are expected to develop innovative solutions to complex, unstructured problems. The challenge for leaders of generative groups is to balance (a) establishing shared goals with recognizing members' vested interests, (b)…

  18. Multiple Mentor Model: A Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlew, Larry D.

    1991-01-01

    Focuses on developing a conceptual framework for the mentoring process. The model is based on the premise that mentoring is not a single event in the life of a worker but rather several events with several different levels of mentoring. (Author)

  19. Shuttle mission simulator hardware conceptual design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The detailed shuttle mission simulator hardware requirements are discussed. The conceptual design methods, or existing technology, whereby those requirements will be fulfilled are described. Information of a general nature on the total design problem plus specific details on how these requirements are to be satisfied are reported. The configuration of the simulator is described and the capabilities for various types of training are identified.

  20. Phonological and Conceptual Activation in Speech Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis; Cutler, Anne; McQueen, James M.; Butterfield, Sally

    2006-01-01

    We propose that speech comprehension involves the activation of token representations of the phonological forms of current lexical hypotheses, separately from the ongoing construction of a conceptual interpretation of the current utterance. In a series of cross-modal priming experiments, facilitation of lexical decision responses to visual target…

  1. The Measurement and Conceptualization of Curiosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Petrosko, Joseph M.; Wiswell, Albert K.; Thongsukmag, Juthamas

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors tried various methods to measure and conceptualize curiosity. A sample of 369 education students (103 men, 266 women) who were attending universities on the East Coast of the United States completed 5 paper-and-pencil curiosity measures in 1 of their classes. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the authors found that the…

  2. Conceptualizing Emotions in Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Maia; Katz, Doran; Grosland, Tanetha

    2015-01-01

    This review of research investigates how the field of social studies education conceptualizes emotions within its literature. Analysis indicates a lack of theoretical and empirical engagement with emotions, even when the presence of emotions is explicitly acknowledged. Drawing on Michalinos Zembylas's framework for researching emotions in…

  3. Teaching Modern Dance: A Conceptual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enghauser, Rebecca Gose

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual approach to teaching modern dance can broaden the awareness and deepen the understanding of modern dance in the educational arena in general, and in dance education specifically. This article describes a unique program that dance teachers can use to introduce modern dance to novice dancers, as well as more experienced dancers,…

  4. Prior Conceptual Knowledge and Textbook Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, James P.; Guthrie, John T.

    1992-01-01

    The role of a subject's conceptual knowledge in the procedural task of searching a text for information was studied for 51 college undergraduates in 2 experiments involving knowledge of anatomy. Students with more anatomical information were able to search a text more quickly. Educational implications are discussed. (SLD)

  5. Intercultural Historical Learning: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordgren, Kenneth; Johansson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a conceptual framework in order to systematically discuss the meaning of intercultural learning in history education and how it could be advanced. We do so by bringing together theories of historical consciousness, intercultural competence and postcolonial thinking. By combining these theories into one framework, we identify…

  6. Conceptual Basis of Educational Service Resource Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledyankina, Olga V.; Akimova, Olga B.; Fomin, Evgenii P.

    2016-01-01

    Topicality of the issue researched is preconditioned by the need to describe the conceptual basis and significance of educational service resource support of at the current development stage of Russian vocational education, classification of its main components as well as significance of the need to transform resource support from the factor that…

  7. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  8. Conceptualizing Organizational Climates. Research Report No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Benjamin

    Part 1 of this paper presents some logical and conceptual distinctions between job satisfaction and organizational climate, the former being viewed as micro, evaluative, individual perceptions of personal events and experiences the latter as macro, relatively descriptive, organizational level perceptions that are abstractions of organizational…

  9. When Stepfathers Claim Stepchildren: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsiglio, William

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Guided by social constructionist and symbolic interactionist perspectives and a grounded theory method, my conceptual analysis explores stepfathers experiences with claiming stepchildren as their own. Using indepth interviews with a diverse sample of 36 stepfathers, my analysis focuses on paternal claiming as a core category and generates…

  10. Promoting Conceptual Understanding via Adaptive Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jacob P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of a scalable concept map based navigation system for a digital textbook. A literature review has been conducted to identify possible methods to promote conceptual understanding in the context of a digital textbook, and these hypothesized solutions will be evaluated through…

  11. Handling Qualities Optimization for Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Ben; Theodore, Colin R.; Berger, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, NASA, under a succession of rotary-wing programs has been moving towards coupling multiple discipline analyses in a rigorous consistent manner to evaluate rotorcraft conceptual designs. Handling qualities is one of the component analyses to be included in a future NASA Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization framework for conceptual design of VTOL aircraft. Similarly, the future vision for the capability of the Concept Design and Assessment Technology Area (CD&A-TA) of the U.S Army Aviation Development Directorate also includes a handling qualities component. SIMPLI-FLYD is a tool jointly developed by NASA and the U.S. Army to perform modeling and analysis for the assessment of flight dynamics and control aspects of the handling qualities of rotorcraft conceptual designs. An exploration of handling qualities analysis has been carried out using SIMPLI-FLYD in illustrative scenarios of a tiltrotor in forward flight and single-main rotor helicopter at hover. Using SIMPLI-FLYD and the conceptual design tool NDARC integrated into a single process, the effects of variations of design parameters such as tail or rotor size were evaluated in the form of margins to fixed- and rotary-wing handling qualities metrics as well as the vehicle empty weight. The handling qualities design margins are shown to vary across the flight envelope due to both changing flight dynamic and control characteristics and changing handling qualities specification requirements. The current SIMPLI-FLYD capability and future developments are discussed in the context of an overall rotorcraft conceptual design process.

  12. Aircraft Conceptual Design Using Vehicle Sketch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.; Antcliff, Kevin R.; Costa, Guillermo; Deshpande, Nachiket; Moore, Mark D.; Miguel, Edric A. San; Snyder, Alison N.

    2010-01-01

    Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is a parametric geometry modeling tool that is intended for use in the conceptual design of aircraft. The intent of this software is to rapidly model aircraft configurations without expending the expertise and time that is typically required for modeling with traditional Computer Aided Design (CAD) packages. VSP accomplishes this by using parametrically defined components, such as a wing that is defined by span, area, sweep, taper ratio, thickness to cord, and so on. During this phase of frequent design builds, changes to the model can be rapidly visualized along with the internal volumetric layout. Using this geometry-based approach, parameters such as wetted areas and cord lengths can be easily extracted for rapid external performance analyses, such as a parasite drag buildup. At the completion of the conceptual design phase, VSP can export its geometry to higher fidelity tools. This geometry tool was developed by NASA and is freely available to U.S. companies and universities. It has become integral to conceptual design in the Aeronautics Systems Analysis Branch (ASAB) here at NASA Langley Research Center and is currently being used at over 100 universities, aerospace companies, and other government agencies. This paper focuses on the use of VSP in recent NASA conceptual design studies to facilitate geometry-centered design methodology. Such a process is shown to promote greater levels of creativity, more rapid assessment of critical design issues, and improved ability to quickly interact with higher order analyses. A number of VSP vehicle model examples are compared to CAD-based conceptual design, from a designer perspective; comparisons are also made of the time and expertise required to build the geometry representations as well.

  13. Kuhn and conceptual change: on the analogy between conceptual changes in science and children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiffenhagen, Christian; Sherman, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that the analogy between conceptual changes in the history of science and conceptual changes in the development of young children is problematic. We show that the notions of ‘conceptual change’ in Kuhn and Piaget’s projects, the two thinkers whose work is most commonly drawn upon to support this analogy, are not compatible in the sense usually claimed. We contend that Kuhn’s work pertains not so much to the psychology of individual scientists, but to the way philosophers and historians should describe developments in communities of scientists. Furthermore, we argue that the analogy is based on a misunderstanding of the nature of science and the relation between science and common sense. The distinctiveness of the two notions of conceptual change has implications for science education research, since it raises serious questions about the relevance of Kuhn’s remarks for the study of pedagogical issues.

  14. CADDIS Volume 5. Causal Databases: Interactive Conceptual Diagrams (ICDs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In Interactive Conceptual Diagram (ICD) section of CADDIS allows users to create conceptual model diagrams, search a literature-based evidence database, and then attach that evidence to their diagrams.

  15. Integration of Language and Cognition at Pre-Conceptual Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-04

    and cognition at a pre-conceptual level, where conceptual and emotional contents are not differentiated might be interesting for theoretical linguistics and for practical development of understanding-based search engines .

  16. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in 3.0 Tesla Breast MRI: Diagnostic Performance and Tumor Characterization Using Small Subregions vs. Whole Tumor Regions of Interest

    PubMed Central

    Arponent, Otso; Sudah, Mazen; Masarwah, Amro; Taina, Mikko; Rautiainen, Suvi; Könönen, Mervi; Sironen, Reijo; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Sutela, Anna; Hakumäki, Juhana; Vanninen, Ritva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values are increasingly reported in breast MRI. As there is no standardized method for ADC measurements, we evaluated the effect of the size of region of interest (ROI) to diagnostic utility and correlation to prognostic markers of breast cancer. Methods This prospective study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Board; the need for written informed consent for the retrospective analyses of the breast MRIs was waived by the Chair of the Hospital District. We compared diagnostic accuracy of ADC measurements from whole-lesion ROIs (WL-ROIs) to small subregions (S-ROIs) showing the most restricted diffusion and evaluated correlations with prognostic factors in 112 consecutive patients (mean age 56.2±11.6 years, 137 lesions) who underwent 3.0-T breast MRI. Results Intra- and interobserver reproducibility were substantial (κ = 0.616–0.784; Intra-Class Correlation 0.589–0.831). In receiver operating characteristics analysis, differentiation between malignant and benign lesions was excellent (area under curve 0.957–0.962, cut-off ADC values for WL-ROIs: 0.87×10−3 mm2s-1; S-ROIs: 0.69×10−3 mm2s-1, P<0.001). WL-ROIs/S-ROIs achieved sensitivities of 95.7%/91.3%, specificities of 89.5%/94.7%, and overall accuracies of 89.8%/94.2%. In S-ROIs, lower ADC values correlated with presence of axillary metastases (P = 0.03), high histological grade (P = 0.006), and worsened Nottingham Prognostic Index Score (P<0.05). In both ROIs, ADC values correlated with progesterone receptors and advanced stage (P<0.01), but not with HER2, estrogen receptors, or Ki-67. Conclusions ADC values assist in breast tumor characterization. Small ROIs were more accurate than whole-lesion ROIs and more frequently associated with prognostic factors. Cut-off values differed significantly depending on measurement procedure, which should be recognized when comparing results from the literature. Instead of using a whole lesion covering ROI, a

  17. Subregion-specific role of glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens on drug context-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaohu; Lasseter, Heather C; Ramirez, Donna R; Ponds, KaiCee L; Wells, Audrey M; Fuchs, Rita A

    2012-03-01

    The functional integrity of the nucleus accumbens (NAC) core and shell is necessary for contextual cocaine-seeking behavior in the reinstatement animal model of drug relapse; however, the neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. The present study evaluated the contribution of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor populations to drug context-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Rats were trained to lever press for un-signaled cocaine infusions in a distinct context followed by extinction training in a different context. Cocaine-seeking behavior (non-reinforced active lever pressing) was then assessed in the previously cocaine-paired and extinction contexts after JNJ16259685 (mGluR1 antagonist: 0.0, 0.6, or 30 pg/0.3 µl/hemisphere) or CNQX (AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist: 0.0, 0.03, or 0.3 µg/0.3 µl /hemisphere) administration into the NAC core, medial or lateral NAC shell, or the ventral caudate-putamen (vCPu, anatomical control). JNJ16259685 or CNQX in the NAC core dose-dependently impaired contextual cocaine-seeking behavior relative to vehicle. Conversely, CNQX, but not JNJ16259685, in the lateral or medial NAC shell attenuated, whereas CNQX or JNJ16259685 in vCPu failed to inhibit, this behavior. The manipulations failed to alter instrumental behavior in the extinction context, general motor activity or food-reinforced instrumental behavior in control experiments. Thus, glutamate-mediated changes in drug context-induced motivation for cocaine involve distinct neuropharmacological mechanisms within the core and shell subregions of the NAC, with the stimulation of mGlu1 and AMPA/kainate receptors in the NAC core and the stimulation of AMPA/kainate, but not mGlu1, receptors in the NAC shell being necessary for this phenomenon.

  18. Large scale and sub-regional connections in the lead up to summer heat wave and extreme rainfall events in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Pezza, Alexandre; Simmonds, Ian; Perkins, Sarah; Cowan, Tim; Purich, Ariaan

    2015-04-01

    Australia has been exposed to a vast array of extreme weather regimes over the past few years, and the frequency and intensity of these events are expected to increase as a result of anthropogenic climate change. However, the predictability of extreme droughts, heat waves (HWs), bushfires and floods, is still hampered by our inability to fully understand how these weather systems interact with each other and with the climate system. This study brings new insight into the regional and large scale dynamics of some extreme events in Australia, by describing and comparing the climate signature of summer HWs and extreme rainfall events which have occurred in the states of Victoria and Queensland respectively, during 1979-2013. Our analyses highlight the importance of mid-latitude dynamics operating during HWs, in contrast with more tropical interactions at play during extreme rainfall events. A `common' blocking high pressure system is observed over the Tasman Sea during the two types of extreme events, and may explain why some southeastern HWs (only about 25 %) occur in close succession with floods in Queensland. However, our results suggest that there is no dynamical link between these two types of events, since the HW-related anticyclone evolves as part of a baroclinic wave train, whereas in the case of rainfall events, this structure emerges as an equivalent barotropic response to tropical convection. Sub-regional surface temperatures and air-sea fluxes also suggest that distinct processes may be operating in the lead up to these two events. Indeed, HWs tend to occur when the wave train propagates from the south Indian to the Pacific Ocean, inducing a quasi-stationary blocking high system over the Tasman Sea. This anticyclonic anomaly can then advect hot dry air towards the southern Victorian coast, where it produces HW conditions. On the other hand, extreme rainfall events mostly occur when the background conditions correspond to a La Niña state. The convection

  19. Computational Conceptual Change: An Explanation-Based Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    of human mental models, (2) our psychologically plausible model of analogical generalization can learn these models from examples, and (3) conceptual...four simulations. We simulate conceptual change in the domains of astronomy, biology, and force dynamics where examples of psychological conceptual...provide a consistent computational account of human mental models, (2) our psychologically plausible model of analogical generalization can learn these

  20. A Structural Equation Model of Conceptual Change in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2011-01-01

    A model of conceptual change in physics was tested on introductory-level, college physics students. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to conceptual change in physics including an approach goal orientation, need for cognition, motivation, and course grade. Conceptual change in physics…

  1. Individual Differences in Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge when Learning Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Darcy; Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on children's conceptual and procedural understanding of fractions, and other arithmetic skills, has led to contradictory conclusions. Some research suggests that children learn conceptual knowledge before procedural knowledge, some suggests that they learn procedural knowledge before conceptual knowledge, and other research…

  2. Conceptual Frameworks in the Doctoral Research Process: A Pedagogical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Jeanette; Smyth, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to consideration of the role of conceptual frameworks in the doctoral research process. Through reflection on the two authors' own conceptual frameworks for their doctoral studies, a pedagogical model has been developed. The model posits the development of a conceptual framework as a core element of the doctoral…

  3. Towards to an Explanation for Conceptual Change: A Mechanistic Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari

    2014-01-01

    Conceptual change is one of the most studied fields in science education and psychology of learning. However, there are still some foundational issues in conceptual change research on which no clear consensus has emerged. Firstly, there is no agreement on what changes in belief and concept systems constitute conceptual change and what changes do…

  4. The Influence of Approach and Avoidance Goals on Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcus Lee; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, conceptual change research has been experiencing a warming trend (G. M. Sinatra, 2005) whereby motivational and affective factors are being explored in the conceptual change process. The purpose of this study is to explore the 2 × 2 framework of achievement goal theory in relation to students' conceptual change learning for a specific…

  5. Preserved conceptual priming in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carla A R; Lloyd-Jones, Toby J

    2006-10-01

    We assessed Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy older adult control (HC) group performance on: (1) a conceptual priming task, in which participants had to make a semantic decision as to whether a degraded picture of an object encountered previously belonged to the category of living or non-living things; and (2) a recognition memory task. The AD group showed a dissociation between impaired performance on the recognition task and preserved priming for semantic decisions to degraded pictures. We argue that it is not whether priming is conceptual or perceptual that is important for the observation of priming in AD, rather it is the nature of the response that is required (c.f., Gabrieli et al., 1999).

  6. Neural Adaptation Effects in Conceptual Processing.

    PubMed

    Marino, Barbara F M; Borghi, Anna M; Gemmi, Luca; Cacciari, Cristina; Riggio, Lucia

    2015-07-31

    We investigated the conceptual processing of nouns referring to objects characterized by a highly typical color and orientation. We used a go/no-go task in which we asked participants to categorize each noun as referring or not to natural entities (e.g., animals) after a selective adaptation of color-edge neurons in the posterior LV4 region of the visual cortex was induced by means of a McCollough effect procedure. This manipulation affected categorization: the green-vertical adaptation led to slower responses than the green-horizontal adaptation, regardless of the specific color and orientation of the to-be-categorized noun. This result suggests that the conceptual processing of natural entities may entail the activation of modality-specific neural channels with weights proportional to the reliability of the signals produced by these channels during actual perception. This finding is discussed with reference to the debate about the grounded cognition view.

  7. Conceptual Design of an APT Reusable Spaceplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corpino, S.; Viola, N.

    This paper concerns the conceptual design of an Aerial Propellant Transfer reusable spaceplane carried out during our PhD course under the supervision of prof. Chiesa. The new conceptual design methodology employed in order to develop the APT concept and the main characteristics of the spaceplane itself will be presented and discussed. The methodology for conceptual design has been worked out during the last three years. It was originally thought for atmospheric vehicle design but, thanks to its modular structure which makes it very flexible, it has been possible to convert it to space transportation systems design by adding and/or modifying a few modules. One of the major improvements has been for example the conception and development of the mission simulation and trajectory optimisation module. The methodology includes as main characteristics and innovations the latest techniques of geometric modelling and logistic, operational and cost aspects since the first stages of the project. Computer aided design techniques are used to obtain a better definition of the product at the end of the conceptual design phase and virtual reality concepts are employed to visualise three-dimensional installation and operational aspects, at least in part replacing full-scale mock- ups. The introduction of parametric three-dimensional CAD software integrated into the conceptual design methodology represents a great improvement because it allows to carry out different layouts and to assess them immediately. It is also possible to link the CAD system to a digital prototyping software which combines 3D visualisation and assembly analysis, useful to define the so-called Digital Mock-Up at Conceptual Level (DMUCL) which studies the integration between the on board systems, sized with simulation algorithms, and the airframe. DMUCL represents a very good means to integrate the conceptual design with a methodology turned towards dealing with Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and

  8. Conceptual Spaces of the Immune System.

    PubMed

    Fierz, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The immune system can be looked at as a cognitive system. This is often done in analogy to the neuro-psychological system. Here, it is demonstrated that the cognitive functions of the immune system can be properly described within a new theory of cognitive science. Gärdenfors' geometrical framework of conceptual spaces is applied to immune cognition. Basic notions, like quality dimensions, natural properties and concepts, similarities, prototypes, saliences, etc., are related to cognitive phenomena of the immune system. Constraints derived from treating the immune system within a cognitive theory, like Gärdenfors' conceptual spaces, might well prove to be instrumental for the design of vaccines, immunological diagnostic tests, and immunotherapy.

  9. A dynamic conceptual model of care planning.

    PubMed

    Elf, Marie; Poutilova, Maria; Ohrn, Kerstin

    2007-12-01

    This article presents a conceptual model of the care planning process developed to identify the hypothetical links between structural, process and outcome factors important to the quality of the process. Based on existing literature, it was hypothesized that a thorough assessment of patients' health needs is an important prerequisite when making a rigorous diagnosis and preparing plans for various care interventions. Other important variables that are assumed to influence the quality of the process are the care culture and professional knowledge. The conceptual model was developed as a system dynamics causal loop diagram as a first essential step towards a computed model. System dynamics offers the potential to describe processes in a nonlinear, dynamic way and is suitable for exploring, comprehending, learning and communicating complex ideas about care processes.

  10. Vagueness, graded membership, and conceptual spaces.

    PubMed

    Douven, Igor

    2016-06-01

    This paper is concerned with a version of Kamp and Partee's account of graded membership that relies on the conceptual spaces framework. Three studies are reported, one to construct a particular shape space, one to detect which shapes representable in that space are typical for certain sorts of objects, and one to elicit degrees of category membership for the various shapes from which the shape space was constructed. Taking Kamp and Partee's proposal as given, the first two studies allowed us to predict the degrees to which people would judge shapes representable in the space to be members of certain categories. These predictions were compared with the degrees that were measured in the third study. The comparison yielded a test of the account of graded membership at issue. The outcome of this test was found to support the conceptual spaces version of Kamp and Partee's account of graded membership.

  11. University student conceptual resources for understanding energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, Hannah C.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2016-06-01

    We report some of the common, prevalent conceptual resources that students used to reason about energy, based on our analysis of written responses to questions given to 807 introductory physics students. These resources include, for example, associating forms of energy with indicators, relating forces and energy, and representing energy quantitatively. This research responds to a need for large-scale, resources-oriented research on students' conceptual understanding and has the potential to support the development of an underexplored dimension of pedagogical content knowledge-knowledge of student resources for understanding energy. Our aim is to promote instructor take-up of the resources theory of knowledge, and we suggest a number of ways in which instructors might capitalize on the resources we report.

  12. Neural Adaptation Effects in Conceptual Processing

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Barbara F. M.; Borghi, Anna M.; Gemmi, Luca; Cacciari, Cristina; Riggio, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the conceptual processing of nouns referring to objects characterized by a highly typical color and orientation. We used a go/no-go task in which we asked participants to categorize each noun as referring or not to natural entities (e.g., animals) after a selective adaptation of color-edge neurons in the posterior LV4 region of the visual cortex was induced by means of a McCollough effect procedure. This manipulation affected categorization: the green-vertical adaptation led to slower responses than the green-horizontal adaptation, regardless of the specific color and orientation of the to-be-categorized noun. This result suggests that the conceptual processing of natural entities may entail the activation of modality-specific neural channels with weights proportional to the reliability of the signals produced by these channels during actual perception. This finding is discussed with reference to the debate about the grounded cognition view. PMID:26264031

  13. Conceptualization of relative size by honeybees.

    PubMed

    Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; d'Amaro, Daniele; Metzler, Marita; Dyer, Adrian G

    2014-01-01

    The ability to process visual information using relational rules allows for decisions independent of the specific physical attributes of individual stimuli. Until recently, the manipulation of relational concepts was considered as a prerogative of large mammalian brains. Here we show that individual free flying honeybees can learn to use size relationship rules to choose either the larger or smaller stimulus as the correct solution in a given context, and subsequently apply the learnt rule to novel colors and shapes providing that there is sufficient input to the long wavelength (green) photoreceptor channel. Our results add a novel, size-based conceptual rule to the set of relational concepts that honeybees have been shown to master and underline the value of bees as an animal model for studying the emergence of conceptualization abilities.

  14. Conceptualization of relative size by honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; d’Amaro, Daniele; Metzler, Marita; Dyer, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to process visual information using relational rules allows for decisions independent of the specific physical attributes of individual stimuli. Until recently, the manipulation of relational concepts was considered as a prerogative of large mammalian brains. Here we show that individual free flying honeybees can learn to use size relationship rules to choose either the larger or smaller stimulus as the correct solution in a given context, and subsequently apply the learnt rule to novel colors and shapes providing that there is sufficient input to the long wavelength (green) photoreceptor channel. Our results add a novel, size-based conceptual rule to the set of relational concepts that honeybees have been shown to master and underline the value of bees as an animal model for studying the emergence of conceptualization abilities. PMID:24672444

  15. Conceptual Spaces of the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Fierz, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The immune system can be looked at as a cognitive system. This is often done in analogy to the neuro-psychological system. Here, it is demonstrated that the cognitive functions of the immune system can be properly described within a new theory of cognitive science. Gärdenfors’ geometrical framework of conceptual spaces is applied to immune cognition. Basic notions, like quality dimensions, natural properties and concepts, similarities, prototypes, saliences, etc., are related to cognitive phenomena of the immune system. Constraints derived from treating the immune system within a cognitive theory, like Gärdenfors’ conceptual spaces, might well prove to be instrumental for the design of vaccines, immunological diagnostic tests, and immunotherapy. PMID:28018339

  16. Conceptual design for PSP mounting bracket

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, G.; Stein, R.

    1991-12-31

    Protective structural packages (PSP`s or overpacks) used to ship 2 1/2-ton UF{sub 6} product cylinders are bolted to truck trailers. All bolts penetrate two longitudinal rows of wooden planks. Removal and replacement is required at various intervals for maintenance and routine testing. A conceptual design is presented for mounting brackets which would securely attach PSP`s to trailer frames, reduce removal and replacement time, and minimize risk of personnel injury.

  17. Preliminary conceptual design of DEMO EC system

    SciTech Connect

    Garavaglia, S. Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; Granucci, G.; Moro, A.; Rispoli, N.; Grossetti, G.; Strauss, D.; Jelonnek, J.; Tran, Q. M.; Franke, T.

    2015-12-10

    In the framework of EUROfusion Consortium the Work Package Heating and Current Drive addresses the engineering design and R&D for the electron cyclotron, ion cyclotron and neutral beam systems. This paper reports the activities performed in 2014, focusing on the work done regarding the input for the conceptual design of the EC system, particularly for the gyrotron, the transmission line and the launchers.

  18. Employee Commitment to Organizations: A Conceptual Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    7 A A03 357 OREGON UNIV EUGENE GRADUATE SCHOOLSOF MANAGEMENT AND--ETC F/ 5/1 EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT TO ORGANIZATIONS: A CONC PTUAL REVIEW.CU...Management University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403 \\ . ’k. Employee Commitment to Organizations: A Conceptual Review Richard M. Steers, University of...Review. 5 TYPE OF REPORT 8 PERIO’ COVERED .’ Employee Commitment to Organizations: A Concep- ’ tual Review. 6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) 8

  19. Engineering report (conceptual design) PFP solution stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, J.B.

    1997-07-17

    This Engineering Report (Conceptual Design) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  20. Conceptual change strategies in teaching genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzli, Laura Elizabeth

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of utilizing conceptual change strategies when teaching high school genetics. The study examined the effects of structuring instruction to provide students with cognitive situations which promote conceptual change, specifically instruction was structured to elicit students' prior knowledge. The goal of the study was that the students would not only be able to solve genetics problems and define basic terminology but they would also have constructed more scientific schemas of the actual processes involved in inheritance. This study is based on the constructivist theory of learning and conceptual change research which suggest that students are actively involved in the process of relating new information to prior knowledge as they construct new knowledge. Two sections of biology II classes received inquiry based instruction and participated in structured cooperative learning groups. However, the unique difference in the treatment group's instruction was the use of structured thought time and the resulting social interaction between the students. The treatment group students' instructional design allowed students to socially construct their cognitive knowledge after elicitation of their prior knowledge. In contrast, the instructional design for the control group students allowed them to socially construct their cognitive knowledge of genetics without the individually structured thought time. The results indicated that the conceptual change strategies with individually structured thought time improved the students' scientific mastery of genetics concepts and they maintained fewer post instructional alternative conceptions. Although all students gained the ability to correctly solve genetics problems, the treatment group students were able to explain the processes involved in terms of meiosis. The treatment group students were also able to better apply their knowledge to novel genetic situations. The implications

  1. Exercise training reinstates cortico-cortical sensorimotor functional connectivity following striatal lesioning: Development and application of a subregional-level analytic toolbox for perfusion autoradiographs of the rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yu-Hao; Heintz, Ryan; Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa; Scremin, Oscar; Maarek, Jean-Michel; Holschneider, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Current rodent connectome projects are revealing brain structural connectivity with unprecedented resolution and completeness. How subregional structural connectivity relates to subregional functional interactions is an emerging research topic. We describe a method for standardized, mesoscopic-level data sampling from autoradiographic coronal sections of the rat brain, and for correlation-based analysis and intuitive display of cortico-cortical functional connectivity (FC) on a flattened cortical map. A graphic user interface “Cx-2D” allows for the display of significant correlations of individual regions-of-interest, as well as graph theoretical metrics across the cortex. Cx-2D was tested on an autoradiographic data set of cerebral blood flow (CBF) of rats that had undergone bilateral striatal lesions, followed by 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training or no exercise. Effects of lesioning and exercise on cortico-cortical FC were examined during a locomotor challenge in this rat model of Parkinsonism. Subregional FC analysis revealed a rich functional reorganization of the brain in response to lesioning and exercise that was not apparent in a standard analysis focused on CBF of isolated brain regions. Lesioned rats showed diminished degree centrality of lateral primary motor cortex, as well as neighboring somatosensory cortex--changes that were substantially reversed in lesioned rats following exercise training. Seed analysis revealed that exercise increased positive correlations in motor and somatosensory cortex, with little effect in non-sensorimotor regions such as visual, auditory, and piriform cortex. The current analysis revealed that exercise partially reinstated sensorimotor FC lost following dopaminergic deafferentation. Cx-2D allows for standardized data sampling from images of brain slices, as well as analysis and display of cortico-cortical FC in the rat cerebral cortex with potential applications in a variety of autoradiographic and histologic

  2. Exercise training reinstates cortico-cortical sensorimotor functional connectivity following striatal lesioning: development and application of a subregional-level analytic toolbox for perfusion autoradiographs of the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yu-Hao; Heintz, Ryan; Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa G.; Scremin, Oscar U.; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Current rodent connectome projects are revealing brain structural connectivity with unprecedented resolution and completeness. How subregional structural connectivity relates to subregional functional interactions is an emerging research topic. We describe a method for standardized, mesoscopic-level data sampling from autoradiographic coronal sections of the rat brain, and for correlation-based analysis and intuitive display of cortico-cortical functional connectivity (FC) on a flattened cortical map. A graphic user interface “Cx-2D” allows for the display of significant correlations of individual regions-of-interest, as well as graph theoretical metrics across the cortex. Cx-2D was tested on an autoradiographic data set of cerebral blood flow (CBF) of rats that had undergone bilateral striatal lesions, followed by 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training or no exercise. Effects of lesioning and exercise on cortico-cortical FC were examined during a locomotor challenge in this rat model of Parkinsonism. Subregional FC analysis revealed a rich functional reorganization of the brain in response to lesioning and exercise that was not apparent in a standard analysis focused on CBF of isolated brain regions. Lesioned rats showed diminished degree centrality of lateral primary motor cortex, as well as neighboring somatosensory cortex—changes that were substantially reversed in lesioned rats following exercise training. Seed analysis revealed that exercise increased positive correlations in motor and somatosensory cortex, with little effect in non-sensorimotor regions such as visual, auditory, and piriform cortex. The current analysis revealed that exercise partially reinstated sensorimotor FC lost following dopaminergic deafferentation. Cx-2D allows for standardized data sampling from images of brain slices, as well as analysis and display of cortico-cortical FC in the rat cerebral cortex with potential applications in a variety of autoradiographic and histologic

  3. In defense of abstract conceptual representations.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    An extensive program of research in the past 2 decades has focused on the role of modal sensory, motor, and affective brain systems in storing and retrieving concept knowledge. This focus has led in some circles to an underestimation of the need for more abstract, supramodal conceptual representations in semantic cognition. Evidence for supramodal processing comes from neuroimaging work documenting a large, well-defined cortical network that responds to meaningful stimuli regardless of modal content. The nodes in this network correspond to high-level "convergence zones" that receive broadly crossmodal input and presumably process crossmodal conjunctions. It is proposed that highly conjunctive representations are needed for several critical functions, including capturing conceptual similarity structure, enabling thematic associative relationships independent of conceptual similarity, and providing efficient "chunking" of concept representations for a range of higher order tasks that require concepts to be configured as situations. These hypothesized functions account for a wide range of neuroimaging results showing modulation of the supramodal convergence zone network by associative strength, lexicality, familiarity, imageability, frequency, and semantic compositionality. The evidence supports a hierarchical model of knowledge representation in which modal systems provide a mechanism for concept acquisition and serve to ground individual concepts in external reality, whereas broadly conjunctive, supramodal representations play an equally important role in concept association and situation knowledge.

  4. Conceptualizing and Exemplifying Science Teachers' Assessment Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geaney Lyon, Edward

    2013-05-01

    Although research in science education has led to new assessment forms and functions, the reality is that little work has been done to unpack and capture what it means for a teacher to develop expertise at assessing science. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, I suggest a conceptualization of assessment expertise that is organized around three dimensions: (a) designing aligned and theoretically cohesive assessment (Design), (b) using assessment to support students' science learning (Use), and (c) equitably assessing language minorities (Equity). The second purpose is to suggest and exemplify various levels of teaching expertise across the three conceptual dimensions using written assessment plans gathered from a study on secondary science pre-service teachers' assessment growth. The contribution of this paper lies in its further conceptual development of assessment expertise, instantiated in a rubric, which can spark discussion about how to capture the range of assessment practices that might be found in science classrooms as well as move toward a potential learning progression of assessment expertise.

  5. Tinkering: a conceptual and historical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Laubichler, Manfred D

    2007-01-01

    Francois Jacob's article 'Evolution and Tinkering' published in Science in 1977 is still the locus classicus for the concept of tinkering in biology. It first introduced the notion of tinkering to a wide audience of scientists. Jacob drew on a variety of different sources ranging from molecular biology to evolutionary biology and cultural anthropology. The notion of tinkering, or more accurately, the concept of bricolage, are conceptual abstractions that allow for the theoretical analysis of a wide range of phenomena that are united by a shared underlying process--tinkering, or the opportunistic rearrangement and recombination of existing elements. This paper looks at Jacob's analysis as itself an example of conceptual tinkering. It traces the history of some of its elements and sketches how it has become part of an inclusive discourse of theoretical biology and evolutionary developmental biology that emerged over the last 30 years. I will argue that the theoretical power of Jacob's analysis lies in the fact that he captured a widespread phenomenon. His conceptual analysis is thus an example of an interdisciplinary synthesis that is based on a shared process rather than a shared object.

  6. Deep Borehole Field Test Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest L.

    2016-09-30

    This report documents conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), including test packages (simulated waste packages, not containing waste) and a system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the planned Field Test Borehole (FTB). For the DBFT to have demonstration value, it must be based on conceptualization of a deep borehole disposal (DBD) system. This document therefore identifies key options for a DBD system, describes an updated reference DBD concept, and derives a recommended concept for the DBFT demonstration. The objective of the DBFT is to confirm the safety and feasibility of the DBD concept for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. The conceptual design described in this report will demonstrate equipment and operations for safe waste handling and downhole emplacement of test packages, while contributing to an evaluation of the overall safety and practicality of the DBD concept. The DBFT also includes drilling and downhole characterization investigations that are described elsewhere (see Section 1). Importantly, no radioactive waste will be used in the DBFT, nor will the DBFT site be used for disposal of any type of waste. The foremost performance objective for conduct of the DBFT is to demonstrate safe operations in all aspects of the test.

  7. Executive functions predict conceptual learning of science.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Sinéad M; Booth, Josephine N; Palmer, Lorna Elise; Blythe, Richard A; Delibegovic, Mirela; Wheate, Nial J

    2016-06-01

    We examined the relationship between executive functions and both factual and conceptual learning of science, specifically chemistry, in early adolescence. Sixty-three pupils in their second year of secondary school (aged 12-13 years) participated. Pupils completed tasks of working memory (Spatial Working Memory), inhibition (Stop-Signal), attention set-shifting (ID/ED), and planning (Stockings of Cambridge), from the CANTAB. They also participated in a chemistry teaching session, practical, and assessment on the topic of acids and alkalis designed specifically for this study. Executive function data were related to (1) the chemistry assessment which included aspects of factual and conceptual learning and (2) a recent school science exam. Correlational analyses between executive functions and both the chemistry assessment and science grades revealed that science achievements were significantly correlated with working memory. Linear regression analysis revealed that visuospatial working memory ability was predictive of chemistry performance. Interestingly, this relationship was observed solely in relation to the conceptual learning condition of the assessment highlighting the role of executive functions in understanding and applying knowledge about what is learned within science teaching.

  8. Effects of Conceptual Assignments and Conceptual Change Discussions on Students' Misconceptions and Achievement Regarding Force and Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on high school students' achievement and misconceptions about force and motion. Analyzes pretest and posttest data from the Force Misconception and Force Achievement Tests (FMFAT). Discusses the effects on the conceptual change discussion on reducing…

  9. Influence of Learning Styles on Conceptual Learning of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Suarez, Teresita; Alarcon, Hugo

    2010-10-01

    Several studies have shown the influence of scientific reasoning on the conceptual learning of students in courses developed with methodologies that promote active learning. Given that learning styles may also influence conceptual learning of physics, a correlacional study was conducted which used two different approaches of learning styles: the Honey-Alonso and Felder-Silverman models. This quantitative study was performed in two groups of students using modeling instruction in a college course of introductory mechanics. The Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation test (FMCE) was used to assess conceptual learning. The results of this work suggest the dependence of the conceptual learning of physics on the learning styles.

  10. The Flexibility of Conceptual Pacts: Referring Expressions Dynamically Shift to Accommodate New Conceptualizations

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Alyssa; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    In a classic paper, Brennan and Clark argued that when interlocutors agree on a name for an object, they are forming a temporary agreement on how to conceptualize that object; that is, they are forming a conceptual pact. The literature on conceptual pacts has largely focused on the costs and benefits of breaking and maintaining lexical precedents, and the degree to which they might be partner-specific. The research presented here focuses on a question about conceptual pacts that has been largely neglected in the literature: To what extent are conceptual pacts specific to the local context of the interaction? If conceptual pacts are indeed temporary, then when the local context changes in ways that are accessible to participants, we would expect participants to seamlessly shift to referential expressions that reflect novel conceptualizations. Two experiments examined how referential forms change across context in collaborative, task-oriented dialog between naïve participants. In Experiment 1, names for parts of an unknown object were established in an “item” identification stage (e.g., a shape that looked like a wrench was called “the wrench”). In a second “build” stage, that name was often supplanted by an object-oriented name, e.g., the “leg.” These changes happened abruptly and without negotiation. In Experiment 2, interlocutors manipulated clip art and more abstract tangram pictures in a “slider” puzzle to arrange the objects into a target configuration. On some trials moving an object revealed a picture that could be construed as a contrast competitor, e.g., a clip art picture of a camel after “the camel” had been negotiated as a name for a tangram shape, or vice versa. As would be expected, modification rates increased when a potential contrast was revealed. More strikingly, the degree to which a name had been negotiated or the frequency with which it had been used did not affect the likelihood that the revealed shape would be

  11. Towards a Conceptual Profile: Rethinking Conceptual Mediation in the Light of Recent Cognitive and Neuroscientific Findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Chris

    2014-06-01

    One important focus for science education researchers over many years has been the attempts to replace students' commonsense and non-scientific explanations of various phenomena by scientific explanations. The approach we adopted almost three decades ago was conceptual mediation, and this was shown to have a considerable level of success with both conceptual and attitudinal change. However, since that time, advances have been made in the application of both cognitive science and neuroscience to science learning. In particular, evidence has accumulated that, rather than the replacement of the commonsense view, the reality is that learners develop a conceptual profile which includes both the commonsense and the scientific. If this is the case, instead of focussing on conceptual replacement, science educators need to aim more actively at strengthening the learner's executive processes which select contextually appropriate responses and inhibit inappropriate ones. In this paper, the initial development, theoretical basis and the practical applications of conceptual mediation are introduced, following which, these are re-examined in the light of more recent findings. Within this discussion, several potential links to recent cognitive and neuroscientific research are drawn, and these raise issues for further research into the most appropriate teaching approaches for tackling existing non-scientific conceptions.

  12. Conceptual structures: Information processing in mind and machine

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The broad coverage in this book combines material from philosophy, linguistics, psychology, and artificial intelligence. As a unifying force, the book focuses on conceptual graphs - networks of concepts and conceptual relations developed over the past twenty years. Important topics include: philosophical issues of knowledge and meaning; cognitive psychology in relation to linguistics and artificial intelligence; conceptual graphs as a knowledge representation language; applications for formal logic, plausible reasoning, heuristics, and computation; natural language parsing, generation, and pragmatics; knowledge-based systems, conceptual analysis, and database design and query; limits of conceptualization and unsolved problems. To accommodate readers from various disciplines, this book is designed to be read at different levels. Contents: Philosophical basis; Psychological evidence; Conceptual graphs; Reasoning and computation; Language; Knowledge engineering; Epilog; Limits of conceptualization; Appendices; Index.

  13. Towards to An Explanation for Conceptual Change: A Mechanistic Alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari

    2014-07-01

    Conceptual change is one of the most studied fields in science education and psychology of learning. However, there are still some foundational issues in conceptual change research on which no clear consensus has emerged. Firstly, there is no agreement on what changes in belief and concept systems constitute conceptual change and what changes do not. Secondly, there is no consensus on what the specific mechanisms of conceptual change are. Thirdly, there is no common explanatory framework of how to explain conceptual change. In this paper a sketch for explanations of conceptual change is outlined. According to this account, the explanation for conceptual change requires (1) a description for the information processing task and (2) a sufficiently accurate and detailed description of the cognitive mechanisms responsible for the task. The scope and limits of this type of explanation are discussed.

  14. Improving Snow Processes in WRF/SSiB Regional Climate Model to Investigate Aerosols-in-Snow Impacts over North America and Sub-Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oaida, Catalina Monica

    during peak ablation. This corresponds to an increase in skin temperature (TSK) of 0.5 °C and a subsequent spring snow mass reduction ranging 12 - 45 mm in the aerosol-loaded snow case. Changes found in our study are higher than those found by GCM simulations, RF being an order of magnitude large in our RCM simulation, for example. On a sub-regional scale, our simulations reveal mountainous areas like the Sierra Nevada and Rockies see larger changes in TSK, runoff, and soil moisture (SM) due to AIS at higher elevation during the spring season. Furthermore, the Sierras see a net decrease in SM, which we show can have implications to wildfire vulnerability, while in the southern Rockies AIS cause shifts in runoff timing (9-year mean of 3.5 days earlier).

  15. Serologic evidence of the recent circulation of Saint Louis encephalitis virus and high prevalence of equine encephalitis viruses in horses in the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal, Central-West Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Tavares, Fernando Neto; Costa, Eliane Veiga da; Burlandy, Fernanda Marcicano; Murta, Michele; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Nogueira, Márcia Furlan; Silva, Edson Elias da

    2010-09-01

    As in humans, sub-clinical infection by arboviruses in domestic animals is common; however, its detection only occurs during epizootics and the silent circulation of some arboviruses may remain undetected. The objective of the present paper was to assess the current circulation of arboviruses in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil. Sera from a total of 135 horses, of which 75 were immunized with bivalent vaccine composed of inactive Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis virus(WEEV) and 60 were unvaccinated, were submitted to thorough viral isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and neutralization tests for Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), EEEV, WEEV and Mayaro virus (MAYV). No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in horses older than seven months was 43.7% for SLEV in equines regardless of vaccine status, and 36.4% for WEEV and 47.7% for EEEV in unvaccinated horses. There was no evidence of MAYV infections. The serologic evidence of circulation of arboviruses responsible for equine and human encephalitis, without recent official reports of clinical infections in the area, suggests that the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal is an important area for detection of silent activity of arboviruses in Brazil.

  16. A multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Adams, Vanessa M; Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R; Polyakov, Maksym; Mills, Morena; Biggs, Duan; Knight, Andrew T; Game, Edward T; Raymond, Christopher M

    2014-12-01

    An opportunity represents an advantageous combination of circumstances that allows goals to be achieved. We reviewed the nature of opportunity and how it manifests in different subsystems (e.g., biophysical, social, political, economic) as conceptualized in other bodies of literature, including behavior, adoption, entrepreneur, public policy, and resilience literature. We then developed a multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity. We identified 3 types of conservation opportunity: potential, actors remove barriers to problem solving by identifying the capabilities within the system that can be manipulated to create support for conservation action; traction, actors identify windows of opportunity that arise from exogenous shocks, events, or changes that remove barriers to solving problems; and existing, everything is in place for conservation action (i.e., no barriers exist) and an actor takes advantage of the existing circumstances to solve problems. Different leverage points characterize each type of opportunity. Thus, unique stages of opportunity identification or creation and exploitation exist: characterizing the system and defining problems; identifying potential solutions; assessing the feasibility of solutions; identifying or creating opportunities; and taking advantage of opportunities. These stages can be undertaken independently or as part of a situational analysis and typically comprise the first stage, but they can also be conducted iteratively throughout a conservation planning process. Four types of entrepreneur can be identified (business, policy, social, and conservation), each possessing attributes that enable them to identify or create opportunities and take advantage of them. We examined how different types of conservation opportunity manifest in a social-ecological system (the Great Barrier Reef) and how they can be taken advantage of. Our multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity strengthens and

  17. Critical conceptualism in environmental modeling and prediction.

    PubMed

    Christakos, G

    2003-10-15

    Many important problems in environmental science and engineering are of a conceptual nature. Research and development, however, often becomes so preoccupied with technical issues, which are themselves fascinating, that it neglects essential methodological elements of conceptual reasoning and theoretical inquiry. This work suggests that valuable insight into environmental modeling can be gained by means of critical conceptualism which focuses on the software of human reason and, in practical terms, leads to a powerful methodological framework of space-time modeling and prediction. A knowledge synthesis system develops the rational means for the epistemic integration of various physical knowledge bases relevant to the natural system of interest in order to obtain a realistic representation of the system, provide a rigorous assessment of the uncertainty sources, generate meaningful predictions of environmental processes in space-time, and produce science-based decisions. No restriction is imposed on the shape of the distribution model or the form of the predictor (non-Gaussian distributions, multiple-point statistics, and nonlinear models are automatically incorporated). The scientific reasoning structure underlying knowledge synthesis involves teleologic criteria and stochastic logic principles which have important advantages over the reasoning method of conventional space-time techniques. Insight is gained in terms of real world applications, including the following: the study of global ozone patterns in the atmosphere using data sets generated by instruments on board the Nimbus 7 satellite and secondary information in terms of total ozone-tropopause pressure models; the mapping of arsenic concentrations in the Bangladesh drinking water by assimilating hard and soft data from an extensive network of monitoring wells; and the dynamic imaging of probability distributions of pollutants across the Kalamazoo river.

  18. Analysis of the TREAT LEU Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Connaway, H. M.; Kontogeorgakos, D. C.; Papadias, D. D.; Brunett, A. J.; Mo, K.; Strons, P. S.; Fei, T.; Wright, A. E.

    2016-03-01

    Analyses were performed to evaluate the performance of the low enriched uranium (LEU) conceptual design fuel for the conversion of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) from its current highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel. TREAT is an experimental nuclear reactor designed to produce high neutron flux transients for the testing of reactor fuels and other materials. TREAT is currently in non-operational standby, but is being restarted under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Resumption of Transient Testing Program. The conversion of TREAT is being pursued in keeping with the mission of the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration’s Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program. The focus of this study was to demonstrate that the converted LEU core is capable of maintaining the performance of the existing HEU core, while continuing to operate safely. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic simulations have been performed to evaluate the performance of the LEU conceptual-design core under both steady-state and transient conditions, for both normal operation and reactivity insertion accident scenarios. In addition, ancillary safety analyses which were performed for previous LEU design concepts have been reviewed and updated as-needed, in order to evaluate if the converted LEU core will function safely with all existing facility systems. Simulations were also performed to evaluate the detailed behavior of the UO2-graphite fuel, to support future fuel manufacturing decisions regarding particle size specifications. The results of these analyses will be used in conjunction with work being performed at Idaho National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory, in order to develop the Conceptual Design Report project deliverable.

  19. Conceptual Structure within and between Modalities.

    PubMed

    Dilkina, Katia; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2012-01-01

    Current views of semantic memory share the assumption that conceptual representations are based on multimodal experience, which activates distinct modality-specific brain regions. This proposition is widely accepted, yet little is known about how each modality contributes to conceptual knowledge and how the structure of this contribution varies across these multiple information sources. We used verbal feature lists, features from drawings, and verbal co-occurrence statistics from latent semantic analysis to examine the informational structure in four domains of knowledge: perceptual, functional, encyclopedic, and verbal. The goals of the analysis were three-fold: (1) to assess the structure within individual modalities; (2) to compare structures between modalities; and (3) to assess the degree to which concepts organize categorically or randomly. Our results indicated significant and unique structure in all four modalities: perceptually, concepts organize based on prominent features such as shape, size, color, and parts; functionally, they group based on use and interaction; encyclopedically, they arrange based on commonality in location or behavior; and verbally, they group associatively or relationally. Visual/perceptual knowledge gives rise to the strongest hierarchical organization and is closest to classic taxonomic structure. Information is organized somewhat similarly in the perceptual and encyclopedic domains, which differs significantly from the structure in the functional and verbal domains. Notably, the verbal modality has the most unique organization, which is not at all categorical but also not random. The idiosyncrasy and complexity of conceptual structure across modalities raise the question of how all of these modality-specific experiences are fused together into coherent, multifaceted yet unified concepts. Accordingly, both methodological and theoretical implications of the present findings are discussed.

  20. CT image visualization: a conceptual introduction.

    PubMed

    Furlow, Bryant

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) postprocessing produces information-rich diagnostic images, transforming enormous amounts of x-ray attenuation data into clinical information that can assist in diagnosis and treatment. This article briefly reviews the history of the technological evolution of CT imaging equipment and provides a conceptual overview of scan data visualization processes. Trends in and examples of image postprocessing, segmentation, registration and fusion techniques, and computer-aided detection are described. Finally, the uses of these visualization algorithms in selected diagnostic imaging applications are discussed.

  1. Conceptual Coordination Bridges Information Processing and Neurophysiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Norrig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Information processing theories of memory and skills can be reformulated in terms of how categories are physically and temporally related, a process called conceptual coordination. Dreaming can then be understood as a story understanding process in which two mechanisms found in everyday comprehension are missing: conceiving sequences (chunking categories in time as a categorization) and coordinating across modalities (e.g., relating the sound of a word and the image of its meaning). On this basis, we can readily identify isomorphisms between dream phenomenology and neurophysiology, and explain the function of dreaming as facilitating future coordination of sequential, cross-modal categorization (i.e., REM sleep lowers activation thresholds, "unlearning").

  2. Conceptual design of a Disk Chopper Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Copley, J.R.D.

    1997-09-01

    We describe methods that we have used for the conceptual design of the Disk Chopper Spectrometer at the Cold Neutron Research Facility, National Institute of Standards and Technology. Most of the discussion concerns the multiple chopper system. No single design method is best in every situation. We believe that an analytical approach is preferable, whenever possible. Graphical methods of expressing problems have been very instructive. We have also found it useful, and occasionally invaluable, to cross-check results obtained using different methods, such as analytical integration and ray-tracing.

  3. A Conceptual Model of Referee Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Félix; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model of referee efficacy, defines the concept, proposes sources of referee specific efficacy information, and suggests consequences of having high or low referee efficacy. Referee efficacy is defined as the extent to which referees believe they have the capacity to perform successfully in their job. Referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to be influenced by mastery experiences, referee knowledge/education, support from significant others, physical/mental preparedness, environmental comfort, and perceived anxiety. In turn, referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to influence referee performance, referee stress, athlete rule violations, athlete satisfaction, and co-referee satisfaction. PMID:21713174

  4. Uncertainty and the Conceptual Site Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, V.; Nicholson, T. J.

    2007-12-01

    Our focus is on uncertainties in the underlying conceptual framework upon which all subsequent steps in numerical and/or analytical modeling efforts depend. Experienced environmental modelers recognize the value of selecting an optimal conceptual model from several competing site models, but usually do not formally explore possible alternative models, in part due to incomplete or missing site data, as well as relevant regional data for establishing boundary conditions. The value in and approach for developing alternative conceptual site models (CSM) is demonstrated by analysis of case histories. These studies are based on reported flow or transport modeling in which alternative site models are formulated using data that were not available to, or not used by, the original modelers. An important concept inherent to model abstraction of these alternative conceptual models is that it is "Far better an approximate answer to the right question, which is often vague, than the exact answer to the wrong question, which can always be made precise." (Tukey, 1962) The case histories discussed here illustrate the value of formulating alternative models and evaluating them using site-specific data: (1) Charleston Naval Site where seismic characterization data allowed significant revision of the CSM and subsequent contaminant transport modeling; (2) Hanford 300-Area where surface- and ground-water interactions affecting the unsaturated zone suggested an alternative component to the site model; (3) Savannah River C-Area where a characterization report for a waste site within the modeled area was not available to the modelers, but provided significant new information requiring changes to the underlying geologic and hydrogeologic CSM's used; (4) Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) where re-interpretation of resistivity sounding data and water-level data suggested an alternative geologic model. Simple 2-D spreadsheet modeling of the ADRS with the revised CSM provided an improved

  5. Conceptual design of ECLSS microgravity test beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodney, Matt; Dall-Bauman, Liese

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual designs were prepared for Space Station Freedom ECLSS test beds for both the Air Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) and the Water Recovery and Management Subsystem (WRMS), which will allow extended testing of equipment under microgravity conditions. The separate designs for the ARS and the WRMS include storage tanks, plumbing, and limited instrumentation that would be expected to be common to all air or water treatment equipment of interest. The beds are designed to recycle process fluids to the greatest extent possible, thus minimizing the spacecraft/test bed interface requirements. Schematic diagrams of both the ARS and the WRMS test beds are included.

  6. ATA diagnostic beam dump conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    A diagnostic beam dump, able to withstand 72,000 pulses (10 kA, 50 MeV/pulse) per shift was designed and analyzed. The analysis shows that the conceptual beam dump design consisting of 80 vitreous carbon plate-foam elements is able to withstand the thermal and mechanical stresses generated. X-rays produced by bremsstrahlung are absorbed by a three element copper plate-foam x-ray absorber. Cooling between bursts of electron pulses is provided by pressurized helium.

  7. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-05-13

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  8. Conceptual design of the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Boyes, John D.; Kumpan, Steven A.; Lowdermilk, W. Howard; Sorem, Michael S.

    1995-12-01

    The Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a conceptual design report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in January 1993 as part of a key decision zero (KD0), justification of mission need. Motivated by the progress to date by the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program in meeting the Nova technical contract goals established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1989, the Secretary requested a design using a solid-state laser driver operating at the third harmonic (0.35 micrometer) of neodymium (Nd) glass. The participating ICF laboratories signed a memorandum of agreement in August 1993, and established a project organization, including a technical team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. Since then, we completed the NIF conceptual design, based on standard construction at a generic DOE defense program's site, and issued a 7,000-page, 27-volume CDR in May 1994. Over the course of the conceptual design study, several other key documents were generated, including a facilities requirements document, a conceptual design scope and plan, a target physics design document, a laser design cost basis document, a functional requirements document, an experimental plan for indirect drive ignition, and a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA) document. DOE used the PHA to categorize the NIF as a low-hazard, non-nuclear facility. On October 21, 1994 the Secretary of Energy issued a key decision one (KD1) for the NIF, which approved the project and authorized DOE to request Office of Management and Budget-approval for congressional line-item FY 1996 NIF funding for preliminary engineering design and for National Environmental Policy Act activities. In addition, the Secretary declared Livermore as the preferred site for constructing the NIF. In February 1995, the NIF Project was

  9. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  10. Conceptualizing Debates in Learning and Educational Research: Toward a Complex Systems Conceptual Framework of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael J.; Kapur, Manu; Reimann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a conceptual framework of learning based on perspectives and methodologies being employed in the study of complex physical and social systems to inform educational research. We argue that the contexts in which learning occurs are complex systems with elements or agents at different levels--including neuronal, cognitive,…

  11. Towards a Conceptual Profile: Rethinking Conceptual Mediation in the Light of Recent Cognitive and Neuroscientific Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Chris

    2014-01-01

    One important focus for science education researchers over many years has been the attempts to replace students' commonsense and non-scientific explanations of various phenomena by scientific explanations. The approach we adopted almost three decades ago was conceptual mediation, and this was shown to have a considerable level of success with…

  12. Conceptual Change Text: A Supplementary Material To Facilitate Conceptual Change in Electrochemical Cell Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuruk, Nejla; Geban, Omer

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change text (CCT) oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on students' understanding of electrochemical (galvanic and electrolytic) cell concepts. The subjects of the study consisted of 64 students from the two classes of a high school in Turkey.…

  13. Achievements and Problems of Conceptual Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalheim, Bernhard

    Database and information systems technology has substantially changed. Nowadays, content management systems, (information-intensive) web services, collaborating systems, internet databases, OLAP databases etc. have become buzzwords. At the same time, object-relational technology has gained the maturity for being widely applied. Conceptual modelling has not (yet) covered all these novel topics. It has been concentrated for more than two decades around specification of structures. Meanwhile, functionality, interactivity and distribution must be included into conceptual modelling of information systems. Also, some of the open problems that have been already discussed in 1987 [15, 16] still remain to be open. At the same time, novel models such as object-relational models or XML-based models have been developed. They did not overcome all the problems but have been sharpening and extending the variety of open problems. The open problem presented are given for classical areas of database research, i.e., structuring and functionality. The entire are of distribution and interaction is currently an area of very intensive research.

  14. Conceptual Launch Vehicles Using Metallic Hydrogen Propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, John W.; Silvera, Isaac F.; Foote, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Solid molecular hydrogen is predicted to transform into an atomic solid with metallic properties under pressures >4.5 Mbar. Atomic metallic hydrogen is predicted to be metastable, limited by some critical temperature and pressure, and to store very large amounts of energy. Experiments may soon determine the critical temperature, critical pressure, and specific energy availability. It is useful to consider the feasibility of using metastable atomic hydrogen as a rocket propellant. If one assumes that metallic hydrogen is stable at usable temperatures and pressures, and that it can be affordably produced, handled, and stored, then it may be a useful rocket propellant. Assuming further that the available specific energy can be determined from the recombination of the atoms into molecules (216 MJ/kg), then conceptual engines and launch vehicle concepts can be developed. Under these assumptions, metallic hydrogen would be a revolutionary new rocket fuel with a theoretical specific impulse of 1700 s at a chamber pressure of 100 atm. A practical problem that arises is that rocket chamber temperatures may be too high for the use of this pure fuel. This paper examines an engine concept that uses liquid hydrogen or water as a diluent coolant for the metallic hydrogen to reduce the chamber temperature to usable values. Several launch vehicles are then conceptually developed. Results indicate that if metallic hydrogen is experimentally found to have the properties assumed in this analysis, then there are significant benefits. These benefits become more attractive as the chamber temperatures increase.

  15. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-12-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.

  16. Conceptual Framework To Extend Life Cycle Assessment ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a decision-making tool that accounts for multiple impacts across the life cycle of a product or service. This paper presents a conceptual framework to integrate human health impact assessment with risk screening approaches to extend LCA to include near-field chemical sources (e.g., those originating from consumer products and building materials) that have traditionally been excluded from LCA. A new generation of rapid human exposure modeling and high-throughput toxicity testing is transforming chemical risk prioritization and provides an opportunity for integration of screening-level risk assessment (RA) with LCA. The combined LCA and RA approach considers environmental impacts of products alongside risks to human health, which is consistent with regulatory frameworks addressing RA within a sustainability mindset. A case study is presented to juxtapose LCA and risk screening approaches for a chemical used in a consumer product. The case study demonstrates how these new risk screening tools can be used to inform toxicity impact estimates in LCA and highlights needs for future research. The framework provides a basis for developing tools and methods to support decision making on the use of chemicals in products. This paper presents a conceptual framework for including near-field exposures into Life Cycle Assessment using advanced human exposure modeling and high-throughput tools

  17. Harmonising Nursing Terminologies Using a Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Kay; Kim, Tae Youn; Coenen, Amy; Saba, Virginia; Hardiker, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®) and the Clinical Care Classification (CCC) System are standardised nursing terminologies that identify discrete elements of nursing practice, including nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. While CCC uses a conceptual framework or model with 21 Care Components to classify these elements, ICNP, built on a formal Web Ontology Language (OWL) description logic foundation, uses a logical hierarchical framework that is useful for computing and maintenance of ICNP. Since the logical framework of ICNP may not always align with the needs of nursing practice, an informal framework may be a more useful organisational tool to represent nursing content. The purpose of this study was to classify ICNP nursing diagnoses using the 21 Care Components of the CCC as a conceptual framework to facilitate usability and inter-operability of nursing diagnoses in electronic health records. Findings resulted in all 521 ICNP diagnoses being assigned to one of the 21 CCC Care Components. Further research is needed to validate the resulting product of this study with practitioners and develop recommendations for improvement of both terminologies.

  18. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Conceptual Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschetti, Donald R.

    2007-11-01

    AutoTutor is an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) in which students can learn a variety of subjects through conversation in natural language with a software agent. The agent appears as a face on the screen, with a synthesized voice, and responds to typed input from the student. Student understanding is modeled from student responses, which are matched to high quality essay responses and known misconceptions and bad answers using one of several computational linguistic techniques. With ONR and NSF support a version of AutoTutor covering Newtonian dynamics at the level of Hewitt's Conceptual Physics has been developed and extensively tested. As a byproduct of this work, several thousand student responses to a small number of conceptual physics questions have been collated and mined for misconceptions. Recent work has allowed a comparison of latent semantic analysis and inverse word frequency measures of text match with expert answers. Some results from this process will be presented along with a demonstration of AutoTutor-Physics at work.

  19. Conceptualization and measurement of celebrity worship.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Lynn E; Lange, Rense; Houran, James

    2002-02-01

    Celebrity worship has been conceptualized as having pathological and nonpathological forms. To avoid problems associated with item-level factor analysis, 'top-down purification' was used to test the validity of this conceptualization. The respondents (N = 249) completed items modelled after existing celebrity worship questionnaires. A subset of 17 unidimensional and Rasch scalable items was discovered (the local reliability ranged from.71 to.96), which showed no biases related to age and gender. This subset was dubbed the Celebrity Worship Scale (CWS). The items also showed no celebrity bias, indicating that CWS applies equally to acting, music, sports, and 'other' celebrities. The Rasch nature of the items defines celebrity worship as consisting of three qualitatively different stages. Low worship involves individualistic behaviours such as watching and reading about a celebrity. At slightly higher levels, celebrity worship takes on a social character. Lastly, the highest levels are characterized by a mixture of empathy with the celebrity's successes and failures, over-identification with the celebrity, compulsive behaviours, as well as obsession with details of the celebrity's life. Based on these findings, the authors propose a model of celebrity worship based on psychological absorption (leading to delusions of actual relationships with celebrities) and addiction (fostering the need for progressively stronger involvement to feel connected with the celebrity).

  20. Conceptual and practical problems of moral enhancement.

    PubMed

    Beck, Birgit

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the debate on human enhancement has shifted from familiar topics like cognitive enhancement and mood enhancement to a new and - to no one's surprise - controversial subject, namely moral enhancement. Some proponents from the transhumanist camp allude to the 'urgent need' of improving the moral conduct of humankind in the face of ever growing technological progress and the substantial dangers entailed in this enterprise. Other thinkers express more sceptical views about this proposal. As the debate has revealed so far, there is no shared opinion among philosophers (or scientists) about the meaning, prospects, and ethical evaluation of moral enhancement. In this article I will address several conceptual and practical problems of this issue, in order to encourage discussion about the prospects of (thinking about) moral enhancement in the future. My assumption is that (i) for the short term, there is little chance of arriving at an agreement on the proper understanding of morality and the appropriateness of one single (meta-)ethical theory; (ii) apart from this, there are further philosophical puzzles loosely referred to in the debate which add to theoretical confusion; and (iii) even if these conceptual problems could be solved, there are still practical problems to be smoothed out if moral enhancement is ever to gain relevance apart from merely theoretical interest. My tentative conclusion, therefore, will be that moral enhancement is not very likely to be made sense of - let alone realized - in the medium-term future.