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Sample records for ineel subregional conceptual

  1. INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report; Volume 1 - Summary of Existing Knowledge of Natural and Anthropogenic Influences Governing Subsurface Contaminant Transport in the INEEL Subregion of the Eastern Snake River Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Wichlacz, Paul Louis; Orr, Brennan

    2002-08-01

    The National Research Council has defined a conceptual model as ''an evolving hypothesis identifying the important features, processes, and events controlling fluid flow and contaminant transport of consequence at a specific field site in the context of a recognized problem''. Presently, several subregional conceptual models are under development at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Additionally, facility-specific conceptual models have been described as part of INEEL environmental restoration activities. Compilation of these models is required to develop a comprehensive conceptual model that can be used to strategically plan for future groundwater research activities at the INEEL. Conceptual models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the INEEL include the description of the geologic framework, matrix hydraulic properties, and inflows and outflows. They also include definitions of the contaminant source term and contaminant transport mechanisms. The geologic framework of the INEEL subregion is described by the geometry of the system, stratigraphic units within the system, and structural features that affect groundwater flow and contaminant transport. These elements define geohydrologic units that make up the Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA). The United States Geological Survey (USGS) conceptual model encompasses approximately 1,920 mi2 of the eastern Snake River Plain. The Waste Area Group (WAG)-10 model includes the USGS area and additional areas to the northeast and southeast. Both conceptual models are bounded to the northwest by the Pioneer Mountains, Lost River Range, and Lemhi Mountains. They are bounded to the southeast by groundwater flow paths determined from aquifer water-level contours. The upgradient extent of the USGS model is a water-level contour that includes the northeastern boundary of the INEEL. The WAG-10 model includes more of the Mud Lake area to utilize previous estimates of underflow into the

  2. INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report Volume 2: Summary of Existing Knowledge of Geochemical Influences on the Fate and Transport of Contaminants in the Subsurface at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul L. Wichlacz; Robert C. Starr; Brennon Orr

    2003-09-01

    This document summarizes previous descriptions of geochemical system conceptual models for the vadose zone and groundwater zone (aquifer) beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The primary focus is on groundwater because contaminants derived from wastes disposed at INEEL are present in groundwater, groundwater provides a pathway for potential migration to receptors, and because geochemical characteristics in and processes in the aquifer can substantially affect the movement, attenuation, and toxicity of contaminants. The secondary emphasis is perched water bodies in the vadose zone. Perched water eventually reaches the regional groundwater system, and thus processes that affect contaminants in the perched water bodies are important relative to the migration of contaminants into groundwater. Similarly, processes that affect solutes during transport from nearsurface disposal facilities downward through the vadose zone to the aquifer are relevant. Sediments in the vadose zone can affect both water and solute transport by restricting the downward migration of water sufficiently that a perched water body forms, and by retarding solute migration via ion exchange. Geochemical conceptual models have been prepared by a variety of researchers for different purposes. They have been published in documents prepared by INEEL contractors, the United States Geological Survey (USGS), academic researchers, and others. The documents themselves are INEEL and USGS reports, and articles in technical journals. The documents reviewed were selected from citation lists generated by searching the INEEL Technical Library, the INEEL Environmental Restoration Optical Imaging System, and the ISI Web of Science databases. The citation lists were generated using the keywords ground water, groundwater, chemistry, geochemistry, contaminant, INEL, INEEL, and Idaho. In addition, a list of USGS documents that pertain to the INEEL was obtained and manually searched

  3. INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report Volume 3: Summary of Existing Knowledge of Natural and Anthropogenic Influences on the Release of Contaminants to the Subsurface Environment from Waste Source Terms at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul L. Wichlacz

    2003-09-01

    This source-term summary document is intended to describe the current understanding of contaminant source terms and the conceptual model for potential source-term release to the environment at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), as presented in published INEEL reports. The document presents a generalized conceptual model of the sources of contamination and describes the general categories of source terms, primary waste forms, and factors that affect the release of contaminants from the waste form into the vadose zone and Snake River Plain Aquifer. Where the information has previously been published and is readily available, summaries of the inventory of contaminants are also included. Uncertainties that affect the estimation of the source term release are also discussed where they have been identified by the Source Term Technical Advisory Group. Areas in which additional information are needed (i.e., research needs) are also identified.

  4. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  5. Summary of Vadose -- Zone Conceptual Models for Flow and Contaminant Transport and 1999 - 2003 Progress on Resolving Deficiencies in Understanding the Vadose Zone at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Starr; Dana L. Dettmers; Brennon R. Orr; Thomas R. Wood

    2003-12-01

    The thick vadose zone that underlies the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been recognized both as an avenue through which contaminants disposed at or near the ground surface can migrate to groundwater in the underlying Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, and as a barrier to the movement of contaminants into the aquifer. Flow and contaminant transport in the vadose zone at the INEEL is complicated by the highly heterogeneous nature of the geologic framework and by the variations in the behavior of different contaminants in the subsurface. The state of knowledge concerning flow and contaminant transport in the vadose zone at and near the INEEL IN 1999 was summarized in Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (Wood et al., 2000). These authors identified deficiencies in knowledge of flow and contaminant transport processes in the vadose zone, and provided recommendations for additional work that should be conducted to address these deficiencies. In the period since (Wood et al., 2000) was prepared, research has been published that, to some degree, address these deficiencies. This document provides a bibliography of reports, journal articles, and conference proceedings published 1999 through mid-2003 that are relevant to the vadose zone at or near the INEEL and provides a brief description of each work. Publications that address specific deficiencies or recommendations are identified, and pertinent information from selected publications is presented.

  6. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will

  7. INEEL Summary on Calcination

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, Dirk

    2003-12-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing to recover 235U and 80Kr began at the INEEL in 1953. The resulting acidic high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLW) was stored in stainless steel tanks in underground concrete vaults. A fluidized-bed calcination process was developed during the 1950s to form a granular calcine solid from the acidic HLW with a seven-fold volume reduction. An engineering-scale demonstration, the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) was constructed and operated in 1963. After the successful demonstration of the process, the WCF was continued as a production facility through 1981, Calcining 15,000 m3 of HLW to 2,160 m3 of calcine.1 The New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) was designed and constructed based on the operating experience of the WCF, and began operation in 1982. With a rated capacity of 3,000 gallons/day, the NWCF continued waste processing operations through May of 2000, resulting in an additional 2,226 m3 of calcine (total current inventory of 4,386 m3).2 During waste processing at the NWCF, sodium-bearing waste (SBW) from decontamination activities was blended with HLW to minimize alkali (sodium and potassium) concentrations in the calciner feed solution. This was necessary due to the propensity of sodium and potassium nitrates to melt in the calciner, causing the bed to agglomerate and interfere with fluidization. However, near the end of HLW processing, work was initiated to modify the calcination process to treat SBW directly, blending it with chemical additives such as aluminum nitrate rather than lower alkali content HLW liquids. The result of this development effort was to increase the operating temperature of the calciner from 500°C to 600°C. The 600°C SBW flowsheet was successfully demonstrated at the NWCF during two separate trials during 1999 and 2000.3, 4 The conclusion from these demonstrations was that operating the existing NWCF at 600°C is a viable method for solidifying SBW, and this concept is currently being evaluated

  8. INEEL Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Trend Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, David Earl; Teel, Dale Milton

    2000-02-01

    The objective of the INEEL GHG Inventory and Trend Analysis is to establish INEEL expertise in carbon management decision making and policy analysis. This FY-99 effort is the first step toward placing the INEEL in a leadership role within the DOE laboratories to support carbon management systems and analysis.

  9. INEEL Vadose Zone Research Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, G.; Hull, L.; Ansley, S.; Versteeg, R.; Scott, C.; Street, L.

    2003-12-01

    The Vadose Zone Research Park was developed to address mission critical issues related to operations, waste management, and environmental restoration at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are located over thick vadose zones. The research park provides instrumentation and facilities for scientists to address vadose zone processes that are important in assessing operational activities, remedial measures, and long-term stewardship of DOE lands. The park, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is strategically located along the Big Lost River, an intermittent river, and around two new percolation ponds. This location provides the opportunity to study variable recharge from the river, continuous recharge from the ponds, and the interactions between the two sources. Drilling began in September 2000 and was completed in June 2001. Thirty one wells and instrumented boreholes have been installed at the park to monitor perched water, measure moisture movement, collect water and gas samples, and study intra-well geophysical properties. Nine of the boreholes, ranging in depth from 150 ft to 504 ft below land surface (bls), are instrumented to monitor moisture in the vadose zone. Instruments include: tensiometers, moisture content sensors, suction lysimeters, temperature sensors, gas ports and electrodes for electrical resistance tomography. Electrodes are evenly spaced throughout the borehole with hydrologic instruments concentrated in and near the sedimentary interbeds-discontinuous layers of silts and clays that occur between some basalt flows. Eighteen monitoring wells, ranging in depth from 60 ft to 250 ft bls, are completed with 4 or 6 inch PVC casing, and generally include an electrical resistivity electrode array attached to the casing. Three bore holes are constructed for testing cross-hole ground penetrating radar as well as for testing new nuclear logging tools being designed at the INEEL. The remaining borehole contains only

  10. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    SciTech Connect

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  11. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  12. INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kooda, K. E.; Galloway, K.; McCray, C. W.; Aitken, D. W.

    2003-02-26

    Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

  13. INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kooda, Kevin Evan; Mc Cray, Casey William; Aitken, Darren William; Galloway, Kelly

    2003-02-01

    Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

  14. INEEL Institutional Plan - FY 2000-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Enge, Ray Stevenson

    1999-11-01

    In this first Institutional Plan prepared by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC, for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the INEEL will focus it's efforts on three strategic thrusts; (1) Environmental Management stewardship for DOE-EM, (2) Nuclear reactor technology for DOE-Nuclear Energy (NE), and (3) Energy R&D, demonstration, and deployment (initial focus on biofuels and chemical from biomass). The first strategic thrust focuses on meeting DOE-EM's environmental cleanup and long-term stewardship needs in a manner that is safe, cost-effective, science-based, and approved by key stakeholders. The science base at the INEEL will be further used to address a grand challenge for the INEEL and the DOE complex - the development of a fundamental scientific understanding of the migration of subsurface contaminants. The second strategic thrust is directed at DOE-NE's needs for safe, economical, waste-minimized, and proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies. As NE lead laboratories, the INEEL and ANL will pursue specific priorities. The third strategic thrust focuses on DOE's needs for clean, efficient, and renewable energy technology. As an initial effort, the INEEL will enhance its capability in biofuels, bioprocessing, and biochemicals. The content of this Institutional Plan is designed to meet basic DOE requirements for content and structure and reflect the key INEEL strategic thrusts. Updates to this Institutional Plan will offer additional content and resource refinements.

  15. Implementation of the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Hochhalter, E Eugene

    2000-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed.

  16. Implementation of the INEEL safety analyst training standard

    SciTech Connect

    E. E. Hochhalter

    2000-04-28

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed.

  17. 24. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING BLOWER BUILDING. INEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING BLOWER BUILDING. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-4407. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Thomas Ronald; Bates, Dona Louise; Bishop, Carolyn Wagoner; Heard, Robert Eugene; Hubbell, Joel Michael; Hull, Laurence Charles; Lehman, Richard Michael; Magnuson, Swen O; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Mccarthy, James Michael; Porro, Indrek; Ritter, Paul David; Roddy, Michael Scott; Singler, Robert Edward; Smith, Richard Paul

    2000-08-01

    Subsurface contamination in the vadose zone, that portion of the subsurface pathway between land surface and an underlying aquifer, poses environmental problems at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in eastern Idaho and across the U.S. Department of Energy complex. Assessing potential adverse impacts from these contaminated sites requires an understanding of the mechanisms controlling contaminant transport. Currently, vadose zone experts at the INEEL cannot with confidence predict the movement of water and contaminants in the complex, heterogeneous, fractured subsurface at the INEEL, especially within the vadose zone. In the draft version (Revision 1) of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, deficiencies in scientific understanding of flow and transport processes in the vadose zone at the INEEL were identified and grouped into 13 categories and recommendations were provided to address each of the deficiencies. The draft document provided the basis for an INEEL Vadose Zone Workshop that was conducted October 20 and 21, 1999, in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The workshop was conducted to group and rank the previously identified deficiencies and for the subsequent development of science plans to address the deficiencies that limit reliable predictions of water and contaminant movement in the subsurface. The workshop participants, comprising INEEL and scientists and project managers and non-INEEL scientists knowledgeable about the vadose zone, developed science- and technology-based recommendations derived through a series of technical sessions at the workshop. In this document, the final version of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, the draft document has been incorporated, largely intact, as well as the results from the workshop. The workshop participants grouped the deficiencies in vadose zone understanding at the INEEL into seven categories. These seven categories will be the focus areas of five science plans that are being developed to

  19. 34. DOOR AND WINDOW DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200063300287106358. FLUOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DOOR AND WINDOW DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106358. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-8. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. 33. ROOF PLAN AND DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200063300287106357. FLUOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. ROOF PLAN AND DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106357. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-7. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. 27. ELEVATIONS OF EAST AND WEST SIDES. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. ELEVATIONS OF EAST AND WEST SIDES. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106355. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. 28. NORTH AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS AND TWO SECTIONS. INEEL DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. NORTH AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS AND TWO SECTIONS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106356. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. 35. MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200063300287106359. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106359. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-9. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Soil Stabilization and Revegetation at the INEEL Recommendations for Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Blew, R.D.; Jackson, M.R.; Forman, A.D.

    2003-03-24

    Soil stabilization for the INEEL Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) has mostly been by revegetation, but has experienced only limited success. The purpose of this report is to discuss issues associated with revegetation failures and to explore possible remedies.

  5. Understanding Fluid and Contaminant Movement in the Unsaturated Zone Using the INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, J. M.; Mattson, E. D.; Sisson, J. B.; Magnuson, S. O.

    2002-02-26

    DOE has hundreds of contaminated facilities and waste sites requiring cleanup and/or long-term monitoring. These contaminated sites reside in unsaturated soils (i.e. the vadose zone) above the water table. Some of these sites will require active remediation activities or removal while other sites will be placed under institutional controls. In either case, evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation strategy or institutional controls will require monitoring. Classical monitoring strategies implemented at RCRA/CERCLA sites require ground water sampling for 30 years following closure. The overall effectiveness of ground water sampling is diminished due to the fact that by the time you detect chemical transport from a waste site, a major contamination plume likely exists in the vadose zone and the aquifer. This paper suggests a more effective monitoring strategy through monitoring near the contaminant sites within the vadose zone. Vadose zone monitoring allows for quicker detection of potential contaminant transport. The INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) is becoming an accepted, cost effective monitoring technology for assessing contaminant transport at DOE facilities. This paper describes the technologies employed in the VZMS and describes how it was used at several DOE facilities. The INEEL VZMS has provided the information in developing and validating both conceptual and risk assessment models of contaminant transport at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Hanford site. These DOE sites exhibit a broad range of meteorologic, hydrologic and geologic conditions representative of various common geologic environments. The VZMS is comprised of advanced tensiometers, water content sensors, temperature sensors and soil and gas samplers. These instruments are placed at multiple depths in boreholes and allows for the detection of water movement in the

  6. Technical Status Report: Preliminary Glass Formulation Report for INEEL HAW

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.; Reamer, I.; Vienna, J.; Crum, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    This study was performed by a team comprising experts in glass chemistry, glass technology, and statistics at both SRTC and PNNL. This joint effort combined the strengths of each discipline and site to quickly develop a glass formulation for specific INEEL HAW.

  7. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report for 2002

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Venhuizen

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2002. Topics covered include computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and boron analytical chemistry.

  8. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    2003-05-23

    This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2002. Topics covered include computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and boron analytical chemistry.

  9. Capturing subregional variability in regional-scale climate change vulnerability assessments of natural resources.

    PubMed

    Buotte, Polly C; Peterson, David L; McKelvey, Kevin S; Hicke, Jeffrey A

    2016-03-15

    Natural resource vulnerability to climate change can depend on the climatology and ecological conditions at a particular site. Here we present a conceptual framework for incorporating spatial variability in natural resource vulnerability to climate change in a regional-scale assessment. The framework was implemented in the first regional-scale vulnerability assessment conducted by the US Forest Service. During this assessment, five subregional workshops were held to capture variability in vulnerability and to develop adaptation tactics. At each workshop, participants answered a questionnaire to: 1) identify species, resources, or other information missing from the regional assessment, and 2) describe subregional vulnerability to climate change. Workshop participants divided into six resource groups; here we focus on wildlife resources. Participants identified information missing from the regional assessment and multiple instances of subregional variability in climate change vulnerability. We provide recommendations for improving the process of capturing subregional variability in a regional vulnerability assessment. We propose a revised conceptual framework structured around pathways of climate influence, each with separate rankings for exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. These revisions allow for a quantitative ranking of species, pathways, exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity across subregions. Rankings can be used to direct the development and implementation of future regional research and monitoring programs. The revised conceptual framework is equally applicable as a stand-alone model for assessing climate change vulnerability and as a nested model within a regional assessment for capturing subregional variability in vulnerability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Technical strategy for the management of INEEL spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report presents evaluations, findings, and recommendations of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team. The technical strategy developed by the Task Team includes stabilization, near term storage, packaging, transport, and ultimate disposal. Key issues identified and discussed include waste characterization, criticality, packaging, waste form performance, and special fuels. Current plans focus on onsite needs, and include three central elements: (1) resolution of near-term vulnerabilities, (2) consolidation of storage locations, and (3) achieving dry storage in transportable packages. In addition to the Task Team report, appendices contain information on the INEEL spent fuel inventory; regulatory decisions and agreements; and analyses of criticality, packaging, storage, transportation, and system performance of a geological repository. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Preliminary Environmental Flow and Transport Modeling at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, Swen O; Mccarthy, James Michael; Navratil, James Dale

    1999-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is located in southeastern Idaho in the USA. The primary mission since the laboratory was founded in 1949 has been nuclear reactor research. Fifty-two reactors have been built and operated on the INEEL. Other principal activities at the laboratory have been reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Low-level radioactive waste generated on site and mixed and transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats plutonium processing facility in Colorado has been disposed on the INEEL at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Waste disposal at the RWMC began in 1952 with shallow land burial in pits and trenches. The INEEL was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. The resulting environmental assessments of the potential negative health impacts of disposed waste at the RWMC have required the use of predictive numerical simulations. A petroleum reservoir simulator called TETRAD was modified for use in simulating environmental flow and transport. Use of this code has allowed the complex subsurface stratigraphy to be simulated, including an extensive region of unsaturated fractured basalt. Dual continual simulation approaches have been used to assess combined aqueous- and gaseous-phase transport of volatile organic compounds as well as dissolved-phase transport of radionuclides. Calibration of the simulator to available monitoring data has increased the confidence in the simulator results to the point where the model sensitivities are being used to direct additional characterization efforts. Eventually, as the model calibration improves and confidence in the model predictions increases, the simulator will be used as a decision tool for selecting remedial alternatives for the wastes buried at the RWMC. An overview of the overall program including a summary of laboratory actinide migration studies will be presented.

  12. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  13. 1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    1999-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  14. Note on subregion holographic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Pratim; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2017-07-01

    The volume inside a Ryu-Takayanagi surface has been conjectured to be related to the complexity of subregions of the boundary field theory. Here, we study the behavior of this volume analytically, when the entangling surface has a strip geometry. We perform systematic expansions in the low- and high-temperature regimes for AdS-Schwarzschild and RN-AdS black holes. In the latter regime, we point out spurious divergences that might occur due to the limitations of a near horizon expansion. A similar analysis is performed for extremal black holes and, at large charge, we find that there might be some new features of the volume as compared to the area. Finally, we numerically study a four-dimensional RN-AdS black hole in global AdS, the entangling surface being a sphere. We find that the holographic complexity captures essentially the same information as the entanglement entropy, as far as phase transitions are concerned.

  15. 29 CFR 102.4 - Region; subregion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Region; subregion. 102.4 Section 102.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Definitions § 102.4 Region; subregion. The term region as used herein shall mean that part of the United States or any Territory...

  16. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, James Robert

    2002-04-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2001. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, and neutron source design and demonstration are described. Contributions in the fields of physics and biophysics include development of advanced patient treatment planning software, feasibility studies of accelerator neutron source technology for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT), and completion of major modifications to the research reactor at Washington State University to produce an epithermal-neutron beam for NCT research applications.

  17. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, James R.

    2002-04-30

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2001. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, and neutron source design and demonstration are described. Contributions in the fields of physics and biophysics include development of advanced patient treatment planning software, feasibility studies of accelerator neutron source technology for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT), and completion of major modifications to the research reactor at Washington State University to produce an epithermal-neutron beam for NCT research applications.

  18. Completion of the INEEL's WERF Incinerator Trial Burn

    SciTech Connect

    C. K. Branter; D. A. Conley; D. R. Moser; S. J. Corrigan

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes the successes and challenges associated with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) hazardous and mixed waste incinerator. Topics to be discussed include facility modifications and problems, trial burn results and lessons learned in each of these areas. In addition, a number of challenges remain including completion and final issue of the RCRA Permit and implementation of all the permit requirements. Results from the trial burn demonstrated that the operating conditions and procedures will result in emissions that are satisfactorily protective of human health, the environment, and are in compliance with Federal and State regulations.

  19. Completion of the INEEL's WERF Incinerator Trial Burn

    SciTech Connect

    Branter, Curtis Keith; Conley, Dennis Allen; Corrigan, Shannon James; Moser, David Roy

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes the successes and challenges associated with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) hazardous and mixed waste incinerator. Topics to be discussed include facility modifications and problems, trial burn results and lessons learned in each of these areas. In addition, a number of challenges remain including completion and final issue of RCRA Permit and implementation of all the permit requirements. Results from the trial burn demonstrated that the operating conditions and procedures will result in emissions that are satisfactorily protective of human health, the environment, and are in compliance with Federal and State regulations.

  20. Increased Efficiencies in the INEEL SAR/TSR/USQ Process

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Norman Edward

    2002-06-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has implemented a number of efficiencies to reduce the time and cost of preparing safety basis documents. The INEEL is continuing to look at other aspects of the safety basis process to identify other efficiencies that can be implemented and remain in compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 830. A six-sigma approach is used to identify areas to improve efficiencies and develop the action plan for implementation of the new process, as applicable. Three improvement processes have been implemented: The first was the development of standardized Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and technical safety requirement (TSR) documents that all nuclear facilities use, by adding facility-specific details. The second is a material procurement process, which is based on safety systems specified in the individual safety basis documents. The third is a restructuring of the entire safety basis preparation and approval process. Significant savings in time to prepare safety basis document, cost of materials, and total cost of the documents are currently being realized.

  1. Increased Efficiencies in the INEEL SAR/TSR/USQ Process

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.E.

    2002-05-16

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has implemented a number of efficiencies to reduce the time and cost of preparing safety basis documents. The INEEL is continuing to look at other aspects of the safety basis process to identify other efficiencies that can be implemented and remain in compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 830. A six-sigma approach is used to identify areas to improve efficiencies and develop the action plan for implementation of the new process, as applicable. Three improvement processes have been implemented: The first was the development of standardized Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and technical safety requirement (TSR) documents that all nuclear facilities use, by adding facility-specific details. The second is a material procurement process, which is based on safety systems specified in the individual safety basis documents. The third is a restructuring of the entire safety basis preparation and approval process. Significant savings in time to prepare safety basis document, cost of materials, and total cost of the documents are currently being realized.

  2. Underwater Coatings Testing for INEEL Fuel Basin Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Julia L. Tripp

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature.

  3. Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Buchmiller, William C.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Graham, Dennis D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Macisaac, Brett D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Peeler, David K.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Reamer, Irene A.; Workman, R. J.

    2002-08-01

    Studies were performed to develop and test a glass formulation for immobilization of sodium-bearing waste (SBW). SBW is a high soda, acid high activity waste stored at the INEEL in 10 underground tanks. It was determined in previous studies that SBW?s sulfur content dictates the its loading in borosilicate glasses to be melted by currently assumed processes. If the sulfur content (which is ~4.5 mass% SO3 on a non-volatile oxide basis in SBW) of the melter feed is too high then a molten alkali sulfate containing salt phase accumulates on the melt surface. The avoidance of salt accumulation during the melter process and the maximization of sulfur incorporation into the glass melt were the main focus of this development work. A glass was developed for 20 mass% SBW (on a non-volatile oxide basis), which contained 0.91 mass% SO3, that met all the processing and product quality constraint determined for SBW vitrification at a planned INEEL treatment plant?SBW-22-20. This report summarizes the formulation efforts and presents the data developed on a series of glasses with simulated SBW. Summary

  4. Applying INEEL Research and Technologies to Improve LLW Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Roger R. Seitz

    2004-02-01

    The low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is operated in compliance with United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, “Radioactive Waste Management.” DOE Order 435.1 includes requirements to conduct a performance assessment and composite analysis (PA/CA) to project the potential doses that may be received by a member of the public as a result of releases that may occur from the facility and other surrounding sources. Although the PA/CA were deemed sufficient to justify issuing the Disposal Authorization for the disposal facility, the DOE Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities Federal Review Group (LFRG) identified some assumptions that required additional confirmation. Thus, the Disposal Authorization was granted with some conditions that required resolution in order to maintain the capability to operate the LLW disposal facility. This paper summarizes INEEL research and technologies that contributed to successful resolution of all of the conditions imposed on the Disposal Authorization.

  5. INEEL Radiological Control Performance Indicator Report - Quarterly for CY-99

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, Frank Leroy

    2000-02-01

    This Performance Indicator Report is provided in accordance with Article 133 of the INEEL Radiological Control Manual. The INEEL collective occupational radiation deep dose is 63.034 person-rem year to date, compared to a goal of 83.1 person-rem. During the fourth quarter, all areas experienced deletions of work resulting from the Maintenance Stand Down. This reduction in work is a primary factor in the difference in the year end dose and the ALARA goal. The work will be completed during CY-99. Beginning in CY-98, a numeric Radiological Performance Index (RPI) is being used to compare radiological performance. The RPI takes into consideration frequency and severity of events such as skin contaminations, clothing contaminations, spills, exposures to radiation exceeding limits, and positive internal dose. The RPI measures the cost of these events in cents per hour of radiological work performed. To make the RPI meaningful, tables have been prepared to show the facility that contributes to the values used. The data are compared on a quarterly basis to the prior year to show measurable performance.

  6. A Source Water Assessment of the INEEL: Conjunctive Delineation of a Large Scale Area

    SciTech Connect

    Sehlke, Gerald; Andersen, Bradley Don

    2003-01-01

    Presently, the INEEL operates and monitors 12 Public Water Systems that pump water from 22 wells for at the Site (Table 1). The source of water for each of these facilities is the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Because the INEEL operates Public Water Systems, it is required to conduct source water assessments for those facilities and to develop a Source Water Management Program.

  7. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Lauerhass, Lance; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical information to Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel that is required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and nvironmental Laboratory (INEEL). INEEL considers simulation to have an important role in the integration/optimization of treatment process trains for the High Level Waste (HLW) Program. This project involves a joint Technical Task Plan (TTP ID77WT31, Subtask C) between SRS and INEEL. The work scope of simulation is different at the two sites. This document addresses only the treatment of SBW at INEEL. The simulation model(s) is to be built by SRS for INEEL in FY-2001.

  8. INEEL BNCT Research Program Annual Report, CY-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, James Robert

    2001-03-01

    This report is a summary of the activities conducted in conjunction with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 2000. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, neutron source design and demonstration, and support the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National BNCT Program goals are the goals of this Program. Contributions from the individual contributors about their projects are included, specifically described are the following, chemistry: analysis of biological samples and an infrared blood-boron analyzer, and physics: progress in the patient treatment planning software, measurement of neutron spectra for the Argentina RA-6 reactor, and recalculation of the Finnish research reactor FiR 1 neutron spectra, BNCT accelerator technology, and modification to the research reactor at Washington State University for an epithermal-neutron beam.

  9. Test Summary Report INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification Demonstration RSM-01-1

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, Ronald W.; Perez, Joseph M.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Siemer, Darryl D.; Mccray, John A.

    2001-05-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is storing large amounts of radioactive and mixed wastes. Most of the sodium-bearing wastes have been calcined, but about a million gallons remain uncalcined, and this waste does not meet current regulatory requirements for long-term storage and/or disposal. As a part of the Settlement Agreement between DOE and the State of Idaho, the tanks currently containing SBW are to be taken out of service by December 31, 2012, which requires removing and treatment the remaining SBW. Vitrification is the option for waste disposal that received the highest weighted score against the criteria used. Beginning in FY 2000, the INEEL high-level waste program embarked on a program for technology demonstration and development that would lead to conceptual design of a vitrification facility in the event that vitrification is the preferred alternative for SBW disposal. The Pacific Northwest National Laborator's Research-Scale Melter was used to conduct these initial melter-flowsheet evaluations. Efforts are underway to reduce the volume of waste vitrified, and during the current test, an overall SBW waste volume-reduction factor of 7.6 was achieved.

  10. Soil Stabilization and Revegetation at the INEEL: Recommendations for Improvement - August 16, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Roger D. Blew; Michael R. Jackson; Amy D. Forman

    2003-03-01

    Soil stabilization for the INEEL Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) has mostly been by revegetation, but has experienced only limited success. The purpose of this report is to discuss issues associated with revegetation failures and to explore possible remedies.

  11. Alternative TRUEX-Based Pretreatment Processing of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2000-09-27

    The goals of this study were to demonstrate a selective complexant for separating mercury from the transuranic (TRU) elements in the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process and to demonstrate alternative stripping methods to eliminate phosphorus-containing, actinide stripping agents during TRUEX processing. The work described in this report provides the basis for implementing an improved TRUEX-based flowsheet for processing INEEL sodium-bearing waste using only minor modifications to the current Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) flowsheet design.

  12. Development of Probabilistic Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for Moderate and High Hazard Facilities at INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    S. M. Payne; V. W. Gorman; S. A. Jensen; M. E. Nitzel; M. J. Russell; R. P. Smith

    2000-03-01

    Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) horizontal and vertical response spectra are developed for moderate and high hazard facilities or Performance Categories (PC) 3 and 4, respectively, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The probabilistic DBE response spectra will replace the deterministic DBE response spectra currently in the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Architectural Engineering Standards that govern seismic design criteria for several facility areas at the INEEL. Probabilistic DBE response spectra are recommended to DOE Naval Reactors for use at the Naval Reactor Facility at INEEL. The site-specific Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) developed by URS Greiner Woodward Clyde Federal Services are used as the basis for developing the DBE response spectra. In 1999, the UHS for all INEEL facility areas were recomputed using more appropriate attenuation relationships for the Basin and Range province. The revised UHS have lower ground motions than those produced in the 1996 INEEL site-wide probabilistic ground motion study. The DBE response spectra were developed by incorporating smoothed broadened regions of the peak accelerations, velocities, and displacements defined by the site-specific UHS. Portions of the DBE response spectra were adjusted to ensure conservatism for the structural design process.

  13. Crystalline Phase Separation in Phosphate Containing Waste Glasses: Relevance to INEEL HAW

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-09-21

    As part of the Tanks Focus Area's (TFA) effort to increase waste loading for high-level waste vitrification at various facilities in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, the occurrence of phase separation in waste glasses spanning the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) composition ranges have been studied. The type of phase separation that occurs in the phosphate rich borosilicate waste glasses, such as those investigated for INEEL, crystallizes upon cooling. This type of phase separation mechanism is less well studied than amorphous phase separation in phosphate poor borosilicate waste glasses. Therefore, the type of phase separation, extent, and impact of phase separation on glass durability for a series of INEEL-type glasses were examined and the data statistically analyzed in this study.

  14. Functional subregions of the human entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Maass, Anne; Berron, David; Libby, Laura A; Ranganath, Charan; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) is the primary site of interactions between the neocortex and hippocampus. Studies in rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that EC can be divided into subregions that connect differentially with perirhinal cortex (PRC) vs parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and with hippocampal subfields along the proximo-distal axis. Here, we used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla to identify functional subdivisions of the human EC. In two independent datasets, PRC showed preferential intrinsic functional connectivity with anterior-lateral EC and PHC with posterior-medial EC. These EC subregions, in turn, exhibited differential connectivity with proximal and distal subiculum. In contrast, connectivity of PRC and PHC with subiculum followed not only a proximal-distal but also an anterior-posterior gradient. Our data provide the first evidence that the human EC can be divided into functional subdivisions whose functional connectivity closely parallels the known anatomical connectivity patterns of the rodent and nonhuman primate EC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06426.001 PMID:26052749

  15. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Douglas Kay; Nickelson, David Frank; Nickelson, Reva Anne; Farnsworth, Richard Kent; Jessmore, James Joseph

    1999-03-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE’s Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  16. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    D.F. Nickelson; D.K. Jorgensen; J.J. Jessmore; R.A. Hyde; R.K. Farnsworth

    1999-02-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  17. A Model of the INEEL Science & Engineering Expo for Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zounar, Elda

    2005-01-01

    Informal education can augment science classroom instruction and draw students to careers in science. The science and engineering expo, created by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is a high-impact, inquiry-based, informal-education experience that can be replicated. It engages a broad range of students in…

  18. Large-scale Demonstration and Deployment Project for D&D of Fuel Storage Canals and Associated Facilities at INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmill, Larry Joseph

    2001-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA), sponsored a Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) under management of the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The INEEL LSDDP is one of several LSDDPs sponsored by DOE. The LSDDP process integrates field demonstrations into actual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) operations by comparing new or improved technologies against existing baseline technologies using a side-by-side comparison. The goals are (a) to identify technologies that are cheaper, safer, faster, and cleaner (produce less waste), and (b) to incorporate those technologies into D&D baseline operations. The INEEL LSDDP reviewed more than 300 technologies, screened 141, and demonstrated 17. These 17 technologies have been deployed a total of 70 times at facilities other than those where the technology was demonstrated, and 10 have become baseline at the INEEL. Fifteen INEEL D&D needs have been modified or removed from the Needs Management System as a direct result of using these new technologies. Conservatively, the ten-year projected cost savings at the INEEL resulting from use of the technologies demonstrated in this INEEL LSDDP exceeds $39 million dollars.

  19. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  20. Material Property Measurement of Metallic Parts using the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Telschow; R. S. Schley; S. M. Watson; V. A. Deason

    1999-08-22

    Ultrasonic waves form a useful nondestructive evaluation (NDE) probe for determining physical, microstructural, and mechanical properties of materials and parts. Noncontacting laser ultrasonic methods are desired for remote measurements and on-line manufacture process monitoring. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed a versatile new method for detection of ultrasonic motion at surfaces. This method directly images, without the need for scanning, the surface distribution of subnanometer ultrasonic motion. By eliminating the need for scanning over large areas or complex parts, the inspection process can be greatly speeded up. Examples include measurements on parts with complex geometries through resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and of the properties of sheet materials determined through anisotropic elastic Lamb wave propagation. The operation and capabilities of the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera are described along with measurement results.

  1. Material Property Measurement of Metallic Parts using the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Deason, Vance Albert; Schley, Robert Scott; Watson, Scott Marshall

    1999-08-01

    Ultrasonic waves form a useful nondestructive evaluation (NDE) probe for determining physical, microstructural, and mechanical properties of materials and parts. Noncontacting laser ultrasonic methods are desired for remote measurements and on-line manufacture process monitoring. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed a versatile new method for detection of ultrasonic motion at surfaces. This method directly images, without the need for scanning, the surface distribution of subnanometer ultrasonic motion. By eliminating the need for scanning over large areas or complex parts, the inspection process can be greatly speeded up. Examples include measurements on parts with complex geometries through resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and of the properties of sheet materials determined through anisotropic elastic Lamb wave propagation. The operation and capabilities of the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera are described along with measurement results.

  2. INEEL BNCT research program. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1996. Contributions from the individual investigators about their projects are included, specifically, physics: treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry, measurement of the Finnish research reactor epithermal neutron spectrum, BNCT accelerator technology; and chemistry: analysis of biological samples and preparation of {sup 10}B enriched decaborane.

  3. Technical Review of Retrieval and Closure Plans for the INEEL INTEC Tank Farm Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Burks, Barry L.; Quigley, Keith D.; Butterworth, S. W.; Falter, Diedre D.

    2001-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to document the conclusions of a technical review of retrieval and closure plans for the Idaho National Energy and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Tank Farm Facility. In addition to reviewing retrieval and closure plans for these tanks, the review process served as an information exchange mechanism so that staff in the INEEL High Level Waste (HLW) Program could become more familiar with retrieval and closure approaches that have been completed or are planned for underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Hanford sites. This review focused not only on evaluation of the technical feasibility and appropriateness of the approach selected by INEEL but also on technology gaps that could be addressed through utilization of technologies or performance data available at other DOE sites and in the private sector. The reviewers, Judith Bamberger of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Dr. Barry Burks of The Providence Group Applied Technology, have extensive experience in the development and application of tank waste retrieval technologies for nuclear waste remediation.

  4. Subregional inversion of North African dust sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano, Jerónimo; Boucher, Olivier; Chevallier, Frédéric; Huneeus, Nicolás.

    2016-07-01

    The emission of mineral dust aerosols in arid and semiarid regions is a complex process whose representation in atmospheric models remains crude, due to insufficient knowledge about the aerosol lifting process itself, the lack of global data on soil characteristics, and the impossibility for the models to resolve the fine-scale variability in the wind field that drives some of the dust events. As a result, there are large uncertainties in the total emission flux of mineral dust, its natural variability at various timescales, and the possible contribution from anthropogenic land use changes. This work aims for estimating dust emissions and reduces their uncertainty over the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula—the largest dust source region of the globe. We use a data assimilation approach to constrain dust emission fluxes at a monthly resolution for 18 subregions. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite-derived aerosol optical depth is assimilated in a regional configuration of a general circulation model coupled to an aerosol model. We describe this data assimilation system and apply it for 1 year, resulting in a total mineral dust emissions flux estimate of 2900 Tg yr-1 over the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula for the year 2006. The analysis field of aerosol optical depth shows an improved fit relative to independent Aerosol Robotic Network measurements as compared to the model prior field.

  5. eGRID 2014 subregion GHG output emission rates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the eGRID 2014 subregion GHG output emission rates. Annual total output emission rates for greenhouse gases (GHGs) can be used as default factors for estimating GHG emissions from electricity use when developing a carbon footprint

  6. Heritability and reliability of automatically segmented human hippocampal formation subregions

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Christopher D.; Hibar, Derrek P.; van Velzen, Laura S.; Zannas, Anthony S.; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; McMahon, Katie; Prasad, Gautam; Kelly, Sinéad; Faskowitz, Joshua; deZubiracay, Greig; Iglesias, Juan E.; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Frodl, Thomas; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Jahanshad, Neda; Schmaal, Lianne; Sämann, Philipp G.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    The human hippocampal formation can be divided into a set of cytoarchitecturally and functionally distinct subregions, involved in different aspects of memory formation. Neuroanatomical disruptions within these subregions are associated with several debilitating brain disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, major depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Multi-center brain imaging consortia, such as the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium, are interested in studying disease effects on these subregions, and in the genetic factors that affect them. For large-scale studies, automated extraction and subsequent genomic association studies of these hippocampal subregion measures may provide additional insight. Here, we evaluated the test–retest reliability and transplatform reliability (1.5 T versus 3 T) of the subregion segmentation module in the FreeSurfer software package using three independent cohorts of healthy adults, one young (Queensland Twins Imaging Study, N = 39), another elderly (Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, ADNI-2, N = 163) and another mixed cohort of healthy and depressed participants (Max Planck Institute, MPIP, N = 598). We also investigated agreement between the most recent version of this algorithm (v6.0) and an older version (v5.3), again using the ADNI-2 and MPIP cohorts in addition to a sample from the Netherlands Study for Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) (N = 221). Finally, we estimated the heritability (h2) of the segmented subregion volumes using the full sample of young, healthy QTIM twins (N = 728). Test–retest reliability was high for all twelve subregions in the 3 T ADNI-2 sample (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.70–0.97) and moderate-to-high in the 4 T QTIM sample (ICC = 0.5–0.89). Transplatform reliability was strong for eleven of the twelve subregions (ICC = 0.66–0.96); however, the hippocampal fissure was not consistently reconstructed across 1.5 T and

  7. Image segmentation on adaptive sub-region smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Junruo; Liu, Xin; He, Kun

    2017-01-01

    To improve the performance of the active contour segmentation on real images, a new segmentation method is proposed. In this model, we construct a function about Gaussian variance according to sub-regions intensity. Further, to avoid the curve vanishing, we design the convergence condition based on the confidence level of segmentation sub-regions. Experimental results show that the proposed method is less sensitive to noise and can suppress inhomogeneous intensity regions efficiently.

  8. Identification of discrete functional subregions of the human periaqueductal gray

    PubMed Central

    Satpute, Ajay B.; Wager, Tor D.; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Bianciardi, Marta; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Buhle, Jason T.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2013-01-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region is organized into distinct subregions that coordinate survival-related responses during threat and stress [Bandler R, Keay KA, Floyd N, Price J (2000) Brain Res 53 (1):95–104]. To examine PAG function in humans, researchers have relied primarily on functional MRI (fMRI), but technological and methodological limitations have prevented researchers from localizing responses to different PAG subregions. We used high-field strength (7-T) fMRI techniques to image the PAG at high resolution (0.75 mm isotropic), which was critical for dissociating the PAG from the greater signal variability in the aqueduct. Activation while participants were exposed to emotionally aversive images segregated into subregions of the PAG along both dorsal/ventral and rostral/caudal axes. In the rostral PAG, activity was localized to lateral and dorsomedial subregions. In caudal PAG, activity was localized to the ventrolateral region. This shifting pattern of activity from dorsal to ventral PAG along the rostrocaudal axis mirrors structural and functional neurobiological observations in nonhuman animals. Activity in lateral and ventrolateral subregions also grouped with distinct emotional experiences (e.g., anger and sadness) in a factor analysis, suggesting that each subregion participates in distinct functional circuitry. This study establishes the use of high-field strength fMRI as a promising technique for revealing the functional architecture of the PAG. The techniques developed here also may be extended to investigate the functional roles of other brainstem nuclei. PMID:24082116

  9. Environmental Sampling FY03 Annual Report - Understanding the Movement of Mercury on the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Abbott

    2003-10-01

    Environmental mercury measurements were started in Fy-01 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) to monitor downwind impacts from on-going waste treatment operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) and to improve our scientific understanding of mercury fate and transport in this region. This document provides a summary of the sampling done in FY04. Continuous total gaseous mercury (TGM) measurements were made using a Tekran Model 2537A mercury vapor analyzer during October 2002 and from February through July 2003. The equipment was deployed in a self-contained field trailer at the Experimental Field Station (EFS) four kilometers downwind (northeast) of INTEC. Mercury surface-to-air flux measurements were made in October 2002 and from February through May 2003 to better understand the fate of the estimated 1500 kg of mercury emitted from 36 years of calciner operations at INTEC and to improve our scientific understanding of mercury environmental cycling in this region. Flux was measured using an INEEL-designed dynamic flux chamber system with a Tekran automated dual sampling (TADS) unit. Diel flux was positively correlated with solar radiation (r = 0.65), air temperature (r = 0.64), and wind speed (r = 0.38), and a general linear model for flux prediction at the INEEL was developed. Reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) was measured at EFS in July using a Tekran Model 1130 mercury speciation unit. Based on comparisons with other published data around the U.S., mercury air concentrations and surface flux rates directly downwind from INTEC were not distinguishable from remote area (non-industrial) background levels during the monitoring period.

  10. Extraction of Plutonium From Spiked INEEL Soil Samples Using the Ligand-Assisted Supercritical Fluid Extraction (LA-SFE) Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.; Holmes, R.G.G.

    1999-08-01

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction for the removal of transuranic contaminations from soils an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) silty-clay soil sample was obtained from near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex area and subjected to three different chemical preparations before being spiked with plutonium. The spiked INEEL soil samples were subjected to a sequential aqueous extraction procedure to determine radionuclide portioning in each sample. Results from those extractions demonstrate that plutonium consistently partitioned into the residual fraction across all three INEEL soil preparations whereas americium partitioned 73% into the iron/manganese fraction for soil preparation A, with the balance partitioning into the residual fraction. Plutonium and americium were extracted from the INEEL soil samples using a ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction efficiencies ranging from 14% to 19%. After a second round wherein the initial extraction parameters were changed, the plutonium extraction efficiencies increased to 60% and as high as 80% with the americium level in the post-extracted soil samples dropping near to the detection limits. The third round of experiments are currently underway. These results demonstrate that the ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique can effectively extract plutonium from the spiked INEEL soil preparations.

  11. Using Roadmapping to Meet the Challenge of Implementing the Environmental Management's 2012 Vision at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.; Mascareqas, C.; McNeel, K.; Stiger, S.; Thiel, E.

    2003-02-26

    Soon after becoming the Program Secretarial Officer (PSO) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program, Jessie Roberson initiated a thorough Top-to-Bottom review of the EM Program and challenged the sites to conduct business differently. As an example, she emphasized risk reduction, not just risk management. INEEL's 2070 cleanup baseline was considered too long and must be completed significantly sooner. The cleanup costs must also be significantly reduced from the current baseline of $41 Billion. The challenge is to complete most of the cleanup by 2012 and to reduce the EM footprint at the INEEL to one site area, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), also by 2012. The difficulty of the challenge is increased by the requirement to perform the work within nearly flat budgets. The bottom line: do more work in less time for less money. Further complications were added when funding for EM's technology development program was greatly reduced, cutting out most of the technology support to the operational projects. To face this incredible challenge, the INEEL began a several month effort to develop an implementation strategy and the tactics required for success. The strategies to meet EM's challenge under these constraints require the scope of work to be crisply defined with a clear understanding of the completion criteria. A number of techniques will be discussed in this paper that were used to more fully define the completion criteria as well as redefine the cleanup projects and their system boundaries. The mechanics of redefining and recasting cleanup projects at the INEEL to focus on how all the work fits together for an entire site area along with some of the advantages will be discussed. This paper highlights how roadmapping techniques and processes were used to gather information about the site's cleanup programs, review the system boundaries, identify the project risks to completing the cleanup tasks, and to help

  12. Functions of the subregions of the supraspinatus muscle.

    PubMed

    Yuri, Takuma; Kuwahara, Yoshiki; Fujii, Hiromi; Kiyoshige, Yoshiro

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of the six subregions of the supraspinatus muscle (SSP) determined by Kim et al. in Clin Anat 2007;20:648-655, using real-time tissue elastography (RTE). Twelve young male volunteers participated. The muscular hardness of the SSP was measured at rest and with contraction of the MMT3 in internal, neutral and external rotations. The SSP was functionally divided into five groups on the basis of the RTE results. These functional areas were roughly classified into three property groups: the anterior-superficial, anterior-middle, and anterior-deep subregions, which produce contractile force for abduction; the posterior-deep subregion, which produces contractile force for external rotation; and the posterior-superficial and posterior-middle subregions, which maintain tension. RTE was appropriate for measuring the functions of these muscular subregions. Clin. Anat. 30:347-351, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Clinical Anatomy published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Clinical Anatomists. © 2017 The Authors Clinical Anatomy published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Clinical Anatomists.

  13. Subregion districting analysis for municipal solid waste collection privatization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Yueh; Kao, Jehng-Jung

    2008-01-01

    Privatization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection can improve service quality and reduce cost. To reduce the risk of an incapable company serving an entire collection area and to establish a competitive market, a large collection area should be divided into two or more subregions, with each subregion served by a different company. The MSW subregion districting is generally done manually, based on the planner's intuition. Major drawbacks of a manual approach include the creation of a districting plan with poor road network integrity for which it is difficult to design an efficient collection route. The other drawbacks are difficulty in finding the optimal districting plan and the lack of a way to consistently measure the differences among subregions to avoid unfair competition. To determine an MSW collection subregion districting plan, this study presents a mixed-integer optimization model that incorporates factors such as compactness, road network integrity, collection cost, and regional proximity. Two cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. In both cases, districting plans with good road network integrity and regional proximity have been generated successfully.

  14. Description of ecological subregions: sections of the conterminous United States

    Treesearch

    W.H. McNab; D.T. Cleland; J.A. Freeouf; J.E. Keys; G.J. Nowacki; C.A. Carpenter

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary descriptions are presented for the 190 section ecological units delineated on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service 2007 map “Ecological Subregions: Sections and Subsections of the Conterminous United States.” Brief descriptions of the section map units provide an abstract primarily of the climate, physiography, and geologic substrate that...

  15. Behavioral Functions of the CA3 Subregion of the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Raymond P.

    2007-01-01

    From a behavioral perspective, the CA3a,b subregion of the hippocampus plays an important role in the encoding of new spatial information within short-term memory with a duration of seconds and minutes. This can easily be observed in tasks that require rapid encoding, novelty detection, one-trial short-term or working memory, and one-trial cued…

  16. Behavioral Functions of the CA3 Subregion of the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Raymond P.

    2007-01-01

    From a behavioral perspective, the CA3a,b subregion of the hippocampus plays an important role in the encoding of new spatial information within short-term memory with a duration of seconds and minutes. This can easily be observed in tasks that require rapid encoding, novelty detection, one-trial short-term or working memory, and one-trial cued…

  17. Distinct Critical Cerebellar Subregions for Components of Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Freya E.; Grube, Manon; Von Kriegstein, Katharina; Kumar, Sukhbinder; English, Philip; Kelly, Thomas P.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    A role for the cerebellum in cognition has been proposed based on studies suggesting a profile of cognitive deficits due to cerebellar stroke. Such studies are limited in the determination of the detailed organisation of cerebellar subregions that are critical for different aspects of cognition. In this study we examined the correlation between…

  18. Contributions of Striatal Subregions to Place and Response Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Henry H.; Knowlton, Barbara J.

    2004-01-01

    The involvement of different subregions of the striatum in place and response learning was examined using a T-maze. Rats were given NMDA lesions of the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), anterior dorsomedial striatum (ADMS), posterior dorsomedial striatum (PDMS), or sham surgery. They were then trained to retrieve food from the west arm of the maze,…

  19. Distinct Critical Cerebellar Subregions for Components of Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Freya E.; Grube, Manon; Von Kriegstein, Katharina; Kumar, Sukhbinder; English, Philip; Kelly, Thomas P.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    A role for the cerebellum in cognition has been proposed based on studies suggesting a profile of cognitive deficits due to cerebellar stroke. Such studies are limited in the determination of the detailed organisation of cerebellar subregions that are critical for different aspects of cognition. In this study we examined the correlation between…

  20. Contributions of Striatal Subregions to Place and Response Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Henry H.; Knowlton, Barbara J.

    2004-01-01

    The involvement of different subregions of the striatum in place and response learning was examined using a T-maze. Rats were given NMDA lesions of the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), anterior dorsomedial striatum (ADMS), posterior dorsomedial striatum (PDMS), or sham surgery. They were then trained to retrieve food from the west arm of the maze,…

  1. On Subregional Analysis of Cartilage Loss from Knee MRI.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Dan R; Lillholm, Martin; Genant, Harry K; Dam, Erik B

    2013-04-01

    Understanding how knee cartilage is affected by osteoarthritis (OA) is critical in the development of sensitive biomarkers that may be used as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials. The objective of this study was to analyze longitudinal changes in cartilage thickness using detailed change maps and to examine if current methods for subregional analysis are able to capture the underlying cartilage changes. MRI images of 267 knees from 135 participants were acquired at baseline and 21-month follow-up and processed using a fully automatic framework for cartilage segmentation and quantification. The framework provides an anatomical coordinate system that allows for direct comparison across cartilage thickness maps. The reproducibility of this method was evaluated on 37 scan-rescan image pairs. In OA knees, an annualized thickness loss of 3.7% was observed in the medial femoral cartilage plate (MF) whereas subregional measurements varied between -9.0% (loss) and 1.6%. The largest changes were observed in the posterior part of the MF. In the medial tibial cartilage plate (MT), a thickness increase of 0.4% was observed whereas subregional measurements varied between -0.8% (loss) and 1.6%. In addition, notable differences in the patterns of cartilage change were observed between genders. This study indicated that the spatial changes, although highly heterogeneous, showed distinct patterns of cartilage thinning and cartilage thickening in both the MF and the MT. These patterns were not accurately reflected when thickness changes were averaged over large, predefined subregions as defined in current methods for subregional analysis.

  2. On Subregional Analysis of Cartilage Loss from Knee MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lillholm, Martin; Genant, Harry K.; Dam, Erik B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Understanding how knee cartilage is affected by osteoarthritis (OA) is critical in the development of sensitive biomarkers that may be used as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials. The objective of this study was to analyze longitudinal changes in cartilage thickness using detailed change maps and to examine if current methods for subregional analysis are able to capture the underlying cartilage changes. Materials and Methods: MRI images of 267 knees from 135 participants were acquired at baseline and 21-month follow-up and processed using a fully automatic framework for cartilage segmentation and quantification. The framework provides an anatomical coordinate system that allows for direct comparison across cartilage thickness maps. The reproducibility of this method was evaluated on 37 scan–rescan image pairs. Results: In OA knees, an annualized thickness loss of 3.7% was observed in the medial femoral cartilage plate (MF) whereas subregional measurements varied between −9.0% (loss) and 1.6%. The largest changes were observed in the posterior part of the MF. In the medial tibial cartilage plate (MT), a thickness increase of 0.4% was observed whereas subregional measurements varied between −0.8% (loss) and 1.6%. In addition, notable differences in the patterns of cartilage change were observed between genders. Conclusions: This study indicated that the spatial changes, although highly heterogeneous, showed distinct patterns of cartilage thinning and cartilage thickening in both the MF and the MT. These patterns were not accurately reflected when thickness changes were averaged over large, predefined subregions as defined in current methods for subregional analysis. PMID:26069655

  3. Suitability of Silica Gel to Process INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste - Letter Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, Robert John; Herbst, Alan Keith

    2000-09-01

    The suitability of using the silica gel process for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) sodium bearing waste was investigated during fiscal year 2000. The study was co-funded by the Tanks Focus Area as part of TTP No. ID-77WT-31 and the High Level Waste Program. The task also included the investigation of possible other absorbents. Scoping tests and examination of past work showed that the silica gel absorption/adsorption and drying method was the most promising; thus only silica gel was studied and not other absorbents. The documentation on the Russian silica gel process provided much of the needed information but did not provide some of the processing detail so these facts had to be inferred or gleaned from the literature.

  4. Materials testing for in situ stabilization treatability study of INEEL mixed wastes soils

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the contaminant-specific materials testing phase of the In Situ Stabilization Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study (TS). The purpose of materials testing is to measure the effectiveness of grouting agents to stabilize Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Acid Pit soils and select a grout material for use in the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Treatability Study within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Test results will assist the selecting a grout material for the follow-on demonstrations described in Test Plan for the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Phases of the In Situ Stabilization Treatability Study at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

  5. Unique challenges for storage and disposal of DOE-owned SNF at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, T.A.

    1998-03-01

    Non-commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) owned by the Department of Energy presents some unique challenges for interim storage as well as ultimate disposal in a repository. There is an important link between Yucca Mountain Repository work and the future needs of the DOE SNF program. Close coordination and early definition of acceptance criteria are essential. Much of the Yucca Mountain Repository work has focused on commercial SNF which has very high structural integrity and a well documented set of characteristics and burn-up histories. In contrast, DOE non-commercial SNF at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) represents over two hundred fifty fuel types, much of which is degraded. Fuel designs by DOE were centered around various test objectives in experimental reactors. The result was a proliferation of fuel types. Interest in enhanced heat transfer led to use of sodium as a bond between the fuel and cladding. The desire for smaller more compact reactors with higher power densities led to a variety of enrichments from less than 20% to greater than 90%. INEEL has most of the US U-233 spent nuclear fuel, which came from breeder reactor concepts and consideration of a thorium fuel cycle. These various fuel types now must be placed in safe, stable interim dry storage. Emphasis is being placed on the use of commercially available dry storage designs and independent spent fuel storage installations licensed under NRC criteria. A lot of technological development is being done to characterize fuels that do not have the documented fabrication and operational histories of commercial LWR fuels. Program objectives are safe interim storage and least cost transition to geological repository storage.

  6. Evaluation and Testing of the Cells Unit Crossflow Filter on INEEL Dissolved Calcine Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    N. R. Mann; T. A. Todd

    1998-08-01

    Development of waste treatment processes for the remediation of radioactive wastes is currently under way at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). INTEC, formerly known as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, previously reprocessed nuclear fuel to retrieve fissionable uranium. Liquid waste raffinates resulting from reprocessing were solidified into a granular calcine material. Approximately 4,000 m3 of calcine are presently being stored in concrete encased stainless steel bins at the INTEC. Greater than 99 weight percent of the calcine is non-radioactive inert materials. By separating radioactive and non-radioactive constituents into high and low activity fractions, a significant high-activity volume reduction can be achieved. Prior to separation, calcine dissolution must be performed. However, dissolution studies have shown a small percentage of solids present after dissolution. Undissolved solids (UDS) in solution must be removed prior to downstream processes such as solvent extraction and ion exchange. Furthermore, residual UDS in solutions have the potential to carry excess radioactivity into low activity waste fractions, if not removed. Filtration experiments were conducted at the INEEL using the Cell Unit Filter (CUF) on actual dissolved H-4 calcine and dissolved Run 1027 non-radioactive pilot plant calcine. The purpose of this testing was to evaluate the removal and operational efficiency of crossflow filtration on slurries of various solids loading. The solids loadings tested were, 0.19, 2.44 (H-4) and 7.94 (1027) weight percent, respectively. A matrix of test patterns was used to determine the effects of transmembrane pressure and axial velocity on filtrate flux. Filtrate flux rates for each solids loading displayed a high dependence on transmembrane pressure, indicating that pressure filtration resistance limits filtrate flux. Filtrate flux rates for all

  7. Water temperatures of California streams, San Francisco Bay subregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, J.C.

    1971-01-01

    A summary of water-temperature records is presented for data collected through September 1968 in the San Francisco Bay Subregion of California. This report is one of a series covering the 11 hydrologic subregions of the State and includes data for 87 stream sites. Water temperatures, in degrees Celsius, are summarized by months, years, and for the period of record. A description is included to identify each station where data were collected. A tolerance interval analysis indicated that 99 percent of the point water-temperature observations, determined either with thermograph probes or hand-held thermometers, should be ±0.6°C of the mean water temperature at the 95-percent confidence level. The probable total error ranges from ±0.8°C for periodic data to ±1.4°C for thermograph data.

  8. Determination of the Rate of Formation of Hydroceramic Waste Forms made with INEEL Calcined Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Barry Scheetz; Johnson Olanrewaju

    2001-10-15

    The formulation, synthesis, characterization and hydration kinetics of hydroceramic waste forms designed as potential hosts for existing INEEL calcine high-level wastes have been established as functions of temperature and processing time. Initial experimentations were conducted with several aluminosilicate pozzolanic materials, ranging from fly ash obtained from various power generating coal and other combustion industries to reactive alumina, natural clays and ground bottled glass powders. The final selection criteria were based on the ease of processing, excellent physical properties and chemical durability (low-leaching) determined from the PCT test produced in hydroceramic. The formulation contains vermiculite, Sr(NO32), CsC1, NaOH, thermally altered (calcined natural clay) and INEEL simulated calcine high-level nuclear wastes and 30 weight percent of fluorinel blend calcine and zirconia calcine. Syntheses were carried out at 75-200 degree C at autogeneous water pressure (100% relative humidity) at various time intervals. The resulting monolithic compact products were hard and resisted breaking when dropped from a 5 ft height. Hydroceramic host mixed with fluorinel blend calcine and processed at 75 degree C crumbled into rice hull-side grains or developed scaly flakes. However, the samples equally possessed the same chemical durability as their unbroken counterparts. Phase identification by XRD revealed that hydroceramic host crystallized type zeolite at 75-150 degree C and NaP1 at 175-200 degree C in addition to the presence of quartz phase originating from the clay reactant. Hydroceramic host mixed with either fluorinel blend calcine or zirconia calcine crystallized type A zeolite at 75-95 degree C, formed a mixture of type A zeolite and hydroxysodalite at 125-150 degree C and hydroxysodalite at 175-200 degree C. Quartz, calcium fluoride and zirconia phases from the clay reactant and the two calcine wastes were also detected. The PCT test solution

  9. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  10. Comparative paleofloristics of the Albian-early Paleocene in the Anadyr-Koryak and North Alaska Subregions, Part 1: The Anadyr-Koryak Subregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, A. B.

    2007-06-01

    A high-resolution phytostratigraphic scheme based on plant macrofossils is suggested for the first time for the Albian and Upper Cretaceous of the Anadyr-Koryak Subregion of the North Pacific. Seven phytostratigraphic horizons of the subregion are distinguished based on successive stages in flora evolution substantiated by comprehensive data on described floral assemblages.

  11. Mapping of contamination at Savannah River Site FBWU by INEEL trolley

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.V.; Gehrke, R.J.; Helmer, R.G.; Josten, N.

    1998-01-01

    The Ford Building Waste Unit (FBWU) 643-11G is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (RCRA/CERCLA) designated site at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. Pre-Work Plan Characterization at the FBWU in May 1996 indicated that radiological contamination was present in surface and near surface soils and identified cesium-137, {sup 137}Cs, the unit specific contaminant, as being primarily in the top 15 cm of soil. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) sent the dig-face trolley system to SRS where it demonstrated its capability over a 6.1-m (20 ft.) x 9.6-m (30 ft.) area to rapidly map the contamination on-line with its large area plastic scintillation detector. Also, an extended-range (10 keV to 3 MeV) Ge detector was used at selected locations to identify and quantify the {sup 137}Cs contamination. The coordinate locations of each measurement acquired in either the scanning or fixed position mode was obtained with a survey system based on radial encoders. Topography measurements were also made during measurements to permit correction of field of view and activity concentrations for changes in the ground to detector distance.

  12. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-02-21

    The technical information required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is presented. The objective of the modeling effort is to provide the predictive capability required to optimize an entire treatment train and assess system-wide impacts of local changes at individual unit operations, with the aim of reducing the schedule and cost of future process/facility design efforts. All the information required a priori for engineers to construct and link unit operation modules in a commercial software simulator to represent the alternative treatment trains is presented. The information is of a mid- to high-level nature and consists of the following: (1) a description of twenty-four specific unit operations--their operating conditions and constraints, primary species and key outputs, and the initial modeling approaches that will be used in the first year of the simulation's development; (2) three potential configurations of the unit operations (trains) and their interdependencies via stream connections; and (3) representative stream compositional makeups.

  13. Sulfur Partitioning During Vitrification of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Darab, John G.; Graham, Dennis D.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Russell, Renee L.; Smith, Harry D.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.

    2001-07-31

    The sodium bearing tank waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains high concentrations of sulfur (roughly 5 mass% of SO3 on a nonvolatile oxide basis). The amount of sulfur that can be feed to the melter will ultimately determine the loading of SBW in glass produced by the baseline (low-temperature, joule-heated, liquid-fed, ceramic-lined) melter. The amount of sulfur which can be fed to the melter is determined by several major factors including: the tolerance of the melter for an immiscible salt layer accumulation, the solubility of sulfur in the glass melt, the fraction of sulfur removed to the off-gas, and the incorporation of sulfur into the glass up to it?s solubility limit. This report summarizes the current status of testing aimed at determining the impacts of key chemical and physical parameters on the partitioning of sulfur between the glass, a molten salt, and the off-gas.

  14. Integration of Environmental Restoration and Decontamination and Dismantlement Requirements at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. Reese; D. J. Kuhns

    1999-02-01

    In 1997, the Environmental Restoration Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) determined that it was necessary to remediate a Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA) site to address the risk of subsurface petroleum contamination to human health and the environment. This cleanup project was conducted utilizing the Non-time Critical Removal Action process. Due to the close proximity (above the contaminated soil) of a number of above ground storage tanks and a building, the CERCLA project team worked closely with the D&D group to ensure all requirements for each program were met. Lessons learned and regulatory requirements are discussed in the paper, including the factors unknown to many ER personnel regarding the steps required to be completed prior to the dismantlement of structures. The paper summarizes the background associated with the site, why the removal action was conducted, the scope of the removal action, and the results. The emphasis of the paper is to discuss the integration between ER and D&D requirements and processes. In the current environment where ER and D&D activities are commingled, it is imperative that ER and D&D personnel are aware of the requirements imposed upon each program. By working together and building upon the strengths of each program, the INEEL�s 1997 removal action was a tremendous success.

  15. Integration of Environmental Restoration and Decontamination and Dismantlement Requirements at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhns, Douglass Jack; Reese, Craig Lyle

    1999-03-01

    In 1997, the Environmental Restoration Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) determined that it was necessary to remediate a Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA) site to address the risk of subsurface petroleum contamination to human health and the environment. This cleanup project was conducted utilizing the Non-time Critical Removal Action process. Due to the close proximity (above the contaminated soil) of a number of above ground storage tanks and a building, the CERCLA project team worked closely with the D&D group to ensure all requirements for each program were met. Lessons learned and regulatory requirements will be discussed in the paper, including the factors unknown to many ER personnel regarding the steps required to be completed prior to the dismantlement of structures. The paper will summarize the background associated with the site, why the removal action was conducted, the scope of the removal action, and the results. The emphasis of the paper will discuss the integration between ER and D&D requirements and processes. In the current environment where ER and D&D activities are commingled, it is imperative that ER and D&D personnel are aware of the requirements imposed upon each program. By working together and building upon the strengths of each program, the INEEL’s 1997 removal action was a tremendous success.

  16. Preliminary formulation studies for a ``hydroceramic`` alternative waste form for INEEL HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Siemer, D.D.; Gougar, M.L.D.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Scheetz, B.E.

    1999-09-01

    Herein the authors discuss scoping studies performed to develop an efficient way to prepare the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) nominally high-level ({approximately}40 W/m{sup 3}) calcined radioactive waste (HLW) and liquid metal (sodium) reactor coolants for disposal. The investigated approach implements the chemistry of Hanford`s cancrinite-making clay reaction process via Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) formed-under-elevated-temperatures-and-pressures concrete monolith-making technology to make hydroceramics (HCs). The HCs differ from conventional Portland cement/blast furnace slag (PC/BFS) grouts in that the binder minerals formed during the curing process are hydrated alkali-aluminosilicates (feldspathoids-sodalites, cancrinites, and zeolites) rather than hydrated calcium silicates (CSH). This is desirable because (a) US defense-type radioactive wastes generally contain much more sodium and aluminum than calcium; (b) sodalites/cancrinites do a much better job of retaining the anionic components of real radioactive waste (e.g., nitrate) than do calcium silicates; (c) natural feldspathoids form from glasses (and therefore are more stable) in that region of the United States where a repository for this sort of waste could be sited; and (d) if eventually deemed necessary, feldspathoid-type concrete wasteforms could be hot-isostatically-pressed into even more durable materials without removing them from their original canisters.

  17. INEEL Biotechnology for Oilfield Application--Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery FY-03 Report

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Bala; D. F. Bruhn; S. L. Fox; K. S. Noah; K. D. Schaller; E. P. Robertson; X. Xie

    2003-11-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Biotechnology for Oilfield Operations program supports development, engineering, and application of biotechnology for exploration and production. This continuing INEEL program also supports mitigation of detrimental field conditions. The program is consistent with the United States Department of Energy mission to ¡§promote activities and policies through its oil technology and natural gas supply programs to enhance the efficiency and environmental quality of domestic oil and natural gas exploration, recovery, processing, transport, and storage.¡¨ In addition, the program directly supports the focus areas of Reservoir Life Extension; Advanced Drilling, Completion and Stimulation Systems; Effective Environmental Protection; and Cross Cutting Areas. The program is enhanced by collaborative relationships with industry and academia. For fiscal year 2003, the program focused on production and characterization of biological surfactants from agricultural residuals and the production and application of reactive microbial polymers. This report specifically details: 1. Use of a chemostat reactor operated in batch mode for producing surfactin, with concomitant use of an antifoam to prevent surfactant loss. The program achieved production and recovery of 0.6 g/L of surfactin per 12 hr. 2. Characterization of surfactin produced from agricultural residuals with respect to its ability to mediate changes in surface tension. Conditions evaluated were salt (as NaCl) from 0 to 10% (w/v), pH from 3 to 10, temperature from 21 to 70¢XC, and combinations of these conditions. When evaluated singularly, pH below 6 and salt concentrations above 30 g/L were found to have an adverse impact on surfactin. Temperatures of 70¢XC for 95 days had no effect. When the effect of temperature was added to the pH experiment, there were no significant changes, and, again, surface tension, at any temperature, increased at pH below 6

  18. Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Ashwin, Ed.; Nersessian, Nancy J., Ed.; Keil, Frank C., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This special issue includes four articles that address issues concerning conceptual change. Topics include analogical reasoning and a case study of Johannes Kepler; conceptual change and wine expertise; the role of extreme case reasoning in instruction for conceptual change; and dynamic science assessment: a new approach for investigating…

  19. Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Ashwin, Ed.; Nersessian, Nancy J., Ed.; Keil, Frank C., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This special issue includes four articles that address issues concerning conceptual change. Topics include analogical reasoning and a case study of Johannes Kepler; conceptual change and wine expertise; the role of extreme case reasoning in instruction for conceptual change; and dynamic science assessment: a new approach for investigating…

  20. Subregional neuroanatomical change as a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Dominic; Brewer, James B.; Hagler, Donald J.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Dale, Anders M.; Weiner, Michael; Thal, Leon; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Trojanowki, John; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C.; Gamst, Anthony; Potter, William Z.; Montine, Tom; Anders, Dale; Bernstein, Matthew; Felmlee, Joel; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene; Bandy, Dan; Koeppe, Robert A.; Foster, Norm; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Shaw, Les; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Korecka, Magdalena; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Kachaturian, Zaven; Frank, Richard; Snyder, Peter J.; Molchan, Susan; Kaye, Jeffrey; Vorobik, Remi; Quinn, Joseph; Schneider, Lon; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Spann, Bryan; Fleisher, Adam S.; Vanderswag, Helen; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Morris, John C.; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Badger, Beverly; Grossman, Hillel; Tang, Cheuk; Stern, Jessica; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Shah, Raj C.; Bach, Julie; Duara, Ranjan; Isaacson, Richard; Strauman, Silvia; Albert, Marilyn S.; Pedroso, Julia; Toroney, Jaimie; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J.; De Santi, Susan M.; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Aiello, Marilyn; Clark, Christopher M.; Pham, Cassie; Nunez, Jessica; Smith, Charles D.; Given, Curtis A.; Hardy, Peter; DeKosky, Steven T.; Oakley, MaryAnn; Simpson, Donna M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Porsteinsson, Anton; McCallum, Colleen; Cramer, Steven C.; Mulnard, Ruth A.; McAdams-Ortiz, Catherine; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Martin-Cook, Kristen; DeVous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Laubinger, Mary M.; Bartzokis, George; Silverman, Daniel H. S.; Lu, Po H.; Fletcher, Rita; Parfitt, Francine; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin; Herring, Scott; Hake, Ann M.; van Dyck, Christopher H.; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Bifano, Laurel A.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Graham, Simon; Caldwell, Curtis; Feldman, Howard; Assaly, Michele; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R.; Kertesz, Andrew; Rogers, John; Trost, Dick; Bernick, Charles; Gitelman, Darren; Johnson, Nancy; Mesulam, Marsel; Sadowsky, Carl; Villena, Teresa; Mesner, Scott; Aisen, Paul S.; Johnson, Kathleen B.; Behan, Kelly E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Ashford, Wes; Sabbagh, Marwan; Connor, Donald; Obradov, Sanja; Killiany, Ron; Norbash, Alex; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni; Wang, Paul; Auchus, Alexander P.; Huang, Juebin; Friedland, Robert P.; DeCarli, Charles; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Kittur, Smita; Mirje, Seema; Johnson, Sterling C.; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T.-Y.; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Highum, Diane; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre N.; Hendin, Barry A.; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Beversdorf, David Q.; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Gandy, Sam; Marenberg, Marjorie E.; Rovner, Barry W.; Pearlson, Godfrey; Blank, Karen; Anderson, Karen; Saykin, Andrew J.; Santulli, Robert B.; Pare, Nadia; Williamson, Jeff D.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Potter, Huntington; Ashok Raj, B.; Giordano, Amy; Ott, Brian R.; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Cohen, Ronald; Wilks, Kerri L.; Safirstein, Beth E.

    2009-01-01

    Regions of the temporal and parietal lobes are particularly damaged in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and this leads to a predictable pattern of brain atrophy. In vivo quantification of subregional atrophy, such as changes in cortical thickness or structure volume, could lead to improved diagnosis and better assessment of the neuroprotective effects of a therapy. Toward this end, we have developed a fast and robust method for accurately quantifying cerebral structural changes in several cortical and subcortical regions using serial MRI scans. In 169 healthy controls, 299 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 129 subjects with AD, we measured rates of subregional cerebral volume change for each cohort and performed power calculations to identify regions that would provide the most sensitive outcome measures in clinical trials of disease-modifying agents. Consistent with regional specificity of AD, temporal-lobe cortical regions showed the greatest disease-related changes and significantly outperformed any of the clinical or cognitive measures examined for both AD and MCI. Global measures of change in brain structure, including whole-brain and ventricular volumes, were also elevated in AD and MCI, but were less salient when compared to changes in normal subjects. Therefore, these biomarkers are less powerful for quantifying disease-modifying effects of compounds that target AD pathology. The findings indicate that regional temporal lobe cortical changes would have great utility as outcome measures in clinical trials and may also have utility in clinical practice for aiding early diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:19996185

  1. Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Subregions Make Dissociable Contributions during Fluid Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Russell; Duncan, John; Owen, Adrian M.

    2011-01-01

    Reasoning is a key component of adaptable “executive” behavior and is known to depend on a network of frontal and parietal brain regions. However, the mechanisms by which this network supports reasoning and adaptable behavior remain poorly defined. Here, we examine the relationship between reasoning, executive control, and frontoparietal function in a series of nonverbal reasoning experiments. Our results demonstrate that, in accordance with previous studies, a network of frontal and parietal brain regions is recruited during reasoning. Our results also reveal that this network can be fractionated according to how different subregions respond when distinct reasoning demands are manipulated. While increased rule complexity modulates activity within a right lateralized network including the middle frontal gyrus and the superior parietal cortex, analogical reasoning demand—or the requirement to remap rules on to novel features—recruits the left inferior rostrolateral prefrontal cortex and the lateral occipital complex. In contrast, the posterior extent of the inferior frontal gyrus, associated with simpler executive demands, is not differentially sensitive to rule complexity or analogical demand. These findings accord well with the hypothesis that different reasoning demands are supported by different frontal and parietal subregions. PMID:20483908

  2. Formulation Efforts for Direct Vitrification of INEEL Blend Calcine Waste Simulate: Fiscal Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.; Reamer, I. A.

    2001-03-30

    This report documents the results of glass formulation efforts for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) high level waste (HWL) calcine. Two waste compositions were used during testing. Testing started by using the Run 78 calcine composition and switched to simulated Blend calcine composition when it became available. The goal of the glass formulation efforts was to develop a frit composition that will accept higher waste loading that satisfies the glass processing and product acceptance constraints. 1. Melting temperature of 1125 ? 25?C 2. Viscosity between 2 and 10 Pa?s at the melting temperature 3. Liquidus temperature at least 100?C below the melting temperature 4. Normalized release of B, Li and Na each below 1 g/m2 (per ASTM C 1285-97) Glass formulation efforts tested several frit compositions with variable waste loadings of Run 78 calcine waste simulant. Frit 107 was selected as the primary candidate for processing since it met all process and performance criteria up to 45 mass% waste loading. When the simulated Blend calcine waste composition became available Frits 107 and 108 compositions were retested and again Frit 107 remained the primary candidate. However, both frits suffered a decrease in waste loading when switching from the Run 78 calcine to simulated Blend calcine waste composition. This was due to increase concentrations of both F and Al2O3 along with a decrease in CaO and Na2O in the simulate Blend calcine waste all of which have strong impacts on the glass properties that limit waste loading of this type of waste.

  3. Cartilage Loss Occurs in the Same Subregions as Subchondral Bone Attrition: A Within-Knee Subregion-Matched Approach From the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    Neogi, T.; Felson, D.; Niu, J.; Lynch, J.; Nevitt, M.; Guermazi, A.; Roemer, F.; Lewis, C. E.; Wallace, B.; Zhang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Objective By magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), subchondral bone attrition (SBA) can be seen in early osteoarthritis (OA), but the significance of this is unknown. We therefore evaluated whether SBA was associated with cartilage loss within the same subregion of the knee. Methods The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study is a cohort of individuals who have or are at high risk for knee OA. At baseline and 30 months, participants’ knee MRIs were graded using the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score in the 10 subregions of the tibiofemoral joint for cartilage morphology and SBA. We conducted analyses within a knee to eliminate between-person confounding, using an M:N (cases:controls) matched case–control approach with the 10 subregions of a person’s knee forming a matched set. Cases within a knee were defined as subregions with cartilage loss, while controls were subregions in that same knee without cartilage loss. We evaluated the association of cartilage loss over 30 months with the presence of baseline SBA in the same subregion within that knee using conditional logistic regression. Results SBA was associated with an odds ratio of 7.5 (95% confidence interval 5.6 –9.9, P < 0.0001) for cartilage loss in the same subregion compared with subregions without any baseline SBA in our sample of 459 knees from participants, 64% of whom were women, with a mean age of 63 years and a mean body mass index of 30.5 kg/m2. Conclusion SBA is strongly associated with cartilage loss within the same subregion of a knee. SBA may directly influence overlying cartilage loss or serve as a marker of an area undergoing great compressive stress and in which cartilage loss is inevitable. PMID:19877101

  4. Health equity and migrants in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Celia; Healy, Judith

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Migrant health is receiving increasing international attention, reflecting recognition of the health inequities experienced among many migrant populations and the need for health systems to adapt to diverse migrant populations. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) there is increasing migration associated with uneven economic integration and growth, socio-economic vulnerabilities, and disparities between countries. There has been limited progress, however, in improving migrant access to health services in the Subregion. This paper examines the health needs, access barriers, and policy responses to cross-border migrants in five GMS countries. Methods: A review of published literature and research was conducted on migrant health and health service access in Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam, as well as analysis of current migration trends and universal health coverage (UHC) indicators in the Subregion. The review included different migrant types: i.e. migrant workers, irregular migrants, victims of trafficking, refugees and asylum seekers, and casual cross-border migrants. Results: There is substantial diversity in the capacity of GMS health systems to address migrant populations. Thailand has sought to enhance migrant health coverage, including development of migrant health policies/programs, bilateral migrant worker agreements, and migrant health insurance schemes; Viet Nam provides health protection for emigrant workers. Overall, however, access to good quality health care remains weak for many citizens in GMS countries let alone migrants. Migrant workers – and irregular migrants in particular – face elevated health risks yet are not adequately covered and incur high out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for health services. Conclusions: UHC implies equity: UHC is only achieved when everyone has the opportunity to access and use good-quality health care. Efforts to achieve UHC in the GMS require

  5. State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program - Final Progress Report - 01/01/1996 - 09/30/2000

    SciTech Connect

    Trever, Kathleen

    2000-09-30

    The primary goal is to maintain an independent, impartial, and qualified State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program to assess the potential impacts of present and future Department of Energy (DOE) activities in Idaho; to assure the citizens of Idaho that all present and future DOE activities in Idaho are protective of the health and safety of Idahoans and the environment; and to communicate the findings to the citizens of Idaho in a manner which provides them the opportunity to evaluate impacts of present and future DOE activities in Idaho. This will be accomplished through primary technical work activities and providing clear, factual data and other information to the public.

  6. Volumetry and diffusion tensor imaging of hippocampal subregions in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kalus, Peter; Buri, Caroline; Slotboom, Johannes; Gralla, Jan; Remonda, Luca; Dierks, Thomas; Strik, Werner K; Schroth, Gerhard; Kiefer, Claus

    2004-04-09

    Previous MRI-volumetric studies in schizophrenic psychoses have demonstrated more or less pronounced volume reductions of the hippocampus in patients. Correspondingly, neuropathological examinations on the brains of schizophrenics showed diverse structural changes of the hippocampus. Employing a high-resolution 3D-MPRAGE sequence, we found volume reductions in most hippocampal subregions of schizophrenic patients, which, however, did not reach significant levels. An analysis of co-registered diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data revealed significant alterations of the inter-voxel coherences in single hippocampal subdivisions of these patients, supporting the assumption of characteristic microstructural tissue changes relevant for the pathogenesis of schizophrenic psychoses. Our results argue for the usage of additional MRI modalities like DTI in order to detect subtle regional alterations of hippocampal structure in schizophrenics.

  7. Distinct critical cerebellar subregions for components of verbal working memory

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Freya E.; Grube, Manon; Von Kriegstein, Katharina; Kumar, Sukhbinder; English, Philip; Kelly, Thomas P.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    A role for the cerebellum in cognition has been proposed based on studies suggesting a profile of cognitive deficits due to cerebellar stroke. Such studies are limited in the determination of the detailed organisation of cerebellar subregions that are critical for different aspects of cognition. In this study we examined the correlation between cognitive performance and cerebellar integrity in a specific degeneration of the cerebellar cortex: Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 6 (SCA6). The results demonstrate a critical relationship between verbal working memory and grey matter density in superior (bilateral lobules VI and crus I of lobule VII) and inferior (bilateral lobules VIIIa and VIIIb, and right lobule IX) parts of the cerebellum. We demonstrate that distinct cerebellar regions subserve different components of the prevalent psychological model for verbal working memory based on a phonological loop. The work confirms the involvement of the cerebellum in verbal working memory and defines specific subsystems for this within the cerebellum. PMID:22133495

  8. Towards migration research networking in Eastern-Southern African subregions.

    PubMed

    Oucho, J O

    1993-01-01

    This article reports efforts made by a small group of Eastern-Southern African (ESA) subregion scholars to adopt a systematic approach to establishing a regional network Migration Network in Eastern and Southern Africa (MINESA). The approach involved: 1) holding a conference at which symptomatic types of internal and international migration would be discussed; 2) publication of the conference proceedings; and 3) establishment of MINESA as a network of policy-oriented research in the two subregions. The first stage has been accomplished, the second is nearly complete, and the third has yet to be undertaken. During the African Population Conference organized by the International Union for Scientific Study of Population in Dakar, Senegal, on 5-9 November 1988, a small group agreed on a timetable to establish MINESA. At the ESA conference, papers were presented on ESA issues; internal migration processes and mechanism; refugee movements and their implications for countries; the effects on the economies of Southern African states, of emigration to the Republic of South Africa (RSA). In a keynote address, Adepoju surveyed migration and development in Western-Central (Middle) Africa and Eastern-Southern Africa, which included colonial and post-colonial historical epochs, internal and international migration, and labor and refugee movements. A paper on Kenya by Oucho discussed the implications for rural-urban balance of internal migration based on 1969 and 1979 censuses. Rural-urban migration from the traditional economy to Nairobi and Mombasa in particular has created an unacceptable rural-urban imbalance, adversely affecting rural development. Eastern and Southern Africa has seen massive and wide spatial dispersal of refugees (victims of wars, drought, and famine). Two papers were presented on Tanzania and one on Uganda. The final set of papers addressed the effects of labor migration to the RSA on Swaziland and Lesotho.

  9. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of INEEL SBW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arlin L. Olson; Nicholas R. Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-12-01

    Sodium bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many studies have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. DOE desired further experimental data, with regard to steam reforming technology, to make informed decisions concerning selection of treatment technology for SBW. Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was performed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel September 27 through October 1, 2004. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, and located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Personnel from Science Applications International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, operated the pilot plant. The pilot scale test was terminated as planned after achieving a total of 100 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation. About 230 kg of SBW surrogate were processed that resulted in about 88 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 62

  10. Subregional Anatomical Distribution of T2 Values of Articular Cartilage in Asymptomatic Hips

    PubMed Central

    Surowiec, Rachel K.; Ferro, Fernando P.; Lucas, Erin P.; Saroki, Adriana J.; Dornan, Grant J.; Fitzcharles, Eric K.; Anz, Adam W.; Smith, W. Sean; Wilson, Katharine J.; Philippon, Marc J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A standardized definition of normative T2 values across the articular surface of the hip must be defined in order to fully understand T2 values for detecting early degeneration. Therefore, in this article, we seek to lay foundational methodology for reproducible quantitative evaluation of hip cartilage damage using T2 mapping to determine the normative T2 values in asymptomatic individuals. Design: Nineteen prospectively enrolled asymptomatic volunteers (age 18-35 years, males 10, females 9, alpha angle 49.3º ± 7.2º) were evaluated with a sagittal T2 mapping sequence at 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging. Acetabular and femoral cartilage was manually segmented directly on the second echo of the T2 mapping sequence by 3 raters, twice. Segmentations were divided into 12 subregions modified from the geographic zone method. Median T2 values within each subregion were compiled for further analysis and interrater and intrarater reliability was assessed. Results: In the femur, the posterior-superior subregion was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than those in the posterior-inferior and anterior-inferior subregions. In the acetabulum, the anterior-inferior subregion was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.001) than in the anterior-superior, middle, and posterior-inferior subregions. T2 values of the posterior-superior subregion were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than the anterior-superior, middle, and posterior-inferior subregions. Interrater agreement was generally fair to good. PMID:26069695

  11. Delineation, peer review, and refinement of subregions of the conterminous United States

    Treesearch

    J.E. Keys; D.T. Cleland; W.H. McNab

    2007-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the background of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units and the methods used for delineating map units at the subregion planning and analysis scale. The process for scientific review and continuous refinement of ecological units and associated data of subregions is also...

  12. Environmental Sampling FY01 Annual Report - Understanding the Movement of Mercury in the Environmental Surrounding the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Michael Lehman

    2001-09-01

    Environmental fate and transport of the toxic air pollutant mercury (Hg) is currently a high-priority regional concern for the INEEL, and national and global concern for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). At the INEEL’s Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), significant quantities (est. 40 kg/year) of Hg may have been released over 37 years of Environmental Management’s (EM) High-Level Waste (HLW) treatment operations. The EPA is very concerned about the continued global buildup of Hg in the atmosphere and aquatic ecosystems, and has recently invested heavily in Hg research to better understand its complex environmental cycling.1,2 The Environmental Sampling work began in FY99 as a joint INEEL/U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) field research effort to (a) better understand the fate and potential impacts of Hg emissions from the INEEL’s HLW treatment operations (operational component) and (b) contribute at a national level to the scientific understanding of local, regional, and global Hg fate and transport (research component). The USGS contributed snow sampling support in the field (Water Resources Division, Salt Lake City) and laboratory analysis of all samples (Wisconsin District Mercury Research Laboratory).

  13. New Sericostomatid Caddisflies (Trichoptera) from the Brazilian Subregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzenthal, R. W.; Blahnik, R. J.

    2005-05-01

    The caddisfly family Sericostomatidae, with 20 genera and almost 100 species, is nearly cosmopolitan in distribution, but is absent from the Australasian region, has only a single species in the Oriental region, and occurs only in the southernmost regions of Africa and South America. Within its distribution, it displays 4 centers of species diversity: the southeastern United States, Europe and the western Palearctic, South Africa, and southern Chile. Five genera occur in the Neotropics: Chiloecia (1 species), Grumicha (1 species), Myotrichia (1 species), Notidobiella (3 species), and Parasericostoma (10 species), all occurring in southern Chile, except Grumicha, from southeast Brazil and adjacent Argentina. Recent collecting throughout South America, but especially in SE Brazil, has resulted in the discovery of 4 new species and an extension of the family's range in South America well beyond the Chilean subregion. The new taxa include: 1 new species of Grumicha from southeastern Brazil, 2 new species of Notidobiella from SE Brazil and Ecuador, respectively, and a new species, probably representing a new genus, from Amazonian Brazil. Males, females, and immatures of these new species are described and illustrated. Biogeographical implications suggest both recent dispersal as well as more ancient Gondwanan vicariant patterns.

  14. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance for the Greater Mekong Subregion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) Identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) Implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) Implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) Increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) Optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) Reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) Reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters are extracted from NASA Earth science data sets. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  15. Magnetoencephalography evidence for different brain subregions serving two musical cultures.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Rie; Yokosawa, Koichi; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2012-12-01

    Individuals who have been exposed to two different musical cultures (bimusicals) can be differentiated from those exposed to only one musical culture (monomusicals). Just as bilingual speakers handle the distinct language-syntactic rules of each of two languages, bimusical listeners handle two distinct musical-syntactic rules (e.g., tonal schemas) in each musical culture. This study sought to determine specific brain activities that contribute to differentiating two culture-specific tonal structures. We recorded magnetoencephalogram (MEG) responses of bimusical Japanese nonmusicians and amateur musicians as they monitored unfamiliar Western melodies and unfamiliar, but traditional, Japanese melodies, both of which contained tonal deviants (out-of-key tones). Previous studies with Western monomusicals have shown that tonal deviants elicit an early right anterior negativity (mERAN) originating in the inferior frontal cortex. In the present study, tonal deviants in both Western and Japanese melodies elicited mERANs with characteristics fitted by dipoles around the inferior frontal gyrus in the right hemisphere and the premotor cortex in the left hemisphere. Comparisons of the nature of mERAN activity to Western and Japanese melodies showed differences in the dipoles' locations but not in their peak latency or dipole strength. These results suggest that the differentiation between a tonal structure of one culture and that of another culture correlates with localization differences in brain subregions around the inferior frontal cortex and the premotor cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ogbu, O; Ajuluchukwu, E; Uneke, C J

    2007-03-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to be responsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection with profuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Some studies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across West Africa. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa were identified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity of resources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise the West African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region. There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care of patients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectious laboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.

  17. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance for the Greater Mekong Subregion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) Identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) Implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) Implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) Increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) Optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) Reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) Reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters are extracted from NASA Earth science data sets. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  18. Hydrothermal transformation and dissolution of hydroceramic waste forms for the INEEL calcined high-level nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olanrewaju, Johnson

    2002-09-01

    The two main objectives of this research were dictated by the chemical composition of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) calcined high-level nuclear waste. The first objective is to develop waste forms specifically to address the immobilization of INEEL sodium-containing calcined waste in order to identify a source material that would be compatible with the established processing requirements for the waste form. These selection criteria include no excessive water demand, proper mineralogical composition of the waste form, low leachability, waste loadings greater than 20 wt% calcine and also readily available to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in large quantities once the pozzolan(s) selection is made. The primary objective aims at studying hydrothermal transformation and kinetics of dissolution of the waste forms. The chemical durability (dissolution) of the waste forms was established by subjecting the samples to modified Product Consistency Test (PCT) for 24 hours at 90°C. The conductivity, pH and species concentrations of the PCT solutions plotted as a function of time decreased nonlinearly with increasing processing time. This trend was observed in all hydroceramic host samples processed from 75 to 200°C. The host mixed with waste samples heat-treated from 75 to 150°C showed decreasing conductivity and pH trend and before reaching a steady state. The increasing trend observed in the 175 and 200°C samples is due to reverse chemical reactions that occur in those samples. From the data collected, it is recommended that a processing regimen be developed that utilizes the addition of calcined Troy clay with a waste loading of 30 wt% and processed between 175 to 200°C for 8 to 10 hours and 100% relative humidity. Based on the analytical concentrations of species measured in the PCT test solutions, hydroceramic waste forms are recommended to be stored/buried in Teflon-lined stainless steel

  19. SEPRADYNE/RADUCE HIGH VACUUM THERMAL PROCESS FOR DESTRUCTION OF DIOXINS IN INEEL/WERF FLY ASH.

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS,J.W.; KALB,P.D.; MALKMUS,D.B.

    1999-08-02

    This study investigated the use of an indirectly heated, high temperature (900 C), high vacuum (28 inch Hg) rotary kiln, developed and patented by Raduce, Inc. (subsidiary of Sepradyne Corp.), to treat a dioxin contaminated mixed waste incinerator ash from the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF). A 500 cm{sup 3} bench-scale rotary vacuum thermal desorption and destruction unit (DDU) was used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to demonstrate this thermal treatment process. Dioxins and furans were successfully decomposed at both low (450 C) and high (700-800 C) temperature regimes. In addition, substantial volume and mass reduction of the ash was achieved. Stabilization of the nonvolatile residues by a post-treatment encapsulation process may be required to reduce the leachability of RCRA metals to levels below the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements.

  20. SEPRADYNE/REDUCE HIGH VACUUM THERMAL PROCESS FOR DESTRUCTION OF DIOXINS IN INEEL/WERF FLY ASH.

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS,J.W.; KALB,P.D.; MALKMUS,D.B.

    1999-08-02

    This study investigated the use of an indirectly heated, high temperature (900 C), high vacuum (28'' Hg) rotary kiln, developed and patented by Raduce, Inc. (subsidiary of Sepradyne Corp.), to treat a dioxin contaminated mixed waste incinerator ash from the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF). A 500 cm{sup 3} bench-scale rotary vacuum thermal desorption and destruction unit (DDU) was used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to demonstrate this thermal treatment process. Dioxins and furans were successfully decomposed at both low (450 C) and high (700-800 C) temperature regimes. In addition, substantial volume and mass reduction of the ash was achieved. Stabilization of the nonvolatile residues by a post-treatment encapsulation process may be required to reduce the leachability of RCRA metals to levels below the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements.

  1. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.

    PubMed

    Lyttleton, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  2. Malaria research in the Greater Mekong Subregion: an overview.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Walter R J

    2013-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) has low transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax and is a prime region for malaria elimination based on evidence. The extent of GMS based research is unknown. Pub Med-identified research articles from the GMS were selected based on defined criteria and classified into 24 research areas. A research questionnaire was sent to WHO country offices, national malaria control programs (NMCPs), national research institutes and non governmental organizations (NGOs). Two thousand eight hundred ninety of 3,319 identified publications were included, dating from 1933 to June 2012; 1,485 (51.8%) of 2,890 since 2000. Ten research areas accounted for 2,264 (78.3%) publications: drug resistance 12.8% (n=371), entomology 11.42% (n=330), clinical trials 10.45% (n=302), pathophysiology 9.34% (n=270), epidemiology 8.96% (n=259), pharmacology 6.06% (n=175), parasite biology 5.19% (n=150), malaria control 4.88% (n=141), diagnosis/diagnostics 4.6% (n=133) and clinical studies 4.6% (n=133). Thailand produced most publications, 1,684 (58.27%), followed by Viet Nam (365, 12.63%), Cambodia (139, 4.81%), Myanmar (132, 4.57%), Yunnan Province, China (124, 4.3%) and Lao PDR (79, 2.73%). Other publications were multicountry, including >or=1 GMS country (n=269), or reviews (n=98). Publication numbers increased significantly over time. Eleven questionnaires were received. Principal research areas were treatment seeking behavior, knowledge, attitude and practice surveys, bed net use, access to treatment by migrants, and malaria diagnostics. Research in GMS is broad. Biomedical research dominates peer reviewed publications. NMCP and NGOs focus more on downstream malaria implementation issues. The challenge is to engage GMS research capacity to build quality evidence for malaria elimination.

  3. Disrupted resting-state insular subregions functional connectivity in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youxue; Xie, Bing; Chen, Heng; Li, Meiling; Guo, Xiaonan; Chen, Huafu

    2016-07-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is suggested to be a structural and functional abnormality in the insula. The insula, which consists of distinct subregions with various patterns of connectivity, displays complex and diverse functions. However, whether these insular subregions have different patterns of connectivity in PTSD remains unclear. Investigating the abnormal functional connectivity of the insular subregions is crucial to reveal its potential effect on diseases specifically PTSD. This study uses a seed-based method to investigate the altered resting-state functional connectivity of insular subregions in PTSD. We found that patients with PTSD showed reduced functional connectivity compared with healthy controls (HCs) between the left ventral anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex. The patients with PTSD also exhibited decreased functional connectivity between the right posterior insula and left inferior parietal lobe, and the postcentral gyrus relative to HCs. These results suggest the involvement of altered functional connectivity of insular subregions in the abnormal regulation of emotion and processing of somatosensory information in patients with PTSD. Such impairments in functional connectivity patterns of the insular subregions may advance our understanding of the pathophysiological basis underlying PTSD.

  4. Disrupted resting-state insular subregions functional connectivity in post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youxue; Xie, Bing; Chen, Heng; Li, Meiling; Guo, Xiaonan; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is suggested to be a structural and functional abnormality in the insula. The insula, which consists of distinct subregions with various patterns of connectivity, displays complex and diverse functions. However, whether these insular subregions have different patterns of connectivity in PTSD remains unclear. Investigating the abnormal functional connectivity of the insular subregions is crucial to reveal its potential effect on diseases specifically PTSD. This study uses a seed-based method to investigate the altered resting-state functional connectivity of insular subregions in PTSD. We found that patients with PTSD showed reduced functional connectivity compared with healthy controls (HCs) between the left ventral anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex. The patients with PTSD also exhibited decreased functional connectivity between the right posterior insula and left inferior parietal lobe, and the postcentral gyrus relative to HCs. These results suggest the involvement of altered functional connectivity of insular subregions in the abnormal regulation of emotion and processing of somatosensory information in patients with PTSD. Such impairments in functional connectivity patterns of the insular subregions may advance our understanding of the pathophysiological basis underlying PTSD. PMID:27399097

  5. Subregional structural and connectivity damage in the visual cortex in neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Huanhuan; Zhu, Jiajia; Zhang, Ningnannan; Wang, Qiuhui; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Chunsheng; Sun, Jie; Sun, Xianting; Yang, Li; Yu, Chunshui

    2017-01-01

    Patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) have shown structural and functional impairments in the visual cortex. We aimed to characterize subregional grey matter volume (GMV) and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes in the visual cortex in NMO. Thirty-seven NMO patients and forty-two controls underwent structural and functional MRI scans. The GMV and rsFC of each visual subregion were compared between the groups. Compared with controls, NMO patients had GMV reductions in the bilateral V1, V2, V3d, VP, and LO and in the left V3A. In canonical visual pathways, the relatively low-level subregions showed more significant GMV reductions than did the high-level ones. Regardless of GMV correction, NMO patients showed reduced rsFC in the bilateral LO and V4v and in the left V2. The GMVs of the bilateral V1 and LO and of the left V2 and V3d were negatively correlated with clinical disability in NMO patients; these correlation coefficients were associated with hierarchical positions in the visual pathways. These findings suggest that in NMO, the low-level visual subregions have more severe structural damage; structural damage is not the only factor affecting rsFC alterations of visual subregions; GMV reduction in the low-level visual subregions has the highest predictive value for clinical disability. PMID:28157198

  6. Curriculum Development for Learning To Live Together: The Caribbean Sub-Region. The Final Report of the Sub-Regional Seminar (Havana, Cuba, May 15-18, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byron, Isabel, Ed.; Rozemeijer, Saskia, Ed.

    A sub-regional seminar based on the theme, "Curriculum Development for Learning to Live Together" (Havana, Cuba, May 15-18, 2001), brought together 20 member states of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's Caribbean Network of Educational Innovation for Development: Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Aruba,…

  7. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  8. Sub-Regional Assessment of HPV Vaccination Among Female Adolescents in the Intermountain West and Implications for Intervention Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Bodson, Julia; Ding, Qian; Warner, Echo L; Hawkins, Amy J; Henry, Kevin A; Kepka, Deanna

    2017-01-13

    Objectives We investigated the similarities and differences in the factors related to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of female adolescents in three sub-regions of the Intermountain West (IW). Methods We analyzed 2011-2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen data. Respondents (parents) who were living in the IW and who had daughters aged 13-17 years old with provider-verified immunization records were included in our analyses. East, Central, and West sub-regions were defined based on geographic contiguity and similarity in HPV vaccination rates and sociodemographic characteristics. Survey-weighted Chi square tests and multivariable Poisson regressions were performed. Results In all three sub-regions, older teen age and receipt of other recommended adolescent vaccinations were significantly associated with HPV vaccination. In the East sub-region, providers' facility type and source of vaccines were significantly related to HPV vaccination. In the Central sub-region, teens with married parents were significantly less likely to be vaccinated than were those with unmarried parents. In the West sub-region, non-Hispanic teens were significantly less likely to be vaccinated than were Hispanic teens. Conclusions for Practice In order to improve HPV vaccine coverage in the IW, region-wide efforts to target younger teens and to promote the HPV vaccine with other recommended adolescent vaccinations should be supplemented with sub-regional attention to the health care system (East sub-region), to married parents (Central sub-region), and to non-Hispanic teens (West sub-region).

  9. Alternative Conceptualizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; O'Reilly, Patricia, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the topic of "Alternative Conceptualizations" of the foundations of education. In "The Concept of Place in the New Sociology of Education," Paul Theobald examines the notion of place in educational theory and practice. Janice…

  10. Conceptual Metaphor Meets Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Tamer G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the metaphorical representation of concepts and the appropriation of language-based construals can be hypothesized as additional sources of conceptual change alongside those previously proposed. Analyses of construals implicit in the lay and scientific use of the noun "energy" from the perspective of the theory of conceptual…

  11. Isotopic Evidence for the Impact of Playa Water on Shallow Groundwater Flow in the Snake River Aquifer Beneath the INEEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, M. E.; Depaolo, D. J.; Neher, E. R.

    2002-12-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is located on the Snake River Plain in eastern Idaho. At Test Area North (TAN) on the INEEL, waste consisting of low-level radioactive isotopes, sewage and chlorinated solvents was injected into the upper aquifer through a 95 m well, resulting in a 2 km plume of TCE in the groundwater. The geology consists of fractured basalt flows separated by sedimentary interbeds. The depth to groundwater at the site is 65 m. At 120-160 m depth, a continuous interbed (the Q-R) acts as a confining layer between the upper and lower aquifer. The primary direction of flow in the Snake River Aquifer is NE to SW, but flow at TAN (as defined by the TCE plume) is perpendicular to the regional flow, starting out to the east and bending to the SE. Possible causes of this anomalous flow include injection and/or infiltration of wastewater, infiltration of water from ephemeral playa lakes (dry for the last 50 years due to agricultural diversion), or heterogeneous permeability due to subsurface geological features. Understanding this flow is critical for determining the risk factors associated with the contamination. We have measured the isotopic compositions of surface and groundwater from TAN. Water above the Q-R interbed is evaporated (δ18O values shifted up to 3‰ ). The degree of evaporation increases towards the edge of outline of the closest playa. The 87Sr/86Sr values are very uniform (0.71035+/-0.0001) and are equal to samples from the playa system. Conversely, water beneath the Q-R is not contaminated and is isotopically distinct from the water above the interbed (no evaporation, 87Sr/86Sr values >0.711). The playa water is the primary factor producing the flow patterns observed in the TAN area. Radiocarbon ages calculated from the 14C of DIC are 1800 to 2800 years BP, giving infiltration rates of 2-3 cm/yr. Given the possibility of subsurface DIC exchange with carbonates, these ages should be considered minimum

  12. Functionally distinct amygdala subregions identified using DTI and high-resolution fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Balderston, Nicholas L.; Schultz, Douglas H.; Hopkins, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Although the amygdala is often directly linked with fear and emotion, amygdala neurons are activated by a wide variety of emotional and non-emotional stimuli. Different subregions within the amygdala may be engaged preferentially by different aspects of emotional and non-emotional tasks. To test this hypothesis, we measured and compared the effects of novelty and fear on amygdala activity. We used high-resolution blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging and streamline tractography to subdivide the amygdala into three distinct functional subunits. We identified a laterobasal subregion connected with the visual cortex that responds generally to visual stimuli, a non-projecting region that responds to salient visual stimuli, and a centromedial subregion connected with the diencephalon that responds only when a visual stimulus predicts an aversive outcome. We provide anatomical and functional support for a model of amygdala function where information enters through the laterobasal subregion, is processed by intrinsic circuits in the interspersed tissue, and is then passed to the centromedial subregion, where activation leads to behavioral output. PMID:25969533

  13. [An automatic subregion delineation method for T2 measurement of articular cartilage in the knee].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhihui; Yu, Taihui; Wang, Lei; Yang, Wei; Feng, Meiyan; Lu, Zhentai; Chen, Wufan; Feng, Yanqiu

    2013-06-01

    To propose a new method for automatic segmentation of manually determined knee articular cartilage into 9 subregions for T2 measurement. The middle line and normal line were automatically obtained based on the outline of articular cartilage manually drawn by experienced radiologists. The region of articular cartilage was then equidistantly divided into 3 layers along the direction of the normal line, and each layer was further equidistantly divided into 3 segments along the direction of the middle line. Finally the mean T2 value of each subregion was calculated. Bland-Altman analysis was used to evaluate the agreement between the proposed and manual subregion segmentation methods. The 95% limits of agreement of manual and automatic methods ranged from -3.04 to 3.20 ms, demonstrating a narrow 95% limits of agreement (less than half of the minimum average). The coefficient of variation between the manual and proposed subregion methods was 4.04%. The proposed subregion segmentation method shows a good agreement with the manual segmentation method and minimizes potential subjectivity of the manual method.

  14. The ventral pallidum: Subregion-specific functional anatomy and roles in motivated behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Root, David H.; Melendez, Roberto I.; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Napier, T. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) plays a critical role in the processing and execution of motivated behaviors. Yet this brain region is often overlooked in published discussions of the neurobiology of mental health (e.g., addiction, depression). This contributes to a gap in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. This review is presented to help bridge the gap by providing a resource for current knowledge of VP anatomy, projection patterns and subregional circuits, and how this organization relates to the function of VP neurons and ultimately behavior. For example, ventromedial (VPvm) and dorsolateral (VPdl) VP subregions receive projections from nucleus accumbens shell and core, respectively. Inhibitory GABAergic neurons of the VPvm project to mediodorsal thalamus, lateral hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area, and this VP subregion helps discriminate the appropriate conditions to acquire natural rewards or drugs of abuse, consume preferred foods, and perform working memory tasks. GABAergic neurons of the VPdl project to subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata, and this VP subregion is modulated by, and is necessary for, drug-seeking behavior. Additional circuits arise from nonGABAergic neuronal phenotypes that are likely to excite rather than inhibit their targets. These subregional and neuronal phenotypic circuits place the VP in a unique position to process motivationally-relevant stimuli and coherent adaptive behaviors. PMID:25857550

  15. Functional connectivity of paired default mode network subregions in primary insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xiao; Shao, Yi; Liu, Si-yu; Li, Hai-jun; Wan, Ai-lan; Nie, Si; Peng, De-chang; Dai, Xi-jian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) differences between the paired default mode network (DMN) subregions in patients with primary insomnia (PIs). Methods Forty-two PIs and forty-two age- and sex-matched good sleepers (GSs) were recruited. All subjects underwent the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The seed-based region-to-region FC method was used to evaluate the abnormal connectivity within the DMN subregions between the PIs and the GSs. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the abnormal FC strength within the paired DMN subregions and the clinical features in PIs. Results Compared with the GSs, the PIs showed higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score, Self-Rating Depression Scale score, Self Rating Anxiety Scale score, Self-Rating Scale of Sleep score, and Profile of Mood States score (P<0.001). Compared with the GSs, the PIs showed significant decreased region-to-region FC between the medial prefrontal cortex and the right medial temporal lobe (t=−2.275, P=0.026), and between the left medial temporal lobe and the left inferior parietal cortices (t=−3.32, P=0.001). The abnormal FC strengths between the DMN subregions did not correlate with the clinical features. Conclusion PIs showed disrupted FC within the DMN subregions. PMID:26719693

  16. Supplement analysis for a container system for the management of DOE spent nuclear fuel located at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-12

    The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the NEPA, 40 CFR 1502.9 (c), directs federal agencies to prepare a supplement to an environmental impact statement when an agency makes substantial changes in the Proposed Action that are relevant to environmental concerns, or there are significant new circumstances or information relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the Proposed Action or impacts. When it is unclear whether a supplemental environmental impact statement is required, DOE regulations (10 CFR 1021.314) direct the preparation of a supplement analysis to assist in making that determination. This supplement analysis evaluates the impacts of employing dual-purpose canisters (DPCs) to prepare DOE SNF located at the INEEL for interim onsite storage and transport outside the State of Idaho. Impacts associated with DPC manufacturing, loading and storage of DOE-ID SNF into DPCs, transport of loaded DPCs outside Idaho, and the cumulative impacts are compared with the impacts previously analyzed in the SNF and INEL EIS and the Navy Container System EIS. This SA provides information to determine whether: (1) an existing EIS should be supplemented; (2) a new EIS should be prepared; or (3) no further NEPA documentation is required.

  17. Subregions of Motion and Elliptic Halo Orbits in the Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campagnola, Stefano; Lo, Martin; Newton, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present regions of motion and periodic orbits in the spatial elliptic restricted three body problem (ER3BP). Periodic orbits and regions of motion are fundamental keys to understand any dynamical system; for this reason the Hill's surfaces or the families of halo orbits have been extensively studied in the frame of the circular restricted three body problem. It is our opinion that their natural extensions to the ER3BP have not been studied enough. We divide the position space into forbidden subregions, subregions of motion and low-velocity subregions.We use these notions to define necessary condition for a transfer trajectory in the ER3BP. Also we compute branches of elliptic halo orbits bifurcating from halo orbits in the circular restricted three body problem. The new periodic orbits have principal periods and stability properties different from those of the originating halo orbit.

  18. Subregions of Motion and Elliptic Halo Orbits in the Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campagnola, Stefano; Lo, Martin; Newton, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present regions of motion and periodic orbits in the spatial elliptic restricted three body problem (ER3BP). Periodic orbits and regions of motion are fundamental keys to understand any dynamical system; for this reason the Hill's surfaces or the families of halo orbits have been extensively studied in the frame of the circular restricted three body problem. It is our opinion that their natural extensions to the ER3BP have not been studied enough. We divide the position space into forbidden subregions, subregions of motion and low-velocity subregions.We use these notions to define necessary condition for a transfer trajectory in the ER3BP. Also we compute branches of elliptic halo orbits bifurcating from halo orbits in the circular restricted three body problem. The new periodic orbits have principal periods and stability properties different from those of the originating halo orbit.

  19. Systems Science, Catastrophe Theory, and Sub-regional Climate Change: 5 Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickrey, G.

    2015-12-01

    We have performed 5 studies utilizing catastrophe theory to analyze several anthropogenic and broader biological factors in order to ascertain current and future climate changes for sub-regions generally characterized by the following: Appalachian Tennessee; South Southeastern Alaska; Sierra Nevada California; Ohio River Basin; North Central Illinois. Research to date has demonstrated a direct correlation to IPCC and external data sources; an ability to refine feedback predictions; and accuracy through modeling past-to-present structures. Further verification of process is being pursued. Should the data continue to register as verifiable, the finery will enable accurate analysis of current and future climate conditions in various sub-regions, with the model being replicable and distributable globally through web mechanisms for localized use. Analysis may then be employed as a driver for sub-regional mitigation and adaptation policy-making and programs.

  20. Differential Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Striatal Subregions in Bipolar Depression and Hypomania

    PubMed Central

    Altinay, Murat I.; Hulvershorn, Leslie A.; Karne, Harish; Beall, Erik B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bipolar disorder (BP) is characterized by periods of depression (BPD) and (hypo)mania (BPM), but the underlying state-related brain circuit abnormalities are not fully understood. Striatal functional activation and connectivity abnormalities have been noted in BP, but consistent findings have not been reported. To further elucidate striatal abnormalities in different BP states, this study investigated differences in resting-state functional connectivity of six striatal subregions in BPD, BPM, and healthy control (HC) subjects. Ninety medication-free subjects (30 BPD, 30 BPM, and 30 HC), closely matched for age and gender, were scanned using 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquired at resting state. Correlations of low-frequency blood oxygen level dependent signal fluctuations for six previously described striatal subregions were used to obtain connectivity maps of each subregion. Using a factorial design, main effects for differences between groups were obtained and post hoc pairwise group comparisons performed. BPD showed increased connectivity of the dorsal caudal putamen with somatosensory areas such as the insula and temporal gyrus. BPM group showed unique increased connectivity between left dorsal caudate and midbrain regions, as well as increased connectivity between ventral striatum inferior and thalamus. In addition, both BPD and BPM exhibited widespread functional connectivity abnormalities between striatal subregions and frontal cortices, limbic regions, and midbrain structures. In summary, BPD exhibited connectivity abnormalities of associative and somatosensory subregions of the putamen, while BPM exhibited connectivity abnormalities of associative and limbic caudate. Most other striatal subregion connectivity abnormalities were common to both groups and may be trait related. PMID:26824737

  1. Variation in external rotation moment arms among subregions of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor muscles.

    PubMed

    Langenderfer, Joseph E; Patthanacharoenphon, Cameron; Carpenter, James E; Hughes, Richard E

    2006-08-01

    A rotator cuff tear causes morphologic changes in rotator cuff muscles and tendons and reduced shoulder strength. The mechanisms by which these changes affect joint strength are not understood. This study's purpose was to empirically determine rotation moment arms for subregions of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and for teres minor, and to test the hypothesis that subregions of the cuff tendons increase their effective moment arms through connections to other subregions. Tendon excursions were measured for full ranges of rotation on 10 independent glenohumeral specimens with the humerus abducted in the scapular plane at 10 and 60 degrees . Supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons were divided into equal width subregions. Two conditions were tested: tendon divided to the musculotendinous junction, and tendon divided to the insertion on the humerus. Moment arms were determined from tendon excursion via the principle of virtual work. Moment arms for the infraspinatus (p < 0.001) and supraspinatus (p < 0.001) were significantly greater when the tendon was only divided to the musculotendinous junction versus division to the humeral head. Moment arms across subregions of infraspinatus (p < 0.001) and supraspinatus (p < 0.001) were significantly different. A difference in teres minor moment arm was not found for the two cuff tendon conditions. Moment arm differences between muscle subregions and for tendon division conditions have clinical implications. Interaction between cuff regions could explain why some subjects retain strength after a small cuff tear. This finding helps explain why a partial cuff repair may be beneficial when a complete repair is not possible. Data presented here can help differentiate between cuff tear cases that would benefit from cuff repair and cases for which cuff repair might not be as favorable.

  2. T-cell responses to the trypanosome variant surface glycoprotein are not limited to hypervariable subregions.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, Taylor R; Demick, Karen P; Bangs, James D; Forest, Katrina T; Paulnock, Donna M; Mansfield, John M

    2009-01-01

    Variable subregions within the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat displayed by African trypanosomes are predicted sites for T- and B-cell recognition. Hypervariable subregion 1 (HV-1) is localized to an internal amphipathic alpha helix in VSG monomers and may have evolved due to selective pressure by host T-cell responses to epitopes within this subregion. The prediction of T-cell receptor-reactive sites and major histocompatibility complex class II binding motifs within the HV-1 subregion, coupled with the conservation of amino acid residues in other regions of the molecule sufficient to maintain secondary and tertiary VSG structure, prompted us to test the hypothesis that Th cells may preferentially recognize HV-1 subregion peptides. Thus, we examined the fine specificity of VSG-specific T-cell lines, T-cell hybridomas, and Th cells activated during infection. Our results demonstrate that T-cell epitopes are distributed throughout the N-terminal domain of VSG but are not clustered exclusively within HV-1 or other hypervariable subregions. In contrast, T-cell-reactive sites were not detected within the relatively conserved C-terminal domain of VSG. Overall, this study is the first to dissect the fine specificity of T-cell responses to the trypanosome VSG and suggests that evolution of a conserved HV-1 region may be unrelated to selective pressures exerted by host T-cell responses. This study also demonstrates that T cells do not recognize the relatively invariant C-terminal region of the VSG molecule during infection, suggesting that it could serve as a potential subunit vaccine to provide variant cross-specific immunity for African trypanosomiasis.

  3. A one health perspective on HPAI H5N1 in the Greater Mekong sub-region.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Otte, Martin J; Roland-Holst, David; Zilberman, David

    2013-05-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has been a global concern for almost 10 years since its epidemic emergence in South-east Asia in 2003/2004. Despite large investment of resources into the region, the infection has not been eradicated and continues to result in outbreaks in poultry and a small number of human fatalities. This review synthesizes the knowledge base generated by a vast number of research activities conducted in the region and beyond, and adopts an interdisciplinary perspective consistent with the one health paradigm towards analysing the problem and formulating possible policy solutions. A key outcome of the work has been the need to integrate socio-economic and anthropological dimensions with any disease control and prevention activities traditionally informed by primarily epidemiological, virological and pathological attributes of the infection in poultry and wild waterbirds. Recommendations at a broad conceptual level are presented that acknowledge the diversity in the region with respect to livestock production, as well as the changing nature of the risk landscape as a consequence of the rapid economic development which some of the countries in the Greater Mekong sub-region are currently undergoing, as well as their strong trade links with China as the major economic power in East Asia.

  4. Effects of Wet-Dry Cycling on the Mobility of Cs, Sr, Cr, Cd, and U in Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) Soil and Soil Constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K. E.; Cooper, D. C.; Bauer, W. F.; Redden, G. D.

    2002-12-01

    The INEEL, located on the Snake River Plain in eastern Idaho, is the site of surface and subsurface radionuclide contamination stemming from decades of nuclear waste handling, storage, and disposal. Infiltration in this arid region occurs primarily in the spring with snow melt and stream flooding. We hypothesize that long periods of dry weather, punctuated by short, intense periods of recharge, create environmental conditions that accelerate the geochemical processes that sequester contaminants within less mobile phases. This hypothesis predicts slow contaminant migration that is strongly impacted by stochastic heavy-infiltration events that enable particle-facilitated transport. Preliminary results from sequential wet-dry experiments conducted with no-sediment, INEEL sediment, quartz, goethite-coated quartz, and andesine exposed to 200μM Cs, Sr, Cd, Cr and U indicate that wet-dry cycling does impact contaminant sorption under simulated environmental conditions. All sediments were also exposed to these metals under a "continuously-wet" control condition. No evidence for Cs+ sorption was seen during the initial equilibration period for quartz, Fe-quartz (goethite-coated quartz), and the no-sediment control. During this period, the percentage of Cs+ remaining in the aqueous phase decreased to 42.5% and 1.45% for andesine and soil, respectively. Wet-dry cycling reduced the [Cs+-aq] in the INEEL sediment to 0.8%, but did not notably affect the [Cs+-aq] in the other treatments. The behavior of Sr2+ was similar to Cs+, except in the INEEL sediment, where the [Sr2+-aq] increased from 14.5% to 19.5% during the wet-dry cycling period. At initial equilibration, [U6+-aq] had decreased notably in all samples, but especially in soil, Fe-quartz, and quartz treatments, which decreased by a factor of 10. In all treatments, the [U6+-aq] decreased by an additional factor of 10 during the wet-dry cycling period. Cs+ behavior is consistent with ion exchange mechanisms prevalent in

  5. Encoding, Consolidation, and Retrieval of Contextual Memory: Differential Involvement of Dorsal CA3 and CA1 Hippocampal Subregions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daumas, Stephanie; Halley, Helene; Frances, Bernard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    Studies on human and animals shed light on the unique hippocampus contributions to relational memory. However, the particular role of each hippocampal subregion in memory processing is still not clear. Hippocampal computational models and theories have emphasized a unique function in memory for each hippocampal subregion, with the CA3 area acting…

  6. Encoding, Consolidation, and Retrieval of Contextual Memory: Differential Involvement of Dorsal CA3 and CA1 Hippocampal Subregions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daumas, Stephanie; Halley, Helene; Frances, Bernard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    Studies on human and animals shed light on the unique hippocampus contributions to relational memory. However, the particular role of each hippocampal subregion in memory processing is still not clear. Hippocampal computational models and theories have emphasized a unique function in memory for each hippocampal subregion, with the CA3 area acting…

  7. Southern Forest Resource Assessment Using the Subregional Timber Supply (SRTS) Model

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Abt; Frederick W. Cubbage; Gerardo Pacheco

    2000-01-01

    Most timber supply analyses are focused on broad regions. This paper describes a modeling system that uses a standard empirical framework applied to subregional inventory data in the South. Model results indicate significant within-region variation in supply responses across owners and regions. Projections of southern timber markets indicate that results are sensitive...

  8. Sub-regional integration in Sudan: the key to food security and recovery.

    PubMed

    D'Silva, Brian; Tecosky, Olivia

    2007-03-01

    The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in Sudan has created a new opportunity for peace. Approaches to food security must now be reoriented based on the agro-ecological diversity in Sudan. WFP is in a unique position to catalyse an approach to food security that meets immediate needs and contributes to long-term recovery, in collaboration with the Government of National Unity (GNU) and the Government of South Sudan (GOSS). Aggregate food production in Sudan has increased in the past decade. At sub-regional levels, however, many areas remain food insecure. Major research must be undertaken to identify optimum levels of food production and barriers to access to food at sub-regional levels as a first step towards linking deficit areas with areas of surplus. Initiatives must also be undertaken to facilitate increased integration between sub-regions. Increased sub-regional linkages could ensure more efficient delivery of food in the short term as well as recovery and economic growth in the long term.

  9. Dissociating the semantic function of two neighbouring subregions in the left lateral anterior temporal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Sanjuán, Ana; Hope, Thomas M.H.; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Prejawa, Susan; Oberhuber, Marion; Guerin, Julie; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Green, David W.; Price, Cathy J.

    2015-01-01

    We used fMRI in 35 healthy participants to investigate how two neighbouring subregions in the lateral anterior temporal lobe (LATL) contribute to semantic matching and object naming. Four different levels of processing were considered: (A) recognition of the object concepts; (B) search for semantic associations related to object stimuli; (C) retrieval of semantic concepts of interest; and (D) retrieval of stimulus specific concepts as required for naming. During semantic association matching on picture stimuli or heard object names, we found that activation in both subregions was higher when the objects were semantically related (mug–kettle) than unrelated (car–teapot). This is consistent with both LATL subregions playing a role in (C), the successful retrieval of amodal semantic concepts. In addition, one subregion was more activated for object naming than matching semantically related objects, consistent with (D), the retrieval of a specific concept for naming. We discuss the implications of these novel findings for cognitive models of semantic processing and left anterior temporal lobe function. PMID:25496810

  10. Cannabis-related hippocampal volumetric abnormalities specific to subregions in dependent users.

    PubMed

    Chye, Yann; Suo, Chao; Yücel, Murat; den Ouden, Lauren; Solowij, Nadia; Lorenzetti, Valentina

    2017-07-01

    Cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus. While the hippocampus is composed of multiple subregions, their differential vulnerability to cannabis dependence remains unknown. The objective of the study is to investigate gray matter alteration in each of the hippocampal subregions (presubiculum, subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, and dentate gyrus (DG)) as associated with cannabis use and dependence. A total of 35 healthy controls (HC), 22 non-dependent (CB-nondep), and 39 dependent (CB-dep) cannabis users were recruited. We investigated group differences in hippocampal subregion volumes between HC, CB-nondep, and CB-dep users. We further explored the association between CB use variables (age of onset of regular use, monthly use, lifetime use) and hippocampal subregions in CB-nondep and CB-dep users separately. The CA1, CA2/3, CA4/DG, as well as total hippocampal gray matter were reduced in volume in CB-dep but not in CB-nondep users, relative to HC. The right CA2/3 and CA4/DG volumes were also negatively associated with lifetime cannabis use in CB-dep users. Our results suggest a regionally and dependence-specific influence of cannabis use on the hippocampus. Hippocampal alteration in cannabis users was specific to the CA and DG regions and confined to dependent users.

  11. Developmental Differences in Relations between Episodic Memory and Hippocampal Subregion Volume during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Tracy; Blankenship, Sarah L.; Mulligan, Elizabeth; Rice, Katherine; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory shows striking improvement during early childhood. However, neural contributions to these behavioral changes are not well understood. This study examined associations between episodic memory and volume of subregions (head, body, and tail) of the hippocampus--a structure known to support episodic memory in school-aged children and…

  12. Experience-dependent and independent binocular correspondence of receptive field subregions in mouse visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Sarnaik, Rashmi; Wang, Bor-Shuen; Cang, Jianhua

    2014-06-01

    The convergence of eye-specific thalamic inputs to visual cortical neurons forms the basis of binocular vision. Inputs from the same eye that signal light increment (On) and decrement (Off) are spatially segregated into subregions, giving rise to cortical receptive fields (RFs) that are selective for stimulus orientation. Here we map RFs of binocular neurons in the mouse primary visual cortex using spike-triggered average. We find that subregions of the same sign (On-On and Off-Off) preferentially overlap between the 2 monocular RFs, leading to binocularly matched orientation tuning. We further demonstrate that such subregion correspondence and the consequent matching of RF orientation are disrupted in mice reared in darkness during development. Surprisingly, despite the lack of all postnatal visual experience, a substantial degree of subregion correspondence still remains. In addition, dark-reared mice show normal monocular RF structures and binocular overlap. These results thus reveal the specific roles of experience-dependent and -independent processes in binocular convergence and refinement of On and Off inputs onto single cortical neurons.

  13. Analyzing Public Sector Education Facilities: A Step Further towards Accessible Basic Education Institutions in Destitute Subregions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpur, Mir Aftab Hussain; Napiah, Madzlan; Chandio, Imtiaz Ahmed; Memon, Irfan Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Rural subregions of the developing countries are suffering from many physical and socioeconomic problems, including scarcity of basic education institutions. The shortage of education institutions extended distance between rural localities and education institutions. Hence, to curb this problem, this research is aimed to deal with the basic…

  14. Language Education, Economic Development and Participation in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruthiaux, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The Mekong has long attracted interest although it remains economically insignificant. A group of riparian states known as the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)--Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and Yunnan Province (China)--now manage aspects of regional development including trade, water management and education. Standard GMS discourse…

  15. Language Education, Economic Development and Participation in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruthiaux, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The Mekong has long attracted interest although it remains economically insignificant. A group of riparian states known as the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)--Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and Yunnan Province (China)--now manage aspects of regional development including trade, water management and education. Standard GMS discourse…

  16. Comprehensive developmental profiles of gene activity in regions and subregions of the Arabidopsis seed

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte, Mark F.; Kirkbride, Ryan C.; Stone, Sandra L.; Pelletier, Julie M.; Bui, Anhthu Q.; Yeung, Edward C.; Hashimoto, Meryl; Fei, Jiong; Harada, Corey M.; Munoz, Matthew D.; Le, Brandon H.; Drews, Gary N.; Brady, Siobhan M.; Goldberg, Robert B.; Harada, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Seeds are complex structures that consist of the embryo, endosperm, and seed-coat regions that are of different ontogenetic origins, and each region can be further divided into morphologically distinct subregions. Despite the importance of seeds for food, fiber, and fuel globally, little is known of the cellular processes that characterize each subregion or how these processes are integrated to permit the coordinated development of the seed. We profiled gene activity genome-wide in every organ, tissue, and cell type of Arabidopsis seeds from fertilization through maturity. The resulting mRNA datasets offer the most comprehensive description of gene activity in seeds with high spatial and temporal resolution, providing unique insights into the function of understudied seed regions. Global comparisons of mRNA populations reveal unexpected overlaps in the functional identities of seed subregions. Analyses of coexpressed gene sets suggest that processes that regulate seed size and filling are coordinated across several subregions. Predictions of gene regulatory networks based on the association of transcription factors with enriched DNA sequence motifs upstream of coexpressed genes identify regulators of seed development. These studies emphasize the utility of these datasets as an essential resource for the study of seed biology. PMID:23319655

  17. Efficient Iris Recognition Based on Optimal Subfeature Selection and Weighted Subregion Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ning

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose three discriminative feature selection strategies and weighted subregion matching method to improve the performance of iris recognition system. Firstly, we introduce the process of feature extraction and representation based on scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) in detail. Secondly, three strategies are described, which are orientation probability distribution function (OPDF) based strategy to delete some redundant feature keypoints, magnitude probability distribution function (MPDF) based strategy to reduce dimensionality of feature element, and compounded strategy combined OPDF and MPDF to further select optimal subfeature. Thirdly, to make matching more effective, this paper proposes a novel matching method based on weighted sub-region matching fusion. Particle swarm optimization is utilized to accelerate achieve different sub-region's weights and then weighted different subregions' matching scores to generate the final decision. The experimental results, on three public and renowned iris databases (CASIA-V3 Interval, Lamp, andMMU-V1), demonstrate that our proposed methods outperform some of the existing methods in terms of correct recognition rate, equal error rate, and computation complexity. PMID:24683317

  18. Developmental Differences in Relations between Episodic Memory and Hippocampal Subregion Volume during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Tracy; Blankenship, Sarah L.; Mulligan, Elizabeth; Rice, Katherine; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory shows striking improvement during early childhood. However, neural contributions to these behavioral changes are not well understood. This study examined associations between episodic memory and volume of subregions (head, body, and tail) of the hippocampus--a structure known to support episodic memory in school-aged children and…

  19. Outlook for Piedmont forests: a subregional report from the Southern Forest Futures Project

    Treesearch

    Robert B. Rummer; Mae Lee Hafer

    2014-01-01

    The Piedmont, a complex physiographic subregion of the U.S. South, encompasses parts of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. Anticipating the future and analyzing what the interaction of future changes might mean for the forests of the Piedmont and the services they provide can improve decisions by resource managers and policymakers that have...

  20. Efficient iris recognition based on optimal subfeature selection and weighted subregion fusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; He, Fei; Wang, Hongye; Deng, Ning

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose three discriminative feature selection strategies and weighted subregion matching method to improve the performance of iris recognition system. Firstly, we introduce the process of feature extraction and representation based on scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) in detail. Secondly, three strategies are described, which are orientation probability distribution function (OPDF) based strategy to delete some redundant feature keypoints, magnitude probability distribution function (MPDF) based strategy to reduce dimensionality of feature element, and compounded strategy combined OPDF and MPDF to further select optimal subfeature. Thirdly, to make matching more effective, this paper proposes a novel matching method based on weighted sub-region matching fusion. Particle swarm optimization is utilized to accelerate achieve different sub-region's weights and then weighted different subregions' matching scores to generate the final decision. The experimental results, on three public and renowned iris databases (CASIA-V3 Interval, Lamp, and MMU-V1), demonstrate that our proposed methods outperform some of the existing methods in terms of correct recognition rate, equal error rate, and computation complexity.

  1. Dissociating the semantic function of two neighbouring subregions in the left lateral anterior temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Ana; Hope, Thomas M H; Jones, 'Ōiwi Parker; Prejawa, Susan; Oberhuber, Marion; Guerin, Julie; Seghier, Mohamed L; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2015-09-01

    We used fMRI in 35 healthy participants to investigate how two neighbouring subregions in the lateral anterior temporal lobe (LATL) contribute to semantic matching and object naming. Four different levels of processing were considered: (A) recognition of the object concepts; (B) search for semantic associations related to object stimuli; (C) retrieval of semantic concepts of interest; and (D) retrieval of stimulus specific concepts as required for naming. During semantic association matching on picture stimuli or heard object names, we found that activation in both subregions was higher when the objects were semantically related (mug-kettle) than unrelated (car-teapot). This is consistent with both LATL subregions playing a role in (C), the successful retrieval of amodal semantic concepts. In addition, one subregion was more activated for object naming than matching semantically related objects, consistent with (D), the retrieval of a specific concept for naming. We discuss the implications of these novel findings for cognitive models of semantic processing and left anterior temporal lobe function.

  2. Outlook for Mid-South forests: a subregional report from the Southern Forest Futures Project

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin; Stephen Hallgren; James S. Crooks

    2015-01-01

    This report presents forecasts from the Southern Forest Futures Project that are specific to the Mid-South, which consists of four sections located within Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas: the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands, the Cross Timbers, the High Plains, and the West Texas Basin and Range. Ranging from Little Rock, AR to El Paso, TX, it is the most diverse subregion in...

  3. Robust Intratumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions in Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia; Gensheimer, Michael F; Dong, Xinzhe; Rubin, Daniel L; Napel, Sandy; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W; Li, Ruijiang

    2016-08-01

    To develop an intratumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. In this institutional review board-approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pretreatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. A novel, intratumor partitioning method was developed, based on a 2-stage clustering process: first at the patient level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor that were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI of 0.66-0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n=32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI of 0.75 (hazard ratio 3.93, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OS, and a CI of 0.76 (hazard ratio 4.84, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers, including tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, and metabolic tumor volume using threshold of 50% standardized uptake value maximum, were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (log-rank P>.05). We propose a robust intratumor partitioning method to identify clinically relevant, high

  4. Segmenting subregions of the human hippocampus on structural magnetic resonance image scans: An illustrated tutorial

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Marshall A.; Zeidman, Peter; Barry, Daniel N.; Williams, Elaine; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The hippocampus plays a central role in cognition, and understanding the specific contributions of its subregions will likely be key to explaining its wide-ranging functions. However, delineating substructures within the human hippocampus in vivo from magnetic resonance image scans is fraught with difficulties. To our knowledge, the extant literature contains only brief descriptions of segmentation procedures used to delineate hippocampal subregions in magnetic resonance imaging/functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Methods: Consequently, here we provide a clear, step-by-step and fully illustrated guide to segmenting hippocampal subregions along the entire length of the human hippocampus on 3T magnetic resonance images. Results: We give a detailed description of how to segment the hippocampus into the following six subregions: dentate gyrus/Cornu Ammonis 4, CA3/2, CA1, subiculum, pre/parasubiculum and the uncus. Importantly, this in-depth protocol incorporates the most recent cyto- and chemo-architectural evidence and includes a series of comprehensive figures which compare slices of histologically stained tissue with equivalent 3T images. Conclusion: As hippocampal subregion segmentation is an evolving field of research, we do not suggest this protocol is definitive or final. Rather, we present a fully explained and expedient method of manual segmentation which remains faithful to our current understanding of human hippocampal neuroanatomy. We hope that this ‘tutorial’-style guide, which can be followed by experts and non-experts alike, will be a practical resource for clinical and research scientists with an interest in the human hippocampus. PMID:28596993

  5. Differential roles of ventral pallidum subregions during cocaine self-administration behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Root, David H.; Ma, Sisi; Barker, David J.; Megehee, Laura; Striano, Brendan M.; Ralston, Carla M.; Fabbricatore, Anthony T.; West, Mark O.

    2012-01-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) is necessary for drug-seeking behavior. VP contains ventromedial (VPvm) and dorsolateral (VPdl) subregions which receive projections from the nucleus accumbens shell and core, respectively. To date, no study has investigated the behavioral functions of the VPdl and VPvm subregions. To address this issue, we investigated whether changes in firing rate (FR) differed between VP subregions during four events: approaching toward, responding on, or retreating away from a cocaine-reinforced operandum, and a cocaine-associated cue. Baseline FR and waveform characteristics did not differ between subregions. VPdl neurons exhibited a greater change in FR compared to VPvm neurons during approaches toward, as well as responses on, the cocaine-reinforced operandum. VPdl neurons were more likely to exhibit a similar change in FR (direction and magnitude) during approach and response than VPvm neurons. In contrast, VPvm firing patterns were heterogeneous, changing FRs during approach or response alone, or both. VP neurons did not discriminate cued behaviors from uncued behaviors. No differences were found between subregions during the retreat and no VP neurons exhibited patterned changes in FR in response to the cocaine-associated cue. The stronger, sustained FR changes of VPdl neurons during approach and response may implicate VPdl in the processing of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior via projections to subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata. In contrast, heterogeneous firing patterns of VPvm neurons may implicate VPvm in facilitating mesocortical structures with information related to the sequence of behaviors predicting cocaine self-infusions via projections to mediodorsal thalamus and ventral tegmental area. PMID:22806483

  6. Conceptualizing belonging.

    PubMed

    Mahar, Alyson L; Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather

    2013-06-01

    To develop a transdisciplinary conceptualization of social belonging that could be used to guide measurement approaches aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of community-based programs for people with disabilities. We conducted a narrative, scoping review of peer reviewed English language literature published between 1990 and July 2011 using multiple databases, with "sense of belonging" as a key search term. The search engine ranked articles for relevance to the search strategy. Articles were searched in order until theoretical saturation was reached. We augmented this search strategy by reviewing reference lists of relevant papers. Theoretical saturation was reached after 40 articles; 22 of which were qualitative accounts. We identified five intersecting themes: subjectivity; groundedness to an external referent; reciprocity; dynamism and self-determination. We define a sense of belonging as a subjective feeling of value and respect derived from a reciprocal relationship to an external referent that is built on a foundation of shared experiences, beliefs or personal characteristics. These feelings of external connectedness are grounded to the context or referent group, to whom one chooses, wants and feels permission to belong. This dynamic phenomenon may be either hindered or promoted by complex interactions between environmental and personal factors.

  7. The Semantic Network at Work and Rest: Differential Connectivity of Anterior Temporal Lobe Subregions.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rebecca L; Hoffman, Paul; Pobric, Gorana; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2016-02-03

    The anterior temporal lobe (ATL) makes a critical contribution to semantic cognition. However, the functional connectivity of the ATL and the functional network underlying semantic cognition has not been elucidated. In addition, subregions of the ATL have distinct functional properties and thus the potential differential connectivity between these subregions requires investigation. We explored these aims using both resting-state and active semantic task data in humans in combination with a dual-echo gradient echo planar imaging (EPI) paradigm designed to ensure signal throughout the ATL. In the resting-state analysis, the ventral ATL (vATL) and anterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG) were shown to connect to areas responsible for multimodal semantic cognition, including bilateral ATL, inferior frontal gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, angular gyrus, posterior MTG, and medial temporal lobes. In contrast, the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG)/superior temporal sulcus was connected to a distinct set of auditory and language-related areas, including bilateral STG, precentral and postcentral gyri, supplementary motor area, supramarginal gyrus, posterior temporal cortex, and inferior and middle frontal gyri. Complementary analyses of functional connectivity during an active semantic task were performed using a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. The PPI analysis highlighted the same semantic regions suggesting a core semantic network active during rest and task states. This supports the necessity for semantic cognition in internal processes occurring during rest. The PPI analysis showed additional connectivity of the vATL to regions of occipital and frontal cortex. These areas strongly overlap with regions found to be sensitive to executively demanding, controlled semantic processing. Previous studies have shown that semantic cognition depends on subregions of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL). However, the network of regions functionally connected to these

  8. The Semantic Network at Work and Rest: Differential Connectivity of Anterior Temporal Lobe Subregions

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rebecca L.; Hoffman, Paul; Pobric, Gorana

    2016-01-01

    The anterior temporal lobe (ATL) makes a critical contribution to semantic cognition. However, the functional connectivity of the ATL and the functional network underlying semantic cognition has not been elucidated. In addition, subregions of the ATL have distinct functional properties and thus the potential differential connectivity between these subregions requires investigation. We explored these aims using both resting-state and active semantic task data in humans in combination with a dual-echo gradient echo planar imaging (EPI) paradigm designed to ensure signal throughout the ATL. In the resting-state analysis, the ventral ATL (vATL) and anterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG) were shown to connect to areas responsible for multimodal semantic cognition, including bilateral ATL, inferior frontal gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, angular gyrus, posterior MTG, and medial temporal lobes. In contrast, the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG)/superior temporal sulcus was connected to a distinct set of auditory and language-related areas, including bilateral STG, precentral and postcentral gyri, supplementary motor area, supramarginal gyrus, posterior temporal cortex, and inferior and middle frontal gyri. Complementary analyses of functional connectivity during an active semantic task were performed using a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. The PPI analysis highlighted the same semantic regions suggesting a core semantic network active during rest and task states. This supports the necessity for semantic cognition in internal processes occurring during rest. The PPI analysis showed additional connectivity of the vATL to regions of occipital and frontal cortex. These areas strongly overlap with regions found to be sensitive to executively demanding, controlled semantic processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Previous studies have shown that semantic cognition depends on subregions of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL). However, the network of regions

  9. MINERALIZING, STEAM REFORMING TREATMENT OF HANFORD LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE (a.k.a. INEEL/EXT-05-02526)

    SciTech Connect

    A. L. Olson; N. R. Soelberg; D. W. Marshall; G. L. Anderson

    2005-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2–5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.4 hours of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved

  10. Subregional characterization of mesoscale eddies across the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Evan; Pascual, Ananda; Gaube, Peter; Ruiz, Simón; Pelegrí, Josep L.; Delepoulle, Antoine

    2017-04-01

    Horizontal and vertical motions associated with coherent mesoscale structures, including eddies and meanders, are responsible for significant global transports of many properties, including heat and mass. Mesoscale vertical fluxes also influence upper ocean biological productivity by mediating the supply of nutrients into the euphotic layer, with potential impacts on the global carbon cycle. The Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC) is a western boundary current region in the South Atlantic with intense mesoscale activity. This region has an active role in the genesis and transformation of water masses and thus is a critical component of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. The collision between the Malvinas and Brazil Currents over the Patagonian shelf/slope creates an energetic front that translates offshore to form a vigorous eddy field. Recent improvements in gridded altimetric sea level anomaly fields allow us to track BMC mesoscale eddies with high spatial and temporal resolutions using an automated eddy tracker. We characterize the eddies across fourteen 5° × 5° subregions. Eddy-centric composites of tracers and geostrophic currents diagnosed from a global reanalysis of surface and in situ data reveal substantial subregional heterogeneity. The in situ data are also used to compute the evolving quasi-geostrophic vertical velocity (QG-ω) associated with each instantaneous eddy instance. The QG-ω eddy composites have the expected dipole patterns of alternating upwelling/downwelling, however, the magnitude and sign of azimuthally averaged vertical velocity varies among subregions. Maximum eddy values are found near fronts and sharp topographic gradients. In comparison with regional eddy composites, subregional composites provide refined information about mesoscale eddy heterogeneity.

  11. A functionally active presynaptic high-affinity kainate receptor in the rat hippocampal CA3 subregion.

    PubMed

    Malva, J O; Ambrósio, A F; Cunha, R A; Ribeiro, J A; Carvalho, A P; Carvalho, C M

    1995-02-09

    We studied the modulation of the intracellular free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) by kainate/AMPA receptor activation in synaptosomes isolated from whole rat hippocampus, or from its CA1, CA3 or dentate gyrus subregions. The receptor was activated either by 100 microM S-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolopropionic acid (AMPA) (EC50 = 26.6 +/- 4.9 microM) or by 100 microM kainate (EC50 = 0.81 +/- 0.1 microM), but the effects of these agonists were not additive. The response to either AMPA or kainate was competitively inhibited by 10 microM 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dioxine. Higher [Ca2+]i responses to 100 microM AMPA or to 100 microM kainate were observed in the CA3 subregion (43.2 +/- 2.5 nM or 42.8 +/- 2.3 nM, respectively) than in the whole hippocampus (22.4 +/- 1.1 nM or 22.4 +/- 1.6, respectively), in the CA1 subregion (26.4 +/- 1.1 nM or 26.6 +/- 2.6 nM, respectively) or in dentate gyrus (24.6 +/- 1.4 nM or 21.5 +/- 1.0 nM, respectively). These results indicate that the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus is enriched in a presynaptic high-affinity kainate receptor which modulates the [Ca2+]i in nerve terminals.

  12. Multiscale regression model to infer historical temperatures in a central Mediterranean sub-regional area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diodato, N.; Bellocchi, G.; Bertolin, C.; Camuffo, D.

    2010-12-01

    To reconstruct sub-regional European climate over the past centuries, several efforts have been made using historical datasets. However, only scattered information at low spatial and temporal resolution have been produced to date for the Mediterranean area. This paper has exploited, for Southern and Central Italy (Mediterranean Sub-Regional Area), an unprecedented historical dataset as an attempt to model seasonal (winter and summer) air temperatures in pre-instrumental time (back to 1500). Combining information derived from proxy documentary data and large-scale simulation, a statistical methodology in the form of multiscale-temperature regression (MTR)-model was developed to adapt larger-scale estimations to the sub-regional temperature pattern. The modelled response lacks essentially of autocorrelations among the residuals (marginal or any significance in the Durbin-Watson statistic), and agrees well with the independent data from the validation sample (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient >0.60). The advantage of the approach is not merely increased accuracy in estimation. Rather, it relies on the ability to extract (and exploit) the right information to replicate coherent temperature series in historical times.

  13. Subregional Shape Alterations in the Amygdala in Patients with Panic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sujung; Kim, Jieun E; Kim, Geon Ha; Kang, Hee Jin; Kim, Bori R; Jeon, Saerom; Im, Jooyeon Jamie; Hyun, Heejung; Moon, Sohyeon; Lim, Soo Mee; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2016-01-01

    The amygdala has been known to play a pivotal role in mediating fear-related responses including panic attacks. Given the functionally distinct role of the amygdalar subregions, morphometric measurements of the amygdala may point to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying panic disorder. The current study aimed to determine the global and local morphometric alterations of the amygdala related to panic disorder. Volumetric and surface-based morphometric approach to high-resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted images was used to examine the structural variations of the amygdala, with respect to extent and location, in 23 patients with panic disorder and 31 matched healthy individuals. There were no significant differences in bilateral amygdalar volumes between patients with panic disorder and healthy individuals despite a trend-level right amygdalar volume reduction related to panic disorder (right, β = -0.23, p = 0.09, Cohen's d = 0.51; left, β = -0.18, p = 0.19, Cohen's d = 0.45). Amygdalar subregions were localized into three groups including the superficial, centromedial, and laterobasal groups based on the cytoarchitectonically defined probability map. Surface-based morphometric analysis revealed shape alterations in the laterobasal and centromedial groups of the right amygdala in patients with panic disorder (false discovery rate corrected p < 0.05). The current findings suggest that subregion-specific shape alterations in the right amygdala may be involved in the development and maintenance of panic disorder, which may be attributed to the cause or effects of amygdalar hyperactivation.

  14. Response Properties of Human Amygdala Subregions: Evidence Based on Functional MRI Combined with Probabilistic Anatomical Maps

    PubMed Central

    Rahm, Benjamin; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Speck, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    The human amygdala is thought to play a pivotal role in the processing of emotionally significant sensory information. The major subdivisions of the human amygdala—the laterobasal group (LB), the superficial group (SF), and the centromedial group (CM)—have been anatomically delineated, but the functional response properties of these amygdala subregions in humans are still unclear. We combined functional MRI with cyto-architectonically defined probabilistic maps to analyze the response characteristics of amygdala subregions in subjects presented with auditory stimuli. We found positive auditory stimulation-related signal changes predominantly in probabilistically defined LB, and negative responses predominantly in SF and CM. In the left amygdala, mean response magnitude in the core area of LB with 90–100% assignment probability was significantly larger than in the core areas of SF and CM. These differences were observed for pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Our findings reveal that the probabilistically defined anatomical subregions of the human amygdala show distinctive fMRI response patterns. The stronger auditory responses in LB as compared with SF and CM may reflect a predominance of auditory inputs to human LB, similar to many animal species in which the majority of sensory, including auditory, afferents project to this subdivision of the amygdala. Our study indicates that the intrinsic functional differentiation of the human amygdala may be probed using fMRI combined with probabilistic anatomical maps. PMID:17375193

  15. Partitioning into hazard subregions for regional peaks-over-threshold modeling of heavy precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreau, J.; Naveau, P.; Neppel, L.

    2017-05-01

    The French Mediterranean is subject to intense precipitation events occurring mostly in autumn. These can potentially cause flash floods, the main natural danger in the area. The distribution of these events follows specific spatial patterns, i.e., some sites are more likely to be affected than others. The peaks-over-threshold approach consists in modeling extremes, such as heavy precipitation, by the generalized Pareto (GP) distribution. The shape parameter of the GP controls the probability of extreme events and can be related to the hazard level of a given site. When interpolating across a region, the shape parameter should reproduce the observed spatial patterns of the probability of heavy precipitation. However, the shape parameter estimators have high uncertainty which might hide the underlying spatial variability. As a compromise, we choose to let the shape parameter vary in a moderate fashion. More precisely, we assume that the region of interest can be partitioned into subregions with constant hazard level. We formalize the model as a conditional mixture of GP distributions. We develop a two-step inference strategy based on probability weighted moments and put forward a cross-validation procedure to select the number of subregions. A synthetic data study reveals that the inference strategy is consistent and not very sensitive to the selected number of subregions. An application on daily precipitation data from the French Mediterranean shows that the conditional mixture of GPs outperforms two interpolation approaches (with constant or smoothly varying shape parameter).

  16. Landowner and permit-holder perceptions of wildlife damage around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A survey of INEEL neighbors about elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, and depredation

    SciTech Connect

    Roush, D.E. Jr.; Beaver, D.E.

    1998-06-01

    Property-owners (N = 220) around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho were surveyed about depredation, control methods and economic issues related to use of the area by elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). Depredation was defined as damage to privately-owned crops, forage, and fences and irrigation equipment by these animals. The focus on the three ungulate species was prompted by concerns that elk, which had recolonized the INEEL since 1984, were responsible for an inordinate amount of unprecedented damage to agricultural operations. As the INEEL is a US Department of Energy (DOE) reserve with little public hunting access, there have been calls for removal of elk from this land. This study`s objective was to quantify the wildlife damage occurring on agricultural operations adjacent to the INEEL and to characterize the damage attributed to each big game species. Responses from 70.2% of the target population indicate an evenness of opinion, by which the authors mean that various opinions were represented equitably, toward these animals and wildlife damage Total estimated wildlife damage in 1996 was between $140,000 and $180,000 It was attributed foremost to elk, although pronghorn antelope were viewed nearly as damaging. Respondents placed high values in big game animals and wished to see them continue to inhabit these lands. For managing depredation, adjusting hunting seasons was preferred.

  17. Conceptual change or Conceptual Profile change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortimer, Eduardo F.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper I draw an overview of a new model to analyse conceptual evolution in the classroom, based on the notion of Conceptual Profile. This model differs from conceptual change models in suggesting that it is possible to use different ways of thinking in different domains and that a new concept does not necessarily replace previous and alternative ideas. According to this model, learning science is to change a conceptual profile and become conscious of the different zones of the profile, which includes commonsense and scientific ideas. To exemplify how the Conceptual Profile notion can help to understand the evolution of conceptions in the classroom I shall determine the different zones that constitute the epistemological and ontological profile of the concepts of the atom and of physical states of matter.

  18. Subregional Shape Alterations in the Amygdala in Patients with Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geon Ha; Kang, Hee Jin; Kim, Bori R.; Jeon, Saerom; Im, Jooyeon Jamie; Hyun, Heejung; Moon, Sohyeon; Lim, Soo Mee; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The amygdala has been known to play a pivotal role in mediating fear-related responses including panic attacks. Given the functionally distinct role of the amygdalar subregions, morphometric measurements of the amygdala may point to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying panic disorder. The current study aimed to determine the global and local morphometric alterations of the amygdala related to panic disorder. Methods Volumetric and surface-based morphometric approach to high-resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted images was used to examine the structural variations of the amygdala, with respect to extent and location, in 23 patients with panic disorder and 31 matched healthy individuals. Results There were no significant differences in bilateral amygdalar volumes between patients with panic disorder and healthy individuals despite a trend-level right amygdalar volume reduction related to panic disorder (right, β = -0.23, p = 0.09, Cohen's d = 0.51; left, β = -0.18, p = 0.19, Cohen's d = 0.45). Amygdalar subregions were localized into three groups including the superficial, centromedial, and laterobasal groups based on the cytoarchitectonically defined probability map. Surface-based morphometric analysis revealed shape alterations in the laterobasal and centromedial groups of the right amygdala in patients with panic disorder (false discovery rate corrected p < 0.05). Conclusions The current findings suggest that subregion-specific shape alterations in the right amygdala may be involved in the development and maintenance of panic disorder, which may be attributed to the cause or effects of amygdalar hyperactivation. PMID:27336300

  19. Linkage relationships in the bovine MHC region. High recombination frequency between class II subregions.

    PubMed

    Andersson, L; Lundén, A; Sigurdardottir, S; Davies, C J; Rask, L

    1988-01-01

    Class II genes of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been investigated by Southern blot analysis using human DNA probes. Previous studies revealed the presence of bovine DO beta, DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, and DR beta genes, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms for each of these genes were documented. In the present study, the presence of three additional class II genes, designated DZ alpha, DY alpha, and DY beta, are reported. DZ alpha was assumed to correspond to the human DZ alpha gene while the other two were designated DY because their relationship to human class II genes could not be firmly established. The linkage relationships among bovine class II genes and two additional loci, TCP1B and C4, were investigated by family segregation analysis and analysis of linkage disequilibrium. The results clearly indicated that all these loci belong to the same linkage group. This linkage group is divided into two subregions separated by a fairly high recombination frequency. One region includes the C4, DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, and DR beta loci and the other one is composed of the DO beta, DY alpha, DY beta, and TCP1B loci. No recombinant was observed within any of these subregions and there was a strong or fairly strong linkage disequilibrium between loci within groups. In contrast, as many as five recombinants among three different families were detected in the interval between these subregions giving a recombination frequency estimate of 0.17 +/- 0.07. The fairly high recombination frequency observed between class II genes in cattle is strikingly different from the corresponding recombination estimates in man and mouse. The finding implies either a much larger molecular distance between some of the bovine class II genes or alternatively the presence of a recombinational "hot spot" in the bovine class II region.

  20. Subregional Hippocampal Morphology and Psychiatric Outcome in Adolescents Who Were Born Very Preterm and at Term

    PubMed Central

    Cole, James H.; Filippetti, Maria Laura; Allin, Matthew P. G.; Walshe, Muriel; Nam, Kie Woo; Gutman, Boris A.; Murray, Robin M.; Rifkin, Larry; Thompson, Paul M.; Nosarti, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Background The hippocampus has been reported to be structurally and functionally altered as a sequel of very preterm birth (<33 weeks gestation), possibly due its vulnerability to hypoxic–ischemic damage in the neonatal period. We examined hippocampal volumes and subregional morphology in very preterm born individuals in mid- and late adolescence and their association with psychiatric outcome. Methods Structural brain magnetic resonance images were acquired at two time points (baseline and follow-up) from 65 ex-preterm adolescents (mean age = 15.5 and 19.6 years) and 36 term-born controls (mean age=15.0 and 19.0 years). Hippocampal volumes and subregional morphometric differences were measured from manual tracings and with three-dimensional shape analysis. Psychiatric outcome was assessed with the Rutter Parents’ Scale at baseline, the General Health Questionnaire at follow-up and the Peters Delusional Inventory at both time points. Results In contrast to previous studies we did not find significant difference in the cross-sectional or longitudinal hippocampal volumes between individuals born preterm and controls, despite preterm individual having significantly smaller whole brain volumes. Shape analysis at baseline revealed subregional deformations in 28% of total bilateral hippocampal surface, reflecting atrophy, in ex-preterm individuals compared to controls, and in 22% at follow-up. In ex-preterm individuals, longitudinal changes in hippocampal shape accounted for 11% of the total surface, while in controls they reached 20%. In the whole sample (both groups) larger right hippocampal volume and bilateral anterior surface deformations at baseline were associated with delusional ideation scores at follow-up. Conclusions This study suggests a dynamic association between cross-sectional hippocampal volumes, longitudinal changes and surface deformations and psychosis proneness. PMID:26091104

  1. Interior region-of-interest reconstruction using a small, nearly piecewise constant subregion.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Xu, Jingyan; Srivastava, Somesh; Tsui, Benjamin M W; Cammin, Jochen; Tang, Qiulin

    2011-03-01

    To develop a method to reconstruct an interior region-of-interest (ROI) image with sufficient accuracy that uses differentiated backprojection (DBP) projection onto convex sets (POCS) [H. Kudo et al., "Tiny a priori knowledge solves the interior problem in computed tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 2207-2231 (2008)] and a tiny knowledge that there exists a nearly piecewise constant subregion. The proposed method first employs filtered backprojection to reconstruct an image on which a tiny region P with a small variation in the pixel values is identified inside the ROI. Total variation minimization [H. Yu and G. Wang, "Compressed sensing based interior tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 2791-2805 (2009); W. Han et al., "A general total variation minimization theorem for compressed sensing based interior tomography," Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2009, Article 125871 (2009)] is then employed to obtain pixel values in the subregion P, which serve as a priori knowledge in the next step. Finally, DBP-POCS is performed to reconstruct f(x,y) inside the ROI. Clinical data and the reconstructed image obtained by an x-ray computed tomography system (SOMATOM Definition; Siemens Healthcare) were used to validate the proposed method. The detector covers an object with a diameter of approximately 500 mm. The projection data were truncated either moderately to limit the detector coverage to Ø 350 mm of the object or severely to cover Ø199 mm. Images were reconstructed using the proposed method. The proposed method provided ROI images with correct pixel values in all areas except near the edge of the ROI. The coefficient of variation, i.e., the root mean square error divided by the mean pixel values, was less than 2.0% or 4.5% with the moderate or severe truncation cases, respectively, except near the boundary of the ROI. The proposed method allows for reconstructing interior ROI images with sufficient accuracy with a tiny knowledge that there exists a nearly piecewise constant

  2. Experimental Studies on a Compact Storage Scheme for Wavelet-based Multiresolution Subregion Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulakidas, A.; Srinivasan, A.; Egecioglu, O.; Ibarra, O.; Yang, T.

    1996-01-01

    Wavelet transforms, when combined with quantization and a suitable encoding, can be used to compress images effectively. In order to use them for image library systems, a compact storage scheme for quantized coefficient wavelet data must be developed with a support for fast subregion retrieval. We have designed such a scheme and in this paper we provide experimental studies to demonstrate that it achieves good image compression ratios, while providing a natural indexing mechanism that facilitates fast retrieval of portions of the image at various resolutions.

  3. Developmental sex differences in resting state functional connectivity of amygdala sub-regions

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, Gabriela; Cservenka, Anita; Rudolph, Marc D.; Fair, Damien A.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2015-01-01

    During adolescence, considerable social and biological changes occur that interact with functional brain maturation, some of which are sex-specific. The amygdala is one brain area that has displayed sexual dimorphism, specifically in socio-affective (superficial amygdala [SFA]), stress (centromedial amygdala [CMA]), and learning and memory (basolateral amygdala [BLA]) processing. The amygdala has also been implicated in mood and anxiety disorders which also display sex-specific features, most prominently observed during adolescence. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study examined the interaction of age and sex on resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of amygdala sub-regions, BLA and SFA, in a sample of healthy adolescents between the ages 10-16 years (n=122, 71 boys). Whole-brain, voxel-wise partial correlation analyses were conducted to determine RSFC of bilateral BLA and SFA seed regions, created using the Eickhoff-Zilles maximum probability maps based on cytoarchitectonic mapping and FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST). Monte Carlo simulation was implemented to correct for multiple comparisons (threshold of 53 contiguous voxels with a z-value ≥ 2.25). Results indicated that with increasing age, there was a corresponding decrease in RSFC between both amygdala sub-regions and parieto-occipital cortices, with a concurrent increase in RSFC with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Specifically, boys and girls demonstrated increased coupling of mPFC and left and right SFA with age, respectively; however, neither sex showed increased connectivity between mPFC and BLA, which could indicate relative immaturity of fronto-limbic networks that is similar across sex. A dissociation in connectivity between BLA- and SFA- parieto-occipital RSFC emerged, in which girls had weaker negative RSFC between SFA and parieto-occipital regions and boys had weaker negative RSFC of BLA and parieto-occipital regions with

  4. Developmental sex differences in resting state functional connectivity of amygdala sub-regions.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Gabriela; Cservenka, Anita; Rudolph, Marc D; Fair, Damien A; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-07-15

    During adolescence, considerable social and biological changes occur that interact with functional brain maturation, some of which are sex-specific. The amygdala is one brain area that has displayed sexual dimorphism, specifically in socio-affective (superficial amygdala [SFA]), stress (centromedial amygdala [CMA]), and learning and memory (basolateral amygdala [BLA]) processing. The amygdala has also been implicated in mood and anxiety disorders which display sex-specific features, most prominently observed during adolescence. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study examined the interaction of age and sex on resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of amygdala sub-regions, BLA and SFA, in a sample of healthy adolescents between the ages 10 and 16 years (n = 122, 71 boys). Whole-brain, voxel-wise partial correlation analyses were conducted to determine RSFC of bilateral BLA and SFA seed regions, created using the Eickhoff-Zilles maximum probability maps based on cytoarchitectonic mapping and FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST). Monte Carlo simulation was implemented to correct for multiple comparisons (threshold of 53 contiguous voxels with a z-value ≥ 2.25). Results indicated that with increasing age, there was a corresponding decrease in RSFC between both amygdala sub-regions and parieto-occipital cortices, with a concurrent increase in RSFC with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Specifically, boys and girls demonstrated increased coupling of mPFC and left and right SFA with age, respectively; however, neither sex showed increased connectivity between mPFC and BLA, which could indicate relative immaturity of fronto-limbic networks that is similar across sex. A dissociation in connectivity between BLA- and SFA-parieto-occipital RSFC emerged, in which girls had weaker negative RSFC between SFA and parieto-occipital regions and boys had weaker negative RSFC of BLA and parieto-occipital regions with

  5. Differentiating hippocampal subregions by means of quantitative magnetization transfer and relaxometry: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Claus; Slotboom, Johannes; Buri, Caroline; Gralla, Jan; Remonda, Luca; Dierks, Thomas; Strik, Werner K; Schroth, Gerhard; Kalus, Peter

    2004-11-01

    The hippocampal formation (HF) of healthy control subjects and schizophrenic patients was examined using an MRI experiment that implements sequences for relaxometry and magnetization transfer (MT) quantification. In addition to the semi-quantitative magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), all of the observable properties of the binary spin bath model were included. The study demonstrates that, in contrast to the MTR, quantitative MT parameters (especially the T2 relaxation time of restricted protons, T2b) are capable to differentiate functionally significant subregions within the HF. The MT methodology appears to be a promising new tool for the differential microstructural evaluation of the HF in neuropsychiatric disorders accompanied by memory disturbances.

  6. Subregional variability in Missouri tornado statistics. Technical report Apr 77-Jun 79

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, S.W.; Darkow, G.L.

    1981-11-01

    The reality of subregional variability in tornado occurrence density as evidenced in the county to county variability in Missouri is examined. Reported tornadoes for the period from 1916 through 1975 were used. Demographic and geographic factors known to impact on tornado reporting efficiencies and accuracies are related to county tornado report densities by step-wise multiple linear regression techniques. The analysis suggests that over 75 percent of the county to county apparent variability in reported tornado densities in Missouri is explainable in terms of variability in population density, other related demographic variables and regional scale geographic factors.

  7. Experimental Studies on a Compact Storage Scheme for Wavelet-based Multiresolution Subregion Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulakidas, A.; Srinivasan, A.; Egecioglu, O.; Ibarra, O.; Yang, T.

    1996-01-01

    Wavelet transforms, when combined with quantization and a suitable encoding, can be used to compress images effectively. In order to use them for image library systems, a compact storage scheme for quantized coefficient wavelet data must be developed with a support for fast subregion retrieval. We have designed such a scheme and in this paper we provide experimental studies to demonstrate that it achieves good image compression ratios, while providing a natural indexing mechanism that facilitates fast retrieval of portions of the image at various resolutions.

  8. Drivers of Intra-Summer Seasonality and Daily Variability of Coastal Low Cloudiness in California Subregions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, R. E.; Iacobellis, S.; Gershunov, A.; Williams, P.; Cayan, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Summertime low cloud intrusion into the terrestrial west coast of North America impacts human, ecological, and logistical systems. Over a broad region of the West Coast, summer (May - September) coastal low cloudiness (CLC) varies coherently on interannual to interdecadal timescales and has been found to be organized by North Pacific sea surface temperature. Broad-scale studies of low stratiform cloudiness over ocean basins also find that the season of maximum low stratus corresponds to the season of maximum lower tropospheric stability (LTS) or estimated inversion strength. We utilize a 18-summer record of CLC derived from NASA/NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 4km resolution over California (CA) to make a more nuanced spatial and temporal examination of intra-summer variability in CLC and its drivers. We find that uniform spatial coherency over CA is not apparent for intra-summer variability in CLC. On monthly to daily timescales, at least two distinct subregions of coastal California (CA) can be identified, where relationships between meteorology and stratus variability appear to change throughout summer in each subregion. While north of Point Conception and offshore the timing of maximum CLC is closely coincident with maximum LTS, in the Southern CA Bight and northern Baja region, maximum CLC occurs up to about a month before maximum LTS. It appears that summertime CLC in this southern region is not as strongly related as in the northern region to LTS. In particular, although the relationship is strong in May and June, starting in July the daily relationship between LTS and CLC in the south begins to deteriorate. Preliminary results indicate a moderate association between decreased CLC in the south and increased precipitable water content above 850 hPa on daily time scales beginning in July. Relationships between daily CLC variability and meteorological variables including winds, inland temperatures, relative humidity, and

  9. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  10. Conceptual Design of a Very High Temperature Pebble-Bed Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hans D. Gougar; A. M. Ougouag; Richard M. Moore; W. K. Terry

    2003-11-01

    Efficient electricity and hydrogen production distinguish the Very High Temperature Reactor as the leading Generation IV advanced concept. This graphite-moderated, helium-cooled reactor achieves a requisite high outlet temperature while retaining the passive safety and proliferation resistance required of Generation IV designs. Furthermore, a recirculating pebble-bed VHTR can operate with minimal excess reactivity to yield improved fuel economy and superior resistance to ingress events. Using the PEBBED code developed at the INEEL, conceptual designs of 300 megawatt and 600 megawatt (thermal) Very High Temperature Pebble-Bed Reactors have been developed. The fuel requirements of these compare favorably to the South African PBMR. Passive safety is confirmed with the MELCOR accident analysis code.

  11. Primary analysis of DNA polymorphisms in the TRIM region (MHC subregion) of the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shingo; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Yokoyama, Kana; Tsuda, Kaoru; Hara, Hiromi; Yoshida, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Akira; Mizutani, Makoto; Shiina, Takashi; Kono, Tomohiro; Hanzawa, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Based on sequences of two cosmid clones from Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, Coja), we confirmed that the syntenic cluster, GNB2L1∼BTN1∼BTN2, is located in the quail TRIM subregion of the quail major histocompatibility complex (MHC Coja) region. These cosmids also included four CjBG loci and one CjLEC locus; therefore, the quail TRIM subregion was thought to be adjacent to the BG/LEC subregion. We then identified three polymorphic markers - CjHEP21, CjTRIM39.2 and CjBTN2 - in the TRIM subregion that may be useful for the functional analysis of the MHC-Coja region. We examined MHC-Coja sequences from 321 individual quails sampled from 11 inbred strains, and we found eight alleles for each of the three genes - CjHEP21, CjTRIM39.2 and CjBTN2. These polymorphisms represent the first avian DNA markers in the TRIM subregion. Additionally, we discovered a quail-specific VNTR (variable number of long tandem repeats, 133-137 bp) in intron 7 of CjBTN2. We identified 25 haplotypes in the sample of 321 quail; these haplotypes comprised combinations of all 24 alleles of the three polymorphic genes. We suggest that there are two recombination hotspots, one between each pair of adjacent loci. All strains, except AMRP, contained multiple haplotypes; the AMRP strain contained a single, apparently fixed haplotype.

  12. A new breast cancer risk analysis approach using features extracted from multiple sub-regions on bilateral mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenqing; Tseng, Tzu-Liang B.; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Jianying; Qian, Wei

    2015-03-01

    A novel breast cancer risk analysis approach is proposed for enhancing performance of computerized breast cancer risk analysis using bilateral mammograms. Based on the intensity of breast area, five different sub-regions were acquired from one mammogram, and bilateral features were extracted from every sub-region. Our dataset includes 180 bilateral mammograms from 180 women who underwent routine screening examinations, all interpreted as negative and not recalled by the radiologists during the original screening procedures. A computerized breast cancer risk analysis scheme using four image processing modules, including sub-region segmentation, bilateral feature extraction, feature selection, and classification was designed to detect and compute image feature asymmetry between the left and right breasts imaged on the mammograms. The highest computed area under the curve (AUC) is 0.763 ± 0.021 when applying the multiple sub-region features to our testing dataset. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 0.60 and 0.73, respectively. The study demonstrates that (1) features extracted from multiple sub-regions can improve the performance of our scheme compared to using features from whole breast area only; (2) a classifier using asymmetry bilateral features can effectively predict breast cancer risk; (3) incorporating texture and morphological features with density features can boost the classification accuracy.

  13. Malaria control in the Greater Mekong Subregion: an overview of the current response and its limitations.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Sean; Delacollette, Charles; Poirot, Eugenie

    2013-01-01

    The malaria burden in the Greater Mekong Subregion has been dramatically reduced over the last 20 years but the disease remains an important public health issue in all six countries. This chapter introduces the standard tools for malaria control (long lasting insecticidal nets; indoor residual spraying; early diagnosis and appropriate treatment; epidemic surveillance and response; and, communication) and presents the evidence base supporting the use of each of these tools in the Subregion. Targeting approaches and delivery mechanisms for these tools are presented and discussed country by country. The technical limitations of these standard tools and delivery mechanisms are then discussed in the context of local variations in the epidemiology of the disease. The challenges presented by the feeding and resting habits of local vectors, by the characteristics and behavior of different human population groups, and by particular species and drug resistant strains of malaria parasites are considered. A range of innovative tools and delivery mechanism that have been developed to address these problems are presented and moves to bring these various innovations together to provide a comprehensive package of malaria control services for each risk group are discussed. Implementation arrangements are introduced and an overview of the stakeholder landscape at regional and country level is provided. Finally, remaining programmatic gaps (which include limited coverage, declining funds, drug resistance, weak surveillance and weak health systems) are highlighted and areas in need of further action (including the need for continued innovation) are discussed.

  14. Delineation of motor and somatosensory thalamic subregions utilizing probabilistic diffusion tractography and electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Sudhyadhom, Atchar; McGregor, Keith; Okun, Michael S; Foote, Kelly D; Trinastic, Jonathan; Crosson, Bruce; Bova, Frank J

    2013-03-01

    To employ and compare probabilistic diffusion tractography (PDT) for the explicit localization of connections from the thalamus to somatosensory cortex (S1) and primary motor cortex (M1) / supplementary motor area (SMA) with microelectrode electrophysiology in patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. These tractography-derived connections were used to categorize voxels in the thalamus as corresponding to sensory or motor physiology. A novel model (referred to in this work as the "mixture" model) to delineate PDT-based thalamic functional subregions by thresholding fiber intensities, ie, connectivity-defined regions (CDR), was devised. Regions created using this classification method were compared with the most commonly used model (referred to in this work as the "separation" or "winner takes all" model) for defining CDRs. Electrophysiology data corresponded better for S1 CDRs created using the mixture model for both sensory and motor cells. Separation model CDRs showed poor correspondence against electrophysiology, with few sensory cells corresponding to the S1 separation model CDR. Mixture model-based CDRs may offer a significant improvement in delineation of functional subregions of subcortical structures. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2007-04-01

    Lightning is a particularly unsettling product of bad weather. It kills more people than other natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes, but, because lightning usually kills people one at a time, it tends to be an underrated hazard. High risk groups are uneducated, unsheltered and rural people. This study was carried out to determine the incidence of lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region. It is a review of records between 1993 and 2004 from the medico-legal autopsies at Umtata General Hospital (UGH). During the study period there were 10,860 autopsies performed on those who died of trauma and other unnatural circumstances which included 151 (1.4%) lightning fatalities. This represents 0.31 deaths per million per year. The highest (0.5/million) was in 1999, and the lowest (0.13/million) in 1997. The age of the victims ranged from 1 to 82 years, with a mean of 22 years. Males and females were almost equally represented (50%). The highest number of deaths (26.5%) was in the age group of 11 to 20 years, and the lowest number (2.7%) in the age group of 70+ years. There is a high incidence of lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa. People need to be educated to disregard the myths of lightning strike.

  16. Water resources of the Kodiak-Shelikof subregion, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Stanley H.; Madison, R.J.; Zenone, Chester

    1978-01-01

    Hydrologic data for the Kodiak-Shelikof subregion of south-central Alaska are summarized to provide a basis for planning water resources development, identifying water problems and evaluating existing water quality and availability. Average annual precipitation, measured at a few coastal locations in this maritime climatic zone, ranges from 23 to 127 inches. Mean annual runoff for the Kodiak Island group ranges from 4 to 8 cfs/sq mi. A maximum instantaneous runoff of 457 cfs/sq mi has been determined from a small basin on Kodiak Island. Lowest measured stream discharges range from no flow to 0.91 cfs/sq mi. Surface water is the primary source of water supplies for the city of Kodiak and other communities. The geology of the subregion is characterized by metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks with only a thin mantle of unconsolidated material. A few small, alluvium-filled coastal valleys offer the most favorable conditions for ground-water development, but moderate yields (50-100 gal/min) have been obtained from wells in fractured bedrock. Water in streams and lakes generally has a dissolved-solids concentration less than 60 mg/L, and the water varies from a calcium-bicarbonate type to a sodium-chloride type. The chemical composition of ground waters has a dilute calcium-bicarbonate type in unconsolidated materials and a sodium-bicarbonate type in bedrock. The dissolved solids in the groundwater ranges from 170 to 250 mg/L. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Medial Meniscal Extrusion Relates to Cartilage Loss in Specific Femorotibial Subregions- Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Bloecker, K.; Wirth, W.; Guermazi, A.; Hunter, DJ; Resch, H.; Hochreiter, J.; Eckstein, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medial meniscal extrusion is known to be related to structural progression of knee OA. However, it is unclear whether medial meniscal extrusion is more strongly associated with cartilage loss in certain medial femorotibial subregions than to others. Methods Segmentation of the medial tibial and femoral cartilage (baseline; 1-year follow-up) and the medial meniscus (baseline) was performed in 60 participants with frequent knee pain (age 61.3±9.2y, BMI 31.3±3.9 kg/m2) and with unilateral medial radiographic joint space narrowing (JSN) grade 1–3, using double echo steady state MR-images. Medial meniscal extrusion distance and extrusion area (%) between the external meniscal and tibial margin at baseline, and longitudinal medial cartilage loss in eight anatomical subregions were determined. Results A significant association (Pearson correlation coefficient) was seen between medial meniscus extrusion area in JSN knees and cartilage loss over one year throughout the entire medial femorotibial compartment. The strongest correlation was with cartilage loss in the external medial tibia (r=−0.34 [p<0.01] in JSN, and r=−0.30 [p=0.02] in noJSN knees). Conclusion Medial meniscus extrusion was associated with subsequent medial cartilage loss. The external medial tibial cartilage may be particularly vulnerable to thinning once the meniscus extrudes and its surface is “exposed” to direct, non-physiological, cartilage-cartilage contact. PMID:25988986

  18. Extracellular dopamine levels in striatal subregions track shifts in motivation and response cost during instrumental conditioning.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Sean B; Wassum, Kate M; Murphy, Niall P; Balleine, Bernard W; Maidment, Nigel T

    2011-01-05

    Tonic dopamine (DA) signaling is widely regarded as playing a central role in effort-based decision making and in the motivational control of instrumental performance. The current study used microdialysis to monitor changes in extracellular DA levels across subregions of the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum of rats as they lever pressed for food reward on a probabilistic schedule of reinforcement, a procedure that ensured they would experience variation in the amount of effort needed to earn rewards across tests. Each rat was given three tests. Rats were hungry for the first and last test, but were sated on food before the middle test, allowing us to assess the effects of a downshift in motivational state on task performance and conditioning-induced DA efflux. During hungry tests, DA levels rose in both the shell and core of the accumbens and, to a lesser degree, in both the medial and lateral divisions of the dorsal striatum. Interestingly, changes in DA efflux across hungry tests in the accumbens core were negatively correlated with changes in the effort required to obtain rewards. We also found that--across regions--the DA response to instrumental conditioning was attenuated when rats were sated before testing. Furthermore, the effect of satiety on DA efflux in the accumbens shell was positively correlated with its effect on task performance. Together, the results indicate that tonic DA contributes to the control of instrumental performance by conveying information about the costs and benefits of responding to different striatal subregions.

  19. Class I gene contraction within the HLA-A subregion of the human MHC

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, C.P.; Chorney, M.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Individuals expressing either the HLA-A24 or the HLA-A23 histocompatibility antigens have been found to possess an HLA-A class I subregion approximately 50 kb smaller in size than those studied from individuals expressing other HLA-A haplotypes. This originally manifested itself as a haplotype-associated size variation in the NotI and MluI megabase fragments observed on pulsed-field electrophoresis gels after blotting and probing with HLA-A subregion-specific genomic probes. The contracted region falls between the HLA-A and the HLA-G class I genes and specifically includes the novel HLA-A-related pseudogene, HLA-H, as well as the adjacent deteriorated class I pseudogene, 7.0 p. The intactness of locus D6S128, defined by probe pMC6.7 located telomeric to the HLA-H gene, demonstrates that the distal rearrangement point falls within a 20-kb stretch of DNA separating HLA-H from pMC6.7. This extends a previous report regarding variation in class I gene number within the human major histocompatibility complex and precisely localizes the genomic residence of sequences that may define a recombination hot spot. Because the size variation maps to a recombinogenic area, its characterization may ultimately reveal important biological information relevant to the events that shaped the organization of the human HLA class I multigene family. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Coca-leaf production in the countries of the Andean subregion.

    PubMed

    Abruzzese, R

    1989-01-01

    The estimated areas under coca-bush cultivation in 1988 are expected to total 44,300 hectares in Bolivia, 25,000 hectares in Colombia, 400 hectares in Ecuador and 114,400 hectares in Peru. The estimated projections for 1989 indicate that coca-leaf production may amount to 68,200 tonnes in Bolivia, 20,000 tonnes in Colombia, 300 tonnes in Ecuador and 120,100 tonnes in Peru. Of all the Andean countries, Venezuela is the only one that has no coca-leaf production problem. According to estimates for the period from 1985 to 1989, coca-leaf production will increase by 43.3 per cent in Bolivia, by 13.6 per cent in Colombia and by 26.2 per cent in Peru. Coca-leaf production in Ecuador has consistently followed a downward trend. According to estimates, since 1985 coca-leaf production in Peru has accounted for more than one half of the total amount produced in the Andean subregion, while production in Colombia, though it has increased in the same period, has accounted for a relatively small share. In 1987, estimated coca-leaf production in Bolivia amounted to 30.2 per cent of the total amount produced in the subregion.

  1. Framework for Conceptual Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirbel, Esther L.

    Students often enter introductory courses lacking a consistent conceptual framework about natural sciences, and after traditional instruction, many experience little change in conceptual understanding. This article analyzes the nature and origin of misconceptions and discusses how they are formed and where they come from. It explains why it is so difficult to change students' concepts. This article also reviews Posner et al.'s (1982) conceptual change model and elaborates how and under what conditions it can be employed to modify students' preexisting concepts. Various challenges of that conceptual change model are discussed. How to teach to provoke conceptual change is discussed in a further paper.

  2. Oxytocin differentially alters resting state functional connectivity between amygdala subregions and emotional control networks: Inverse correlation with depressive traits.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Monika; Markett, Sebastian; Kendrick, Keith M; Ditzen, Beate; Liu, Fang; Hurlemann, Rene; Becker, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has received increasing attention for its role in modulating social-emotional processes across species. Previous studies on using intranasal-OT in humans point to a crucial engagement of the amygdala in the observed neuromodulatory effects of OT under task and rest conditions. However, the amygdala is not a single homogenous structure, but rather a set of structurally and functionally heterogeneous nuclei that show distinct patterns of connectivity with limbic and frontal emotion-processing regions. To determine potential differential effects of OT on functional connectivity of the amygdala subregions, 79 male participants underwent resting-state fMRI following randomized intranasal-OT or placebo administration. In line with previous studies OT increased the connectivity of the total amygdala with dorso-medial prefrontal regions engaged in emotion regulation. In addition, OT enhanced coupling of the total amygdala with cerebellar regions. Importantly, OT differentially altered the connectivity of amygdala subregions with distinct up-stream cortical nodes, particularly prefrontal/parietal, and cerebellar down-stream regions. OT-induced increased connectivity with cerebellar regions were largely driven by effects on the centromedial and basolateral subregions, whereas increased connectivity with prefrontal regions were largely mediated by right superficial and basolateral subregions. OT decreased connectivity of the centromedial subregions with core hubs of the emotional face processing network in temporal, occipital and parietal regions. Preliminary findings suggest that effects on the superficial amygdala-prefrontal pathway were inversely associated with levels of subclinical depression, possibly indicating that OT modulation may be blunted in the context of increased pathological load. Together, the present findings suggest a subregional-specific modulatory role of OT on amygdala-centered emotion processing networks in

  3. Necessary Contributions of Human Frontal Lobe Subregions to Reward Learning in a Dynamic, Multidimensional Environment.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Avinash R; Fellows, Lesley K

    2016-09-21

    Real-world decisions are typically made between options that vary along multiple dimensions, requiring prioritization of the important dimensions to support optimal choice. Learning in this setting depends on attributing decision outcomes to the dimensions with predictive relevance rather than to dimensions that are irrelevant and nonpredictive. This attribution problem is computationally challenging, and likely requires an interplay between selective attention and reward learning. Both these processes have been separately linked to the prefrontal cortex, but little is known about how they combine to support learning the reward value of multidimensional stimuli. Here, we examined the necessary contributions of frontal lobe subregions in attributing feedback to relevant and irrelevant dimensions on a trial-by-trial basis in humans. Patients with focal frontal lobe damage completed a demanding reward learning task where options varied on three dimensions, only one of which predicted reward. Participants with left lateral frontal lobe damage attributed rewards to irrelevant dimensions, rather than the relevant dimension. Damage to the ventromedial frontal lobe also impaired learning about the relevant dimension, but did not increase reward attribution to irrelevant dimensions. The results argue for distinct roles for these two regions in learning the value of multidimensional decision options under dynamic conditions, with the lateral frontal lobe required for selecting the relevant dimension to associate with reward, and the ventromedial frontal lobe required to learn the reward association itself. The real world is complex and multidimensional; how do we attribute rewards to predictive features when surrounded by competing cues? Here, we tested the critical involvement of human frontal lobe subregions in a probabilistic, multidimensional learning environment, asking whether focal lesions affected trial-by-trial attribution of feedback to relevant and irrelevant

  4. Interior region-of-interest reconstruction using a small, nearly piecewise constant subregion

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Xu Jingyan; Srivastava, Somesh; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; Cammin, Jochen; Tang Qiulin

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a method to reconstruct an interior region-of-interest (ROI) image with sufficient accuracy that uses differentiated backprojection (DBP) projection onto convex sets (POCS) [H. Kudo et al., ''Tiny a priori knowledge solves the interior problem in computed tomography'', Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 2207-2231 (2008)] and a tiny knowledge that there exists a nearly piecewise constant subregion. Methods: The proposed method first employs filtered backprojection to reconstruct an image on which a tiny region P with a small variation in the pixel values is identified inside the ROI. Total variation minimization [H. Yu and G. Wang, ''Compressed sensing based interior tomography'', Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 2791-2805 (2009); W. Han et al., ''A general total variation minimization theorem for compressed sensing based interior tomography'', Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2009, Article 125871 (2009)] is then employed to obtain pixel values in the subregion P, which serve as a priori knowledge in the next step. Finally, DBP-POCS is performed to reconstruct f(x,y) inside the ROI. Clinical data and the reconstructed image obtained by an x-ray computed tomography system (SOMATOM Definition; Siemens Healthcare) were used to validate the proposed method. The detector covers an object with a diameter of {approx}500 mm. The projection data were truncated either moderately to limit the detector coverage to diameter 350 mm of the object or severely to cover diameter 199 mm. Images were reconstructed using the proposed method. Results: The proposed method provided ROI images with correct pixel values in all areas except near the edge of the ROI. The coefficient of variation, i.e., the root mean square error divided by the mean pixel values, was less than 2.0% or 4.5% with the moderate or severe truncation cases, respectively, except near the boundary of the ROI. Conclusions: The proposed method allows for reconstructing interior ROI images with sufficient accuracy with a tiny knowledge

  5. Contributions of subregions of the prefrontal cortex to the theory of mind and decision making.

    PubMed

    Xi, Chunhua; Zhu, Youling; Niu, Chaoshi; Zhu, Chunyan; Lee, Tatia M C; Tian, Yanghua; Wang, Kai

    2011-08-10

    Recent works have suggested an association between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC) and social cognition or decision making. The aim of this study is to investigate the theory of mind and decision making in patients with VMPC lesions and in those with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPC) lesions. Patients with VMPC lesions (n=16) and those with DLPC lesions (n=14) were compared with healthy controls (HC) on faux pas recognition and 2 decision-making tasks. Consistent with previous data, patients with VMPC lesions performed worse on the theory of mind and decision making. Patients with DLPC lesions showed impairments of the theory of mind but performed at control levels on the 2 decision-making tasks. The results supported the view that a separation of function of 2 distinct subregions of the prefrontal cortex is important to the theory of mind and decision making. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reproducibility of subregional trabecular bone micro-architectural measures derived from 7-Tesla magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gregory; Wang, Ligong; Liang, Guoyuan; Babb, James S; Saha, Punam K; Regatte, Ravinder R

    2011-06-01

    High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of trabecular bone combined with quantitative image analysis represents a powerful technique to gain insight into trabecular bone micro-architectural derangements in osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. The increased signal-to-noise ratio of ultra high-field MR (≥7 Tesla) permits images to be obtained with higher resolution and/or decreased scan time compared to scanning at 1.5/3T. In this small feasibility study, we show high measurement precision for subregional trabecular bone micro-architectural analysis performed on 7T knee MR images. The results provide further support for the use of trabecular bone measures as biomarkers in clinical studies of bone disorders.

  7. Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation in the Greater Mekong, Subregion and Russian Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yong; Li, Zengyuan; Sun, Gouqing; Zhang, Zhiyu; Schmullius, Christiane; Meng, Shili; Ma, Zhenyu; Lu, Hao; Li, Shiming; Liu, Qingwang; Bai, Lina; Tian, Xin

    2016-08-01

    Forests play a vital role in sustainable development and provide a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, including essential ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. We summarized works in forest aboveground biomass estimation in Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and Russian Siberia (RuS). Both regions are rich in forest resources. These mapping and estimation works were based on multiple-source remote sensing data and some field measurements. Biomass maps were generated at 500 m and 30 m pixel size for RuS and GMS respectively. With the available of the 2015 PALSAR-2 mosaic at 25 m spacing, Sentinel-2 data at 20 m, we will work on the biomass mapping and dynamic study at higher spatial resolution.

  8. Track analysis of Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) of the Subantarctic subregion of South America.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Érica V; Romano, Gonzalo M; Morrone, Juan J

    2016-06-23

    We analysed distributional data of 30 species of Oribatid mites of the Subantarctic subregion of southern South America in order to contribute to elucidate their biotic evolution. We constructed individual tracks for the species analysed, based on published and unpublished records. After superposing them we obtained six generalized tracks and five nodes. Four generalized tracks (T2, T3, T4 and T6) extend along and near the Andean ranges, whereas two generalized tracks (T1 and T5) may be artefacts caused by the lack of information. The generalized tracks and nodes show the complex relationships of the austral biota, as hypothesized in previous contributions based on other plant and animal taxa.

  9. Animal-adapted members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex endemic to the southern African subregion.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Charlene; Van Helden, Paul; Miller, Michele; Parsons, Sven

    2016-04-26

    Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) cause tuberculosis (TB) in both animals and humans. In this article, three animal-adapted MTC strains that are endemic to the southern African subregion - that is, Mycobacterium suricattae, Mycobacterium mungi, and the dassie bacillus - are reviewed with a focus on clinical and pathological presentations, geographic distribution, genotyping methods, diagnostic tools and evolution. Moreover, factors influencing the transmission and establishment of TB pathogens in novel host populations, including ecological, immunological and genetic factors of both the host and pathogen, are discussed. The risks associated with these infections are currently unknown and further studies will be required for greater understanding of this disease in the context of the southern African ecosystem.

  10. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-02-16

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system.

  11. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  12. Enhanced Functional Coupling of Hippocampal Sub-regions in Congenitally and Late Blind Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Guangyang; Yang, Dan; Qin, Wen; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampus has exhibited navigation-related changes in volume and activity after visual deprivation; however, the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes of the hippocampus in the blind remains unknown. In this study, we focused on sub-region-specific rsFC changes of the hippocampus and their association with the onset age of blindness. The rsFC patterns of the hippocampal sub-regions (head, body and tail) were compared among 20 congenitally blind (CB), 42 late blind (LB), and 50 sighted controls (SC). Compared with the SC, both the CB and the LB showed increased hippocampal rsFCs with the posterior cingulate cortex, angular gyrus, parieto-occpital sulcus, middle occipito-temporal conjunction, inferior temporal gyrus, orbital frontal cortex, and middle frontal gyrus. In the blind subjects, the hippocampal tail had more extensive rsFC changes than the anterior hippocampus (body and head). The CB and the LB had similar changes in hippocampal rsFC. These altered rsFCs of the hippocampal sub-regions were neither correlated with onset age in the LB nor the duration of blindness in CB or LB subjects. The increased coupling of the hippocampal intrinsic functional network may reflect enhanced loading of the hippocampal-related networks for non-visual memory processing. Furthermore, the similar changes of hippocampal rsFCs between the CB and the LB suggests an experience-dependent rather than a developmental-dependent plasticity of the hippocampal intrinsic functional network. PMID:28119560

  13. Ground-water data as of 1967, Central Coastal Subregion, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bader, J.S.

    1969-01-01

    Most usable ground water in the predominantly mountainous Central Coastal Subregion occurs in alluvium-filled valleys and coastal plains and in deeper aquifers of Quaternary and Tertiary age. The intervening mountainous areas are underlain by consolidated sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks, mainly of Mesozoic age. These older rocks contain only small quantities of recoverable ground water and, therefore, are not considered a major source of ground water. In the Central Coastal Subregion, 24 basins have been identified as significant sources of ground water. The total area of the 24 basins is about 3,500 square miles. The water-bearing deposits range in thickness from about 200 to 4,000 feet. Depending on local conditions, recharge infiltrates at rates of less than 1½ feet per day to more than 10 feet per day in the upper part of alluvial fans and stream channels and at the outcrops of the deeper aquifers. The maximum measured depth to water in the water-bearing deposits is 568 ft. In several valleys there are flowing wells. Total storage capacity of 16 of the basins is more than 20,000,000 acre-feet . The usable storage capacity of 18 of the basins is more than 7,600,000 acre-feet; the limiting factors are sea-water intrusion and high pumping lift. Ground-water temperature ranges from about 55° to about 75°F . The dissolved-solids content of the water is generally less than 800 parts per million, but locally is more than 11,000 parts per million. The predominant water type is calcium bicarbonate, but sodium, magnesium, sulfate, and chloride are present locally in significant quantities. Properly constructed wells in some areas can yield 425 gallons per minute.

  14. Dissociable relations between amygdala subregional networks and psychopathy trait dimensions in conduct‐disordered juvenile offenders

    PubMed Central

    Colins, Olivier F.; Klapwijk, Eduard T.; Veer, Ilya M.; Andershed, Henrik; Popma, Arne; van der Wee, Nic J.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Psychopathy is a serious psychiatric phenomenon characterized by a pathological constellation of affective (e.g., callous, unemotional), interpersonal (e.g., manipulative, egocentric), and behavioral (e.g., impulsive, irresponsible) personality traits. Though amygdala subregional defects are suggested in psychopathy, the functionality and connectivity of different amygdala subnuclei is typically disregarded in neurocircuit‐level analyses of psychopathic personality. Hence, little is known of how amygdala subregional networks may contribute to psychopathy and its underlying trait assemblies in severely antisocial people. We addressed this important issue by uniquely examining the intrinsic functional connectivity of basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala networks in relation to affective, interpersonal, and behavioral traits of psychopathy, in conduct‐disordered juveniles with a history of serious delinquency (N = 50, mean age = 16.83 ± 1.32). As predicted, amygdalar connectivity profiles exhibited dissociable relations with different traits of psychopathy. Interpersonal psychopathic traits not only related to increased connectivity of BLA and CMA with a corticostriatal network formation accommodating reward processing, but also predicted stronger CMA connectivity with a network of cortical midline structures supporting sociocognitive processes. In contrast, affective psychopathic traits related to diminished CMA connectivity with a frontolimbic network serving salience processing and affective responding. Finally, behavioral psychopathic traits related to heightened BLA connectivity with a frontoparietal cluster implicated in regulatory executive functioning. We suggest that these trait‐specific shifts in amygdalar connectivity could be particularly relevant to the psychopathic phenotype, as they may fuel a self‐centered, emotionally cold, and behaviorally disinhibited profile. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4017–4033, 2016. © 2016

  15. Dopamine and conditioned reinforcement. I. Differential effects of amphetamine microinjections into striatal subregions.

    PubMed

    Kelley, A E; Delfs, J M

    1991-01-01

    In the conditioned reinforcement paradigm, animals learn a new instrumental response reinforced solely by conditioned reward (a stimulus that has previously been associated with primary reward). It has been shown that psychostimulants potentiate responding for conditioned reward and there is evidence that the nucleus accumbens is involved in this effect. The present experiments extend this work and examine the roles of various striatal subregions in the enhancement of responding for conditioned reward. In the conditioning phase, hungry rats were trained to associate a light/click stimulus with food delivery, with no levers present in the operant chamber. In the test phase, two levers were present and responding on one provided conditioned reward (presentation of the compound stimulus but no food). During this phase, microinjections of d-amphetamine (0, 0.2, 2.0, 20.0 micrograms/0.5 microliters) were made into seven striatal subregions in separate groups of rats. Injection of amphetamine into the nucleus accumbens elicited a dose-dependent, selective increase in responding for CR. Injections into posterior regions of the striatum had no effect. Significant and selective increases in CR responding were noted after injections into two regions neighboring the nucleus accumbens, the anterior dorsal and the ventromedial striatum, although the magnitude of these effects was considerably less than that following accumbens injections. Injections into ventrolateral regions increased responding in some rats, but this effect was very variable and not selective for the CR lever. These results are interpreted as evidence for functional heterogeneity of the striatum with regard to enhancement of conditioned reinforcement. The findings are discussed in relation to the theory that increased dopaminergic activity in the nucleus accumbens results in amplification of the response to a previously learned reward-related signal.

  16. Chronic L-dopa decreases serotonin neurons in a subregion of the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Stansley, Branden J; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2014-11-01

    L-Dopa (l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is the precursor to dopamine and has become the mainstay therapeutic treatment for Parkinson's disease. Chronic L-dopa is administered to recover motor function in Parkinson's disease patients. However, drug efficacy decreases over time, and debilitating side effects occur, such as dyskinesia and mood disturbances. The therapeutic effect and some of the side effects of L-dopa have been credited to its effect on serotonin (5-HT) neurons. Given these findings, it was hypothesized that chronic L-dopa treatment decreases 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and the content of 5-HT in forebrain regions in a manner that is mediated by oxidative stress. Rats were treated chronically with l-dopa (6 mg/kg; twice daily) for 10 days. Results indicated that the number of 5-HT neurons was significantly decreased in the DRN after l-dopa treatment compared with vehicle. This effect was more pronounced in the caudal-extent of the dorsal DRN, a subregion found to have a significantly higher increase in the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio in response to acute L-dopa treatment. Furthermore, pretreatment with ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg) or deprenyl (2 mg/kg) prevented the l-dopa-induced decreases in 5-HT neurons. In addition, 5-HT content was decreased significantly in the DRN and prefrontal cortex by l-dopa treatment, effects that were prevented by ascorbic acid pretreatment. Taken together, these data illustrate that chronic L-dopa causes a 5-HT neuron loss and the depletion of 5-HT content in a subregion of the DRN as well as in the frontal cortex through an oxidative-stress mechanism.

  17. Outbreaks-of Ebola virus disease in the West African sub-region.

    PubMed

    Osungbade, K O; Oni, A A

    2014-06-01

    Five West African countries, including Nigeria are currently experiencing the largest, most severe, most complex outbreak of Ebola virus disease in history. This paper provided a chronology of outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in the West African sub-region and provided an update on efforts at containing the present outbreak. Literature from Pubmed (MEDLINE), AJOL, Google Scholar and Cochrane database were reviewed. Outbreaks of Ebola, virus disease had frequently occurred mainly in Central and East African countries. Occasional outbreaks reported from outside of Africa were due to laboratory contamination and imported monkeys in quarantine facilities. The ongoing outbreak in West Africa is the largest and first in the sub-region; the number of suspected cases and deaths from this single current outbreak is already about three times the total of all cases and deaths from previous known outbreaks in 40 years. Prevention and control efforts are hindered not only by lack of a known vaccine and virus-specific treatment, but also by weak health systems, poor sanitation, poor personal hygiene and cultural beliefs and practices, including myths and misconceptions about Ebola virus disease--all of which are prevalent in affected countries. Constrained by this situation, the World Health Organisation departed from the global standard and recommended the use of not yet proven treatments to treat or prevent the disease in humans on ethical and evidential grounds. The large number of people affected by the present outbreak in West Africa and the high case-fatality rate calls for accelerated evaluation and development of the investigational medical interventions for life saving and curbing the epidemic. Meanwhile, existing interventions such as early detection and isolation, contact tracing and monitoring, and adherence to rigorous procedures of infection prevention and control should be intensified.

  18. Chronic stress induces adrenal hyperplasia and hypertrophy in a subregion-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Figueiredo, Helmer F; Ostrander, Michelle M; Choi, Dennis C; Engeland, William C; Herman, James P

    2006-11-01

    The adrenal gland is an essential stress-responsive organ that is part of both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. Chronic stress exposure commonly increases adrenal weight, but it is not known to what extent this growth is due to cellular hyperplasia or hypertrophy and whether it is subregion specific. Moreover, it is not clear whether increased production of adrenal glucocorticoid after chronic stress is due to increased sensitivity to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) vs. increased maximal output. The present studies use a 14-day chronic variable stress (CVS) paradigm in adult male rats to assess the effects of chronic stress on adrenal growth and corticosterone steroidogenesis. Exogenous ACTH administration (0-895 ng/100 g body wt) to dexamethasone-blocked rats demonstrated that CVS increased maximal plasma and adrenal corticosterone responses to ACTH without affecting sensitivity. This enhanced function was associated with increased adrenal weight, DNA and RNA content, and RNA/DNA ratio after CVS, suggesting that both cellular hyperplasia and hypertrophy occurred. Unbiased stereological counting of cells labeled for Ki67 (cell division marker) or 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (nuclear marker), combined with zone specific markers, showed that CVS induced hyperplasia in the outer zona fasciculata, hypertrophy in the inner zona fasciculata and medulla, and reduced cell size in the zona glomerulosa. Collectively, these results demonstrate that increased adrenal weight after CVS is due to hyperplasia and hypertrophy that occur in specific adrenal subregions and is associated with increased maximal corticosterone responses to ACTH. These chronic stress-induced changes in adrenal growth and function may have implications for patients with stress-related disorders.

  19. Downscaling GRACE satellite data for sub-region groundwater storage estimates in California's Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuss, A. M.; Newcomer, M. E.; Hsu, W.; Bourai, A.; Puranam, A.; Landerer, F. W.; Schmidt, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Central Valley aquifer (CVA) is a vital economic and environmental resource for California and the United States, and supplies water for one of the most agriculturally productive regions in the world. Recent estimates of groundwater (GW) availability in California have indicated declines in GW levels that may pose a threat to sustainable groundwater use in this region. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) can be used to estimate variations in total water storage (TWS) and are therefore used to estimate GW storage changes within the CVA. However, using GRACE data in the CVA is challenging due to the coarse spatial resolution and increased error. To compensate for this, we used a statistical downscaling approach applied to GRACE data at the sub-region level using GW storage estimates from the California Department of Water Resources' (DWR) C2VSim hydrological model. This method produced a spatially and temporally variable GW anomaly dataset for sub-region GW management and for analysis of GW changes influenced by spatial and temporal variability. An additional challenge for this region is the influence of natural climate variability, altering GW recharge and influencing pumping practices. Understanding the effects of climate variability on GW storage changes, may improve GRACE TWS and GW estimates during periods of increased rain or droughts. Thus, the GRACE TWS and GW storage estimates were compared to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) using singular spectral analysis (SSA). Results from SSA indicate that variations in GRACE TWS are moderately correlated to PDO (10-25 year cycle), although low correlations were observed when compared to ENSO (2-7 year cycle). The incorporation of these new methods for estimating variations in groundwater storage in highly productive aquifers may improve water management techniques in California.

  20. Different Patterns of Cortical Inputs to Subregions of the Primary Motor Cortex Hand Representation in Cebus apella

    PubMed Central

    Dea, Melvin; Hamadjida, Adjia; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Quessy, Stephan; Dancause, Numa

    2016-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) plays an essential role in the control of hand movements in primates and is part of a complex cortical sensorimotor network involving multiple premotor and parietal areas. In a previous study in squirrel monkeys, we found that the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) projected mainly to 3 regions within the M1 forearm representation [rostro-medial (RM), rostro-lateral (RL), and caudo-lateral (CL)] with very few caudo-medial (CM) projections. These results suggest that projections from premotor areas to M1 are not uniform, but rather segregated into subregions. The goal of the present work was to study how inputs from diverse areas of the ipsilateral cortical network are organized within the M1 hand representation. In Cebus apella, different retrograde neuroanatomical tracers were injected in 4 subregions of the hand area of M1 (RM, RL, CM, and CL). We found a different pattern of input to each subregion of M1. RM receives inputs predominantly from dorsal premotor cortex, RL from PMv, CM from area 5, and CL from area 2. These results support that the M1 hand representation is composed of several subregions, each part of a unique cortical network. PMID:26966266

  1. Different Patterns of Cortical Inputs to Subregions of the Primary Motor Cortex Hand Representation in Cebus apella.

    PubMed

    Dea, Melvin; Hamadjida, Adjia; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Quessy, Stephan; Dancause, Numa

    2016-04-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) plays an essential role in the control of hand movements in primates and is part of a complex cortical sensorimotor network involving multiple premotor and parietal areas. In a previous study in squirrel monkeys, we found that the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) projected mainly to 3 regions within the M1 forearm representation [rostro-medial (RM), rostro-lateral (RL), and caudo-lateral (CL)] with very few caudo-medial (CM) projections. These results suggest that projections from premotor areas to M1 are not uniform, but rather segregated into subregions. The goal of the present work was to study how inputs from diverse areas of the ipsilateral cortical network are organized within the M1 hand representation. In Cebus apella, different retrograde neuroanatomical tracers were injected in 4 subregions of the hand area of M1 (RM, RL, CM, and CL). We found a different pattern of input to each subregion of M1. RM receives inputs predominantly from dorsal premotor cortex, RL from PMv, CM from area 5, and CL from area 2. These results support that the M1 hand representation is composed of several subregions, each part of a unique cortical network.

  2. SUB-REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT (BANGKOK, THAILAND, DECEMBER 7-17, 1965). REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS SUBREGIONAL WORKSHOP, HELD IN 1965 IN BANGKOK, THAILAND, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE UNITED NATIONS, WAS TO ENABLE ADMINITRATORS, OPERATORS, AND EDUCATORS IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND RELATED FIELDS TO REVIEW THE FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF NATIONAL WORKSHOPS ON PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION IN URBAN AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT, TO…

  3. Building Capacity for Open and Distance Learning (ODL) in West Africa Sub-Region: The Pivotal Role of RETRIDAL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amini, Clifford; Oluyide, Oluwaseun

    2016-01-01

    The paper posits the Regional Training and Research Institute for Distance and Open Learning (RETRIDAL) as an institution established for the purpose of enhancing Open and Distance Learning in the West African sub-region. The institute has pursued this mandate with an unparalleled vigour since its establishment in 2003--a partnership of the…

  4. Three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography definition of the anatomical subregions of the upper airway: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Guijarro-Martínez, R; Swennen, G R J

    2013-09-01

    The exact boundaries of the upper airway subregions remain undefined. Consequently, anatomical limits vary greatly among different research groups and impede unbiased comparisons. The aim of this study was to provide clinical three-dimensional anatomical limits for the upper airway subregions, translate them into accurate and reliable cephalometric landmarks in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data, and validate the proposed measuring protocol. The upper airway of 40 normative individuals aged 23-35 years was evaluated with Dolphin Imaging(®) software. An appropriate grey-scale threshold value was pre-calculated. After adapting specific head positioning and virtual orientation protocols, the volume and minimum cross-sectional area of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx, as previously defined by the authors, were calculated. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was excellent for volumes and moderate for areas. The sexual dimorphism analysis revealed a significantly greater oropharyngeal volume, hypopharyngeal volume, and minimum cross-sectional oropharyngeal area in males than in females. In conclusion, the proposed subregion definition showed technical feasibility and statistical reliability, especially for three-dimensional calculations. The reliability of two-dimensional calculations may be increased with improved head positioning during CBCT scanning and subsequent virtual head orientation. Standardization of the proposed anatomical limits has the potential to homogenize upper airway subregion analysis and permit comparisons among future studies. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Framework for Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirbel, Esther L.

    2004-01-01

    Students often enter introductory courses lacking a consistent conceptual framework about natural sciences, and after traditional instruction, many experience little change in conceptual understanding. This article analyzes the nature and origin of misconceptions and discusses how they are formed and where they come from. It explains why it is so…

  6. Overlooking the Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leshem, Shosh; Trafford, Vernon

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual framework is alluded to in most serious texts on research, described in some and fully explained in few. However, examiners of doctoral theses devote considerable attention to exploring its function within social science doctoral vivas. A literature survey explores how the conceptual framework is itself conceptualised and explained.…

  7. Communication, Conceptualization and Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed, Adel; Hartley, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Learning can be viewed as a communication process that puts the learner in contact with concepts created by others. A result of communication is that an act of interpretation starts, which invokes a process of conceptualization. According to Mayes, successful conceptualization will need the support of learning activities. Hence, machine mediated…

  8. Communication, Conceptualization and Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed, Adel; Hartley, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Learning can be viewed as a communication process that puts the learner in contact with concepts created by others. A result of communication is that an act of interpretation starts, which invokes a process of conceptualization. According to Mayes, successful conceptualization will need the support of learning activities. Hence, machine mediated…

  9. Model Building for Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David; Strobel, Johannes; Gottdenker, Joshua

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual change is a popular, contemporary conception of meaningful learning. Conceptual change describes changes in conceptual frameworks (mental models or personal theories) that learners construct to comprehend phenomena. Different theories of conceptual change describe the reorganization of conceptual frameworks that results from different…

  10. Implementation of forest cover and carbon mapping in the Greater Mekong subregion and Malaysia project - A case study of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pungkul, S.; Suraswasdi, C.; Phonekeo, V.

    2014-02-01

    The Great Mekong Subregion (GMS) contains one of the world's largest tropical forests and plays a vital role in sustainable development and provides a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, including essential ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, the forest in this Subregion is experiencing deforestation rates at high level due to human activities. The reduction of the forest area has negative influence to the environmental and natural resources issues, particularly, more severe disasters have occurred due to global warming and the release of the greenhouse gases. Therefore, in order to conduct forest management in the Subregion efficiently, the Forest Cover and Carbon Mapping in Greater Mekong Subregion and Malaysia project was initialized by the Asia-Pacific Network for Sustainable Forest Management and Rehabilitation (APFNet) with the collaboration of various research institutions including Institute of Forest Resource Information Technique (IFRIT), Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF) and the countries in Sub region and Malaysia comprises of Cambodia, the People's Republic of China (Yunnan province and Guangxi province), Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The main target of the project is to apply the intensive use of recent satellite remote sensing technology, establishing regional forest cover maps, documenting forest change processes and estimating carbon storage in the GMS and Malaysia. In this paper, the authors present the implementation of the project in Thailand and demonstrate the result of forest cover mapping in the whole country in 2005 and 2010. The result of the project will contribute towards developing efficient tools to support decision makers to clearly understand the dynamic change of the forest cover which could benefit sustainable forest resource management in Thailand and the whole Subregion.

  11. A pilot study for segmentation of pharyngeal and sino-nasal airway subregions by automatic contour initialization.

    PubMed

    Neelapu, Bala Chakravarthy; Kharbanda, Om Prakash; Sardana, Viren; Gupta, Abhishek; Vasamsetti, Srikanth; Balachandran, Rajiv; Rana, Shailendra Singh; Sardana, Harish Kumar

    2017-07-28

    The objective of the present study is to put forward a novel automatic segmentation algorithm to segment pharyngeal and sino-nasal airway subregions on 3D CBCT imaging datasets. A fully automatic segmentation of sino-nasal and pharyngeal airway subregions was implemented in MATLAB programing environment. The novelty of the algorithm is automatic initialization of contours in upper airway subregions. The algorithm is based on boundary definitions of the human anatomy along with shape constraints with an automatic initialization of contours to develop a complete algorithm which has a potential to enhance utility at clinical level. Post-initialization; five segmentation techniques: Chan-Vese level set (CVL), localized Chan-Vese level set (LCVL), Bhattacharya distance level set (BDL), Grow Cut (GC), and Sparse Field method (SFM) were used to test the robustness of automatic initialization. Precision and F-score were found to be greater than 80% for all the regions with all five segmentation methods. High precision and low recall were observed with BDL and GC techniques indicating an under segmentation. Low precision and high recall values were observed with CVL and SFM methods indicating an over segmentation. A Larger F-score value was observed with SFM method for all the subregions. Minimum F-score value was observed for naso-ethmoidal and sphenoidal air sinus region, whereas a maximum F-score was observed in maxillary air sinuses region. The contour initialization was more accurate for maxillary air sinuses region in comparison with sphenoidal and naso-ethmoid regions. The overall F-score was found to be greater than 80% for all the airway subregions using five segmentation techniques, indicating accurate contour initialization. Robustness of the algorithm needs to be further tested on severely deformed cases and on cases with different races and ethnicity for it to have global acceptance in Katradental radKatraiology workflow.

  12. A hybrid liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) process in conjunction with membrane distillation (MD) for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste.

    PubMed

    Bader, M S H

    2005-05-20

    A novel hybrid system combining liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) and membrane distillation (MD) is integrated for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste. The integrated system provides a "full separation" approach that consists of three main processing stages. The first stage is focused on the separation and recovery of nitric acid from the bulk of the waste stream using vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). In the second stage, polyvalent cations (mainly TRU elements and their fission products except cesium along with aluminum and other toxic metals) are separated from the bulk of monovalent anions and cations (dominantly sodium nitrate) by a front-end LPP. In the third stage, MD is used first to concentrate sodium nitrate to near saturation followed by a rear-end LPP to precipitate and separate sodium nitrate along with the remaining minor species from the bulk of the aqueous phase. The LPP-MD hybrid system uses a small amount of an additive and energy to carry out the treatment, addresses multiple critical species, extracts an economic value from some of waste species, generates minimal waste with suitable disposal paths, and offers rapid deployment. As such, the LPP-MD could be a valuable tool for multiple needs across the DOE complex where no effective or economic alternatives are available.

  13. Embodied Conceptual Combination

    PubMed Central

    Lynott, Dermot; Connell, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Conceptual combination research investigates the processes involved in creating new meaning from old referents. It is therefore essential that embodied theories of cognition are able to explain this constructive ability and predict the resultant behavior. However, by failing to take an embodied or grounded view of the conceptual system, existing theories of conceptual combination cannot account for the role of perceptual, motor, and affective information in conceptual combination. In the present paper, we propose the embodied conceptual combination (ECCo) model to address this oversight. In ECCo, conceptual combination is the result of the interaction of the linguistic and simulation systems, such that linguistic distributional information guides or facilitates the combination process, but the new concept is fundamentally a situated, simulated entity. So, for example, a cactus beetle is represented as a multimodal simulation that includes visual (e.g., the shiny appearance of a beetle) and haptic (e.g., the prickliness of the cactus) information, all situated in the broader location of a desert environment under a hot sun, and with (at least for some people) an element of creepy-crawly revulsion. The ECCo theory differentiates interpretations according to whether the constituent concepts are destructively, or non-destructively, combined in the situated simulation. We compare ECCo to other theories of conceptual combination, and discuss how it accounts for classic effects in the literature. PMID:21833267

  14. Embodied conceptual combination.

    PubMed

    Lynott, Dermot; Connell, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Conceptual combination research investigates the processes involved in creating new meaning from old referents. It is therefore essential that embodied theories of cognition are able to explain this constructive ability and predict the resultant behavior. However, by failing to take an embodied or grounded view of the conceptual system, existing theories of conceptual combination cannot account for the role of perceptual, motor, and affective information in conceptual combination. In the present paper, we propose the embodied conceptual combination (ECCo) model to address this oversight. In ECCo, conceptual combination is the result of the interaction of the linguistic and simulation systems, such that linguistic distributional information guides or facilitates the combination process, but the new concept is fundamentally a situated, simulated entity. So, for example, a cactus beetle is represented as a multimodal simulation that includes visual (e.g., the shiny appearance of a beetle) and haptic (e.g., the prickliness of the cactus) information, all situated in the broader location of a desert environment under a hot sun, and with (at least for some people) an element of creepy-crawly revulsion. The ECCo theory differentiates interpretations according to whether the constituent concepts are destructively, or non-destructively, combined in the situated simulation. We compare ECCo to other theories of conceptual combination, and discuss how it accounts for classic effects in the literature.

  15. A Subregion of Reelin Suppresses Lipoprotein-Induced Cholesterol Accumulation in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhongmao; Yang, Fang; Smith, Carlie; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Activation of apolipoprotein E receptor-2 (apoER2) and very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) inhibits foam cell formation. Reelin is a ligand of these receptors. Here we generated two reelin subregions containing the receptor binding domain with or without its C-terminal region (R5-6C and R5-6, respectively) and studied the impact of these peptides on macrophage cholesterol metabolism. We found that both R5-6C and R5-6 can be secreted by cells. Purified R5-6 protein can bind apoER2 and VLDLR. Overexpression of apoER2 in macrophages increased the amount of R5-6 bound to the cell surface. Treatment of macrophages with 0.2 μg/ml R5-6 elevated ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) protein level by ~72% and apoAI-mediated cholesterol efflux by ~39%. In addition, the medium harvested from cells overexpressing R5-6 or R5-6C (R5-6- and R5-6C-conditioned media, respectively) also up-regulated ABCA1 protein expression, which was associated with accelerated cholesterol efflux and enhanced phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and specificity protein-1 (Sp1) in macrophages. The increased ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux by R5-6- and R5-6C-conditioned media were diminished by Sp1 or PI3K inhibitors mithramycin A and LY294002. Further, the cholesterol accumulation induced by apoB-containing, apoE-free lipoproteins was significantly less in macrophages incubated with R5-6- or R5-6C-conditioned medium than in those incubated with control conditioned medium. Knockdown of apoER2 or VLDLR attenuated the inhibitory role of R5-6-conditioned medium against lipoprotein-induced cholesterol accumulation. These results suggest that the reelin subregion R5-6 can serve as a tool for studying the role of apoER2 and VLDLR in atherogenesis. PMID:26317415

  16. A Subregion of Reelin Suppresses Lipoprotein-Induced Cholesterol Accumulation in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Okoro, Emmanuel U; Zhang, Hongfeng; Guo, Zhongmao; Yang, Fang; Smith, Carlie; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Activation of apolipoprotein E receptor-2 (apoER2) and very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) inhibits foam cell formation. Reelin is a ligand of these receptors. Here we generated two reelin subregions containing the receptor binding domain with or without its C-terminal region (R5-6C and R5-6, respectively) and studied the impact of these peptides on macrophage cholesterol metabolism. We found that both R5-6C and R5-6 can be secreted by cells. Purified R5-6 protein can bind apoER2 and VLDLR. Overexpression of apoER2 in macrophages increased the amount of R5-6 bound to the cell surface. Treatment of macrophages with 0.2 μg/ml R5-6 elevated ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) protein level by ~72% and apoAI-mediated cholesterol efflux by ~39%. In addition, the medium harvested from cells overexpressing R5-6 or R5-6C (R5-6- and R5-6C-conditioned media, respectively) also up-regulated ABCA1 protein expression, which was associated with accelerated cholesterol efflux and enhanced phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and specificity protein-1 (Sp1) in macrophages. The increased ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux by R5-6- and R5-6C-conditioned media were diminished by Sp1 or PI3K inhibitors mithramycin A and LY294002. Further, the cholesterol accumulation induced by apoB-containing, apoE-free lipoproteins was significantly less in macrophages incubated with R5-6- or R5-6C-conditioned medium than in those incubated with control conditioned medium. Knockdown of apoER2 or VLDLR attenuated the inhibitory role of R5-6-conditioned medium against lipoprotein-induced cholesterol accumulation. These results suggest that the reelin subregion R5-6 can serve as a tool for studying the role of apoER2 and VLDLR in atherogenesis.

  17. Different subregional metabolism patterns in patients with cerebellar ataxia by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Oh, Minyoung; Kim, Jae Seung; Oh, Jungsu S; Lee, Chong Sik; Chung, Sun Ju

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated cerebellar subregional metabolic alterations in patients with cerebellar ataxia, a representative disease involving the spinocerebellum. We retrospectively analyzed 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) images in 44 patients with multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C), 9 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) type 2, and 14 patients with SCA type 6 and compared with 15 patients with crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) and 89 normal controls. Cerebellar subregional metabolism was assessed using 13 cerebellar subregions (bilateral anterior lobes [ANT], superior/mid/inferior posterior lobes [SUPP/MIDP/INFP], dentate nucleus [DN], anterior vermis [ANTV], and superior/inferior posterior vermis [SUPV/INFV]) to determine FDG uptake ratios. MSA-C and SCA type 2 showed severely decreased metabolic ratios in all cerebellar subregions compared to normal controls (ANT, 0.58 ± 0.08 and 0.50 ± 0.06 vs. 0.82 ± 0.07, respectively, p < 0.001). SCA type 6 showed lower metabolic ratios in almost all cerebellar subregions (ANT, 0.57 ± 0.06, p < 0.001) except INFV. Anterior-posterior lobe ratio measurements revealed that SCA type 2 (Right, 0.81 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.04, p < 0.001; Left, 0.83 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.04, p = 0.003) and SCA type 6 (Right, 0.72 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.04, p < 0.001; Left, 0.72 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.04, p < 0.001) showed preferential hypometabolism in the anterior lobe compared to normal controls, which was not observed in CCD and MSA-C. Asymmetric indices were higher in CCD and MSA-C than in normal controls (p < 0.001), whereas such differences were not found in SCA types 2 and 6. In summary, quantitative analysis of cerebellar subregional metabolism ratios revealed preferential involvement of the anterior lobe, corresponding to the spinocerebellum, in patients with cerebellar ataxia, whereas patients with CCD and MSA-C exhibited more asymmetric hypometabolism in the posterior lobe.

  18. Different subregional metabolism patterns in patients with cerebellar ataxia by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Seung; Oh, Jungsu S.; Lee, Chong Sik; Chung, Sun Ju

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated cerebellar subregional metabolic alterations in patients with cerebellar ataxia, a representative disease involving the spinocerebellum. We retrospectively analyzed 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) images in 44 patients with multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C), 9 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) type 2, and 14 patients with SCA type 6 and compared with 15 patients with crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) and 89 normal controls. Cerebellar subregional metabolism was assessed using 13 cerebellar subregions (bilateral anterior lobes [ANT], superior/mid/inferior posterior lobes [SUPP/MIDP/INFP], dentate nucleus [DN], anterior vermis [ANTV], and superior/inferior posterior vermis [SUPV/INFV]) to determine FDG uptake ratios. MSA-C and SCA type 2 showed severely decreased metabolic ratios in all cerebellar subregions compared to normal controls (ANT, 0.58 ± 0.08 and 0.50 ± 0.06 vs. 0.82 ± 0.07, respectively, p < 0.001). SCA type 6 showed lower metabolic ratios in almost all cerebellar subregions (ANT, 0.57 ± 0.06, p < 0.001) except INFV. Anterior-posterior lobe ratio measurements revealed that SCA type 2 (Right, 0.81 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.04, p < 0.001; Left, 0.83 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.04, p = 0.003) and SCA type 6 (Right, 0.72 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.04, p < 0.001; Left, 0.72 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.04, p < 0.001) showed preferential hypometabolism in the anterior lobe compared to normal controls, which was not observed in CCD and MSA-C. Asymmetric indices were higher in CCD and MSA-C than in normal controls (p < 0.001), whereas such differences were not found in SCA types 2 and 6. In summary, quantitative analysis of cerebellar subregional metabolism ratios revealed preferential involvement of the anterior lobe, corresponding to the spinocerebellum, in patients with cerebellar ataxia, whereas patients with CCD and MSA-C exhibited more asymmetric hypometabolism in the posterior lobe. PMID:28319124

  19. Conceptualizing and experiencing compassion

    PubMed Central

    Condon, Paul; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-01-01

    Does compassion feel pleasant or unpleasant? People tend to categorize compassion as a pleasant or positive emotion, but laboratory compassion inductions, which present another’s suffering, may elicit unpleasant feelings. Across two studies, we examined whether prototypical conceptualizations of compassion (as pleasant) differ from experiences of compassion (as unpleasant). Following laboratory-based neutral or compassion inductions, participants made abstract judgments about compassion relative to various emotion-related adjectives, thereby providing a prototypical conceptualization of compassion. Participants also rated their own affective states, thereby indicating experiences of compassion. Conceptualizations of compassion were pleasant across neutral and compassion inductions. Following exposure to others’ suffering, however, participants felt increased levels of compassion and unpleasant affect, but not pleasant affect. Following neutral inductions, participants reported more pleasant than unpleasant affect, with moderate levels of compassion. Thus, prototypical conceptualizations of compassion are pleasant, but experiences of compassion can feel pleasant or unpleasant. The implications for emotion theory in general are discussed. PMID:23914766

  20. Conceptualizing Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of theories of the transition to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of transition for adult education.

  1. Conceptualizing Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of theories of the transition to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of transition for adult education.

  2. Conceptualizing and experiencing compassion.

    PubMed

    Condon, Paul; Feldman Barrett, Lisa

    2013-10-01

    Does compassion feel pleasant or unpleasant? Westerners tend to categorize compassion as a pleasant or positive emotion, but laboratory compassion inductions, which present another's suffering, may elicit unpleasant feelings. Across two studies, we examined whether prototypical conceptualizations of compassion (as pleasant) differ from experiences of compassion (as unpleasant). After laboratory-based neutral or compassion inductions, participants made abstract judgments about compassion relative to various emotion-related adjectives, thereby providing a prototypical conceptualization of compassion. Participants also rated their own affective states, thereby indicating experiences of compassion. Conceptualizations of compassion were pleasant across neutral and compassion inductions. After exposure to others' suffering, however, participants felt increased levels of compassion and unpleasant affect, but not pleasant affect. After neutral inductions, participants reported more pleasant than unpleasant affect, with moderate levels of compassion. Thus, prototypical conceptualizations of compassion are pleasant, but experiences of compassion can feel pleasant or unpleasant. The implications for emotion theory in general are discussed.

  3. Conceptualizing Mathematics "Motion Problems"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeough, William J.

    1970-01-01

    Describes an instructional method in secondary school mathematics applicable to physics instruction, to develop conceptual understanding of motion word problems. Distance, rate, and time are defined, used as variables and considered with relative motion as a unifying concept. (JM)

  4. Modelling CO2 flow in naturally fractured geological media using MINC and multiple subregion upscaling procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatomir, Alexandru Bogdan A. C.; Flemisch, Bernd; Class, Holger; Helmig, Rainer; Sauter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Geological storage of CO2 represents one viable solution to reduce greenhouse gas emission in the atmosphere. Potential leakage of CO2 storage can occur through networks of interconnected fractures. The geometrical complexity of these networks is often very high involving fractures occurring at various scales and having hierarchical structures. Such multiphase flow systems are usually hard to solve with a discrete fracture modelling (DFM) approach. Therefore, continuum fracture models assuming average properties are usually preferred. The multiple interacting continua (MINC) model is an extension of the classic double porosity model (Warren and Root, 1963) which accounts for the non-linear behaviour of the matrix-fracture interactions. For CO2 storage applications the transient representation of the inter-porosity two phase flow plays an important role. This study tests the accuracy and computational efficiency of the MINC method complemented with the multiple sub-region (MSR) upscaling procedure versus the DFM. The two phase flow MINC simulator is implemented in the free-open source numerical toolbox DuMux (www.dumux.org). The MSR (Gong et al., 2009) determines the inter-porosity terms by solving simplified local single-phase flow problems. The DFM is considered as the reference solution. The numerical examples consider a quasi-1D reservoir with a quadratic fracture system , a five-spot radial symmetric reservoir, and a completely random generated fracture system. Keywords: MINC, upscaling, two-phase flow, fractured porous media, discrete fracture model, continuum fracture model

  5. Subregion-specific p300 conditional knock-out mice exhibit long-term memory impairments.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana M M; Estévez, Marcel A; Hawk, Joshua D; Grimes, Shannon; Brindle, Paul K; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Histone acetylation plays a critical role during long-term memory formation. Several studies have demonstrated that the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CBP is required during long-term memory formation, but the involvement of other HAT proteins has not been extensively investigated. The HATs CBP and p300 have at least 400 described interacting proteins including transcription factors known to play a role in long-term memory formation. Thus, CBP and p300 constitute likely candidates for transcriptional coactivators in memory formation. In this study, we took a loss-of-function approach to evaluate the role of p300 in long-term memory formation. We used conditional knock-out mice in which the deletion of p300 is restricted to the postnatal phase and to subregions of the forebrain. We found that p300 is required for the formation of long-term recognition memory and long-term contextual fear memory in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and cortical areas.

  6. Diffeomorphic metric surface mapping in subregion of the superior temporal gyrus.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Marc; Qiu, Anqi; Glaunès, Joan; Miller, Michael I

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes the application of large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping to cortical surfaces based on the shape and geometric properties of subregions of the superior temporal gyrus in the human brain. The anatomical surfaces of the cortex are represented as triangulated meshes. The diffeomorphic matching algorithm is implemented by defining a norm between the triangulated meshes, based on the algorithms of Vaillant and Glaunès. The diffeomorphic correspondence is defined as a flow of the extrinsic three dimensional coordinates containing the cortical surface that registers the initial and target geometry by minimizing the norm. The methods are demonstrated in 40 high-resolution MRI cortical surfaces of planum temporale (PT) constructed from subsets of the superior temporal gyrus (STG). The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated via the Euclidean positional distance, distance of normal vectors, and curvature before and after the surface matching as well as the comparison with a landmark matching algorithm. The results demonstrate that both the positional and shape variability of the anatomical configurations are being represented by the diffeomorphic maps.

  7. Spatially invariant coding of numerical information in functionally defined subregions of human parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Eger, E; Pinel, P; Dehaene, S; Kleinschmidt, A

    2015-05-01

    Macaque electrophysiology has revealed neurons responsive to number in lateral (LIP) and ventral (VIP) intraparietal areas. Recently, fMRI pattern recognition revealed information discriminative of individual numbers in human parietal cortex but without precisely localizing the relevant sites or testing for subregions with different response profiles. Here, we defined the human functional equivalents of LIP (feLIP) and VIP (feVIP) using neurophysiologically motivated localizers. We applied multivariate pattern recognition to investigate whether both regions represent numerical information and whether number codes are position specific or invariant. In a delayed number comparison paradigm with laterally presented numerosities, parietal cortex discriminated between numerosities better than early visual cortex, and discrimination generalized across hemifields in parietal, but not early visual cortex. Activation patterns in the 2 parietal regions of interest did not differ in the coding of position-specific or position-independent number information, but in the expression of a numerical distance effect which was more pronounced in feLIP. Thus, the representation of number in parietal cortex is at least partially position invariant. Both feLIP and feVIP contain information about individual numerosities in humans, but feLIP hosts a coarser representation of numerosity than feVIP, compatible with either broader tuning or a summation code. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Distribution of Serotonin Transporter Labeled Fibers in Amygdaloid Subregions: Implications for Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Howard; Fudge, Julie L.

    2008-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter 5-HTT mediates responses to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a mainstay treatment in mood disorders. The amygdala, a key emotional processing center, has functional abnormalities in mood disorders, which resolve following successful SSRI treatment. To better understand the effects of SSRIs in mood disorders, we examined the distribution of 5-HTT labeled fibers relative to specific nuclear groups in the amygdala. Methods Immunocytochemical techniques were used to chart 5-HTT labeled fibers in the amygdala in coronal sections through the brain of six adult Macaques. Nissl staining was used to define nuclear groups in the amygdala. Results The serotonin transporter 5-HTT is distributed heterogeneously in the primate amygdala, with the lateral subdivision of the central nucleus, intercalated cell islands, amygdalohippocampal area, and the paralaminar nucleus showing the heaviest concentrations. Conclusions 5HTT-labeled fibers are very densely concentrated in output regions of the amygdala. High concentrations of 5-HTT-positive fibers in the central nucleus indicate that tight regulation of serotonin is critical in modulating fear responses mediated by this nucleus. High concentrations of 5-HTT-labeled fibers in the intercalated islands and parvicellular basal nucleus/paralaminar nucleus, which contain immature -appearing neurons, suggest a potential trophic role for serotonin in these subregions. PMID:16414028

  9. Age-related changes in glial cells of dopamine midbrain subregions in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Nicholas M; Kordower, Jeffrey H; Collier, Timothy J

    2010-06-01

    Aging remains the strongest risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease (PD), and there is selective vulnerability in midbrain dopamine (DA) neuron degeneration in PD. By tracking normal aging-related changes with an emphasis on regional specificity, factors involved in selective vulnerability and resistance to degeneration can be studied. Towards this end, we sought to determine whether age-related changes in microglia and astrocytes in rhesus monkeys are region-specific, suggestive of involvement in regional differences in vulnerability to degeneration that may be relevant to PD pathogenesis. Gliosis in midbrain DA subregions was measured by estimating glia number using unbiased stereology, assessing fluorescence intensity for proteins upregulated during activation, and rating morphology. With normal aging, microglia exhibited increased staining intensity and a shift to more activated morphologies preferentially in the vulnerable substantia nigra-ventral tier (vtSN). Astrocytes did not exhibit age-related changes consistent with an involvement in regional vulnerability in any measure. Our results suggest advancing age is associated with chronic mild inflammation in the vtSN, which may render these DA neurons more vulnerable to degeneration.

  10. The best alternative for estimating reference crop evapotranspiration in different sub-regions of mainland China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lingling; Li, Yi; Feng, Hao

    2017-07-14

    Reference crop evapotranspiration (ET o) is a critically important parameter for climatological, hydrological and agricultural management. The FAO56 Penman-Monteith (PM) equation has been recommended as the standardized ET o (ET o,s) equation, but it has a high requirements of climatic data. There is a practical need for finding a best alternative method to estimate ET o in the regions where full climatic data are lacking. A comprehensive comparison for the spatiotemporal variations, relative errors, standard deviations and Nash-Sutcliffe efficacy coefficients of monthly or annual ET o,s and ET o,i (i = 1, 2, …, 10) values estimated by 10 selected methods (i.e., Irmak et al., Makkink, Priestley-Taylor, Hargreaves-Samani, Droogers-Allen, Berti et al., Doorenbos-Pruitt, Wright and Valiantzas, respectively) using data at 552 sites over 1961-2013 in mainland China. The method proposed by Berti et al. (2014) was selected as the best alternative of FAO56-PM because it was simple in computation process, only utilized temperature data, had generally good accuracy in describing spatiotemporal characteristics of ET o,s in different sub-regions and mainland China, and correlated linearly to the FAO56-PM method very well. The parameters of the linear correlations between ET o of the two methods are calibrated for each site with the smallest determination of coefficient being 0.87.

  11. Regional Decline of Coral Cover in the Indo-Pacific: Timing, Extent, and Subregional Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, John F.; Selig, Elizabeth R.

    2007-01-01

    Background A number of factors have recently caused mass coral mortality events in all of the world's tropical oceans. However, little is known about the timing, rate or spatial variability of the loss of reef-building corals, especially in the Indo-Pacific, which contains 75% of the world's coral reefs. Methodology/Principle Findings We compiled and analyzed a coral cover database of 6001 quantitative surveys of 2667 Indo-Pacific coral reefs performed between 1968 and 2004. Surveys conducted during 2003 indicated that coral cover averaged only 22.1% (95% CI: 20.7, 23.4) and just 7 of 390 reefs surveyed that year had coral cover >60%. Estimated yearly coral cover loss based on annually pooled survey data was approximately 1% over the last twenty years and 2% between 1997 and 2003 (or 3,168 km2 per year). The annual loss based on repeated measures regression analysis of a subset of reefs that were monitored for multiple years from 1997 to 2004 was 0.72 % (n = 476 reefs, 95% CI: 0.36, 1.08). Conclusions/Significance The rate and extent of coral loss in the Indo-Pacific are greater than expected. Coral cover was also surprisingly uniform among subregions and declined decades earlier than previously assumed, even on some of the Pacific's most intensely managed reefs. These results have significant implications for policy makers and resource managers as they search for successful models to reverse coral loss. PMID:17684557

  12. Respiratory, metabolic and cardiac functions are altered by disinhibition of subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Sarah F; Cornish, Jennifer L; Goodchild, Ann K

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is referred to as the visceral motor cortex; however, little is known about whether this region influences respiratory or metabolic outflows. The aim of this study was to describe simultaneous changes in respiratory, metabolic and cardiovascular functions evoked by disinhibition of the medial PFC (mPFC) and adjacent lateral septal nucleus (LSN). In urethane-anaesthetized rats, bicuculline methiodide was microinjected (2 mm; GABA-A receptor antagonist) into 90 sites in the mPFC at 0.72–4.00 mm from bregma. Phrenic nerve amplitude and frequency, arterial pressure, heart rate, splanchnic and lumbar sympathetic nerve activities (SNA), expired CO2, and core and brown adipose tissue temperatures were measured. Novel findings included disturbances to respiratory rhythm evoked from all subregions of the mPFC. Injections into the cingulate cortex evoked reductions in central respiratory function exclusively, whereas in ventral sites, particularly the infralimbic region, increases in respiratory drive and frequency, and metabolic and cardiac outflows were evoked. Disinhibition of sites in surrounding regions revealed that the LSN could evoke cardiovascular changes accompanied by distinct oscillations in SNA, as well as increases in respiratory amplitude. We show that activation of neurons within the mPFC and LSN influence respiratory, metabolic and cardiac outflows in a site-dependent manner. This study has implications with respect to the altered PFC neuronal activity seen in stress-related and mental health disorders, and suggests how basic physiological systems may be affected. PMID:24042503

  13. MEMRI is a biomarker defining nicotine-specific neuronal responses in subregions of the rodent brain

    PubMed Central

    Bade, Aditya N; Gendelman, Howard E; Boska, Michael D; Liu, Yutong

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine dependence is defined by dopaminergic neuronal activation within the nucleus accumbens (ACB) and by affected neural projections from nicotine-stimulated neurons. Control of any subsequent neural activities would underpin any smoking cessation strategy. While extensive efforts have been made to study the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction, more limited works were developed to find imaging biomarkers. If such biomarkers are made available, addictive behaviors could be monitored noninvasively. To such ends, we employed manganese (Mn2+)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to determine whether it could be used to monitor neuronal activities after acute and chronic nicotine exposure in rats. The following were observed. Mn2+ infusion identified ACB and hippocampal (HIP) neuronal activities following acute nicotine administration. Chronic exposure was achieved by week long subcutaneously implanted nicotine mini-pump. Here nicotine was shown to activate neurons in the ACB, HIP, and the prefrontal and insular cortex. These are all central nervous system reward regions linked to drug addiction. In conclusion, MEMRI is demonstrated to be a powerful imaging tool to study brain subregion specific neuronal activities affected by nicotine. Thus, we posit that MEMRI could be used to assess smoking-associated tolerance, withdrawal and as such serve as a pre-clinical screening tool for addiction cessation strategies in humans. PMID:28337287

  14. Allelic variation in the DR subregion of the human major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed

    Bell, J I; Denney, D; Foster, L; Belt, T; Todd, J A; McDevitt, H O

    1987-09-01

    Allelic variation in the DR subregion of the human major histocompatibility complex has been analyzed by nucleic acid sequencing of cDNA clones obtained from cell lines homozygous by consanguinity for all the common serological types DR1-9. Two expressed loci were identified in the haplotypes DR2, -3, -4, -7, and -9; one locus being present at a much lower frequency (4-7%) than the other. The low-frequency allele was highly conserved between each of the DRw53 (DR4, -7, -9) and the DRw52 (DR3, -5, -6) haplotypes. Analysis of the variation between alleles confirms the presence of three allelic hypervariable regions. At each variable residue, a limited range of amino acid substitutions are found, distinguishing them from immunoglobulin hypervariable regions. Dinucleotide substitutions are extremely common. Individual hypervariable regions are often shared between haplotypes. Much of the variation in these alleles can be attributed to the shuffling of these regions between haplotypes, possibly by the mechanism of gene conversion.

  15. How to identify rectal sub-regions likely involved in rectal bleeding in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dréan, G.; Acosta, O.; Ospina, J. D.; Voisin, C.; Rigaud, B.; Simon, A.; Haigron, P.; de Crevoisier, R.

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, the de nition of patient-speci c constraints in prostate cancer radiotherapy planning are solely based on dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. Nevertheless those DVH models lack of spatial accuracy since they do not use the complete 3D information of the dose distribution. The goal of the study was to propose an automatic work ow to de ne patient-speci c rectal sub-regions (RSR) involved in rectal bleeding (RB) in case of prostate cancer radiotherapy. A multi-atlas database spanning the large rectal shape variability was built from a population of 116 individuals. Non-rigid registration followed by voxel-wise statistical analysis on those templates allowed nding RSR likely correlated with RB (from a learning cohort of 63 patients). To de ne patient-speci c RSR, weighted atlas-based segmentation with a vote was then applied to 30 test patients. Results show the potentiality of the method to be used for patient-speci c planning of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).

  16. Conceptual design optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollowell, S. J.; Beeman, E. R., II; Hiyama, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of applying multilevel functional decomposition and optimization techniques to conceptual design of advanced fighter aircraft was investigated. Applying the functional decomposition techniques to the conceptual design phase appears to be feasible. The initial implementation of the modified design process will optimize wing design variables. A hybrid approach, combining functional decomposition techniques for generation of aerodynamic and mass properties linear sensitivity derivatives with existing techniques for sizing mission performance and optimization, is proposed.

  17. Conceptual frameworks in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pundak, David

    2016-06-01

    How to evaluate students' astronomy understanding is still an open question. Even though some methods and tools to help students have already been developed, the sources of students' difficulties and misunderstanding in astronomy is still unclear. This paper presents an investigation of the development of conceptual systems in astronomy by 50 engineering students, as a result of learning a general course on astronomy. A special tool called Conceptual Frameworks in Astronomy (CFA) that was initially used in 1989, was adapted to gather data for the present research. In its new version, the tool included 23 questions, and five to six optional answers were given for each question. Each of the answers was characterized by one of the four conceptual astronomical frameworks: pre-scientific, geocentric, heliocentric and sidereal or scientific. The paper describes the development of the tool and discusses its validity and reliability. Using the CFA we were able to identify the conceptual frameworks of the students at the beginning of the course and at its end. CFA enabled us to evaluate the paradigmatic change of students following the course and also the extent of the general improvement in astronomical knowledge. It was found that the measure of the students’ improvement (gain index) was g = 0.37. Approximately 45% of the students in the course improved their understanding of conceptual frameworks in astronomy and 26% deepened their understanding of the heliocentric or sidereal conceptual frameworks.

  18. Sequestration of Metals by wet-dry Cycling of Soil and Soil Minerals at the Idaho Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K. E.; Cooper, D. C.; Redden, G. D.; Bauer, W. F.

    2003-12-01

    The INEEL is the site of soil contamination by heavy metals and nuclides stemming from decades of nuclear waste processing, storage, and disposal. Much of the contamination is located within 1m of the surface, where contaminant movement can be influenced by the cyclic wetting and drying cycles that result from large amounts of infiltration in the spring followed by months of hot weather with little precipitation. We hypothesize that such wetting and drying cycles can retard contaminant migration by sequestering metals in less reactive phases. INEEL soil, quartz, goethite-coated quartz (Fe-quartz), andesine, Ca-montmorillonite, K-feldspar, calcite, smectite-illite, kaolinite and a no-matrix control were exposed to 200μ M Cs, Sr, Cd, Cr, and U. After a two-week equilibration period, metals were analyzed using ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Samples were then evaporated to dryness and were subsequently re-wetted with air-equilibrated deionized water. This process was repeated four times; results were compared to continuously wet control samples. Preliminary results indicate that wet-dry cycling generally reduces metal availability, but the magnitude of the effect depends on the metal and the substrate with which it interacts. Control samples with no solid substrate showed no decrease in metal content throughout the experiment except for [U6+-aq] and [Cd2+-aq], which were oversaturated at the experiment's inception. The largest differences between wet-dry cycled samples versus their continuously wet counterparts occurred with U, Cd, and Cr. [U6+-aq] was reduced by nearly 100% in cycled andesine samples compared to 25% in continuously wet control samples. [Cd2+-aq] in cycled soil, Fe-quartz, quartz, and no matrix samples was up to 50% lower in concentration than that present in control samples. Results for [Cr6+-aq] were similar, but with no difference in concentration for the no-matrix control. Differences in [Sr2+-aq] and [Cs+-aq] for cycled samples compared to control samples

  19. Bioenergy Supply and Environmental Impacts on Cropland: Insights from Multi-market Forecasts in a Great Lakes Subregional Bioeconomic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, Scott M.; Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M.; Binfield, Julian C.; Thompson, Wyatt

    2015-01-03

    Using subregional models of crop production choices in central Wisconsin and southwest Michigan, we predict biomass production, land use, and environmental impacts with details that are unavailable from national scale models. When biomass prices are raised exogenously, we find that the subregional models overestimate the supply, the land use, and the beneficial environmental aspects of perennial biomass crops. Multi-market price feedbacks tied to realistic policy parameters predict high threshold absolute prices for biomass to enter production, resulting in intensified production of biomass from annual grain crops with damaging environmental impacts. Multi-market feedbacks also predict regional specialization in energy biomass production in areas with lower yields of food crops. Furthermore, policies promoting biofuels will not necessarily generate environmental benefits in the absence of environmental regulations.

  20. Capturing subregional variability in regional-scale climate change vulnerability assessments of natural resources

    Treesearch

    Polly C. Buotte; David L. Peterson; Kevin S. McKelvey; Jeffrey A. Hicke

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource vulnerability to climate change can depend on the climatology and ecological conditions at a particular site. Here we present a conceptual framework for incorporating spatial variability in natural resource vulnerability to climate change in a regional-scale assessment. The framework was implemented in the first regional-scale vulnerability...

  1. Descriptions of Two New Species of Culex (Lophoceraomyia) with Notes on Three Other Species from the Papuan Subregion (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-04-25

    male of Culex jaudatrix Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae) . Proc. Linn. Sot. N. S. W. 87: 382-90. 1965. The genus Culex , subgenus Lophoceraomyia, in...J. Med. Ent. Vol. 10, no. 2: 212-216 25 April 1973 DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF CULEX (LOPHOCERAOMYIA) WITH NOTES ON THREE OTHER SPECIES FROM...THE PAPUAN SUBREGION (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)l By Sunthorn Sirivanakard Abstract: Two new species, Culex (Lobhoceraomyia) sub- marginalis and C. (L

  2. Unique insula subregion resting-state functional connectivity with amygdala complexes in posttraumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Andrew A; Sapru, Iman; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A; Neufeld, Richard W J; Théberge, Jean; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2016-04-30

    The insula and amygdala are implicated in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), where both have been shown to be hyper/hypoactive in non-dissociative (PTSD-DS) and dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS) PTSD patients, respectively, during symptom provocation. However, the functional connectivity between individual insula subregions and the amygdala has not been investigated in persons with PTSD, with or without the dissociative subtype. We examined insula subregion (anterior, mid, and posterior) functional connectivity with the bilateral amygdala using a region-of-interest seed-based approach via PickAtlas and SPM8. Resting-state fMRI was conducted with (n=61) PTSD patients (n=44 PTSD-DS; n=17 PTSD+DS), and (n=40) age-matched healthy controls. When compared to controls, the PTSD-DS group displayed increased insula connectivity (bilateral anterior, bilateral mid, and left posterior) to basolateral amygdala clusters in both hemispheres, and the PTSD+DS group displayed increased insula connectivity (bilateral anterior, left mid, and left posterior) to the left basolateral amygdala complex. Moreover, as compared to PTSD-DS, increased insula subregion connectivity (bilateral anterior, left mid, and right posterior) to the left basolateral amygdala was found in PTSD+DS. Depersonalization/derealization symptoms and PTSD symptom severity correlated with insula subregion connectivity to the basolateral amygdala within PTSD patients. This study is an important first step in elucidating patterns of neural connectivity associated with unique symptoms of arousal/interoception, emotional processing, and awareness of bodily states, in PTSD and its dissociative subtype.

  3. Encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of contextual memory: Differential involvement of dorsal CA3 and CA1 hippocampal subregions

    PubMed Central

    Daumas, Stéphanie; Halley, Hélène; Francés, Bernard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    Studies on human and animals shed light on the unique hippocampus contributions to relational memory. However, the particular role of each hippocampal subregion in memory processing is still not clear. Hippocampal computational models and theories have emphasized a unique function in memory for each hippocampal subregion, with the CA3 area acting as an autoassociative memory network and the CA1 area as a critical output structure. In order to understand the respective roles of the CA3- and CA1-hippocampal areas in the formation of contextual memory, we studied the effects of the reversible inactivation by lidocaine of the CA3 or CA1 areas of the dorsal hippocampus on acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval of a contextual fear conditioning. Whereas infusions of lidocaine never impaired elementary tone conditioning, their effects on contextual conditioning provided interesting clues about the role of these two hippocampal regions. They demonstrated first that the CA3 area is necessary for the rapid elaboration of a unified representation of the context. Secondly, they suggested that the CA1 area is rather involved in the consolidation process of contextual memory. Third, they showed that CA1 or CA3 inactivation during retention test has no effect on contextual fear retrieval when a recognition memory procedure is used. In conclusion, our findings point as evidence that CA1 and CA3 subregions of the dorsal hippocampus play important and different roles in the acquisition and consolidation of contextual fear memory, whereas they are not required for context recognition. PMID:16027176

  4. Mapping the morphogenetic potential of antler fields through deleting and transplanting subregions of antlerogenic periosteum in sika deer (Cervus nippon)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhiguang; Yang, Fuhe; McMahon, Chris; Li, Chunyi

    2012-01-01

    Morphogenetic fields are a localised and regionally regulated group of cells capable of responding to signals leading to the development of organs. In this study, we sought to determine if antlers develop from such a field. We divided antler fields into four subregions: anterior, posterior, medial and lateral. The antlerogenic periosteum (AP) in each subregion (half of the AP) was deleted and then transplanted into an ectopic site. Antlers form from the cells exclusively residing in the AP, which is located in an antler field. The morphogenetic potential of each subregion was assessed by the antler growth from both the defective field and the transplantation site. The results showed that when the AP anterior half was absent, the fields formed antlers missing the first tine, whereas when the anterior half was present, the ectopic sites regenerated antlers containing the first tine. When the medial half was deleted, the fields could only grow spike antlers, and when the medial half was present, the ectopic sites developed branched antlers. In contrast, the antler fields were able to compensate the defects caused by ablation of the posterior or the lateral half to form relatively normal antlers; and the ectopic sites containing these grafted halves only formed spike antlers. Therefore, antler morphogenetic information was primarily held in the AP anterior-medial halves. This study substantiates the presence of morphogenetic fields in regulating the distinct pattern of antler growth, and demonstrates that antler development is a useful model for the study of morphogenetic fields. PMID:22122063

  5. Education is associated with sub-regions of the hippocampus and the amygdala vulnerable to neuropathologies of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoying; Varma, Vijay R; Miller, Michael I; Carlson, Michelle C

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the correlation of educational attainment with structural volume and shape morphometry of the bilateral hippocampi and amygdalae in a sample of 110 non-demented, older adults at elevated sociodemographic risk for cognitive and functional declines. In both men and women, no significant education-volume correlation was detected for either structure. However, when performing shape analysis, we observed regionally specific associations with education after adjusting for age, intracranial volume, and race. By sub-dividing the hippocampus and the amygdala into compatible subregions, we found that education was positively associated with size variations in the CA1 and subiculum subregions of the hippocampus and the basolateral subregion of the amygdala (p < 0.05). In addition, we detected a greater left versus right asymmetric pattern in the shape-education correlation for the hippocampus but not the amygdala. This asymmetric association was largely observed in men versus women. These findings suggest that education in youth may exert direct and indirect influences on brain reserve in regions that are most vulnerable to the neuropathologies of aging, dementia, and specifically, Alzheimer disease.

  6. Genetic cell targeting uncovers specific neuronal types and distinct subregions in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Amanda Q.; Cruz, Julie A.D. Dela; Sun, Yanjun; Holmes, Todd C.; Xu, Xiangmin

    2017-01-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) plays an important role in fear, stress, and anxiety. It contains a collection of sub-nuclei delineated by gross cytoarchitecture features; however, there has yet to be a systematic examination of specific BNST neuronal types and their associated neurochemical makeup. The present study focuses on improved characterization of the anterior BNST based on differing molecular and chemical expression aided by mouse genetics. Specific Cre driver lines crossed with a fluorescent reporter line were used for genetic cell targeting and immunochemical staining. Using this new approach, we were able to robustly identify specific excitatory and inhibitory cell types in the BNST. The presence and distribution of excitatory neurons were firmly established; glutamatergic neurons in the anterior BNST accounted for about 14% and 31% of dorsal and ventral BNST cells, respectively. GABAergic neurons expressing different isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase were found to have differential sub-regional distributions. Almost no parvalbumin-expressing cells were found in the BNST, while somatostatin-expressing cells and calretinin-expressing cells account for modest proportions of BNST cells. In addition, vasoactive intestinal peptide-expressing axonal plexuses were prominent in the oval and juxtacapsular (jc) subregions. In addition, we discovered that corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) expressing cells contain GABAergic and glutamatergic subpopulations. Together, this study reveals new information on excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the BNST, which will facilitate genetic dissection and functional studies of BNST subregions. PMID:26718312

  7. A process analysis of the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kesner, Raymond P

    2013-01-01

    From a behavioral perspective, the CA3a,b subregion of the hippocampus plays an important role in the encoding of new spatial information within short-term memory with a duration of seconds and minutes. This can easily be observed in tasks that require rapid encoding, novelty detection, one-trial short-term or working memory, and one-trial cued recall primarily for spatial information. These are tasks that have been assumed to reflect the operations of episodic memory and require interactions between CA3a,b and the dentate gyrus (DG) via mossy fiber inputs into the CA3a,b. The CA3a,b is also important for encoding of spatial information requiring the acquisition of arbitrary and relational associations. All these tasks are assumed to operate within an autoassociative network function of the CA3 region. The CA3a,b also supports retrieval of short-term memory information based on a spatial pattern completion process. Based on afferent inputs into CA3a,b from the DG via mossy fibers and afferents from the entorhinal cortex into CA3a,b as well as reciprocal connections with the septum, CA3a,b can bias the process of encoding utilizing the operation of spatial pattern separation and the process of retrieval utilizing the operation of pattern completion. The CA3a,b also supports sequential processing of information in cooperation with CA1 based on the Schaffer collateral output from CA3a,b to CA1. The CA3c function is in part based on modulation of the DG in supporting pattern separation processes.

  8. Fertility trends and planned parenthood: (summary report on a subregional working group meeting).

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    A German-speaking subregional working group meeting convened by the IPPF Europe Region in October 1978 discussed planned parenthood in low-birth-rate countries. 3 features characterize current fertility behavior in Europe: 1) a trend toward 2-child families; 2) early marriage (average age 23), with fertility confined to the 1st 6 years of marriage and longer birth intervals; and 3) marital fertility as the main birth rate determinant. Regional, social, and political fertility differences are diminishing. It is doubtful that material incentives to have children (e.g., financial assistance, maternity leaves, credit) are effective in the long term. While a connection is often made between the number of women workers and decreased fertility, it is the form rather than the proportion of women in employment that has changed. Even if women returned to the home, desired family size would not necessarily increase. More research is needed on the fertility effect of living accommodations. The meeting adopted 5 standpoints: 1) attempts to use social, economic, or political grounds to restrict people's ability to freely determine family size violate basic human rights; 2) family size decisions are influenced by a series of personal and social factors, with planned parenthood information and methods having no direct influence; 3) the role of planned parenthood is to subject the timing and frequency of births to self-determined planned action; 4) demographic trends should be analyzed so deficiencies in social and family policies noted can be corrected; and 5) planned parenthood cannot be used in the service of political action to decrease or increase population.

  9. Assessing Malaria Risks in Greater Mekong Subregion based on Environmental Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Soika, Valerii; Adimi, Farida; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health s decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. The NASA Earth science data sets that have been used for malaria surveillance and risk assessment include AVHRR Pathfinder, TRMM, MODIS, NSIPP, and SIESIP. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records. Socioeconomic factors that may influence malaria transmissions will also be incorporated into the predictive models.

  10. Sub-Regional Sea Ice Preferences of Pacific Walrus in the Bering Sea Using SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacco, A.; Mahoney, A. R.; Eicken, H.; Johnson, M. A.; Ray, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Pacific walrus (O. r. divergens) uses winter sea ice in the Bering Sea for numerous parts of its natural history including courtship, foraging, and migration. Recent and predicted loss of sea ice has caused the Pacific walrus to be considered for an elevated status under the Endangered Species Act. Study of the ice conditions during this period is required to investigate changes in the Bering Sea ice pack and its effects on walrus sustainability. Using Radarsat-1 data and second-order texture statistics, a classification system was devised to separate sea ice into three distinguishable classes based on walrus needs of open water availability in the pack ice: discontinuous pack ice, continuous pack ice, and open water. Classifications are performed on sub-regional image areas to facilitate classification of heterogeneous seascapes which are thought to be distinguishable by walrus. Spatial, as well as temporal, changes in the seascape cover, based on the classification, are achieved. These results are then combined with ship-based observations of walrus to quantify walrus habitat preference. The three-class algorithm has a success rate of 94% for the discontinuous ice and continuous pack ice. Radarsat-1 images from 2004 - 2008 were analyzed for changes in seasonal and annual discontinuous ice extent. After classification, the spatial extent of discontinuous ice was found to vary throughout 2004 - 2008 in the Bering Sea shelf. Walrus are also shown to prefer discontinuous pack far from the southernmost ice edge. Maps of walrus habitat preference and persistent areas of sea ice seascapes are created and then can be used for the walrus' status consideration under the Endangered Species Act in addition to general species management issues.

  11. Differential roles of medial prefrontal subregions in the regulation of drug seeking.

    PubMed

    Moorman, David E; James, Morgan H; McGlinchey, Ellen M; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2015-12-02

    The prefrontal cortex plays an important role in shaping cognition and behavior. Many studies have shown that medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in seeking, extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rodent models of relapse. Subregions of mPFC appear to play distinct roles in these behaviors, such that the prelimbic cortex (PL) is proposed to drive cocaine seeking and the infralimbic cortex (IL) is proposed to suppress cocaine seeking after extinction. This dichotomy of mPFC function may be a general attribute, as similar dorsal-ventral distinctions exist for expression vs. extinction of fear conditioning. However, other results indicate that the role of mPFC neurons in reward processing is more complex than a simple PL-seek vs. IL-extinguish dichotomy. Both PL and IL have been shown to drive and inhibit drug seeking (and other types of behaviors) depending on a range of factors including the behavioral context, the drug-history of the animal, and the type of drug investigated. This heterogeneity of findings may reflect multiple subcircuits within each of these PFC areas supporting unique functions. It may also reflect the fact that the mPFC plays a multifaceted role in shaping cognition and behavior, including those overlapping with cocaine seeking and extinction. Here we discuss research leading to the hypothesis that dorsal and ventral mPFC differentially control drug seeking and extinction. We also present recent results calling the absolute nature of a PL vs. IL dichotomy into question. Finally, we consider alternate functions for mPFC that correspond less to response execution and inhibition and instead incorporate the complex cognitive behavior for which the mPFC is broadly appreciated.

  12. Differential roles of medial prefrontal subregions in the regulation of drug seeking

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, David E.; James, Morgan H.; McGlinchey, Ellen M.; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex plays an important role in shaping cognition and behavior. Many studies have shown that medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in seeking, extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rodent models of relapse. Subregions of mPFC appear to play distinct roles in these behaviors, such that the prelimbic cortex (PL) is proposed to drive cocaine seeking and the infralimbic cortex (IL) is proposed to suppress cocaine seeking after extinction. This dichotomy of mPFC function may be a general attribute, as similar dorsal-ventral distinctions exist for expression vs. extinction of fear conditioning. However, other results indicate that the role of mPFC neurons in reward processing is more complex than a simple PL-seek vs. IL-extinguish dichotomy. Both PL and IL have been shown to drive and inhibit drug seeking (and other types of behaviors) depending on a range of factors including the behavioral context, the drug-history of the animal, and the type of drug investigated. This heterogeneity of findings may reflect multiple subcircuits within each of these PFC areas supporting unique functions. It may also reflect the fact that the mPFC plays a multifaceted role in shaping cognition and behavior, including those overlapping with cocaine seeking and extinction. Here we discuss research leading to the hypothesis that dorsal and ventral mPFC differentially control drug seeking and extinction. We also present recent results calling the absolute nature of a PL vs. IL dichotomy into question. Finally, we consider alternate functions for mPFC that correspond less to response execution and inhibition and instead incorporate the complex cognitive behavior for which the mPFC is broadly appreciated. PMID:25529632

  13. Amygdala Subregions Tied to SSRI and Placebo Response in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Vanda; Appel, Lieuwe; Åhs, Fredrik; Linnman, Clas; Pissiota, Anna; Frans, Örjan; Bani, Massimo; Bettica, Paolo; Pich, Emilio M; Jacobsson, Eva; Wahlstedt, Kurt; Fredrikson, Mats; Furmark, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    The amygdala is a key structure in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, and a putative target for anxiolytic treatments. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and placebo seem to induce anxiolytic effects by attenuating amygdala responsiveness. However, conflicting amygdala findings have also been reported. Moreover, the neural profile of responders and nonresponders is insufficiently characterized and it remains unknown whether SSRIs and placebo engage common or distinct amygdala subregions or different modulatory cortical areas. We examined similarities and differences in the neural response to SSRIs and placebo in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Positron emission tomography (PET) with oxygen-15-labeled water was used to assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 72 patients with SAD during an anxiogenic public speaking task, before and after 6–8 weeks of treatment under double-blind conditions. Response rate was determined by the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale. Conjunction analysis revealed a common rCBF-attenuation from pre- to post-treatment in responders to SSRIs and placebo in the left basomedial/basolateral and right ventrolateral amygdala. This rCBF pattern correlated with behavioral measures of reduced anxiety and differentiated responders from nonresponders. However, nonanxiolytic treatment effects were also observed in the amygdala. All subgroups, including nonresponders, showed deactivation of the left lateral part of the amygdala. No rCBF differences were found between SSRI responders and placebo responders. This study provides new insights into the brain dynamics underlying anxiety relief by demonstrating common amygdala targets for pharmacologically and psychologically induced anxiety reduction, and by showing that the amygdala is functionally heterogeneous in anxiolysis. PMID:22617357

  14. Assessing Malaria Risks in Greater Mekong Subregion based on Environmental Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Soika, Valerii; Adimi, Farida; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health s decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. The NASA Earth science data sets that have been used for malaria surveillance and risk assessment include AVHRR Pathfinder, TRMM, MODIS, NSIPP, and SIESIP. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records. Socioeconomic factors that may influence malaria transmissions will also be incorporated into the predictive models.

  15. Functional Connectivity Differences in the Insular Sub-regions in Migraine without Aura: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Bo; Lv, Yan-Bing; Song, Ling-Heng; Liu, Dai-Hong; Huang, Xue-Ling; Hu, Xin-Yue; Zuo, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yao; Yang, Qian; Peng, Jing; Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Li, Hai-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate resting-state functional connectivity (FC) differences in insular sub-regions during the interictal phase in patients with migraine without aura (MWoA). Methods: Forty-nine MWoA patients (MWoA group) and 48 healthy individuals (healthy control group) were recruited for this study. All of the subjects underwent neurological examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI data were processed using Brat 1.0 software to obtain a whole-brain FC diagram and using Rest 1.8 software to obtain the FC z-score of the sub-regions of both insulas (six sub-regions on each side). Therefore, there were a total of 12 regions of interest (ROIs) that were used as seed points for the statistical analysis. Results: There was abnormal FC between the insular sub-regions and multiple brain regions in the MWoA patients compared with the healthy control group, and a clear laterality was also observed. In addition, the FC z-score of certain sub-regions was negatively correlated with the disease duration. Conclusion: Different insular sub-regions are functionally associated with different regions of the brain and therefore have different functions. In MWoA, the FC between the insular sub-regions and other brain regions was mostly reduced, while a small amount was increased; additionally, the FC may be ipsilateral with a right-side advantage. Variations in the FC of insular sub-regions can be observed as an important indicator of MWoA.

  16. Isotopic Composition of Nitrate as a Tracer of Vadose Zone Contaminant Migration at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, INEEL.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, M. J.; Conrad, M. E.; Neher, E. R.

    2002-12-01

    Isotopic compositions of nitrate are used in combination with oxygen, hydrogen and carbon isotopic data from vadose waters and groundwaters to identify nitrate sources and detect areas where rapid infiltration promotes migration of vadose zone contaminants at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), in the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Waste at INTEC was released to the subsurface from a former injection well, existing infiltration ponds, and a number of accidental spills and leaks during the past 50 years of nuclear fuel reprocessing and storage operations. As a consequence, nitrate and radionuclide contaminants (including 3H, 90Sr, 99Tc, 137Cs, and 234U) have been detected in perched water bodies from the approximately 140 m thick vadose zone, and in groundwaters from the underlying Snake River Plain Aquifer. Effective remediation of these contaminants hinges on the determination of sources and rates of infiltration through the vadose zone that could further mobilize the contaminants. In addition to precipitation, large volumes of process cooling water, steam condensates, treated sewage wastewater, and influx from the now dry Big Lost River are all possible sources of infiltration at INTEC. These water sources contribute to perched water bodies, which form above relatively low permeability sedimentary interbeds in the basalts that compose most of the vadose zone. Plumes of elevated nitrate levels (>10mg/L) exist in the perched water bodies and in the groundwater below INTEC where it has spread down gradient to the southwest. Some possible sources of nitrate contamination include fuel reprocessing chemicals, leaks from storage facilities, and a set of sewage treatment ponds on the northeast corner of the site. Nitrate in groundwaters collected from wells throughout INTEC generally has δ15N values of +2 to +5 per mil, which may originate from nitrate used in chemical processes or from agricultural infiltration

  17. Activity reductions in perirhinal cortex predict conceptual priming and familiarity-based recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well established that regions in the medial temporal lobes are critical for explicit memory, recent work has suggested that one medial temporal lobe subregion--the perirhinal cortex (PRC)--may also support conceptual priming, a form of implicit memory. Here, we sought to investigate whether activity reductions in PRC, previously linked to familiarity-based recognition, might also support conceptual implicit memory retrieval. Using a free association priming task, the current study tested the prediction that PRC indexes conceptual priming independent of contributions from perceptual and response repetition. Participants first completed an incidental semantic encoding task outside of the MRI scanner. Next, they were scanned during performance of a free association priming task, followed by a recognition memory test. Results indicated successful conceptual priming was associated with decreased PRC activity, and that an overlapping region within the PRC also exhibited activity reductions that covaried with familiarity during the recognition memory test. Our results demonstrate that the PRC contributes to both conceptual priming and familiarity-based recognition, which may reflect a common role of this region in implicit and explicit memory retrieval.

  18. Activity reductions in perirhinal cortex predict conceptual priming and familiarity-based recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-chun; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well established that regions in the medial temporal lobes are critical for explicit memory, recent work has suggested that one medial temporal lobe subregion – the perirhinal cortex (PRC) – may also support conceptual priming, a form of implicit memory. Here, we sought to investigate whether activity reductions in PRC, previously linked to familiarity-based recognition, might also support conceptual implicit memory retrieval. Using a free association priming task, the current study tested the prediction that PRC indexes conceptual priming independent of contributions from perceptual and response repetition. Participants first completed an incidental semantic encoding task outside of the MRI scanner. Next, they were scanned during performance of a free association priming task, followed by a recognition memory test. Results indicated successful conceptual priming was associated with decreased PRC activity, and that an overlapping region within the PRC also exhibited activity reductions that covaried with familiarity during the recognition memory test. Our results demonstrate that the PRC contributes to both conceptual priming and familiarity-based recognition, which may reflect a common role of this region in implicit and explicit memory retrieval. PMID:24157537

  19. Mapping for Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Cindy; Crippen Kent J.

    2008-01-01

    Students' understanding of science develops through everyday experiences. As a result, they come to the science classroom with their own notions of how the world works. As teachers, we often must help students overcome their prior naive notions and move them toward a more scientific understanding. This process, known as conceptual change, is…

  20. Developing a Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenner, Kathleen

    1979-01-01

    As a screening tool for curriculum priorities, a pattern of curriculum design and redevelopment for the associate degree technical nursing program was explored. Curriculum developers examined three components: student, setting, and subject. The evolved conceptual framework, based on Orem's self-care theory, of a continuum of nursing assistance is…

  1. Conceptualizing Functional Neuroplasticity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafman, Jordan

    2000-01-01

    This article introduces a framework for conceptualizing four forms of cognitive neuroplasticity. The concepts include: (1) homologous area adaptivity; (2) cross-modal reassignment; (3) map expansion; and (4) compensatory masquerade. The limitations of each form of plasticity are presented. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  2. Conceptualization of Light Refraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of papers dealing quantitatively with light refraction. Yet the conceptualization of the phenomenon that sets the foundation for a more rigorous math analysis is minimized. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap. (Contains 3 figures.)

  3. Conceptualizing an Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

  4. Conceptual Distinctions amongst Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; Khemlani, Sangeet; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Glucksberg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as "dogs have four legs" and "mosquitoes carry malaria") are used to talk about "kinds" of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and…

  5. Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center data aid in efficient construction-cost managment. Report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction price book for preparing conceptual budget, funding cost estimating, and preliminary cost engineering reports. Report based on actual bid prices and Government estimates.

  6. Evaluating Conceptual Metaphor Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    A major revolution in the study of metaphor occurred 30 years ago with the introduction of "conceptual metaphor theory" (CMT). Unlike previous theories of metaphor and metaphorical meaning, CMT proposed that metaphor is not just an aspect of language, but a fundamental part of human thought. Indeed, most metaphorical language arises from…

  7. Changing Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    diSessa, Andrea A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews Giyoo Hatano's ground-breaking theoretical, empirical, and methodological contributions to conceptual change research. In particular, his discovery of "vitalism" as part of children's legitimate and distinctive biology at early ages stands as a landmark. In addition, his work reinterpreted childhood "personification," changing…

  8. Conceptualization of Light Refraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of papers dealing quantitatively with light refraction. Yet the conceptualization of the phenomenon that sets the foundation for a more rigorous math analysis is minimized. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap. (Contains 3 figures.)

  9. Conceptualizing performance in accreditation.

    PubMed

    Smits, Pernelle A; Champagne, François; Contandriopoulos, Damien; Sicotte, Claude; Préval, Johanne

    2008-02-01

    To compare the conceptualization of performance underlying different accreditation manuals. Accreditation manuals were selected from the 2003 WHO report titled 'Quality and Accreditation in Healthcare Services'. We used manuals from WHO-listed countries that most influenced the standards: Canada, France, the USA and Australia. The fifth manual is published by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Standards from each manual were classified by two independent reviewers. The coding grid, which was based on a Parsonian-based integrative framework on performance, was composed of performance dimensions and their interlinks/alignments. The four dimensions of quality, goal-attainment, adaptation to the external environment and values, along with their alignments, were given differing levels of importance in the five manuals. The Australian manual emphasizes all four dimensions and their alignments. The PAHO accreditation focuses mainly on quality. The manuals from Canada, France and the USA fall somewhere between the two accreditation extremes of complete versus one-dimensional. Finally, we present a taxonomy of the conceptualization of performance in accreditation manuals that distinguishes between quality-oriented and alignment-oriented accreditation manuals. Specific conceptualizations of performance underlying accreditation manuals may not be neutral. Perhaps, more normative accreditation manuals are associated with authoritative management styles, or more balanced accreditation manuals with comprehensive management styles. Our comparative analysis is a first step toward better understanding the relationship between the conceptualization of performance and the management style adopted in a particular healthcare organization. This relationship could help explain the variation observed in healthcare organization performance.

  10. Evaluating Conceptual Metaphor Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    A major revolution in the study of metaphor occurred 30 years ago with the introduction of "conceptual metaphor theory" (CMT). Unlike previous theories of metaphor and metaphorical meaning, CMT proposed that metaphor is not just an aspect of language, but a fundamental part of human thought. Indeed, most metaphorical language arises from…

  11. Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center data aid in efficient construction-cost managment. Report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction price book for preparing conceptual budget, funding cost estimating, and preliminary cost engineering reports. Report based on actual bid prices and Government estimates.

  12. Conceptual Distinctions amongst Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; Khemlani, Sangeet; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Glucksberg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as "dogs have four legs" and "mosquitoes carry malaria") are used to talk about "kinds" of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and…

  13. Conceptualizing Functional Neuroplasticity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafman, Jordan

    2000-01-01

    This article introduces a framework for conceptualizing four forms of cognitive neuroplasticity. The concepts include: (1) homologous area adaptivity; (2) cross-modal reassignment; (3) map expansion; and (4) compensatory masquerade. The limitations of each form of plasticity are presented. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  14. Conceptualizing the Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Gary T.

    The learning center is an integrated, fully-coordinated facility, combining a number of traditional library, media development, and personalized learning functions. Conceptualizing the learning center is facilitated through a description of the premises for such a center, the components, and guidelines for developing a learning center. De Anza…

  15. HIV prevalence and trends in sub-Saharan Africa: no decline and large subregional differences.

    PubMed

    Asamoah-Odei, Emil; Garcia Calleja, Jesus M; Boerma, J Ties

    Expansion of HIV surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa is leading to downward adjustments to the size of the AIDS epidemic. However, only analysis of surveillance data from the same populations over time can provide insight into trends of HIV prevalence. We have used data from the same antenatal clinics to document recent empirical trends. We collated data from antenatal clinics on HIV prevalence between 1997 and 2003. Data were obtained from 140?000 pregnant women attending more than 300 antenatal clinics in 22 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, long-term trend data are available for 57 urban areas and provinces. Median HIV prevalence in 148 antenatal clinic sites in southern Africa increased from 21.3% (IQR 11.5-28.2%) in 1997/98 to 23.8% (15.6-29.2%) in 2002. At more than half the sites (58%) an increase of at least one-tenth was noted, but at a fifth of sites, prevalence dropped by at least one-tenth. In eastern Africa, median HIV prevalence decreased from 12.9% (7.0-16.9%) in 1997/98 to 8.5% (5.3-13.0%) in 2002, with prevalence rising in four (7%) sites, but falling at 25 (43%) sites. In west Africa, median HIV prevalence was 3.5% (2.2-5.9%) and 3.2% (2.3-6.1%) for 1997/98 and 2002, respectively, with reductions and increases in prevalence being noted in equal proportions. The long-term trends in urban areas in sub-Saharan Africa show a similar pattern, with increasing evidence of stabilisation during the past 2-3 years compared with the previous decade. Evidence from surveillance of mostly urban antenatal clinic attendees indicates that the growth in the AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa has levelled off since the late 1990s but only eastern Africa shows a decline in HIV prevalence. Very large differences persist between subregions. Workers planning a response to the AIDS epidemic must take more careful consideration of these variations to allow locally appropriate responses to the epidemic.

  16. Mercury in soils and microbial biomass of the South Kirgizstan subregion of the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadim, Ermakov; Valentina, Danilova; Ul'yana, Gulyaeva

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clear up the role of soil microflora in the mercury concentration by microorganisms as they are related to a problem of the soil remediation. To complete the tasks as assigned, 150 samples of both various soils formed over the ore bodies outside the ore occurrence zones and waste dumps have been taken in the areas of South Kirgizstan Some 45 soil samples (horizon A, 0-20 cm) and dumps were used for microbiological analyses [1, 2]. The soil cover as seen in the work areas is represented by Haplic Calcisols (gray) soils. All the soils are generally calcareous, in some cases salted, and have various compositions. To grow the microbial biomass in order to determine mercury content levels in there, some soil media characterized by natural concentrations, ratios and forms of the compounds of these metals were used The results showed that the mercury concentrations in soils of the sampling area varied from 0.028 to 357.3 mg/kg. The highest metal content indices (up to 357.3 mg/kg) were found for soils formed over ores, and waste dumps. The lowest mercury content (0.028 to 0.066 mg/kg) was found for soils of the control area. The data on mercury and/or antimony accumulation by the biomass of soil microorganisms grown in soil media are represented. The soil samples having various mercury levels were collected in the South Kirgizstan subregion of the biosphere. It was established that the accumulation of the metals by soil microflora depends on their content in the soil, the microorganism growth is strongly inhibited at mercury concentration of 300 mg/kg in soil. A direct and reliable correlation between the metal content level in soils and their concentration by microorganisms is found. Within the background sites a tendency of increase in mercury extraction from the soil with 1 M HCl solution, in particular from salted soils is observed. In contrast, in the conditions of an excess of mercury content in soils of ore grounds, a weak

  17. Dynamics of Goldfish Subregional Hippocampal Pallium Activity throughout Spatial Memory Formation.

    PubMed

    Ocaña, Francisco M; Uceda, Sara; Arias, Jorge L; Salas, Cosme; Rodríguez, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The teleost fish hippocampal pallium, like the hippocampus of tetrapods, is essential for relational map-like spatial memories. In mammals, these relational memories involve the dynamic interactions among different hippocampal subregions and between the hippocampus-neocortex network, which performs specialized operations such as memory encoding and retrieval. However, how the teleost hippocampal homologue operates to achieve comparably sophisticated spatial cognition capabilities is largely unknown. In the present study, the progressive changes in the metabolic activity of the pallial regions that have been proposed as possible homologues of the mammalian hippocampus were monitored in goldfish. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase histochemistry was used to measure the level of activation along the rostrocaudal axis of the ventral (Dlv) and dorsal parts of the dorsolateral division (Dld) and in the dorsoposterior division (Dp) of the goldfish telencephalic pallium throughout the time course of the learning process of a spatial memory task. The results revealed a significant increase in spatial memory-related metabolic activity in the Dlv, but not in the Dld, suggesting that the Dlv, but not the Dld, is comparable to the amniote hippocampus. Regarding the Dlv, the level of activation of the precommissural Dlv significantly increased at training onset but progressively declined to finally return to the basal pretraining level when the animals mastered the spatial task. In contrast, the commissural Dlv activation persisted even when the acquisition phase was completed and the animal's performance reached an asymptotic level. These results suggest that, like the dentate gyrus of mammals, the goldfish precommissural Dlv seems to respond nonlinearly to increments of change in sensory input, performing pattern separation under highly dissimilar input patterns. In addition, like the CA3 of mammals, the commissural Dlv likely operates in a continuum between two modes, a pattern

  18. Functional Linear Model with Zero-value Coefficient Function at Sub-regions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Wang, Naisyin

    2013-01-01

    We propose a shrinkage method to estimate the coefficient function in a functional linear regression model when the value of the coefficient function is zero within certain sub-regions. Besides identifying the null region in which the coefficient function is zero, we also aim to perform estimation and inferences for the nonparametrically estimated coefficient function without over-shrinking the values. Our proposal consists of two stages. In stage one, the Dantzig selector is employed to provide initial location of the null region. In stage two, we propose a group SCAD approach to refine the estimated location of the null region and to provide the estimation and inference procedures for the coefficient function. Our considerations have certain advantages in this functional setup. One goal is to reduce the number of parameters employed in the model. With a one-stage procedure, it is needed to use a large number of knots in order to precisely identify the zero-coefficient region; however, the variation and estimation difficulties increase with the number of parameters. Owing to the additional refinement stage, we avoid this necessity and our estimator achieves superior numerical performance in practice. We show that our estimator enjoys the Oracle property; it identifies the null region with probability tending to 1, and it achieves the same asymptotic normality for the estimated coefficient function on the non-null region as the functional linear model estimator when the non-null region is known. Numerically, our refined estimator overcomes the shortcomings of the initial Dantzig estimator which tends to under-estimate the absolute scale of non-zero coefficients. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated in simulation studies. We apply the method in an analysis of data collected by the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study, where the primary interests are in estimating the strength of association between body mass index in midlife and the quality of life in

  19. Role of TAAR1 within the Subregions of the Mesocorticolimbic Dopaminergic System in Cocaine-Seeking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Siemian, Justin N; Seaman, Robert; Zhang, Yanan; Li, Jun-Xu

    2017-01-25

    A novel G-protein coupled receptor, trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), has been shown to be a promising target to prevent stimulant relapse. Our recent studies showed that systemic administration of TAAR1 agonists decreased abuse-related behaviors of cocaine. However, the role of TAAR1 in specific subregions of the reward system in drug addiction is unknown. Here, using a local pharmacological activation method, we assessed the role of TAAR1 within the subregions of the mesocorticolimbic system: that is, the VTA, the prelimbic cortex (PrL), and infralimbic cortex of medial prefrontal cortex, the core and shell of NAc, BLA, and CeA, on cue- and drug-induced cocaine-seeking in the rat cocaine reinstatement model. We first showed that TAAR1 mRNA was expressed throughout these brain regions. Rats underwent cocaine self-administration, followed by extinction training. RO5166017 (1.5 or 5.0 μg/side) or vehicle was microinjected into each brain region immediately before cue- and drug-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. The results showed that microinjection of RO5166017 into the VTA and PrL decreased both cue- and drug priming-induced cocaine-seeking. Microinjection of RO5166017 into the NAc core and shell inhibited cue- and drug-induced cocaine-seeking, respectively. Locomotor activity or food reinforced operant responding was unaffected by microinjection of RO5166017 into these brain regions. Cocaine-seeking behaviors were not affected by RO5166017 when microinjected into the substantia nigra, infralimbic cortex, BLA, and CeA. Together, these results indicate that TAAR1 in different subregions of the mesocorticolimbic system distinctly contributes to cue- and drug-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior.

  20. Volumetric analysis of hippocampal sub-regions in late onset depression: a 3 tesla magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Palanimuthu T; Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Bharath, Srikala; Reddy, Nalini N; Rao, Naren P; Kovoor, Jerry M E; Jain, Sanjeev; Varghese, Mathew

    2015-02-01

    While many studies have reported reduced volume of hippocampus in late onset depression (LOD), the status of hippocampus sub-regions (anterior/posterior) is yet to be explored. Evaluating hippocampal sub-regions might facilitate better elucidation of the neurobiological basis of LOD. Twenty five elderly subjects with LOD (mean age=65.28yr, SD=5.73, 15 females) and 20 healthy controls (mean age=65.35yr, SD=5.67, 7 females) were examined using 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They were also evaluated with Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Hindi Mental State Examination (HMSE). We examined the difference in volume of Hippocampal sub-regions between the LOD group and control group controlling for the age, sex and intracranial volume. Left posterior hippocampus volume was significantly smaller in LOD group than the control group (1.01±0.19ml vs 1.16±0.25ml, F=7.50, p=0.009). There was a similar trend for the right posterior hippocampus (1.08±0.19ml vs 1.18±0.27ml, F=3.18, p=0.082). Depression severity (mean MADRS score=20.64±8.99) had a significant negative correlation with volumes of right posterior hippocampus (r=-0.37, p=0.012) and left posterior hippocampus (r=-0.46, p=0.001) in the LOD group. Specific reduction of posterior hippocampus volume and its relationship with depression severity indicates sub region specific hippocampal volumetric abnormalities in LOD. Future studies need to evaluate sub region specific hippocampal volume in LOD longitudinally for better understanding of the pathogenesis of LOD in view of the functional differences between anterior and posterior hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Amygdala activation and GABAergic gene expression in hippocampal sub-regions at the interplay of stress and spatial learning

    PubMed Central

    Hadad-Ophir, Osnat; Albrecht, Anne; Stork, Oliver; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2014-01-01

    Molecular processes in GABAergic local circuit neurons critically contribute to information processing in the hippocampus and to stress-induced activation of the amygdala. In the current study, we determined expression changes in GABA-related factors induced in subregions of the dorsal hippocampus as well as in the BLA of rats 5 h after spatial learning in a Morris water maze (MWM), using laser microdissection and quantitative real-time PCR. Spatial learning resulted in highly selective pattern of changes in hippocampal subregions: gene expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) were reduced in the hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG), whereas somatostatin (SST) was increased in the stratum oriens (SO) of CA3. The GABA-synthesizing enzymes GAD65 and GAD67 as well as the neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) were reduced in SO of CA1. In the BLA, expression of GAD65 and GAD67 were reduced compared to a handled Control group. These expression patterns were further compared to alterations in a group of rats that have been exposed to the water maze but were not provided with an invisible escape platform. In this Water Exposure group, no expression changes were observed in any of the hippocampal subregions, but a differential regulation of all selected target genes was evident in the BLA. These findings suggest that expression changes of GABAergic factors in the hippocampus are associated with spatial learning, while additional stress effects modulate expression alterations in the BLA. Indeed, while in both experimental groups plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels were enhanced, only Water Exposure stress activated the basolateral amygdala (BLA), as indicated by increased levels of phosphorylated ERK 1/2. Altered GABAergic function in the BLA may thus contribute to memory consolidation in the hippocampus, in relation to levels of stress and emotionality associated with the experience. PMID:24478650

  2. A Challenge to Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Cedric J.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that, by not considering examples drawn from students' everyday lives, a teacher is detracting from science itself. A challenge is made to Conceptual Change Learning Model advocates and users to embrace the idea of conceptual fitting based upon context as well as conceptual change when considering how students learn. (ZWH)

  3. coNCePTual

    SciTech Connect

    Pakin, Scott

    2004-05-13

    A frequently reinvented wheel among network researchers is a suite of programs that test a network’s performance. A problem with having umpteen versions of performance tests is that it leads to a variety in the way results are reported; colloquially, apples are often compared to oranges. Consider a bandwidth test. Does a bandwidth test run for a fixed number of iterations or a fixed length of time? Is bandwidth measured as ping-pong bandwidth (i.e., 2 * message length / round-trip time) or unidirectional throughput (N messages in one direction followed by a single acknowledgement message)? Is the acknowledgement message of minimal length or as long as the entire message? Does its length contribute to the total bandwidth? Is data sent unidirectionally or in both directions at once? How many warmup messages (if any) are sent before the timing loop? Is there a delay after the warmup messages (to give the network a chance to reclaim any scarce resources)? Are receives nonblocking (possibly allowing overlap in the NIC) or blocking? The motivation behind creating coNCePTuaL, a simple specification language designed for describing network benchmarks, is that it enables a benchmark to be described sufficiently tersely as to fit easily in a report or research paper, facilitating peer review of the experimental setup and timing measurements. Because coNCePTuaL code is simple to write, network tests can be developed and deployed with low turnaround times -- useful when the results of one test suggest a following test that should be written. Because coNCePTuaL is special-purpose its run-time system can perform the following functions, which benchmark writers often neglect to implement: * logging information about the environment under which the benchmark ran: operating system, CPU architecture and clock speed, timer type and resolution, etc. * aborting a program if it takes longer than a predetermined length of time to complete * writing measurement data and descriptive

  4. Conceptual IT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaoudova, Kristina; Stanchev, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The business processes are the key asset for every organization. The design of the business process models is the foremost concern and target among an organization's functions. Business processes and their proper management are intensely dependent on the performance of software applications and technology solutions. The paper is attempt for definition of new Conceptual model of IT service provider, it could be examined as IT focused Enterprise model, part of Enterprise Architecture (EA) school.

  5. PRA and Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMott, Diana; Fuqua, Bryan; Wilson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Once a project obtains approval, decision makers have to consider a variety of alternative paths for completing the project and meeting the project objectives. How decisions are made involves a variety of elements including: cost, experience, current technology, ideologies, politics, future needs and desires, capabilities, manpower, timing, available information, and for many ventures management needs to assess the elements of risk versus reward. The use of high level Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Models during conceptual design phases provides management with additional information during the decision making process regarding the risk potential for proposed operations and design prototypes. The methodology can be used as a tool to: 1) allow trade studies to compare alternatives based on risk, 2) determine which elements (equipment, process or operational parameters) drives the risk, and 3) provide information to mitigate or eliminate risks early in the conceptual design to lower costs. Creating system models using conceptual design proposals and generic key systems based on what is known today can provide an understanding of the magnitudes of proposed systems and operational risks and facilitates trade study comparisons early in the decision making process. Identifying the "best" way to achieve the desired results is difficult, and generally occurs based on limited information. PRA provides a tool for decision makers to explore how some decisions will affect risk before the project is committed to that path, which can ultimately save time and money.

  6. Abortion incidence between 1990 and 2014: global, regional, and subregional levels and trends

    PubMed Central

    Sedgh, Gilda; Bearak, Jonathan; Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Popinchalk, Anna; Ganatra, Bela; Rossier, Clémentine; Gerdts, Caitlin; Tunçalp, Özge; Johnson, Brooke Ronald; Johnston, Heidi Bart; Alkema, Leontine

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Information about the incidence of induced abortion is needed to motivate and inform efforts to help women avoid unintended pregnancies and to monitor progress toward that end. We estimate subregional, regional, and global levels and trends in abortion incidence for 1990 to 2014, and abortion rates in subgroups of women. We use the results to estimate the proportion of pregnancies that end in abortion and examine whether abortion rates vary in countries grouped by the legal status of abortion. Methods We requested abortion data from government agencies and compiled data from international sources and nationally representative studies. With data for 1069 country-years, we estimated incidence using a Bayesian hierarchical time series model whereby the overall abortion rate is a function of the modelled rates in subgroups of women of reproductive age defined by their marital status and contraceptive need and use, and the sizes of these subgroups. Findings We estimated that 35 abortions (90% uncertainty interval [UI] 33 to 44) occurred annually per 1000 women aged 15–44 years worldwide in 2010–14, which was 5 points less than 40 (39–48) in 1990–94 (90% UI for decline −11 to 0). Because of population growth, the annual number of abortions worldwide increased by 5·9 million (90% UI −1·3 to 15·4), from 50·4 million in 1990–94 (48·6 to 59·9) to 56·3 million (52·4 to 70·0) in 2010–14. In the developed world, the abortion rate declined 19 points (–26 to −14), from 46 (41 to 59) to 27 (24 to 37). In the developing world, we found a non-significant 2 point decline (90% UI −9 to 4) in the rate from 39 (37 to 47) to 37 (34 to 46). Some 25% (90% UI 23 to 29) of pregnancies ended in abortion in 2010–14. Globally, 73% (90% UI 59 to 82) of abortions were obtained by married women in 2010–14 compared with 27% (18 to 41) obtained by unmarried women. We did not observe an association between the abortion rates for 2010–14 and the

  7. Abortion incidence between 1990 and 2014: global, regional, and subregional levels and trends.

    PubMed

    Sedgh, Gilda; Bearak, Jonathan; Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Popinchalk, Anna; Ganatra, Bela; Rossier, Clémentine; Gerdts, Caitlin; Tunçalp, Özge; Johnson, Brooke Ronald; Johnston, Heidi Bart; Alkema, Leontine

    2016-07-16

    Information about the incidence of induced abortion is needed to motivate and inform efforts to help women avoid unintended pregnancies and to monitor progress toward that end. We estimate subregional, regional, and global levels and trends in abortion incidence for 1990 to 2014, and abortion rates in subgroups of women. We use the results to estimate the proportion of pregnancies that end in abortion and examine whether abortion rates vary in countries grouped by the legal status of abortion. We requested abortion data from government agencies and compiled data from international sources and nationally representative studies. With data for 1069 country-years, we estimated incidence using a Bayesian hierarchical time series model whereby the overall abortion rate is a function of the modelled rates in subgroups of women of reproductive age defined by their marital status and contraceptive need and use, and the sizes of these subgroups. We estimated that 35 abortions (90% uncertainty interval [UI] 33 to 44) occurred annually per 1000 women aged 15-44 years worldwide in 2010-14, which was 5 points less than 40 (39-48) in 1990-94 (90% UI for decline -11 to 0). Because of population growth, the annual number of abortions worldwide increased by 5.9 million (90% UI -1.3 to 15.4), from 50.4 million in 1990-94 (48.6 to 59.9) to 56.3 million (52.4 to 70.0) in 2010-14. In the developed world, the abortion rate declined 19 points (-26 to -14), from 46 (41 to 59) to 27 (24 to 37). In the developing world, we found a non-significant 2 point decline (90% UI -9 to 4) in the rate from 39 (37 to 47) to 37 (34 to 46). Some 25% (90% UI 23 to 29) of pregnancies ended in abortion in 2010-14. Globally, 73% (90% UI 59 to 82) of abortions were obtained by married women in 2010-14 compared with 27% (18 to 41) obtained by unmarried women. We did not observe an association between the abortion rates for 2010-14 and the grounds under which abortion is legally allowed. Abortion rates have

  8. Diffusion tensor imaging of white and grey matter within the spinal cord of normal Beagle dogs: Sub-regional differences of the various diffusion parameters.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hakyoung; Park, Noh-Won; Ha, Yun-Mi; Kim, Jaehwan; Moon, Won-Jin; Eom, Kidong

    2016-09-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an advanced diffusion weighted imaging technique that can identify early stage lesions and Wallerian degeneration within the spinal cord; these changes are difficult to recognise on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The only DTI parameters previously investigated in dogs are fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (MD). The aim of this study was to evaluate multiple DTI parameters in sub-regional areas of the spinal cord in normal Beagles. All imaging data were obtained from the lumbar spinal cord (L1-L3) of ten normal dogs using a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Transverse multi-shot echo planar imaging sequences (b values = 0 and 800 s/mm(2); 12 directions) were used for DTI. Regions of interest were selected from sub-regions of the white and grey matter, and from the whole spinal cord, in the transverse plane in all DTI maps. The DTI parameters in spinal cord sub-regions in the transverse plane were significantly different amongst the white matter, grey matter and whole spinal cord (P < 0.05 for all DTI parameters except MD), as well as between white matter sub-regions (P < 0.05 for most DTI parameters except radial diffusivity, MD and planar index). DTI-based sub-regional analysis of white and grey matter may be useful for regional evaluation of the dog spinal cord.

  9. Differential contributions of subregions of medial temporal lobe to memory system in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: insights from fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiu; Duan, Xujun; Shu, Hao; Wang, Zan; Long, Zhiliang; Liu, Duan; Liao, Wenxiang; Shi, Yongmei; Chen, Huafu; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Altered function of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is a valuable indicator of conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer’s disease. This study is to delineate the functional circuitry of multiple subdivisions of parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus (HIP) and to examine how this knowledge contributes to a more principled understanding of the contributions of its subregions to memory in aMCI. The functional connectivity (FC) analysis was performed in 85 aMCI and 129 healthy controls. The aMCI demonstrated the distinct disruptive patterns of the MTL subregional connectivity with the whole-brain. The right entorhinal cortex (ERC) and perirhinal cortex (PRC) showed increased connectivity with the left inferior and middle occipital gyrus, respectively, which potentially indicated a compensatory mechanism. Furthermore, the right altered MTL subregional FC was associated with episodic memory performance in aMCI. These results provide novel insights into the heterogeneous nature of its large-scale connectivity in MTL subregions in memory system underlying the memory deficits in aMCI. It further suggests that altered FC of MTL subregions is associated with the impairment of the differential encoding stages of memories and the functional changes in the specific right HIP-ERC-PRC-temporal circuitry may contribute to the impairment of episodic memory in aMCI. PMID:27184985

  10. Segmentation of solid subregion of high grade gliomas in MRI images based on active contour model (ACM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seow, P.; Win, M. T.; Wong, J. H. D.; Abdullah, N. A.; Ramli, N.

    2016-03-01

    Gliomas are tumours arising from the interstitial tissue of the brain which are heterogeneous, infiltrative and possess ill-defined borders. Tumour subregions (e.g. solid enhancing part, edema and necrosis) are often used for tumour characterisation. Tumour demarcation into substructures facilitates glioma staging and provides essential information. Manual segmentation had several drawbacks that include laborious, time consuming, subjected to intra and inter-rater variability and hindered by diversity in the appearance of tumour tissues. In this work, active contour model (ACM) was used to segment the solid enhancing subregion of the tumour. 2D brain image acquisition data using 3T MRI fast spoiled gradient echo sequence in post gadolinium of four histologically proven high-grade glioma patients were obtained. Preprocessing of the images which includes subtraction and skull stripping were performed and then followed by ACM segmentation. The results of the automatic segmentation method were compared against the manual delineation of the tumour by a trainee radiologist. Both results were further validated by an experienced neuroradiologist and a brief quantitative evaluations (pixel area and difference ratio) were performed. Preliminary results of the clinical data showed the potential of ACM model in the application of fast and large scale tumour segmentation in medical imaging.

  11. Problem-based learning in undergraduate medical education: can we really implement it in the West African subregion?

    PubMed

    Gukas, I D

    2007-01-01

    A major global pedagogical shift has occurred in the way medicine is taught over the last half a century. Problem-based learning (PBL) has emerged as one of the most popular, of these learner-centred new methods. To examine the evolution and educational principles of PBL and the feasibility of implementing it in the West African subregion. Key literature detailing the history, educational value and principle behind PBL were reviewed. Issues regarding the implication of implementing PBL to West Africa were deduced and suggestions made for the way forward. Since its introduction in McMaster University in Canada in the 60s, PBL has spread all over world. It is rooted in sound educational theories like the Kolb's experiential learning, adult education, collaborative learning, contextual learning and constructivism. Compared to traditionally trained students, PBL students find learning more enjoyable and develop better relational and professional skills. They show more causal reasoning in diagnosis and become better lifelong learners. Issues that may affect its implementation in West Africa include high start up costs, lack of supporting educational technology and relative lack of medical school managers with appropriate medical education background to assess and evaluate such innovations. The evidence for the need for a change from the traditional method of training is overwhelming. Implementation of PBL as an educational method in medical training in the West African subregion is both desirable and practicable if we address some of the issues outlined above.

  12. Subregional-scale groundwater depletion detected by GRACE for both shallow and deep aquifers in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiyong; Pan, Yun; Gong, Huili; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhou, Demin; Zhao, Wenji

    2015-03-01

    This study explores the capability of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to detect heterogeneous groundwater storage (GWS) variations in two subregions of the North China Plain: the Piedmont Plain (PP, ~54,000 km2, mainly exploiting shallow groundwater) and East Central Plain (ECP, ~86,000 km2, mainly exploiting deep groundwater). Results show that the GWS anomalies estimated from GRACE data (2003-2013) agree well with those estimated from in situ observations (2005-2010) for both PP (R2 = 0.91) and ECP (R2 = 0.75). The shallow GWS (2003-2013) in PP declines faster (-46.5 ± 6.8 mm/yr) than the deep GWS in ECP (-16.9 ± 1.9 mm/yr). However, the shallow GWS in PP recovered more quickly especially during the 2008-2011 drought period. Despite its lower magnitude, the GRACE-derived GWS depletion in ECP reveals the overexploitation of deep GWS. This study demonstrated that the heterogeneous GWS variations can potentially be detected by GRACE at the subregional scale smaller than the typical GRACE footprint (200,000 km2).

  13. Exploring personality traits related to dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subregions of humans.

    PubMed

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Fervaha, Gagan; Chung, Jun Ku; Gerretsen, Philip; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Plitman, Eric; Iwata, Yusuke; Wilson, Alan; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-04-01

    While several studies have examined how particular personality traits are related to dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability in the striatum of humans, few studies have reported how multiple traits measured in the same persons are differentially related to D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. We examined how personality traits measured with the Karolinska Scales of Personality are related to striatal D2/3R availability measured with [(11)C]-raclopride in 30 healthy humans. Based on previous the literature, five personality traits were hypothesized to be most likely related to D2/3R availability: impulsiveness, monotony avoidance, detachment, social desirability, and socialization. We found self-reported impulsiveness was negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. After controlling for age and gender, monotony avoidance was also negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. Socialization was positively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and putamen. After controlling for age and gender, the relationship between socialization and D2/3R availability in these regions survived correction for multiple comparisons (p-threshold=.003). Thus, within the same persons, different personality traits are differentially related to in vivo D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring peronality traits related to dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subregions of humans

    PubMed Central

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Fervaha, Gagan; Chung, Jun Ku; Gerretsen, Philip; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Plitman, Eric; Iwata, Yusuke; Wilson, Alan; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    While several studies have examined how particular personality traits are related to dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability in the striatum of humans, few studies have reported how multiple traits measured in the same persons are differentially related to D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. We examined how personality traits measured with the Karolinska Scales of Personality are related to striatal D2/3R availability measured with [11C]-raclopride in 30 healthy humans. Based on previous literature, five personality traits were hypothesized to be most likely related to D2/3R availability: impulsiveness, monotony avoidance, detachment, social desirability, and socialization. We found self-reported impulsiveness was negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. After controlling for age and gender, monotony avoidance was also negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. Socialization was positively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and putamen. After controlling for age and gender, the relationship between socialization and D2/3R availability in these regions survived correction for multiple comparisons (p-threshold=.003). Thus, within the same persons, different personality traits are differentially related to in vivo D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. PMID:26944295

  15. A national critical loads framework for atmospheric deposition effects assessment: II. Defining assessment end points, indicators, and functional subregions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunsaker, Carolyn; Graham, Robin; Turner, Robert S.; Ringold, Paul L.; Holdren, George R.; Strickland, Timothy C.

    1993-05-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency, with support from the US Department of Energy and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, has been evaluating the feasibility of an effects-based (critical loads) approach to atmospheric pollutant regulation and abatement. The rationale used to develop three of the six steps in a flexible assessment framework (Strickland and others, 1992) is presented along with a discussion of a variety of implementation approaches and their ramifications. The rationale proposes that it is necessary to provide an explicit statement of the condition of the resource that is considered valuable (assessment end point) because: (1) individual ecosystem components may be more or less sensitive to deposition, (2) it is necessary to select indicators of ecosystem condition that can be objectively measured and that reflect changes in the quality of the assessment end point, and (3) acceptable status (i.e., value of indicator and quality of assessment end point at critical load) must be defined. The rationale also stresses the importance of defining the assessment regions and subregions to improve the analysis and understanding of the indicator response to deposition. Subregional definition can be based on a variety of criteria, including informed judgment or quantitative procedures. It also depends on the geographic scale at which exposure and effects models are accurate and on data availability, resolution, and quality.

  16. A Metric Conceptual Space Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Benjamin; Raubal, Martin

    The modeling of concepts from a cognitive perspective is important for designing spatial information systems that interoperate with human users. Concept representations that are built using geometric and topological conceptual space structures are well suited for semantic similarity and concept combination operations. In addition, concepts that are more closely grounded in the physical world, such as many spatial concepts, have a natural fit with the geometric structure of conceptual spaces. Despite these apparent advantages, conceptual spaces are underutilized because existing formalizations of conceptual space theory have focused on individual aspects of the theory rather than the creation of a comprehensive algebra. In this paper we present a metric conceptual space algebra that is designed to facilitate the creation of conceptual space knowledge bases and inferencing systems. Conceptual regions are represented as convex polytopes and context is built in as a fundamental element. We demonstrate the applicability of the algebra to spatial information systems with a proof-of-concept application.

  17. Updated Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    16-page report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, the Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction Price Book for preparing conceptual, budget, funding, cost-estimating, and preliminary cost-engineering reports. Updated annually from 1974 through 1985 with actual bid prices and government estimates. Includes labor and material quantities and prices with contractor and subcontractor markups for buildings, facilities, and systems at Kennedy Space Center. While data pertains to aerospace facilities, format and cost-estimating techniques guide estimation of costs in other construction applications.

  18. CLARA conceptual design report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, J. A.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Bliss, N.; Buckley, R.; Buckley, S.; Cash, R.; Corlett, P.; Cowie, L.; Cox, G.; Diakun, G. P.; Dunning, D. J.; Fell, B. D.; Gallagher, A.; Goudket, P.; Goulden, A. R.; Holland, D. M. P.; Jamison, S. P.; Jones, J. K.; Kalinin, A. S.; Liggins, W.; Ma, L.; Marinov, K. B.; Martlew, B.; McIntosh, P. A.; McKenzie, J. W.; Middleman, K. J.; Militsyn, B. L.; Moss, A. J.; Muratori, B. D.; Roper, M. D.; Santer, R.; Saveliev, Y.; Snedden, E.; Smith, R. J.; Smith, S. L.; Surman, M.; Thakker, T.; Thompson, N. R.; Valizadeh, R.; Wheelhouse, A. E.; Williams, P. H.; Bartolini, R.; Martin, I.; Barlow, R.; Kolano, A.; Burt, G.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Newton, D.; Wolski, A.; Appleby, R. B.; Owen, H. L.; Serluca, M.; Xia, G.; Boogert, S.; Lyapin, A.; Campbell, L.; McNeil, B. W. J.; Paramonov, V. V.

    2014-05-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of a proposed free electron laser test facility called CLARA that will be a major upgrade to the existing VELA accelerator test facility at Daresbury Laboratory in the UK. CLARA will be able to test a number of new free electron laser schemes that have been proposed but require a proof of principle experiment to confirm that they perform as predicted. The primary focus of CLARA will be on ultra short photon pulse generation which will take free electron lasers into a whole new regime, enabling a new area of photon science to emerge.

  19. Rotorcraft Conceptual Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Sinsay, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Requirements for a rotorcraft conceptual design environment are discussed, from the perspective of a government laboratory. Rotorcraft design work in a government laboratory must support research, by producing technology impact assessments and defining the context for research and development; and must support the acquisition process, including capability assessments and quantitative evaluation of designs, concepts, and alternatives. An information manager that will enable increased fidelity of analysis early in the design effort is described. This manager will be a framework to organize information that describes the aircraft, and enable movement of that information to and from analyses. Finally, a recently developed rotorcraft system analysis tool is described.

  20. Rotorcraft Conceptual Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Sinsay, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Requirements for a rotorcraft conceptual design environment are discussed, from the perspective of a government laboratory. Rotorcraft design work in a government laboratory must support research, by producing technology impact assessments and defining the context for research and development; and must support the acquisition process, including capability assessments and quantitative evaluation of designs, concepts, and alternatives. An information manager that will enable increased fidelity of analysis early in the design effort is described. This manager will be a framework to organize information that describes the aircraft, and enable movement of that information to and from analyses. Finally, a recently developed rotorcraft system analysis tool is described.

  1. The spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the Greater Mekong subregion: a molecular epidemiology observational study.

    PubMed

    Imwong, Mallika; Suwannasin, Kanokon; Kunasol, Chanon; Sutawong, Kreepol; Mayxay, Mayfong; Rekol, Huy; Smithuis, Frank M; Hlaing, Tin Maung; Tun, Kyaw M; van der Pluijm, Rob W; Tripura, Rupam; Miotto, Olivo; Menard, Didier; Dhorda, Mehul; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2017-05-01

    Evidence suggests that the PfKelch13 mutations that confer artemisinin resistance in falciparum malaria have multiple independent origins across the Greater Mekong subregion, which has motivated a regional malaria elimination agenda. We aimed to use molecular genotyping to assess antimalarial drug resistance selection and spread in the Greater Mekong subregion. In this observational study, we tested Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Myanmar, northeastern Thailand, southern Laos, and western Cambodia for PfKelch13 mutations and for Pfplasmepsin2 gene amplification (indicating piperaquine resistance). We collected blood spots from patients with microscopy or rapid test confirmed uncomplicated falciparum malaria. We used microsatellite genotyping to assess genetic relatedness. As part of studies on the epidemiology of artemisinin-resistant malaria between Jan 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2015, we collected 434 isolates. In 2014-15, a single long PfKelch13 C580Y haplotype (-50 to +31·5 kb) lineage, which emerged in western Cambodia in 2008, was detected in 65 of 88 isolates from northeastern Thailand, 86 of 111 isolates from southern Laos, and 14 of 14 isolates from western Cambodia, signifying a hard transnational selective sweep. Pfplasmepsin2 amplification occurred only within this lineage, and by 2015 these closely related parasites were found in ten of the 14 isolates from Cambodia and 15 of 15 isolates from northeastern Thailand. C580Y mutated parasites from Myanmar had a different genetic origin. Our results suggest that the dominant artemisinin-resistant P falciparum C580Y lineage probably arose in western Cambodia and then spread to Thailand and Laos, outcompeting other parasites and acquiring piperaquine resistance. The emergence and spread of fit artemisinin-resistant P falciparum parasite lineages, which then acquire partner drug resistance across the Greater Mekong subregion, threatens regional malaria control and elimination goals. Elimination of falciparum

  2. Conceptual Combination During Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Smith, Edward E.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined the time course of integration of modifier-noun (conceptual) combinations during auditory sentence comprehension using cross-modal lexical priming. The study revealed that during ongoing comprehension, there is initial activation of features of the noun prior to activation of (emergent) features of the entire conceptual combination. These results support compositionality in conceptual combination; that is, they indicate that features of the individual words constituting a conceptual combination are activated prior to combination of the words into a new concept. PMID:17576278

  3. Animal-adapted members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex endemic to the southern African subregion.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Charlene; Van Helden, Paul; Miller, Michele; Parsons, Sven

    2016-04-26

    Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) cause tuberculosis (TB) in both animals and humans. In this article, three animal-adapted MTC strains that are endemic to the southern African subregion - that is, Mycobacterium suricattae, Mycobacterium mungi, and the dassie bacillus - are reviewed with a focus on clinical and pathological presentations, geographic distribution, genotyping methods, diagnostic tools and evolution. Moreover, factors influencing the transmission and establishment of TB pathogens in novel host populations, including ecological, immunological and genetic factors of both the host and pathogen, are discussed. The risks associated with these infections are currently unknown and further studies will be required for greater understanding of this disease in the context of the southern African ecosystem.

  4. Dorsal and ventral streams: the distinct role of striatal subregions in the acquisition and performance of goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Hart, Genevra; Leung, Beatrice K; Balleine, Bernard W

    2014-02-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that distinct neural processes mediate the acquisition and performance of goal-directed instrumental actions. Whereas a cortical-dorsomedial striatal circuit appears critical for the acquisition of goal-directed actions, a cortical-ventral striatal circuit appears to mediate instrumental performance, particularly the motivational control of performance. Here we review evidence that these distinct mechanisms of learning and performance constitute two distinct 'streams' controlling instrumental conditioning. From this perspective, the regulation of the interaction between these 'streams' becomes a matter of considerable importance. We describe evidence that the basolateral amygdala, which is heavily interconnected with both the dorsal and ventral subregions of the striatum, coordinates this interaction providing input to the final common path to action as a critical component of the limbic-motor interface.

  5. Dorsal and ventral streams: The distinct role of striatal subregions in the acquisition and performance of goal-directed actions

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Genevra; Leung, Beatrice K.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that distinct neural processes mediate the acquisition and performance of goal-directed instrumental actions. Whereas a cortical-dorsomedial striatal circuit appears critical for the acquisition of goal-directed actions, a cortical-ventral striatal circuit appears to mediate instrumental performance, particularly the motivational control of performance. Here we review evidence that these distinct mechanisms of learning and performance constitute two distinct ‘streams’ controlling instrumental conditioning. From this perspective, the regulation of the interaction between these ‘streams’ becomes a matter of considerable importance. We describe evidence that the basolateral amygdala, which is heavily interconnected with both the dorsal and ventral subregions of the striatum, coordinates this interaction providing input to the final common path to action as a critical component of the limbic-motor interface. PMID:24231424

  6. Spatial justice and the translation of European strategic planning ideas in the urban sub-region of south Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Dabinett, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses urban planning practices in South Yorkshire to reveal how EU strategic spatial ideas and values are reproduced. Specifically, the paper examines how the notion of spatial justice was interpreted as the organising concepts within the European Spatial Development Perspective became situated within a territory severely affected by deindustrialisation in the 1980s, but subsequently a major beneficiary of EU Structural Fund programmes. The analysis reveals how policy-making at this scale used a construct of polycentric urban development that reasserted a model of economic growth based on the indigenous assets held in city centres at the expense of more redistributive measures targeted at the former coal-mining communities in the sub-region.

  7. Hippocampus and subregions of the dorsal striatum respond differently to a behavioral strategy change on a spatial navigation task

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Paul S.; Amemiya, Seiichiro

    2015-01-01

    Goal-directed and habit-based behaviors are driven by multiple but dissociable decision making systems involving several different brain areas, including the hippocampus and dorsal striatum. On repetitive tasks, behavior transitions from goal directed to habit based with experience. Hippocampus has been implicated in initial learning and dorsal striatum in automating behavior, but recent studies suggest that subregions within the dorsal striatum have distinct roles in mediating habit-based and goal-directed behavior. We compared neural activity in the CA1 region of hippocampus with anterior dorsolateral and posterior dorsomedial striatum in rats on a spatial choice task, in which subjects experienced reward delivery changes that forced them to adjust their behavioral strategy. Our results confirm the importance of the hippocampus in evaluating predictive steps during goal-directed behavior, while separate circuits in the basal ganglia integrated relevant information during automation of actions and recognized when new behaviors were needed to continue obtaining rewards. PMID:26084902

  8. μ-Opioid receptors within subregions of the striatum mediate pair bond formation through parallel yet distinct reward mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Resendez, Shanna L; Dome, Mackenzie; Gormley, Gwen; Franco, Dena; Nevárez, Natalie; Hamid, Arif A; Aragona, Brandon J

    2013-05-22

    The prairie vole is a socially monogamous rodent that is an excellent animal model for studies of the neurobiology of social attachment. Such studies have demonstrated that activation of reward circuitry during social interactions facilitates pair bond formation. Within this circuitry, μ-opioid receptors (MORs) modulate naturally rewarding behavior in an anatomically segregated manner; MORs located throughout the striatum (dorsal striatum, NAc core, and the entire NAc shell) are implicated in general motivational processes, whereas those located specifically within the dorsomedial NAc shell mediate positive hedonics (and are referred to as a "hedonic hotspot"). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether MORs within these distinct subregions differentially mediate pair bond formation. We first used receptor autoradiography to compare MOR binding densities between these regions. MOR binding was significantly higher in the NAc core and dorsomedial NAc shell compared with the ventral NAc shell. We next used partner preference testing to determine whether MORs within these subregions differentially mediate pair bonding. Blockade of MORs using 1 or 3 μg of H-d-Phe-Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 within the dorsal striatum decreased mating during the cohabitation period and inhibited partner preference formation. In contrast, blockade of MORs within dorsomedial NAc shell inhibited partner preference formation without effecting mating behavior, whereas other regions were not involved. Thus, MORs within the dorsal striatum mediate partner preference formation via impairment of mating, whereas those in the dorsomedial NAc shell appear to mediate pair bond formation through the positive hedonics associated with mating.

  9. The CYCOFOS new forecasting systems at regional and sub-regional scales for supporting the marine safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Galanis, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Emmanouil, George; Nikolaidis, Georgios; Lardner, Robin; Sofianos, Sarantis; Stylianou, Stavros; Nikolaidis, Marios

    2016-04-01

    The CYCOFOS new forecasting systems at regional and sub-regional scales for supporting the marine safety George Zodiatis1, Hari Radhakrishnan1, George Galanis1,2, Andreas Nikolaidis1, George Emmanouil1,2, Georgios Nikolaidis1, Robin Lardner1, Sarantis Sofianos3, Stavros Stylianou1 and Marios Nikolaidis1 1Oceanography Centre, University of Cyprus, Nicosia 1678, Cyprus 2 Hellenic Naval Academy, Section of Mathematics, Piraeus 18539, Greece 3 University of Athens, Ocean Physics and Modeling Group, Athens 15784, Greece The Cyprus Coastal Ocean FOrecasting System-CYCOFOS has been providing operational hydrodynamic and sea state forecasts in the Eastern Mediterranean since early 2002. Recently, it has been improved with the implementation of new hydrodynamic, wave and atmospheric models, targeting larger and higher resolution domains at regional and sub-regional scales. For the new CYCOFOS hydrodynamic system a novel parallel version of POM has been implemented. The new flow model covers the Eastern Mediterranean with a resolution of 2 km and the Levantine with 500 m, both nested in Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service-CMEMS. The CYCOFOS hydrodynamic model is coupled with the latest ECMWF WAM model. The surface currents produced from the Copernicus marine service and CYCOFOS has been incorporated in the wave integration, providing a second independent forcing input to the new CYCOFOS wave model, in addition to the winds. The Weather Research and Forecasting atmospheric model-WRF has been implemented in the same domain as SKIRON atmospheric model, in order to provide the backup forcing for the CYCOFOS models. The improved CYCOFOS forecasting data are used for the EU CISE 2020 project to establish an ΕU Common Information Sharing Environment to improve the Maritime Situational Awareness, particularly for SAR operations, as well as for the MEDESS4MS multi model oil spill prediction service, for operational oil spill predictions in the Mediterranean.

  10. Immunolocalization of NR1, NR2A, and PSD-95 in rat hippocampal subregions during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Ling, Wei; Chang, Lirong; Song, Yizhi; Lu, Tao; Jiang, Yuhua; Li, Youxiang; Wu, Yan

    2012-05-01

    Although the expression of NMDARs and synaptic-associated proteins has been widely studied, the temporospatial distribution of NMDAR subunits and synaptic proteins in different hippocampal subregions during postnatal development still lacks detailed information, and the relationship between NR1 or NR2 subunits and PSD-95 family proteins is controversial. In this study, we used immunofluorescent staining to assess NR1 or NR2A and PSD-95 expressions and the relationship between them in CA1, CA3, and DG of rat hippocampus on postnatal (P) days: P0, P4, P7, P10, P14, P21, P28, P56. The results showed that from P0 to P56, NR1, NR2A, and PSD-95 expressions increased gradually, and the time points of their expression peak differed in CA1, CA3, and DG during postnatal development. Interestingly, although the expression of PSD-95 was positively correlated to both NR1 and NR2A, the NR1 and PSD-95 coexpressed puncta were greatest in CA3, while NR2A and PSD-95 coexpressed puncta were greatest in CA1, compared to other subregions. Surprisingly, at P21, among different strata of CA1, the area of highest expression of NR2A was dramatically changed from stratum pyramidale to stratum polymorphum and stratum moleculare, and returned to stratum pyramidale gradually on the later observed days again, indicating that P21 may be one critical timepoint during postnatal development in CA1. The specific temporospatial distribution pattern of NR1, NR2A, and PSD-95 might be related to the different physiological functions during postnatal development. Discovering the alteration of the relationship between PSD-95 and NMDAR subunits expression may be helpful for understanding mechanisms and therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The human cuneate nucleus contains discrete subregions whose neurochemical features match those of the relay nuclei for nociceptive information.

    PubMed

    Del Fiacco, Marina; Quartu, Marina; Serra, Maria Pina; Boi, Marianna; Demontis, Roberto; Poddighe, Laura; Picci, Cristina; Melis, Tiziana

    2014-11-01

    The present paper is aimed at defining distinctive subdivisions of the human cuneate nucleus (Cu), evident from prenatal to old life, whose occurrence has never been clearly formalized in the human brain, or described in other species so far. It extends our early observations on the presence of gray matter areas that host strong substance P (SP) immunoreactivity in the territory of the human Cu and adjacent cuneate fascicle. Here we provide a three-dimensional reconstruction of the Cu fields rich in SP and further identify those areas by means of their immunoreactivity to the neuropeptides SP, calcitonin gene-related peptide, methionine- and leucine-enkephalin, peptide histidine-isoleucine, somatostatin and galanin, to the trophins glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and to the neuroplasticity proteins polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule and growth-associated protein-43. The presence, density and distribution of immunoreactivity for each of these molecules closely resemble those occurring in the superficial layers of the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5C). Myelin and Nissl stainings suggest that those Cu subregions and the Sp5C superficial layers share a similar histological aspect. This work establishes the existence of definite subregions, localized within the Cu territory, that bear the neurochemical and histological features of sensory nuclei committed to the neurotransmission of protopathic stimuli, including pain. These findings appear of particular interest when considering that functional, preclinical and clinical studies show that the dorsal column nuclei, classical relay station of fine somatic tactile and proprioceptive sensory stimuli, are also involved in pain neurotransmission.

  12. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecklein, J. M.; Petro, A. J.; Stump, W. R.; Adorjan, A. S.; Chambers, T. V.; Donofrio, M.; Hirasaki, J. K.; Morris, O. G.; Nudd, G.; Rawlings, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a first look at the problems of building a lunar lander to support a small lunar surface base. A series of trade studies was performed to define the lander. The initial trades concerned choosing number of stages, payload mass, parking orbit altitude, and propellant type. Other important trades and issues included plane change capability, propellant loading and maintenance location, and reusability considerations. Given a rough baseline, the systems were then reviewed. A conceptual design was then produced. The process was carried through only one iteration. Many more iterations are needed. A transportation system using reusable, aerobraked orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) is assumed. These OTV's are assumed to be based and maintained at a low Earth orbit (LEO) space station, optimized for transportation functions. Single- and two-stage OTV stacks are considered. The OTV's make the translunar injection (TLI), lunar orbit insertion (LOI), and trans-Earth injection (TEI) burns, as well as midcourse and perigee raise maneuvers.

  13. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Carini, John; Choi, Andrew; Dillman, Robert; Griffin, Sean J.; Hanneman, Susan; Mamplata, Caesar; Stanton, Edward

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a Lunar Lander, which can be the primary vehicle to transport the equipment necessary to establish a surface lunar base, the crew that will man the base, and the raw materials which the Lunar Station will process. A Lunar Lander will be needed to operate in the regime between the lunar surface and low lunar orbit (LLO), up to 200 km. This lander is intended for the establishment and operation of a manned surface base on the moon and for the support of the Lunar Space Station. The lander will be able to fulfill the requirements of 3 basic missions: A mission dedicated to delivering maximum payload for setting up the initial lunar base; Multiple missions between LLO and lunar surface dedicated to crew rotation; and Multiple missions dedicated to cargo shipments within the regime of lunar surface and LLO. A complete set of structural specifications is given.

  14. Shuttle freezer conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A conceptual design for a kit freezer for operation onboard shuttle was developed. The freezer features a self-contained unit which can be mounted in the orbiter crew compartment and is capable of storing food at launch and returning with medical samples. Packaging schemes were investigated to provide the optimum storage capacity with a minimum weight and volume penalty. Several types of refrigeration systems were evaluated to select one which would offer the most efficient performance and lowest hazard of safety to the crew. Detailed performance data on the selected, Stirling cycle principled refrigeration unit were developed to validate the feasibility of its application to this freezer. Thermal analyses were performed to determine the adequacy of the thermal insulation to maintain the desired storage temperature with the design cooling capacity. Stress analyses were made to insure the design structure integrity could be maintained over the shuttle flight regime. A proposed prototype freezer development plan is presented.

  15. Tactical missile conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmon, D. R.

    1980-09-01

    This thesis presents the theory necessary for the conceptual design of a tactical missile. The design process begins with the well known linear aerodynamic theory for initial sizing and later includes nonlinear effects to determine the final design of the missile. Where theory does not apply, empirical methods are presented which are known to give accurate results. An air-to-air missile is designed for a specific threat as an example which immediately follows the development of the theory for each section. Several small digital computer programs are presented and used for analysis of specific areas of the design. One large program (AEROL) is used for determining the aerodynamic coefficients of the final design.

  16. Highest trkB mRNA expression in the entorhinal cortex among hippocampal subregions in the adult rat: contrasting pattern with BDNF mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Tokuyama, W; Hashimoto, T; Li, Y X; Okuno, H; Miyashita, Y

    1998-11-20

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, TrkB, regulate synaptic functions in the hippocampus of the adult rodent. In previous studies, in situ hybridization methods have been used to evaluate regional differences in BDNF and trkB mRNA expression levels in hippocampal subregions. However, these studies have failed to reach consensus regarding the regional differences in the mRNA expression levels. In the present study, we quantitated mRNA expression levels using two different methods, ribonuclease protection assays and a quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction technique, in four hippocampal subregions: the entorhinal cortex, dentate gyrus (DG), CA3 and CA1. These two methods yielded the same results. We found that BDNF and trkB mRNA expression levels did not covary in the four subregions. BDNF and full length trkB (trkB FL) mRNA in the entorhinal cortex and the DG show contrasting expression patterns. The expression level of BDNF mRNA was highest in the DG among the hippocampal subregions and low in the entorhinal cortex and the CA1, whereas the trkB FL mRNA expression level was highest in the entorhinal cortex, low in the DG and lowest in the CA3. These results suggest regional differences in BDNF/TrkB signaling for maintenance and modifiability of neuronal connections in the hippocampal formation.

  17. Subregional Structural Alterations in Hippocampus and Nucleus Accumbens Correlate with the Clinical Impairment in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Spectrum: Parallel Combining Volume and Vertex-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiuling; Sun, Yu; Wan, Suiren; Zhao, Hui; Liu, Renyuan; Li, Xueping; Wu, Sichu; Nedelska, Zuzana; Hort, Jakub; Qing, Zhao; Xu, Yun; Zhang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Deep gray matter structures are associated with memory and other important functions that are impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, systematic characterization of the subregional atrophy and deformations in these structures in AD and MCI still need more investigations. In this article, we combined complex volumetry- and vertex-based analysis to investigate the pattern of subregional structural alterations in deep gray matter structures and its association with global clinical scores in AD (n = 30) and MCI patients (n = 30), compared to normal controls (NCs, n = 30). Among all seven pairs of structures, the bilateral hippocampi and nucleus accumbens showed significant atrophy in AD compared with NCs (p < 0.05). But only the subregional atrophy in the dorsal-medial part of the left hippocampus, the ventral part of right hippocampus, and the left nucleus accumbens, the posterior part of the right nucleus accumbens correlated with the worse clinical scores of MMSE and MOCA (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the medial-ventral part of right thalamus significantly shrank and correlated with clinical scores without decreasing in its whole volume (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the atrophy of these four subregions in bilateral hippocampi and nucleus accumbens was associated with cognitive impairment of patients, which might be potential target regions of treatment in AD. The surface analysis could provide additional information to volume comparison in finding the early pathological progress in deep gray matter structures.

  18. The Effectiveness of Subregional Libraries for the Blind and Physically Handicapped: A Pilot Study, Conducted by Wayne State University Library Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Julianne M.; And Others

    This study provides data on the relative effectiveness of library service to the blind and physically handicapped in two adjoining metropolitan counties in Michigan. Oakland County is served by a subregional program located in a local public library while Macomb County is served by the more remote Michigan Regional Library for the Blind and…

  19. Attentional Factors in Conceptual Congruency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Julio; Ouellet, Marc; Roman, Antonio; Valenzuela, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual congruency effects are biases induced by an irrelevant conceptual dimension of a task (e.g., location in vertical space) on the processing of another, relevant dimension (e.g., judging words' emotional evaluation). Such effects are a central empirical pillar for recent views about how the mind/brain represents concepts. In the present…

  20. What Does Conceptual Understanding Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Florence S.; Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2006-01-01

    All advocates of curriculum reform talk about an increased emphasis on conceptual understanding in mathematics. In this article, the authors use many examples to address the following issues: What does conceptual understanding mean, especially in introductory courses such as college algebra, precalculus, or calculus? How do we recognize its…

  1. Attentional Factors in Conceptual Congruency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Julio; Ouellet, Marc; Roman, Antonio; Valenzuela, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual congruency effects are biases induced by an irrelevant conceptual dimension of a task (e.g., location in vertical space) on the processing of another, relevant dimension (e.g., judging words' emotional evaluation). Such effects are a central empirical pillar for recent views about how the mind/brain represents concepts. In the present…

  2. Further Conceptualization of Treatment Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    A review and extension of previous conceptualizations of treatment acceptability is provided in light of progress within the area of behavior treatment development and implementation. Factors including legislation, advances in research, and service delivery models are examined as to their relationship with a comprehensive conceptualization of…

  3. SU-D-207B-05: Robust Intra-Tumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions for Prognosis in Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J; Gensheimer, M; Dong, X; Rubin, D; Napel, S; Diehn, M; Loo, B; Li, R

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an intra-tumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and CT imaging, and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. Methods: In this institutional review board-approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pre-treatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. A novel, intra-tumor partitioning method was developed based on a two-stage clustering process: first at patient-level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Results: Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor, which were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI = 0.66–0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n = 32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI = 0.75 (HR = 3.93, logrank p = 0.002) for predicting OS, and a CI = 0.76 (HR = 4.84, logrank p = 0.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers including tumor volume, SUVmax and MTV50 were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: We propose a robust intra-tumor partitioning method to identify clinically relevant, high-risk subregions in lung cancer. We envision that this approach will be applicable to identifying useful

  4. Study of seasonal climatology and interannual variability over India and its subregions using a regional climate model (RegCM3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharana, P.; Dimri, A. P.

    2014-06-01

    The temporal and spatial variability of the various meteorological parameters over India and its different subregions is high. The Indian subcontinent is surrounded by the complex Himalayan topography in north and the vast oceans in the east, west and south. Such distributions have dominant influence over its climate and thus make the study more complex and challenging. In the present study, the climatology and interannual variability of basic meteorological fields over India and its six homogeneous monsoon subregions (as defined by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) for all the four meteorological seasons) are analysed using the Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3). A 22-year (1980-2001) simulation with RegCM3 is carried out to develop such understanding. The National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research, US (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis 2 (NNRP2) is used as the initial and lateral boundary conditions. The main seasonal features and their variability are represented in model simulation. The temporal variation of precipitation, i.e., the mean annual cycle, is captured over complete India and its homogenous monsoon subregions. The model captured the contribution of seasonal precipitation to the total annual precipitation over India. The model showed variation in the precipitation contribution for some subregions to the total and seasonal precipitation over India. The correlation coefficient (CC) and difference between the coefficient of variation between model fields and the corresponding observations in percentage (COV) is calculated and compared. In most of the cases, the model could represent the magnitude but not the variability. The model processes are found to be more important than in the corresponding observations defining the variability. The model performs quite well over India in capturing the climatology and the meteorological process. The model shows good skills over the relevant subregions during a

  5. The Pan American Health Organization and international health: a history of training, conceptualization, and collective development.

    PubMed

    Auer, Annella; Guerrero Espinel, Juan Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    A constantly changing and increasingly complex global environment requires leaders with special competencies to respond effectively to this scenario. Within this context, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goes beyond traditional leadership training models both in terms of its design as well as its conceptual approach to international health. As an intergovernmental, centenary organization in health, PAHO allows participants a unique vantage point from which to conceptualize, share experiences and develop projects relevant to international health. Derived from over two decades of experience (1985-2006) training professionals through its predessor Training Program in International Health, the Leaders in International Health Program "Edmundo Granda Ugalde" (LIHP) utilizes an innovative design, virtual and practical learning activities, and a problem-based approach to analyze the main concepts, theories, actors, forces, and processes relevant to international health. In collaboration with PAHO/WHO Representative Offices and national institutions, participants develop country projects based on priority health issues, many of which are integrated into the Organization's technical cooperation and/or implemented by relevant ministries and other entities in their respective countries/subregions. A total of 185 participants representing 31 countries have participated in the LIHP since its inception in 2008, building upon the 187 trained through its predecessor. These initiatives have contributed to the development of health professionals in the Region of the Americas devoted to international health, as well as provided important input towards a conceptual understanding of international health by fostering debate on this issue.

  6. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    ROBINSON,K.

    2006-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has prepared a conceptual design for a world class user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. This facility, called the ''National Synchrotron Light Source II'' (NSLS-II), will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility. Together these will enable the study of material properties and functions with a spatial resolution of {approx}1 nm, an energy resolution of {approx}0.1 meV, and the ultra high sensitivity required to perform spectroscopy on a single atom. The overall objective of the NSLS-II project is to deliver a research facility to advance fundamental science and have the capability to characterize and understand physical properties at the nanoscale, the processes by which nanomaterials can be manipulated and assembled into more complex hierarchical structures, and the new phenomena resulting from such assemblages. It will also be a user facility made available to researchers engaged in a broad spectrum of disciplines from universities, industries, and other laboratories.

  7. Conceptual precursors to language

    PubMed Central

    Hespos, Susan J.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2006-01-01

    Because human languages vary in sound and meaning, children must learn which distinctions their language uses. For speech perception, this learning is selective: initially infants are sensitive to most acoustic distinctions used in any language1–3, and this sensitivity reflects basic properties of the auditory system rather than mechanisms specific to language4–7; however, infants’ sensitivity to non-native sound distinctions declines over the course of the first year8. Here we ask whether a similar process governs learning of word meanings. We investigated the sensitivity of 5-month-old infants in an English-speaking environment to a conceptual distinction that is marked in Korean but not English; that is, the distinction between ‘tight’ and ‘loose’ fit of one object to another9,10. Like adult Korean speakers but unlike adult English speakers, these infants detected this distinction and divided a continuum of motion-into-contact actions into tight-and loose-fit categories. Infants’ sensitivity to this distinction is linked to representations of object mechanics11 that are shared by non-human animals12–14. Language learning therefore seems to develop by linking linguistic forms to universal, pre-existing representations of sound and meaning. PMID:15269769

  8. PHENIX Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nagamiya, Shoji; Aronson, Samuel H.; Young, Glenn R.; Paffrath, Leo

    1993-01-29

    The PHENIX Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the detector design of the PHENIX experiment for Day-1 operation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The CDR presents the physics capabilities, technical details, cost estimate, construction schedule, funding profile, management structure, and possible upgrade paths of the PHENIX experiment. The primary goals of the PHENIX experiment are to detect the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and to measure its properties. Many of the potential signatures for the QGP are measured as a function of a well-defined common variable to see if any or all of these signatures show a simultaneous anomaly due to the formation of the QGP. In addition, basic quantum chromodynamics phenomena, collision dynamics, and thermodynamic features of the initial states of the collision are studied. To achieve these goals, the PHENIX experiment measures lepton pairs (dielectrons and dimuons) to study various properties of vector mesons, such as the mass, the width, and the degree of yield suppression due to the formation of the QGP. The effect of thermal radiation on the continuum is studied in different regions of rapidity and mass. The e[mu] coincidence is measured to study charm production, and aids in understanding the shape of the continuum dilepton spectrum. Photons are measured to study direct emission of single photons and to study [pi][sup 0] and [eta] production. Charged hadrons are identified to study the spectrum shape, production of antinuclei, the [phi] meson (via K[sup +]K[sup [minus

  9. ERHIC Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn,V.; Beebe-Wang,J.; Ben-Zvi,I.; Fedotov, A.; Fischer, W.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.N.; MacKay, W.W.; Montag, C.; Pozdeyev, E.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tsentalovich, E.

    2008-08-25

    The conceptual design of the high luminosity electron-ion collider, eRHIC, is presented. The goal of eRHIC is to provide collisions of electrons (and possibly positrons) with ions and protons at the center-of-mass energy range from 25 to 140 GeV, and with luminosities exceeding 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. A considerable part of the physics program is based on polarized electrons, protons and He3 ions with high degree of polarization. In eRHIC electron beam will be accelerated in an energy recovery linac. Major R&D items for eRHIC include the development of a high intensity polarized electron source, studies of various aspects of energy recovery technology for high power beams and the development of compact magnets for recirculating passes. In eRHIC scheme the beam-beam interaction has several specific features, which have to be thoroughly studied. In order to maximize the collider luminosity, several upgrades of the existing RHIC accelerator are required. Those upgrades may include the increase of intensity as well as transverse and longitudinal cooling of ion and proton beams.

  10. Conceptual precursors to language.

    PubMed

    Hespos, Susan J; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2004-07-22

    Because human languages vary in sound and meaning, children must learn which distinctions their language uses. For speech perception, this learning is selective: initially infants are sensitive to most acoustic distinctions used in any language, and this sensitivity reflects basic properties of the auditory system rather than mechanisms specific to language; however, infants' sensitivity to non-native sound distinctions declines over the course of the first year. Here we ask whether a similar process governs learning of word meanings. We investigated the sensitivity of 5-month-old infants in an English-speaking environment to a conceptual distinction that is marked in Korean but not English; that is, the distinction between 'tight' and 'loose' fit of one object to another. Like adult Korean speakers but unlike adult English speakers, these infants detected this distinction and divided a continuum of motion-into-contact actions into tight- and loose-fit categories. Infants' sensitivity to this distinction is linked to representations of object mechanics that are shared by non-human animals. Language learning therefore seems to develop by linking linguistic forms to universal, pre-existing representations of sound and meaning.

  11. Comprehending Conceptual Anaphors

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    English pronouns must agree with their antecedents in number. But in some situations, pronouns violate this constraint, as in "I think I'll order a frozen margarita. I just love them." Three situations are identified in which such violations occur: (1) Plural (and technically illegal) pronouns are used to refer to frequently or multiply occurring items or events (as opposed to a unique item/event); (2) plural pronouns are used to refer to generic types (as opposed to a specific token); and (3) plural pronouns are used to refer to animate members of a collective set (as opposed to an individual member of a set). When sentences contained illegal, plural pronouns that referred to multiple items/events, generic types or collective sets, they were rated more natural (Experiment 1) and comprehended more rapidly (Experiment 2) than when the same sentences contained legal, singular pronouns. But when the sentences contained legal, singular pronouns and referred to unique items/events, specific tokens or individual members of a set, they were rated more natural and comprehended more rapidly. The results underscore the role that pragmatic information - perhaps in the form of mental models - plays in the on-line interpretation of conceptual anaphors, such as pro-nouns. PMID:25425749

  12. The Conceptual Framework of Thematic Mapping in Case Conceptualization.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Charles R; Jeffrey, Christina E

    2017-04-01

    This article, the 3rd in a series of 5, introduces the conceptual framework for thematic mapping, a novel approach to case conceptualization. The framework is transtheoretical in that it is not constrained by the tenets or concepts of any one therapeutic orientation and transdiagnostic in that it conceptualizes clients outside the constraints of diagnostic criteria. Thematic mapping comprises 4 components: a definition, foundational principles, defining features, and core concepts. These components of the framework, deemed building blocks, are explained in this article. Like the foundation of any structure, the heuristic value of the method requires that the building blocks have integrity, coherence, and sound anchoring. We assert that the conceptual framework provides a solid foundation, making thematic mapping a potential asset in mental health treatment.

  13. The Effects of Sub-Regional Climate Velocity on the Distribution and Spatial Extent of Marine Species Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Kleisner, Kristin M.; Fogarty, Michael J.; McGee, Sally; Barnett, Analie; Fratantoni, Paula; Greene, Jennifer; Hare, Jonathan A.; Lucey, Sean M.; McGuire, Christopher; Odell, Jay; Saba, Vincent S.; Smith, Laurel; Weaver, Katherine J.; Pinsky, Malin L.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies illustrate variable patterns in individual species distribution shifts in response to changing temperature. However, an assemblage, a group of species that shares a common environmental niche, will likely exhibit similar responses to climate changes, and these community-level responses may have significant implications for ecosystem function. Therefore, we examine the relationship between observed shifts of species in assemblages and regional climate velocity (i.e., the rate and direction of change of temperature isotherms). The assemblages are defined in two sub-regions of the U.S. Northeast Shelf that have heterogeneous oceanography and bathymetry using four decades of bottom trawl survey data and we explore temporal changes in distribution, spatial range extent, thermal habitat area, and biomass, within assemblages. These sub-regional analyses allow the dissection of the relative roles of regional climate velocity and local physiography in shaping observed distribution shifts. We find that assemblages of species associated with shallower, warmer waters tend to shift west-southwest and to shallower waters over time, possibly towards cooler temperatures in the semi-enclosed Gulf of Maine, while species assemblages associated with relatively cooler and deeper waters shift deeper, but with little latitudinal change. Conversely, species assemblages associated with warmer and shallower water on the broad, shallow continental shelf from the Mid-Atlantic Bight to Georges Bank shift strongly northeast along latitudinal gradients with little change in depth. Shifts in depth among the southern species associated with deeper and cooler waters are more variable, although predominantly shifts are toward deeper waters. In addition, spatial expansion and contraction of species assemblages in each region corresponds to the area of suitable thermal habitat, but is inversely related to assemblage biomass. This suggests that assemblage distribution shifts in

  14. Anatomical connections between the anterior and posterodorsal sub-regions of the medial amygdala: Integration of odor and hormone signals

    PubMed Central

    Maras, Pamela M.; Petrulis, Aras

    2010-01-01

    In many rodent species, such as Syrian hamsters, reproductive behavior requires neural integration of chemosensory information and steroid hormone cues. The medial amygdala processes both of these signals through anatomically distinct sub-regions; the anterior region (MeA) receives substantial chemosensory input, but contains few steroid receptor-labeled neurons, whereas the posterodorsal region (MePD) receives less chemosensory input, but contains dense populations of androgen and estrogen receptors. Importantly, these sub-regions have considerable reciprocal connections, and previous studies in our lab have shown that functional interactions between MeA and MePD are required for the preference to investigate opposite-sex odors in male hamsters. We therefore hypothesized that chemosensory and hormone signals are conveyed directly between MeA and MePD. To test this hypothesis, we injected the retrograde tracer, cholera toxin B (CTB), into either MeA or MePD of male subjects and identified whether retrogradely labeled cells within MePD or MeA, respectively, expressed (1) Fos protein following exposure to female or male odors or (2) androgen receptors (AR). Approximately 36% of CTB-labeled cells within MeA (that project to MePD) also expressed Fos following exposure to either social odor, compared to the only 13% of CTB-labeled cells within MePD (that project to MeA) that also expressed odor-induced Fos. In contrast, 57% of CTB-labeled cells within MePD also contained AR, compared to the 28% of CTB-labeled cells within MeA that were double-labeled for AR/CTB. These results provide the first anatomical evidence that chemosensory and hormone cues are conveyed directly between MeA and MePD. Furthermore, these data suggest that chemosensory information is conveyed primarily from MeA to MePD, whereas hormone information is conveyed primarily from MePD to MeA. More broadly, the interactions between MeA and MePD may represent a basic mechanism by which the brain integrates

  15. The Effects of Sub-Regional Climate Velocity on the Distribution and Spatial Extent of Marine Species Assemblages.

    PubMed

    Kleisner, Kristin M; Fogarty, Michael J; McGee, Sally; Barnett, Analie; Fratantoni, Paula; Greene, Jennifer; Hare, Jonathan A; Lucey, Sean M; McGuire, Christopher; Odell, Jay; Saba, Vincent S; Smith, Laurel; Weaver, Katherine J; Pinsky, Malin L

    2016-01-01

    Many studies illustrate variable patterns in individual species distribution shifts in response to changing temperature. However, an assemblage, a group of species that shares a common environmental niche, will likely exhibit similar responses to climate changes, and these community-level responses may have significant implications for ecosystem function. Therefore, we examine the relationship between observed shifts of species in assemblages and regional climate velocity (i.e., the rate and direction of change of temperature isotherms). The assemblages are defined in two sub-regions of the U.S. Northeast Shelf that have heterogeneous oceanography and bathymetry using four decades of bottom trawl survey data and we explore temporal changes in distribution, spatial range extent, thermal habitat area, and biomass, within assemblages. These sub-regional analyses allow the dissection of the relative roles of regional climate velocity and local physiography in shaping observed distribution shifts. We find that assemblages of species associated with shallower, warmer waters tend to shift west-southwest and to shallower waters over time, possibly towards cooler temperatures in the semi-enclosed Gulf of Maine, while species assemblages associated with relatively cooler and deeper waters shift deeper, but with little latitudinal change. Conversely, species assemblages associated with warmer and shallower water on the broad, shallow continental shelf from the Mid-Atlantic Bight to Georges Bank shift strongly northeast along latitudinal gradients with little change in depth. Shifts in depth among the southern species associated with deeper and cooler waters are more variable, although predominantly shifts are toward deeper waters. In addition, spatial expansion and contraction of species assemblages in each region corresponds to the area of suitable thermal habitat, but is inversely related to assemblage biomass. This suggests that assemblage distribution shifts in

  16. Development of a Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services for Disaster Early Warning and Mitigation in the Ecowas Subregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueye, L. A.; Keita, M. S.; Akinyede, J. O.; Kufoniyi, O.; Erin, G.

    2015-08-01

    The West Africa Sub-region has been crisis and disaster ridden in recent times with enormous challenges for disaster mitigation. The crisis/disasters range from conflicts fuelled by political upheaval to epidemics that take their tolls on the population of some countries in the sub-region. The crisis and disaster events have overwhelming magnitudes and are highly dynamic, requiring a well-articulated plan for immediate response in order to mitigate their effects. A study carried out by the Early Warning Directorate (EWD) of the Economic Commission of West African States (ECOWAS) highlighted the risks and vulnerabilities of the region despite the considerable progress made in development and peace consolidation in some parts of the region. The study identified apparent institutional and infrastructural deficiencies, such as the lack of up-to-date geospatial data and information, and inadequate platforms for data gathering and data sharing among the relevant national agencies, which have made much of the region particularly vulnerable to the emerging threats. It is against the foregoing that the development of a Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services for EWD and the ECOWAS is being proposed. In addition to the resolution of the crucial need of reliable geospatial data capacity of member states, this initiative will spearhead the realisation of a Geospatial Data Infrastructure for ECOWAS Commission, through the appropriate policy formulation and implementation. Through the proper implementation of the Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services, ECOWAS will have the capacity to provide geospatial analysis and mapping support focusing on areas related to conflict prevention and resolution, regional planning for food security, early warning of viral diseases and epidemics, disaster preparedness, mitigation and response, infrastructural development and refugee resettlement, and a host of other vital projects/programmes for promoting ECOWAS regional integration

  17. Conceptualizing Race in Research

    PubMed Central

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Henderson, Gail; Blumenthal, Connie; Dorrance, Jessica; Estroff, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of race as a variable in research continues to spark debate about whether it should be used, as well as the implications it has for research on health differences. Given this continued controversy, we examined how investigators interpret the concept of “race” and whether their views of race are reflected in their published work. Methods Thirty-three semistructured interviews were conducted with investigators from 3 southeastern universities to discuss recruitment of participants, the use of race as a variable in research and analyses, and their assessment of the National Institutes of Health mandate on the inclusion of women and minorities. The interview data were analyzed using the principles of constant comparative method, theme identification and pattern investigation. Up to 2 publications for each respondent were also used to assess the use of race in their research. Results Results reflect a spectrum of views on the definition of race, from biological to social. Findings also suggest that investigators think critically about the use and implications of using race in their research, although this is not consistently reflected in their published work. Conclusion In our view, authors, journal editors and peer reviewers have an important role in moving this debate forward, and advocate that they engage more directly in shaping the process. When reporting results by race, investigators should provide a statement on the theory or conceptual framework underlying the hypothesized racial differences in health examined in the study. They should be also cautious in invoking either biological or social constructions of race, thus demonstrating an appreciation of the nuances and implications of using this variable. PMID:18942287

  18. Electronic aids to conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchard, Eugene E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented in viewgraph form are techniques to improve the conceptual design of complex systems. The paper discusses theory of design, flexible software tools for computer aided design, and methods for enhancing communication among design teams.

  19. Rain-based factors of high agricultural impacts over Senegal. Part I: integration of local to sub-regional trends and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salack, S.; Muller, B.; Gaye, A. T.

    2011-11-01

    The evolution of seasonal cycle and interannual rainfall, the number of rainy days and daily rainfall types, dry spells frequency of occurrence, onset/cessation/length of rainy season, sowing dates, and the duration of the cropping period, are investigated at local (individual sites) and sub-regional scales (four different rainfall zones) using daily records of station data (83 sites) over Senegal. In the limits of a case study, these analyses complement and update previous studies conducted in the extreme Western Sahel (11-16° N and 20° W-10° E). The results unveil noticeable evolution of some of these rain-based factors in the recent periods as compared to the previous dry years. In the regions recording less than 800 mm/year (Sudan and Sahel sub-regions), the positive and statistically significant trends of rainfall amount are associated with new features of increasing frequency of short dry spell category, increasing number of some classes of extreme daily rainfall amounts and shifts in the peak number of rainy days. At sub-regional scales, the starting years (or change points) the magnitude and the signs of the new trends are unevenly distributed in the period post-1990. Earlier and higher amplitude changes are found at local scales and not less than one third of the sites in each sub-regional network are significantly affected. The extreme Southern sub-region exhibits no significant changes. Statistically significant trends are not observed on daily rain records ≤10 mm, onset/cessation dates, successful sowing dates, rainy season length, cropping period, medium and extreme dry spell categories. Rather, some of these factors such as the successful sowing date and the cropping season length exhibit significant variability. The onset (cessation) dates of the rainy season are followed (preceded) by extreme dry spell episodes. In the perspectives of climate impact assessments on the local agriculture a sub-regional periodic synopsis of the major rain

  20. Grounding Emotion in Situated Conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Simmons, W. Kyle; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion, the situated conceptualization used to construe a situation determines the emotion experienced. A neuroimaging experiment tested two core hypotheses of this theory: (1) different situated conceptualizations produce different forms of the same emotion in different situations, (2) the composition of a situated conceptualization emerges from shared multimodal circuitry distributed across the brain that produces emotional states generally. To test these hypotheses, the situation in which participants experienced an emotion was manipulated. On each trial, participants immersed themselves in a physical danger or social evaluation situation and then experienced fear or anger. According to Hypothesis 1, the brain activations for the same emotion should differ as a function of the preceding situation (after removing activations that arose while constructing the situation). According to Hypothesis 2, the critical activations should reflect conceptual processing relevant to the emotion in the current situation, drawn from shared multimodal circuitry underlying emotion. The results supported these predictions and demonstrated the compositional process that produces situated conceptualizations dynamically. PMID:21192959

  1. A harmonized segmentation protocol for hippocampal and parahippocampal subregions: Why do we need one and what are the key goals?

    PubMed

    Wisse, Laura E M; Daugherty, Ana M; Olsen, Rosanna K; Berron, David; Carr, Valerie A; Stark, Craig E L; Amaral, Robert S C; Amunts, Katrin; Augustinack, Jean C; Bender, Andrew R; Bernstein, Jeffrey D; Boccardi, Marina; Bocchetta, Martina; Burggren, Alison; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chupin, Marie; Ekstrom, Arne; de Flores, Robin; Insausti, Ricardo; Kanel, Prabesh; Kedo, Olga; Kennedy, Kristen M; Kerchner, Geoffrey A; LaRocque, Karen F; Liu, Xiuwen; Maass, Anne; Malykhin, Nicolai; Mueller, Susanne G; Ofen, Noa; Palombo, Daniela J; Parekh, Mansi B; Pluta, John B; Pruessner, Jens C; Raz, Naftali; Rodrigue, Karen M; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Shafer, Andrea T; Steve, Trevor A; Suthana, Nanthia; Wang, Lei; Winterburn, Julie L; Yassa, Michael A; Yushkevich, Paul A; la Joie, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    The advent of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled in vivo research in a variety of populations and diseases on the structure and function of hippocampal subfields and subdivisions of the parahippocampal gyrus. Because of the many extant and highly discrepant segmentation protocols, comparing results across studies is difficult. To overcome this barrier, the Hippocampal Subfields Group was formed as an international collaboration with the aim of developing a harmonized protocol for manual segmentation of hippocampal and parahippocampal subregions on high-resolution MRI. In this commentary we discuss the goals for this protocol and the associated key challenges involved in its development. These include differences among existing anatomical reference materials, striking the right balance between reliability of measurements and anatomical validity, and the development of a versatile protocol that can be adopted for the study of populations varying in age and health. The commentary outlines these key challenges, as well as the proposed solution of each, with concrete examples from our working plan. Finally, with two examples, we illustrate how the harmonized protocol, once completed, is expected to impact the field by producing measurements that are quantitatively comparable across labs and by facilitating the synthesis of findings across different studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Functional contributions and interactions between the human hippocampus and subregions of the striatum during arbitrary associative learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Mattfeld, Aaron T.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus and striatum are thought to have different functional roles in learning and memory. It is unknown under what experimental conditions their contributions are dissimilar or converge, and the extent to which they interact over the course of learning. In order to evaluate both the functional contributions of as well as the interactions between the human hippocampus and striatum, the present study used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and variations of a conditional visuomotor associative learning task that either taxed arbitrary associative learning (Experiment 1) or stimulus-response learning (Experiment 2). In the first experiment we observed changes in activity in the hippocampus and anterior caudate that reflect differences between the two regions consistent with distinct computational principles. In the second experiment we observed activity in the putamen that reflected content specific representations during the learning of arbitrary conditional visuomotor associations. In both experiments the hippocampus and ventral striatum demonstrated dynamic functional coupling during the learning of new arbitrary associations, but not during retrieval of well-learned arbitrary associations using control variants of the tasks that did not preferentially tax one system versus the other. These findings suggest that both the hippocampus and subregions of the dorsal striatum contribute uniquely to the learning of arbitrary associations while the hippocampus and ventral striatum interact over the course of learning. PMID:25560298

  3. A new subregion mesh method for the investigation of the elastic-plastic impact in flexible multibody systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Liu, Jin-Yang; Lu, Guang-Can

    2017-02-01

    Impact processes between flexible bodies often lead to local stress concentration and wave propagation of high frequency. Therefore, the modeling of flexible multibody systems involving impact should consider the local plastic deformation and the strict requirements of the spatial discretization. Owing to the nonlinearity of the stiffness matrix, the reduction of the element number is extremely important. For the contact-impact problem, since different regions have different requirements regarding the element size, a new subregion mesh method is proposed to reduce the number of the unnecessary elements. A dynamic model for flexible multibody systems with elastic-plastic contact impact is established based on a floating frame of reference formulation and complete Lagrange incremental nonlinear finite-element method to investigate the effect of the elastic-plastic deformation as well as spatial discretization. Experiments on the impact between two bodies are carried out to validate the correctness of the elastic-plastic model. The proposed formulation is applied to a slider-crank system with elastic-plastic impact.

  4. Functional contributions and interactions between the human hippocampus and subregions of the striatum during arbitrary associative learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Stark, Craig E L

    2015-08-01

    The hippocampus and striatum are thought to have different functional roles in learning and memory. It is unknown under what experimental conditions their contributions are dissimilar or converge, and the extent to which they interact over the course of learning. In order to evaluate both the functional contributions of as well as the interactions between the human hippocampus and striatum, the present study used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and variations of a conditional visuomotor associative learning task that either taxed arbitrary associative learning (Experiment 1) or stimulus-response learning (Experiment 2). In the first experiment, we observed changes in activity in the hippocampus and anterior caudate that reflect differences between the two regions consistent with distinct computational principles. In the second experiment, we observed activity in the putamen that reflected content specific representations during the learning of arbitrary conditional visuomotor associations. In both experiments, the hippocampus and ventral striatum demonstrated dynamic functional coupling during the learning of new arbitrary associations, but not during retrieval of well-learned arbitrary associations using control variants of the tasks that did not preferentially tax one system versus the other. These findings suggest that both the hippocampus and subregions of the dorsal striatum contribute uniquely to the learning of arbitrary associations while the hippocampus and ventral striatum interact over the course of learning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Immunolocalization of CaMKII and NR2B in hippocampal subregions of rat during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiya; Chang, Lirong; Song, Yizhi; Gao, Xianghong; Ling, Wei; Lu, Tao; Zhang, Yali; Wu, Yan

    2013-04-01

    Although the expression of CaMKII and synaptic-associated proteins has been widely studied, the temporospatial distribution of CaMKII and NMDAR subunits in different hippocampal subregions during postnatal development still lacks detailed information. In this study, we used immunofluorescent staining to assess CaMKII and NR2B expressions and the relationship between them in CA1, CA3, and DG of rat hippocampus on postnatal (P) days: P0, P4, P7, P10, P14, P21, P28, and P56. The results showed that from P0 to P56, CaMKII expression increased gradually, while NR2B expression decreased gradually, and the time points of their expression peak differed in CA1, CA3, and DG during postnatal development. Although the expression of CaMKII was negatively correlated with NR2B in CA1 and DG, the coexpression of CaMKII with NR2B existed in CA1, CA3, and DG during postnatal development. Interestingly, after P21, CaMKII expression and the coexpression of CaMKII with NR2B became obvious in the Stratum lucidum of CA3. The specific temporospatial distribution pattern of CaMKII with NR2B might be related to the different physiological functions during postnatal development. Discovery of the alteration of the relationship between expression of CaMKII and NMDAR subunits may be helpful for understanding mechanisms and therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. The complete chloroplast genome of Gentiana straminea (Gentianaceae), an endemic species to the Sino-Himalayan subregion.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lianghong; Zhao, Zhili; Xu, Hongxi; Chen, Shilin; Dorje, Gaawe

    2016-02-15

    Endemic to the Sino-Himalayan subregion, the medicinal alpine plant Gentiana straminea is a threatened species. The genetic and molecular data about it is deficient. Here we report the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of G. straminea, as the first sequenced member of the family Gentianaceae. The cp genome is 148,991bp in length, including a large single copy (LSC) region of 81,240bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 17,085bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,333bp. It contains 112 unique genes, including 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs and 4 rRNAs. The rps16 gene lacks exon2 between trnK-UUU and trnQ-UUG, which is the first rps16 pseudogene found in the nonparasitic plants of Asterids clade. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 13 forward repeats, 13 palindrome repeats and 39 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). An entire cp genome comparison study of G. straminea and four other species in Gentianales was carried out. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) were performed based on 69 protein-coding genes from 36 species of Asterids. The results strongly supported the position of Gentianaceae as one member of the order Gentianales. The complete chloroplast genome sequence will provide intragenic information for its conservation and contribute to research on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses of Gentianales and Asterids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cloning and characterization of two overlapping genes in a subregion at 6q21 involved in replicative senescence and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Morelli, C; Magnanini, C; Mungall, A J; Negrini, M; Barbanti-Brodano, G

    2000-07-11

    Two new genes were cloned from region 6q21 and characterized. One gene, C6orf4-6, expresses three mRNA isoforms diverging at the 5' and 3' ends, and encodes two protein isoforms that differ by nine amino acids at their amino terminus. The second gene, C6UAS, is transcribed in the antisense orientation from the complementary strand of C6orf4-6. C6UAS overlaps the second exon of C6orf4, where the start codon of protein isoform 1 is located. C6UAS has no apparent ORF and most likely represents a structural RNA gene that is transcribed but not translated. This feature and the antisense polarity of transcription suggest that C6UAS could play a regulatory role on the expression of C6orf4, as indicated by a significant decrease of endogenous C6orf4 expression after transfection of C6UAS cDNA in human fibroblasts. Neither C6UAS nor C6orf4-6 genes show any homology with known human genes. The two genes were cloned from a subregion at 6q21 containing a replicative senescence gene, a tumor suppressor gene and a gene involved in hereditary schizophrenia. In addition, the common fragile site FRA6F was mapped in the same region. Cloning and characterization of C6orf4-6 and C6UAS may help to clarify the structure and the functional role of this important region.

  8. Merge in the Human Brain: A Sub-Region Based Functional Investigation in the Left Pars Opercularis

    PubMed Central

    Zaccarella, Emiliano; Friederici, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Language is thought to represent one of the most complex cognitive functions in humans. Here we break down complexity of language to its most basic syntactic computation which hierarchically binds single words together to form larger phrases and sentences. So far, the neural implementation of this basic operation has only been inferred indirectly from studies investigating more complex linguistic phenomena. In the present sub-region based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we directly assessed the neuroanatomical nature of this process. Our results showed that syntactic phrases—compared to word-list sequences—corresponded to increased neural activity in the ventral-anterior portion of the left pars opercularis [Brodmann Area (BA) 44], whereas the adjacently located deep frontal operculum/anterior insula (FOP/aINS), a phylogenetically older and less specialized region, was found to be equally active for both conditions. Crucially, the functional activity of syntactic binding was confined to one out of five clusters proposed by a recent fine-grained sub-anatomical parcellation for BA 44, with consistency across individuals. Neuroanatomically, the present results call for a redefinition of BA 44 as a region with internal functional specializations. Neurocomputationally, they support the idea of invariance within BA 44 in the location of activation across participants for basic syntactic building processing. PMID:26640453

  9. Possible Source Populations of the White-backed Planthopper in the Greater Mekong Subregion Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang-Yong; Chu, Dong; Yin, Yan-Qiong; Zhao, Xue-Qing; Chen, Ai-Dong; Khay, Sathya; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Kyaw, Mu Mu; Kongchuensin, Manita; Ngo, Vien Vinh; Nguyen, Chung Huy

    2016-12-01

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a serious pest of rice in Asia. However, little is known regarding the migration of this pest insect from the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) including Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and Vietnam, into China’s Yunnan Province. To determine the migration patterns of S. furcifera in the GMS and putative secondary immigration inside China’s Yunnan Province, we investigated the population genetic diversity, genetic structure, and gene flow of 42 S. furcifera populations across the six countries in the GMS by intensive sampling using mitochondrial genes. Our study revealed the potential emigration of S. furcifera from the GMS consists primarily of three major sources: 1) the S. furcifera from Laos and Vietnam migrate into south and southeast Yunnan, where they proceed to further migrate into northeast and central Yunnan; 2) the S. furcifera from Myanmar migrate into west Yunnan, and/or central Yunnan, and/or northeast Yunnan; 3) the S. furcifera from Cambodia migrate into southwest Yunnan, where the populations can migrate further into central Yunnan. The new data will not only be helpful in predicting population dynamics of the planthopper, but will also aid in regional control programs for this economically important pest insect.

  10. Music exposure improves spatial cognition by enhancing the BDNF level of dorsal hippocampal subregions in the developing rats.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yingshou; Chen, Wenxi; Wang, Yanran; Jing, Wei; Gao, Shan; Guo, Daqing; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-03-01

    Previous research has shown that dorsal hippocampus plays an important role in spatial memory process. Music exposure can enhance brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression level in dorsal hippocampus (DH) and thus enhance spatial cognition ability. But whether music experience may affect different subregions of DH in the same degree remains unclear. Here, we studied the effects of exposure to Mozart K.448 on learning behavior in developing rats using the classical Morris water maze task. The results showed that early music exposure could enhance significantly learning performance of the rats in the water maze test. Meanwhile, the BDNF/TrkB level of dorsal hippocampus CA3 (dCA3) and dentate gyrus (dDG) was significantly enhanced in rats exposed to Mozart music as compared to those without music exposure. In contrast, the BDNF/TrkB level of dorsal hippocampus CA1 (dCA1) was not affected. The results suggest that the spatial memory improvement by music exposure in rats may be associated with the enhanced BDNF/TrkB level of dCA3 and dDG.

  11. Refined localization of twenty-one genes in subregion p13.1 of human chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Chelala, C; Imbeaud, S; Devignes, M D; Zoorob, R; Auffray, C

    2001-01-01

    In this report, we describe a refinement of the human transcript map of chromosome 1p13.1, a subregion undergoing many aberrations in various types of human cancers. Publicly available genetic linkage, radiation hybrid and physical maps, as well as cytogenetic and sequence data were used to establish the relative order and orientation of ten known intragenic markers. The complete sequence of genomic clones of the region, available at the Sanger Centre, provided the tool for further studies performed by BLAST analysis against all cDNA sequences registered in the Genexpress Index2. This allowed us to assign to subband 1p13.1 nine of the ten known genes, an additional member of the gene family of one of these genes and eleven new transcripts. The remaining known gene and one additional new transcript map at the 1p13.1 and 1p13.2 boundary. The corresponding genes may be responsible for disorders related to this region. The resulting transcript map of 1p13.1 is presented in the printed article with additional data available on a dedicated Web site at the address http://idefix.upr420.vjf.cnrs.fr/CARTO.

  12. Contributions of the nucleus accumbens and its subregions to different aspects of risk-based decision making.

    PubMed

    Stopper, Colin M; Floresco, Stan B

    2011-03-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been implicated in mediating different forms of decision making in humans and animals. In the present study, we observed that inactivation of the rat NAc, via infusion of GABA agonists, reduced preference for a large/risky option and increased response latencies on a probabilistic discounting task. Discrete inactivations of the NAc shell and core revealed further differences between these regions in mediating choice and response latencies, respectively. The effect on choice was attributable to reduced win-stay performance (i.e., choosing risky after a being rewarded for a risky choice on a preceding trial). Moreover, NAc inactivation altered choice only when the large/risky option had greater long-term value, in terms of the amount of food that could be obtained over multiple trials relative to the small/certain option. Inactivation of the NAc or the shell subregion also slightly reduced preference for larger rewards on a reward magnitude discrimination. Thus, the NAc seems to play a small role in biasing choice toward larger rewards, but its contribution to behavior is amplified when delivery of these rewards is uncertain, helping to direct response selection toward more favorable outcomes.

  13. Prenatal malnutrition leads to deficits in attentional set shifting and decreases metabolic activity in prefrontal subregions that control executive function.

    PubMed

    McGaughy, Jill A; Amaral, Ana C; Rushmore, R Jarrett; Mokler, David J; Morgane, Peter J; Rosene, Douglas L; Galler, Janina R

    2014-01-01

    Globally, over 25% of all children under the age of 5 years experience malnutrition leading to cognitive and emotional impairments that can persist into adulthood and beyond. We use a rodent model to determine the impact of prenatal protein malnutrition on executive functions in an attentional set-shifting task and metabolic activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) subregions critical to these behaviors. Long-Evans dams were provided with a low (6% casein) or adequate (25% casein) protein diet 5 weeks before mating and during pregnancy. At birth, the litters were culled to 8 pups and fostered to control dams on the 25% casein diet. At postnatal day 90, prenatally malnourished rats were less able to shift attentional set and reverse reward contingencies than controls, demonstrating cognitive rigidity. Naive same-sexed littermates were assessed for regional brain activity using the metabolic marker (14)C-2-deoxyglucose (2DG). The prenatally malnourished rats had lower metabolic activity than controls in prelimbic, infralimbic, anterior cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortices, but had comparable activity in the nearby piriform cortex and superior colliculus. This study demonstrates that prenatal protein malnutrition in a well-described animal model produces cognitive deficits in tests of attentional set shifting and reversal learning, similar to findings of cognitive inflexibility reported in humans exposed to early childhood malnutrition. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Possible Source Populations of the White-backed Planthopper in the Greater Mekong Subregion Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-yong; Chu, Dong; Yin, Yan-qiong; Zhao, Xue-qing; Chen, Ai-dong; Khay, Sathya; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Kyaw, Mu Mu; Kongchuensin, Manita; Ngo, Vien Vinh; Nguyen, Chung Huy

    2016-01-01

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a serious pest of rice in Asia. However, little is known regarding the migration of this pest insect from the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) including Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and Vietnam, into China’s Yunnan Province. To determine the migration patterns of S. furcifera in the GMS and putative secondary immigration inside China’s Yunnan Province, we investigated the population genetic diversity, genetic structure, and gene flow of 42 S. furcifera populations across the six countries in the GMS by intensive sampling using mitochondrial genes. Our study revealed the potential emigration of S. furcifera from the GMS consists primarily of three major sources: 1) the S. furcifera from Laos and Vietnam migrate into south and southeast Yunnan, where they proceed to further migrate into northeast and central Yunnan; 2) the S. furcifera from Myanmar migrate into west Yunnan, and/or central Yunnan, and/or northeast Yunnan; 3) the S. furcifera from Cambodia migrate into southwest Yunnan, where the populations can migrate further into central Yunnan. The new data will not only be helpful in predicting population dynamics of the planthopper, but will also aid in regional control programs for this economically important pest insect. PMID:27991532

  15. Perturbed connectivity of the amygdala and its subregions with the central executive and default mode networks in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Oathes, Desmond; Hush, Julia; Darnall, Beth; Charvat, Mylea; Mackey, Sean; Etkin, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Maladaptive responses to pain-related distress, such as pain catastrophizing, amplify the impairments associated with chronic pain. Many of these aspects of chronic pain are similar to affective distress in clinical anxiety disorders. In light of the role of the amygdala in pain and affective distress, disruption of amygdalar functional connectivity in anxiety states, and its implication in the response to noxious stimuli, we investigated amygdala functional connectivity in 17 patients with chronic low back pain and 17 healthy comparison subjects, with respect to normal targets of amygdala subregions (basolateral vs centromedial nuclei), and connectivity to large-scale cognitive-emotional networks, including the default mode network, central executive network, and salience network. We found that patients with chronic pain had exaggerated and abnormal amygdala connectivity with central executive network, which was most exaggerated in patients with the greatest pain catastrophizing. We also found that the normally basolateral-predominant amygdala connectivity to the default mode network was blunted in patients with chronic pain. Our results therefore highlight the importance of the amygdala and its network-level interaction with large-scale cognitive/affective cortical networks in chronic pain, and help link the neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive theories for pain with other clinical states of affective distress.

  16. Conceptualizing suffering and pain.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Gómez, Noelia

    2017-09-29

    This article aims to contribute to a better conceptualization of pain and suffering by providing non-essential and non-naturalistic definitions of both phenomena. Contributions of classical evidence-based medicine, the humanistic turn in medicine, as well as the phenomenology and narrative theories of suffering and pain, together with certain conceptions of the person beyond them (the mind-body dichotomy, Cassel's idea of persons as "intact beings") are critically discussed with such purpose. A philosophical methodology is used, based on the review of existent literature on the topic and the argumentation in favor of what are found as better definitions of suffering and pain. Pain can be described in neurological terms but cognitive awareness, interpretation, behavioral dispositions, as well as cultural and educational factors have a decisive influence on pain perception. Suffering is proposed to be defined as an unpleasant or even anguishing experience, severely affecting a person at a psychophysical and existential level. Pain and suffering are considered unpleasant. However, the provided definitions neither include the idea that pain and suffering can attack and even destroy the self nor the idea that they can constructively expand the self; both perspectives can b e equally useful for managing pain and suffering, but they are not defining features of the same. Including the existential dimension in the definition of suffering highlights the relevance of suffering in life and its effect on one's own attachment to the world (including personal management, or the cultural and social influences which shape it). An understanding of pain and suffering life experiences is proposed, meaning that they are considered aspects of a person's life, and the self is the ever-changing sum of these (and other) experiences. The provided definitions will be useful to the identification of pain and suffering, to the discussion of how to relieve them, and to a better understanding

  17. Ecosystem conceptual model- Mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpers, Charles N.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Foe, Chris; Klasing, Susan; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Slotton, Darell G.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2008-01-01

    mercury conceptual model and its four submodels (1. Methylation, 2. Bioaccumulation, 3. Human Health Effects, and 4. Wildlife Heath Effects) can be used to understand the general relationships among drivers and outcomes associated with mercury cycling in the Delta. Several linkages between important drivers and outcomes have been identified as important but highly uncertain (i.e. poorly understood). For example, there may be significant wildlife health effect of mercury on mammals and reptiles in the Delta, but there is currently very little or no information about it. The characteristics of such linkages are important when prioritizing and funding restoration projects and associated monitoring in the Delta and its tributaries.

  18. Conceptualizations of Novice and Experienced Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jack; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined conceptualizations of 11 experienced and 12 novice counselors, with respect to general counseling process and specific client concerns by means of a two-part conceptual mapping task (CMT). Found an interaction effect of counselor experience and generality of conceptual task on extensiveness of counselor conceptualizations. (ABL)

  19. Disruption of the direct perforant path input to the CA1 subregion of the dorsal hippocampus interferes with spatial working memory and novelty detection.

    PubMed

    Vago, David R; Kesner, Raymond P

    2008-06-03

    Subregional analyses of the hippocampus suggest CA1-dependent memory processes rely heavily upon interactions between the CA1 subregion and entorhinal cortex. There is evidence that the direct perforant path (pp) projection to CA1 is selectively modulated by dopamine while having little to no effect on the Schaffer collateral (SC) projection to CA1. The current study takes advantage of this pharmacological dissociation to demonstrate that local infusion of the non-selective dopamine agonist, apomorphine (10, 15 microg), into the CA1 subregion of awake animals produces impairments in working memory at intermediate (5 min), but not short-term (10 s) delays within a delayed non-match-to-place task on a radial arm maze. Sustained impairments were also found in a novel context with similar object-space relationships. Infusion of apomorphine into CA1 is also shown here to produce deficits in spatial, but not non-spatial novelty detection within an object exploration paradigm. In contrast, apomorphine produces no behavioral deficits when infused into the CA3 subregion or overlying cortex. These behavioral studies are supported by previous electrophysiological data that demonstrate local infusion of the same doses of apomorphine significantly modifies evoked responses in the distal dendrites of CA1 following angular bundle stimulation, but produces no significant effects in the proximal dendritic layer following stimulation of the SC. These results support a modulatory role for dopamine in EC-CA1, but not CA3-CA1 circuitry, and suggest the possibility of a fundamental role for EC-CA1 synaptic transmission in terms of detection of spatial novelty, and intermediate-term, but not short-term spatial working memory or object-novelty detection.

  20. The role of the direct perforant path input to the CA1 subregion of the dorsal hippocampus in memory retention and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Vago, David R; Bevan, Adam; Kesner, Raymond P

    2007-01-01

    Subregional analyses of the hippocampus have suggested a selective role for the CA1 subregion in intermediate/long-term spatial memory and consolidation, but not short-term acquisition or encoding processes. It remains unclear how the direct cortical projection to CA1 via the perforant path (pp) contributes to these CA1-dependent processes. It has been suggested that dopamine selectively modulates the pp projection to CA1 while having little to no effect on the Schaffer collateral (SC) projection to CA1. This series of behavioral and electrophysiological experiments takes advantage of this pharmacological dissociation to demonstrate that the direct pp inputs to CA1 are critical in CA1-dependent intermediate-term retention and retrieval function. Here we demonstrate that local infusion of the nonselective dopamine agonist, apomorphine (10, 15 microg), into the CA1 subregion of awake animals produces impairments in between-day retention and retrieval, sparing within-day encoding of a modified Hebb-Williams maze and contextual conditioning of fear. In contrast, apomorphine produces no deficits when infused into the CA3 subregion. To complement the behavioral analyses, electrophysiological data was collected. In anesthetized animals, local infusion of the same doses of apomorphine significantly modifies evoked responses in the distal dendrites of CA1 following angular bundle stimulation, but produces no significant effects in the more proximal dendritic layer following stimulation of the SC. These results support a modulatory role for dopamine in the EC-CA1, but not CA3-CA1 circuitry, and suggest the possibility of a more fundamental role for EC-CA1 synaptic transmission in terms of intermediate-term, but not short-term spatial memory.

  1. Enhancing Decision Support For Climate Adaptation At Sub-Regional To Local Scales Through Collaborative And Interdisciplinary Global Change Research And Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.

    2012-12-01

    The science needed to inform society's response to global environmental change is increasingly demanded at sub-regional to local scales, placing a greater burden on the science community to respond to a wide variety of information needs. Oftentimes, communication barriers prevent even the basic articulation of information needs between the user and science research communities, and furthermore there is frequently a mismatch between available scientific talent within a sub region and the scientific resources demanded to respond appropriately to user inquiries. As a result, innovative approaches to the delivery of scientific information in response to user interests and needs at sub-regional to local levels is required. Here, the authors highlight lessons of three examples of delivering usable scientific information within a mountain watershed on questions relating to 1) local biomass energy production; 2) stream and forest health; and 3) watershed scale climate impacts assessment. We report that common elements to the success of these efforts include a) building relationships with both a broad range of disciplines within the science community as well as a wide range of stakeholder groups locally, b) collecting and translating existing monitoring data and filling monitoring gaps, c) gathering interdisciplinary teams to help answer difficult local scale questions not previously treated in literature, and d) communicating results through mechanisms such as stakeholder collaboratives, community forums, and innovative education and outreach products. We find that these components help communities at local to sub-regional scales identify vulnerabilities and adapative strategies.

  2. Extended gene map reveals tripartite motif, C-type lectin, and Ig superfamily type genes within a subregion of the chicken MHC-B affecting infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Shiina, Takashi; Briles, W Elwood; Goto, Ronald M; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Yanagiya, Kazuyo; Shimizu, Sayoko; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Miller, Marcia M

    2007-06-01

    MHC haplotypes have a remarkable influence on whether tumors form following infection of chickens with oncogenic Marek's disease herpesvirus. Although resistance to tumor formation has been mapped to a subregion of the chicken MHC-B region, the gene or genes responsible have not been identified. A full gene map of the subregion has been lacking. We have expanded the MHC-B region gene map beyond the 92-kb core previously reported for another haplotype revealing the presence of 46 genes within 242 kb in the Red Jungle Fowl haplotype. Even though MHC-B is structured differently, many of the newly revealed genes are related to loci typical of the MHC in other species. Other MHC-B loci are homologs of genes found within MHC paralogous regions (regions thought to be derived from ancient duplications of a primordial immune defense complex where genes have undergone differential silencing over evolutionary time) on other chromosomes. Still others are similar to genes that define the NK complex in mammals. Many of the newly mapped genes display allelic variability and fall within the MHC-B subregion previously shown to affect the formation of Marek's disease tumors and hence are candidates for genes conferring resistance.

  3. In vivo characterization of basal amino acid levels in subregions of the rat nucleus accumbens: effect of a dopamine D(3)/D(2) agonist.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, P; Shilliam, C S; Hughes, Z A; Shah, A J; Roberts, J C; Atkins, A R; Hunter, A J; Heidbreder, C A

    2001-09-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that two subdivisions of the nucleus accumbens, the dorsolateral core and the ventromedial shell can be distinguished by morphological, immunohistochemical and chemoarchitectural differences. In the present study, we measured basal levels of amino acids in microdialysates from both the shell and core subterritories of the nucleus accumbens in freely moving rats using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The effect of the dopamine D(3)/D(2) receptor agonist quinelorane (30 microg/kg s.c.) was then investigated in both subregions. With the exception of glutamate, histidine, and serine, which showed similar levels in both subterritories, alanine, arginine, aspartate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamine, and tyrosine were significantly higher in the shell compared with the core. In contrast, taurine levels were significantly lower in the shell than in the core. A particularly striking difference across subregions of the nucleus accumbens was observed for basal GABA levels with a shell/core ratio of 18.5. Among all the amino acids investigated in the present study, quinelorane selectively decreased dialysate GABA levels in the core subregion of the nucleus accumbens. The results of the present study point to specific profiles of both shell and core in terms of: (1) basal chemical neuroanatomical markers for amino acids; and (2) GABAergic response to the DA D(3)/D(2) agonist quinelorane.

  4. Increased Intrinsic Activity of Medial-Temporal Lobe Subregions is Associated with Decreased Cortical Thickness of Medial-Parietal Areas in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease Dementia.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, Lorenzo; Scherr, Martin; Tahmasian, Masoud; Myers, Nicholas E; Ortner, Marion; Kurz, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Grimmer, Timo; Akhrif, Atae; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), disrupted connectivity between medial-parietal cortices and medial-temporal lobes (MTL) is linked with increased MTL local functional connectivity, and parietal atrophy is associated with increased MTL memory activation. We hypothesized that intrinsic activity in MTL subregions is increased and associated with medial-parietal degeneration and impaired memory in AD. To test this hypothesis, resting-state-functional and structural-MRI was assessed in 22 healthy controls, 22 mild cognitive impairment patients, and 21 AD-dementia patients. Intrinsic activity was measured by power-spectrum density of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal, medial-parietal degeneration by cortical thinning. In AD-dementia patients, intrinsic activity was increased for several right MTL subregions. Raised intrinsic activity in dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis 1 was associated with cortical thinning in posterior cingulate cortices, and at-trend with impaired delayed recall. Critically, increased intrinsic activity in the right entorhinal cortex was associated with ipsilateral posterior cingulate degeneration. Our results provide evidence that in AD, intrinsic activity in MTL subregions is increased and associated with medial-parietal atrophy. Results fit a model in which medial-parietal degeneration contributes to MTL dysconnectivity from medial-parietal cortices, potentially underpinning disinhibition-like changes in MTL activity.

  5. Conceptual object-oriented design

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, M.A.

    1990-10-01

    Conceptual object-oriented design (COOD) is a methodology that is being used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to study, plan, specify, and document high-level solutions to large-scale information processing problems. COOD embodies aspects of object-oriented program design philosophy (which is being applied to the implementation design of software) to provide enhanced tools and techniques for conceptual design. COOD is targeted at the phase of software development following requirements analysis and prior to implementation or detailed design. This step is necessary, particularly for large-scale information processing systems to achieve the following: allow designers to conceptually work out solutions to information processing problems where innovative thinking is required, allow a structured environment in which to capture design products, and provide a global view of the conceptual solution in an understandable form to the implementors of the solution. This will facilitate their detailed design efforts. The product of COOD is a conceptual design specification.'' This specification is delivered to an implementation team to assist the detailed design process, yet is not a software specification in and of itself.

  6. Conceptual Metaphor and the Study of Conceptual Change: Research Synthesis and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Tamer G.

    2015-01-01

    Many of the goals of research on conceptual metaphor in science education overlap with the goals of research on conceptual change. The relevance of a conceptual metaphor perspective to the study of conceptual change has already been discussed. However, a substantial body of literature on conceptual metaphor in science education has now emerged.…

  7. A reliable protocol for the manual segmentation of the human amygdala and its subregions using ultra-high resolution MRI

    PubMed Central

    Entis, Jonathan J.; Doerga, Priya; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Dickerson, Bradford C.

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the volume of the human amygdala in vivo has received increasing attention over the past decade, but existing methods face several challenges. First, due to the amorphous appearance of the amygdala and the difficulties in interpreting its boundaries, it is common for protocols to omit sizable sections of the rostral and dorsal regions of the amygdala comprising parts of the basolateral complex (BL) and central nucleus (Ce), respectively. Second, segmentation of the amgydaloid complex into separate subdivisions is challenging due to the resolution of routinely acquired images and the lack of standard protocols. Recent advances in technology have made ultra-high resolution MR images available, and in this study we provide a detailed segmentation protocol for manually tracing the whole amygdala that incorporates a greater portion of the rostral and dorsal sections with techniques illustrated in detail to maximize reproducibility. In addition, we propose a geometrically-based protocol for segmenting the amygdala into four component subregions of interest (sROI), which correspond largely to amygdala subnuclear divisions: the BL sROI, centromedial (CM) sROI, basomedial (BM) sROI, and the amygdaloid cortical (ACo) sROI. We performed an intra- and inter-rater reliability study of our methods in 10 adults (5 young adults and 5 older adults). The results indicate that both protocols can be implemented with a high degree of reliability (the majority of intra-rater and inter-rater correlations were >0.81). This protocol should aid further research into the alterations in amygdala anatomy, connectivity, and function that accompany normal aging and pathology associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22245260

  8. A reliable protocol for the manual segmentation of the human amygdala and its subregions using ultra-high resolution MRI.

    PubMed

    Entis, Jonathan J; Doerga, Priya; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2012-04-02

    The measurement of the volume of the human amygdala in vivo has received increasing attention over the past decade, but existing methods face several challenges. First, due to the amorphous appearance of the amygdala and the difficulties in interpreting its boundaries, it is common for protocols to omit sizable sections of the rostral and dorsal regions of the amygdala comprising parts of the basolateral complex (BL) and central nucleus (Ce), respectively. Second, segmentation of the amgydaloid complex into separate subdivisions is challenging due to the resolution of routinely acquired images and the lack of standard protocols. Recent advances in technology have made ultra-high resolution MR images available, and in this study we provide a detailed segmentation protocol for manually tracing the whole amygdala that incorporates a greater portion of the rostral and dorsal sections with techniques illustrated in detail to maximize reproducibility. In addition, we propose a geometrically-based protocol for segmenting the amygdala into four component subregions of interest (sROI), which correspond largely to amygdala subnuclear divisions: the BL sROI, centromedial (CM) sROI, basomedial (BM) sROI, and the amygdaloid cortical (ACo) sROI. We performed an intra- and inter-rater reliability study of our methods in 10 adults (5 young adults and 5 older adults). The results indicate that both protocols can be implemented with a high degree of reliability (the majority of intra-rater and inter-rater correlations were > 0.81). This protocol should aid further research into the alterations in amygdala anatomy, connectivity, and function that accompany normal aging and pathology associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Segregated Anatomical Input to Sub-Regions of the Rodent Superior Colliculus Associated with Approach and Defense

    PubMed Central

    Comoli, Eliane; Das Neves Favaro, Plínio; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Leriche, Mariana; Overton, Paul G.; Redgrave, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is responsible for sensorimotor transformations required to direct gaze toward or away from unexpected, biologically salient events. Significant changes in the external world are signaled to SC through primary multisensory afferents, spatially organized according to a retinotopic topography. For animals, where an unexpected event could indicate the presence of either predator or prey, early decisions to approach or avoid are particularly important. Rodents’ ecology dictates predators are most often detected initially as movements in upper visual field (mapped in medial SC), while appetitive stimuli are normally found in lower visual field (mapped in lateral SC). Our purpose was to exploit this functional segregation to reveal neural sites that can bias or modulate initial approach or avoidance responses. Small injections of Fluoro-Gold were made into medial or lateral sub-regions of intermediate and deep layers of SC (SCm/SCl). A remarkable segregation of input to these two functionally defined areas was found. (i) There were structures that projected only to SCm (e.g., specific cortical areas, lateral geniculate and suprageniculate thalamic nuclei, ventromedial and premammillary hypothalamic nuclei, and several brainstem areas) or SCl (e.g., primary somatosensory cortex representing upper body parts and vibrissae and parvicellular reticular nucleus in the brainstem). (ii) Other structures projected to both SCm and SCl but from topographically segregated populations of neurons (e.g., zona incerta and substantia nigra pars reticulata). (iii) There were a few brainstem areas in which retrogradely labeled neurons were spatially overlapping (e.g., pedunculopontine nucleus and locus coeruleus). These results indicate significantly more structures across the rat neuraxis are in a position to modulate defense responses evoked from SCm, and that neural mechanisms modulating SC-mediated defense or appetitive behavior are almost entirely

  10. Variable activation in striatal subregions across components of a social influence task in young adult cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Jodi M; Lee, Sang; Kuster, John K; Lee, Myung Joo; Kim, Byoung Woo; van der Kouwe, Andre; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2016-05-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated the importance of social influence in initiation and maintenance of drug use, but little is known about neural mechanisms underlying social influence in young adults who use recreational drugs. To better understand whether the neural and/or behavioral response to social influence differs in young adults using illicit drugs, 20 marijuana-using young adults (MJ) aged 18-25, and 20 controls (CON) performed a decision-making task in the context of social influence, while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. A priori analyses focused on the nucleus accumbens (NAc), with post hoc analyses in the rest of the striatum. In this task, participants could choose to either follow or go against group influence. When subjects applied social information to response choice selection (independent of following or going against group influence), we observed activation in the middle striatum (caudate), in the MJ group only, that extended ventrally into the NAc. MJ users but not CON showed greater activation in the NAc but not the caudate while making choices congruent with group influence as opposed to choices going against group influence. Activation in the NAc when following social influence was associated with amount of drug use reported. In contrast, during the feedback phase of the task we observed significant NAc activation in both MJ and CON, along with dorsal caudate activation only in MJ participants. This NAc activation did not correlate with drug use. This study shows that MJ users, but not CON, show differential brain activation across striatal subregions when applying social information to make a decision, following versus going against a group of peers, or receiving positive feedback. The current work suggests that differential neural sensitivity to social influence in regions such as the striatum may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of marijuana use.

  11. Subregional differences in the generation of fast network oscillations in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Glykos, Vasileios; Whittington, Miles A; LeBeau, Fiona E N

    2015-01-01

    Fast network oscillations in the beta (20–30 Hz) and low gamma (30–80 Hz) range underlie higher cognitive functions associated with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) including attention and working memory. Using a combination of kainate (KA, 200 nm) and the cholinergic agonist carbachol (Cb, 10 μm) fast network oscillations, in the beta frequency range, were evoked in the rat mPFC in vitro. Oscillations were elicited in the prelimbic (PrL), infralimbic (IL) and the dorsopeduncular (DP) cortex, with the largest oscillations observed in DP cortex. Oscillations in both the PrL and DP were dependent, with slightly different sensitivities, on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and kainate receptors, but only oscillations in the DP were significantly reduced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade. Intracellular recordings showed that 9/20 regular spiking (RS) cells in the PrL exhibited a notable cAMP-dependent hyperpolarisation activated current (Ih) in contrast to 16/17 in the DP cortex. Extracellular single unit recordings showed that the majority of cells in the PrL, and DP regions had interspike firing frequencies (IFFs) at beta (20–30 Hz) frequencies and fired at the peak negativity of the field oscillation. Recordings in DP revealed presumed inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) that were larger in amplitude and more rhythmic than those in the PrL region. Our data suggest that each PFC subregion may be capable of generating distinct patterns of network activity with different cell types involved. Variation in the properties of oscillations evoked in the PrL and DP probably reflects the distinct functional roles of these different PFC regions. PMID:26041504

  12. Genetic Diversity and Lack of Artemisinin Selection Signature on the Plasmodium falciparum ATP6 in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Miao; Wang, Zenglei; Yang, Zhaoqing; Yuan, Lili; Parker, Daniel M.; Putaporntip, Chaturong; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Xangsayarath, Phonepadith; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Moji, Hazuhiko; Dinh Tuong, Trinh; Abe, Tomoko; Nakazawa, Shusuke; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Yan, Guiyun; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Mu, Jianbing; Su, Xin-zhuan; Kaneko, Osamu; Cui, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    The recent detection of clinical Artemisinin (ART) resistance manifested as delayed parasite clearance in the Cambodia-Thailand border area raises a serious concern. The mechanism of ART resistance is not clear; but the P. falciparum sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (PfSERCA or PfATP6) has been speculated to be the target of ARTs and thus a potential marker for ART resistance. Here we amplified and sequenced pfatp6 gene (∼3.6 Kb) in 213 samples collected after 2005 from the Greater Mekong Subregion, where ART drugs have been used extensively in the past. A total of 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including 8 newly found in this study and 13 nonsynonymous, were identified. However, these mutations were either uncommon or also present in other geographical regions with limited ART use. None of the mutations were suggestive of directional selection by ARTs. We further analyzed pfatp6 from a worldwide collection of 862 P. falciparum isolates in 19 populations from Asia, Africa, South America and Oceania, which include samples from regions prior to and after deployments ART drugs. A total of 71 SNPs were identified, resulting in 106 nucleotide haplotypes. Similarly, many of the mutations were continent-specific and present at frequencies below 5%. The most predominant and perhaps the ancestral haplotype occurred in 441 samples and was present in 16 populations from Asia, Africa, and Oceania. The 3D7 haplotype found in 54 samples was the second most common haplotype and present in nine populations from all four continents. Assessment of the selection strength on pfatp6 in the 19 parasite populations found that pfatp6 in most of these populations was under purifying selection with an average dN/dS ratio of 0.333. Molecular evolution analyses did not detect significant departures from neutrality in pfatp6 for most populations, challenging the suitability of this gene as a marker for monitoring ART resistance. PMID:23555629

  13. Setup Uncertainties of Anatomical Sub-Regions in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients After Offline CBCT Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kranen, Simon van; Beek, Suzanne van; Rasch, Coen; Herk, Marcel van; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To quantify local geometrical uncertainties in anatomical sub-regions during radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Local setup accuracy was analyzed for 38 patients, who had received intensity-modulated radiotherapy and were regularly scanned during treatment with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for offline patient setup correction. In addition to the clinically used large region of interest (ROI), we defined eight ROIs in the planning CT that contained rigid bony structures: the mandible, larynx, jugular notch, occiput bone, vertebrae C1-C3, C3-C5, and C5-C7, and the vertebrae caudal of C7. By local rigid registration to successive CBCT scans, the local setup accuracy of each ROI was determined and compared with the overall setup error assessed with the large ROI. Deformations were distinguished from rigid body movements by expressing movement relative to a reference ROI (vertebrae C1-C3). Results: The offline patient setup correction protocol using the large ROI resulted in residual systematic errors (1 SD) within 1.2 mm and random errors within 1.5 mm for each direction. Local setup errors were larger, ranging from 1.1 to 3.4 mm (systematic) and 1.3 to 2.5 mm (random). Systematic deformations ranged from 0.4 mm near the reference C1-C3 to 3.8 mm for the larynx. Random deformations ranged from 0.5 to 3.6 mm. Conclusion: Head-and-neck cancer patients show considerable local setup variations, exceeding residual global patient setup uncertainty in an offline correction protocol. Current planning target volume margins may be inadequate to account for these uncertainties. We propose registration of multiple ROIs to drive correction protocols and adaptive radiotherapy to reduce the impact of local setup variations.

  14. Conceptual models of information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual information processing issues are examined. Human information processing is defined as an active cognitive process that is analogous to a system. It is the flow and transformation of information within a human. The human is viewed as an active information seeker who is constantly receiving, processing, and acting upon the surrounding environmental stimuli. Human information processing models are conceptual representations of cognitive behaviors. Models of information processing are useful in representing the different theoretical positions and in attempting to define the limits and capabilities of human memory. It is concluded that an understanding of conceptual human information processing models and their applications to systems design leads to a better human factors approach.

  15. Psychiatric disorders: a conceptual taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Zachar, Peter; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2007-04-01

    This article summarizes six conceptual dimensions that underlie common assumptions about what counts as an adequate category of psychiatric disorder. These dimensions are 1) causalism-descriptivism, 2) essentialism-nominalism, 3) objectivism-evaluativism, 4) internalism-externalism, 5) entities-agents, and 6) categories-continua. Four different versions of the medical model are described and compared with respect to these dimensions. The medical models vary in several ways, but all can be considered "essentialistic." As a counter to the essentialist homogeneity among the medical models, two nominalist analyses of psychiatric classification are reviewed. In order to fill out the space defined by the conceptual dimensions, two alternatives to medical model approaches are also described. After making some suggestions about where DSM-V might best be aligned with respect to the conceptual dimensions, the authors review the distinction between empirical and nonempirical aspects of classification--and argue that nonempirical aspects of classification are legitimate and necessary.

  16. Conceptual models of information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual information processing issues are examined. Human information processing is defined as an active cognitive process that is analogous to a system. It is the flow and transformation of information within a human. The human is viewed as an active information seeker who is constantly receiving, processing, and acting upon the surrounding environmental stimuli. Human information processing models are conceptual representations of cognitive behaviors. Models of information processing are useful in representing the different theoretical positions and in attempting to define the limits and capabilities of human memory. It is concluded that an understanding of conceptual human information processing models and their applications to systems design leads to a better human factors approach.

  17. Fine-mapping markers of lung cancer susceptibility in a sub-region of chromosome 19q13.3 among Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jiaoyang; Wang, Huiwen; Vogel, Ulla; Wang, Chunhong; Ma, Yegang; Hou, Wei; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Li; Li, Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium-mapping studies in Caucasians have indicated anassociation of Chr19q13.3 sub-region spanning ERCC2, PPP1R13L, CD3EAP and ERCC1 with several cancers. To refine the region of association and identify potential causal variations among Asians, we performed a fine-mapping study using 32 (39) SNPs in a 71.654kb sub-region. The study included 384 Chinese lung cancer cases and 387 controls. Seven closely situated SNPs showed significant associations with lung cancer risk in five different genetic models of single-locus associations (adjusted for smoking duration). These were PPP1R13L rs1970764 [OR (95% CI) = 1.58 (1.09-2.29), P = 0.014] in a recessive model and PPP1R13L rs1005165 [OR (95% CI) = 1.25 (1.01-1.54), P = 0.036], CD3EAP rs967591 [OR (95% CI) = 1.40 (1.13-1.75), P = 0.0023], rs735482 [OR (95% CI) = 1.29 (1.03-1.61), P = 0.026], rs1007616 [OR (95% CI) = 0.78 (0.61-1.00), P = 0.046], and rs62109563 [OR (95% CI) = 1.28 (1.03-1.59), P = 0.024] in a log-additive model and ERCC1 rs3212965 [OR (95% CI) = 0.70 (0.52-0.94), P = 0.019] in an over-dominant model. Six-haplotype blocks were determined in the sub-region. Using an alternative approach where we performed a haplotype analysis of all significant polymorphisms, rs1970764 was found to be most consistently associated with lung cancer risk. The combined data suggest that the sub-region with the strongest association to lung cancer susceptibility might locate to the 23.173kb from PPP1R13L intron8 rs1970764 to rs62109563 3′ to CD3EAP. Limited risk loci and span on lung cancer in this sub-region are initially defined among Asians. PMID:27183913

  18. How Natural are Conceptual Anaphors?

    PubMed Central

    Oakhill, Jane; Garnham, Alan; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Cain, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports three experiments on the interpretation of “conceptual” anaphors. These are anaphors that do not have an explicit linguistic antecedent, but one constructed from context. For instance, if one says “I need a knife. Where do you keep them?”, them means something like “the knives that I presume you have in your house”. In the first experiment, subjects rated sentences containing conceptual anaphors, of three different types, to be as natural as ones with a “linguistically correct” antecedent (e.g. “I need an iron. Where do you keep it?”), and as more natural than ones with neither a plausible conceptual antecedent nor a plausible linguistic one. In a second (self-paced) experiment, subjects judged whether the second sentence in such pairs was a sensible continuation from the first, and the time to make these judgements was measured. We found that acceptability judgements were high, and judgement times low, in just those sentences that were rated as more natural in the first experiment. These first two experiments showed that conceptual anaphors are quite easily understood. However, they did not show that such anaphors are processed without difficulty. In the third experiment, we therefore compared conceptual anaphors (“plate … them”) with matched plural anaphors whose antecedents were explicit (“some plates … them”). The results were different for different types of anaphor: in one case (pronouns that referred to collective sets), the conceptual version followed by a plural pronoun was easier than the explicit plural version. For the other two types (references to generics and to implied multiple items), the explicit plurals were understood more rapidly than their conceptual counterparts. PMID:25520536

  19. Indexes of severity: conceptual development.

    PubMed Central

    Krischer, J P

    1979-01-01

    A discussion of severity index development is presented in relation to conceptual issues in index definition, analytic issues in index formulation and validation issues in index application. The CHOP index is discussed along with six severity indexes described in an earlier paper dealing with underlying concepts to illustrate the material presented. Replies are provided to specific questions raised in an accompanying paper discussing the Injury Severity Score. This conceptual material is presented to provide a foundation for severity index development, to suggest criteria to be used in their formulation and testing, and to identify analyses that can lead to the successful selection and application of an index for a defined purpose. PMID:468553

  20. Conceptualizing Conceptual Teaching: Practical Strategies for Large Instrumental Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Half a century ago, calls had already been made for instrumental ensemble directors to move beyond performance to include the teaching of musical concepts in the rehearsal hall. Relatively recent research, however, suggests that conceptual teaching remains relatively infrequent during rehearsals. Given the importance of teaching for long-term…

  1. Conceptualizing Conceptual Teaching: Practical Strategies for Large Instrumental Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Half a century ago, calls had already been made for instrumental ensemble directors to move beyond performance to include the teaching of musical concepts in the rehearsal hall. Relatively recent research, however, suggests that conceptual teaching remains relatively infrequent during rehearsals. Given the importance of teaching for long-term…

  2. Being judicious: a creative conceptualization.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Mary R

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this column is to present a uniquely conceived nursing phenomenon inspired by an artform, to discuss its relevance for nursing knowledge development in light of a preliminary review of literature and the creative conceptualization process, and to suggest an appropriate mode for further inquiry.

  3. Teaching Algebra Conceptually: Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsell, Chris; Tozer, Lynn; Anakin, Megan; Cox, Anna; Jones, Rachel; McAuslan, Eric; Smith, Donna; Turner, Garry

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports findings from the second year of a two-year study designed to develop approaches to teaching algebra in years 9 and 10. The aim of the research was to explore and develop teaching approaches to assist students to acquire a conceptual understanding of algebra, and to document the impact of these approaches on student outcomes.…

  4. Visitors' conceptualizations of wilderness experiences

    Treesearch

    Erin Seekamp; Troy Hall; David Cole

    2012-01-01

    Despite 50 years of wilderness visitor experience research, it is not well understood how visitors conceptualize a wilderness experience. Diverging from etic approaches to wilderness visitor experience research, the research presented in this paper applied an emic approach to identify wilderness experience attributes. Specifically, qualitative data from 173 on-site...

  5. Many Mansions: Conceptualizing Translingual Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmetdinova, Alsu; Burdick, Jake

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a vision for fostering multilingualism in schools that extends the notion of translanguaging to include the realm of multilingual curriculum theorizing. We locate our analysis at the intersection of multicultural education, multilingual education, and curriculum studies in order to conceptualize language, culture, and…

  6. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S.; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified…

  7. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S.; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified…

  8. MINIMARS conceptual design: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1986-09-01

    This volume contains the following sections: (1) fueling systems; (2) blanket; (3) alternative blanket concepts; (4) halo scraper/direct converter system study and final conceptual design; (5) heat-transport and power-conversion systems; (6) tritium systems; (7) minimars air detritiation system; (8) appropriate radiological safety design criteria; and (9) cost estimate. (MOW)

  9. Conceptualizing the World of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, William H.; Bailey, Larry J.

    1973-01-01

    The conceptual model described here has resulted from the need to organize a body of knowledge related to the world of work which would enable curriculum developers to prepare accurate, realistic instructional materials. The world of work is described by applying Malinowski's scientific study of the structural components of culture. (Author/DS)

  10. Epistemic Motivation and Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Robert A.; And Others

    While the conceptual change model of learning has contributed much to our understanding of how children learn science, recent criticisms of the model point out its lack of attention to motivational issues. This paper examines one such motivational construct of importance to the model: epistemic motivation. After a description of the construct, we…

  11. A Taxonomy for Conceptualizing Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seda, E. Elliott

    This paper details the development of a taxonomy for conceptualizing teaching. This taxonomy is presented as a means to help educators understand and interpret what it is they do and continue in the process of searching and understanding. The purpose of developing a taxonomy, the basis for the dimensions--or subject matter--for the taxonomy, and…

  12. Many Mansions: Conceptualizing Translingual Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmetdinova, Alsu; Burdick, Jake

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a vision for fostering multilingualism in schools that extends the notion of translanguaging to include the realm of multilingual curriculum theorizing. We locate our analysis at the intersection of multicultural education, multilingual education, and curriculum studies in order to conceptualize language, culture, and…

  13. Comprehending Conceptual Anaphors in Spanish

    PubMed Central

    Carreiras, Manuel; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the mechanisms involved in the assignment of an antecedent to an anaphoric element. In general, pronouns must match their antecedents at least with respect to number and gender. Sensitivity to such constraints has been shown in several experiments. But Gernsbacher (1991) has also shown that people have no difficulty comprehending a plural pronoun with an antecedent that is grammatically singular but conceptually plural. In the first three experiments, we tested whether such a “conceptual effect” was preserved with zero anaphors in Spanish. (The typical omission of pronouns in subject position in Spanish.) Verbs in a second clause were marked with plural or singular endings. Plural verbs were rated more natural than singular verbs when they followed three types of singular but conceptually plural antecedents (Experiment 1). Clauses containing plural verbs were read faster when they followed one type of singular but conceptually plural antecedents, i.e. collective sets (Experiments 2 and 3). In fact, clauses containing plural verbs were read equally fast when they followed literally singular collective sets or explicitly group nouns. Using pronominal anaphors, these reading time effects were replicated and extended to sentences that contained generic types as antecedents (Experiment 4). The results are discussed in terms of the use of information during the comprehension of anaphors. PMID:25425750

  14. A Behavioral Conceptualization of Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jonathan C.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Raetz, Paige B.

    2008-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 1 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of aphasia is also possible. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes a…

  15. Teacher Turnover: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Garcia, Cynthia; Slate, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we reviewed the available literature concerning teacher turnover. The seriousness of this issue was addressed as cause for concern is clearly present. Issues we examined in this conceptual analysis were the federal government's role in public education, the No Child Left Behind Act, teacher turnover, teacher retention, teacher…

  16. The Theory of Conceptual Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergnaud, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    The theory of conceptual fields is a developmental theory. It has two aims: (1) to describe and analyse the progressive complexity, on a long- and medium-term basis, of the mathematical competences that students develop inside and outside school, and (2) to establish better connections between the operational form of knowledge, which consists in…

  17. Conceptualizing the World of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, William H.; Bailey, Larry J.

    1973-01-01

    The conceptual model described here has resulted from the need to organize a body of knowledge related to the world of work which would enable curriculum developers to prepare accurate, realistic instructional materials. The world of work is described by applying Malinowski's scientific study of the structural components of culture. (Author/DS)

  18. Compact Photon Source Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Degtyarenko, Pavel V.; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2016-04-01

    We describe options for the production of an intense photon beam at the CEBAF Hall D Tagger facility, needed for creating a high-quality secondary K 0 L delivered to the Hall D detector. The conceptual design for the Compact Photon Source apparatus is presented.

  19. Conceptual Knowledge of Decimal Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lortie-Forgues, Hugues; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    In two studies (N's = 55 and 54), we examined a basic form of conceptual understanding of rational number arithmetic, the direction of effect of decimal arithmetic operations, at a level of detail useful for informing instruction. Middle school students were presented tasks examining knowledge of the direction of effects (e.g., "True or…

  20. Conceptual Knowledge in Introductory Calculus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paul; Mitchelmore, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Responses to rate-of-change problems were collected during and after 24 hours of conceptual calculus instruction given to first-year university students. Analysis revealed three categories of error in which variables were treated as symbols to be manipulated rather than quantities to be related. Contains test questions. (Author/MKR)

  1. Conceptual Knowledge of Decimal Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lortie-Forgues, Hugues; Siegler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    In 2 studies (Ns = 55 and 54), the authors examined a basic form of conceptual understanding of rational number arithmetic, the direction of effect of decimal arithmetic operations, at a level of detail useful for informing instruction. Middle school students were presented tasks examining knowledge of the direction of effects (e.g., "True or…

  2. Mental Computation and Conceptual Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blote, Anke W.; Klein, Anton S.; Beishuizen, Meindert

    2000-01-01

    Assessed the strategic flexibility of students in mental arithmetic up to the number 100. Results from 60 Dutch second graders show that students' preference for certain mathematical procedures depend on the number characteristics of the problems, indicating that the students had a good conceptual understanding of numbers and procedures. Actual…

  3. Conceptual Knowledge of Decimal Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lortie-Forgues, Hugues; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    In two studies (N's = 55 and 54), we examined a basic form of conceptual understanding of rational number arithmetic, the direction of effect of decimal arithmetic operations, at a level of detail useful for informing instruction. Middle school students were presented tasks examining knowledge of the direction of effects (e.g., "True or…

  4. A Behavioral Conceptualization of Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jonathan C.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Raetz, Paige B.

    2008-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 1 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of aphasia is also possible. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes a…

  5. The conceptual representation of number.

    PubMed

    Patson, Nikole D; George, Gerret; Warren, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    The experiments reported here investigated the format of plural conceptual representations using a picture-matching paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences that ended with a singular noun phrase (NP), a two-quantified plural NP, or a plural definite description [The parents handed the child the (two) crayon/s] and then saw a picture of one or multiple referents for the NP. Judgement times to confirm that there was overlap between the pictured object(s) and a noun in the sentence showed an interaction between the NP's number and NP-picture match. For singular NPs and two-quantified NPs, participants were reliably faster to respond "yes" to a picture that had the exact number of objects specified by the NP, but for plural definite descriptions, the effect of the number of pictured items was not reliable. Experiment 2 extended this finding to conceptual plurals. Participants read sentences biased toward either a collective (Together the men carried a box-box is interpreted as singular) or distributed (Each of the men carried a box-box is likely interpreted as plural) reading. Experiment 2 showed the same interaction between NP conceptual plurality and NP-picture match as that in Experiment 1. These results suggest that: (a) our default conceptual representations for plural definite descriptions are no more similar to images of small sets of multiple items than to images of singular items; and (b) the difference between singular and plural conceptual representations is unlikely to be simply the presence or absence of a plural feature. The results are consistent with theories in which plurality is unmarked, such that some plural NPs can refer to singular referents [e.g., Sauerland, U., Anderssen, J., & Yatsushiro, J. (2005). The plural is semantically unmarked. In S. Kepser & M. Reis (Eds.), Linguistic evidence (pp. 413-434). Berlin: de Gruyter].

  6. Conceptual Model of the Geometry and Physics of Water Flow in a Fractured Basalt Vadose Zone: Box Canyon Site, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Faybishenko, Boris; Doughty, Christine; Steiger, Michael; Long, Jane C.S.; Wood, Tom; Jacobsen, Janet; Lore, Jason; Zawislanski, Peter T.

    1999-03-01

    A conceptual model of the geometry and physics of water flow in a fractured basalt vadose zone was developed based on the results of lithological studies and a series of ponded infiltration tests conducted at the Box Canyon site near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. The infiltration tests included one two-week test in 1996, three two-day tests in 1997, and one four-day test in 1997. For the various tests, initial infiltration rates ranged from 4.1 cm/day to 17.7 cm/day and then decreased with time, presumably due to mechanical or microbiological clogging of fractures and vesicularbasalt in the near-surface zone, as well as the effect of entrapped air. The subsurface moisture redistribution was monitored with tensiometers, neutron logging, time domain reflectrometry and ground penetrating radar. A conservative tracer, potassium bromide, was added to the pond water at a concentration of 3 g/L to monitor water flow with electrical resistivity probes and water sampling. Analysis of the data showed evidence of preferential flow rather than the propagation of a uniform wetting front. We propose a conceptual model describing the saturation-desaturation behavior of the basalt, in which rapid preferential flow through vertical column-bounding fractures occurs from the surface to the base of the basalt flow. After the rapid wetting of column-bounding fractures, a gradual wetting of other fractures and the basalt matrix occurs. Fractures that are saturated early in the tests may become desaturated thereafter, which we attribute to the redistribution of water between fractures and matrix. Lateral movement of water was also observed within a horizontal central fracture zone and rubble zone, which could have important implications for contaminant accumulation at contaminated sites.

  7. An analysis of health system resources in relation to pandemic response capacity in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is increasing perception that countries cannot work in isolation to militate against the threat of pandemic influenza. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) of Asia, high socio-economic diversity and fertile conditions for the emergence and spread of infectious diseases underscore the importance of transnational cooperation. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution and inequalities can help determine the need for, and inform decisions regarding, resource sharing and mobilisation. Methods We collected data on healthcare resources deemed important for responding to pandemic influenza through surveys of hospitals and district health offices across four countries of the GMS (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, Vietnam). Focusing on four key resource types (oseltamivir, hospital beds, ventilators, and health workers), we mapped and analysed resource distributions at province level to identify relative shortages, mismatches, and clustering of resources. We analysed inequalities in resource distribution using the Gini coefficient and Theil index. Results Three quarters of the Cambodian population and two thirds of the Laotian population live in relatively underserved provinces (those with resource densities in the lowest quintile across the region) in relation to health workers, ventilators, and hospital beds. More than a quarter of the Thai population is relatively underserved for health workers and oseltamivir. Approximately one fifth of the Vietnamese population is underserved for beds and ventilators. All Cambodian provinces are underserved for at least one resource. In Lao PDR, 11 percent of the population is underserved by all four resource items. Of the four resources, ventilators and oseltamivir were most unequally distributed. Cambodia generally showed higher levels of inequalities in resource distribution compared to other countries. Decomposition of the Theil index suggests that inequalities result principally from differences within, rather

  8. Exploitation, Violence, and Suicide Risk Among Child and Adolescent Survivors of Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Ligia; Yun, Katherine; Pocock, Nicola; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-09-01

    Human trafficking and exploitation of children have profound health consequences. To our knowledge, this study represents the largest survey on the health of child and adolescent survivors of human trafficking. To describe experiences of abuse and exploitation, mental health outcomes, and suicidal behavior among children and adolescents in posttrafficking services. We also examine how exposures to violence, exploitation, and abuse affect the mental health and suicidal behavior of trafficked children. A survey was conducted with 387 children and adolescents aged 10 to 17 years in posttrafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, or Vietnam, which along with Laos, Myanmar, and Yunnan Province, China, compose the Greater Mekong Subregion. Participants were interviewed within 2 weeks of entering services from October 2011 through May 2013. Depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, suicidal ideation, self-injury, and suicide attempts. Among the 387 children and adolescent study participants, most (82%) were female. Twelve percent had tried to harm or kill themselves in the month before the interview. Fifty-six percent screened positive for depression, 33% for an anxiety disorder, and 26% for posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse at home was reported by 20%. Physical violence while trafficked was reported by 41% of boys and 19% of girls. Twenty-three percent of girls and 1 boy reported sexual violence. Mental health symptoms were strongly associated with recent self-harm and suicide attempts. Severe physical violence was associated with depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.55; 95% CI, 1.64-7.71), anxiety (AOR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.12-4.05), and suicidal ideation (AOR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.77-7.67). Sexual violence while trafficked was associated with depression (AOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.22-4.23) and suicidal ideation (AOR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.80-6.54). Children and adolescents in posttrafficking care showed high symptom levels of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress

  9. Introductory Students, Conceptual Understanding, and Algorithmic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushkin, David B.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the distinction between conceptual and algorithmic learning and the clarification of what is meant by a second-tier student. Explores why novice learners in chemistry and physics are able to apply algorithms without significant conceptual understanding. (DDR)

  10. Introductory Students, Conceptual Understanding, and Algorithmic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushkin, David B.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the distinction between conceptual and algorithmic learning and the clarification of what is meant by a second-tier student. Explores why novice learners in chemistry and physics are able to apply algorithms without significant conceptual understanding. (DDR)

  11. Issues in Personality Conceptualizations of Addictive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutker, Patricia B.; Allain, Albert N., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Describes issues and implications associated with personality conceptualizations of addictive behaviors. Directs attention toward characterizing the sociopolitical climate's effect on identification, evaluation, and management of substance abuse disorders. Explores alcohol and drug use in conceptual schemata encompassing multifactorial,…

  12. Understanding conceptual change: connecting and questioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Catherine; Kirch, Susan; Basu, Sreyashi Jhumki; Leou, Mary; Fraser-Abder, Pamela

    2008-07-01

    We engage in a metalogue based on eight papers in this issue of Cultural Studies of Science Education that review the state of conceptual change research and its possible affect on the teaching and learning of science. Our discussion addresses three aspects of conceptual change research: theoretical, methodological, and practical, as we discuss conceptual change research in light of our experiences as science educators. Finally, we examine the implications of conceptual change research for the teachers and students with whom we work.

  13. Conceptual graphs for semantics and knowledge processing

    SciTech Connect

    Fargues, J.; Landau, M.C.; Dugourd, A.; Catach, L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the representational and algorithmic power of the conceptual graph model for natural language semantics and knowledge processing. Also described is a Prolog-like resolution method for conceptual graphs, which allows to perform deduction on very large semantic domains. The interpreter developed is similar to a Prolog interpreter in which the terms are any conceptual graphs and in which the unification algorithm is replaced by a specialized algorithm for conceptual graphs.

  14. Biodiversity of the deep-sea continental margin bordering the Gulf of Maine (NW Atlantic): relationships among sub-regions and to shelf systems.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Noreen E; Shea, Elizabeth K; Metaxas, Anna; Haedrich, Richard L; Auster, Peter J

    2010-11-19

    In contrast to the well-studied continental shelf region of the Gulf of Maine, fundamental questions regarding the diversity, distribution, and abundance of species living in deep-sea habitats along the adjacent continental margin remain unanswered. Lack of such knowledge precludes a greater understanding of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem and limits development of alternatives for conservation and management. We use data from the published literature, unpublished studies, museum records and online sources, to: (1) assess the current state of knowledge of species diversity in the deep-sea habitats adjacent to the Gulf of Maine (39-43°N, 63-71°W, 150-3000 m depth); (2) compare patterns of taxonomic diversity and distribution of megafaunal and macrofaunal species among six distinct sub-regions and to the continental shelf; and (3) estimate the amount of unknown diversity in the region. Known diversity for the deep-sea region is 1,671 species; most are narrowly distributed and known to occur within only one sub-region. The number of species varies by sub-region and is directly related to sampling effort occurring within each. Fishes, corals, decapod crustaceans, molluscs, and echinoderms are relatively well known, while most other taxonomic groups are poorly known. Taxonomic diversity decreases with increasing distance from the continental shelf and with changes in benthic topography. Low similarity in faunal composition suggests the deep-sea region harbours faunal communities distinct from those of the continental shelf. Non-parametric estimators of species richness suggest a minimum of 50% of the deep-sea species inventory remains to be discovered. The current state of knowledge of biodiversity in this deep-sea region is rudimentary. Our ability to answer questions is hampered by a lack of sufficient data for many taxonomic groups, which is constrained by sampling biases, life-history characteristics of target species, and the lack of trained taxonomists.

  15. Using Knowledge Building to Foster Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chwee Beng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hong, Huang-Yao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have been many exchanges of perspectives and debates in the field of conceptual change. Most of the classical views on conceptual change have been criticized, and there have been recent discussions around bridging the cognitive and socio-cultural approaches in the research on conceptual change. On the other hand, researchers…

  16. Conceptual Level and Teachers' Written Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Susan L.; Yarger, Sam J.

    Teachers devise lesson plans based on one of two "conceptual levels" (degree and kind of materials, diagnosis, student background research, and classroom and time management). Higher conceptual level (HCL) teachers emphasize diagnosis and student characteristics in their plans, while lower conceptual level (LCL) teachers give special consideration…

  17. Strategies for Teaching Healthy Behavior Conceptual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloeppel, Tiffany; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2012-01-01

    By definition, conceptual knowledge is rich in relationships and understanding the kind of knowledge that may be transferred between situations. Despite the lack of importance that Conceptual Physical Education has been given in previous physical education reform efforts, research findings have shown that Conceptual Physical Education along with…

  18. Strategies for Teaching Healthy Behavior Conceptual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloeppel, Tiffany; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2012-01-01

    By definition, conceptual knowledge is rich in relationships and understanding the kind of knowledge that may be transferred between situations. Despite the lack of importance that Conceptual Physical Education has been given in previous physical education reform efforts, research findings have shown that Conceptual Physical Education along with…

  19. Conceptual Complexity and Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagaseth, Jon A.

    This presentation focuses on a theory of personality development, conceptual systems theory, as a possible resource for the counselor assisting clients in stress. It describes the results of a factor analysis of four measures of conceptual structure which suggested that the construct of conceptual complexity is different from the construct of…

  20. Revealing Conceptual Understanding of International Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, Sue; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students' conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual understanding in higher education. Essays and concept…

  1. On the Origins of the Conceptual System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandler, Jean M.

    2007-01-01

    Contrary to the conventional view of infancy as a sensorimotor period without conceptual thought, research over the past 20 years has shown that preverbal infants are capable of at least 3 conceptual functions: forming concepts with which to interpret the world, recall of the past, and engaging in conceptual generalization. Research is described…

  2. Correlation Between Radiation Dose to {sup 18}F-FDG-PET Defined Active Bone Marrow Subregions and Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Cervical Cancer Patients Treated With Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Brent S.; Liang Yun; Lau, Steven K.; Jensen, Lindsay G.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Hoh, Carl K.; Mell, Loren K.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that radiation dose to {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET)-defined active bone marrow (BM{sub ACT}) subregions is correlated with hematologic toxicity in cervical cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The conditions of 26 women with cervical cancer who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG-PET before treatment with concurrent cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy were analyzed. BM{sub ACT} was defined as the subregion of total bone marrow (BM{sub TOT}) with a standardized uptake value (SUV) equal to or above the mean for that individual. Inactive bone marrow (BM{sub INACT}) was defined as BM{sub TOT} - BM{sub ACT}. Generalized linear modeling was used to test the correlation between BM{sub ACT} and BM{sub INACT} dose-volume metrics and hematologic nadirs, particularly white blood cell count (WBC) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC). Results: Increased BM{sub ACT} mean dose was significantly associated with decreased log(WBC) nadir ({beta} = -0.04; 95% CI, -0.07to -0.01; p = 0.009), decreased log(ANC) nadir ({beta} = -0.05; 95% CI, -0.08 to -0.02; p = 0.006), decreased hemoglobin nadir ({beta} = -0.16; 95% CI, -0.27 to -0.05; p = 0.010), and decreased platelet nadir ({beta} = -6.16; 95% CI, -9.37 to -2.96; p < 0.001). By contrast, there was no association between BM{sub INACT} mean dose and log(WBC) nadir ({beta} = -0.01; 95% CI, -0.06 to 0.05; p = 0.84), log(ANC) nadir ({beta} = -0.03; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.04; p = 0.40), hemoglobin nadir ({beta} = -0.09; 95% CI, -0.31 to 0.14; p = 0.452), or platelet nadir ({beta} = -3.47; 95% CI, -10.44 to 3.50; p = 0.339). Conclusions: Irradiation of BM subregions with higher {sup 18}F-FDG-PET activity was associated with hematologic toxicity, supporting the hypothesis that reducing dose to BM{sub ACT} subregions could mitigate hematologic toxicity. Future investigation should seek to confirm these findings and to identify

  3. Termitotrox cupido sp. n. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae), a new termitophilous scarab species from the Indo-Chinese subregion, associated with Hypotermes termites

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Termitotrox cupido sp. n. is described from Cambodia and represents the first discovery of Termitotrox Reichensperger, 1915 from the Indo-Chinese subregion of the Oriental region. The type series was collected from fungus garden cells of Hypotermes makhamensis Ahmad, 1965 (Isoptera, Termitidae, Macrotermitinae). Hypotermes Holmgren, 1917 was previously an unknown host of Termitotrox species. The new species is readily distinguished from all known congeners by having wing-shaped trichomes on the elytra and is most probably the world’s smallest scarab, at 1.2 mm in length. PMID:23378817

  4. Correlation between radiation dose to ¹⁸F-FDG-PET defined active bone marrow subregions and acute hematologic toxicity in cervical cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rose, Brent S; Liang, Yun; Lau, Steven K; Jensen, Lindsay G; Yashar, Catheryn M; Hoh, Carl K; Mell, Loren K

    2012-07-15

    To test the hypothesis that radiation dose to (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET)-defined active bone marrow (BM(ACT)) subregions is correlated with hematologic toxicity in cervical cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. The conditions of 26 women with cervical cancer who underwent (18)F-FDG-PET before treatment with concurrent cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy were analyzed. BM(ACT) was defined as the subregion of total bone marrow (BM(TOT)) with a standardized uptake value (SUV) equal to or above the mean for that individual. Inactive bone marrow (BM(INACT)) was defined as BM(TOT) - BM(ACT). Generalized linear modeling was used to test the correlation between BM(ACT) and BM(INACT) dose-volume metrics and hematologic nadirs, particularly white blood cell count (WBC) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC). Increased BM(ACT) mean dose was significantly associated with decreased log(WBC) nadir (β = -0.04; 95% CI, -0.07 to -0.01; p = 0.009), decreased log(ANC) nadir (β = -0.05; 95% CI, -0.08 to -0.02; p = 0.006), decreased hemoglobin nadir (β = -0.16; 95% CI, -0.27 to -0.05; p = 0.010), and decreased platelet nadir (β = -6.16; 95% CI, -9.37 to -2.96; p < 0.001). By contrast, there was no association between BM(INACT) mean dose and log(WBC) nadir (β = -0.01; 95% CI, -0.06 to 0.05; p = 0.84), log(ANC) nadir (β = -0.03; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.04; p = 0.40), hemoglobin nadir (β = -0.09; 95% CI, -0.31 to 0.14; p = 0.452), or platelet nadir (β = -3.47; 95% CI, -10.44 to 3.50; p = 0.339). Irradiation of BM subregions with higher (18)F-FDG-PET activity was associated with hematologic toxicity, supporting the hypothesis that reducing dose to BM(ACT) subregions could mitigate hematologic toxicity. Future investigation should seek to confirm these findings and to identify optimal SUV thresholds to define BM(ACT). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. SU-F-BRB-01: How Effective Is Abdominal Compression at Reducing Lung Motion? An Analysis Using Deformable Image Registration Within Different Sub-Regions of the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Paradiso, D; Pearce, A; Leszczynski, K; Oliver, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of employing abdominal compression (AC) in reducing motion for the target region and sub-regions of the lung as part of the planning process for radiation therapy. Methods: Fourteen patients with early lung cancer were scanned with 4DCT and it was determined that target motion exceeded our institutional limit of > 8 mm motion and received a repeat 4DCT with AC. For each 4DCT, deformable image registration (DIR) was used to map the max inhale to the max exhale phase to determine the deformation vector fields (DVF). DIR was performed with Morphons and Demons algorithms. The mean DVF was used to represent that sub-region for each patient. The magnitudes of the mean DVF were quantified for the target and 12 sub-regions in the AP, LR SI directions. The sub-regions were contoured on each lung as (add prefix R or L for lung): Upper-Anterior (UA), Upper-Posterior (UP), Mid-Anterior (MA), Mid-Posterior (MP), Lower-Anterior (LA) and Lower-Posterior (LP). Results: The min/max SI motion for the target on the uncompressed 4DCT was 8mm/24.5 mm. The magnitude of decrease in SI was greatest in the RLP region (3.7±4.0mm) followed by target region (3.3±2.2mm) and finally the LLP region (3.0±3.5mm). The magnitude of decrease in 3D vector followed the same trend; RLP (3.5±2.2mm) then GTV (3.5±2.6mm) then LLP (2.7±3.8mm). 79% of the cases had a SI decrease of >12.5%, 43% had a SI decrease of >25% and 21% had a SI decrease of >50% as compared to the motion on the uncompressed 4DCT. Conclusion: AC is useful in reducing motion with the largest decreases observed in the lower posterior regions of the lungs. However, it should be noted that AC will not greatly decrease motion for all cases as 21% of cases did not reduce SI motion more than 12.5% of initial motion.

  6. Conceptual Models for Search Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, D. G.; Efthimiadis, E. N.

    Search engines have entered popular culture. They touch people in diverse private and public settings and thus heighten the importance of such important social matters as information privacy and control, censorship, and equitable access. To fully benefit from search engines and to participate in debate about their merits, people necessarily appeal to their understandings for how they function. In this chapter we examine the conceptual understandings that people have of search engines by performing a content analysis on the sketches that 200 undergraduate and graduate students drew when asked to draw a sketch of how a search engine works. Analysis of the sketches reveals a diverse range of conceptual approaches, metaphors, representations, and misconceptions. On the whole, the conceptual models articulated by these students are simplistic. However, students with higher levels of academic achievement sketched more complete models. This research calls attention to the importance of improving students' technical knowledge of how search engines work so they can be better equipped to develop and advocate policies for how search engines should be embedded in, and restricted from, various private and public information settings.

  7. Conceptual learning by miniature brains

    PubMed Central

    Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Giurfa, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Concepts act as a cornerstone of human cognition. Humans and non-human primates learn conceptual relationships such as ‘same’, ‘different’, ‘larger than’, ‘better than’, among others. In all cases, the relationships have to be encoded by the brain independently of the physical nature of objects linked by the relation. Consequently, concepts are associated with high levels of cognitive sophistication and are not expected in an insect brain. Yet, various works have shown that the miniature brain of honeybees rapidly learns conceptual relationships involving visual stimuli. Concepts such as ‘same’, ‘different’, ‘above/below of’ or ‘left/right are well mastered by bees. We review here evidence about concept learning in honeybees and discuss both its potential adaptive advantage and its possible neural substrates. The results reviewed here challenge the traditional view attributing supremacy to larger brains when it comes to the elaboration of concepts and have wide implications for understanding how brains can form conceptual relations. PMID:24107530

  8. Increased tree-ring network density reveals more precise estimations of sub-regional hydroclimate variability and climate dynamics in the Midwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Justin T.; Harley, Grant L.

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the historic variability in the hydroclimate provides important information on possible extreme dry or wet periods that in turn inform water management plans. Tree rings have long provided historical context of hydroclimate variability of the U.S. However, the tree-ring network used to create these countrywide gridded reconstructions is sparse in certain locations, such as the Midwest. Here, we increase ( n = 20) the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network in southern Indiana and compare a summer (June-August) Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) reconstruction to existing gridded reconstructions of PDSI for this region. We find both droughts and pluvials that were previously unknown that rival the most intense PDSI values during the instrumental period. Additionally, historical drought occurred in Indiana that eclipsed instrumental conditions with regard to severity and duration. During the period 1962-2004 CE, we find that teleconnections of drought conditions through the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation have a strong influence ( r = -0.60, p < 0.01) on secondary tree growth in this region for the late spring-early summer season. These findings highlight the importance of continuing to increase the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network used to infer past climate dynamics to capture the sub-regional spatial variability. Increasing the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network for a given region can better identify sub-regional variability, improve the accuracy of regional tree-ring PDSI reconstructions, and provide better information for climatic teleconnections.

  9. Neural correlates of specific and general Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer within human amygdalar subregions: a high-resolution fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Prévost, Charlotte; Liljeholm, Mimi; Tyszka, Julian M; O'Doherty, John P

    2012-06-13

    It is widely held that the interaction between instrumental and Pavlovian conditioning induces powerful motivational biases. Pavlovian-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) is one of the key paradigms demonstrating this effect, which can further be decomposed into a general and specific component. Although these two forms of PIT have been studied at the level of amygdalar subregions in rodents, it is still unknown whether they involve different areas of the human amygdala. Using a high-resolution fMRI (hr-fMRI) protocol optimized for the amygdala in combination with a novel free operant task designed to elicit effects of both general and specific PIT, we demonstrate that a region of ventral amygdala within the boundaries of the basolateral complex and the ventrolateral putamen are involved in specific PIT, while a region of dorsal amygdala within the boundaries of the centromedial complex is involved in general PIT. These results add to a burgeoning literature indicating different functional contributions for these different amygdalar subregions in reward-processing and motivation.

  10. Brain mediators of cardiovascular responses to social threat, Part I: Reciprocal dorsal and ventral sub-regions of the medial prefrontal cortex and heart-rate reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Tor D.; Waugh, Christian E.; Lindquist, Martin; Noll, Doug C.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Taylor, Stephan F.

    2009-01-01

    Social threat is a key component of mental “stress” and a potent generator of negative emotions and physiological responses in the body. How the human brain processes social context and drives peripheral physiology, however, is relatively poorly understood. Human neuroimaging and animal studies implicate the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), though this heterogeneous region is likely to contain multiple sub-regions with diverse relationships with physiological reactivity and regulation. We used fMRI combined with a novel multi-level path analysis approach to identify brain mediators of the effects of a public speech preparation task (social evaluative threat, SET) on heart rate (HR). This model provides tests of functional pathways linking experimentally manipulated threat, regional fMRI activity, and physiological output, both across time (within person) and across individuals (between persons). It thus integrates time series connectivity and individual difference analyses in the same path model. The results provide evidence for two dissociable, inversely coupled sub-regions of MPFC that independently mediated HR responses. SET caused activity increases in a more dorsal pregenual cingulate region, whose activity was coupled with HR increases. Conversely, SET caused activity decreases in a right ventromedial/medial orbital region, which were coupled with HR increases. Individual differences in coupling strength in each pathway independently predicted individual differences in HR reactivity. These results underscore both the importance and heterogeneity of MPFC in generating physiological responses to threat. PMID:19465137

  11. Increased tree-ring network density reveals more precise estimations of sub-regional hydroclimate variability and climate dynamics in the Midwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Justin T.; Harley, Grant L.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the historic variability in the hydroclimate provides important information on possible extreme dry or wet periods that in turn inform water management plans. Tree rings have long provided historical context of hydroclimate variability of the U.S. However, the tree-ring network used to create these countrywide gridded reconstructions is sparse in certain locations, such as the Midwest. Here, we increase (n = 20) the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network in southern Indiana and compare a summer (June-August) Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) reconstruction to existing gridded reconstructions of PDSI for this region. We find both droughts and pluvials that were previously unknown that rival the most intense PDSI values during the instrumental period. Additionally, historical drought occurred in Indiana that eclipsed instrumental conditions with regard to severity and duration. During the period 1962-2004 CE, we find that teleconnections of drought conditions through the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation have a strong influence (r = -0.60, p < 0.01) on secondary tree growth in this region for the late spring-early summer season. These findings highlight the importance of continuing to increase the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network used to infer past climate dynamics to capture the sub-regional spatial variability. Increasing the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network for a given region can better identify sub-regional variability, improve the accuracy of regional tree-ring PDSI reconstructions, and provide better information for climatic teleconnections.

  12. Roles of the Different Sub-Regions of the Insular Cortex in Various Phases of the Decision-Making Process

    PubMed Central

    Droutman, Vita; Bechara, Antoine; Read, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a coherent account of the role of the insular cortex (IC) in decision-making. We follow a conceptualization of decision-making that is very close to one previously proposed by Ernst and Paulus (2005): that the decision process is a progression of four phases: (1) re-focusing attention; (2) evaluation; (3) action; and (4) outcome processing, and we present evidence for the insula’s role in all these phases. We review the existing work on insula’s functional anatomy that subdivides the IC into posterior, dorsal anterior and ventral anterior regions. We re-map the results provided by the existing literature into these subdivisions wherever possible, to identify the components’ role in each decision making phase. In addition, we identify a self-regulating quality of the IC focused on harm avoidance. PMID:26635559

  13. Conceptualization and simulation of the Edwards aquifer, San Antonio region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, K.J.; Dutton, A.R.; Hovorka, S.D.; Worthington, S.R.H.; Painter, S.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Numerical ground-water flow models for the Edwards aquifer in the San Antonio region of Texas generally have been based on a diffuse-flow conceptualization. That is, although conduits likely are present, the assumption is that flow in the aquifer predominantly is through a network of small fractures and openings sufficiently numerous that the aquifer can be considered a porous-media continuum at the regional scale. Whether flow through large fractures and conduits or diffuse flow predominates in the Edwards aquifer at the regional scale is an open question. A new numerical ground-water-flow model (Edwards aquifer model) that incorporates important components of the latest information and an alternate conceptualization of the Edwards aquifer was developed. The conceptualization upon which the Edwards aquifer model is based emphasizes conduit development and conduit flow, and the model can be considered a test of one of two reasonable conceptualizations. The model incorporates conduits simulated as generally continuously connected, one-cell-wide (1,320 feet) zones with very large hydraulic-conductivity values (as much as 300,000 feet per day). The locations of the conduits are based on a number of factors, including major potentiometric-surface troughs in the aquifer, the presence of sinking streams, geochemical information, and geologic structures (for example, faults and grabens). The model includes both the San Antonio and Barton Springs segments of the Edwards aquifer in the San Antonio region, Texas, and was calibrated for steady-state (1939-46) and transient (1947-2000) conditions. Transient simulations were conducted using monthly recharge and pumpage (withdrawals) data. The predominantly conduit-flow conceptualization incorporated in the Edwards aquifer model yielded a reasonably good match between measured and simulated hydraulic heads in the confined part of the aquifer and between measured and simulated springflows. The simulated directions of flow in the

  14. GCFR steam generator conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, R.A.; Elliott, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) steam generators are large once-through heat exchangers with helically coiled tube bundles. In the GCFR demonstration plant, hot helium from the reactor core is passed through these units to produce superheated steam, which is used by the turbine generators to produce electrical power. The paper describes the conceptual design of the steam generator. The major components and functions of the design are addressed. The topics discussed are the configuration, operating conditions, design criteria, and the design verification and support programs.

  15. Conceptual Structures in Fighter Pilots.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    AA1985CONCEPTUAL STRU CTURES IN FIGHTER PLOTS(U) NEW MEXICO iI 7 AD-A29 885UNIV ALBUQUERQUE DEPT 0F PSYCHOLOGYR WSCHVANEVELD ET AL JUL 83 AFHRL-P-83...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK Department of Psychology AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS New Mexico State University 61102F...Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 2313T313 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE HQ Air Force Human Resources Laboratory (AFSC) July 1983

  16. Comparative paleofloristics of the Albian-early Paleocene in the Anadyr-Koryak and North Alaska subregions, Part 3: Comparison of floras and floristic changes across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, A. B.

    2007-10-01

    Floras characterizing comparable evolutionary stages in the Anadyr-Koryak and North Alaska subregions of the North Pacific show some essential distinctions despite their similarity in general. Factors responsible for appearance of their distinctive features were most likely the paleoclimatic difference between the subregions and the constrained or even interrupted trans-Beringia migration of plants in particular intervals of geological history. Floras of both subregions survived the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary crisis without essential consequences for their evolution, and amplitude of floristic changes across the boundary was not greater than by evolutionary changes in the crisis-free Late Cretaceous. Evolution of the North Pacific floras near this boundary has been likely controlled by the long-term paleogeographic and paleoclimatic changes and by plants evolution and migration.

  17. Planets, pluralism, and conceptual lineage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusse, Carl

    2016-02-01

    Conceptual change can occur for a variety of reasons; some more scientifically significant than others. The 2006 definition of 'planet', which saw Pluto reclassified as a dwarf planet, is an example toward the more mundane end of the scale. I argue however that this case serves as a useful example of a related phenomenon, whereby what appears to be a single kind term conceals two or more distinct concepts with independent scientific utility. I examine the historical background to this case, as a template for developing additional evidence for pluralist approaches to conceptual disputes within science and elsewhere. "I would like to note that the two speakers who have spoken so far have both done the same extremely insulting gaffe," he said. "They have used the expression 'a physical definition of a planet' - by implication, suggesting that a dynamical definition is not physics!" He said he felt he had to teach the panel "something you should know": that dynamics was indeed physics, and in fact was addressed before solid-state physics in every textbook ever written." (Boyle, 2010, p. 126)

  18. Conceptual approach to astronomical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsov, N. A.; Avvakumova, E. A.; Bryukhov, D. O.; Vovchenko, A. E.; Vol'nova, A. A.; Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Kalinichenko, L. A.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Pozanenko, A. S.; Stupnikov, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    New technical capabilities have brought about the sweeping growth of the amount of data acquired by the astronomers from observations with different instruments in various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. We consider conceptual approach to be a promising tool to efficiently deal with these data. It uses problem domain knowledge to formulate the tasks and develop problem-solving algorithms and data analysis methods in terms of domain concepts without reference to particular data sources, and thereby allows solving certain problems in general form. We demonstrate the benefits of conceptual approach by using it to solve problems related to search for secondary photometric standard candidates, determination of galaxy redshifts, creation of a binary and multiple star repository based on inhomogeneous databases, and classification of eclipsing binaries.We formulate and solve these problems over specifications of astronomical knowledge units such as photometric systems, astronomical objects, multiple stars, etc., and define them in terms of the corresponding problem domains independently of the existing data resources.

  19. How can conceptual schemes change teaching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickman, Per-Olof

    2012-03-01

    Lundqvist, Almqvist and Östman describe a teacher's manner of teaching and the possible consequences it may have for students' meaning making. In doing this the article examines a teacher's classroom practice by systematizing the teacher's transactions with the students in terms of certain conceptual schemes, namely the epistemological moves, educational philosophies and the selective traditions of this practice. In connection to their study one may ask how conceptual schemes could change teaching. This article examines how the relationship of the conceptual schemes produced by educational researchers to educational praxis has developed from the middle of the last century to today. The relationship is described as having been transformed in three steps: (1) teacher deficit and social engineering, where conceptual schemes are little acknowledged, (2) reflecting practitioners, where conceptual schemes are mangled through teacher practice to aid the choices of already knowledgeable teachers, and (3) the mangling of the conceptual schemes by researchers through practice with the purpose of revising theory.

  20. Some sociological ideas for conceptual change research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smardon, Regina

    2008-07-01

    This review takes a critical position with regards to Treagust and Duit's article, Conceptual Change: A discussion of theoretical methodological and practical challenges for science education. It is proposed that conceptual change research in science education might benefit from borrowing concepts currently being developed in the sociology of emotions. It is further suggested that the study of social interaction within evolving emotional cultures is the most promising avenue for developing and extending theories about conceptual change.

  1. Conceptual Foundations of Diffusion in Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Koay, Cheng Guan; Özarslan, Evren

    2016-01-01

    A thorough review of the q-space technique is presented starting from a discussion of Fick's laws. The work presented here is primarily conceptual, theoretical and hopefully pedagogical. We offered the notion of molecular concentration to unify Fick's laws and diffusion MRI within a coherent conceptual framework. The fundamental relationship between diffusion MRI and the Fick's laws are carefully established. The conceptual and theoretical basis of the q-space technique is investigated from first principles. PMID:26997923

  2. Biodiversity of the Deep-Sea Continental Margin Bordering the Gulf of Maine (NW Atlantic): Relationships among Sub-Regions and to Shelf Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Noreen E.; Shea, Elizabeth K.; Metaxas, Anna; Haedrich, Richard L.; Auster, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Background In contrast to the well-studied continental shelf region of the Gulf of Maine, fundamental questions regarding the diversity, distribution, and abundance of species living in deep-sea habitats along the adjacent continental margin remain unanswered. Lack of such knowledge precludes a greater understanding of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem and limits development of alternatives for conservation and management. Methodology/Principal Findings We use data from the published literature, unpublished studies, museum records and online sources, to: (1) assess the current state of knowledge of species diversity in the deep-sea habitats adjacent to the Gulf of Maine (39–43°N, 63–71°W, 150–3000 m depth); (2) compare patterns of taxonomic diversity and distribution of megafaunal and macrofaunal species among six distinct sub-regions and to the continental shelf; and (3) estimate the amount of unknown diversity in the region. Known diversity for the deep-sea region is 1,671 species; most are narrowly distributed and known to occur within only one sub-region. The number of species varies by sub-region and is directly related to sampling effort occurring within each. Fishes, corals, decapod crustaceans, molluscs, and echinoderms are relatively well known, while most other taxonomic groups are poorly known. Taxonomic diversity decreases with increasing distance from the continental shelf and with changes in benthic topography. Low similarity in faunal composition suggests the deep-sea region harbours faunal communities distinct from those of the continental shelf. Non-parametric estimators of species richness suggest a minimum of 50% of the deep-sea species inventory remains to be discovered. Conclusions/Significance The current state of knowledge of biodiversity in this deep-sea region is rudimentary. Our ability to answer questions is hampered by a lack of sufficient data for many taxonomic groups, which is constrained by sampling biases, life

  3. toolkit computational mesh conceptual model.

    SciTech Connect

    Baur, David G.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Cochran, William K.; Williams, Alan B.; Sjaardema, Gregory D.

    2010-03-01

    The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh is a software library intended to support massively parallel multi-physics computations on dynamically changing unstructured meshes. This domain of intended use is inherently complex due to distributed memory parallelism, parallel scalability, heterogeneity of physics, heterogeneous discretization of an unstructured mesh, and runtime adaptation of the mesh. Management of this inherent complexity begins with a conceptual analysis and modeling of this domain of intended use; i.e., development of a domain model. The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh software library is designed and implemented based upon this domain model. Software developers using, maintaining, or extending the Sierra Toolkit computational mesh library must be familiar with the concepts/domain model presented in this report.

  4. Osmosis and diffusion conceptual assessment.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Kathleen M; Williams, Kathy S; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified from the previously published Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (DODT) and some newly developed items. The ODCA, a validated instrument containing fewer items than the DODT and emphasizing different content areas within the realm of osmosis and diffusion, better aligns with our curriculum. Creation of the ODCA involved removal of six DODT item pairs, modification of another six DODT item pairs, and development of three new item pairs addressing basic osmosis and diffusion concepts. Responses to ODCA items testing the same concepts as the DODT were remarkably similar to responses to the DODT collected from students 15 yr earlier, suggesting that student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis remains elusive.

  5. A conceptual framework of bonding.

    PubMed

    Gay, J

    1981-01-01

    Nurses involved in maternal-infant child care should objectively analyze any tools that purport to measure attachment and/or bonding. Has the author adequately defined the terms? Are directions given for making concepts operational for the practicing nurse? What are the foundations for placing values on parental behaviors? Do deviant parental behaviors reflect poor attachment or bonding, or are such behaviors merely indicative of limited parental opportunities for acquaintance? The presentation of of any conceptual framework should not be considered complete without empirical testing. Such testing and peer critique of a framework are essential fro any theory of bonding to evolve. With further research into the parental-child relationship, nurses can learn to provide adequate care for facilitating the bonding process in families.

  6. Waste Handeling Building Conceptual Study

    SciTech Connect

    G.W. Rowe

    2000-11-06

    The objective of the ''Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study'' is to develop proposed design requirements for the repository Waste Handling System in sufficient detail to allow the surface facility design to proceed to the License Application effort if the proposed requirements are approved by DOE. Proposed requirements were developed to further refine waste handling facility performance characteristics and design constraints with an emphasis on supporting modular construction, minimizing fuel inventory, and optimizing facility maintainability and dry handling operations. To meet this objective, this study attempts to provide an alternative design to the Site Recommendation design that is flexible, simple, reliable, and can be constructed in phases. The design concept will be input to the ''Modular Design/Construction and Operation Options Report'', which will address the overall program objectives and direction, including options and issues associated with transportation, the subsurface facility, and Total System Life Cycle Cost. This study (herein) is limited to the Waste Handling System and associated fuel staging system.

  7. whoishRisk – an R package to calculate WHO/ISH cardiovascular risk scores for all epidemiological subregions of the world

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Dylan; Lee, Joseph; Bobrovitz, Niklas; Koshiaris, Constantinos; Ward, Alison; Heneghan, Carl

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organisation and International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment charts have been implemented in many low- and middle-income countries as part of the WHO Package of Essential Non-Communicable Disease (PEN) Interventions for Primary Health Care in Low-Resource settings. Evaluation of the WHO/ISH cardiovascular risk charts and their use is a key priority and since they only existed in paper or PDF formats, we developed an R implementation of the charts for all epidemiological subregions of the world. The main strengths of this implementation are that it is built in a free, open-source, coding language with simple syntax, can be downloaded from github as a package (“whoishRisk”), and can be used with a standard computer. PMID:28357040

  8. Conceptual design for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratzer, Louis B.

    1989-01-01

    The designers of aircraft and more recently, aerospace vehicles have always struggled with the problems of evolving their designs to produce a machine which would perform its assigned task(s) in some optimum fashion. Almost invariably this involved dealing with more variables and constraints than could be handled in any computationally feasible way. With the advent of the electronic digital computer, the possibilities for introducing more variable and constraints into the initial design process led to greater expectations for improvement in vehicle (system) efficiency. The creation of the large scale systems necessary to achieve optimum designs has, for many reason, proved to be difficult. From a technical standpoint, significant problems arise in the development of satisfactory algorithms for processing of data from the various technical disciplines in a way that would be compatible with the complex optimization function. Also, the creation of effective optimization routines for multi-variable and constraint situations which could lead to consistent results has lagged. The current capability for carrying out the conceptual design of an aircraft on an interdisciplinary bases was evaluated to determine the need for extending this capability, and if necessary, to recommend means by which this could be carried out. Based on a review of available documentation and individual consultations, it appears that there is extensive interest at Langley Research Center as well as in the aerospace community in providing a higher level of capability that meets the technical challenges. By implication, the current design capability is inadequate and it does not operate in a way that allows the various technical disciplines to participate and cooperately interact in the design process. Based on this assessment, it was concluded that substantial effort should be devoted to developing a computer-based conceptual design system that would provide the capability needed for the near

  9. Age-related differences in medial temporal lobe involvement during conceptual fluency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Dew, Ilana T Z; Cabeza, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Not all memory processes are equally affected by aging. A widely accepted hypothesis is that older adults rely more on familiarity-based processing, typically linked with the perirhinal cortex (PRC), in the context of impaired recollection, linked with the hippocampus (HC). However, according to the dedifferentiation hypothesis, healthy aging reduces the specialization of MTL memory subregions so that they may mediate different memory processes than in young adults. Using fMRI, we tested this possibility using a conceptual fluency manipulation known to induce familiarity-related PRC activity. The study yielded two main findings. First, although fluency equivalently affected PRC in both young (18-28; N=14) and older (62-80; N=15) adults, it also uniquely affected HC activity in older adults. Second, the fluency manipulation reduced functional connectivity between HC and PRC in young adults, but it increased it in older adults. Taken together, the results suggest that aging may result in reduced specialization of the HC for recollection, such that the HC may be recruited when fluency increases familiarity-based responding. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory & Aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lesions that functionally disconnect the anterior and posterodorsal sub-regions of the medial amygdala eliminate opposite-sex odor preference in male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Maras, P M; Petrulis, A

    2010-02-17

    In many rodent species, such as Syrian hamsters, reproductive behavior requires neural integration of chemosensory information and steroid hormone cues. The medial amygdala (MA) processes both of these signals through anatomically distinct sub-regions; the anterior region (MeA) receives substantial chemosensory input, but contains few steroid receptor-labeled neurons, whereas the posterodorsal region (MePD) receives less chemosensory input, but contains a dense population of steroid receptors. Importantly, these sub-regions have considerable reciprocal connections, and the goal of this experiment was therefore to determine whether interactions between MeA and MePD are required for male hamsters' preference to investigate female over male odors. To functionally disconnect MeA and MePD, males received unilateral lesions of MeA and MePD within opposite brain hemispheres. Control males received either unilateral lesions of MeA and MePD within the same hemisphere or sham surgery. Odor preferences were measured using a 3-choice apparatus, which simultaneously presented female, male and clean odor stimuli; all tests were done under conditions that either prevented or allowed contact with the odor sources. Under non-contact conditions, males with asymmetrical lesions investigated female and male odors equally, whereas males in both control groups preferred to investigate female odors. Under contact conditions, all groups investigated female odors longer than male odors, although males with asymmetrical lesions displayed decreased investigation of female odors compared to sham males. These data suggest that MeA-MePD interactions are critical for processing primarily the volatile components of social odors and highlight the importance of input from the main olfactory system (MOS) to these nuclei in the regulation of reproductive behavior. More broadly, these results support the role of the MA in integrating chemosensory and hormone information, a process that may underlie

  11. Neuronal damage in hippocampal subregions induced by various durations of transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils using Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dong-Kun; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Shin, Bich Na; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Choong Hyun; Choi, Jung Hoon; Cho, Yong-Jun; Kang, Il-Jun; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho

    2012-02-09

    Although there are many studies on ischemic brain damage in the gerbil, which is a good model of transient cerebral ischemia, studies on neuronal damage according to the duration of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) time are limited. We carried out neuronal damage in the gerbil hippocampus after various durations of I-R (5, 10, 15 and 20 min) using Fluoro-Jade B (F-J B, a maker for neuronal degeneration) histofluorescence as well as cresyl violet (CV) staining. The changes of CV positive ((+)) neurons were well detected in the hippocampal CA1 region, not in the other regions. F-J B histofluorescence staining showed apparent neuronal damage in all the hippocampal subregions. In the CA1, most of the pyramidal neurons of the stratum pyramidale (SP) were stained with F-J B (about 100/mm(2) in a section), and F-J B(+) neurons in the other ischemia-groups were not changed. In the CA2, a few F-J B(+) neurons were detected in the SP of the 5 min ischemia-group, and F-J B(+) neurons were gradually increased with the longer time of ischemia: in the 20 min ischemia-group, the mean number of F-J B(+) neurons was about 85/mm(2) in a section. In the CA3, some F-J B(+) neurons were observed only in the SP of the 20 min ischemia-group. In the dentate gyrus, some F-J B positive neurons were detected only in the polymorphic layer (PL) of the 5 min ischemia-group, and the number of F-J B(+) neurons were gradually increased with the longer ischemic time. Our findings indicate that F-J B histofluorescence showed a very high quality of neuronal damage in all the hippocampal subregions.

  12. Relationship between variations of (7)Be, (210)Pb and (212)Pb concentrations and sub-regional atmospheric transport: Simultaneous observation at distant locations.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takuya; Kosako, Toshiso; Komura, Kazuhisa

    2010-02-01

    In order to investigate the applicability of (212)Pb as a tracer for atmospheric transport in the sub-regional scale (few hundred kilometers in horizontal direction and up to approximately 1km by height), we measured the air concentrations of the short-lived radionuclide (212)Pb along with the long-lived (7)Be and (210)Pb near the ground surface. For this purpose, simultaneous observations were continued for several days at three locations: a reference point representative for standard land surface atmosphere conditions, a second location at an altitude 650 m near the reference point, and on a solitary island approximately 180 km from the reference point. Measurements of radioactivity in aerosol particle samples collected at intervals of 2-3h with a high-volume air sampler were performed by extremely low background gamma-ray spectrometry with the use of Ge detectors located at the Ogoya Underground Laboratory. Concentration of (7)Be or (210)Pb and their variation patterns was found to be similar among the three points during the whole observation period except for moment of the passage of a cold front. The results indicate that distributions of concentrations of the long-lived nuclides were uniform in this range. On the other hand, concentration levels and the variation patterns of the short-lived (212)Pb differed greatly from one location to another, reflecting differences in geographical location and altitude of the observation points. Additionally, there were certain indications that observed concentration of (212)Pb contained two components: an autogenous component from sources nearby and a heterogenous one from faraway sources carried by atmospheric horizontal transport. Results of this study provide experimental proof that (212)Pb can be used as a tracer of sub-regional atmospheric transport.

  13. Quantitative Comparison of 21 Protocols for Labeling Hippocampal Subfields and Parahippocampal Subregions in In Vivo MRI: Towards a Harmonized Segmentation Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Yushkevich, Paul A.; Amaral, Robert S. C.; Augustinack, Jean C.; Bender, Andrew R.; Bernstein, Jeffrey D.; Boccardi, Marina; Bocchetta, Martina; Burggren, Alison C.; Carr, Valerie A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chetelat, Gael; Daugherty, Ana M.; Davachi, Lila; Ding, Song-Lin; Ekstrom, Arne; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Hassan, Abdul; Huang, Yushan; Iglesias, Eugenio; La Joie, Renaud; Kerchner, Geoffrey A.; LaRocque, Karen F.; Libby, Laura A.; Malykhin, Nikolai; Mueller, Susanne G.; Olsen, Rosanna K.; Palombo, Daniela J.; Parekh, Mansi B; Pluta, John B.; Preston, Alison R.; Pruessner, Jens C.; Ranganath, Charan; Raz, Naftali; Schlichting, Margaret L.; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Singh, Sachi; Stark, Craig E. L.; Suthana, Nanthia; Tompary, Alexa; Turowski, Marta M.; Van Leemput, Koen; Wagner, Anthony D.; Wang, Lei; Winterburn, Julie L.; Wisse, Laura E.M.; Yassa, Michael A.; Zeineh, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE An increasing number of human in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have focused on examining the structure and function of the subfields of the hippocampal formation (the dentate gyrus, CA fields 1–3, and the subiculum) and subregions of the parahippocampal gyrus (entorhinal, perirhinal, and parahippocampal cortices). The ability to interpret the results of such studies and to relate them to each other would be improved if a common standard existed for labeling hippocampal subfields and parahippocampal subregions. Currently, research groups label different subsets of structures and use different rules, landmarks, and cues to define their anatomical extents. This paper characterizes, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the variability in the existing manual segmentation protocols for labeling hippocampal and parahippocampal substructures in MRI, with the goal of guiding subsequent work on developing a harmonized substructure segmentation protocol. METHOD MRI scans of a single healthy adult human subject were acquired both at 3 Tesla and 7 Tesla. Representatives from 21 research groups applied their respective manual segmentation protocols to the MRI modalities of their choice. The resulting set of 21 segmentations was analyzed in a common anatomical space to quantify similarity and identify areas of agreement. RESULTS The differences between the 21 protocols include the region within which segmentation is performed, the set of anatomical labels used, and the extents of specific anatomical labels. The greatest overall disagreement among the protocols is at the CA1/subiculum boundary, and disagreement across all structures is greatest in the anterior portion of the hippocampal formation relative to the body and tail. CONCLUSIONS The combined examination of the 21 protocols in the same dataset suggests possible strategies towards developing a harmonized subfield segmentation protocol and facilitates comparison between published studies. PMID

  14. The Role of Conceptual Conflict in Conceptual Change and the Design of Science Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Peter W.; Hewson, Mariana G. A'Beckett

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature on conceptual conflict as facilitator of student learning and alternative conceptions, describes theories explaining occurence of alternative conceptions and conflict role in conceptual change, discusses a model of learning as conceptual change and its instructional implications, and presents results of studies which apply the…

  15. The perirhinal cortex and conceptual processing: Effects of feature-based statistics following damage to the anterior temporal lobes.

    PubMed

    Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Clarke, Alex; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2015-09-01

    The anterior temporal lobe (ATL) plays a prominent role in models of semantic knowledge, although it remains unclear how the specific subregions within the ATL contribute to semantic memory. Patients with neurodegenerative diseases, like semantic dementia, have widespread damage to the ATL thus making inferences about the relationship between anatomy and cognition problematic. Here we take a detailed anatomical approach to ask which substructures within the ATL contribute to conceptual processing, with the prediction that the perirhinal cortex (PRc) will play a critical role for concepts that are more semantically confusable. We tested two patient groups, those with and without damage to the PRc, across two behavioural experiments - picture naming and word-picture matching. For both tasks, we manipulated the degree of semantic confusability of the concepts. By contrasting the performance of the two groups, along with healthy controls, we show that damage to the PRc results in worse performance in processing concepts with higher semantic confusability across both experiments. Further by correlating the degree of damage across anatomically defined regions of interest with performance, we find that PRc damage is related to performance for concepts with increased semantic confusability. Our results show that the PRc supports a necessary and crucial neurocognitve function that enables fine-grained conceptual processes to take place through the resolution of semantic confusability.

  16. The perirhinal cortex and conceptual processing: Effects of feature-based statistics following damage to the anterior temporal lobes

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Clarke, Alex; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2015-01-01

    The anterior temporal lobe (ATL) plays a prominent role in models of semantic knowledge, although it remains unclear how the specific subregions within the ATL contribute to semantic memory. Patients with neurodegenerative diseases, like semantic dementia, have widespread damage to the ATL thus making inferences about the relationship between anatomy and cognition problematic. Here we take a detailed anatomical approach to ask which substructures within the ATL contribute to conceptual processing, with the prediction that the perirhinal cortex (PRc) will play a critical role for concepts that are more semantically confusable. We tested two patient groups, those with and without damage to the PRc, across two behavioural experiments – picture naming and word–picture matching. For both tasks, we manipulated the degree of semantic confusability of the concepts. By contrasting the performance of the two groups, along with healthy controls, we show that damage to the PRc results in worse performance in processing concepts with higher semantic confusability across both experiments. Further by correlating the degree of damage across anatomically defined regions of interest with performance, we find that PRc damage is related to performance for concepts with increased semantic confusability. Our results show that the PRc supports a necessary and crucial neurocognitve function that enables fine-grained conceptual processes to take place through the resolution of semantic confusability. PMID:25637774

  17. Differing contributions of inferior prefrontal and anterior temporal cortex to concrete and abstract conceptual knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Paul; Binney, Richard J; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2015-02-01

    Semantic cognition is underpinned by regions involved in representing conceptual knowledge and executive control areas that provide regulation of this information according to current task requirements. Using distortion-corrected fMRI, we investigated the contributions of these two systems to abstract and concrete word comprehension. We contrasted semantic decisions made either with coherent contextual support, which encouraged retrieval of a rich conceptual representation, or with irrelevant contextual information, which instead maximised demands on control processes. Inferior prefrontal cortex was activated more when decisions were made in the presence of irrelevant context, suggesting that this region is crucial for the semantic control functions required to select appropriate aspects of meaning in the face of competing information. It also exhibited greater activation for abstract words, which reflects the fact that abstract words tend to have variable, context-dependent meanings that place higher demands on control processes. In contrast, anterior temporal regions (ATL) were most active when decisions were made with the benefit of a coherent context, suggesting a representational role. There was a graded shift in concreteness effects in this region, with dorsolateral areas particularly active for abstract words and ventromedial areas preferentially activated by concrete words. This supports the idea that concrete concepts are closely associated with visual experience and abstract concepts with auditory-verbal information; and that sub-regions of the ATL display graded specialisation for these two types of knowledge. Between these two extremes, we identified significant activations for both word types in ventrolateral ATL. This area is known to be involved in representing knowledge for concrete concepts; here we established that it is also activated by abstract concepts. These results converge with data from rTMS and neuropsychological investigations in

  18. Differing contributions of inferior prefrontal and anterior temporal cortex to concrete and abstract conceptual knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Paul; Binney, Richard J.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic cognition is underpinned by regions involved in representing conceptual knowledge and executive control areas that provide regulation of this information according to current task requirements. Using distortion-corrected fMRI, we investigated the contributions of these two systems to abstract and concrete word comprehension. We contrasted semantic decisions made either with coherent contextual support, which encouraged retrieval of a rich conceptual representation, or with irrelevant contextual information, which instead maximised demands on control processes. Inferior prefrontal cortex was activated more when decisions were made in the presence of irrelevant context, suggesting that this region is crucial for the semantic control functions required to select appropriate aspects of meaning in the face of competing information. It also exhibited greater activation for abstract words, which reflects the fact that abstract words tend to have variable, context-dependent meanings that place higher demands on control processes. In contrast, anterior temporal regions (ATL) were most active when decisions were made with the benefit of a coherent context, suggesting a representational role. There was a graded shift in concreteness effects in this region, with dorsolateral areas particularly active for abstract words and ventromedial areas preferentially activated by concrete words. This supports the idea that concrete concepts are closely associated with visual experience and abstract concepts with auditory-verbal information; and that sub-regions of the ATL display graded specialisation for these two types of knowledge. Between these two extremes, we identified significant activations for both word types in ventrolateral ATL. This area is known to be involved in representing knowledge for concrete concepts; here we established that it is also activated by abstract concepts. These results converge with data from rTMS and neuropsychological investigations in

  19. A Multivariate Model of Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Heddy, Benjamin; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the Cognitive Reconstruction of Knowledge Model (CRKM) model of conceptual change as a framework for developing and testing how key cognitive, motivational, and emotional variables are linked to conceptual change in physics. This study extends an earlier study developed by Taasoobshirazi and Sinatra ("J Res Sci…

  20. Some Sociological Ideas for Conceptual Change Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smardon, Regina

    2008-01-01

    This review takes a critical position with regards to Treagust and Duit's article, "Conceptual Change: A discussion of theoretical methodological and practical challenges for science education." It is proposed that conceptual change research in science education might benefit from borrowing concepts currently being developed in the sociology of…

  1. Understanding Conceptual Change: Connecting and Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Catherine; Kirch, Susan; Basu, Sreyashi Jhumki; Leou, Mary; Fraser-Abder, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    We engage in a metalogue based on eight papers in this issue of "Cultural Studies of Science Education" that review the state of conceptual change research and its possible affect on the teaching and learning of science. Our discussion addresses three aspects of conceptual change research: theoretical, methodological, and practical, as we discuss…

  2. Teaching Strategies Associated with Conceptual Change Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Teaching strategies associated with a conceptual change model of science teaching were examined in a study of seventh-grade life science teachers (n=13). Greater use of conceptual change teaching strategies was associated with use of the special instructional materials, not with the training. Students in classes where teachers were provided with…

  3. Determining Students' Conceptual Understanding Level of Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricayir, Hakan; Ay, Selahattin; Comek, Arif; Cansiz, Gokhan; Uce, Musa

    2016-01-01

    Science students find heat, temperature, enthalpy and energy in chemical reactions to be some of the most difficult subjects. It is crucial to define their conceptual understanding level in these subjects so that educators can build upon this knowledge and introduce new thermodynamics concepts. This paper reports conceptual understanding levels of…

  4. On an Actual Apparatus for Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macbeth, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Organizes a reading of the conceptual change literature that brings into view a collection of design specifications for a conceptual change apparatus. Analyzes one such apparatus in the particulars of a science education demonstration program produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Private Universe Project. (Contains 114 references.) (Author/WRM)

  5. Entrepreneurial University Conceptualization: Case of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsi, Jahangir Yadollahi; Imanipour, Narges; Salamzadeh, Aidin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of the present paper is to elaborate an entrepreneurial university conceptualization which could be appropriate for developing countries. A conceptualization which distinguishes between different elements of entrepreneurial universities in developing countries, and identifies the common ones. This conceptualization…

  6. Color Word Acquisition: Conceptual or Linguistic Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, Nancy N.

    A study investigated children's difficulty in learning color words and attempted to determine whether the difficulty was perceptual, conceptual, or linguistic. The subjects were 24 two-year-olds, half with knowledge of color words and half without, and a similar control group. The experimental subjects were given conceptual and comprehension tasks…

  7. Conceptual Systems Theory and Attitudes Toward Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, James B.; Harootunian, Berj

    A study was conducted to explore the relationship between the theoretical construct of Conceptual Level (Harvey, Hunt, & Schroder, 1961) and the dimensions of the Questionnaire of Teacher Belief of the Educational Process developed by Wehling and Charters (1969). The questionnaire and Hunt's Paragraph Completion Test of Conceptual Level were…

  8. A Conceptual Data Model of Datum Systems

    PubMed Central

    McCaleb, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    A new conceptual data model that addresses the geometric dimensioning and tolerancing concepts of datum systems, datums, datum features, datum targets, and the relationships among these concepts, is presented. Additionally, a portion of a related data model, Part 47 of STEP (ISO 10303-47), is reviewed and a comparison is made between it and the new conceptual data model.

  9. Cultivation Theory and Research: A Conceptual Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Presents a critical analysis of how cultivation (long-term formation of perceptions and beliefs about the world as a result of exposure to media) has been conceptualized in theory and research. Analyses the construct of television exposure. Suggests revisions for conceptualizing the existing theory and extending it. (RS)

  10. Tapping in "to" Tapped Out: "Thinking about Conceptual Art"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Kim; Stephens, Pam

    2005-01-01

    Perhaps one of the best ways to describe conceptual art is to quote an old bumper sticker, "If you like conceptual art, think about honking." Conceptual art is an art movement that came into prominence in the 1960s. Like other movements in modern art, conceptual art broke with established tradition. In conceptual art, ideas or perceptions are as…

  11. Conceptual knowledge in the interpretation of idioms.

    PubMed

    Nayak, N P; Gibbs, R W

    1990-09-01

    The authors examined how people determine the contextual appropriateness of idioms. In Experiment 1, idioms referring to the same temporal stage of a conceptual prototype were judged to be more similar in meaning than idioms referring to different temporal stages. In Experiment 2, idioms in a prototypical temporal sequence were more meaningful than idioms in sentences that violated the temporal sequence. In Experiment 3, idioms referring to the same stage of a conceptual prototype were differentiable on the basis of conceptual information. The conceptual coherence between idioms and contexts facilitated the processing speed of idioms in Experiment 4. Experiment 5 showed that speakers can recover the underlying conceptual metaphors that link an idiom to its figurative meaning. Experiment 6 showed that the metaphoric information reflected in the lexical makeup of idioms also determined the metaphoric appropriateness of idioms in certain contexts.

  12. Developing Coherent Conceptual Storylines: Two Elementary Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuscin, Deborah; Lipsitz, Kelsey; Cisterna-Alburquerque, Dante; Arnone, Kathryn A.; van Garderen, Delinda; de Araujo, Zandra; Lee, Eun Ju

    2016-06-01

    The `conceptual storyline' of a lesson refers to the flow and sequencing of learning activities such that science concepts align and progress in ways that are instructionally meaningful to student learning of the concepts. Research demonstrates that when teachers apply lesson design strategies to create a coherent science content storyline, student learning is positively impacted (Roth et al., 2011). Because the conceptual storyline is often implicit within a lesson, and teachers often have difficulty articulating this aspect of lesson design (Lo et al., 2014), our professional development program engages elementary teachers in analyzing and developing graphic representations of a lesson's conceptual storyline to make that element explicit. In this exploratory study, we present typologies that represent two primary challenges teachers faced in developing coherent conceptual storylines in their lesson design, and examine the extent to which professional development enhanced their capacity to develop a coherent conceptual storyline.

  13. Role of Dopamine Receptors Subtypes, D1-Like and D2-Like, within the Nucleus Accumbens Subregions, Core and Shell, on Memory Consolidation in the One-Trial Inhibitory Avoidance Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manago, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea; De Leonibus, Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrated that dopamine within the nucleus accumbens mediates consolidation of both associative and nonassociative memories. However, the specific contribution of the nucleus accumbens subregions, core and shell, and of D1 and D2 receptors subtypes has not been yet clarified. The aim of this study was, therefore, to directly…

  14. Role of Dopamine Receptors Subtypes, D1-Like and D2-Like, within the Nucleus Accumbens Subregions, Core and Shell, on Memory Consolidation in the One-Trial Inhibitory Avoidance Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manago, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea; De Leonibus, Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrated that dopamine within the nucleus accumbens mediates consolidation of both associative and nonassociative memories. However, the specific contribution of the nucleus accumbens subregions, core and shell, and of D1 and D2 receptors subtypes has not been yet clarified. The aim of this study was, therefore, to directly…

  15. Education For All: A Committment and an Opportunity. National EFA Coordinators Meeting under the Sub-Regional EFA Forum for East and Southeast Asia Final Report (2nd, Bangkok, Thailand, December 10-12, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The working group of Sub-Regional Forum (SRF) and the Thematic Working Group (TWG) on Education for All (EFA) organized the second meeting of the SRF for East and Southeast Asia and the National EFA Coordinators in Bangkok, Thailand December 10-12, 2001. The meeting offered an opportunity for EFA coordinators to reflect on the outcomes of the EFA…

  16. The effect of conceptual metaphors through guided inquiry on student's conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menia, Meli; Mudzakir, Ahmad; Rochintaniawati, Diana

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify student's conceptual change of global warming after integrated science learning based guided inquiry through conceptual metaphors. This study used a quasi-experimental with a nonequivalent control group design. The subject was students of two classes of one of MTsN Salido. Data was collected using conceptual change test (pretest and posttest), observation sheet to observe the learning processes, questionnaire sheet to identify students responses, and interview to identifyteacher'srespons of science learning with conceptual metaphors. The results showed that science learning based guided inquiry with conceptual metaphors is better than science learning without conceptual metaphors. The average of posttest experimental class was 79,40 and control class was 66,09. The student's conceptual change for two classes changed significantly byusing mann whitney U testwith P= 0,003(P less than sig. value, P< 0,05). This means that there was differenceson student's conceptual changebeetwen integrated science learning based guided inquiry with conceptual metaphors class and integrated science learning without conceptual metaphors class. The study also showed that teachers and studentsgive positive responsesto implementation of integrated science learning based guided inquiry with conceptual metaphors.

  17. The picture superiority effect in conceptual implicit memory: a conceptual distinctiveness hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Maryellen; Geraci, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    According to leading theories, the picture superiority effect is driven by conceptual processing, yet this effect has been difficult to obtain using conceptual implicit memory tests. We hypothesized that the picture superiority effect results from conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features rather than a picture's semantic features. To test this hypothesis, we used 2 conceptual implicit general knowledge tests; one cued conceptually distinctive features (e.g., "What animal has large eyes?") and the other cued semantic features (e.g., "What animal is the figurehead of Tootsie Roll?"). Results showed a picture superiority effect only on the conceptual test using distinctive cues, supporting our hypothesis that this effect is mediated by conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features.

  18. Conceptual study of ETS-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzai, Takao; Oda, Mitsushige; Wakabayashi, Yasufumi; Imai, Ryouichi

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the Engineering Test Satellite-7 (ETS-7) conceptual study is presented. The Rendezvous and Docking (RVD) experiments will be conducted to verify equipment technologies for navigation, guidance, control algorism, and sensors and to conduct remote control technology experiment using on-orbit image information during the time period from the RVD experiment target separation to its berthing back to the satellite by Global Positioning System (GPS) correlated navigation, and approach by the rendezvous radar and proximity sensors. The space Robot (RBT) experiments will be conducted on the coordinated experiment between the robotic arm control and satellite body attitude control systems, remote control experiment from the earth using on orbit image information with time delay, and on-orbit operation technology using the task board and simulated Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU). An operation system to utilize the intersatellite data relay function of the Communications and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite (COMETS) will be employed. Review was conducted on satellites to satisfy RVD requirements and enable piggy back launch with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The satellite bus system will be constructed by fundamentally utilizing the technologies applied to the Engineering Test Satellite-6 (ETS-6) and the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS). Prospects of realizing operation systems, including experimental window and remote control operation by images were obtained.

  19. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S.; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified from the previously published Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (DODT) and some newly developed items. The ODCA, a validated instrument containing fewer items than the DODT and emphasizing different content areas within the realm of osmosis and diffusion, better aligns with our curriculum. Creation of the ODCA involved removal of six DODT item pairs, modification of another six DODT item pairs, and development of three new item pairs addressing basic osmosis and diffusion concepts. Responses to ODCA items testing the same concepts as the DODT were remarkably similar to responses to the DODT collected from students 15 yr earlier, suggesting that student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis remains elusive. PMID:22135375

  20. Psychopharmacological enhancement: a conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a range of new psychotropic agents raises the possibility that these will be used for enhancement purposes (smart pills, happy pills, and pep pills). The enhancement debate soon raises questions in philosophy of medicine and psychiatry (eg, what is a disorder?), and this debate in turn raises fundament questions in philosophy of language, science, and ethics. In this paper, a naturalistic conceptual framework is proposed for addressing these issues. This framework begins by contrasting classical and critical concepts of categories, and then puts forward an integrative position that is based on cognitive-affective research. This position can in turn be used to consider the debate between pharmacological Calvinism (which may adopt a moral metaphor of disorder) and psychotropic utopianism (which may emphasize a medical metaphor of disorder). I argue that psychiatric treatment of serious psychiatric disorders is justified, and that psychotropics are an acceptable kind of intervention. The use of psychotropics for sub-threshold phenomena requires a judicious weighing of the relevant facts (which are often sparse) and values. PMID:22244084