Science.gov

Sample records for infant formula samples

  1. Infant formula.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Nina R

    2009-04-01

    Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend breast milk for optimal infant nutrition, many parents still choose formula as an acceptable alternative. The wide variety of available formulas is confusing to parents and physicians, but formulas can be classified according to three basic criteria: caloric density, carbohydrate source, and protein composition. Most infants require a term formula with iron. There is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid or arachidonic acid. Soy formulas are indicated for congenital lactase deficiency and galactosemia, but are not recommended for colic because of insufficient evidence of benefit. Hypoallergenic formulas with extensively hydrolyzed protein are effective for the treatment of milk protein allergy and the prevention of atopic disease in high-risk infants. Antireflux formulas decrease emesis and regurgitation, but have not been shown to affect growth or development. Most infants with reflux require no treatment. Family physicians can use these guidelines to counsel parents about infant formula, countering consumer advertising that is not evidence-based. PMID:19378873

  2. Plasticizers in total diet samples, baby food and infant formulae.

    PubMed

    Petersen, J H; Breindahl, T

    2000-02-01

    The plasticizers di-n-butylphthalate (DBP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), di-2-(ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-2-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) were analysed in 29 total diet samples, in 11 samples of baby food and in 11 samples of infant formulae. In all of the total diet samples the presence of one or more of the plasticizers was demonstrated. Maximum and minimum mean concentrations in the total diet samples were: 0.09-0.19 mg DBP/kg, 0.017-0.019 mg BBP/kg, 0.11-0.18 mg DEHP/kg and 0.13-0.14 mg DEHA/kg. One or more of the phthalates was also found in about 50% of the samples of baby food as well as in infant formulae. The calculated mean maximum intakes of the individual compounds from the total diet samples were below 10% of the restrictions proposed by the EU Scientific Committee for Food (SCF), and the spread in individual intakes was considerable. DEHP was the plasticizer determined most frequently and contributed the highest fraction of its tolerable daily intake (TDI). Hence, the maximum calculated intake of DEHP from single samples of the foodstuffs analysed could be up to one-third of the TDI. The calculated mean intake of DEHA was about 1% of the TDI with a maximum value of 13% of the TDI. Violations of the restrictions proposed by the EU Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) in the form of TDI values or specific migration limits were not found in this investigation.

  3. Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... it okay to feed my baby formula? Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for your ... will probably recommend a formula made from cow's milk. Some formulas are iron-fortified. This means they ...

  4. Infant formula samples: perinatal sources and breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Amanda; Bolin, Jocelyn H; Chezem, Jo Carol

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to describe sources of infant formula samples during the perinatal period and assess their associations with breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum. Subjects included expectant mothers who anticipated breast-feeding at least 1 month. Infant feeding history and sources of formula samples were obtained at 1 month postpartum. Associations between sources and breast-feeding outcomes were assessed using partial correlation. Of the 61 subjects who initiated breast-feeding, most were white (87%), married (75%), college-educated (75%), and planned exclusive breast-feeding (82%). Forty-two subjects (69%) continued breast-feeding at 1 month postpartum. Subjects received formula samples from the hospital (n = 40; 66%), physician's office (n = 10; 16%), and mail (n = 41; 67%). There were no significant correlations between formula samples from the hospital, physician's office, and/or mail and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month (P > .05). In addition to the hospital, a long-standing source of formula samples, mail was also frequently reported as a route for distribution. The lack of statistically significant associations between formula samples and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month may be related to small sample size and unique characteristics of the group studied. PMID:24164818

  5. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  6. Prebiotics in infant formula

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  7. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... to cow's milk may also be allergic to soy milk. Soy-based formulas should be used for infants with galactosemia , a rare condition. These formulas can also be used ... have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or ...

  8. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...

  9. Aluminum concentrations in infant formulae.

    PubMed

    Simmer, K; Fudge, A; Teubner, J; James, S L

    1990-02-01

    The aluminum concentrations in breast milk and in 25 commercially available infant formulae were measured. The mean concentration in breast milk was 49 micrograms/L while concentrations in most of the humanized formulae were less than 500 micrograms/L. Higher concentrations were found in Nan, Prem Enfamil and the three soya formulae. We suggest that all formulae have the potential to be contaminated with aluminium, and to varying degrees in different batches. Until it is known whether aluminium toxicity occurs in normal infants fed these formulae, it seems reasonable to expect manufacturers to routinely measure aluminium and keep aluminium contamination to a minimum. This may be especially important for formula fed to infants with compromised gastrointestinal and renal systems.

  10. Development of an optical biosensor based immunoassay to screen infant formula milk samples for adulteration with melamine.

    PubMed

    Fodey, Terence L; Thompson, Colin S; Traynor, Imelda M; Haughey, Simon A; Kennedy, D Glenn; Crooks, Steven R H

    2011-06-15

    The illegal adulteration of milk with melamine in 2008 in China led to adverse kidney and urinary tract effects in hundreds of thousands of children and the reported deaths of six. The milk had been deliberately adulterated to elevate the apparent protein content, and subsequently melamine was detected in many milk-related products which had been exported. This led to the banning of imports of milk and milk products from China intended for the nutritional use of children and to the implementation of analytical methods to test products containing milk products. An optical biosensor inhibition immunoassay has been developed as a rapid and robust method for the analysis of infant formula and infant liquid milk samples. A compound with a chemical structure similar to that of melamine was employed as a hapten to raise a polyclonal antibody and as the immobilized antigen on the surface of a biosensor chip. The sensitivity of the assay, given as an IC(50), was calculated to be 67.9 ng mL(-1) in buffer. The antibody did not cross-react with any of the byproducts of melamine manufacture; however, significant cross-reactivity was observed with the insecticide cyromazine of which melamine is a metabolite. When sample matrix was applied to the assay, a limit of detection of <0.5 μg mL(-1) was determined in both infant formula and infant liquid milk. The development of the immunoassay and validation data for the detection of melamine is presented together with the results obtained following the analysis of melamine-contaminated milk powder.

  11. Lead content of milk and infant formula

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.

    1980-03-01

    Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

  12. Hydrolyzed Formula for Every Infant?

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Venter, Carina; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Presently, hydrolyzed formulas (HF) are used primarily in infants that cannot be exclusively breastfed, those with cow's milk allergy and for primary prevention of allergic disease, but HFs are increasingly being used worldwide, begging the question if they may be recommended as the optimal choice for all standard-risk, full-term, non-exclusively breastfed infants. Data regarding the nutritional adequacy of modern-day HFs are scarce and lack long-term data suggesting that growth in infants fed HF versus an intact protein formula (IPF) is different. While human breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for multiple reasons, a 2006 systematic review determined there were no comparable long-term studies regarding prolonged use of HFs versus breastfeeding. Meta-analyses of formula consumption and risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) have found that infants fed partially HF compared to IPF had a lower risk of AD, but there are significant limitations to these studies, making conclusions about the general use of HFs problematic. Costs should be considered in decision-making regarding the choice of the formula, but global comparison of this is difficult given large cost differences in different countries. Despite the issues raised here, the desire to provide concrete recommendations of widespread HF use needs to be balanced carefully in order not to overstate claims of benefit. Long-term studies are needed to investigate the feasibility of HF as a routine feeding option for healthy, standard-risk infants. Because of the paucity of data, routine use of HF as an equivalent option to breastfeeding or IPF cannot be supported at present based on available scientific evidence. PMID:27336594

  13. Hydrolyzed Formula for Every Infant?

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Venter, Carina; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Presently, hydrolyzed formulas (HF) are used primarily in infants that cannot be exclusively breastfed, those with cow's milk allergy and for primary prevention of allergic disease, but HFs are increasingly being used worldwide, begging the question if they may be recommended as the optimal choice for all standard-risk, full-term, non-exclusively breastfed infants. Data regarding the nutritional adequacy of modern-day HFs are scarce and lack long-term data suggesting that growth in infants fed HF versus an intact protein formula (IPF) is different. While human breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for multiple reasons, a 2006 systematic review determined there were no comparable long-term studies regarding prolonged use of HFs versus breastfeeding. Meta-analyses of formula consumption and risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) have found that infants fed partially HF compared to IPF had a lower risk of AD, but there are significant limitations to these studies, making conclusions about the general use of HFs problematic. Costs should be considered in decision-making regarding the choice of the formula, but global comparison of this is difficult given large cost differences in different countries. Despite the issues raised here, the desire to provide concrete recommendations of widespread HF use needs to be balanced carefully in order not to overstate claims of benefit. Long-term studies are needed to investigate the feasibility of HF as a routine feeding option for healthy, standard-risk infants. Because of the paucity of data, routine use of HF as an equivalent option to breastfeeding or IPF cannot be supported at present based on available scientific evidence.

  14. Fast determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using a slurry sampling procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, I.; Viñas, P.; Romero-Romero, R.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas using slurried samples is described. Suspensions prepared in a medium containing 50% v/v concentrated hydrogen peroxide, 1% v/v concentrated nitric acid, 10% m/v glucose, 5% m/v sucrose and 100 mg l - 1 of potassium were introduced directly into the furnace. For the honey samples, multiple injection of the sample was necessary. The modifier selected was a mixture of 20 μg palladium and 5 μg magnesium nitrate, which was injected after the sample and before proceeding with the drying and calcination steps. Calibration was performed using aqueous standards prepared in the same suspension medium and the graph was linear between 5 and 80 mg l - 1 of phosphorus. The reliability of the procedure was checked by comparing the results obtained by the new developed method with those found when using a reference spectrophotometric method after a mineralization step, and by analyzing several certified reference materials.

  15. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome.

  16. Breastfeeding versus infant formula: the Kenyan case.

    PubMed

    Elliot, T C; Agunda, K O; Kigondu, J G; Kinoti, S N; Latham, M C

    1985-02-01

    An Infant Feeding Practices Study (IFPS) in 1982 in Kenya, which included a cross-sectional survey of a weighted sample of 980 low and middle income Nairobi mothers who had given birth in the previous 18 months, found that most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternate feeding, especially infant formula, in the 1st 4 months (86 and 50% of the infants were breastfed at 6 and 15 months respectively, but 50% of the 2 month-olds and 63% of the 4 month-olds were receiving substitutes, mostly formula). This is done largely out of the belief that infant formula is an additional health benefit. A workshop to discuss the findings of the IFPS and other available data, and to make policy recommendations urged the adoption of a policy of protection, support and promotion of breastfeeding. Since breastfeeding is already widely prevalent in Kenya, protection of breastfeeding should receive the 1st priority in policy related to infant feeding. Attention should be directed at at least 2 influences which help undermine breastfeeding: widespread availability and promotion of breast milk substitutes. Support for breastfeeding is viewed as the 2nd policy priority. Situations where support can play a helpful role are, women's paid employment outside the home, hospital practices, maternal morbidity, and difficulties in breastfeeding. Since promotion is the least cost effective of the 3 options, and most Kenyan women are already motivated to breastfeed, this should be the last priority. Promotion includes reeduction of mothers to make them better aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. The workshop recommended the dissemination of appropriate information, consisting of standarized messages based on clearcut guidelines, using mass media techniques.

  17. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. PMID:22699767

  18. Preconcentration and determination of boron in milk, infant formula, and honey samples by solid phase extraction-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, I.; Viñas, P.; Romero-Romero, R.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2009-02-01

    This work presents alternative procedures for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of boron in milk, infant formulas, and honey samples. Honey samples (10% m/v) were diluted in a medium containing 1% v/v HNO 3 and 50% v/v H 2O 2 and introduced in the atomizer. A mixture of 20 µg Pd and 0.5 µg Mg was used for chemical modification. Calibration was carried out using aqueous solutions prepared in the same medium, in the presence of 10% m/v sucrose. The detection limit was 2 µg g - 1 , equivalent to three times the standard error of the estimate ( sy/ x) of the regression line. For both infant formulas and milk samples, due to their very low boron content, we used a procedure based on preconcentration by solid phase extraction (Amberlite IRA 743), followed by elution with 2 mol L - 1 hydrochloric acid. Detection limits were 0.03 µg g - 1 for 4% m/v honey, 0.04 µg g - 1 for 5% m/v infant formula and 0.08 µg mL - 1 for 15% v/v cow milk. We confirmed the accuracy of the procedure by comparing the obtained results with those found via a comparable independent procedure, as well by the analysis of four certified reference materials.

  19. Types of Infant Formulas Consumed in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Lauren M; Simon, Alan E; Herrick, Kirsten A

    2016-03-01

    We examined consumption of different types of infant formula (eg, cow's milk, soy, gentle/lactose-reduced, and specialty) and regular milk among a nationally representative sample of 1864 infants, 0 to 12 months old, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010. Among the 81% of infants who were fed formula or regular milk, 69% consumed cow's milk formula, 12% consumed soy formula, 5% consumed gentle/ lactose-reduced formulas, 6% consumed specialty formulas, and 13% consumed regular milk products. There were differences by household education and income in the percentage of infants consuming cow's milk formula and regular milk products. The majority of infants in the United States who were fed formula or regular milk consumed cow's milk formula (69%), with lower percentages receiving soy, specialty, gentle/sensitive, or lactose-free/reduced formulas. Contrary to national recommendations, 13% of infants younger than 1 year consumed regular milk, and the percentage varied by household education and income levels. PMID:26149849

  20. Energetic efficiency of infant formulae: a review.

    PubMed

    Fleddermann, Manja; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Breast-fed and formula-fed infants differ in terms of nutrient intake, growth, and metabolic and endocrine responses. The energetic efficiency, i.e. the weight or length gain per 100 kcal of energy intake, of breast-fed infants is about 11% higher than the energetic efficiency of formula-fed infants. Only limited data is available on the influence of formula composition on the energetic efficiency of infant formulae. We conducted a review of controlled trials to identify the impact of the macronutrient composition of infant formulae on energetic efficiency. An electronic literature search was conducted in February 2014. Intervention trials that investigated the effect of an infant formula with a modified macronutrient composition and reported the weight, length, and nutritional intake of apparently healthy, term, fully formula-fed infants with a normal weight were included. Thirteen trials met the inclusion criteria. The results showed no effect of the total content of energy, carbohydrate, protein, or fat on energetic efficiency. In contrast, small increasing effects of higher glycemic carbohydrates on energetic efficiency were identified. Improved fat absorption via the use of palmitic acid at the sn-2 ester position of triacylglycerol increased the energetic efficiency by 11%. The quality of formula protein, specifically an increased whey-to-casein ratio, an increased α-lactalbumin content, or a higher tryptophan content increased the energetic efficiency by about 13%. We conclude that fat absorption and protein quality have the potential to modulate energetic efficiency and may contribute to the observed differences in growth and metabolism between breast-fed and formula-fed infants.

  1. Cronobacter Illness and Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... many germs. Breastfeeding helps prevent many kinds of sicknesses among infants. Wash your hands carefully with soap ... do: Breastfeed. Breastfeeding helps prevent many kinds of sicknesses among infants. Almost no cases of Cronobacter sickness ...

  2. Comparison of three chromogenic media and evaluation of two molecular-based identification systems for the detection of Enterobacter sakazakii from environmental samples from infant formulae factories.

    PubMed

    Derzelle, Sylviane; Dilasser, Françoise; Maladen, Véronique; Soudrie, Nicole; Leclercq, Alexandre; Lombard, Bertrand; Lafarge, Veŕonique

    2007-07-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an occasional contaminant of powdered infant formula that can cause rare but severe foodborne infections in infants. To determine optimal methods for the detection and identification of E. sakazakii, 38 naturally contaminated samples from infant formulae factories were analyzed by two PCR-based methods and by a method (TS 22964/RM 210) developed by the International Organization for Standardization and the International Dairy Federation (ISO-IDF) using three different commercial chromogenic agars. The ISO-IDF method includes two enrichment steps, plating of the second enrichment broth on E. sakazakii isolation agar (a chromogenic selective agar), picking of five typical colonies for transfer onto tryptone soy agar, and subsequent confirmation of yellow-pigmented colonies by biochemical characterization. Twenty-two of the 38 samples were positive by the culture method. E. sakazakii isolation agar (ESIA; AES Laboratoires), COMPASS agar (Biokar Diagnostics), and Druggan-Forsythe-Iversen agar (Oxoid) compared favorably with violet red bile glucose agar (VRBG, a selective medium for Enterobacteriaceae), with positive predictive values of 86.96, 88, and 74.07%, respectively, in contrast to 47.83% for VRBG. One additional positive sample was detected using the nonpatented real-time PCR method evaluated, and those results were in 97.3% concordance with the ISO-IDF results. Some discrepancies between the results of the DuPont Qualicon BAX system and those of the ISO-IDF method could be explained by heterogeneity of contamination and sampling. Thus, both PCR-based systems were suitable for detecting and specifically identifying E. sakazakii within 1 to 2 days, and COMPASS agar and ESIA could be used interchangeably as a first-step medium to isolate presumptive E. sakazakii colonies.

  3. Direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and solid sample analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arlene S; Brandao, Geovani C; Matos, Geraldo D; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2015-11-01

    The present work proposed an analytical method for the direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing the high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry combined with the solid sample analysis (SS-HR-CS ET AAS). Sample masses up to 2.0mg were directly weighted on a solid sampling platform and introduced into the graphite tube. In order to minimize the formation of carbonaceous residues and to improve the contact of the modifier solution with the solid sample, a volume of 10 µL of a solution containing 6% (v/v) H2O2, 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1% (v/v) HNO3 was added. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures established were 1600 and 2400 °C, respectively, using magnesium as chemical modifier. The calibration technique was evaluated by comparing the slopes of calibration curves established using aqueous and solid standards. This test revealed that chromium can be determined employing the external calibration technique using aqueous standards. Under these conditions, the method developed allows the direct determination of chromium with limit of quantification of 11.5 ng g(-1), precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) in the range of 4.0-17.9% (n=3) and a characteristic mass of 1.2 pg of chromium. The accuracy was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of tomato leaves furnished by National Institute of Standards and Technology. The method proposed was applied for the determination of chromium in five different infant formula samples. The chromium content found varied in the range of 33.9-58.1 ng g(-1) (n=3). These samples were also analyzed employing ICP-MS. A statistical test demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the results found by two methods. The chromium concentrations achieved are lower than the maximum limit permissible for chromium in foods by Brazilian Legislation. PMID:26452789

  4. Direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and solid sample analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arlene S; Brandao, Geovani C; Matos, Geraldo D; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2015-11-01

    The present work proposed an analytical method for the direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing the high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry combined with the solid sample analysis (SS-HR-CS ET AAS). Sample masses up to 2.0mg were directly weighted on a solid sampling platform and introduced into the graphite tube. In order to minimize the formation of carbonaceous residues and to improve the contact of the modifier solution with the solid sample, a volume of 10 µL of a solution containing 6% (v/v) H2O2, 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1% (v/v) HNO3 was added. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures established were 1600 and 2400 °C, respectively, using magnesium as chemical modifier. The calibration technique was evaluated by comparing the slopes of calibration curves established using aqueous and solid standards. This test revealed that chromium can be determined employing the external calibration technique using aqueous standards. Under these conditions, the method developed allows the direct determination of chromium with limit of quantification of 11.5 ng g(-1), precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) in the range of 4.0-17.9% (n=3) and a characteristic mass of 1.2 pg of chromium. The accuracy was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of tomato leaves furnished by National Institute of Standards and Technology. The method proposed was applied for the determination of chromium in five different infant formula samples. The chromium content found varied in the range of 33.9-58.1 ng g(-1) (n=3). These samples were also analyzed employing ICP-MS. A statistical test demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the results found by two methods. The chromium concentrations achieved are lower than the maximum limit permissible for chromium in foods by Brazilian Legislation.

  5. Safety assessment of essential and toxic metals in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, Hande; Eken, Ayşe; Aydın, Ahmet; Şahin, Gönül; Baydar, Terken

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess toxic metal (Cd, Pb and Al) contamination and levels of three essential trace elements (Mn, Cr and Co) in 63 infant formulas. In addition, the levels of these metals in the study samples were compared with the acceptable limits of toxic heavy metals and the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) of essential trace elements. According to our results, the toxic metal levels measured in the formulas were within the acceptable limits, with the exception of Al levels in 8 of the 63 samples. In 16 samples, Mn levels exceeded 600 μg/day, and the Cr content in 7 samples was higher than 5.5 μg/day, these amounts being the adequate intake levels for infants. Cobalt levels in 10 formulas were higher than the RDA. In view of these findings, which indicate that metal levels in infant formulas are generally much higher than those found in breast milk, breast milk should be preferred for infant feeding. Moreover, since infants are potentially more susceptible to metals, infant foods should be monitored regularly and checked for contamination by toxic metals as well as for levels of essential trace elements.

  6. [Hypoallergenic milks (HA formulas) in infant nutrition].

    PubMed

    Zoppi, G

    1993-01-01

    According to the definition of the European Scientific Committee for Food, hypoallergenic or hypoantigenic formulas (HA-formulas) are those which contain hydrolysed protein derived both from casein or whey. Soy-based formulas are not comprised in this definition since it has been demonstrated from several years that soy-protein, in several circumstances, may be highly allergenic. Hypoallergenic formulas contain besides hydrolysed protein, carbohydrate and lipid in amount and proportion similar to those indicated by ESPGAN recommendations on adapted formulas. As far as it concerns composition in lipid, recently great attention has been given to optimal supply and ratio of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. Hypoallergenic formulas are therefore suitable for balanced nutrition of suckling infants. Specific indications on prevention of atopic diseases are not treated.

  7. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... samples. Consider generic or store-brand formulas. By law, they must meet the same nutritional and quality standards as brand-name formulas. Avoid using disposable bottles. You will have to use a different liner with each ...

  8. Microbiological assessment and evaluation of rehydration instructions on powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdullah Sani, N; Hartantyo, S H P; Forsythe, S J

    2013-01-01

    A total of 90 samples comprising powdered infant formulas (n=51), follow-up formulas (n=21), and infant foods (n=18) from 15 domestic and imported brands were purchased from various retailers in Klang Valley, Malaysia and evaluated in terms of microbiological quality and the similarity of rehydration instructions on the product label to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Microbiological analysis included the determination of aerobic plate count (APC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Cronobacter spp. Isolates of interest were identified using ID 32E (bioMérieux France, Craponne, France). In this study, 87% of powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods analyzed had an APC below the permitted level of <10(4) cfu/g. These acceptable APC ranged between <10(2) to 7.2×10(3) cfu/g. The most frequently isolated Enterobacteriaceae was Enterobacter cloacae, which was present in 3 infant formulas and 1 infant food tested. Other Enterobacteriaceae detected from powdered infant and follow-up formulas were Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and other Enterobacter spp. No Cronobacter species were found in any samples. Rehydration instructions from the product labels were collated and it was observed that none directed the use of water with a temperature >70°C for formula preparation, as specified by the 2008 revised World Health Organization guidelines. Six brands instructed the use of water at 40 to 55°C, a temperature range that would support the survival and even growth of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:23141821

  9. Microbiological assessment and evaluation of rehydration instructions on powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdullah Sani, N; Hartantyo, S H P; Forsythe, S J

    2013-01-01

    A total of 90 samples comprising powdered infant formulas (n=51), follow-up formulas (n=21), and infant foods (n=18) from 15 domestic and imported brands were purchased from various retailers in Klang Valley, Malaysia and evaluated in terms of microbiological quality and the similarity of rehydration instructions on the product label to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Microbiological analysis included the determination of aerobic plate count (APC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Cronobacter spp. Isolates of interest were identified using ID 32E (bioMérieux France, Craponne, France). In this study, 87% of powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods analyzed had an APC below the permitted level of <10(4) cfu/g. These acceptable APC ranged between <10(2) to 7.2×10(3) cfu/g. The most frequently isolated Enterobacteriaceae was Enterobacter cloacae, which was present in 3 infant formulas and 1 infant food tested. Other Enterobacteriaceae detected from powdered infant and follow-up formulas were Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and other Enterobacter spp. No Cronobacter species were found in any samples. Rehydration instructions from the product labels were collated and it was observed that none directed the use of water with a temperature >70°C for formula preparation, as specified by the 2008 revised World Health Organization guidelines. Six brands instructed the use of water at 40 to 55°C, a temperature range that would support the survival and even growth of Enterobacteriaceae.

  10. Isolation and identification of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant milk formulas.

    PubMed

    Torres-Chavolla, Edith; Ramírez-Cerda, Elsa; Gutiérrez-Rojo, Rosalba

    2007-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is a pathogen of increasing medical concern, due to it being implicated in cases of meningitis, sepis, and necrotizing enterocolitis associated with the consumption of contaminated infant milk formula. At present, the method adopted by the Mexican food industry for the isolation and identification of E. sakazakii is based on the methodology of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, this procedure is laborious and requires 7 days to obtain a confirmative result. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of E. sakazakii in two types of powdered infant milk formula, using an alternative method that requires less time and a smaller sample size than the FDA protocol. We adapted Leuschner's procedure by eliminating violet red bile glucose agar (VRBG) plates and instead adopting white light incubation to stimulate yellow pigment development. This allowed for isolation of E. sakazakii from powdered infant milk formula using a smaller sample and requiring only 5 days for analysis. Results showed that 92% of formula 1 and 32% of formula 2 was positive for E. sakazakii. The high contamination level of E. sakazakii suggests the need for monitoring hygienic conditions in the manufacturing plant and to assess the prevalence of E. sakazakii in powdered infant milk formulas sold in México. PMID:17600483

  11. Quantification of prebiotics in commercial infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia

    2016-03-01

    Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics.

  12. Orotic acid content of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Durschlag, R P; Robinson, J L

    1980-10-01

    The orotic acid content of four commercially available infant formulas has been examined. Enfamil contains 118 microgram orotic acid per milliliter as fed, Similac 98, SMA 27, and Isomil less than 1 microgram/ml. As expressed relative to total solids, these formulas contain less than 0.1% orotic acid. Since consumption of 1% orotic acid does not lead to a fatty liver in any species examined other than the rat and 0.1% orotic acid fails to induce statistically significant hepatic changes in the rat, it is suggested that orotic acid at the level found in these formulas is not likely to pose a health hazard to the infants consuming them.

  13. Infant formula increases bone turnover favoring bone formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the first year of life, the major infant food choices have traditionally been breast milk (BM), cow's milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF). Studies examining the effects of infant formula on early life skeletal development are extremely limited. We have enrolled 120 healthy 6-month-old infants ...

  14. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... preceding 12-month period shall issue separate bid solicitations for milk-based and soy-based infant formula... participation data. (vi) Infant formula usage rates by type (e.g., milk-based or soy-based), form (e.g... that do not produce a soy-based infant formula to subcontract with another manufacturer to supply a...

  15. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... preceding 12-month period shall issue separate bid solicitations for milk-based and soy-based infant formula... participation data. (vi) Infant formula usage rates by type (e.g., milk-based or soy-based), form (e.g... that do not produce a soy-based infant formula to subcontract with another manufacturer to supply a...

  16. Lipids in human milk and infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, R G; Ferris, A M; Lammi-Keefe, C J

    1992-01-01

    About 50 metabolically important fatty acids can be identified in human milk. The extent of absorption of milk fatty acids varies considerably from infant to infant, particularly in pre-term infants, and requires more study. Human milk provides sufficient vitamins A and E for the term infant, but supplementation with vitamins D and K may be necessary. More research is needed on the amounts of the fat-soluble vitamins in human milk, the efficiency of transfer from mother to infant, the reasons for variation in different women, and the consequences to breast-fed infants of inadequate intake of vitamins D and K. Breast milk contains the PUFA needed by term infants who are able to synthesize the long-chain PUFA soon after birth. Pre-term infants fed formulae need supplementation with n3 and n6 long-chain PUFA, since formulas currently do not contain these acids. More work is needed to determine the requirements for n3 and n6 fatty acids, expressed as weights per kilogram. A larger data base using improved analytical procedures to study the nature and content of lipids in human milk is needed. The impact of maternal genetics and diet on fatty acids in milk should be studied, as well as the effect of maternal diet on eicosanoids secreted by the mammary gland. Information on the structure and function of the milk fat globule and its membrane is needed. Little is known about the effect of milk banking on milk lipids. The reader of this review will no doubt find other gaps in our knowledge of the lipid composition and nutritional value of milk that require additional investigation.

  17. Tolerance of a standard intact protein formula versus a partially hydrolyzed formula in healthy, term infants

    PubMed Central

    Berseth, Carol Lynn; Mitmesser, Susan Hazels; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Marunycz, John D; Vanderhoof, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Background Parents who perceive common infant behaviors as formula intolerance-related often switch formulas without consulting a health professional. Up to one-half of formula-fed infants experience a formula change during the first six months of life. Methods The objective of this study was to assess discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance in healthy, term infants. Infants (335) were randomized to receive either a standard intact cow milk protein formula (INTACT) or a partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formula (PH) in a 60 day non-inferiority trial. Discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included number of infants who discontinued for any reason, including parent-assessed. Results Formula intolerance between groups (INTACT, 12.3% vs. PH, 13.7%) was similar for infants who completed the study or discontinued due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance. Overall study discontinuance based on parent- vs. study physician-assessed intolerance for all infants (14.4 vs.11.1%) was significantly different (P = 0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated no difference in infant tolerance of intact vs. partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formulas for healthy, term infants over a 60-day feeding trial, suggesting nonstandard partially hydrolyzed formulas are not necessary as a first-choice for healthy infants. Parents frequently perceived infant behavior as formula intolerance, paralleling previous reports of unnecessary formula changes. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00666120 PMID:19545360

  18. Infant formula, past and future: opportunities for improvement.

    PubMed

    Lo, C W; Kleinman, R E

    1996-04-01

    Infant formulas provide nutritional support to health infants that promotes growth and development equivalent to that in healthy infants fed human milk. Formula-fed infants are not as well protected against infections, and there remain infants whose health, growth, and development may not be supported optimally by either the formulas currently available or human milk. Some infants may be better supported by genetically engineered formulas that contain immunity-enhancing antibodies or antigens. Formulas that contain cytokines promoting epithelial cell growth and integrity may be protective against necrotizing enterocolitis. Formulas containing proteins with genetically excluded allergenic epitopes or formulas with tolerogenic peptides may be useful in treating allergic diseases of suppressing the development of autoimmune disorders later in life. Formulas with genetically engineered biologically active substances might increase the absorption of nutrients in infants with compromised absorption or digestion, enhance host immunity and mucosal integrity, and, potentially militate or protect against the risk of disease. PMID:8599333

  19. How allergenic are hypoallergenic infant formulae?

    PubMed

    Rugo, E; Wahl, R; Wahn, U

    1992-06-01

    In a comparative study six different protein hydrolysates, marketed as 'hypoallergenic' infant formulae were investigated by skin prick tests, RAST, RAST inhibition and titrated provocation tests. When hydrolysates containing a high percentage of larger peptides were found to have the highest capacity to induce positive skin tests, provocation tests and to bind to human serum IgE antibodies of cow's milk allergic children. Casein hydrolysates appeared to have the least residual allergenic activity. We recommend that 'hypoallergenic' formulae should be tested in each case, before being prescribed to cow's milk sensitive children.

  20. Infant formula companies battle for breast.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The infant formula manufacturer Mead Johnson has filed a lawsuit in Ontario courts against its competitor Ross Abbott for false advertising of its new Similac brand of infant formula. Mead Johnson contends that the Ross Abbott advertisement of Similac as providing benefits similar to mother's milk is false and misleading. Breast feeding specialists agree with Mead Johnson's claim. Yet, one year earlier, Mead Johnson claimed that its infant formula is modeled after mother's milk. The Infant Feeding Action Coalition (INFACT) Canada had complained to the Competition Bureau that called for Mead Johnson to cease its claim. Court documents reveal that both companies disregard the World Health Organization (WHO) International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes. This code prohibits manufacturers from advertising directly to pregnant women and mothers. Two Ross Abbott spokespersons have different responses to their advertising practices: increasing emphasis on consumer promotion and support of the principle and objective of the WHO Code. Both companies have sought support of health professionals in Canada. In July 1996 Mead Johnson sent letters to about 7000 clinicians declaring "as someone who cares about infant health and nutrition as much as we do" and "...the most alarming concern is that, although there is no scientific basis for such claims, mothers believe them to be true." Ross Abbott responded to these letters by sending physicians letters declaring "Our business is built on trust, and we assure you that you may trust in Similac Advance and the benefits we have ascribed to it." The two companies will meet again in court on September 30, 1996. PMID:12320465

  1. Selenium contents of human milk and infant formulas in Spain.

    PubMed

    Torres, M A; Verdoy, J; Alegría, A; Barberá, R; Farré, R; Lagarda, M J

    1999-04-01

    The selenium content of Spanish human milk samples and different milk-based and soy-based infant formulas has been estimated by using a flow injection hydride atomic absorption spectrometric method after microwave digestion of the organic matter. Mean values of 11.4 +/- 3.7 and 10.7 +/- 4.6 ng/ml for colostrum and transitional milk, 8.4 +/- 3.4 and 5.3 +/- 1.9 ng/ml for mature milk at 1 month and up to 2 months respectively, was obtained. These values are close to those reported by others authors in Europe, and lower than the ones from the US, Japan and Korea. Selenium contents of the analyzed infants' formulas ranged from 2.7 to 9.6 ng/ml and from 1.8 to 7.5 ng/ml for soy and milk-based infant formulas, respectively. The variability in selenium contents is large, although mean values are close to the ones given in other European countries. Selenium contents are not usually given on the product. The selenium intakes were estimated assuming that infants fed only human milk. The intakes ranged from 2.0 to 8.4 micrograms/day and from 3.4 to 12.9 micrograms/day for colostrum and transitional milk, respectively, and from 2.6 to 10.3 micrograms/day for mature milk at 1 month, and from 1.2 to 8.3 micrograms/day for milk up to 2 months. The analyzed infant formulas provide significantly less selenium than the 10 micrograms/day corresponding to the recommended daily allowance for infants from 0 to 6 months.

  2. Determination of iodine in human milk and infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sánchez, Luisa Maria; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Fraga-Bermudez, José Maria; Szpunar, Joanna; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to determine iodine in human milk and infant formulas using ICP-MS. The milk samples were digested using an alkaline digestion (5% NH(3), 45 W, 2 min and 30s), and the method was validated using a certified reference material (CRM) BCR CRM151. On the other hand the milk was separated in three fractions, whey, fat and caseins using ultracentrifugation (15 min, 4 degrees C, 50,000 rpm) and the iodine was determined in the different fractions. About 27 samples of different infant formulas and 14 samples of human milk have been studied. In the human milk the values found were between 144+/-93.2 microg kg(-1), whereas in the infant formulas the values were 53.3+/-19.5. For both types of samples the bigger amount of iodine is in the whey fraction, between 80% and 90%, whereas in the fat there is about a 2% of the total iodine and in the casein fraction the levels are between 5% and 10% depending on the type of sample.

  3. Immunogenicity evaluation of protein hydrolysates for hypoallergenic infant formulae.

    PubMed

    Cordle, C T; Mahmoud, M I; Moore, V

    1991-10-01

    Casein and soy protein were enzymatically hydrolyzed for potential use in a hypoallergenic infant formula. To assess the relative immunoreactivity of the hydrolysates, rabbits were immunized with either the intact proteins or the protein hydrolysates using a vigorous immunization protocol. Serum samples were tested using ELISA methods that quantitated IgG antibody specific for the immunizing protein hydrolysates and the corresponding intact proteins. The results showed that the protein hydrolysates had substantially lower immunogenicity than the parent proteins. Also, antibody specific for the parent protein showed very low cross-reactivity with the hydrolysates. Both of the protein hydrolysates seem to be promising candidates for use in hypoallergenic infant feeding systems.

  4. Formulas for premature infants: fate of the calcium and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, J; Fomon, S J

    1983-07-01

    Formulas designed for feeding of premature infants contain minerals added by the manufacturer. Although it is known that these minerals may be poorly suspended in the formula, little is known about concentrations of minerals in formula delivered to the infant under conditions prevailing in premature infant nurseries. In partially empty bottles of Similac Special Care, concentrations of calcium and phosphorus of this residual formula were found to be substantially greater than concentrations in full bottles. Presumably, concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in formula delivered to the infants was relatively low. Enfamil Premature and SMA Preemie infant formulas contain lesser quantities of added calcium and demonstrated less tendency to sedimentation. Substantial decrease in concentration of calcium was observed with all three formulas during continuous infusion, but the decrease was greatest with Similac Special Care. Little or no change in concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were observed with simulated bolus feeding by gavage.

  5. Proximate and elemental analysis of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J T

    1982-11-01

    The Nutrient Surveillance Branch has been conducting a survey of infant formula products for Fiscal Year 1981. Each product has been carefully analyzed and the results compared to the label declaration and the minimum-maximum limits specified by the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on Nutrition (CON/AAP). Proximate and elemental analyses were made. Protein, fat, ash, and total solids (moisture) were determined by AOAC methods. Osmolality, density, and fatty acids (linoleic) were also determined. Carbohydrates were calculated by difference and caloric content was calculated by using the general Atwater factors. Elemental analysis for Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Na, and K were performed by induction coupled plasma absorption spectroscopy. Chloride was assayed by potentiometric titration with AgNO3. A summary of the findings from the infant formula survey have been compared with CON/AAP recommendations. In general, there were only a few exceptions where the label claims and the CON/AAP requirements were not met. However, in none of these cases was the difference considered to be of public health significance.

  6. Infant formula and infant nutrition: bioactive proteins of human milk and implications for composition of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-03-01

    Human milk contains an abundance of biologically active components that are highly likely to contribute to the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding. Many of these components are proteins; this article describes some of these proteins, such as α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, osteopontin, and milk fat globule membrane proteins. The possibility of adding their bovine counterparts to infant formula is discussed as well as the implications for infant health and development. An important consideration when adding bioactive proteins to infant formula is that the total protein content of formula needs to be reduced, because formula-fed infants have significantly higher concentrations of serum amino acids, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen than do breastfed infants. When reducing the protein content of formula, the amino acid composition of the formula protein becomes important because serum concentrations of the essential amino acids should not be lower than those in breastfed infants. Both the supply of essential amino acids and the bioactivities of milk proteins are dependent on their digestibility: some proteins act only in intact form, others act in the form of larger or small peptides formed during digestion, and some are completely digested and serve as a source of amino acids. The purity of the proteins or protein fractions, potential contaminants of the proteins (such as lipopolysaccharide), as well as the degree of heat processing used during their isolation also need to be considered. It is likely that there will be more bioactive components added to infant formulas in the near future, but guidelines on how to assess their bioactivities in vitro, in animal models, and in clinical studies need to be established. The extent of testing needed is likely going to depend on the degree of complexity of the components and their bioequivalence with the human compounds whose effects they are intended to mimic.

  7. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  8. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  9. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  10. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  11. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  12. Zinc and Copper Concentrations in Human Milk and Infant Formulas

    PubMed Central

    Khaghani, Shahnaz; Ezzatpanah, Hamid; Mazhari, Najmeh; Givianrad, Mohammad Hadi; Mirmiranpour, Hossein; Sadrabadi, Fatemeh Shahi

    2010-01-01

    Objective Available accurate data on the concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in human milk throughout lactation and infant formulas is important both for formulating nutritional requirements for substances and to provide a base line for the understanding the physiology of their secretion. The objective of this study was to analyze the concentrations of zinc and copper in infant formulas and human milk during prolonged lactation. Levels of these metals were examined in relation to selected parameters such as age, weight, height, education and occupation of mothers. Methods Thirty mothers referred to the selected clinics in Tehran entered the study. Human milk samples were collected at 2 months postpartum. Zinc and copper concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Findings The mean values of Zn and Cu in human milk were 2.95±0.77mg/L and 0.36±0.11 mg/L. The mean values of Zn and Cu in infant formulas were 3.98±0.25 mg/L and 0.53±0.17mg/L. Conclusion No significant relationship was found between levels of trace elements in human milk and evaluated parameters such as age, weight, height, education and occupation of mothers. The concentrations of zinc and copper in breast milk were lower than those reported in the literature. PMID:23056682

  13. The Infant Formula Controversy: Is the Boycott Justified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.; Cancellier, Patricia H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problems involved with the use of infant formulas in developing countries and then examines the other side of the story, the legitimate need for infant formula. The International Code for the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes is also presented and discussed. (RM)

  14. Infant Formula: A Little Knowledge Can Be Dangerous.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby-LaRue, Jeannine

    1982-01-01

    Misuse of infant formula products in third-world countries is discussed with regard to the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. The Nestle Company's response to the code is presented and the Infant Formula Action Committee (INFACT) boycott of Nestle products is described. (CM)

  15. Ultrasonographic patterns of reproductive organs in infants fed soy formula: Comparisons to infants fed breast milk and milk formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine if differences exist in hormone sensitive organ size between infants fed soy formula (SF), milk formula (MF), or breast milk (BF). Breast buds, uterus, ovaries, prostate, and testicular volumes were assessed by ultrasonography in 40 BF, 41 MF, and 39 SF infants at age ...

  16. Infant Formula: The Addition of Minimum and Maximum Levels of Selenium to Infant Formula and Related Labeling Requirements. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-06-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the regulations on nutrient specifications and labeling for infant formula to add the mineral selenium to the list of required nutrients and to establish minimum and maximum levels of selenium in infant formula.

  17. Breath hydrogen responses in infants using lactose-rice formula and regular lactose formula.

    PubMed

    Wu, T C; Hwang, B; Lee, P S

    2001-01-01

    Starch thickened infant formulas have been shown to relieve regurgitation and increase caloric retention. We compared the completeness of digestion of the carbohydrates in lactose-rice formula (study formula) with routine infant formula in infants with GER. A prospective open study of 30 normal, well-nourished infants with simple regurgitation was conducted. The clinical history on regurgitation, stool pattern and baseline breath hydrogen (bH2) test were obtained at entry, with the infants still using their original routine infant formula, and after a wash out period of 7 days, during which they were fed only with study formula. Analysis of bH2 results showed lower levels of bH2 at 1, 2 and 3 hours with study formula compared with the original formula at the 2nd and 3rd hour (p<0.05). The effectiveness of the study formula in managing GER was demonstrated by the fact that 26 out of 30 had either "some improvement" or a "good response." Hardening of the stool pattern was reported in 13 of the 30 infants after 1 week of study formula. The mean of peak bH2 in study formula fed subjects with formed and firm/hard stool was significantly lower than in those with soft and pasty stool. In conclusion, this study has shown the effectiveness of rice thickened infant formulas in managing infants with GER. Rice-starch has an additional advantage of ease of digestion. The hardening of stool pattern was also frequently observed. PMID:11811219

  18. Partly Fermented Infant Formulae With Specific Oligosaccharides Support Adequate Infant Growth and Are Well-Tolerated

    PubMed Central

    Huet, Frédéric; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; Tims, Sebastian; Simeoni, Umberto; Beley, Gérard; Savagner, Christoph; Vandenplas, Yvan; Hourihane, Jonathan O’B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Fermented formulae (FERM) and a specific mixture of 90% short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and 10% long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS; 9:1) have a potential beneficial effect on gastrointestinal function and microbiota development in infants. The present study assessed the safety and tolerance of the combination of partly fermented infant milk formulae and scGOS/lcFOS compared with either 1 feature, in healthy term infants. Methods: Four hundred thirty-two infants were enrolled before 28 days of age and followed up to 17 weeks of age and assigned to 1 of the 4 groups: (i) formula with scGOS/lcFOS, (ii) scGOS/lcFOS + 15% FERM, (iii) scGOS/lcFOS + 50% FERM, or (iv) 50% fermented formula (50% FERM). Primary outcome was daily weight gain during intervention (equivalence criterion: difference in daily weight gain ≤3 g/day). Infants’ anthropometrics, formula intake, number, and type of (serious) AEs were monitored monthly. Stool samples were collected at baseline and after 17 weeks for analysis of physiological and microbiological parameters. Results: Equivalence of weight gain per day was demonstrated in both the intention-to-treat and per-protocol population, with a mean weight gain (SD) of 29.7 (6.1), 28.2 (4.8), 28.5 (5.0), and 28.7 (5.9) g/day for the groups i to iv respectively. No differences were observed in other growth parameters, formula intake, and the number or severity of AEs. In all scGOS/lcFOS-containing formulae, a beneficial effect of scGOS/lcFOS was observed, indicated by the lower pH, lower Clostridium difficile levels, and higher secretory immunoglobulin A levels. Conclusions: The partly fermented infant milk formulae containing the specific mixture scGOS/lcFOS were well-tolerated and resulted in normal growth in healthy infants. PMID:27472478

  19. Growth of breast-fed and formula-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2006-01-01

    Growth and nutrition during infancy are being viewed with renewed interest because of the possibility that they may be linked to cardiovascular and metabolic health in later life. Of particular interest are differences between breast- and formula-fed infants with regard to nutrient intake and growth because breastfeeding has been shown to be associated with a reduced risk of obesity in later life. During the first 6-8 weeks of life there is little difference in growth (gain in weight and length) between breast- and formula-fed infants. However, from about 2 months of age to the end of the first year of life formula-fed infants gain weight and length more rapidly than breast-fed infants. There are no consistent differences in adiposity during the first 4-5 months of life, but during the later part of the first year of life the preponderance of the evidence suggests that breast-fed infants are leaner than formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants at 4-5 months of age show higher plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin and certain amino acids than breast-fed infants. Whereas the protein intake of breast-fed infants decreases with age and closely matches the requirements for protein during the early months of life, the protein intake of formula-fed infants exceeds requirements after the first 1-2 months of life. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in protein intake are mainly responsible for differences in growth between breast- and formula-fed infants. Differences in energy intake probably are responsible for differences in adiposity observed in older infants.

  20. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant... by the infant formula. (b) Carry out additional effectiveness checks, if the agency's audits,...

  1. Effect of infant formula with probiotics on intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Baldeón, Manuel E; Naranjo, Gabriela; Granja, Diego

    2008-03-01

    Weaning during infancy refers to the initiation of complementary food to breast milk. During weaning, there are significant changes on the gastrointestinal microbiota. Deleterious alterations of the gastrointestinal microbiota can result in pathological processes while measures that stimulate its development and stability, like the use of probiotics, are beneficial. The mechanisms by which probiotics achieve their effects have not been clearly established. Present work compares the microbial composition of feces from infants that were weaned to regular family food, formula with probiotics (B. Lactis BL y S. Thermophilus) or formula without probiotics. Accordingly, analysis of rDNA of microbial fecal samples by molecular techniques was used. Formula with or without probiotics was well tolerated and safe for all participating children. Probiotics present in formula were viable and susceptible to culture. There was not difference on physical growth or development among all participants. The microbiota of children supplemented with formula with- or without probiotics was different than that observed in children supplemented with regular food. It was not possible to determine enrichment of B. Lactis BL and S. Thermophilus in the feces of children that consumed the probiotics. Present work contributes to the understanding of probiotics effects in human health. PMID:18589566

  2. Phthalate residue in goat milk-based infant formulas manufactured in China.

    PubMed

    Ge, W P; Yang, X J; Wu, X Y; Wang, Z; Geng, W; Guo, C F

    2016-10-01

    Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in humans. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, we investigated the residual profile and levels of 15 phthalates in 90 goat milk-based infant formulas from 15 commercial brands of 10 dairy enterprises located in Shaanxi Province, China. In general, dibutyl phthalate was the most detected phthalate, followed by bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, and dimethyl phthalate; their geometric mean concentrations in the formulas were 38.1, 24.2, 16.6, and 8.7μg/kg, respectively. Other phthalates were not detected in the investigated samples. No significant differences were found in the phthalate levels among different stages of infant formulas, even though the samples were packaged in different types of containers. These findings demonstrate that goat milk-based infant formulas may represent the main source of exposure to phthalates in infants. PMID:27522423

  3. Infant Formula Fat Analogs and Human Milk Fat: New Focus on Infant Developmental Needs.

    PubMed

    Zou, Long; Pande, Garima; Akoh, Casimir C

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is generally and universally recognized as the optimal choice for nutrition during the first year of life. In certain cases in which it is not feasible to breast-feed the infant or the breast milk is not sufficient, especially in the case of preterm infants, infant formula is the next best alternative to provide nutrition to nurture the infant. Therefore, it is highly important that the nutrient composition of the infant formula is as close to breast milk as possible for proper growth and development of the infant. However, human milk is a complex dynamic matrix, and therefore significant research has been done and is still ongoing to fully understand and mimic human breast milk, particularly its fat composition. Lipids play a critical role in infant nutrition. A number of advances have been made in infant formula lipid content and composition so that formula can better simulate or mimic the nutritional functions of human maternal milk.

  4. Estimation of fluoride intake from milk-based infant formulas and baby foods.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hie Jin; Sohn, Woosung; Kim, Baek Il; Kwon, Ho Keun; Choi, Choong Ho; Kim, Hae-Young

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the amount of fluoride ingested from infant formula and baby food in infants aged up to 6 months in South Korea. The fluoride content of 20 commercially available formulas and 8 baby food samples from 4 different brands was measured using a modified microdiffusion method and fluoride ion selective electrode. The amount of fluoride (F) ingested by infants was estimated assuming that the samples were reconstituted with water containing 0, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 ppm F. When the reconstituted formulas and baby foods contained 0.8 ppm F water, the infants were estimated to ingest fluoride in the range of 0.018 to 0.298 mg/kg/day. The findings of this study suggest that there is a need for clear guidelines for fluoride consumption by infants that should be followed by manufacturers and parents.

  5. Carrageenan analysis. Part 1: Characterisation of the carrageenan test material and stability in swine-adapted infant formula.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, William R; Davis, Steven R; Hroncich, Maggie M; Vurma, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    A method was developed and validated in support of a 28-day feeding study of swine-adapted infant formula stabilised with carrageenan administered to neonatal piglets. Carrageenan concentrations in the test formulations were 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 mg kg(-1) formula. Extraction of carrageenan from swine-adapted infant formula was achieved by breaking carrageenan-protein cross-linkages using saturated sodium chloride, followed by separation of the non-gelling carrageenan fraction via centrifugation. The extraction of carrageenan from formula was successful with respect to consistent recovery of the non-gelling carrageenan fraction from both test and control formula samples. Molecular weight analysis (Mw) of the recovered carrageenan fractions from the test and control formula samples confirmed that the carrageenan used to manufacture the formula was not degraded during the infant formula production process and subsequent storage for 4 months covering the 28-day piglet dietary feeding study. Carrageenan has excellent stability in infant formulations.

  6. Infant formulas with increased concentrations of alpha-lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    Lien, Eric L

    2003-06-01

    Human and bovine milk differ substantially in the ratio of whey to casein protein (approximately 60:40 in human milk and approximately 20:80 in bovine milk) and in the proportions of specific proteins. Although current infant formulas closely mimic the ratio of total whey to casein inhuman milk, the concentration of a-lactalbumin (the dominant protein in human milk) is relatively low in formula, whereas beta-lactoglobulin, a protein not found in human milk, is the most dominant whey protein in formula. Because of the differences in the protein profiles of human milk and infant formula, amino acid profiles also differ. To meet all essential amino acid requirements of infants, formula concentrations of protein must be higher than those in human milk. Recently, whey sources with elevated concentrations of alpha-lactalbumin have become available, which permitted the development of formulas with increased concentrations of this protein and decreased concentrations of beta-lactoglobulin. alpha-Lactalbumin is rich in tryptophan, which is typically the limiting amino acid in formula, and as a result, formulas have been developed with lower protein but higher tryptophan concentrations. This type of formula may offer a number of advantages to the neonate, which include producing plasma tryptophan concentrations equal to those found in breastfed infants and obviating the need for the body to dispose of excess nitrogen loads.

  7. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Camilia R.; Ling, Pei-Ra; Blackburn, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required. PMID:27187450

  8. Occurrence of fatty acid esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidol in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Wöhrlin, Friederike; Fry, Hildburg; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiß-Weigert, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and glycidol generated during the refinement process in vegetable fats and oils caused concerns about possible adverse health effects. As these fats are components of infant formula, the current investigation of the MCPD and glycidyl ester contents in infant formula was necessary to update the data for risk assessment purposes. For the analysis of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula, an existing method for fats and oils had to be modified and validated. The fat fraction containing MCPD and glycidyl esters was extracted from infant formula by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The extracted fat was then analysed according to an established method for fats and oils. Glycidyl esters are converted to monobrompropanediol (3-MBPD) esters, MCPD and 3-MBPD esters hydrolysed subsequently and after derivatisation detected by GC-MS. Seven different products of infant formula, covering two types and five lots each, altogether 70 samples, were bought in retail markets and analysed. In all samples, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters could be detected. Both 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters' concentration levels were found to be lower in comparison with earlier investigations described in the literature. The occurrence of 2-MCPD esters in infant formula was investigated for the first time and revealed concentrations about half of 3-MCPD ester concentrations.

  9. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  10. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. The recalling firm may submit a recommendation for termination of the recall...

  11. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  12. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  13. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  14. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  15. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  16. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 8075, Feb. 10, 2014. The recalling...

  17. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  18. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  19. Infant Formulas for Food Allergy Treatment and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Hetu; Bahna, Sami L

    2016-04-01

    The number of infant formulas intended for food allergy treatment or prevention has been increasing. Some products fulfill the criteria for hypoallergenicity, such as extensively hydrolyzed protein (casein or whey) and synthesized amino acid formulas (elemental diet). Numerous partially hydrolyzed formulas have been derived from bovine milk, soybean, and rice. They are not hypoallergenic and are not recommended for children allergic to the parent protein, yet certain preparations have shown efficacy for allergy prevention. Soybean-derived preparations, although not hypoallergenic, have been tolerated by a majority of children allergic to bovine milk. Studies on the addition of probiotics or prebiotics to infant formulas have shown inconsistent findings. Numerous hypoallergenic formulas or milk substitutes are available for pediatricians to choose for children with food allergy. Caution is needed in prescribing formulas that are erroneously marketed as hypoallergenic.

  20. Estimation of the fluoride concentrations in human breast milk, cow's milk and infant formulae.

    PubMed

    Rahul, P; Hegde, Amitha M; Munshi, A K

    2003-01-01

    Fluoride has a significant effect on the prevention of dental caries. The major dietary intake of the infants constitutes the breast milk cow's milk and infant milk formulations in which the fluoride contents varies widely. Hence it is important to identify the potential milk source of high fluoride intake in an infant's diet and to evaluate the need for the fluoride supplementation. The aim of the present study was to determine the fluoride concentrations in breast milk, cow's milk, infant formulae and water samples in Mangalore city, India, using fluoride electrode (Orion Model 940900). It was noted that minimal amount of fluoride was found to be present in breast milk and cow's milk samples, while the fluoride content of water samples was found to be below the optimum level. On the contrary the infant formulae were found to have equal or more levels of fluoride.

  1. Phospholipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulas: Benefits and Needs for Correct Infant Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Cilla, Antonio; Diego Quintaes, Késia; Barberá, Reyes; Alegría, Amparo

    2016-08-17

    The composition of human milk has served as a basis for the development of infant formulas, which are used when breastfeeding is not possible. Among the human milk nutrients, 50% of the total energetic value corresponds to fat, with a high level of fatty acids and 0.2-2.0% present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). The PL contents and fatty acid distribution in PL species have been investigated as bioactive elements for the production of infant formulas, since they offer potential benefits for the optimum growth and health of the newborn infant. The differences in the amount of PLs and in fatty acid distribution in PL species between human milk and infant formulas can imply biologically significant differences for newborn infants fed with infant formulas versus human milk-mainly due to the greater proportion of sphingomyelin with respect to phosphatidylcholine in infant formulas. The limited information referred to the characterization of fatty acid distribution in PL species in infant formulas or in ingredients used to enrich them merits further research in order to obtain products with benefits similar to those of human milk in terms of infant growth, visual acuity, and neurological development. The present review establishes the scientific basis for helping to adjust formulations to the requirements of infant nutrition.

  2. Phospholipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulas: Benefits and Needs for Correct Infant Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Cilla, Antonio; Diego Quintaes, Késia; Barberá, Reyes; Alegría, Amparo

    2016-08-17

    The composition of human milk has served as a basis for the development of infant formulas, which are used when breastfeeding is not possible. Among the human milk nutrients, 50% of the total energetic value corresponds to fat, with a high level of fatty acids and 0.2-2.0% present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). The PL contents and fatty acid distribution in PL species have been investigated as bioactive elements for the production of infant formulas, since they offer potential benefits for the optimum growth and health of the newborn infant. The differences in the amount of PLs and in fatty acid distribution in PL species between human milk and infant formulas can imply biologically significant differences for newborn infants fed with infant formulas versus human milk-mainly due to the greater proportion of sphingomyelin with respect to phosphatidylcholine in infant formulas. The limited information referred to the characterization of fatty acid distribution in PL species in infant formulas or in ingredients used to enrich them merits further research in order to obtain products with benefits similar to those of human milk in terms of infant growth, visual acuity, and neurological development. The present review establishes the scientific basis for helping to adjust formulations to the requirements of infant nutrition. PMID:26075805

  3. Redox cycling and generation of reactive oxygen species in commercial infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Boatright, William L; Crum, Andrea D

    2016-04-01

    Three nationally prominent commercial powdered infant formulas generated hydrogen peroxide, ranging from 10.46 to 11.62 μM, when prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. Treating infant formulas with the chelating agent diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) significantly reduced H2O2 generation. In contrast, the addition of disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) elevated the level of H2O2 generated in the same infant formulas by approximately 3- to 4-fold above the untreated infant formulas. The infant formulas contained ascorbate radicals ranging from about 138 nM to 40 nM. Treatment with catalase reduced the ascorbate radical contents by as much as 67%. Treatment with DTPA further reduced ascorbate radical signals to below quantifiable levels in most samples, further implicating the involvement of transition metal redox cycling in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Supportive evidence of the generation of ROS is provided using luminol-enhanced luminescence (LEL) in both model mixtures of ascorbic acid and in commercial infant formulas. PMID:26593482

  4. Redox cycling and generation of reactive oxygen species in commercial infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Boatright, William L; Crum, Andrea D

    2016-04-01

    Three nationally prominent commercial powdered infant formulas generated hydrogen peroxide, ranging from 10.46 to 11.62 μM, when prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. Treating infant formulas with the chelating agent diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) significantly reduced H2O2 generation. In contrast, the addition of disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) elevated the level of H2O2 generated in the same infant formulas by approximately 3- to 4-fold above the untreated infant formulas. The infant formulas contained ascorbate radicals ranging from about 138 nM to 40 nM. Treatment with catalase reduced the ascorbate radical contents by as much as 67%. Treatment with DTPA further reduced ascorbate radical signals to below quantifiable levels in most samples, further implicating the involvement of transition metal redox cycling in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Supportive evidence of the generation of ROS is provided using luminol-enhanced luminescence (LEL) in both model mixtures of ascorbic acid and in commercial infant formulas.

  5. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Methods Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30% w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Results Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 μg/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 μg/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 μg per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 μg per day. Conclusions All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium. PMID:24103160

  6. GI Symptoms in Infants Are a Potential Target for Fermented Infant Milk Formulae: A Review

    PubMed Central

    van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Berton, Amelie; Bouritius, Hetty; Goulet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Besides pre- and pro-biotic-containing infant formulae, fermented infant formulae are commonly used to relieve or prevent symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort in young infants. During the fermentation process in cow’s milk-based formulae, the beneficial bacteria modulate the product by forming several beneficial compounds, which contribute to the alleviation of the symptoms observed. This review summarizes the clinical evidence on the impact of fermented infant formulae on common pediatric GI-symptoms. The potential mechanisms involved are discussed: i.e., the lactose and protein (in-) digestibility, effects on gastric emptying and gut transit and modulation of the colonic microbiota. Although initial evidence indicates a beneficial effect of fermented formulae on GI discomfort in newborns, validation and confirmation of the clinical proof obtained so far is warranted, as well as further research to (more fully) understand the mode of action. PMID:25255831

  7. An Opinion on "Staging" of Infant Formula: A Developmental Perspective on Infant Feeding.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Hernell, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk is a dynamic fluid with compositional changes occurring throughout the period of lactation. Some of these changes in nutrient concentrations reflect the successively slowing growth rate and developmental changes in metabolic requirements that infants undergo during the first year of life. Infant formula, in contrast, has a static composition, intended to meet the nutritional requirements of infants from birth to 6 or 12 months of age. To better fit the metabolic needs of infants and to avoid nutrient limitations or excesses, we suggest that infant formulas should change in composition with the age of the infant, that is, different formulas are created/used for different ages during the first year of life. We propose that specific formulas for 0 to 3 months (stage 1), 3 to 6 months (stage 2), and 6 to 12 months (stage 3) of age may be nutritionally and physiologically advantageous to infants. Although this initially may impose some difficult practical/conceptual issues, we believe that this staging concept would improve nutrition of formula-fed infants and, ultimately, improve outcomes and make their performance more similar to that of breast-fed infants.

  8. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii of dehydrated infant formula by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Jang-Ho; Woon, Jae-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2007-11-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii has been implicated as a causal organism in a severe form of neonatal meningitis, with reported mortality rates of 20%. The population at greatest risk is immunocompromised infants of any age. Dried infant formula has been identified as a potential source of the organism in both outbreaks and sporadic cases. The objective of this study was to investigate theirradiation effect of the inactivation on E. sakazakii (ATCC 29544) of a dehydrated infant formula. The D10-values were 0.22-0.27 and 0.76 kGy for broth and dehydrated infant formula, respectively. The irradiation at 5.0 kGy was able to completely eliminate the E. sakazakii inoculated at 8.0 to 9.0 log CFU g -1 onto a dehydrated infant formula. There was no regrowth for all samples during the time they were stored at 10 °C for 6 h after rehydration. The present results indicated that a gamma-irradiation could potentially be used to inactivate E. sakazakii in a dehydrated powdered infant formula.

  9. Infant regulation of intake: the effect of free glutamate content in infant formulas1234

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Alison K; Beauchamp, Gary K; Mennella, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    Background: We recently discovered that infants randomly assigned to a formula high in free amino acids (extensive protein hydrolysate formula; ePHF) during infancy consumed less formula to satiation and gained less weight than did infants fed an isocaloric formula low in free amino acids (cow milk formula; CMF). Objective: Because ePHF and CMF differ markedly in concentrations of free glutamate, we tested the hypothesis that the higher glutamate concentrations in ePHF promote satiation and satiety. Design: In this counterbalanced, within-subject study, infants <4 mo of age (n = 30) visited our laboratory for 3 sets of 2 consecutive infant-led formula meals over 3 test days. Infants were fed 1 of 3 isocaloric formulas during each first meal: CMF, ePHF, or CMF with added free glutamate to approximate concentrations in ePHF (CMF+glu). When infants signaled hunger again, they were fed a second meal of CMF. From these data, we calculated satiety ratios for each of the 3 formulas by dividing the intermeal interval by the amount of formula consumed during that particular first meal. Results: Infants consumed significantly less CMF+glu (P < 0.02) and ePHF (P < 0.04) than CMF during the first meals. They also showed greater levels of satiety after consuming CMF+glu or ePHF: satiety ratios for CMF+glu (P < 0.03) and ePHF (P < 0.05) were significantly higher than for CMF. Conclusion: These findings suggest a role of free glutamate in infant intake regulation and call into question the claim that formula feeding impairs infants’ abilities to self regulate energy intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00957892. PMID:22357724

  10. Microwave heating of infant formula: a dilemma resolved.

    PubMed

    Sigman-Grant, M; Bush, G; Anantheswaran, R

    1992-09-01

    Microwave heating of infant formula is a common practice despite concerns of infant scalding. Beyond the issue of physical safety, little is known about the effects on nutrient content of microwave heating of infant formula. Casein-predominant infant formula in 120- and 240-mL glass and plastic nursing bottles of varying colors were heated for 40 seconds and 60 seconds, respectively. Temperature profiling was monitored during the heating cycle. Analysis of riboflavin and vitamin C was made prior to and after heating. Topmost portions reached a mean temperature of 44.7 +/- 1.7 degrees C and 43.0 +/- 2.4 degrees C for all types of 240-mL and 120-mL bottles, respectively. Topmost temperatures were significantly hotter than temperatures reached at other sites. Routine mixing resulted in formula temperatures which could safely be fed to infants (35.4 +/- 0.3 degrees C and 33.9 +/- 0.2 degrees C for 240-mL and 120-mL bottles, respectively). There was no significant loss of either riboflavin or vitamin C. Protocols for microwave heating are given.

  11. Extensively and partially hydrolysed infant formulas for allergy prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Oldaeus, G; Anjou, K; Bjorksten, B; Moran, J; Kjellman, N

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 17 March 1997
 The allergy preventive effect of extensively (N) and partially (PH) hydrolysed cows' milk formulas compared with a regular formula (RM) was assessed in 155 infants with a family history of allergy. No cows' milk was given during the first nine months of life and no egg and fish up to 12 months of age. Breast feeding mothers avoided the same foods. At weaning the infants were randomised to one of the formula groups. The cumulative incidence of atopic symptoms at 18 months was 51, 64, and 84% in the N, PH, and RM groups, respectively. From 6 to 18 months there were significantly less cumulative atopic symptoms in the N group compared with the RM group, and significantly less than the PH group up to 6 (N= 25%; PH = 46%) and 9 months (N = 34%, PH = 58%). At 9 months significantly fewer infants in the N group (10%) than in the PH group (33%) had a positive skin prick test to eggs. The findings support an allergy preventive effect of an extensively hydrolysed formula, but not of a partially hydrolysed formula, during the first 18 months of life of high risk infants.

 PMID:9279143

  12. Determination of perchlorate in infant formula by isotope dilution ion chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Lau, B.P.-Y.; Tague, B.; Sparling, M.; Forsyth, D.

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive and selective isotope dilution ion chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ID IC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of perchlorate in infant formula. The perchlorate was extracted from infant formula by using 20 ml of methanol and 5 ml of 1% acetic acid. All samples were spiked with 18O4 isotope-labelled perchlorate internal standard prior to extraction. After purification on a graphitised carbon solid-phase extraction column, the extracts were injected into an ion chromatography system equipped with an Ionpac AS20 column for separation of perchlorate from other anions. The presence of perchlorate in samples was quantified by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Analysis of both perchlorate and its isotope-labelled internal standard was carried out on a Waters Quattro Ultima triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) negative ionisation mode. The method was validated for linearity and range, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and matrix effects. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.4 μg 1−1 for liquid infant formula and 0.95 μg kg−1 for powdered infant formula. The recovery ranged from 94% to 110% with an average of 98%. This method was used to analyse 39 infant formula, and perchlorate concentrations ranging from

  13. Defective Infant Formulas and Expressive Language Problems: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Clara S.

    1990-01-01

    Children who used chloride-deficient soy-based infant formulas (Neo-Mull-Soy and Cho-Free) have been found to exhibit expressive language disorders. Medical studies of such children are reviewed, and a case study compares the language development deficits of an eight-year-old boy who used the formula with that of his fraternal twin who did not.…

  14. Palm olein in infant formula: absorption of fat and minerals by normal infants.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S E; Rogers, R R; Frantz, J A; Ziegler, E E

    1996-09-01

    Palm olein, a low-melting fraction of palm oil, and soy oil can be combined to obtain fat blends with proportions of palmitic and oleic acids similar to those of human milk. We compared the absorption of fat and calcium by infants fed a formula containing a blend of palm olein (53%) and soy oil (47%) (Formula PO/S) with that by infants fed a formula containing a blend of soy oil (60%) and coconut oil (40%) (Formula S/C). In a randomized crossover design, one study was performed with each formula in each of 11 normal infants ranging in age from 27 to 161 d. Six of the infants were admitted for 72-h metabolic balance studies. In the other five infants, feces (with some admixture of urine) were collected at home for 96 h by using acid-washed cloth diapers. Mean (+/- SD) absorption of fat was 90.6 +/- 1.6% of intake when Formula PO/S was fed and 95.2 +/- 1.1% of intake when Formula S/C was fed; the difference was significant (P < 0.001). The difference in excretion of fat by infants fed the two formulas was explained by the difference in excretion of palmitic acid. Absorption of calcium averaged 39.0 +/- 8.3% of intake with Formula PO/S and 48.4 +/- 10.3% with Formula S/C; the difference was significant (P < 0.01). We conclude that fat is less well absorbed from a mixture of 53% palm olein and 47% soy oil than from a mixture of 60% soy oil and 40% coconut oil, and that absorption of calcium is less from a formula containing palm olein, presumably because of the formation of insoluble calcium soaps of unabsorbed palmitic acid. PMID:8780336

  15. Infant formula with galacto-oligosaccharides (OM55N) stimulates the growth of indigenous bifidobacteria in healthy term infants.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, T; Tajima, S; Hara, T; Yahagi, K; Ogawa, E; Kodama, H

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether an infant formula supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS; OM55N) was able to stimulate the growth of indigenous bifidobacteria and to establish microbiota similar to that of breastfed infants. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed using 35 healthy term infants (31-54 days of age; 42±6 days) to determine whether infant formula with 0.3 g/dl GOS (OM55N) stimulated the growth of bifidobacteria in the infants' guts. At the trial onset and 2 weeks after, the infants' faecal samples were examined for microbiota composition (bacterial abundance and α-diversity) and faecal characteristics. Among the 35 infants, 5 were withdrawn and 8 were excluded from the final evaluation before breaking the blinding since the indigenous bifidobacteria were not detected at the trial onset. After 2 weeks, the abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae was significantly increased in the GOS feeding group compared to the control (+11.6±24.1% vs -3.9±13.0%; P=0.043). The Shannon index, which accounts for both abundance and evenness of the present species, was significantly decreased with GOS supplementation (-0.1±0.4 vs +0.4±0.4; P=0.014). Faecal characteristics such as pH and organic acids were similar in both groups, with no statistical differences. No adverse side effects related to the formula consumption were reported. Although the concentration of GOS was relatively low, the infant formula with GOS increased the abundance of bifidobacteria and resulted in a reduced α-diversity of the microbiota.

  16. Desiccation resistance and persistence of Cronobacter species in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Osaili, T; Forsythe, S

    2009-12-31

    Cronobacter is a newly described genus which includes opportunistic pathogens formerly known as 'Enterobacter sakazakii'. These organisms have been isolated from a wide variety of sources, including powdered infant formula (PIF). This review focuses on the desiccation survival of Cronobacter, and its relevance to vehicles of infection. Due to its probable natural habitat of plant material, the organism has an array of survival mechanisms which includes resistance to desiccation and osmotic stresses. The organism can survive for long periods of time (>2years) in the desiccated state, and can be recovered from a large number of powdered foods in addition to powdered infant formula. On reconstitution, the organism may rapidly multiply and present a risk to immunocompromised infants. It is expected that an improved understanding of the nature of Cronobacter persistence may aid in further improved control measures and eliminate the bacterium from the critical food production environments.

  17. Nutritional balance studies: evaluation of a premature infant formula.

    PubMed

    Cordano, A; Bancalari, E; Hansen, J W; Feller, R

    1985-06-01

    A 24 kcal/oz (81 kcal/100 ml) premature infant formula (Enfamil Premature Formula) with moderately high mineral content (117 mg Ca/100 ml and 58 mg P/100 ml) and a protein content of 3 g/100 kcal was evaluated in sixteen 3-day balance studies at 10 and 21 days of age in nine premature infants with birth weights from 1,200 to 1,400 g. Growth rates were similar to in utero rates, and the formula was well accepted and tolerated. Calcium retention (62.5%) was similar to in utero accretion, and phosphorus retention was only slightly lower. Nitrogen retention was high without the development of metabolic acidosis or abnormal serum urea nitrogen levels.

  18. Lipidomic Analyses, Breast- and Formula-Feeding, and Growth in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Philippa; Koulman, Albert; Matthews, Lee; Acerini, Carlo L.; Ong, Ken K.; Dunger, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate lipidomic differences between breast- and formula-fed infants. Study design We utilized high-resolution mass-spectrometry methods to analyze 3.2 mm dried blood spot samples collected at ages 3 months (n = 241) and 12 months (n = 144) from a representative birth cohort study. Lipidomic profiles were compared between infants exclusively breast-fed, formula-fed, or mixed-fed, and related to 12-month infancy weight. Data analysis included supervised multivariate statistics (partial least squares discriminant analysis), and univariate analysis with correction for multiple testing. Results Distinct differences in 3-month lipidomic profiles were observed between exclusively breast-fed and formula-fed infants; mixed-fed infants showed intermediate profiles. Principle lipidomic characteristics of breast-fed infants were lower total phosphatidylcholines (PCs), with specifically lower short chain unsaturated PC but higher long chain polyunsaturated PC; higher cholesterol esters; and variable differences in sphingomyelins. At 12 months, lipidomic profiles were markedly different to those at 3 months, and differences between the earlier breast/formula/mixed-feeding groups were no longer evident. However, several specific lipid species, associated with breast-feeding at 3 months, also correlated with differences in 3- to 12-month weight. Conclusions State-of-the-art dried blood spot sample lipidomic profiling demonstrated striking differences between breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Although these changes diminished with age, breast-fed lipidomic profiles at 3 months were associated with infancy weight and could potentially represent biomarkers of infant nutrition. PMID:25454937

  19. Gastric motility in premature infants fed two different formulas.

    PubMed

    Hancock, P J; Bancalari, E

    1984-11-01

    The effect of two different formulas on gastric contractions was investigated in 10 preterm infants, of mean birth weight 1,149 g and mean gestational age 30.5 weeks, who were being advanced from a 20 calorie per ounce formula (Enfamil) to a 24 calorie per ounce formula (Similac Special Care 24). The neonates were fed by gravity with a feeding tube on a 2-h schedule. The orogastric tube was connected between feedings to a pressure transducer and recorder system upon which pressure waves reflecting gastric contractions were recorded. In the 1st h after feeding there were significantly fewer gastric contractions with 24 calorie than 20 calorie formula. The mean intensity of the gastric contractions per minute of contraction time was significantly less in the 1st h after feeding with the 24 calorie compared with the 20 calorie formula. In the 2nd h after feeding these values were similar. Gastric contractions are decreased with 24 calorie formula compared with 20 calorie formula during the 1st h after feeding. This difference in contractions may influence tolerance to different formulas.

  20. 76 FR 32976 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula Recall Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... on requirements related to the recall of infant formula. DATES: Submit either electronic or written... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Infant Formula Recall Regulations--21 CFR 107.230,...

  1. Sterol Composition in Infant Formulas and Estimated Intake.

    PubMed

    Claumarchirant, Lorena; Matencio, Esther; Sanchez-Siles, Luis Manuel; Alegría, Amparo; Lagarda, María Jesús

    2015-08-19

    Sterol contents in infant formulas (IFs) from the European market were determined, and their intakes by infants between 0 and 6 months were evaluated. Total animal sterols (mg/100 mL) ranged from 1.71 to 5.46, cholesterol being the main animal sterol (1.46-5.1). In general, cholesterol and desmosterol were lower than the human milk (HM) values indicated by other authors. Total plant sterol (mg/100 mL) ranged from 3.1 to 5.0. β-Sitosterol, the most abundant phytosterol, ranged from 1.82 to 3.01, followed by campesterol (0.72-1.15), stigmasterol (0.27-0.53), and brassicasterol (0.14-0.28). Cholesterol intake (mg/day) ranged from 9 to 51 and plant sterol intake (mg/day) from 19 to 50. The sterol profile of IFs is highly dependent on the type and quantity of fats used in their formula. The use of bovine milk fat and milk fat globule membrane in the IFs can approximate the profile of animal sterols to those found in HM, though cholesterol intakes in breastfed infants are still higher than in formula-fed infants.

  2. Sterol Composition in Infant Formulas and Estimated Intake.

    PubMed

    Claumarchirant, Lorena; Matencio, Esther; Sanchez-Siles, Luis Manuel; Alegría, Amparo; Lagarda, María Jesús

    2015-08-19

    Sterol contents in infant formulas (IFs) from the European market were determined, and their intakes by infants between 0 and 6 months were evaluated. Total animal sterols (mg/100 mL) ranged from 1.71 to 5.46, cholesterol being the main animal sterol (1.46-5.1). In general, cholesterol and desmosterol were lower than the human milk (HM) values indicated by other authors. Total plant sterol (mg/100 mL) ranged from 3.1 to 5.0. β-Sitosterol, the most abundant phytosterol, ranged from 1.82 to 3.01, followed by campesterol (0.72-1.15), stigmasterol (0.27-0.53), and brassicasterol (0.14-0.28). Cholesterol intake (mg/day) ranged from 9 to 51 and plant sterol intake (mg/day) from 19 to 50. The sterol profile of IFs is highly dependent on the type and quantity of fats used in their formula. The use of bovine milk fat and milk fat globule membrane in the IFs can approximate the profile of animal sterols to those found in HM, though cholesterol intakes in breastfed infants are still higher than in formula-fed infants. PMID:26242905

  3. Effect of processing on polyamine content and bioactive peptides released after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gallego, C; Recio, I; Gómez-Gómez, V; Ortuño, I; Bernal, M J; Ros, G; Periago, M J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the influence of processing on polyamines and peptide release after the digestion of a commercial infant formula designed for children during the first months of life. Polyamine oxidase activity was not suppressed during the manufacturing process, which implicates that polyamine concentrations were reduced over time and during infant formula self-life. In gel electrophoresis, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of samples with reduced amount of enzymes and time of digestion shows an increase in protein digestibility, reflected in the increase in nonprotein nitrogen after digestion and the disappearance of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin bands in gel electrophoresis. Depending on the sample, between 22 and 87 peptides were identified after gastrointestinal digestion. A peptide from β-casein f(98-105) with the sequence VKEAMAPK and antioxidant activity appeared in all of the samples. Other peptides with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial activities were frequently found, which could have an effect on infant health. The present study confirms that the infant formula manufacturing process determines the polyamine content and peptidic profile after digestion of the infant formula. Because compositional dissimilarity between human milk and infant formula in polyamines and proteins could be responsible for some of the differences in health reported between breast-fed and formula-fed children, these changes must be taken into consideration because they may have a great effect on infant nutrition and development.

  4. Liquid infant formulas: technological tools for limiting heat damage.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Stefano; Masotti, Fabio; Pellegrino, Luisa

    2009-11-25

    In a study considering 15 commercial samples of liquid milk-based infant formulas (MBF) from different manufacturers, the levels of selected molecules, that is, furosine (FUR), galactosyl-beta-pyranone (GAP), lactulose (LCT), and lysinoalanine (LAL), have been measured to provide estimation of the heat damage in these products. The ranges of the studied markers were as follows: FUR=153-600 mg 100 g(-1) of protein, GAP=0.5-4.3 mg L(-1), LCT=226-1511 mg L(-1), and LAL=1.0-16.1 mg 100 g(-1) of protein. The highest levels were found in MBF intended for the youngest babies. Experimental samples were produced in an industrial plant to evaluate the relative contribution of individual technological aspects to the final heat damage. About 90% of both GAP and LCT contents was due to the ultrahigh-temperature sterilization process itself. This effect was more than halved when the pH of the ingredient mixture was adjusted from 7.2 to 6.9 before sterilization or when the product recirculated in the plant was discarded. Up to 60 and 20%, respectively, of the FUR and LAL levels in the finished product were already present in protein ingredients (whey powder, whey protein concentrate). Accurate optimization of processing conditions and scrupulous selection of raw materials proved to be effective means to minimize heat damage in such special food products.

  5. Polybrominated biphenyl ethers in breast milk and infant formula from Shanghai, China: temporal trends, daily intake, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Kaiqiong; Yang, Dan; Ma, Li; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhou, Jing; Fang, Xiangming; Yu, Yingxin

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the temporal trend of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk and assess the risks to breast- and formula-fed infants, breast milk and infant formula samples were collected from Shanghai, China. The PBDE concentrations decreased from 14.8 to 4.85 pmol/g lipid weight during 2006-2012, with a rate of decrease by half approximately every four years. Although there were no significant correlations between the total PBDEs in breast milk and age, parity, and pre-pregnant BMI of mothers, there were significant differences between primiparous and multiparous mothers for tri- to hepta-BDEs. PBDEs in breast milk were much higher than those in infant formula (equivalent to 91.9 vs. 5.25 pg/mL). Among the different brand infant formulas, there were no significant differences in their PBDE concentrations. The estimated daily intake of PBDEs by breast- and formula-fed infants suggested that breast-fed infants are exposed to much more PBDEs than formula-fed ones (12.9 vs. 0.72 ng/kg-bw/day). However, the hazard quotient values were much smaller than one, indicating that the ingested PBDEs did not exert obvious adverse effects on both breast- and formula-fed infants considering non-carcinogenic effect endpoint. This is the first report on temporal trend of PBDEs in breast milk from China.

  6. [Usefulness of a soy- and oatmeal-based formula in infant nutrition. Nitrogen balance].

    PubMed

    del Valle Canseco, F; Villanueva Clift, H; Escobedo, M; Reyes Govea, J; Hernández Nevárez, M C; Briones, J; Muñóz, M de J; Talamás Abbud, A

    1980-01-01

    A soy flour and oatmeal formula added with vitamins and minerals is presented. Nitrogen balance is carried out in 6 malnourished infants undergoing recovery as compared with a commercial milk formula, finding no significant statistical differences between the two formulas.

  7. Neonatal weight loss in breast and formula fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, P; Ross, S; Grant, L; Young, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To define the range of neonatal weight loss in a population relative to feeding method. Design: Prospective observational cohort study. Setting: Maternity service providing geographically defined, community based newborn follow up. Participants: 971 consecutive term newborns of birth weight ⩾ 2500 g during the first 2–3 weeks of life; 34 excluded (inadequate data). 937 included: 45% breast fed, 42% formula fed, 13% breast and formula fed. Outcome measures: Maximum weight loss and timing, age on regaining birth weight. Results: Median weight loss: formula fed 3.5%, breast fed 6.6%. Upper centiles for maximum weight loss differ considerably (95th centiles: breast fed = 11.8%, formula fed = 8.4%; 97.5th centiles: breast fed = 12.8%, formula fed = 9.5%). Median time of maximum weight loss: 2.7 days for breast fed and formula fed. Recovery of birth weight: breast fed median 8.3 days, 95th centile 18.7 days, 97.5th centile 21.0 days; formula fed median 6.5 days, 95th centile 14.5 days, 97.5th centile 16.7 days. The time taken to regain birth weight correlates with both the degree and timing of initial weight loss for all groups. Conclusions: Early neonatal weight loss is defined allowing identification of infants who merit closer assessment and support. PMID:14602693

  8. Infant formula crisis in china: a cohort study in sichuan province.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2015-03-01

    China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers' opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers' opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China.

  9. [Past and present status in the design of infant formulas].

    PubMed

    Ronayne de Ferrer, P A

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes briefly the history of infant foods, from the alternate ways of feeding developed during the late 19th century to the present-day infant formulas, and enumerates the different available types (milk-based, soy-based, hypoallergenic, lactose-free, etc,). Among the nutritional aspects the main characteristics of formulation are emphasized, especially within the nitrogen, fat and mineral fractions. Considering the nitrogen fraction, it must be taken into account that the amino acid profiles in milk-based formulas differ according to the casein/whey proteins ratio (either 80:20 or 40:60 in the so-called "adapted" or "humanized"). On the other hand, it has been recognized recently that some non-protein components of human milk, such as taurine, carnitine and nucleotides, are relevant to infant nutrition and therefore, they are being included in some formulas. Regarding fat, essential fatty acids supply is very important; present recommendations stress the importance of providing n-6 to n-3 series ratios close to that found in human milk and also a preformed supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among minerals, bioavailability and relative proportions of trace elements are important issues in formulation. Other concepts of relevance are the renal solute load and the osmolarity because of their effect on neonate's metabolism.

  10. Historic records on the commercial production of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Industrialized food production first appeared in 1856, pioneered by Borden in the USA, Liebig in Germany, Nestlé in Switzerland, and Mellin in the UK. Their products differed remarkably and deviated from human and cow's milk, and physicians discussed the importance of minute variations in protein, fat and carbohydrates. Proprietary formulas were free of bacteria, and the companies prospered with mass production, international marketing and aggressive advertising. From 1932 on, medical societies restricted advertising to the laity. In 1939 Williams in Singapore and in 1970 Jelliffe in Jamaica suspected that commercial formula may be increasing infant mortality in the Third World. Breastfeeding continued to decline during the early 20th century, falling in 1970 below 10% in the USA. The Swiss 'Third World Group' and the US 'Infant Formula Action Coalition' linked infant mortality and industry marketing in the Third World. The controversy of 1970-1984 led to the WHO Code, which regulated the advertising and marketing of baby food. This was one of several public health statements contributing to the resurgence of breastfeeding. PMID:25012139

  11. Historic records on the commercial production of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Industrialized food production first appeared in 1856, pioneered by Borden in the USA, Liebig in Germany, Nestlé in Switzerland, and Mellin in the UK. Their products differed remarkably and deviated from human and cow's milk, and physicians discussed the importance of minute variations in protein, fat and carbohydrates. Proprietary formulas were free of bacteria, and the companies prospered with mass production, international marketing and aggressive advertising. From 1932 on, medical societies restricted advertising to the laity. In 1939 Williams in Singapore and in 1970 Jelliffe in Jamaica suspected that commercial formula may be increasing infant mortality in the Third World. Breastfeeding continued to decline during the early 20th century, falling in 1970 below 10% in the USA. The Swiss 'Third World Group' and the US 'Infant Formula Action Coalition' linked infant mortality and industry marketing in the Third World. The controversy of 1970-1984 led to the WHO Code, which regulated the advertising and marketing of baby food. This was one of several public health statements contributing to the resurgence of breastfeeding.

  12. Modification of stool's water content in constipated infants: management with an adapted infant formula

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Constipation is a common occurrence in formula-fed infants. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the impact of a formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium, in compliance with the official regulations, on stool water content, as well as a parental assessment of constipation. Materials and methods Thirty healthy term-born, formula-fed infants, aged 4-10 weeks, with functional constipation were included. All infants were full-term and fed standard formula. Exclusion criteria were preterm and/or low birth weight, organic constipation, being breast fed or fed a formula specially designed to treat constipation. Stool composition was measured by near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) and parents answered questions about crying associated with defecation and stool consistency at baseline and after two weeks of the adapted formula. Results After 2 weeks of the adapted formula, stool water content increased from 71 +/- 8.1% to 84 +/- 5.9%, (p < 0.02). There was no significant change in the stool's fat, protein or carbohydrate content. Parental impressions of constipation were improved with the decrease in stool hardness (100% with hard stools at baseline, 10% after 2 weeks), pain with defecation (90% at baseline, 10% after 2 weeks), and the requirement for rectal stimulation to achieve defecation (70% at baseline, 30% after 2 weeks, p < 0.001 for all three indicators). Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that an adapted formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium increases stool water content and improves symptoms of constipation in term-born, formula-fed infants. A larger randomized placebo-controlled trial is indicated. PMID:21595890

  13. Safety of soy-based infant formulas containing isoflavones: the clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Russell J; Jenks, Belinda H

    2004-05-01

    Soy protein has been used in infant feeding in the West for nearly 100 y. Soy protein infant formulas have evolved in this interval to become safe and effective alternatives for infants whose nutritional needs are not met with human milk or formulas based on cow's milk. Modern soy formulas meet all nutritional requirements and safety standards of the Infant Formula Act of 1980. They are commonly used in infants with immunoglobulin E-mediated cow's milk allergy (at least 86% effective), lactose intolerance, galactosemia, and as a vegetarian human milk substitute. Largely as a result of research in animal models, concerns have been voiced regarding isoflavones in soy infant formulas in relation to nutritional adequacy, sexual development, neurobehavioral development, immune function, and thyroid disease. We discuss the available clinical evidence regarding each of these issues. Available evidence from adult human and infant populations indicates that dietary isoflavones in soy infant formulas do not adversely affect human growth, development, or reproduction. PMID:15113975

  14. Is bottled water really unsafe for making up infant formula?

    PubMed

    Osborn, Keith; Lyons, Mary

    2010-03-01

    The NHS advises parents not to use bottled water to make up infant formula feed, so parents face a dilemma when this is all that is available. Unfortunately, when they turn to their local healthcare professional, many are not given the correct advice. When mains water supplies are disrupted or there is a problem with water quality, water utilities make limited quantities of safe drinking water available, and one increasingly popular option is to distribute bottled water to affected households. Healthcare professionals regularly caution parents against using this for infant formula preparation because of its perceived unsuitability. This advice is usually given without recommending appropriate alternatives, leading to confusion and anxiety. Under these circumstances, there is a serious risk that parents will turn to unsuitable or unsafe forms of infant feeding. A review of the chemical quality of bottled waters readily available in supermarket chains established that healthcare professionals' concerns are not justified. There appears to be a serious deficit in the information provided by the NHS, and in the education and training of healthcare professionals. In order to protect the lives of infants, it is important that this is rectified quickly.

  15. Improved AOAC First Action 2011.08 for the Analysis of Vitamin B₁₂ in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Formulas: First Action 2014.02.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Esther Campos

    2014-01-01

    This report documents improvement and single-laboratory validation performed on AOAC First Action Method 2011.08 for vitamin B12 in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. The original validation study included a range of fortified products, from infant formulas to breakfast cereals or beverages. Extended validation data, including additional infant formulas and adult/pediatric nutritionals, has now been produced. In addition, the method has been modified to use ultra-HPLC and the calibration range extended in a multilevel calibration curve. Detection and quantification limits were also improved by increasing the sample weight used for analysis and the reconstitution rate adapted to the requirements. The Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals Test Material Kit, designed to represent a large range of products within the category (infant formula and adult nutritionals made from any combination of milk, soy, rice, whey, hydrolyzed protein, starch, and amino acids, with and without intact protein), was used to determine performance characteristics of the method. The modifications included allow now full compliance with standard method performance requirements established for vitamin B12 (SMPR 2011.005). LOQ was ≤0.01 μg/100 g, working range between 0.01 and 5.0 μg/100 g, repeatability ≤7%, and recovery in the range 90-110%. The method was granted AOAC First Action status 2014.02. PMID:25902990

  16. Improved AOAC First Action 2011.08 for the Analysis of Vitamin B₁₂ in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Formulas: First Action 2014.02.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Esther Campos

    2014-01-01

    This report documents improvement and single-laboratory validation performed on AOAC First Action Method 2011.08 for vitamin B12 in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. The original validation study included a range of fortified products, from infant formulas to breakfast cereals or beverages. Extended validation data, including additional infant formulas and adult/pediatric nutritionals, has now been produced. In addition, the method has been modified to use ultra-HPLC and the calibration range extended in a multilevel calibration curve. Detection and quantification limits were also improved by increasing the sample weight used for analysis and the reconstitution rate adapted to the requirements. The Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals Test Material Kit, designed to represent a large range of products within the category (infant formula and adult nutritionals made from any combination of milk, soy, rice, whey, hydrolyzed protein, starch, and amino acids, with and without intact protein), was used to determine performance characteristics of the method. The modifications included allow now full compliance with standard method performance requirements established for vitamin B12 (SMPR 2011.005). LOQ was ≤0.01 μg/100 g, working range between 0.01 and 5.0 μg/100 g, repeatability ≤7%, and recovery in the range 90-110%. The method was granted AOAC First Action status 2014.02.

  17. Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

  18. Sialic acid content of infant saliva: comparison of breast fed with formula fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Tram, T; Miller, J; McNeil, Y; McVeagh, P

    1997-01-01

    

 Sialic acid is found in especially high concentrations in brain gangliosides, and supplementary sialic acid is associated with increased learning behaviour in animals. It was hypothesised that breast fed infants may have higher concentrations of sialic acid in body fluids and tissues because human milk is a rich source of sialylated oligosaccharides, while formulas contain very little. The aim therefore was to compare the sialic acid content of saliva collected from full term infants who were either solely breast fed or formula fed until weaning at 3-5 months of age. Thirty three infants, 18 breast fed and 15 formula fed, were studied at a mean (SD) age of 5 (2) months. The breast fed infants, when compared with formula fed infants, were found to have almost two times more free sialic acid in saliva (mean (SE) 16.0 (2.7) v 8.2 (2.1) mg/l, p < 0.036) and nearly 50% more total sialic acid (47.3 (3.9) v 32.2 (4.4) mg/l, p<0.014). The findings provide a preliminary indication that an exogenous source of sialic acids derived from human milk may contribute to higher concentrations of sialic acid in body fluids. There are important implications for the formulation of human milk substitutes.

 PMID:9389234

  19. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants

    PubMed Central

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A; Gilbert, Jack A; Nagler, Cathryn R

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. Our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut. PMID:26394008

  20. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants.

    PubMed

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A; Gilbert, Jack A; Nagler, Cathryn R

    2016-03-01

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. Our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut.

  1. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T.; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Nagler, Cathryn R.

    2015-09-22

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow’s milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceaemore » (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. As a result, our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut.« less

  2. Phospholipid Species in Newborn and 4 Month Old Infants after Consumption of Different Formulas or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Olaf; Fleddermann, Manja; Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for neuronal and cognitive development and are ingredients of infant formulae that are recommended but there is no evidence based minimal supplementation level available. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the effect of supplemented AA and DHA on phospholipid metabolism. Methods Plasma samples of a randomized, double-blind infant feeding trial were used for the analyses of phospholipid species by flow-injection mass spectrometry. Healthy term infants consumed isoenergetic formulae (intervention formula with equal amounts of AA and DHA—IF, control formula without additional AA and DHA—CF) from the first month of life until the age of 120 days. A group of breast milk (BM) -fed infants was followed as a reference. Results The plasma profile detected in newborns was different from 4 month old infants, irrespective of study group. Most relevant changes were seen in higher level of LPC16:1, LPC20:4, PC32:1, PC34:1 and PC36:4 and lower level of LPC18:0, LPC18:2, PC32:2, PC36:2 and several ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in newborns. The sum of all AA and DHA species at 4 month old infants in the CF group showed level of 40% (AA) and 51% (DHA) of newborns. The supplemented amount of DHA resulted in phospholipid level comparable to BM infants, but AA phospholipids were lower than in BM infants. Interestingly, relative contribution of DHA was higher in ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in CF fed infants, but IF and BM fed infants showed higher overall ether-linked phosphatidylcholines levels. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that infant plasma phospholipid profile changes remarkably from newborn over time and is dependent on the dietary fatty acid composition. A supplementation of an infant formula with AA and DHA resulted in increased related phospholipid species. PMID:27571269

  3. Isoflavones in urine, saliva, and blood of infants: data from a pilot study on the estrogenic activity of soy formula.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Calafat, Antonia M; Doerge, Daniel R; Umbach, David M; Bernbaum, Judy C; Twaddle, Nathan C; Ye, Xiaoyun; Rogan, Walter J

    2009-02-01

    In the United States, about 25% of infant formula sold is based on soy protein, which is an important source of estrogenic isoflavones in the human food supply. Nevertheless, few studies report isoflavone levels in infants. We did a partly cross-sectional and partly longitudinal pilot study to examine children's exposure to isoflavones from different feeding methods. A total of 166 full-term infants between birth and 1 year of age were recruited into soy formula, cow milk formula, or breast milk regimens according to their feeding histories. A total of 381 urine, 361 saliva, and 88 blood samples were collected at 382 visits. We used automated online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for measuring three isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and equol) in urine, and used similar LC/MS/MS techniques for saliva and blood spots. Concentrations of daidzein and genistein were undetectable in most blood or saliva samples from children fed breast milk or cow milk formula. The proportion of non-detectable values was somewhat lower in urine than in the other matrices. Concentrations of equol were detectable only in a few urine samples. For both daidzein and genistein, urine contained the highest median concentrations, followed by blood and then saliva. Urinary concentrations of genistein and daidzein were about 500 times higher in the soy formula-fed infants than in the cow milk formula-fed infants. The correlations between matrices for either analyte were strikingly lower than the correlation between the two analytes in any single matrix. We did not find significant correlations between isoflavone concentrations and the levels of certain hormones in children fed soy formula. Our results, based on much larger numbers of infants, strongly confirm previous reports, but whether phytoestrogens in soy formula are biologically active in infants is still an open question. We plan further longitudinal studies

  4. 75 FR 23777 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... rulemaking published in the Federal Register of July 9, 1996 (61 FR 36154), FDA proposed changes in the... Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... on information collection regarding the manufacture of infant formula, including infant...

  5. Enterobacteriaceae in dehydrated powdered infant formula manufactured in Indonesia and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Estuningsih, Sri; Kress, Claudia; Hassan, Abdulwahed A; Akineden, Omer; Schneider, Elisabeth; Usleber, Ewald

    2006-12-01

    To determine the occurrence of Salmonella and Shigella in infant formula from Southeast Asia, 74 packages of dehydrated powdered infant follow-on formula (recommended age, > 4 months) from five different manufacturers, four from Indonesia and one from Malaysia, were analyzed. None of the 25-g test portions yielded Salmonella or Shigella. However, further identification of colonies growing on selective media used for Salmonella and Shigella detection revealed the frequent occurrence of several other Enterobacteriaceae species. A total of 35 samples (47%) were positive for Enterobacteriaceae. Ten samples (13.5%) from two Indonesian manufacturers yielded Enterobacter sakazakii. Other Enterobacteriaceae isolated included Pantoea spp. (n = 12), Escherichia hermanii (n = 10), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 8), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (n = 3), Citrobacter spp. (n = 2), Serratia spp. (n = 2), and Escherichia coli (n = 2). To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the contamination of dehydrated powdered infant formula from Indonesia with E. sakazakii and several other Enterobacteriaceae that could be opportunistic pathogens. Improper preparation and conservation of these products could result in a health risk for infants in Indonesia.

  6. The content of elements in infant formulas and drinks against mineral requirements of children.

    PubMed

    Molska, A; Gutowska, I; Baranowska-Bosiacka, I; Noceń, I; Chlubek, D

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed at analysing the content of fluorine (F), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in the drinks for children and infant formulas, a popular supplement or substitute for breast milk produced from cow milk on an industrial scale. Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, while F levels using a potentiometric method. F levels in the examined formula samples increased with the intended age range, until the intended age of 1 year, and then decreased. A lower content of Ca, Mg and Zn was observed in formulas intended for children <1 year of age and higher for older children. Fe content increased with the age range. A statistically significant higher content of Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe in samples intended for children with phenylketonuria in comparison to those intended for healthy children or children with food allergies was noted. The content of the analysed elements in juices and nectars showed the highest contents in products intended for infants (under 6 months of age). The lowest levels of elements tested were found in drinks for children over 6 months of age. In conclusion, the concentrations of the examined elements in infant formulas and juices for children were decidedly greater than the standards for the individual age groups. Although the absorption of these elements from artificial products is far lower than from breast milk, there is still the fear of consequences of excessive concentrations of these minerals.

  7. Implications of changing the amount of thickener in thickened infant formula for infants with dysphagia.

    PubMed

    September, Cindy; Nicholson, Timothy M; Cichero, Julie A Y

    2014-08-01

    When a dysphagic infant is prescribed thickened infant formula (TIF) as a treatment method, some clinicians determine their own addition rates of thickener to meet the specific needs of the infant rather than relying on the directions on the tin. In this study the rheological behaviour of a TIF at different addition levels of thickener was measured to determine whether there was a difference in full rheological response and in viscosity. In addition, the time taken for the TIF to reach a near-stable viscosity was also measured. One hundred grams of Karicare® infant formula was made up according to the manufacturer’s instructions and Karicare® feed thickener was added at levels of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 g, respectively. A strain-controlled rheometer (ARES) with Couette geometry was used to rheologically characterise the TIF at the different levels of thickener addition. There was a significant difference in viscosity between the low levels and the higher levels of addition thickener (p < 0.05). Also, the low levels of thickener addition showed Newtonian-like behaviour, whereas the higher levels of addition were shear-thinning. The time taken for the thickener to reach a near-stable viscosity was found to be 10 min. Guidelines for thickened infant formula need to take into account the different levels of thickener addition rates. PMID:24658846

  8. Determination of bisphenol A in U.S. infant formulas: updated methods and concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Luke K; Noonan, Gregory O; Heiserman, Wendy M; Roach, John A; Limm, William; Begley, Timothy H

    2010-02-24

    An updated survey of U.S. infant formula was conducted to determine the concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA). The purpose was to accurately assess BPA concentrations across the infant formula market, accounting for lot variability, and determine if geographic location or can age influences BPA concentrations. A method was developed to measure BPA in formula utilizing isotope dilution, solid-phase extraction, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The method was tested and found to be reproducible (10% relative standard deviation), reliable (47 +/- 1% recovery), and sensitive (0.15 ng g(-1) method detection limit). Over 160 analyses were conducted using 104 formula containers representing 36 products. Samples from U.S. east and west coast markets demonstrated no significant difference, and concentrations in older cans were not higher. BPA concentrations in liquid formula (0.48-11 ng g(-1)) were consistent with previous studies, and BPA was detected in only 1 of 14 powder formula products analyzed.

  9. The History of Infant Formula: Quality, Safety, and Standard Methods.

    PubMed

    Wargo, Wayne F

    2016-01-01

    Food-related laws and regulations have existed since ancient times. Egyptian scrolls prescribed the labeling needed for certain foods. In ancient Athens, beer and wines were inspected for purity and soundness, and the Romans had a well-organized state food control system to protect consumers from fraud or bad produce. In Europe during the Middle Ages, individual countries passed laws concerning the quality and safety of eggs, sausages, cheese, beer, wine, and bread; some of these laws still exist today. But more modern dietary guidelines and food regulations have their origins in the latter half of the 19th century when the first general food laws were adopted and basic food control systems were implemented to monitor compliance. Around this time, science and food chemistry began to provide the tools to determine "purity" of food based primarily on chemical composition and to determine whether it had been adulterated in any way. Since the key chemical components of mammalian milk were first understood, infant formulas have steadily advanced in complexity as manufacturers attempt to close the compositional gap with human breast milk. To verify these compositional innovations and ensure product quality and safety, infant formula has become one of the most regulated foods in the world. The present paper examines the historical development of nutritional alternatives to breastfeeding, focusing on efforts undertaken to ensure the quality and safety from antiquity to present day. The impact of commercial infant formulas on global regulations is addressed, along with the resulting need for harmonized, fit-for-purpose, voluntary consensus standard methods. PMID:26811237

  10. The History of Infant Formula: Quality, Safety, and Standard Methods.

    PubMed

    Wargo, Wayne F

    2016-01-01

    Food-related laws and regulations have existed since ancient times. Egyptian scrolls prescribed the labeling needed for certain foods. In ancient Athens, beer and wines were inspected for purity and soundness, and the Romans had a well-organized state food control system to protect consumers from fraud or bad produce. In Europe during the Middle Ages, individual countries passed laws concerning the quality and safety of eggs, sausages, cheese, beer, wine, and bread; some of these laws still exist today. But more modern dietary guidelines and food regulations have their origins in the latter half of the 19th century when the first general food laws were adopted and basic food control systems were implemented to monitor compliance. Around this time, science and food chemistry began to provide the tools to determine "purity" of food based primarily on chemical composition and to determine whether it had been adulterated in any way. Since the key chemical components of mammalian milk were first understood, infant formulas have steadily advanced in complexity as manufacturers attempt to close the compositional gap with human breast milk. To verify these compositional innovations and ensure product quality and safety, infant formula has become one of the most regulated foods in the world. The present paper examines the historical development of nutritional alternatives to breastfeeding, focusing on efforts undertaken to ensure the quality and safety from antiquity to present day. The impact of commercial infant formulas on global regulations is addressed, along with the resulting need for harmonized, fit-for-purpose, voluntary consensus standard methods.

  11. Oligosaccharides in infant formula: more evidence to validate the role of prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Zakharova, Irina; Dmitrieva, Yulia

    2015-05-14

    The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota differs between breast-fed and classic infant formula-fed infants. Breast milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides (OS) and may also contain some probiotics, but scientific societies do not recommend the addition of prebiotic OS or probiotics to standard infant formula. Nevertheless, many infant formula companies often add one or the other or both. Different types of prebiotic OS are used in infant formula, including galacto-oligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose and mixtures of these OS, but none adds human milk OS. There is evidence that the addition of prebiotics to infant formula brings the GI microbiota of formula-fed infants closer to that of breast-fed infants. Prebiotics change gut metabolic activity (by decreasing stool pH and increasing SCFA), have a bifidogenic effect and bring stool consistency and defecation frequency closer to those of breast-fed infants. Although there is only limited evidence that these changes in GI microbiota induce a significant clinical benefit for the immune system, interesting positive trends have been observed in some markers. Additionally, adverse effects are extremely seldom. Prebiotics are added to infant formula because breast milk contains human milk OS. Because most studies suggest a trend of beneficial effects and because these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to the golden standard of breast milk.

  12. Safety of soya-based infant formulas in children.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Castrellon, Pedro Gutierrez; Rivas, Rodolfo; Gutiérrez, Carlos Jimenez; Garcia, Luisa Diaz; Jimenez, Juliana Estevez; Anzo, Anahi; Hegar, Badriul; Alarcon, Pedro

    2014-04-28

    Soya-based infant formulas (SIF) containing soya flour were introduced almost 100 years ago. Modern soya formulas are used in allergy/intolerance to cows' milk-based formulas (CMF), post-infectious diarrhoea, lactose intolerance and galactosaemia, as a vegan human milk (HM) substitute, etc. The safety of SIF is still debated. In the present study, we reviewed the safety of SIF in relation to anthropometric growth, bone health (bone mineral content), immunity, cognition, and reproductive and endocrine functions. The present review includes cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies or clinical trials that were carried out in children fed SIF compared with those fed other types of infant formulas and that measured safety. The databases that were searched included PubMed (1909 to July 2013), Embase (1988 to May 2013), LILACS (1990 to May 2011), ARTEMISA (13th edition, December 2012), Cochrane controlled trials register, Bandolier and DARE using the Cochrane methodology. Wherever possible, a meta-analysis was carried out. We found that the anthropometric patterns of children fed SIF were similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. Despite the high levels of phytates and aluminium in SIF, Hb, serum protein, Zn and Ca concentrations and bone mineral content were found to be similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. We also found the levels of genistein and daidzein to be higher in children fed SIF; however, we did not find strong evidence of a negative effect on reproductive and endocrine functions. Immune measurements and neurocognitive parameters were similar in all the feeding groups. In conclusion, modern SIF are evidence-based safety options to feed children requiring them. The patterns of growth, bone health and metabolic, reproductive, endocrine, immune and neurological functions are similar to those observed in children fed CMF or HM. PMID:24507712

  13. Safety of soya-based infant formulas in children.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Castrellon, Pedro Gutierrez; Rivas, Rodolfo; Gutiérrez, Carlos Jimenez; Garcia, Luisa Diaz; Jimenez, Juliana Estevez; Anzo, Anahi; Hegar, Badriul; Alarcon, Pedro

    2014-04-28

    Soya-based infant formulas (SIF) containing soya flour were introduced almost 100 years ago. Modern soya formulas are used in allergy/intolerance to cows' milk-based formulas (CMF), post-infectious diarrhoea, lactose intolerance and galactosaemia, as a vegan human milk (HM) substitute, etc. The safety of SIF is still debated. In the present study, we reviewed the safety of SIF in relation to anthropometric growth, bone health (bone mineral content), immunity, cognition, and reproductive and endocrine functions. The present review includes cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies or clinical trials that were carried out in children fed SIF compared with those fed other types of infant formulas and that measured safety. The databases that were searched included PubMed (1909 to July 2013), Embase (1988 to May 2013), LILACS (1990 to May 2011), ARTEMISA (13th edition, December 2012), Cochrane controlled trials register, Bandolier and DARE using the Cochrane methodology. Wherever possible, a meta-analysis was carried out. We found that the anthropometric patterns of children fed SIF were similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. Despite the high levels of phytates and aluminium in SIF, Hb, serum protein, Zn and Ca concentrations and bone mineral content were found to be similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. We also found the levels of genistein and daidzein to be higher in children fed SIF; however, we did not find strong evidence of a negative effect on reproductive and endocrine functions. Immune measurements and neurocognitive parameters were similar in all the feeding groups. In conclusion, modern SIF are evidence-based safety options to feed children requiring them. The patterns of growth, bone health and metabolic, reproductive, endocrine, immune and neurological functions are similar to those observed in children fed CMF or HM.

  14. Isoflavones and soyasaponins in soy infant formulas in Brazil: profile and estimated consumption.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Nívea D; Villar, Marcos Paulo Melo; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; Perrone, Daniel

    2014-01-15

    In the present study we determine the contents of isoflavones and soyasaponins in seven soy-based infant formulas available in the Brazilian market to estimate the intake of these bioactive compounds by infants. The mean contents of isoflavones and soyasaponins were 65.9mg/kg and 55.0mg/100g, respectively. β-Glycosylated isoflavones and soyasaponin B-I were the most abundant components in the analysed samples. The mean estimated intake of isoflavones by infants fed soy-based formulas was 0.8mg/day/kg of body weight, which is twice that of Japanese adults. For soyasaponins, the mean estimated intake was 9.2mg/day/kg of body weight, which is up to 6 times higher than the daily intake of saponins from beans by vegetarians. Considering the estimated intake of these bioactive compounds from soy-based formulas and the paucity of data regarding their bioavailability, the potential biological effects of isoflavones and soyasaponins in infants should not be overlooked and merits further investigation.

  15. Lead, cadmium and aluminum in Canadian infant formulae, oral electrolytes and glucose solutions

    PubMed Central

    Dabeka, Robert; Fouquet, Andre; Belisle, Stephane; Turcotte, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) were determined in 437 individual samples of infant formulae, oral electrolytes and 5% glucose solutions available in Canada. In the electrolytes, Cd and Pb concentrations were all below 0.01 and 0.041 ng g−1, respectively. In the 5% glucose solutions, Pb and Cd levels averaged 0.01 and 0.09 ng g−1, respectively. Reported on an as-consumed basis, Pb levels in milk- and soya-based formulae averaged 0.90 and 1.45 ng g−1, respectively, while Cd levels averaged 0.23 and 1.18 ng g−1, respectively Average Al levels on an as-consumed basis were 440 ng g−1 (range 10–3400 ng g−1) in milk-based formulae and 730 ng g−1 (range 230–1100 ng g−1) in soy-based formulae. Al concentrations increased in the following order: plain formula < low-iron formula < iron-supplemented formula < casein hydrolysate formula ≈ premature formula ≤ soy formula. For example, in the powdered formulae, average Al concentrations were 18 ng g−1 for plain milk-based, 37 ng g−1 for low-iron, 128 ng g−1 for iron supplemented, 462 ng g−1 for lactose-free, 518 ng g−1 for hypoallergenic and 619 ng g−1 for soy-based formula. Al concentrations, as-consumed, increased with decreasing levels of concentration: powder < concentrated liquid < ready-to-use. Formulae stored in glass bottles contained between 100 and 300 ng g−1 more Al than the same formulae stored in cans. The source of the increased Al did not appear to be the glass itself, because most electrolytes and glucose solutions, also stored in glass, contained less than 8 ng g−1 Al. Corresponding differences in Pb and Cd levels were not observed. Al concentrations varied substantially among manufacturers; however, all manufacturers were able to produce plain milk-based formulae containing less than 50 ng g−1 Al, i.e. within the range of Al concentrations found in human milk. Next to soya-based and hypoallergenic formulae, premature formulae contained among the highest

  16. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or other... by the infant formula. (b) Carry out additional effectiveness checks, if the agency's audits,...

  17. Regional variation in infant hypoallergenic formula prescriptions in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Raymond J; Clark, Sunday; Camargo, Carlos A

    2010-03-01

    There is little information on the regional distribution of food allergy in Australia. We examined the influence of latitude (a marker of sunlight/vitamin D status) on food allergy, as measured by 2007 infant hypoallergenic formula (IHF) prescription rates in children ages 0-2 yrs. Data were compiled from the 52 statistical divisions in mainland Australia plus the island of Tasmania (n=53 observations). Data from the Australian Department of Health and Aging and the Australian Bureau of Statistics were analysed by statistical division. There was significant regional variability in hypoallergenic formula prescription rates (per 100,000 population/yr), with the highest rates in southern Australia (14,406) and the lowest in the north (721), compared with a national average of 4099. Geographical factors (decreasing latitude and increasing longitude) were associated with a higher rate of IHF prescriptions, such that rates were higher in southern vs. northern regions, and in eastern compared with western regions. Controlling for longitude, physician density and markers of socioeconomic status, southern latitudes were associated with higher hypoallergenic formulae prescription rates [beta, -147.98; 95% confidence interval (CI)=-281.83 to -14.14; p=0.03]. Controlling for latitude, physician density and markers of socioeconomic status, eastern longitudes were also associated with higher hypoallergenic formulae prescription rates (beta, 89.69; 95% CI=2.90-176.49; p=0.04). Among young children, hypoallergenic formula prescription rates are more common in the southern and eastern regions of Australia. These data provide support for a possible role of sun exposure/vitamin D status (amongst other potential factors) in the pathogenesis of food allergy.

  18. Phenylalanine kinetics differ between formula-fed and human milk-fed preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Darling, Pauline B; Dunn, Michael; Gilani, G Sarwar; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2004-10-01

    Infants fed casein-dominant formulas have higher plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations than those fed mother's milk. Conversely, elevated plasma threonine concentrations are observed in infants fed whey-dominant formulas. We recently showed that formula-fed preterm infants have a lower capacity to degrade threonine than do preterm infants fed mother's milk. We hypothesized that these same infants (n = 18) would differ in their catabolism of phenylalanine in response to phenylalanine loads provided by formulas with increasing casein content of formulas (whey:casein 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80) compared with preterm infants fed mother's milk. Plasma phenylalanine concentrations significantly rose (49, 46, 79 micromol . L(-1) for whey:casein 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, respectively, pooled SD 8, P < 0.05); and plasma phenylalanine concentrations in infants fed mother's milk were low (40 +/- 4 micromol . L(-1)). Using [1-(13)C]phenylalanine tracer and (13)CO(2) production in breath we found that although there was a significant positive relation between phenylalanine oxidation and phenylalanine intake in formula-fed infants (r(2) = 0.43, P = 0.03), these infants were not able to increase their oxidation of phenylalanine enough to prevent a significant rise in plasma phenylalanine when fed the 20:80 formula. Compared to infants fed mother's milk, formula-fed infants had significantly lower phenylalanine oxidation (39.1 vs. 30.7% of phenylalanine intake, respectively, P < 0.05). We conclude that one of the mechanisms for the differences in plasma amino acid concentration between formula-fed and mother's milk-fed preterm infants may be in vivo down-regulated catabolism of 2 important essential amino acids (phenylalanine in addition to threonine) in formula-fed preterm infants.

  19. A Critical Review of the Marketing Claims of Infant Formula Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Belamarich, Peter F; Bochner, Risa E; Racine, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    A highly competitive infant formula market has resulted in direct-to-consumer marketing intended to promote the sale of modified formulas that claim to ameliorate common infant feeding problems. The claims associated with these marketing campaigns are not evaluated with reference to clinical evidence by the Food and Drug Administration. We aimed to describe the language of claims made on formula labels and compare it with the evidence in systematic reviews. Of the 22 product labels we identified, 13 product labels included claims about colic and gastrointestinal symptoms. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that removing or reducing lactose, using hydrolyzed or soy protein or adding pre-/probiotics to formula benefits infants with fussiness, gas, or colic yet claims like "soy for fussiness and gas" encourage parents who perceive their infants to be fussy to purchase modified formula. Increased regulation of infant formula claims is warranted. PMID:26054781

  20. A Critical Review of the Marketing Claims of Infant Formula Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Belamarich, Peter F; Bochner, Risa E; Racine, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    A highly competitive infant formula market has resulted in direct-to-consumer marketing intended to promote the sale of modified formulas that claim to ameliorate common infant feeding problems. The claims associated with these marketing campaigns are not evaluated with reference to clinical evidence by the Food and Drug Administration. We aimed to describe the language of claims made on formula labels and compare it with the evidence in systematic reviews. Of the 22 product labels we identified, 13 product labels included claims about colic and gastrointestinal symptoms. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that removing or reducing lactose, using hydrolyzed or soy protein or adding pre-/probiotics to formula benefits infants with fussiness, gas, or colic yet claims like "soy for fussiness and gas" encourage parents who perceive their infants to be fussy to purchase modified formula. Increased regulation of infant formula claims is warranted.

  1. Biotin and carnitine deficiency due to hypoallergenic formula nutrition in infants with milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hisako; Tokuriki, Shuko; Okuno, Takashi; Shigematsu, Yosuke; Yasushi, Akiba; Matsuyama, Go; Sawada, Ken; Ohshima, Yusei

    2014-04-01

    Amino acid formulas and hydrolyzed formulas given to infants in Japan with milk allergies theoretically contain little, if any, biotin and carnitine. We assessed biotin and carnitine insufficiency in six infants with milk allergy who were fed amino acid formulas and/or hydrolyzed formulas, by measuring urine 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIA) and serum free carnitine (C0), respectively. All patients presented with elevated urine 3-HIA and lowered serum C0 compared with post-menstrual age-matched infants who were fed breast milk or standard infant formulas. Supplementation with biotin and L-carnitine immediately improved the insufficiency. Care should be taken to avoid biotin and carnitine deficiency in allergic infants fed amino acid or hydrolyzed formulas.

  2. Regulating fatty acids in infant formula: critical assessment of U.S. policies and practices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatty acids in breast-milk such as docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, commonly known as DHA and ARA, contribute to the healthy development of children in various ways. However, the manufactured versions that are added to infant formula might not have the same health benefits as those in breast-milk. There is evidence that the manufactured additives might cause harm to infants’ health, and they might lead to unwarranted increases in the cost of infant formula. The addition of such fatty acids to infant formula needs to be regulated. In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration has primary responsibility for regulating the composition of infant formula. The central purpose of this study is to assess the FDA’s efforts with regard to the regulation of fatty acids in infant formula. Methods This study is based on critical analysis of policies and practices described in publicly available documents of the FDA, the manufacturers of fatty acids, and other relevant organizations. The broad framework for this work was set out by the author in his book on Regulating Infant Formula, published in 2011. Results The FDA does not assess the safety or the health impacts of fatty acid additives to infant formula before they are marketed, and there is no systematic assessment after marketing is underway. Rather than making its own independent assessments, the FDA accepts the manufacturers’ claims regarding their products’ safety and effectiveness. Conclusions The FDA is not adequately regulating the use of fatty acid additives to infant formula. This results in exposure of infants to potential risks. Adverse reactions are already on record. Also, the additives have led to increasing costs of infant formula despite the lack of proven benefits to normal, full term infants. There is a need for more effective regulation of DHA and ARA additives to infant formula. PMID:24433303

  3. Perchlorate: water and infant formulae contamination in France and risk assessment in infants.

    PubMed

    Vigreux-Besret, Carole; Mahé, Aurélie; Ledoux, Gérald; Garnier, Alexandra; Rosin, Christophe; Baert, Alain; Joyeux, Michel; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Panetier, Pascale; Rivière, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Perchlorate ions ClO4(-), known to inhibit competitively the uptake of iodine by the thyroid, have been detected in drinking water in France as well as in infant formulae. A tolerable daily intake (TDI) has been established at 0.7 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) based on the inhibition of iodine uptake. Due to this mechanism of action, the iodine status could strongly influence the biological effect of perchlorate. Perchlorate concentrations in water and infant formulae were measured and the exposure of children under 6 months of age calculated. It appeared that the TDI could be exceeded in some children. As the iodine status is not optimal within the entire French population, there appears to be a need to clarify the sources of perchlorate ultimately to decrease exposure. PMID:25830716

  4. Perchlorate: water and infant formulae contamination in France and risk assessment in infants.

    PubMed

    Vigreux-Besret, Carole; Mahé, Aurélie; Ledoux, Gérald; Garnier, Alexandra; Rosin, Christophe; Baert, Alain; Joyeux, Michel; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Panetier, Pascale; Rivière, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Perchlorate ions ClO4(-), known to inhibit competitively the uptake of iodine by the thyroid, have been detected in drinking water in France as well as in infant formulae. A tolerable daily intake (TDI) has been established at 0.7 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) based on the inhibition of iodine uptake. Due to this mechanism of action, the iodine status could strongly influence the biological effect of perchlorate. Perchlorate concentrations in water and infant formulae were measured and the exposure of children under 6 months of age calculated. It appeared that the TDI could be exceeded in some children. As the iodine status is not optimal within the entire French population, there appears to be a need to clarify the sources of perchlorate ultimately to decrease exposure.

  5. High concentrations of essential and toxic elements in infant formula and infant foods - A matter of concern.

    PubMed

    Ljung, Karin; Palm, Brita; Grandér, Margaretha; Vahter, Marie

    2011-08-01

    This study assessed concentrations in and intake of toxic and essential elements from formulas and foods intended for infants during their first 6months of life. Concentrations of the essential elements Ca, Fe, Zn, Mn and Mo were significantly higher in most formulas than in breast milk. Daily intake of Mn from formula varies from ten up to several hundred times the intake of the breast fed infant, levels that may be associated with adverse health effects. One portion of infant food provided significantly more Fe, Mn, Mo, As, Cd, Pb and U than one feeding of breast milk, but less Ca, Cu and Se. Rice-based products in particular contained elevated As concentrations. Drinking water used to mix powdered formula may add significantly to the concentrations in the ready-made products. Evaluation of potentially adverse effects of the elevated element concentrations in infant formulas and foods are warranted. PMID:25214082

  6. Decoupling macronutrient interactions during heating of model infant milk formulas.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Eoin G; Fenelon, Mark A; Roos, Yrjö H; Hogan, Sean A

    2014-10-29

    Understanding macronutrient interactions during heating is important for controlling viscosity during infant milk formula (IMF) manufacture. Thermal behavior of macronutrients (casein, whey, lactose, fat) was studied, in isolation and combination, over a range of concentrations. Addition of phosphocasein to whey protein solutions elevated denaturation temperature (Td) of β-lactoglobulin and the temperature at which viscosity started to increase upon heating (Tv). Secondary structural changes in whey proteins occurred at higher temperatures in dispersions containing phosphocasein; the final extent of viscosity increase was similar to that of whey protein alone. Addition of lactose to whey protein solutions delayed secondary structural changes, increased Td and Tv, and reduced post heat treatment viscosity. This study demonstrated that heat-induced changes in IMF associated with whey protein (denaturation, viscosity) are not only a function of concentration but are also dependent on interactions between macronutrients. PMID:25251787

  7. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the preceding 12-month period shall issue separate bid solicitations for milk-based and soy-based... bidders that do not produce a soy-based infant formula to subcontract with another manufacturer to supply a soy-based infant formula under the contract. In this case, the bid solicitation must require...

  8. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the preceding 12-month period shall issue separate bid solicitations for milk-based and soy-based... bidders that do not produce a soy-based infant formula to subcontract with another manufacturer to supply a soy-based infant formula under the contract. In this case, the bid solicitation must require...

  9. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the preceding 12-month period shall issue separate bid solicitations for milk-based and soy-based... bidders that do not produce a soy-based infant formula to subcontract with another manufacturer to supply a soy-based infant formula under the contract. In this case, the bid solicitation must require...

  10. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 107.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an... chapter for transmittal to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-605), for action....

  11. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 107.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an... chapter for transmittal to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-605), for action....

  12. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 107.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an... chapter for transmittal to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-605), for action....

  13. Mothers Who Formula Feed: Their Practices, Support Needs and Factors Influencing Their Infant Feeding Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrant, Roslyn C.; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret; McCarthy, Roberta A.; Younger, Katherine M.; Kearney, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to six months postpartum,…

  14. Novel Approaches to Improve the Intrinsic Microbiological Safety of Powdered Infant Milk Formula

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Robert M.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is recognised as the best form of nutrition for infants. However; in instances where breast-feeding is not possible, unsuitable or inadequate, infant milk formulae are used as breast milk substitutes. These formulae are designed to provide infants with optimum nutrition for normal growth and development and are available in either powdered or liquid forms. Powdered infant formula is widely used for convenience and economic reasons. However; current manufacturing processes are not capable of producing a sterile powdered infant formula. Due to their immature immune systems and permeable gastro-intestinal tracts, infants can be more susceptible to infection via foodborne pathogenic bacteria than other age-groups. Consumption of powdered infant formula contaminated by pathogenic microbes can be a cause of serious illness. In this review paper, we discuss the current manufacturing practices present in the infant formula industry, the pathogens of greatest concern, Cronobacter and Salmonella and methods of improving the intrinsic safety of powdered infant formula via the addition of antimicrobials such as: bioactive peptides; organic acids; probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:25685987

  15. Novel approaches to improve the intrinsic microbiological safety of powdered infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Kent, Robert M; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2015-02-12

    Human milk is recognised as the best form of nutrition for infants. However; in instances where breast-feeding is not possible, unsuitable or inadequate, infant milk formulae are used as breast milk substitutes. These formulae are designed to provide infants with optimum nutrition for normal growth and development and are available in either powdered or liquid forms. Powdered infant formula is widely used for convenience and economic reasons. However; current manufacturing processes are not capable of producing a sterile powdered infant formula. Due to their immature immune systems and permeable gastro-intestinal tracts, infants can be more susceptible to infection via foodborne pathogenic bacteria than other age-groups. Consumption of powdered infant formula contaminated by pathogenic microbes can be a cause of serious illness. In this review paper, we discuss the current manufacturing practices present in the infant formula industry, the pathogens of greatest concern, Cronobacter and Salmonella and methods of improving the intrinsic safety of powdered infant formula via the addition of antimicrobials such as: bioactive peptides; organic acids; probiotics and prebiotics.

  16. Differential Growth Patterns Among Healthy Infants Fed Protein Hydrolysate or Cow-Milk Formulas

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Alison K.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Infant formulas differ considerably in composition and sensory profiles. In this randomized study, we examined whether healthy infants fed an extensively protein hydrolysate formula (PHF) would differ in feeding behavior and growth from those fed cow-milk formula (CMF). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Infants were randomly assigned to be fed CMF or PHF between 0.5 and 7.5 months of age. Each month for 7 months, infants were weighed and measured and then videotaped while being fed their assigned formula. Anthropometric z scores were calculated by using World Health Organization growth standards. Multilevel linear growth and piecewise mixed-effects models compared trajectories for growth measures and formula acceptance. RESULTS: When compared with infants fed CMF, infants fed PHF had significantly lower weight-for-length z scores across ages 2.5 to 7.5 months. There were no differences in length-for-age z scores, which indicate that group differences resulted from gains in weight, not length. Infants fed PHF also had significantly slower weight gain velocity compared with infants fed CMF. During the monthly assessments, PHF-fed infants consumed less formula to satiation than did CMF-fed infants across the study period. Maternal ratings of infants' acceptance of the formula did not differ at any age. CONCLUSIONS: z-score trajectories indicate that CMF-fed infants' weight gain was accelerated, whereas PHF-fed infants' weight gain was normative. Whether such differences in growth are because of differences in the protein content or amino acid profile of the formulas and, in turn, metabolism is unknown. Research on the long-term consequences of these early growth differences is needed. PMID:21187303

  17. Protein-lipid interactions in concentrated infant formula

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, B.O.; Richardson, T.

    1985-12-01

    Radiolabeled milk proteins ((carbon-14) ..beta..-lactoglobulin or (carbon-14) kappa-casein) were added to raw skim milk used to prepare concentrated humanized infant formula. Ultracentrifugation of the sterilized product allowed separation of three fractions: lipids and the proteins associated with them; free casein micelles and other dense particles; and the fluid phase. Distribution of radiolabeled tracer proteins or of protein measured by chemical methods among these three phases varied significantly with differences in processing conditions (time and temperature of sterilization) or amount of certain additives (potassium hydroxide or urea). In the range of 0 to 8 meq/L of potassium hydroxide added to the formula after homogenization but before sterilization, the lipid layer content of carbon-14 from (carbon-14) kappa-casein in the sterilized product decreased by 4.7% for each 1 meq/L of added potassium hydroxide. Lipid layer content of protein decreased by 2 g/L ( of a total of 32 g/L) for each 1 meq/L potassium hydroxide.

  18. Considerable variation in the concentration of osteopontin in human milk, bovine milk, and infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Schack, L; Lange, A; Kelsen, J; Agnholt, J; Christensen, B; Petersen, T E; Sørensen, E S

    2009-11-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional bioactive protein that is implicated in numerous biological processes such as bone remodeling, inhibition of ectopic calcification, and cellular adhesion and migration, as well as several immune functions. Osteopontin has cytokine-like properties and is a key factor in the initiation of T helper 1 immune responses. Osteopontin is present in most tissues and body fluids, with the highest concentrations being found in milk. In the present study, ELISA for human and bovine milk OPN were developed and OPN concentration in human breast milk, bovine milk, and infant formulas was measured and compared. The OPN concentration in human milk was measured to approximately 138 mg/L, which corresponds to 2.1% (wt/wt) of the total protein in human breast milk. This is considerably higher than the corresponding OPN concentrations in bovine milk (approximately 18 mg/L) and infant formulas (approximately 9 mg/L). Moreover, bovine milk OPN is shown to induce the expression of the T helper 1 cytokine IL-12 in cultured human lamina propria mononuclear cells isolated from intestinal biopsies. Finally, the OPN concentration in plasma samples from umbilical cords, 3-mo-old infants, and pregnant and nonpregnant adults was measured. The OPN level in plasma from 3-mo-old infants and umbilical cords was found to be 7 to 10 times higher than in adults. Thus, the high levels of OPN in milk and infant plasma suggest that OPN is important to infants and that ingested milk OPN is likely to induce cytokine production in neonate intestinal immune cells.

  19. Growth of healthy term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey-based infant formula: a randomized, blinded, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Borschel, Marlene W; Choe, Yong S; Kajzer, Janice A

    2014-12-01

    Partially hydrolyzed formulas (pHF) represent a significant percentage of the infant formula market. A new whey-based, palm olein oil (PO)-free pHF was developed and a masked, randomized, parallel growth study was conducted in infants fed this formula or a commercially available whey-based pHF with PO. Infants between 0 and 8 days were to be enrolled and studied to 119 days of age. Growth and tolerance of infants were evaluated. Mean weight gain from 14 to 119 days of age was similar between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in weight, length, head circumference (HC), or length or HC gains. Infants fed the new PO-free pHF had significantly softer stools than those fed the PO-containing formula except at 119 days of age. This study demonstrates that whereas growth of infants fed different formulas during the first 4 months of life may be similar, infants may tolerate individual formulas differently.

  20. Infants fed soy formula appear to maintain steady-state isoflavone concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the isoflavone pharmacokinetics of 71 healthy 3-mounth old infants (40 boys) who were exclusively fed soy-based infant formula (SF) for at least 1 mounth. Each study began after a 4-hr fast. Blood was drawn once from each infant at one of five time points: prior to feeding, 0.5, 1.5, 2...

  1. A comparative study of a premature infant formula and preterm breast milk for low birthweight infants.

    PubMed

    Tudehope, D I; Mitchell, F; Cowley, D M

    1986-08-01

    Although the unique composition of preterm milk (PTM) has led to its increasing use in feeding of low birthweight (LBW) infants, controversy exists as to whether such milk adequately meets their requirements. This study compares the clinical tolerance and anthropometric, biochemical and haematological parameters of LBW infants fed exclusively with their own mother's PTM, a premature infant formula (Alprem; Nestlé Australia) and a mixture of PTM and Alprem. Of 90 enrolled LBW infants (1000-1750 g birthweight), 78 completed the feeding trial for a mean duration of 42 days. Twenty-eight babies were fed Alprem (Group A), 31 received a mixture of Alprem and PTM (Group B) and 18 received PTM (Group C). Babies in Groups A and B were smaller, less mature and more asphyxiated at birth than those in Group C. Weight gain from full enteral feeding was greater in Group A (18.1 g/kg per day) and Group B (17.6 g/kg per day) than in Group C (13.0 g/kg per day). Throughout the trial, weight gain in Groups A and B exceeded predicted intra-uterine growth rates, whereas that for Group C approximated the predicted intra-uterine growth rates. Growth rates of length and head circumference were also greatest in the Alprem-fed babies. Infants receiving PTM were supplemented with calcium, sodium, vitamins and energy, whereas the only three infants requiring mineral supplementation in the Alprem group were those receiving Frusemide therapy for chronic lung disease. lower serum concentrations of phosphorus, iron, albumin and urea, and higher zinc and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were found in infants receiving PTM (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Rice protein-based infant formula: current status and future development.

    PubMed

    Koo, W W K; Lasekan, J B

    2007-02-01

    Rice is the world's leading staple cereal food and is the major source of protein for many parts of the world. Rice is among the first solid foods fed to infants in many cultures, in part because of its hypoallergenicity from lack of gluten. Nutritional quality of rice protein compares favorably with other cereal proteins including wheat, oat and barley. It is rich in methionine and cystine, although as is the case for other cereals, it is an incomplete protein source for human infants with lysine and threonine being the primary limiting amino acids. Fortification of rice proteins with these two limiting amino acids improves its protein quality. Rice protein-based infant formulas (RPF) were initially based on high protein rice flours, but more recently are based on rice protein concentrates, isolates or hydrolysates, fortified with lysine and threonine. Hypoallergenicity efficacy, particularly for hydrolyzed rice protein-based formulas, has been reported, and limited data indicated that rice protein based infant formula may provide potentially adequate alternative if standard milk- or soy protein-based formulas are not tolerated. Unlike the rice-protein based infant formula, rice beverage formulas made from rice flour are nutritionally inadequate for infants. Reports have indicated stunted growth in infants/children fed rice beverage formulas. Future development for the RPF include those based on genetically improved rice with high lysine and threonine content, supplementation with appropriate mineral and fat blend, and long-term clinical studies in infants to confirm its efficacy and safety.

  3. Bioactive peptides released by in vitro digestion of standard and hydrolyzed infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2015-11-01

    Hydrolyzed infant formulas serve as appropriate nutritional sources for infants afflicted with cow's milk allergy, and milk proteins in hydrolyzed formulas are industrially hydrolyzed extensively or partially. To investigate whether industrial hydrolysis may modulate the digestive trajectory of milk proteins, thereby releasing different profiles of bioactive peptides compared with standard formulas, both standard and hydrolyzed formulas were subjected to in vitro digestion and formation of bioactive peptides were compared. One standard, one extensively hydrolyzed, and one partially hydrolyzed infant formula were digested in vitro with pepsin and pancreatin, taking into account the higher gastric pH of infants, and the digesta were subjected to peptidomic analysis. The standard formula released a larger variety of bioactive peptides than from the hydrolyzed formulas, indicating that industrial hydrolysis of milk proteins may generally attenuate their indigenous bioactivities such as antibacterial, immuno-regulatory, and anti-oxidative activities. Conversely, industrial hydrolysis may facilitate the formation of bioactive peptides from hydrophobic proteins/regions such as β-LG and the "strategic zone" of β-CN, which encrypt bioactive peptides including a dipeptidyl dipeptidase-4-inhibitory, hypocholesterolemic, and opioid peptides. Infants fed hydrolyzed infant formulas may be influenced by milk protein-derived bioactive peptides in a manner different from those fed standard formula.

  4. Short communication: investigation of aflatoxin M1 levels in infant follow-on milks and infant formulas sold in the markets of Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Er, B; Demirhan, B; Yentür, G

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins are fungal toxins known to be carcinogenic and are classified as food contaminants. This study was performed to investigate aflatoxin (AF) M1 levels in baby foods sold in Ankara (Turkey) and to evaluate the obtained results according to the Turkish Food Codex (TFC). For this purpose, a total of 84 baby food samples (50 follow-on milks and 34 infant formulas) were obtained from different markets in Ankara and the presence of AFM1 in the samples was analyzed by ELISA. In 32 (38.1%) of 84 infant food samples, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations ranging between 0.0055 and 0.0201 µg/kg. The mean level (± standard error) of AFM1 was found to be 0.0089 ± 0.0006 µg/kg in positive infant follow-on milks. Aflatoxin M1 was detected in only 1 infant formula sample (2.94%) at a concentration of 0.0061 µg/kg. The extrapolated levels of AFB1 contamination in feedstuffs were calculated based on levels of AFM1 in baby food samples. The data estimating AFB1 contamination in dairy cattle feedstuff indicate that contamination may range from 0.3410 to 1.2580 µg/kg, with the mean level (± standard error) being 0.5499 ± 0.0385 µg/kg, which is lower than the level set by the TFC and European Union regulations (5 µg/kg). According to the obtained results, the levels of AFM1 in analyzed samples were within the allowed limit (0.025 µg/kg) set in the TFC. Low levels of AFM1 in infant follow-on milks and infant formula samples obtained during the study do not pose a health risk to infants. PMID:24731644

  5. Qualitative evaluation of maternal milk and commercial infant formulas via LIBS.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Z; Al Sharnoubi, J; Harith, M A

    2013-10-15

    This study focuses on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the evaluation of the nutrients in maternal milk and some commercially available infant formulas. The results of such evaluation are vital for adequate and healthy feeding for babies during lactation period. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy offers special advantages in comparison to the other conventional analytical techniques. Specifically, LIBS is a straightforward technique that can be used in situ to provide qualitative analytical information in few minutes for the samples under investigation without preparation processes. The samples studied in the current work were maternal milk samples collected during the first 3 months of lactation (not colostrum milk) and samples from six different types of commercially available infant formulas. The samples' elemental composition has been compared with respect to the relative abundance of the elements of nutrition importance, namely Mg, Ca, Na, and Fe using their spectral emission lines in the relevant LIBS spectra. In addition, CN and C2 molecular emission bands in the same spectra have been studied as indicators of proteins content in the samples. The obtained analytical results demonstrate the higher elemental contents of the maternal milk compared with the commercial formulas samples. Similar results have been obtained as for the proteins content. It has been also shown that calcium and proteins have similar relative concentration trends in the studied samples. This work demonstrates the feasibility of adopting LIBS as a fast, safe, less costly technique evaluating qualitatively the nutrients content of both maternal and commercial milk samples. PMID:24054613

  6. Enterobacter sakazakii in dried infant formulas and milk kitchens of maternity wards in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Palcich, Gabriela; Gillio, Cintia de Moraes; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; Pagotto, Franco J; Farber, Jeffrey M; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This study was the first conducted in Brazil to evaluate the presence of Enterobacter sakazakii in milk-based powdered infant formula manufactured for infants 0 to 6 months of age and to examine the conditions of formula preparation and service in three hospitals in São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples of dried and rehydrated infant formula, environments of milk kitchens, water, bottles and nipples, utensils, and hands of personnel were analyzed, and E. sakazakii and Enterobacteriaceae populations were determined. All samples of powdered infant formula purchased at retail contained E. sakazakii at <0.3 [corrected] most probable number (MPN)/100 g. In hospital samples, E. sakazakii was found in one unopened formula can (0.3 MPN/100 g) and in the residue from one nursing bottle from hospital A. All other cans of formula from the same lot bought at a retail store contained E. sakazakii at <0.3 [corrected] MPN/100 g. The pathogen also was found in one cleaning sponge from hospital B. Enterobacteriaceae populations ranged from 10(1) to 10(5) CFU/g in cleaning aids and <5 CFU/g in all formula types (dry or rehydrated), except for the sample that contained E. sakazakii, which also was contaminated with Enterobacteriaceae at 5 CFU/g. E. sakazakii isolates were not genetically related. In an experiment in which rehydrated formula was used as the growth medium, the temperature was that of the neonatal intensive care unit (25 degrees C), and the incubation time was the average time that formula is left at room temperature while feeding the babies (up to 4 h), a 2-log increase in levels of E. sakazakii was found in the formula. Visual inspection of the facilities revealed that the hygienic conditions in the milk kitchens needed improvement. The length of time that formula is left at room temperature in the different hospitals while the babies in the neonatal intensive care unit are being fed (up to 4 h) may allow for the multiplication of E. sakazakii and thus may lead to an

  7. Influence of the derivatization procedure on the results of the gaschromatographic fatty acid analysis of human milk and infant formulae.

    PubMed

    Kohn, G; van der Ploeg, P; Möbius, M; Sawatzki, G

    1996-09-01

    Many different analytical procedures for fatty acid analysis of infant formulae and human milk are described. The objective was to study possible pitfalls in the use of different acid-catalyzed procedures compared to a base-catalyzed procedure based on sodium-methoxide in methanol. The influence of the different methods on the relative fatty acid composition (wt% of total fatty acids) and the total fatty acid recovery rate (expressed as % of total lipids) was studied in two experimental LCP-containing formulae and a human milk sample. MeOH/HCl-procedures were found to result in an incomplete transesterification of triglycerides, if an additional nonpolar solvent like toluene or hexane is not added and a water-free preparation is not guaranteed. In infant formulae the low transesterification of triglycerides (up to only 37%) could result in an 100%-overestimation of the relative amount of LCP, if these fatty acids primarily derive from phospholipids. This is the case in infant formulae containing egg lipids as raw materials. In formula containing fish oils and in human milk the efficacy of esterification results in incorrect absolute amounts of fatty acids, but has no remarkable effect on the relative fatty acid distribution. This is due to the fact that in these samples LCP are primarily bound to triglycerides. Furthermore, in formulae based on butterfat the derivatization procedure should be designed in such a way that losses of short-chain fatty acids due to evaporation steps can be avoided. The procedure based on sodium methoxide was found to result in a satisfactory (about 90%) conversion of formula lipids and a reliable content of all individual fatty acids. Due to a possibly high amount of free fatty acids in human milk, which are not methylated by sodium-methoxide, caution is expressed about the use of this reagent for fatty acid analysis of mothers milk. It is concluded that accurate fatty acid analysis of infant formulae and human milk requires a careful

  8. Lead and iron status of breast and formula-fed infants

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, A.H.; Kasler, J.S.; Shrock, R.O.; Signs, S.A.

    1981-06-01

    We examined the iron and lead status of breast-fed and formula-fed infants from birth through the first year of life. Not only has the adequacy of iron intake of breast and formula-fed infants been questioned but also the contamination of breast milk with environmental pollutants such as Pb. In addition, it is believed that a state of Fe deficiency may promote the absorption of Pb. We compared the blood Pb and Fe levels of 23 breast-fed and 23 formula-fed infants whose mothers were enrolled in a longitudinal study determining the effects of maternal nutritional and environmental factors on the infants' subsequent growth and development. Serum iron, TIBC and %SAT values were obtained at 6 and 12 mo. Additional biochemical values including Pb and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentrations were obtained at birth and 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 mo. Iron status was similar at 6 mo for the breast-fed and formula-fed infants, but somewhat higher for the breast-fed infants at 12 mo (NS). Results indicate no differences in Pb or EP status between breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Biochemical values were within normal limits. We conclude that dietary intake of Pb and Fe by infants whether breast-feeding or formula-feeding reflects adequate Fe status and apparent safe Pb state.

  9. Mineral retention in three-week-old piglets fed goat and cow milk infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, S M; Darragh, A J; Hendriks, W H; Prosser, C G; Lowry, D

    2006-12-01

    Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula with respect to mineral absorption and deposition using the 3-wk-old piglet as a model for the 3-mo-old infant. Equal numbers of piglets (n = 8) were fed either the goat milk formula or the cow milk formula. The mineral composition of the prepared goat milk formula was higher than that of the prepared cow milk formula for most minerals, including calcium (75.1 vs. 56.7 mg/100 mL) but excluding iron, which was higher in the prepared cow milk formula (0.92 vs. 0.74 mg/100 mL). The amounts of calcium, phosphorus, and manganese absorbed by the piglets were significantly higher for the goat milk formula, whereas the amounts of zinc, iron, and magnesium absorbed were significantly higher for the cow milk formula. Apparent mineral absorption, relative to intake, was statistically higher in the cow milk formula for calcium and phosphorus, although the actual differences were very small (less than 1.3%). For copper, zinc, iron, and magnesium there was no significant difference between treatments in apparent mineral absorption, whereas for manganese, absorption was higher for the goat milk infant formula. The absolute mineral deposition was higher in piglets fed the goat milk formula for calcium, phosphorus, and manganese, whereas iron deposition was higher in the piglets fed cow milk formula. For all other minerals tested, there were no significant differences between treatments. The goat milk infant formula provided a pattern of mineral retention in the 3-wk-old piglet very similar to that of the adapted cow milk infant formula. The minor differences observed between the 2 appeared to be due to the different mineral contents of the 2 formulas.

  10. Soy protein-based infant formulas with supplemental fructooligosaccharides: gastrointestinal tolerance and hydration status in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Lasekan, John; Baggs, Geraldine; Acosta, Sonja; Mackey, Amy

    2015-04-22

    Unlike milk-based infant formulas, soy-based infant formulas containing supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have not been clinically evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, 28 day parallel feeding trial compared gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and hydration in healthy term newborn infants fed either a commercialized soy formula (with history of safe use) containing sucrose as 20% of total carbohydrate, no supplemental short-chain FOS (scFOS) and no mixed carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene) as a control (CF, n = 62 infants) or one of two experimental soy-based formulas, EF1 (n = 64) and EF2 (n = 62) containing scFOS (2.5 g/L) and mixed carotenoids. EF1 differed from EF2 by containing sucrose. Results indicated no significant study group differences (p > 0.05) in study completion rates (CF = 81, EF1 = 86, & EF2 = 87%), growth, mean rank stool consistency, stool frequency, formula intake, spit-up/vomit, and safety measures (urine specific gravity, USG; hydration status and adverse events). Mean USGs for study groups were normal (<1.03). The EF1 > CF group in percent yellow stools (p < 0.01 at age 14 days). In conclusion, the study suggested that term infants fed soy-based formulas supplemented with scFOS and mixed carotenoids, with or without sucrose in the 1st 35 days of infancy demonstrated good tolerance and hydration comparable to the control soy-based formula with history of safe use.

  11. Soy Protein-Based Infant Formulas with Supplemental Fructooligosaccharides: Gastrointestinal Tolerance and Hydration Status in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lasekan, John; Baggs, Geraldine; Acosta, Sonja; Mackey, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Unlike milk-based infant formulas, soy-based infant formulas containing supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have not been clinically evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, 28 day parallel feeding trial compared gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and hydration in healthy term newborn infants fed either a commercialized soy formula (with history of safe use) containing sucrose as 20% of total carbohydrate, no supplemental short-chain FOS (scFOS) and no mixed carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene) as a control (CF, n = 62 infants) or one of two experimental soy-based formulas, EF1 (n = 64) and EF2 (n = 62) containing scFOS (2.5 g/L) and mixed carotenoids. EF1 differed from EF2 by containing sucrose. Results indicated no significant study group differences (p > 0.05) in study completion rates (CF = 81, EF1 = 86, & EF2 = 87%), growth, mean rank stool consistency, stool frequency, formula intake, spit-up/vomit, and safety measures (urine specific gravity, USG; hydration status and adverse events). Mean USGs for study groups were normal (<1.03). The EF1 > CF group in percent yellow stools (p < 0.01 at age 14 days). In conclusion, the study suggested that term infants fed soy-based formulas supplemented with scFOS and mixed carotenoids, with or without sucrose in the 1st 35 days of infancy demonstrated good tolerance and hydration comparable to the control soy-based formula with history of safe use. PMID:25912040

  12. Economic value of atopic dermatitis prevention via infant formula use in high-risk Malaysian infants

    PubMed Central

    Bhanegaonkar, Abhijeet J; Horodniceanu, Erica G; Abdul Latiff, Amir Hamzah; Woodhull, Sanjay; Khoo, Phaik Choo; Detzel, Patrick; Ji, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is best for infants and the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for at least the first 6 months of life. For those who are unable to be breastfed, previous studies demonstrate that feeding high-risk infants with hydrolyzed formulas instead of cow's milk formula (CMF) may decrease the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective To estimate the economic impact of feeding high-risk, not exclusively breastfed, urban Malaysian infants with partiallyhydrolyzed whey-based formula (PHF-W) instead of CMF for the first 17 weeks of life as an AD risk reduction strategy. Methods A cohort Markov model simulated the AD incidence and burden from birth to age 6 years in the target population fed with PHF-W vs. CMF. The model integrated published clinical and epidemiologic data, local cost data, and expert opinion. Modeled outcomes included AD-risk reduction, time spent post AD diagnosis, days without AD flare, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs (direct and indirect). Outcomes were discounted at 3% per year. Costs are expressed in Malaysian Ringgit (MYR; MYR 1,000 = United States dollar [US $]316.50). Results Feeding a high-risk infant PHF-W vs. CMF resulted in a 14% point reduction in AD risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 3%-23%), a 0.69-year (95% CI, 0.25-1.10) reduction in time spent post-AD diagnosis, additional 38 (95% CI, 2-94) days without AD flare, and an undiscounted gain of 0.041 (95% CI, 0.007-0.103) QALYs. The discounted AD-related 6-year cost estimates when feeding a high-risk infant with PHF-W were MYR 1,758 (US $556) (95% CI, MYR 917-3,033) and with CMF MYR 2,871 (US $909) (95% CI, MYR 1,697-4,278), resulting in a per-child net saving of MYR 1,113 (US $352) (95% CI, MYR 317-1,884) favoring PHF-W. Conclusion Using PHF-W instead of CMF in this population is expected to result in AD-related costs savings. PMID:25938073

  13. Multidimensional microchip-capillary electrophoresis device for determination of functional proteins in infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruige; Wang, Zhiping; Fung, Ying Sing

    2015-01-01

    Functional proteins have been found in infant milk formula as supplements, added by an increasing number of manufacturers. Their supplementations are expected to be controlled and monitored. Here, we describe a microchip-integrated CE method for the determination of these low levels of functional proteins in a protein-rich sample matrix. On-chip isoelectric focusing (IEF) is used to separate high-abundance proteins from low-abundance proteins instead of using some complicated time-consuming protein purification process. After that, transient isotachophoresis hyphenated capillary zone electrophoresis (t-ITP-CZE) can preconcentrate, separate, and analyze transferred functional proteins in the embedded capillary under UV detection. PMID:25673487

  14. Multidimensional microchip-capillary electrophoresis device for determination of functional proteins in infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruige; Wang, Zhiping; Fung, Ying Sing

    2015-01-01

    Functional proteins have been found in infant milk formula as supplements, added by an increasing number of manufacturers. Their supplementations are expected to be controlled and monitored. Here, we describe a microchip-integrated CE method for the determination of these low levels of functional proteins in a protein-rich sample matrix. On-chip isoelectric focusing (IEF) is used to separate high-abundance proteins from low-abundance proteins instead of using some complicated time-consuming protein purification process. After that, transient isotachophoresis hyphenated capillary zone electrophoresis (t-ITP-CZE) can preconcentrate, separate, and analyze transferred functional proteins in the embedded capillary under UV detection.

  15. [Evidence-based dietetics: what has to be kept in mind for the prescription of infant formulae and follow-on formulae in 2007th?].

    PubMed

    2007-04-01

    All infant and follow-on formulae available on the market are of high quality. Nevertheless, they are not identical. Several formulae recently launched are characterized by innovations that may have interesting functional effects in some infants. The rising number of formulae and the uncertainty on the validity of the claims presented to justify these innovations make more and more difficult the prescription of a formula that has to be individually tailored for each child. A rational prescription should only be approached on the principle of evidence-based dietetics. Infant formulae satisfy by themselves the nutritional needs of infants up to 6 months of age whereas follow-on formulae should only be used after 6 months when complementary feeding has been introduced into the diet. None of these formulae can claim any nutritional superiority, in particular over breast feeding, which is the reference mode of feeding during the first 6 months of life. The nature of the protein source is the main criteria for choosing an infant formula. In the absence of breast feeding, cow's milk protein infant and follow-on formulae represent the first choice, with the exception of infants at risk for allergy, who should be exclusively fed a hypoallergenic formula during the first 6 months of life. The main interest of soy protein infant and follow-on formulae is feeding infants in vegan families. A functional benefit has only been shown for anti regurgitation formulae as well as for formulae that have the potential to soften stools. Except for the prevention of allergic disease in at-risk families with the use of hypoallergenic infant (and not follow-on) formulae, there is no convincing evidence supporting the prescription of specific formulae in a preventive approach. PMID:17321116

  16. Effects of formula protein level and ratio on infant growth, plasma amino acids and serum trace elements. I. Cow's milk formula.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, B; Chen, C L

    1990-03-01

    The optimum level and ratios of protein to be used in cow's milk formula has recently been under discussion. Healthy term infants were fed from birth exclusively human milk or a formula that varied in protein level or whey: casein ratio: (A) 1.4 g/dl; 55:45, (B) 1.5 g/dl; 55:45, (C) 1.3 g/dl; 55:45, (D) 1.4 g/dl; 60:40, (E) 1.4 g/dl; 20:80. Infants were followed for 12 weeks and blood samples were taken at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Anthropometric indices did not show any significant differences among groups. Plasma amino acid and BUN levels of the C group were closest to the breast-fed group, while the formula with the highest protein level (B) resulted in high values for some amino acids. When comparing the formulas with 1.4 g protein/dl, the high casein group had the lowest plasma tryptophan levels. Taurine was added to all formulas at a level similar to that of breast milk; plasma taurine levels were similar for all groups. All formulas contained 0.7 mg iron and 0.7 mg zinc/dl; no differences were found among the groups in hematological indices or serum trace elements. These data show that feeding a formula with 1.3 g protein/dl and 55:45 whey: casein ratio from birth will result in growth and metabolic indices similar to those of breast-fed infants, although some plasma amino acid levels are not identical, 1990.

  17. Ratio of maltose to maltulose and furosine as quality parameters for infant formula.

    PubMed

    Morales, Valle; Olano, Agustin; Corzo, Nieves

    2004-11-01

    Nonenzymic browning reactions in commercial infant formulas were evaluated through their furosine content as well as the isomeric disaccharides formed during processing. Lactulose was observed only in samples containing appreciable amounts of lactose, whereas maltulose was present in all samples due to the isomerization of maltose. Because formation of maltulose depends on the initial amount of maltose present, the ratio maltose/maltulose was used for comparative purposes. The ratio maltose/maltulose varied within a wide range, 27-167; therefore, low values in maltose/maltulose ratio may indicate severe processing conditions during manufacture, whereas high values may indicate mild processing conditions. Variable amounts of furosine content in samples with similar maltose/maltulose ratios may be attributed to different conditions used during storage. Levels of furosine higher than those reported for milk powder were detected in most studied samples. Determination of both furosine and maltose/maltulose ratio would yield information retrospectively about the heat treatment applied during processing and the storage conditions of commercial infant formula. PMID:15506809

  18. Ratio of maltose to maltulose and furosine as quality parameters for infant formula.

    PubMed

    Morales, Valle; Olano, Agustin; Corzo, Nieves

    2004-11-01

    Nonenzymic browning reactions in commercial infant formulas were evaluated through their furosine content as well as the isomeric disaccharides formed during processing. Lactulose was observed only in samples containing appreciable amounts of lactose, whereas maltulose was present in all samples due to the isomerization of maltose. Because formation of maltulose depends on the initial amount of maltose present, the ratio maltose/maltulose was used for comparative purposes. The ratio maltose/maltulose varied within a wide range, 27-167; therefore, low values in maltose/maltulose ratio may indicate severe processing conditions during manufacture, whereas high values may indicate mild processing conditions. Variable amounts of furosine content in samples with similar maltose/maltulose ratios may be attributed to different conditions used during storage. Levels of furosine higher than those reported for milk powder were detected in most studied samples. Determination of both furosine and maltose/maltulose ratio would yield information retrospectively about the heat treatment applied during processing and the storage conditions of commercial infant formula.

  19. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula, and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.13.

    PubMed

    Golay, Pierre-Alain; Moulin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on AOAC First Action Method 2012.13 "Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products and Infant Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography," which is based on an initial International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-International Dairy Federation (IDF) New Work Item that has been moved forward to ISO 16958:2015|IDF 231:2015 in November 2015. It was decided to merge the two activities after the agreement signed between ISO and AOAC in June 2012 to develop common standards and to avoid duplicate work. The collaborative study was performed after having provided highly satisfactory single-laboratory validation results [Golay, P.A., & Dong, Y. (2015) J. AOAC Int. 98, 1679-1696] that exceeded the performance criteria defined in AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR(®)) 2012.011 (September 29, 2012) on 12 products selected by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula (SPIFAN). After a qualification period of 1 month, 18 laboratories participated in the fatty acids analysis of 12 different samples in duplicate. Six samples were selected to meet AOAC SPIFAN requirements (i.e., infant formula and adult nutritionals in powder and liquid formats), and the other Six samples were selected to meet ISO-IDF requirements (i.e., dairy products such as milk powder, liquid milk, cream, butter, infant formula with milk, and cheese). The fatty acids were analyzed directly in all samples without preliminary fat extraction, except in one sample (cheese). Powdered samples were analyzed after dissolution (i.e., reconstitution) in water, whereas liquid samples (or extracted fat) were analyzed directly. After addition of the internal standards solution [C11:0 fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and C13:0 triacylglycerols (TAG)] to the samples, fatty acids attached to lipids were transformed into FAMEs by direct transesterification using methanolic sodium methoxide. FAMEs were separated using highly polar capillary GLC and were

  20. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula, and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.13.

    PubMed

    Golay, Pierre-Alain; Moulin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on AOAC First Action Method 2012.13 "Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products and Infant Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography," which is based on an initial International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-International Dairy Federation (IDF) New Work Item that has been moved forward to ISO 16958:2015|IDF 231:2015 in November 2015. It was decided to merge the two activities after the agreement signed between ISO and AOAC in June 2012 to develop common standards and to avoid duplicate work. The collaborative study was performed after having provided highly satisfactory single-laboratory validation results [Golay, P.A., & Dong, Y. (2015) J. AOAC Int. 98, 1679-1696] that exceeded the performance criteria defined in AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR(®)) 2012.011 (September 29, 2012) on 12 products selected by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula (SPIFAN). After a qualification period of 1 month, 18 laboratories participated in the fatty acids analysis of 12 different samples in duplicate. Six samples were selected to meet AOAC SPIFAN requirements (i.e., infant formula and adult nutritionals in powder and liquid formats), and the other Six samples were selected to meet ISO-IDF requirements (i.e., dairy products such as milk powder, liquid milk, cream, butter, infant formula with milk, and cheese). The fatty acids were analyzed directly in all samples without preliminary fat extraction, except in one sample (cheese). Powdered samples were analyzed after dissolution (i.e., reconstitution) in water, whereas liquid samples (or extracted fat) were analyzed directly. After addition of the internal standards solution [C11:0 fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and C13:0 triacylglycerols (TAG)] to the samples, fatty acids attached to lipids were transformed into FAMEs by direct transesterification using methanolic sodium methoxide. FAMEs were separated using highly polar capillary GLC and were

  1. Estimated Exposure to Arsenic in Breastfed and Formula-Fed Infants in a United States Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Carignan, Courtney C.; Jackson, Brian P.; Farzan, Shohreh F.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Punshon, Tracy; Folt, Carol L.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that concentrations of arsenic in breast milk are relatively low even in areas with high drinking-water arsenic. However, it is uncertain whether breastfeeding leads to reduced infant exposure to arsenic in regions with lower arsenic concentrations. Objective: We estimated the relative contributions of breast milk and formula to arsenic exposure during early infancy in a U.S. population. Methods: We measured arsenic in home tap water (n = 874), urine from 6-week-old infants (n = 72), and breast milk from mothers (n = 9) enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using data from a 3-day food diary, we compared urinary arsenic across infant feeding types and developed predictive exposure models to estimate daily arsenic intake from breast milk and formula. Results: Urinary arsenic concentrations were generally low (median, 0.17 μg/L; maximum, 2.9 μg/L) but 7.5 times higher for infants fed exclusively with formula than for infants fed exclusively with breast milk (β = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.83; p < 0.0001, adjusted for specific gravity). Similarly, the median estimated daily arsenic intake by NHBCS infants was 5.5 times higher for formula-fed infants (0.22 μg/kg/day) than for breastfed infants (0.04 μg/kg/day). Given median arsenic concentrations measured in NHBCS tap water and previously published for formula powder, formula powder was estimated to account for ~ 70% of median exposure among formula-fed NHBCS infants. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that breastfed infants have lower arsenic exposure than formula-fed infants, and that both formula powder and drinking water can be sources of exposure for U.S. infants. Citation: Carignan CC, Cottingham KL, Jackson BP, Farzan SF, Gandolfi AJ, Punshon T, Folt CL, Karagas MR. 2015. Estimated exposure to arsenic in breastfed and formula-fed infants in a United States cohort. Environ Health Perspect 123:500–506;

  2. alpha-Lactalbumin-enriched low-protein infant formulas: a comparison to breast milk feeding.

    PubMed

    Heine, W; Radke, M; Wutzke, K D; Peters, E; Kundt, G

    1996-09-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) is the limiting amino acid in low-protein infant formulas. This is mainly due to lower alpha-lactalbumin (alpha LA) content in cow's milk whey as compared with human milk protein. To study the effect of alpha LA-enrichment on the TRP supply, cross-over studies were carried out in 20 healthy infants up to 3 months of age. In this study, two protein-reduced (1.3%) infant formulas (moderate TRP content of 1.88% and higher TRP content of 2.10%) were alternately fed over a 2 week period in two groups of infants. Serum TRP levels of the formula-fed infants with the higher TRP content did not differ significantly from an exclusively breastfed control group of 11 infants (10.5 +/- 4.8 versus 10.9 +/- 4.7 mg l-1, p = 0.841), whereas levels of the formula-fed infants with the moderate TRP content were significantly lower (7.4 +/- 3.9, p = 0.038). The supplementation of alpha LA resulting in a higher TRP supply to low-protein diets is a further step towards the production of infant formulas more closely adapted to human breast milk.

  3. 76 FR 11788 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula Label Statements Experimental Study AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an...

  4. Global infant formula: monitoring and regulating the impacts to protect human health.

    PubMed

    Kent, George

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide promotion of infant formula and other commercial baby foods is leading to increased use of these products, raising concerns about their impact on the health of infants. These products are made and marketed through a global system that extends beyond the control of separate nations. As the industry is increasingly globalized, there is a growing need for guidance, monitoring, and regulation. This study suggests a path toward achieving better control of infant formula and other baby foods to ensure that infants and young children everywhere are well nourished. The negotiation of a new Optional Protocol on Children's Nutrition, to be linked to the most relevant human rights treaty, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, would bring the major issues relating to infant formula and other baby foods to the attention of the global community and all national governments. PMID:25784954

  5. Personalizing nutrient intakes of formula-fed infants: breast milk as a model.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2008-01-01

    The growth pattern of formula-fed infants is quite different from that of breastfed infants. There may be several reasons for this difference, ranging from different endocrine responses to feeding and the presence of growth factors in breast milk to different control of food intake, but it is highly likely that differences in nutrient composition of the food (breast milk or formula) have major effects on growth. In most countries infant formula is used more or less exclusively up to 6 months of age and as part of the diet up to 12 months of age and during this period its composition remains the same. In striking contrast, the nutrient composition of breast milk changes during lactation, most dramatically during early lactation, but with pronounced differences throughout lactation for many nutrients. It is a goal that the performance of formulafed infants should be as similar to that of breastfed infants as possible, and attempts have been made to modify the composition of infant formula to achieve this goal. However, there has been no systematic attempt to gradually change the composition of infant formula in a manner similar to the changing pattern of breast milk. This represents a technical and nutritional challenge, but is now possible.

  6. Comparison of the Compositions of the Stool Microbiotas of Infants Fed Goat Milk Formula, Cow Milk-Based Formula, or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Gowri Pathmanathan, Siva; Zhou, Shao J.; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A.; Sullivan, Thomas; Prosser, Colin G.; Lowry, Dianne; Hodgkinson, Alison J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milk-fed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained. PMID:23455335

  7. Comparison of the compositions of the stool microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula, cow milk-based formula, or breast milk.

    PubMed

    Tannock, Gerald W; Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Gowri Pathmanathan, Siva; Zhou, Shao J; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A; Sullivan, Thomas; Prosser, Colin G; Lowry, Dianne; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milk-fed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained.

  8. Soy- and rice-based formula and infant allergic to cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Tzifi, Flora; Grammeniatis, Vasilis; Papadopoulos, Marios

    2014-03-01

    Soy milk formula has limited medical indications for infants feeding, although in several parts of the world it has been used as a source of nutrition in a large number of children. It used to be the main alternative feeding for infants allergic to cow's milk who did not breastfeed before the introduction of extensively hydrolyzed formulas. Although there is a debate, the fact that some children are allergic to soy or some children with cow's milk allergy can present with concomitant soy allergy, restricted the use of soy formulas for treatment of infants allergic to cow's milk. Other grain-based formulas like the rice-based ones are promising in infants with cow's milk allergy. Grain-based formulas could be an alternative and cheaper way of nutrition for infants allergic to cow's milk than extensively hydrolyzed formulas. Further large scale longitudinal clinical studies are required to clarify the safety of soy and other grain-based formulas for treatment of cow's milk allergy.

  9. Copper and zinc status of infants fed either cow's milk or milk based formula

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, D.; Anderson, K.; Acosta, P.B.

    1986-03-01

    Infant formula is recommended for the first year for those infants not receiving breast milk. Except for effects on iron, biochemical consequences of feeding cow's milk or infant formula to older infants are unknown. This study compared copper and zinc status in healthy infants between 11 and 13 months of age, who had received either milk based infant formula (n = 17) or cow's milk (n = 13) as their primary beverage for a minimum of 3 months. Diet diaries were requested. Blood was drawn by venipuncture into trace mineral free heparinized tubes and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Mean plasma zinc levels were similar in both feeding groups: 117 +/- 22 ..mu..g/dl for formula fed infants (FFI) and 119 +/- 39 ..mu..g/dl for cow's milk fed infants (CMI). Intakes for zinc were also similar; 6.0 +/- 2.0 mg/day (FFI) and 5.7 +/- 1.5 mg/day (CMI). Mean plasma copper levels were higher in FFI compared to CMI; 118 +/- 30 ..mu..g/dl and 97 +/- 33 ..mu..g/dl respectively; however, the difference was not statistically was not significant. Intakes for copper did not differ; 0.8 +/- 0.3 mg/day for FFI and 0.7 +/- 0.1 mg/day for CMI. Total energy intakes did not differ.

  10. Growth kinetics and model comparison of cronobacter sakazakii in reconstituted powdered infant formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a life-threatening bacterium, primarily implicated in illnesses associated with the consumption of powdered infant formula (PIF). It can cause rare but invasive infections, leading to sepsis, meningitis, or necrotizing enterocolitis in infants fed with contaminated PIF. Th...

  11. NTP-CERHR expert panel report on the developmental toxicity of soy infant formula.

    PubMed

    McCarver, Gail; Bhatia, Jatinder; Chambers, Christina; Clarke, Robert; Etzel, Ruth; Foster, Warren; Hoyer, Patricia; Leeder, J Steven; Peters, Jeffrey M; Rissman, Emilie; Rybak, Michael; Sherman, Claire; Toppari, Jorma; Turner, Katie

    2011-10-01

    Soy infant formula contains soy protein isolates and is fed to infants as a supplement to or replacement for human milk or cow milk. Soy protein isolates contains estrogenic isoflavones (phytoestrogens) that occur naturally in some legumes, especially soybeans. Phytoestrogens are nonsteroidal, estrogenic compounds. In plants, nearly all phytoestrogens are bound to sugar molecules and these phytoestrogen-sugar complexes are not generally considered hormonally active. Phytoestrogens are found in many food products in addition to soy infant formula, especially soy-based foods such as tofu, soy milk, and in some over-the-counter dietary supplements. Soy infant formula was selected for National Toxicology Program (NTP) evaluation because of (1) the availability of large number of developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals exposed to the isoflavones found in soy infant formula (namely, genistein) or other soy products, as well as few studies on human infants fed soy infant formula, (2) the availability of information on exposures in infants fed soy infant formula, and (3) public concern for effects on infant or child development. On October 2, 2008 (73 FR 57360), the NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) announced its intention to conduct an updated review of soy infant formula to complete a previous evaluation that was initiated in 2005. Both the current and previous evaluations relied on expert panels to assist the NTP in developing its conclusions on the potential developmental effects associated with the use of soy infant formula, presented in the NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula. The initial expert panel met on March 15 to 17, 2006, to reach conclusions on the potential developmental and reproductive toxicities of soy infant formula and its predominant isoflavone constituent genistein. The expert panel reports were released for public comment on May 5, 2006 (71 FR 28368). On November 8, 2006 (71 FR 65537), CERHR staff released

  12. Randomized trial of exclusive human milk versus preterm formula diets in extremely premature infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare the duration of parenteral nutrition, growth, and morbidity in extremely premature infants fed exclusive diets of either bovine milk-based preterm formula (BOV) or donor human milk and human milk-based human milk fortifier (HUM), in a randomized trial of formula vs human...

  13. HPLC and UPLC methods for the determination of zearalenone in noodles, cereal snacks and infant formula.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyun Ee; Choi, Sung-Wook; Kim, Meehye; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2014-11-15

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) were compared to validate a method for determination of zearalenone (ZON) in noodles, cereal snacks, and infant formulas. The limits of detection and quantification in HPLC and UPLC were found to be 4.0 and 13.0 μg kg(-1) and 2.5 and 8.3 μg kg(-1), respectively. The average recoveries of ZON by HPLC and UPLC ranged from 79.1% to 105.3% and from 85.1% to 114.5%, respectively. The measurement uncertainties of the two methods for ZON determination were within the maximum standard uncertainty. The two methods showed that the levels of ZON in 163 naturally contaminated samples ranged from 4.3 to 8.3 μg kg(-1) by HPLC and 3.1 to 17.6 μg kg(-1) by UPLC. These findings indicate that either method is suitable for the determination of ZON in noodles, cereal snacks, and infant formulas, but UPLC gives faster results with better sensitivity. PMID:24912723

  14. Effects of Fructans from Mexican Agave in Newborns Fed with Infant Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Parra-Ortiz, Minerva; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; García-Torres, Itzhel; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Alcántara-Ortigoza, Miguel Angel; González-del Angel, Ariadna; Velázquez-Aragón, José; Ortiz-Hernández, Rosario; Cruz-Rubio, José Manuel; Villa-Barragán, Pablo; Jiménez-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background: The importance of prebiotics consumption is increasing all over the world due to their beneficial effects on health. Production of better prebiotics from endemic plants raises possibilities to enhance nutritional effects in vulnerable population groups. Fructans derived from Agave Plant have demonstrated their safety and efficacy as prebiotics in animal models. Recently, the safety in humans of two fructans obtained from Agave tequilana (Metlin® and Metlos®) was demonstrated. Methods: This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy as prebiotics of Metlin® and Metlos® in newborns of a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with a pilot study design. Biological samples were taken at 20 ± 7 days, and three months of age from healthy babies. Outcomes of efficacy include impact on immune response, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, bone metabolism, and gut bacteria changes. Results: There were differences statistically significant for the groups of infants fed only with infant formula and with formula enriched with Metlin® and Metlos®. Conclusions: Our results support the efficacy of Metlin® and Metlos® as prebiotics in humans, and stand the bases to recommend their consumption. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 01251783. PMID:26529006

  15. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide do not affect iron absorption from formula in healthy term infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron absorption from infant formula is relatively low. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide have been suggested to enhance mineral absorption. We therefore assessed the effect of alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide on iron absorption from infant formula in healthy term infants. ...

  16. Insulin in human milk and the use of hormones in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Shamir, Raanan; Shehadeh, Naim

    2013-01-01

    Human milk contains a substantial number of hormones and growth factors. Studies in animal models show that some of these peptides (e.g. insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, IGF-1, epidermal growth factors) have an effect on the small intestine after orogastric administration. Recently, two efforts were made to incorporate growth factors into infant formulas. One of these efforts included the incorporation of IGF-1, and the second is an ongoing effort to evaluate the safety and efficacy of incorporating insulin into infant formulas. The rational and current evidence for adding insulin to infant formulas (presence in human milk, effects of orally administrated insulin on gut maturation, intestinal permeability, systemic effects and preliminary encouraging results of supplementing insulin to a preterm infant formula) is detailed in this review. If the addition of insulin to preterm infant formulas indeed results in better growth and accelerated intestinal maturation, future studies will need to address the supplementation of insulin in term infants and assess the efficacy of such supplementation in enhancing gut maturation and prevention of later noncommunicable diseases such as allergy, autoimmune diseases and obesity. PMID:24107496

  17. Insulin in human milk and the use of hormones in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Shamir, Raanan; Shehadeh, Naim

    2013-01-01

    Human milk contains a substantial number of hormones and growth factors. Studies in animal models show that some of these peptides (e.g. insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, IGF-1, epidermal growth factors) have an effect on the small intestine after orogastric administration. Recently, two efforts were made to incorporate growth factors into infant formulas. One of these efforts included the incorporation of IGF-1, and the second is an ongoing effort to evaluate the safety and efficacy of incorporating insulin into infant formulas. The rational and current evidence for adding insulin to infant formulas (presence in human milk, effects of orally administrated insulin on gut maturation, intestinal permeability, systemic effects and preliminary encouraging results of supplementing insulin to a preterm infant formula) is detailed in this review. If the addition of insulin to preterm infant formulas indeed results in better growth and accelerated intestinal maturation, future studies will need to address the supplementation of insulin in term infants and assess the efficacy of such supplementation in enhancing gut maturation and prevention of later noncommunicable diseases such as allergy, autoimmune diseases and obesity.

  18. Comparison Among Commonly Available Infant Formula Milks in the Iraqi Market

    PubMed Central

    Mikhael, Ehab Mudher

    2015-01-01

    Breast-feeding is the best method of feeding infants. In some cases, formula milk can be a suitable alternative, so this study aimed to compare the safety and nutritional adequacy of commonly available formula milks in the Iraqi market. An observational study for the commonly available formula milks was conducted in the largest supermarkets of Baghdad, Iraq, during January-March 2015. The macronutrient and micronutrient contents as presented in the label of each type of formula milk was compared with the standard requirement of formula milk according to the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) guidelines. Dielac formula milk is the commonest formula milk in the Iraqi market, with the lowest price when compared with other formula milks. All infant formula milks (Similac, Guigoz, and S-26 Gold) except Dielac have the mandatory contents within the specified ranges, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. Dielac lacks more than 1 of the major mandatory contents besides lacking all optional contents in its formula. Guigoz formula milk lacks the optional ingredients arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and nucleotides. Similac milk was supplemented with a higher-than-specified level of nucleotides, and its l-carnitine contents were not declared. Only S26 Gold formula milk contained all mandatory and optional ingredients within the specified range, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. In conclusion, no formula milk can resemble breast milk; however, S26 Gold formula milk is the most acceptable formula, and Dielac formula milk is the worst. Therefore, it is recommended that Dielac be withdrawn from the Iraqi market. PMID:27335982

  19. SN2-Palmitate Reduces Fatty Acid Excretion in Chinese Formula-fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Lifshitz, Yael; Cohen, Tzafra; Malard, Patrice; Xu, Chungdi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Palmitic acid (PA) comprises 17% to 25% of human milk fatty acids, of which 70% to 75% are esterified to the SN2 position of the triglyceride (SN2-palmitate). In vegetable oils, which are commonly used in infant formulas, palmitate is primarily esterified to other positions, resulting in reduced calcium and fat absorption and hard stools. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of SN2-palmitate on nutrient excretion. Methods: In total, 171 Chinese infants were included (within 14 days of birth) in this multicenter study. Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either SN2-palmitate formula (INFAT, n = 57) or control formula (n = 57). The formulas (Biostime, China) differed only in their SN2 PA proportions. Stool was collected at 6 postnatal weeks. Results: The stool dry weight and fat content of the SN2-palmitate group were lower compared with the control group (dry weight 4.25 g vs 7.28 g, P < 0.05; fat 0.8 g vs 1.2 g, P < 0.05). The lipid component was also significantly lower for the SN2-palmitate group (0.79 g vs 1.19 g, P < 0.05). PA, representing ∼50% of the saponified fatty acids, was significantly lower in the SN2-palmitate group compared with the control group (0.3 g vs 0.7 g, P < 0.01). Breast-fed infants had a significantly lower stool dry weight, fat content, and saponified fat excretion compared with formula-fed infants (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Similar to breast milk, the SN2-palmitate infant formula primarily reduced calcium-saponified fat excretion. The results of this study further emphasize the nutritional importance of SN2-palmitate structured fat for infants. PMID:26334255

  20. Safety and efficacy of a new extensively hydrolyzed formula for infants with cow's milk protein allergy.

    PubMed

    Niggemann, B; von Berg, A; Bollrath, C; Berdel, D; Schauer, U; Rieger, C; Haschke-Becher, E; Wahn, U

    2008-06-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is best treated by complete elimination of cow's milk from the diet. For infants with CMPA who cannot be breast-fed, formulas based on extensively hydrolyzed proteins or on amino acids are the preferred substitutes for cow's milk-based formulas. In this study, we compared the tolerance and growth of infants with CMPA who were fed a new extensively hydrolyzed formula containing lactose (eHF) with those who were fed an amino acid formula (AAF). This was a prospective, multi-center, randomized, reference-controlled study. Seventy-seven infants <12 months old with suspected CMPA were enrolled. In 66 of these, CMPA was confirmed by oral challenge in a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) or by a medical history of severe allergic reaction to cow's milk and a positive skin prick test. These infants were then tested for their reaction to eHF and AAF in a DBPCFC. All infants tolerated both formulas and were randomized to receive either eHF (n = 34) or AAF (n = 32) for 180 days. Growth (weight, length, and head circumference) and tolerance [skin, gastro-intestinal, and respiratory tract symptoms of allergy] were evaluated after 30, 60, 90, and 180 days. There were no significant differences between the two groups in any of the growth measurements. Length and head circumference were similar to Euro-growth standards, but weight was slightly lower. Gastro-intestinal and respiratory tract symptoms of allergy were also similar in the two groups. However, whereas SCORAD scores for atopic dermatitis remained constant throughout the study in infants-fed eHF, there was a slight decrease in those fed AAF. Infants-fed eHF had significantly fewer incidents of vomiting than infants-fed AAF and a significantly higher frequency of soft stools. The new eHF is safe and well tolerated in infants diagnosed with CMPA. PMID:18167160

  1. Perchlorate exposure from infant formula and comparisons with the perchlorate reference dose.

    PubMed

    Schier, Joshua G; Wolkin, Amy F; Valentin-Blasini, Lisa; Belson, Martin G; Kieszak, Stephanie M; Rubin, Carol S; Blount, Benjamin C

    2010-05-01

    Perchlorate exposure may be higher in infants compared with older persons, due to diet (infant formula) and body weight versus intake considerations. Our primary objective was to quantitatively assess perchlorate concentrations in commercially available powdered infant formulas (PIFs). Secondary objectives were: (1) to estimate exposure in infants under different dosing scenarios and compare them with the perchlorate reference dose (RfD); (2) estimate the perchlorate concentration in water used for preparing PIFs that would result in a dose exceeding the RfD; and (3) estimate iodine intakes from PIFs. We quantified perchlorate levels in three samples (different lot numbers) of reconstituted PIF (using perchlorate-free water) from commercial brands of PIF in each of the following categories: bovine milk-based with lactose, soy-based, bovine milk-based but lactose-free, and elemental (typically consisting of synthetic amino acids). Exposure modeling was conducted to determine whether the RfD might be exceeded in 48 dosing scenarios that were dependent on age, centile energy intake per unit of body weight, body weight percentile, and PIF perchlorate concentration. We obtained three different samples in each of the five brands of bovine- and soy-based PIF, three different samples in each of the three brands of lactose-free PIF, and three different samples in two brands of elemental PIF. The results were as follows: bovine milk-based with lactose (1.72 microg/l, range: 0.68-5.05); soy-based (0.21 microg/l, range: 0.10-0.44); lactose-free (0.27 microg/l, range: 0.03-0.93); and elemental (0.18 microg/l, range: 0.08-0.4). Bovine milk-based PIFs with lactose had a significantly higher concentration of perchlorate (P<0.05) compared with all. Perchlorate was a contaminant of all commercially available PIFs tested. Bovine milk-based PIFs with lactose had a significantly higher perchlorate concentration perchlorate than soy, lactose-free, and elemental PIFs. The perchlorate Rf

  2. Inhibition of growth of Enterobacter sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula by the lactoperoxidase system.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Beuchat, Larry R

    2007-09-01

    Neonatal bacteremia and meningitis caused by the opportunistic pathogen Enterobacter sakazakii have been associated with the consumption of reconstituted powdered infant formula. Lactoperoxidase (LPO), present in mammalian milk, is known to inhibit the growth of enteric pathogens. We undertook a study to determine if the lactoperoxidase system (LPOS) will inhibit the growth of E. sakazakii in a milk-based powdered infant formula reconstituted with water. Initially at 0.04 CFU/ml, E. sakazakii grew to 2.40 to 2.74 log CFU/ml in reconstituted infant formula held at 30 or 37 degrees C for 8 h and to 0.6 log CFU/ ml in formula held for 12 h at 21 degrees C. The pathogen was not detected (less than 1 CFU/227 ml) by enrichment of formula treated with 10 to 30 microg/ml LPO and stored for 24 h at 37 degrees C or 30 microg/ml LPO and stored for 24 h at 30 degrees C. Populations of E. sakazakii, initially at 4.40 log CFU/ml of reconstituted infant formula containing 5 microg/ml LPO, did not increase significantly (P > 0.05) for up to 12 h at 21 and 30 degrees C. Populations either decreased significantly or were unchanged in formula supplemented with 10 microg/ml LPO and stored at 21, 30, or 37 degrees C for up to 24, 8, and 8 h, respectively. Results indicate that LPOS can be used to control the growth of E. sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula, thereby potentially reducing the risk of neonatal infections resulting from consumption of formula that may be contaminated with the pathogen.

  3. Survival of Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula as affected by composition, water activity, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Beuchat, Larry R

    2007-07-01

    A study was done to determine survival characteristics of Enterobacter sakazakii in four milk-based and two soybean-based powdered infant formulas. A 10-strain mixture of E. sakazakii was inoculated into the six infant formulas at water activity (aw) 0.25 to 0.30, 0.31 to 0.33, and 0.43 to 0.50 to give low (0.80 log CFU/g) and high (4.66 to 4.86 log CFU/g) populations. At an initial population of 0.80 log CFU/g, E. sakazakii was detected by enrichment in six of six, four of six, and one of six formulas stored for 12 months at 4, 21, and 30 degrees C, respectively. In four of six formulas at aw values of 0.25 to 0.30, initially high populations decreased significantly (P < or = 0.05), although by less than 1 log CFU/g, within 6 months at 4 degrees C. Populations decreased significantly in all formulas in the aw range of 0.25 to 0.50 during storage for 1 month at 21 or 30 degrees C and again between 1 and 6 months in most formulas. Significant reductions occurred between 6 and 12 months in some formulas. At all storage temperatures, reductions in populations tended to be greater in formulas at aw 0.43 to 0.50 than in formulas at aw 0.25 to 0.30. The rate of inactivation of E. sakazakii in formulas was not markedly influenced by formula composition. Cells from mucoid and nonmucoid colonies formed by two strains on violet red bile glucose agar supplemented with pyruvate were inoculated into a milk-based powdered infant formula and a soybean-based powdered infant formula having a high aw range of 0.43 to 0.86 and stored at 4, 21, and 30 degrees C for up to 36 weeks. With few exceptions, populations of both strains decreased significantly in both formulas within 2 weeks at all temperatures; rates of death increased with increased aw and storage temperature. The presence of mucoidal extracellular materials on the surface of E. sakazakii cells was not associated with protection against death. This study shows that the retention of viability of E. sakazakii in powdered

  4. A New Sample Size Formula for Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gordon P.; Barcikowski, Robert S.

    The focus of this research was to determine the efficacy of a new method of selecting sample sizes for multiple linear regression. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to study both empirical predictive power rates and empirical statistical power rates of the new method and seven other methods: those of C. N. Park and A. L. Dudycha (1974); J. Cohen…

  5. A new sample preparation and separation combination for precise, accurate, rapid, and simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, and B9 in infant formula and related nutritionals by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cellar, Nicholas A; McClure, Sean C; Salvati, Louis M; Reddy, Todime M

    2016-08-31

    An improved method was developed for simultaneous determination of the fortified forms of thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), and folic acid (B9) in infant formulas and related nutritionals. The method employed a simple, effective, and rapid sample preparation followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It improved upon previous methodologies by offering facile and rugged sample preparation with improved chromatographic conditions, which culminated in a highly accurate and precise method for water-soluble vitamin determination in a wide range of formulas. The method was validated over six days in ten unique matrices with two analysts and on instruments in two different labs. Intermediate precision averaged 3.4 ± 2.6% relative standard deviation and over-spike recovery averaged 100.2 ± 2.4% (n = 160). Due to refinements in sample preparation, the method had high sample throughput capacity. PMID:27506358

  6. Copper absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas using a suckling rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Loennerdal, B.B.; Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Since copper deficiency is known to occur during infancy, it becomes important to assess copper uptake from various infant diets. The authors have investigated the uptake of copper from human milk, cow's milk, cow's milk formulas, cereal/milk formula and soy formula, compensating for the decay of /sup 64/Cu and using the suckling rat as a model. Radiocopper was added to the diet in trace amounts. Ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, and gel filtration were used to show that the added /sup 64/Cu bound to milk fractions and individual binding compounds in a manner analogous to the distribution of native copper, thus validating the use of extrinsically labeled diets. Labeled diets were intubated into 14-day-old suckling rats. Animals were killed after 6 h and tissues removed and counted. Liver copper uptake was 25% from human milk, 23% from cow's milk formula, 18% from cow's milk, 17% from premature (cow's milk based) infant formula, 17% from cereal/milk formula and 10% from soy formula. These results show that the rat pup model may provide a rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive method to assay bioavailability of copper from infant foods.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in commercially available infant formulae in Nigeria: estimation of dietary intakes and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A; Edeme, Justy N; Tesi, Godswill O; Bassey, Francisca I; Martincigh, Bice S; Nwajei, Godwin E

    2014-10-01

    The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in commercially available infant formulae and follow-up formulae in Nigeria were determined with a view to providing information on the health risks to children from the consumption of these infant foods. The concentrations of PAHs were measured by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after extraction by ultrasonication with acetone/dichloromethane and clean-up. The concentrations of the Σ16 PAHs in these infant formulae ranged from 0.102 to 1.98 μg kg(-1), 0.054-1.98 μg kg(-1), 0.081-2.54 μg kg(-1) and 0.51-0.70 μg kg(-1) for infants of ages 0-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-3 years and 0-12 months respectively. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in all samples investigated were below the 1 μg kg(-1) European Commission permissible limit for BaP in foods meant for infants. The estimated daily intake of PAHs based on the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) suggested indicators of occurrence and effects of PAHs in foods were not detected (nd) to 2.67 ng BaP kg(-1) bw day(-1), nd-5.29 ng PAH2 kg(-1) bw day(-1), nd-11.20 ngPAH4 kg(-1) bw day(-1) and nd-34.96 ng PAH8 kg(-1) bw day(-1). The estimated margin of exposure (MOE) values: BaP-MOE, PAH2-MOE, PAH4-MOE and PAH8-MOE values were greater than 10,000 which indicates that there are no health risks from the consumption of these products by infants. The concentrations and dietary exposure to PAHs from these products were similar to values reported in the literature for European Communities.

  8. [Phytic phosphorus and phytase activity in cereal-based infant formulas].

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Alvaro; Villavicencio, Iraidis; Linares, Zoraida

    2012-12-01

    Phytic acid is an organic acid present in cereal grains. The phosphorus inside its molecule (PPhy) is not available because of its low solubility, though the bioavailability could be increased by the activity of phytase enzymes (PhyA). With the purpose of quantifying the PPhy and PhyA in supplements manufactured from cereals and intended for lactating infants, five formulas of wide distribution in local markets were selected and identified depending on the main vegetable ingredients as A (rice), T (wheat), ATS (rice, wheat and soy isolate), ATM (rice, wheat and maize) and ATMS (rice, wheat, maize and soy isolate). Five samples were taken from each formula, each one corresponded to a commercial brand (400 to 500 g), coming from different batches and before their expiration date. The crude protein ranged from 7.2 to 16.8%, with de highest value for ATS and the lowest for T and ATM (P < 0.01). Ether extract varied from 0.31 to 0.75%, while the calcium: phosphorus ratio from 1.6 for ATM, to 1.1 for the rest. The PPhy was 61.5% of the total phosphorus in T, with differences (P < 0.01) compared to the other formulas (39.9 +/- 6.8%). PhyA was only detected in ATS, T and ATM (152, 300 and 570 U/kg, respectively). The chemical composition complied with the manufacturer report, with a high content of PPhy and PhyA associated to the wheat presence in the formula. PMID:24020257

  9. Comparison of the gut microbiota profile in breast-fed and formula-fed Korean infants using pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang A; Lim, Ji Ye; Kim, Bong-Soo; Cho, Su Jin; Kim, Nak Yon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Feeding in infancy is the most significant determinant of the intestinal microbiota in early life. The aim of this study was to determine the gut microbiota of Korean infants and compare the microbiota obtained between breast-fed and formula-fed Korean infants. SUBJECTS/METHODS We analyzed the microbial communities in fecal samples collected from twenty 4-week old Korean (ten samples in each breast-fed or formula-fed) infants using pyrosequencing. RESULTS The fecal microbiota of the 4-week-old Korean infants consisted of the three phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. In addition, five species, including Bifidocbacterium longum, Streptococcus salivarius, Strepotococcus lactarius, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and Lactobacillus gasseri were common commensal intestinal microbiota in all infants. The predominant intestinal microbiota in the breast-fed infants (BFI) included the phylum Actinobacteria (average 70.55%), family Bifidobacteriacea (70.12%), genus Bifidobacterium (70.03%) and species Bifidobacterium longum (69.96%). In the microbiota from the formula-fed infants (FFI), the proportion of the phylum Actinobacteria (40.68%) was less, whereas the proportions of Firmicutes (45.38%) and Proteobacteria (13.85%) as well as the diversity of each taxonomic level were greater, compared to those of the BFI. The probiotic species found in the 4-week-old Korean infants were Bifidobacterium longum, Streptococcus salivarius, and Lactobacillus gasseri. These probiotic species accounted for 93.81% of the microbiota from the BFI, while only 63.80% of the microbiota from the FFI. In particular, B. longum was more abundant in BFI (69.96%) than in FFI (34.17%). CONCLUSIONS Breast milk supports the growth of B. longum and inhibits others. To the best of our knowledge, this study was the first attempt to analyze the gut microbiota of healthy Korean infants according to the feeding type using pyrosequencing. Our data can be used as a basis for

  10. Infant digestion physiology and the relevance of in vitro biochemical models to test infant formula lipid digestion.

    PubMed

    Poquet, Laure; Wooster, Tim J

    2016-08-01

    Lipids play an important role in the diet of preterm and term infants providing a key energy source and essential lipid components for development. While a lot is known about adult lipid digestion, our understanding of infant digestion physiology is still incomplete, the greatest gap being on the biochemistry of the small intestine, particularly the activity and relative importance of the various lipases active in the intestine. The literature has been reviewed to identify the characteristics of lipid digestion of preterm and term infants, but also to better understand the physiology of the infant gastrointestinal tract compared to adults that impacts the absorption of lipids. The main differences are a higher gastric pH, submicellar bile salt concentration, a far more important role of gastric lipases as well as differences at the level of the intestinal barrier. Importantly, the consequences of improper in vitro replication of gastric digestions conditions (pH and lipase specificity) are demonstrated using examples from the most recent of studies. It is true that some animal models could be adapted to study infant lipid digestion physiology, however the ethical relevance of such models is questionable, hence the development of accurate in vitro models is a must. In vitro models that combine up to date knowledge of digestion biochemistry with intestinal cells in culture are the best choice to replicate digestion and absorption in infant population, this would allow the adaptation of infant formula for a better digestion and absorption of dietary lipids by preterm and term infants. PMID:27279140

  11. Infant digestion physiology and the relevance of in vitro biochemical models to test infant formula lipid digestion.

    PubMed

    Poquet, Laure; Wooster, Tim J

    2016-08-01

    Lipids play an important role in the diet of preterm and term infants providing a key energy source and essential lipid components for development. While a lot is known about adult lipid digestion, our understanding of infant digestion physiology is still incomplete, the greatest gap being on the biochemistry of the small intestine, particularly the activity and relative importance of the various lipases active in the intestine. The literature has been reviewed to identify the characteristics of lipid digestion of preterm and term infants, but also to better understand the physiology of the infant gastrointestinal tract compared to adults that impacts the absorption of lipids. The main differences are a higher gastric pH, submicellar bile salt concentration, a far more important role of gastric lipases as well as differences at the level of the intestinal barrier. Importantly, the consequences of improper in vitro replication of gastric digestions conditions (pH and lipase specificity) are demonstrated using examples from the most recent of studies. It is true that some animal models could be adapted to study infant lipid digestion physiology, however the ethical relevance of such models is questionable, hence the development of accurate in vitro models is a must. In vitro models that combine up to date knowledge of digestion biochemistry with intestinal cells in culture are the best choice to replicate digestion and absorption in infant population, this would allow the adaptation of infant formula for a better digestion and absorption of dietary lipids by preterm and term infants.

  12. Nonthermal Inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii in Infant Formula Milk: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pina-Pérez, M C; Rodrigo, D; Martínez, A

    2016-07-26

    Up-to-date, nonthermal technologies and combinations of them, in accordance with the "hurdle technology" concept, are being applied by different research groups in response to calls by the International Food and Human Health Organizations (ESPGHAN, 2004; FAO/WHO, 2006, 2008) for alternatives to thermal control of Cronobacter sakazakii in reconstituted powdered infant formula milk. This review highlights (i) current knowledge on the application of nonthermal technologies to control C. sakazakii in infant formula milk and (ii) the importance of the application of nonthermal technologies for the control of C. sakazakii as part of the development of strategies in the context of improving food safety and quality of this product.

  13. The structure of infant formulas impacts their lipolysis, proteolysis and disintegration during in vitro gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Bourlieu, Claire; Ménard, Olivia; De La Chevasnerie, Alix; Sams, Laura; Rousseau, Florence; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Robert, Benoît; Deglaire, Amélie; Pezennec, Stéphane; Bouhallab, Saïd; Carrière, Frédéric; Dupont, Didier

    2015-09-01

    Milk lipids supply most of the calories necessary for newborn growth in maternal milk or infant formulas. The chemical composition of infant formulas has been optimized but not the structure of the emulsion. There is still a major difference between the native emulsions of milk fat globules and processed submicronic emulsions in infant formulas. This difference may modify the kinetics of digestion of emulsions in newborns and influence lipid metabolism. To check this, semi-dynamic gastric in vitro digestions were conducted on three matrices: a standardized milk emulsion containing native milk fat globules referred to as minimally-processed emulsion and two processed model infant formulas (homogenized or homogenized/pasteurized). Gastric conditions mimicked those reported in newborns. The minimally-processed emulsion was lipolyzed and proteolyzed slower than processed formulas. The difference in initial structure persisted during digestion. The surface of the droplets was the key parameter to control gastric lipolysis kinetics, the pattern of released fatty acids and proteolysis by faster hydrolysis of adsorbed proteins. PMID:25842331

  14. The structure of infant formulas impacts their lipolysis, proteolysis and disintegration during in vitro gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Bourlieu, Claire; Ménard, Olivia; De La Chevasnerie, Alix; Sams, Laura; Rousseau, Florence; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Robert, Benoît; Deglaire, Amélie; Pezennec, Stéphane; Bouhallab, Saïd; Carrière, Frédéric; Dupont, Didier

    2015-09-01

    Milk lipids supply most of the calories necessary for newborn growth in maternal milk or infant formulas. The chemical composition of infant formulas has been optimized but not the structure of the emulsion. There is still a major difference between the native emulsions of milk fat globules and processed submicronic emulsions in infant formulas. This difference may modify the kinetics of digestion of emulsions in newborns and influence lipid metabolism. To check this, semi-dynamic gastric in vitro digestions were conducted on three matrices: a standardized milk emulsion containing native milk fat globules referred to as minimally-processed emulsion and two processed model infant formulas (homogenized or homogenized/pasteurized). Gastric conditions mimicked those reported in newborns. The minimally-processed emulsion was lipolyzed and proteolyzed slower than processed formulas. The difference in initial structure persisted during digestion. The surface of the droplets was the key parameter to control gastric lipolysis kinetics, the pattern of released fatty acids and proteolysis by faster hydrolysis of adsorbed proteins.

  15. Should Partial Hydrolysates Be Used as Starter Infant Formula? A Working Group Consensus.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Alarcon, Pedro; Fleischer, David; Hernell, Olle; Kolacek, Sanja; Laignelet, Hugo; Lönnerdal, Bo; Raman, Rita; Rigo, Jacques; Salvatore, Silvia; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria; Szajewska, Hania; Van Goudoever, Hans J; von Berg, Andrea; Lee, Way S

    2016-01-01

    Partially hydrolyzed formulas (pHFs) are increasingly used worldwide, both in the prevention of atopic disease in at-risk infants and in the therapeutic management of infants with functional gastrointestinal manifestations. Because prevention is always preferable to treatment, we reviewed the literature aiming to find an answer for the question whether pHF may be recommended for feeding all infants if breast-feeding is not possible. PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched up to December 2014. In addition, to search for data that remained undetected by the searches, we approached authors of relevant articles and major producers of pHFs asking for unpublished data. Because few data were found, nonrandomized, controlled trials and trials in preterm infants were included as well. Overall, only limited data could be found on the efficacy and safety of pHF in healthy term infants. Available data do not indicate that pHFs are potentially harmful for healthy, term infants. With respect to long-term outcomes, particularly referring to immune, metabolic and hormonal effects, data are, however, nonexistent. From a regulatory point of view, pHFs meet the nutrient requirements to be considered as standard formula for term healthy infants. Cost, which is different from country to country, should be considered in the decision-making process. Based on limited available data, the use of pHF in healthy infants is safe with regard to growth. The lack of data, in particular for metabolic consequences and long-term outcomes, is, however, the basis for our recommendation that health authorities should develop and support long-term follow-up studies. Efficacy and long-term safety data are required before a recommendation of this type of formula for all infants can be made.

  16. Amino acid rating method for evaluating protein adequacy of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, G; Botting, H G; Peace, R W

    1989-01-01

    Amino acid profiles and/or protein digestibility (by the rat balance method) were determined for various forms (powder, ready-to-use, liquid concentrate, etc.) of cow's milk- and soy-based infant formulas obtained from 4 manufacturers. The essential amino acid data of the formulas were compared with that of human milk for the calculation of amino acid scores (based on the single most limiting amino acid). The product of amino acid score and total protein (g/100 kcal) was then termed "amino acid rating." Amino acid scores for the milk- and soy-based formulas ranged from 59 to 90 and from 59 to 81%, respectively, due to deficiencies in sulfur amino acids and/or tryptophan. Because of significantly higher total protein contents (g/100 kcal) of soy- (2.65-3.68) and milk-based (2.20-2.95) infant formulas compared to human milk (1.5), the relative amino acid ratings (human milk = 100) for all infant formulas except 2 liquid concentrates (having values of 87%) were above 100%. Values for true digestibility of protein in milk- and soy-based formulas ranged from 87 to 97 and from 92 to 95%, respectively. When corrected for protein digestibility, the relative amino acid ratings for all the milk-based liquid concentrates were below 100% (77-98%).

  17. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants

    SciTech Connect

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T.; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Nagler, Cathryn R.

    2015-09-22

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow’s milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. As a result, our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut.

  18. Growth of healthy term infants fed ready-to-feed and powdered forms of an extensively hydrolyzed casein-based infant formula: a randomized, blinded, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Borschel, Marlene W; Baggs, Geraldine E; Barrett-Reis, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    Extensively hydrolyzed formulas present a complex matrix subject to adverse conditions during manufacture that could influence growth and tolerance of infants fed these formulas. A masked, randomized, parallel growth study was conducted in infants fed a ready-to-feed (RTF) or powdered (PWD) form of an extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula. Infants were enrolled between 0 and 9 days and studied to 112 days of age. Growth, formula intake, and stool patterns were assessed. There were no significant differences between groups in weight, length, head circumference, or their respective gains. Tolerance was similar between groups except that the RTF group had greater formula intakes and passed more stools/day compared to the PWD group. This study demonstrates that the PWD formulation of this RTF formula supports similar growth and tolerance in infants during the first 4 months of life.

  19. Cognitive and neurodevelopmental benefits of extended formula-feeding in infants: re: Deoni et al. 2013.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ariana; Burggren, Alison

    2014-10-15

    The recent Deoni et al. (2013) manuscript proposed that breastfeeding was associated with increased cognitive ability and white-matter in older children (over 26 months), using ms-DESPOT MRI imaging to indirectly measure white matter in children who were either breastfed, formula fed, or combined breast+formula fed. In this response, we identify limitations in drawing causal inference among white matter, cognitive ability, and breastfeeding. We propose that the observed cognitive and neurodevelopmental differences between breastfed and formula-fed infants might actually be caused by the premature introduction of cow's milk in the second year of life, among other contributing factors. The implication of a causal relationship between intelligence and white matter metrics, especially in a developmentally young population, is premature given the recency of this field. The original analyses did not control for important covariates; when comparing both white matter and test scores, mothers were not controlled for age and socio-economic status (SES) and their children were not controlled for gender. Raw test scores, instead of age-adjusted test scores, were used even though the children were of different ages. Mothers were not controlled for reason(s) not to breastfeed, even though many prenatal factors are known to predict this such as stress, parity, obesity, and smoking habits. The observed cognitive ability and white matter benefits identified primarily within the long-term breastfed children are at least partially attributable to other factors such as age, gender, and SES. We suggest methodological approaches to removing such ambiguity, and ways to dissociate cause from effect. The formula and breastfeeding groups didn't show differences until the "formula fed" children likely had been fed cow's milk for longer than they had been fed formula, at 2.2 years. The greatest cognitive differences however were observed within the high SES breastfed infants depending on

  20. Cognitive and neurodevelopmental benefits of extended formula-feeding in infants: Re: Deoni et al. 2013

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ariana; Burggren, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The recent Deoni et al. (2013) manuscript proposed that breastfeeding was associated with increased cognitive ability and white-matter in older children (over 26 months), using ms-DESPOT MRI imaging to indirectly measure white matter in children who were either breastfed, formula fed, or combined breast + formula fed. In this response, we identify limitations in drawing causal inference among white matter, cognitive ability, and breastfeeding. We propose that the observed cognitive and neurodevelopmental differences between breastfed and formula-fed infants might actually be caused by the premature introduction of cow's milk in the second year of life, among other contributing factors. The implication of a causal relationship between intelligence and white matter metrics, especially in a developmentally young population, is premature given the recency of this field. The original analyses did not control for important covariates; when comparing both white matter and test scores, mothers were not controlled for age and socio-economic status (SES) and their children were not controlled for gender. Raw test scores, instead of age-adjusted test scores, were used even though the children were of different ages. Mothers were not controlled for reason(s) not to breastfeed, even though many prenatal factors are known to predict this such as stress, parity, obesity, and smoking habits. The observed cognitive ability and white matter benefits identified primarily within the long-term breastfed children are at least partially attributable to other factors such as age, gender, and SES. We suggest methodological approaches to removing such ambiguity, and ways to dissociate cause from effect. The formula and breastfeeding groups didn't show differences until the “formula fed” children likely had been fed cow's milk for longer than they had been fed formula, at 2.2 years. The greatest cognitive differences however were observed within the high SES breastfed infants depending

  1. Compared with feeding infants breast milk or cow-milk formula, soy formula feeding does not affect subsequent reproductive organ size at 5 years of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract Background: Literature reports suggest that phytochemicals, such as isoflavones found in soybeans, impair reproductive function in animals and raise the possibility that consuming soy infant formula could alter hormonally sensitive organ development in children. Objective: This study compar...

  2. Genotyping and Source Tracking of Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus Isolates from Powdered Infant Formula and an Infant Formula Production Factory in China

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Peng; Man, Chaoxin; Lou, Binbin; Forsythe, Stephen J.; Chai, Yunlei; Li, Ran; Niu, Jieting

    2015-01-01

    Cronobacter spp. (formerly defined as Enterobacter sakazakii) are opportunistic bacterial pathogens of both infants and adults. In this study, we analyzed 70 Cronobacter isolates from powdered infant formula (PIF) and an infant formula production facility in China to determine possible contamination routes. The strains were profiled by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PCR-based O-antigen serotyping, and ompA and rpoB sequence analyses. The isolates were primarily Cronobacter sakazakii (66/70) or Cronobacter malonaticus (4/70). The strains were divided into 38 pulsotypes (PTs) using PFGE and 19 sequence types (STs) by MLST. In contrast, rpoB and ompA sequence analyses divided the strains into 10 overlapping clusters each. PCR serotyping of the 66 C. sakazakii and 4 C. malonaticus strains resulted in the identification of four C. sakazakii serotypes (O1, O2, O4, and O7) and a single C. malonaticus serotype, O2. The dominant C. sakazakii sequence types from PIF and an infant formula production factory in China were C. sakazakii clonal complex 4 (CC4) (n = 19), ST1 (n = 14), and ST64 (n = 11). C. sakazakii CC4 is a clonal lineage strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. In the process of manufacturing PIF, the spray-drying, fluidized-bed-drying, and packing areas were the main areas with Cronobacter contamination. C. sakazakii strains with the same pulsotypes (PT3 and PT2) and sequence types (ST1 and ST64) were isolated both from processing equipment and from the PIF finished product. PMID:26048942

  3. Genotyping and Source Tracking of Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus Isolates from Powdered Infant Formula and an Infant Formula Production Factory in China.

    PubMed

    Fei, Peng; Man, Chaoxin; Lou, Binbin; Forsythe, Stephen J; Chai, Yunlei; Li, Ran; Niu, Jieting; Jiang, Yujun

    2015-08-15

    Cronobacter spp. (formerly defined as Enterobacter sakazakii) are opportunistic bacterial pathogens of both infants and adults. In this study, we analyzed 70 Cronobacter isolates from powdered infant formula (PIF) and an infant formula production facility in China to determine possible contamination routes. The strains were profiled by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PCR-based O-antigen serotyping, and ompA and rpoB sequence analyses. The isolates were primarily Cronobacter sakazakii (66/70) or Cronobacter malonaticus (4/70). The strains were divided into 38 pulsotypes (PTs) using PFGE and 19 sequence types (STs) by MLST. In contrast, rpoB and ompA sequence analyses divided the strains into 10 overlapping clusters each. PCR serotyping of the 66 C. sakazakii and 4 C. malonaticus strains resulted in the identification of four C. sakazakii serotypes (O1, O2, O4, and O7) and a single C. malonaticus serotype, O2. The dominant C. sakazakii sequence types from PIF and an infant formula production factory in China were C. sakazakii clonal complex 4 (CC4) (n = 19), ST1 (n = 14), and ST64 (n = 11). C. sakazakii CC4 is a clonal lineage strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. In the process of manufacturing PIF, the spray-drying, fluidized-bed-drying, and packing areas were the main areas with Cronobacter contamination. C. sakazakii strains with the same pulsotypes (PT3 and PT2) and sequence types (ST1 and ST64) were isolated both from processing equipment and from the PIF finished product. PMID:26048942

  4. Soy Infant Formula and Seizures in Children with Autism: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Westmark, Cara J.

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are a common phenotype in many neurodevelopmental disorders including fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome and autism. We hypothesized that phytoestrogens in soy-based infant formula were contributing to lower seizure threshold in these disorders. Herein, we evaluated the dependence of seizure incidence on infant formula in a population of autistic children. Medical record data were obtained on 1,949 autistic children from the SFARI Simplex Collection. An autism diagnosis was determined by scores on the ADI-R and ADOS exams. The database included data on infant formula use, seizure incidence, the specific type of seizure exhibited and IQ. Soy-based formula was utilized in 17.5% of the study population. Females comprised 13.4% of the subjects. There was a 2.6-fold higher rate of febrile seizures [4.2% versus 1.6%, OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3–5.3], a 2.1-fold higher rate of epilepsy comorbidity [3.6% versus 1.7%, OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1–4.7] and a 4-fold higher rate of simple partial seizures [1.2% versus 0.3%, OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.0–23] in the autistic children fed soy-based formula. No statistically significant associations were found with other outcomes including: IQ, age of seizure onset, infantile spasms and atonic, generalized tonic clonic, absence and complex partial seizures. Limitations of the study included: infant formula and seizure data were based on parental recall, there were significantly less female subjects, and there was lack of data regarding critical confounders such as the reasons the subjects used soy formula, age at which soy formula was initiated and the length of time on soy formula. Despite these limitations, our results suggest that the use of soy-based infant formula may be associated with febrile seizures in both genders and with a diagnosis of epilepsy in males in autistic children. Given the lack of data on critical confounders and the retrospective nature of the study, a prospective study is required to

  5. A comparison of polymerase chain reaction and international organization for standardization methods for determination of Enterobacter sakazakii contamination of infant formulas from Chinese mainland markets.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yingwang; Wu, Qingping; Yao, Lin; Dong, Xiaohui; Wu, Kui; Zhang, Jumei

    2009-12-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging foodborne pathogen associated with meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in infants. One of the main transmission vehicles is the commercially available infant formulas. To provide efficient options and direction for detecting E. sakazakii in infant formulas, evaluation of different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the ompA gene, and the alpha-1,4-glucosidase gene (gluA) of this organism, were compared to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) method for detecting E. sakazakii in the 243 commercial infant formula samples. Twelve samples were found to be positive for E. sakazakii by all the PCR assays used, followed by sequencing of PCR products. Ten samples were found to be positive by the ISO method, and all 10 gave positive signals for all the PCR amplifications. In contrast, four false-positive results were generated by single-PCR of the ITS region and one false-positive result targeting the ompA gene, while two false-negative results occurred with the ISO method. Combined with selective enrichment step(s), duplex-PCR targeting ITS and ompA and targeting ompA and gluA genes or single-PCR of the gluA gene can be used to test for contamination by E. sakazakii in infant formulas before they enter the market. PCR techniques will be helpful for routine monitoring and risk assessment for large-scale screenings.

  6. Certificate of Analysis, Standard Reference Material® 1849, Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard Reference material (SRM) 1849 is intended primarily for validation of methods for determining proximates, fatty acids, vitamins, elements and nucleotides in infant and adult nutritional formulas and similar materials. This SRM can also be used for quality assurance when assigning values to ...

  7. Plasma selenium levels and dietary selenium intakes of formula-fed (FF) and cow's milk-fed (CMF) infants

    SciTech Connect

    Gropper, S.; Anderson, K.; Landing, W.; Acosta, P. Florida State Univ., Tallahassee Ross Labs., Columbus, OH )

    1990-02-26

    The plasma selenium concentrations of 57 infants eight to 12 months of age ingesting either cow's milk or milk-based infant formula as their primary beverage as part of a mixed diet for at least three months was assessed using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean ({plus minus}SD) daily dietary selenium intake of 26 cow's milk-fed infants (34{plus minus} 13 ug) was significantly greater than that of 31 formula-fed infants (22{plus minus}11 ug). The mean ({plus minus}SD) plasma selenium concentration of infants fed cow's mild (39{plus minus}11 ug/L) was also significantly greater than that of infants fed formula (31{plus minus}12 ug/L). Both groups of infants ingested similar total energy intakes; however, the infants fed cow's milk received more total protein and selenium and a greater percentage of protein and selenium from their primary beverage than the infants receiving formula. Both groups of infants were consuming a mixed diet with similar sources of selenium. These data suggest that cow's milk is a richer source of selenium than infant formulas.

  8. Effect of age on manganese uptake and retention from milk and infant formulas in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Keen, C.L.; Bell, J.G.; Loennerdal, B.

    1986-03-01

    Manganese nutrition of the neonate is poorly understood, due in part to a paucity of information on the amount and availability of manganese in infant foods. We have developed a suckling pup model to assess the uptake of manganese from fluid diets by using extrinsic labeling. Human milk, cow milk and infant formulas were fed by intubation to fasted rat pups and adults. Rats were killed after varying time periods, and tissues were removed and counted. A period of 6 h was found to be adequate to allow for stomach emptying while limiting tissue redistribution; 24 h was found to reflect pup manganese retention. From human milk, manganese retention was highest (greater than or equal to 80%) in pups less than or equal to 15 days of age; in older pups average retention decreased to 40%. Using d 14 pups to assess relative Mn uptake from diets, wholebody Mn uptake was highest from cow milk (approximately 89%); uptake from human and cow milk formula was similar (approximately 80%) whereas it was lower from soy formula (approximately 60%). These findings suggest that bioavailability of Mn from infant diets is very high during the suckling period. Since most formulas contain considerably more manganese than is found in human milk, Mn deficiency may be less of a concern than possible toxicity from formulas.

  9. Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk: Health, Nutrition, and Implications for Infant Formulas.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Breast milk confers many benefits to the newborn and developing infant. There is substantial support for better long-term outcomes, such as less obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants. More short-term outcomes, such as incidence and duration of illness, nutrient status, and cognitive development during the first year of life also demonstrate benefits of breastfeeding. Several proteins in breast milk, including lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, milk fat globule membrane proteins, and osteopontin, have been shown to have bioactivities that range from involvement in the protection against infection to the acquisition of nutrients from breast milk. In some cases, bovine counterparts of these proteins exert similar bioactivities. It is possible by dairy technology to add protein fractions highly enriched in these proteins to infant formula.

  10. Short communication: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex isolated from infant milk formula and utensils in a nursery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, B C; Moraes, M S; Costa, L E O; Nascimento, J S

    2015-04-01

    Infant milk formulas are not sterile products, and pathogenic bacteria can survive and multiply in these products. This study was performed, initially, to detect the presence of Salmonella spp. in reconstituted infant milk formula and on utensils previously sanitized used in their preparation or distribution in a nursery of a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. None of the samples tested carried Salmonellaspp. However, further identification of colonies growing on the selective media revealed the presence of several other gram-negative bacteria. Seventeen isolates were identified as belonging to Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex. Fourteen isolates presented a multidrug-resistance profile, by disc diffusion assays, and one of them--JE4--was also resistant to imipenem. The detection of Acinetobacter isolates in this work demonstrates inadequate hygiene practices in the preparation or distribution of infant milk formula.

  11. Determination of Total Iodine in Infant Formula and Adult/ Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS): Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.15.

    PubMed

    Zywicki, Richard S; Sullivan, Darryl M

    2015-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to determine total iodine in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula by inductively coupled plasma-MS (ICP-MS) using AOAC First Action Official Method(SM) 2012.15. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the method's intralaboratory and interlaboratory performance and submit the results to AOAC INTERNATIONAL for adoption as a Final Action Official Method for the determination of total iodine in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. Upon providing acceptable results for practice samples National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849a and a low-fat adult nutritional powder, 13 laboratories analyzed seven various infant and adult nutritional products including a blind duplicate of each. Products were chosen with varying levels of iodine and included low-fat, soy-based, and milk-based formulas and NIST SRM 1849a. Random identification numbers were assigned to each of the seven fortified test materials. Digestion of the test samples occurred using a potassium hydroxide solution in an oven or open-vessel microwave system. Iodine was stabilized with ammonium hydroxide and sodium thiosulfate after digestion. The solutions were brought to volume followed by filtration. The filtrates were then analyzed by ICP-MS after dilution. Results for all seven test samples met all the AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR(®) 2012.008) guidelines. The RSDr ranged from 0.77 to 4.78% and the RSDR from 5.42 to 11.5%. The Horwitz ratio (HorRat) for each result was excellent, ranging from 0.35 to 1.31%. The results demonstrate that the method is fit-for-purpose to determine iodine in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula.

  12. Cortical Responses to Speech Sounds in 3- and 6-Month-Old Infants Fed Breast Milk, Milk Formula, or Soy Formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of the three most common infant diets (breast milk, milk-based and soy-based formulas) on growth, behavioral development, and cortical responses (ERPs) to the consonant-vowel syllable /pa/, was examined in 130 healthy infants from an ongoing longitudinal study of 600 from birth through...

  13. Visual acuity and blood lipids in term infants fed human milk or formulae.

    PubMed

    Innis, S M; Akrabawi, S S; Diersen-Schade, D A; Dobson, M V; Guy, D G

    1997-01-01

    This multicenter, parallel group study determined plasma phospholipid and red blood cell (RBC) phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine fatty acids, plasma cholesterol, apo A-1 and B, growth and visual acuity (using the acuity card procedure) in term infants fed from birth to 90 d of age with formula containing palm-olein, high oleic sunflower, coconut and soy oil (22.2% 16:0, 36.2% 18:1, 18% 18:2n-6, 1.9% 18:3n-3) (n = 59) or coconut and soy oil (10.3% 16:0 18:6% 18:1, 34.2% 18:2n-6, 4.7% 18:3n-3) (n = 57) or breast-fed (n = 56) with no formula supplementation. Different centers in North America were included to overcome potential bias due to differences in n-6 or n-3 fatty acids at birth or in breast-fed infants that might occur in a single-site study. Plasma and RBC phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), cholesterol and apo B were significantly lower in the formula- than breast-fed infants. There were no differences in looking acuity or growth among the breast-fed and formula-fed infants. No significant relations were found between DHA and looking acuity, or AA and growth within or among any of the infant groups. This study provides no evidence to suggest the formula provided inadequate n-6 or n-3 fatty acids for growth and looking acuity for the first 3 mon after birth. PMID:9075195

  14. Iron absorption and red blood cell incorporation in premature infants fed an iron-fortified infant formula.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M C; Abrams, S A; Schanler, R J

    1998-10-01

    This study was designed to identify differences in red blood cell (RBC) incorporation and iron absorption in premature infants between iron provided in a premature infant formula compared with iron provided as a supplement between feedings. We used a triple stable isotope technique in which 13 infants received 57Fe mixed with Enfamil Premature Formula on d 1 of the study, and 54Fe with a multivitamin supplement between meals on d 2. Two weeks later, blood was drawn for isotope analysis and 58Fe was given i.v. The percentage RBC incorporation of the 54Fe and 57Fe was calculated, and the percent absorption of these tracers was estimated by dividing by the percentage of 58Fe identified in RBCs 14 d after its infusion. We found a small, but significantly greater, percentage of RBC incorporation of the 54Fe given as a supplement compared with the 57Fe given in the formula (9.7 +/- 3.8% versus 7.8 +/- 3.1%, p = 0.02). The RBC 57Fe incorporation was closely correlated with the reticulocyte count (r = 0.80, p = 0.001), but not the serum ferritin or the Hb concentration. Approximately 68% of an i.v. dose of 58Fe was incorporated into RBCs. These findings indicate 1) iron is incorporated well into RBCs from preterm infant formula, with only a small increase in incorporation when given as a supplement, and 2) the reticulocyte count, but not the Hb concentration, is a good measure of RBC iron-incorporating capacity.

  15. Tryptophan fortification of adapted formula increases plasma tryptophan concentrations to levels not different from those found in breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Fazzolari-Nesci, A; Domianello, D; Sotera, V; Räihä, N C

    1992-05-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated significantly lower plasma total tryptophan concentrations in formula-fed than in breast-fed infants. We have measured preprandial plasma amino acid concentrations in infants breast-fed or fed a formula with a protein concentration of 1.57 g/dl and with a whey/casein ratio of 60:40 or a formula with a protein concentration of 1.37 g/dl and a whey/casein ratio of 40:60 and fortified with 10 mg/dl (15 mg/100 kcal) of tryptophan. Healthy term infants (10 per group) were either breast-fed from birth or randomly assigned to one of the two study formulas. At 4 and 12 weeks of age, anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples were obtained. During the study period of 12 weeks, all infants showed normal growth (weight, length, and head circumference) and there were no statistically significant differences between the groups. The plasma concentrations of the essential amino acids phenylalanine, threonine, valine, and lysine were significantly lower in the breast-fed group than in both formula-fed groups. For tyrosine, methionine, leucine, histidine, isoleucine, and arginine, no significant differences could be found between the feeding groups. Concentration of total plasma tryptophan was significantly higher in the breast-fed group than in the group fed the tryptophan-unfortified formula, but no statistically significant difference could be found between the plasma tryptophan concentration in the breast-fed group versus the group fed the tryptophan-fortified formula. The results indicate that tryptophan fortification of adapted formula is necessary to achieve plasma total tryptophan concentrations similar to those found in breast-fed infants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1517950

  16. US hospitals violate WHO policy on the distribution of formula sample packs: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Merewood, Anne; Grossman, Xena; Cook, John; Sadacharan, Radha; Singleton, Marcella; Peters, Karen; Navidi, Tina

    2010-11-01

    The World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes, as well as most major medical authorities, opposes hospital-based distribution of free infant formula at discharge. The goal of this cross-sectional telephone survey of 3209 US maternity sites, conducted from 2006 to 2007, was to determine the extent of this practice. It was found that 91% of hospitals distributed formula sample packs, and a trend toward discontinuation of the practice was statistically significant (P < .001). It was concluded that most US hospitals distribute infant formula samples, in violation of the WHO Code and the recommendations of organizations including the US Government Accountability Office, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:20871089

  17. Using PacBio Long-Read High-Throughput Microbial Gene Amplicon Sequencing To Evaluate Infant Formula Safety.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Xi, Xiaoxia; Xu, Haiyan; Hou, Qiangchuan; Bian, Yanfei; Yu, Zhongjie; Kwok, Lai-Yu; Zhang, Wenyi; Sun, Zhihong; Zhang, Heping

    2016-09-21

    Infant formula (IF) requires a strict microbiological standard because of the high vulnerability of infants to foodborne diseases. The current study used the PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing platform to generate full-length 16S rRNA-based bacterial microbiota profiles of 30 Chinese domestic and imported IF samples. A total of 600 species were identified, dominated by Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis, and Lactococcus piscium. Distinctive bacterial profiles were observed between the two sample groups, as confirmed with both principal coordinate analysis and multivariate analysis of variance. Moreover, the product whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI), representing the degree of preheating, negatively correlated with the relative abundances of the Bacillus genus. This study has demonstrated the application of the PacBio SMRT sequencing platform in assessing the bacterial contamination of IF products, which is of interest to the dairy industry for effective monitoring of microbial quality and safety during production. PMID:27500310

  18. Infants Fed a Lower Calorie Formula With 2′FL Show Growth and 2′FL Uptake Like Breast-Fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Marriage, Barbara J.; Buck, Rachael H.; Goehring, Karen C.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Williams, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the present study was to examine the growth and tolerance of infants fed infant formulas with a caloric density closer to human milk (HM) supplemented with human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and to study uptake of the HMOs. Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled, growth and tolerance study was conducted in healthy, singleton infants (birth weight ≥2490 g), who were enrolled by day of life (DOL) 5. Formula-fed infants were randomized to 1 of 3 formulas with a caloric density of 64.3 kcal/dL. Each formula contained galactooligosaccharides, and the 2 experimental formulas contained varying levels (0.2 and 1.0 g/L) of the HMO 2′-fucosyllactose (2′FL). The 3 formula groups were compared with an HM-fed reference group. Infants were exclusively fed either formula (n = 189) or HM (n = 65) from enrollment to 119 DOL. 2′FL was measured in the blood and urine collected from a subset of infants at DOL 42 and 119, and in HM collected from breast-feeding mothers at DOL 42. Results: There were no significant differences among any groups for weight, length, or head circumference growth during the 4-month study period. All of the formulas were well tolerated and comparable for average stool consistency, number of stools per day, and percent of feedings associated with spitting up or vomit. 2′FL was present in the plasma and urine of infants fed 2′FL, and there were no significant differences in 2′FL uptake relative to the concentration fed. Conclusions: This is the first report of infants fed 2′FL-fortified formulas with a caloric density similar to HM. Growth and 2′FL uptake were similar to those of HM-fed infants. PMID:26154029

  19. Severe hypoglycemic encephalopathy due to hypoallergenic formula in an infant.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Erika; Ishige, Mika; Takahashi, Yuno; Kodama, Hiroko; Fuchigami, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Shori

    2016-08-01

    A 7-month-old girl was brought to hospital due to vomiting. Upon admission, she was in a convulsive state and stupor with extremely low blood glucose. Head computed tomography showed brain edema, and comprehensive treatment for acute encephalopathy was initiated immediately. Severe hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, elevation of ammonia and serum transaminases and creatine kinase suggested metabolic decompensation. Infusion of a high-glucose solution containing vitamins, biotin, and l-carnitine resolved the metabolic crisis quickly, but brain damage was irreversible. She was found to have been fed exclusively on a hypoallergenic formula (HF) for 7 months, although she was found later to be non-allergic. Evidence of inborn metabolic diseases was absent, therefore biotin deficiency and carnitine deficiency were concluded to be a consequence of reliance on a HF for a prolonged period. Health-care professionals should warn parents of the consequences of using HF. PMID:27324861

  20. Nitrite and Nitrate Concentrations and Metabolism in Breast Milk, Infant Formula, and Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jesica A.; Ninnis, Janet R.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T. Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G.; Blood, Arlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P < .01). Nitrate concentrations averaged 13.6 ± 3.7 μM and 12.7 ± 4.9 μM, respectively. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations in infant formulas varied from undetectable to many-fold more than breast milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ∼64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite. PMID:23894175

  1. Carbohydrate derived energy and gross energy absorption in preterm infants fed human milk or formula.

    PubMed Central

    De Curtis, M; Senterre, J; Rigo, J; Putet, G

    1986-01-01

    Significant production of breath hydrogen has been shown in premature infants, suggesting limited intestinal capacity for digestion of carbohydrate. To evaluate net absorption of carbohydrate 24 three day balance studies were carried out in seven preterm infants fed pasteurised banked human milk and in 17 preterm infants fed a formula containing 75% lactose and 25% glucose polymers. Because carbohydrate reaching the colon may be converted to organic acids by bacterial flora, carbohydrate net absorption was determined by quantitating the faecal excretion of energy derived from carbohydrate. The carbohydrate derived energy content of milk and stools was calculated as the difference between the measured gross energy and the sum of energy related to nitrogen and fat. Faecal loss of carbohydrate derived energy was lower in the group fed formula (1.9 (SD 1.2) kcal/kg/day) than in the group fed human milk (4.0 (SD 1.8) kcal/kg/day). Net absorption of carbohydrate derived energy was 97.0 (SD 1.9)% as opposed to 92.6 (SD 3.9)%, respectively. Within each group there was no significant relation between carbohydrate energy absorption and fat, nitrogen, or gross energy absorption. Thus, although less complete with human milk than with formula, apparent absorption of energy derived from carbohydrate seemed quite satisfactory in these preterm infants. PMID:3639729

  2. Influence of formulas with borage oil or borage oil plus fish oil on the arachidonic acid status in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Demmelmair, H; Feldl, F; Horváth, I; Niederland, T; Ruszinkó, V; Raederstorff, D; De Min, C; Muggli, R; Koletzko, B

    2001-06-01

    Several studies have reported that feeding gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) has resulted in no increase in arachidonic acid (AA) in newborns. This result was ascribed to the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich fish oil used in these formulas. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) sources with only minor amounts of EPA are now available, thus the addition of GLA to infant formulas might be considered an alternative to AA supplementation. Sixty-six premature infants were randomized to feeding one of four formulas [ST: no GLA, no long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; BO: 0.6% GLA (borage oil); BO + FOLOW: 0.6% GLA, 0.3% DHA, 0.06% EPA; BO + FOHIGH: 0.6% GLA, 0.3% DHA, 0.2% EPA] or human milk (HM, nonrandomized) for 4 wk. Anthropometric measures and blood samples were obtained at study entry and after 14 and 28 d. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric measures, tocopherol, and retinol status at any of the studied time points. The AA content of plasma phospholipids was similar between groups at study start and decreased significantly until day 28 in all formulafed groups, but not in the breast-fed infants [ST: 6.6 +/- 0.2%, BO: 6.9 +/- 0.3%, BO + FOLOW: 6.9 +/- 0.4%, BO + FOHIGH: 6.7 +/- 0.2%, HM: 8.6 +/- 0.5%, where values are reported as mean +/- standard error; all formulas significantly different (P< 0.05) from HM]. There was no significant influence of GLA or fish oil addition to the diet. GLA had only a very limited effect on AA status which was too small to obtain satisfactory concentrations (concentrations similar to breast-fed babies) under the circumstances tested. The effect of GLA on AA is independent of the EPA and DHA content in the diet within the dose ranges studied. PMID:11485158

  3. Influence of formulas with borage oil or borage oil plus fish oil on the arachidonic acid status in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Demmelmair, H; Feldl, F; Horváth, I; Niederland, T; Ruszinkó, V; Raederstorff, D; De Min, C; Muggli, R; Koletzko, B

    2001-06-01

    Several studies have reported that feeding gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) has resulted in no increase in arachidonic acid (AA) in newborns. This result was ascribed to the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich fish oil used in these formulas. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) sources with only minor amounts of EPA are now available, thus the addition of GLA to infant formulas might be considered an alternative to AA supplementation. Sixty-six premature infants were randomized to feeding one of four formulas [ST: no GLA, no long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; BO: 0.6% GLA (borage oil); BO + FOLOW: 0.6% GLA, 0.3% DHA, 0.06% EPA; BO + FOHIGH: 0.6% GLA, 0.3% DHA, 0.2% EPA] or human milk (HM, nonrandomized) for 4 wk. Anthropometric measures and blood samples were obtained at study entry and after 14 and 28 d. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric measures, tocopherol, and retinol status at any of the studied time points. The AA content of plasma phospholipids was similar between groups at study start and decreased significantly until day 28 in all formulafed groups, but not in the breast-fed infants [ST: 6.6 +/- 0.2%, BO: 6.9 +/- 0.3%, BO + FOLOW: 6.9 +/- 0.4%, BO + FOHIGH: 6.7 +/- 0.2%, HM: 8.6 +/- 0.5%, where values are reported as mean +/- standard error; all formulas significantly different (P< 0.05) from HM]. There was no significant influence of GLA or fish oil addition to the diet. GLA had only a very limited effect on AA status which was too small to obtain satisfactory concentrations (concentrations similar to breast-fed babies) under the circumstances tested. The effect of GLA on AA is independent of the EPA and DHA content in the diet within the dose ranges studied.

  4. Impact of α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin ratio on the heat stability of model infant milk formula protein systems.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Shane V; Dowling, Aisling P; Caldeo, Veronica; Kelly, Alan L; O'Mahony, James A

    2016-03-01

    Model infant milk formula systems (5.5% protein) were formulated to contain α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin ratios of 0.1, 0.5, 1.3, 2.1 or 4.6 and assessed for heat stability and heat-induced changes. 'Humanising' the model formulas by increasing α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin enhanced heat stability at 140°C in the pH range 6.6-6.9. The model formulas were analysed after lab-scale high-temperature short-time heating at pH 6.8. Gel electrophoresis indicated that increased heat stability in high α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin samples was due to decreased covalent interactions between proteins. In low α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin formulas, protein-protein interactions caused marked increases in protein particle size and viscosity of the heated systems; conversely, covalent interactions between proteins were minimal in high α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin formulas. Reduced protein-protein interactions with increasing α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin has important implications for subsequent processing; for example, lower viscosity post-heating may affect bulk density in spray-dried products or physical stability in ready-to-feed products. PMID:26471542

  5. Impact of α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin ratio on the heat stability of model infant milk formula protein systems.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Shane V; Dowling, Aisling P; Caldeo, Veronica; Kelly, Alan L; O'Mahony, James A

    2016-03-01

    Model infant milk formula systems (5.5% protein) were formulated to contain α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin ratios of 0.1, 0.5, 1.3, 2.1 or 4.6 and assessed for heat stability and heat-induced changes. 'Humanising' the model formulas by increasing α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin enhanced heat stability at 140°C in the pH range 6.6-6.9. The model formulas were analysed after lab-scale high-temperature short-time heating at pH 6.8. Gel electrophoresis indicated that increased heat stability in high α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin samples was due to decreased covalent interactions between proteins. In low α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin formulas, protein-protein interactions caused marked increases in protein particle size and viscosity of the heated systems; conversely, covalent interactions between proteins were minimal in high α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin formulas. Reduced protein-protein interactions with increasing α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin has important implications for subsequent processing; for example, lower viscosity post-heating may affect bulk density in spray-dried products or physical stability in ready-to-feed products.

  6. Effect of DHA-containing formula on growth of preterm infants to 59 weeks postmenstrual age.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Alan S.; Montalto, Michael B.; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Mimouni, Francis; Sentipal-Walerius, Joan; Doyle, Jeanine; Siegman, Joel S.; Thomas, Alicia J.

    1999-01-01

    Between May 1993, and September 1994, a randomized, blinded clinical trial was conducted to evaluate measures of growth and body composition in 63 (32 males; 31 females) healthy, low-birth-weight infants (940-2250 g) who were randomly assigned to an infant formula with docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3, DHA, 0.2 wt%) from fish oil or to a control formula. A preterm formula with or without DHA was fed beginning at 7-10 days prior to hospital discharge through 43 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Then, from 43-59 weeks PMA, infants were fed a term infant formula with or without a corresponding amount of DHA. Growth (weight, length, head circumference), regional body fatness (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac skinfold thicknesses), circumferences (arm, abdominal, chest), and estimates of body composition determined by total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) (fat-free mass [FFM]) were evaluated. Growth was slower in males fed the DHA formula. They had significantly (P < 0.05) smaller gains in weight, length, and head circumference between study enrollment to 59 weeks PMA than those fed the control formula. At 51 weeks PMA, males in the DHA group had significantly smaller head circumferences (P < 0.05) and lower FFM (P < 0.05). At 59 weeks PMA, males in the DHA group weighed less (P < 0.05), had shorter recumbent lengths (P < 0.01), smaller head circumferences (P < 0.05), and lower FFM (P < 0.01) than those fed the control formula. Energy intakes from formula (kcal/d), however, were lower at 51 weeks (P < 0.05) and 59 weeks (P < 0.05) PMA in males fed the DHA formula. Adjusted for body weight (kcal/kg/d), mean energy intakes from formula at 51 and 59 weeks PMA were not significantly different between feeding groups. The differences in recumbent length, head circumference, and FFM remained statistically significant after controlling for energy and protein intakes (P < 0.01). For all males, neither FFM nor total body fat (TBF), when expressed as a percentage of total body

  7. Infant Formula Feeding at Birth Is Common and Inversely Associated with Subsequent Breastfeeding Behavior in Vietnam123

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuan T; Withers, Mellissa; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association between infant formula feeding at birth and subsequent feeding patterns in a low- or middle-income context is not clear. Objective: We examined the association of infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth with subsequent infant formula feeding and early breastfeeding cessation in Vietnam. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, we interviewed 10,681 mothers with children aged 0−23 mo (mean age: 8.2 mo; 52% boys) about their feeding practices during the first 3 d after birth and on the previous day. We used stratified analysis, multiple logistic regression, propensity score-matching analysis, and structural equation modeling to minimize the limitation of the cross-sectional design and to ensure the consistency of the findings. Results: Infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth (50%) was associated with a higher prevalence of subsequent infant formula feeding [stratified analysis: 7−28% higher (nonoverlapping 95% CIs for most comparisons); propensity score-matching analysis: 13% higher (P < 0.001); multiple logistic regression: OR: 1.47 (95% CI: 1.30, 1.67)]. This practice was also associated with a higher prevalence of early breastfeeding cessation (e.g., <24 mo) [propensity score-matching analysis: 2% (P = 0.08); OR: 1.33 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.59)]. Structural equation modeling showed that infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth was associated with a higher prevalence of subsequent infant formula feeding (β: 0.244; P < 0.001), which in turn was linked to early breastfeeding cessation (β: 0.285; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth was associated with increased subsequent infant formula feeding and the early cessation of breastfeeding, which underscores the need to make early, exclusive breastfeeding normative and to create environments that support it. PMID:27605404

  8. Reduced crying in term infants fed high beta-palmitate formula: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Beta-palmitate (sn-2 palmitate) mimics human milk fat, enabling easier digestion. Therefore, we hypothesized that infants consuming high beta-palmitate formula would have more frequent, softer stools and reduced crying compared to infants consuming low beta-palmitate formula. Methods Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either (1) formula with high beta-palmitate (HBP, n = 21) or (2) regular formula with a standard vegetable oil mix (LBP, n = 21). A matched group of breastfed infants served as a reference (BF, n = 21). Crying and stool characteristics data were recorded by the parents for 3 days before the 6- and 12-week visits. Results We found no significant differences in the stool frequency or consistency between the two formula groups. The percentage of crying infants in the LBP group was significantly higher than that in the HBP and BF groups during the evening at 6 weeks (88.2% vs. 56.3% and 55.6%, p < 0.05) and during the afternoon at 12 weeks (91.7% vs. 50.0% and 40%, p < 0.05). The infants fed HBP had significantly shorter crying durations when compared with infants fed LBP formula (14.90 ± 3.85 vs.63.96 ± 21.76 min/day, respectively; p = 0.047). Conclusions Our study indicates that consumption of a high beta-palmitate formula affects infant crying patterns during the first weeks of life. Comparable to breastfeeding, it reduced crying duration and frequency, primarily during the afternoon and evening hours, thereby improving the well-being of formula-fed infants and their parents. Trial registration NCT00874068. Registration date March 31, 2009 PMID:24942975

  9. High Beta-palmitate formula and bone strength in term infants: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Litmanovitz, Ita; Davidson, Keren; Eliakim, Alon; Regev, Rivka H; Dolfin, Tzipora; Arnon, Shmuel; Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Goren, Amit; Lifshitz, Yael; Nemet, Dan

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to compare the effect of 12-week feeding of commercially available infant formulas with different percentages of palmitic acid at sn-2 (beta-palmitate) on anthropometric measures and bone strength of term infants. It was hypothesized that feeding infants with high beta-palmitate (HBP) formula will enhance their bone speed of sound (SOS). Eighty-three infants appropriate for gestational age participated in the study; of these, 58 were formula-fed and 25 breast-fed infants, serving as a reference group. The formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive HBP formula (43 % of the palmitic acid is esterified to the middle position of the glycerol backbone, study group; n = 30) or regular formula with low-beta palmitate (LBP, 14 % of the palmitic acid is esterified to the middle position of the glycerol backbone, n = 28). Sixty-six infants completed the 12-week study. Anthropometric and quantitative ultrasound measurements of bone SOS for assessment of bone strength were performed at randomization and at 6 and 12 weeks postnatal age. At randomization, gestational age, birth weight, and bone SOS were comparable between the three groups. At 12 weeks postnatal age, the mean bone SOS of the HBP group was significantly higher than that of the LBP group (2,896 ± 133 vs. 2,825 ± 79 m/s respectively, P = 0.049) and comparable with that of the breast-fed group (2,875 ± 85 m/s). We concluded that infants consuming HBP formula had changes in bone SOS that were comparable to those of infants consuming breast milk and favorable compared to infants consuming LBP formula.

  10. The potential mechanistic link between allergy and obesity development and infant formula feeding

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a new view of the cellular mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the links between infant formula feeding and the development of atopy and obesity. Epidemiological evidence points to an allergy- and obesity-preventive effect of breastfeeding. Both allergy and obesity development have been traced back to accelerated growth early in life. The nutrient-sensitive kinase mTORC1 is the master regulator of cell growth, which is predominantly activated by amino acids. In contrast to breastfeeding, artificial infant formula feeding bears the risk of uncontrolled excessive protein intake overactivating the infant’s mTORC1 signalling pathways. Overactivated mTORC1 enhances S6K1-mediated adipocyte differentiation, but negatively regulates growth and differentiation of FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs), which are deficient in atopic individuals. Thus, the “early protein hypothesis” not only explains increased mTORC1-mediated infant growth but also the development of mTORC1-driven diseases such as allergy and obesity due to a postnatal deviation from the appropriate axis of mTORC1-driven metabolic and immunologic programming. Remarkably, intake of fresh unpasteurized cow’s milk exhibits an allergy-preventive effect in farm children associated with increased FoxP3+ Treg numbers. In contrast to unprocessed cow’s milk, formula lacks bioactive immune-regulatory microRNAs, such as microRNA-155, which plays a major role in FoxP3 expression. Uncontrolled excessive protein supply by formula feeding associated with the absence of bioactive microRNAs and bifidobacteria in formula apparently in a synergistic way result in insufficient Treg maturation. Treg deficiency allows Th2-cell differentiation promoting the development of allergic diseases. Formula-induced mTORC1 overactivation is thus the critical mechanism that explains accelerated postnatal growth, allergy and obesity development on one aberrant pathway. PMID:25071855

  11. [The content of selected mineral nutrients in infant and follow-on formulae available at retail stores in Szczecin].

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Jarnuszewska, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Artificial feeding of infants is applied in situations when breastfeeding is impossible for various reasons. Such feeding is based on modified cow's milk made similar in composition to human milk. The aim of this study was to examine the content of Mg, Ca, K and Na in infant and follow-on formulae. The study also evaluated how the formulae satisfy the demand for these minerals in children of different age groups. The study has revealed that an excess supply of the minerals occurred in infant formulae (from 0 to 6 months) comparing to the recommended values (AI, EAR, RDA). PMID:22171514

  12. Determination of vitamin A in infant formula and adult nutritionals by UPLC-UV: First Action 2011.07.

    PubMed

    Trisconi, Marie-José; Campos-Gimenez, Esther; Jaudzems, Greg; Dowell, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A, a fat-soluble vitamin, is essential for health and plays an important part in vision, bone growth, reproduction, regulating the immune system, cell function, and skin health. Due to the advances in technology and the expansion of its uses, LC technologies are being studied for effectiveness in detecting and quantifying vitamin A in an effort to help determine the amount of vitamin A in various types of samples. For this reason, an Expert Review Panel agreed on June 29, 2011, at the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting," to approve "Determination of Vitamin A in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals by UPLC-UV" as AOAC Official Method 2011.07. To move from First to Final Action status, it was recommended that additional information be generated for all types of infant formulas and adult nutritional formula matrixes at varied concentration levels, as indicated in the standard method performance requirements. International units or retinol equivalents typically represent the concentration of vitamin A in food and supplements. However, for the purpose of this method, the concentration represented is presented in microg/100 g. PMID:22649910

  13. Determination of vitamin A in infant formula and adult nutritionals by UPLC-UV: First Action 2011.07.

    PubMed

    Trisconi, Marie-José; Campos-Gimenez, Esther; Jaudzems, Greg; Dowell, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A, a fat-soluble vitamin, is essential for health and plays an important part in vision, bone growth, reproduction, regulating the immune system, cell function, and skin health. Due to the advances in technology and the expansion of its uses, LC technologies are being studied for effectiveness in detecting and quantifying vitamin A in an effort to help determine the amount of vitamin A in various types of samples. For this reason, an Expert Review Panel agreed on June 29, 2011, at the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting," to approve "Determination of Vitamin A in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals by UPLC-UV" as AOAC Official Method 2011.07. To move from First to Final Action status, it was recommended that additional information be generated for all types of infant formulas and adult nutritional formula matrixes at varied concentration levels, as indicated in the standard method performance requirements. International units or retinol equivalents typically represent the concentration of vitamin A in food and supplements. However, for the purpose of this method, the concentration represented is presented in microg/100 g.

  14. Exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate and bisphenol A through infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Teresa; Latini, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Maria Antonietta; Dipaola, Lucia; Fasano, Evelina; Esposito, Francesco; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Francesco, Fabio Di; Cobellis, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous contaminants identified as endocrine disruptors. Phthalates are worldwide used as plasticizers, in particular to improve the mechanical properties of polymers such as polyvinyl chloride. Because they are not chemically bound to the polymer, they tend to leach out with time and use. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the two most common phthalates. BPA is an estrogenic compound used to manufacture polycarbonate containers for food and drink, including baby bottles. It can migrate from container into foods, especially at elevated temperatures. Diet is a predominant source of exposure for phthalates and BPA, especially for infants. The aim of this study was to test the presence of DEHP, DnBP, and BPA in infant formulas. DEHP, DnBP, and BPA concentrations were measured in 22 liquid and 28 powder milks by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, respectively. DEHP concentrations in our samples were between 0.005 and 5.088 μg/g (median 0.906 μg/g), DnBP concentrations were between 0.008 and 1.297 μg/g (median 0.053 μg/g), and BPA concentrations were between 0.003 and 0.375 μg/g (median 0.015 μg/g). Concentrations of the investigated contaminants in liquid and powder milks were not significantly different, even though samples were packed in different types of containers. These data point out potential hazards for infants fed with baby formulas. Contamination seems more related to the production of formulas than to a release from containers. PMID:25730646

  15. Multi-dimension microchip-capillary electrophoresis device for determination of functional proteins in infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruige; Wang, Zhiping; Zhao, Wenfeng; Yeung, William Shu-Biu; Fung, Ying Sing

    2013-08-23

    To improve resolution of important minor proteins and eliminate time-consuming precipitation of major protein with associated analyte co-precipitation risk, a multi-dimension strategy is adopted in the 2D microchip-CE device to isolate major proteins on-chip, enrich minor proteins in capillary before their separation in CE for UV quantitation. A standard fluorescent protein mixture containing FITC-BSA, myoglobin and cytochrome as specific pI markers has prepared to demonstrate capability of the device to fractionate minor proteins by IEF. The results using a standard protein mixture with profile resembling infant milk formula show a complete isolation of high abundance proteins by a 2-min 1D IEF run. The subsequent t-ITP/CZE run by on-chip high voltage switching delivers a high stacking ratio, realizing 60 folds enrichment of isolated protein fractions. All five important functional proteins (LF, IgG, α-LA, β-LgA and β-LgB) known to fortify infant milk formula are isolated and determined using two consecutive t-ITP-CZE runs within a 18-min total assay time, a significant saving compared to several hours conventional pretreatment. For a 100g infant milk formula sample, working ranges of 20-8000mg, repeatability 3.8-5.3% and detection limits 2.3-10mg have been achieved to meet government regulations. Method reliability is established by 100% recoveries and agreeable results within expected ranges and labeled values. The capability of the device for field operation, rapid assay with quick results, label-free universal detection, simple operation by aqueous dissolution before injection, and the demanding matching in 2D separation based on isolated fractions at specified pI ranges, closely matched migration time and baseline-resolved peak shape makes the device a general tool to detect unknown proteins and determine known minor proteins in protein-rich samples with interfering constituents.

  16. Nutritional and technological evaluation of an enzymatically methionine-enriched soy protein for infant enteral formulas.

    PubMed

    de Regil, Luz María; de la Barca, Ana María Calderón

    2004-03-01

    Enzymatically modified soy proteins have the amino acid profile and functional properties required for dietary support. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and technological properties of an enzymatically modified soy protein ultrafiltered fraction with bound methionine (F(1-10)E) to be used as a protein ingredient for infant enteral formulas. F(1-10)E was chemically characterized and biologically evaluated. Thirty-six weaning Wistar rats were fed during 3 weeks with a 4% casein-containing diet. Rats were divided into three groups and recovered for 3 weeks with 18% protein-containing diets based on: (1) F(1-10)E, (2) casein or (3) soy isolate+methionine. Nutritional indicators were weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, plasma proteins, apparent digestibility and protein in the carcass. Additionally, F(1-10)E was added as a protein ingredient of an enteral formula, and its sensory and rheological properties were compared with a hydrolyzed-whey protein commercial formula. F(1-10)E contained 68% protein and 5% sulphur amino acids, with 60% of peptides 0.05) in weight gain (108 g and 118 g, respectively), protein efficiency ratio (2.7), apparent digestibility (93% and 95%), plasma proteins (5.7 mg/100 ml) and carcass protein (61%), and better than soy isolate-based+methionine diet (P<0.05). Viscosity of the commercial formula and our formula was similar during a 24-h period. Sensory acceptability was 8 for our formula and 3.5 for the commercial one, on a scale of 1-10 (P<0.05). Due to its nutritional, sensorial and rheological properties, F(1-10)E could be used as a protein source in infant enteral formulas.

  17. Protein quality and quantity in cow's milk-based formula for healthy term infants: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Macé, Katherine; Steenhout, Philippe; Klassen, Petra; Donnet, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The development of infant formula with optimized protein quality and quantity has been, and still is, the subject of intense investigation. A better understanding of the protein composition of breast milk and infant needs in association with technological breakthroughs in cow's milk fractionation, has led to the development of infant formulas with a protein content that is closer to that of human milk. Today, infant formulas with a protein/energy ratio of 1.8 g/100 kcal are commercially available. These formulas have been shown to be safe and nutritionally adequate for term infants. However, the short-term and potentially long-term metabolic benefits of formulas with reduced protein content have still to be elucidated and are currently under investigation. In addition to providing amino acids as building blocks for growth, milk is the source of numerous bioactive factors/hormones which are involved in multiple physiological processes. Continuous efforts are being made to identify new bioactive compounds in human milk. However, a better understanding of their biological functions in suckling infants as well as a comparison with their bovine counterparts are needed. Technological processes, which preserve some bioactive factors in cow's milk already exist. These processes could be applied to infant formulas.

  18. Thermal inactivation of ricin using infant formula as a food matrix.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lauren S; Tolleson, William H; Chirtel, Stuart J

    2006-09-20

    Ricin is a potent protein toxin found in the seeds of the castor bean plant, Ricinus communis. Ricin specifically and irreversibly inactivates ribosomes, promoting cell death by inhibiting protein synthesis. It is composed of a ribosome-inactivating enzyme (A-chain) linked to a lectin (B-chain) by a single disulfide bond. Several reports indicate that ricin can be detoxified by thermal treatment; however, the conditions required for inactivation are not well characterized. In addition, little information exists on the thermal stability of ricin added to foods. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of heat treatments on the detection and toxicity of ricin added to milk- and soy-based infant formulas. Reconstituted infant formula powders containing 100 mug of ricin/mL were heated at 60-90 degrees C for up to 5 h. The heat-treated formulas were analyzed by ELISA to determine levels of ricin. The residual cytotoxicity of ricin-containing infant formula after heat treatments was determined using RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. The ELISA and the cytotoxicity assay indicated that ricin detection and toxicity decreased with increasing heating times and temperatures. Minimal losses in detection and toxicity were found for ricin heated at 60 degrees C for 2 h. The half-lives of ricin cytoxic activity in a milk-based infant formula at 60, 70, 75, 80, 85, and 90 degrees C were >100, 9.8 +/- 0.5, 5.8 +/- 0.9, 5.1 +/- 0.7, 3.1 +/- 0.4, and 1.8 +/- 0.2 min, respectively; the comparable values for a soy-based infant formula were >100, 16 +/- 1.6, 8.7 +/- 1.2, 6.9 +/- 1.1, 3.0 +/- 0.4, and 2.0 +/- 0.3 min. ELISA detection was a good indicator of the cytotoxicity of heat-treated ricin. The results indicate that ricin is a relatively heat stable protein and may remain toxic under some food processing conditions.

  19. Composition and oxidative stability of a structured lipid from amaranth oil in a milk-based infant formula.

    PubMed

    Pina-Rodriguez, Ashanty M; Akoh, Casimir C

    2010-03-01

    Amaranth oil can be enzymatically modified to match breast milk fat analog requirements. We have developed a structured lipid (SL) from amaranth oil that, in combination with milk fat, delivers recommended amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with palmitic acid specifically esterified at the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerol (TAG) backbone. The aim of this study was to study the final fatty acid (FA) contribution and oxidation stability of an infant formula prepared using the structured lipid DCAO (DHA-containing customized amaranth oil). DCAO was included as complementary fat in a "prototype" infant formula, and prepared in parallel with a "control" infant formula under the same processing conditions. The same ingredients but different complementary fat sources were used. A blend of the most commonly used vegetable oils (palm olein, soybean, coconut, and high-oleic sunflower oils) for infant formula was used instead of DCAO in the "control" formula. Additionally, "prototype" and "control" infant formulas were compared to a "commercial" product in terms of FA composition. The oxidative stability index (OSI) of the extracted fats from "prototype,"control," and "commercial" infant formulas were evaluated and compared to the OSI of the substrate fat replacers used. DCAO was the least stable compared to other fat analogs. The use of commercial antioxidants in DCAO containing products should prevent oxidation and therefore increase their stability. PMID:20492217

  20. GFAAS determination of selenium in infant formulas using a microwave digestion method.

    PubMed

    Alegria, A; Barbera, R; Farré, R; Moreno, A

    1994-01-01

    A method for determining the selenium content of infant formulas is proposed. It includes wet digestion with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in medium pressure teflon bombs in a microwave oven and determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The absence of interferences is checked. Values obtained for the limit of detection (19.4 ng/g), precision (RSD = 2.2%) and accuracy by analysis of a reference material show that the method is reliable. PMID:7935739

  1. GFAAS determination of selenium in infant formulas using a microwave digestion method.

    PubMed

    Alegria, A; Barbera, R; Farré, R; Moreno, A

    1994-01-01

    A method for determining the selenium content of infant formulas is proposed. It includes wet digestion with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in medium pressure teflon bombs in a microwave oven and determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The absence of interferences is checked. Values obtained for the limit of detection (19.4 ng/g), precision (RSD = 2.2%) and accuracy by analysis of a reference material show that the method is reliable.

  2. Determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Lin, Zhengfeng; Zhou, Xiujin; Wang, Chengjun; Zhu, Zhenou

    2014-02-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula samples. Following ultrasonic extraction with methanol/water (1:1, vol/vol), and clean-up on an HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge (Waters Corp., Milford, MA), samples were separated on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 column (150 × 2.1-mm i.d., 5-μm film thickness; Waters Corp.), with 0.1% formic acid solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Quantification of the target was performed by the internal standard approach, using isotopically labeled compounds for each chemical group, to correct matrix effects. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode, monitoring 2 multiple reaction monitoring transitions to ensure an accurate identification of target compounds in the samples. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus of the linear ion trap. The novel liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application.

  3. In vitro fermentation of carbohydrate by breast fed and formula fed infants.

    PubMed

    Parrett, A M; Edwards, C A

    1997-03-01

    Unabsorbed carbohydrates are fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids (SCFA) which are rapidly absorbed, salvaging energy and reducing stool output. There are marked differences between the faecal flora and SCFA of breast fed (BF) and formula fed (FF) infants which may be related to the higher incidence of diarrhoea in FF infants. Part of this effect may be caused by a difference in the ability of the microflora to ferment carbohydrate. To test the hypothesis that BF and FF have different fermentation capacities for simple and complex carbohydrates, in vitro cultures of faeces from healthy infants (2-10 weeks; 11 BF, 11 FF) containing glucose, lactose, raftilose (a fructo-oligosaccharide), or soybean polysaccharide were incubated anaerobically. Results were compared with those of adult faecal cultures using the same carbohydrates. Cultures of faeces from BF and FF infants produced comparable amounts of total SCFA in all cultures. These cultures produced less SCFA than those from adult faeces and produced very little SCFA from complex carbohydrate. BF cultures produced more acetic acid than FF in all cultures, whereas FF cultures produced more propionate with sugars and more butyrate with raftilose. Both groups of infants produced less butyrate than adults in all cultures. Thus it is unlikely that a lower ability to ferment carbohydrate is a major cause of increased risk of diarrhoea in FF fed infants but individual SCFA production may be important.

  4. In vitro fermentation of carbohydrate by breast fed and formula fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Parrett, A; Edwards, C

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 4 November 1996
 Unabsorbed carbohydrates are fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids (SCFA) which are rapidly absorbed, salvaging energy and reducing stool output. There are marked differences between the faecal flora and SCFA of breast fed (BF) and formula fed (FF) infants which may be related to the higher incidence of diarrhoea in FF infants. Part of this effect may be caused by a difference in the ability of the microflora to ferment carbohydrate. To test the hypothesis that BF and FF have different fermentation capacities for simple and complex carbohydrates, in vitro cultures of faeces from healthy infants (2-10 weeks; 11 BF, 11 FF) containing glucose, lactose, raftilose (a fructo-oligosaccharide), or soybean polysaccharide were incubated anaerobically. Results were compared with those of adult faecal cultures using the same carbohydrates. Cultures of faeces from BF and FF infants produced comparable amounts of total SCFA in all cultures. These cultures produced less SCFA than those from adult faeces and produced very little SCFA from complex carbohydrate. BF cultures produced more acetic acid than FF in all cultures, whereas FF cultures produced more propionate with sugars and more butyrate with raftilose. Both groups of infants produced less butyrate than adults in all cultures. Thus it is unlikely that a lower ability to ferment carbohydrate is a major cause of increased risk of diarrhoea in FF fed infants but individual SCFA production may be important.

 PMID:9135267

  5. Taurine supplementation of a premature formula improves fat absorption in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Galeano, N F; Darling, P; Lepage, G; Leroy, C; Collet, S; Giguère, R; Roy, C C

    1987-07-01

    The predominance of taurine (Tau) conjugated over glycine conjugated bile acids in infants fed human milk as opposed to those on formulas without added Tau could account for a more complete absorption of fat. Fifteen low birth weight infants were randomized to either Enfamil Premature or to Enfamil Premature added with 40 mumol/dl of Tau and compared to a third group made up of nine low birth weight infants fed their own mother's preterm milk. Formulas and human milk were fed according to tolerance and constituted the sole nutrition for 3 months. A metabolic study was carried out at 3 wk of age and control of growth was done periodically. Urinary Tau excretion (mumol/dl) was very low (p less than 0.001) in the group fed Enfamil Premature (0.3 +/- 0.1) when compared to the values obtained in infants supplemented with Tau (51.6 +/- 12.5) and in those on human milk (36.3 +/- 7.9). Infants supplemented with Tau (92.5 +/- 1.2) had a coefficient of fat absorption which was higher (p less than 0.05) than the unsupplemented group (87.5 +/- 7.9) and comparable to the human milk-fed group (91.6 +/- 1.4). The effect was more pronounced on the saturated fatty acids and varied inversely with their individual water solubility. There was no effect of Tau on nitrogen retention and growth was identical in the three groups. These data show that the addition of Tau to formula had no effect on growth but improved the absorption of fat especially saturated fatty acids which require higher concentrations of bile acids to form mixed micelles.

  6. Growth Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii in Experimentally Contaminated Powdered Infant Formula by Kefir Supernatant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Hong-Seok; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Kefir is a type of fermented milk containing lactic and acetic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). In a spot-on-lawn test, the growth of 20 C. sakazakii strains, including 10 clinical and 10 food isolates, was completely inhibited in the presence of kefir supernatant. Significant differences in the diameters of inhibition zones were observed upon treatment with kefir compared with the results for Lactobacillus kefiri and Candida kefyr culture supernatants or solutions of lactic and acetic acid and ethyl alcohol in the agar well diffusion test (P < 0.05). The addition of 100 μl of kefir supernatant to 1 ml of nutrient broth completely inhibited the growth of C. sakazakii, as evaluated by spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant in experimentally contaminated PIF was also tested; we found no viable C. sakazakii cells remaining in PIF rehydrated with 30% kefir supernatant solution for 1 h, demonstrating that the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against C. sakazakii could be applied in real food samples.

  7. Identification of bioactive peptides in hypoallergenic infant milk formulas by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Català-Clariana, Sergio; Benavente, Fernando; Giménez, Estela; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Víctoria

    2010-12-17

    In this study, we use capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) for the identification of bioactive peptides in hypoallergenic infant milk formulas (IF), which are complex bovine milk protein hydrolysates. A sample clean-up pretreatment with a citrate buffer containing dithiothreitol and urea followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with different reversed-phase commercial cartridges was investigated to achieve optimum detection sensitivity in CE-MS. SPE with C18, StrataX and Oasis HLB cartridges allowed detection of the largest number of low molecular mass components, but combination of C18 and StrataX results was enough to achieve an excellent coverage of the studied IF. The monoisotopic molecular mass values of the low molecular mass components obtained by capillary electrophoresis ion-trap mass spectrometry (CE-IT-MS) allowed the tentative identification of nine bioactive sequences. Only the identification of five of them could be confirmed when accurate mass measurements were performed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF-MS), namely LKP, IPY, ALPM, PGPIHN and VAGTWY, which were reported to present angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antimicrobial activity (only VAGTWY).

  8. Interregional foodborne salmonellosis outbreak due to powdered infant formula contaminated with lactose-fermenting Salmonella virchow.

    PubMed

    Usera, M A; Echeita, A; Aladueña, A; Blanco, M C; Reymundo, R; Prieto, M I; Tello, O; Cano, R; Herrera, D; Martinez-Navarro, F

    1996-08-01

    Spain's Salmonella surveillance system backed by regionally-based epidemiologists around the country made it possible to detect and halt the spread of a foodborne salmonellosis outbreak due to powdered infant formula contaminated with a lactose-fermenting strain of Salmonella virchow. Forty-eight cases involving children, mostly under 7 months old, were detected in 14 out of Spain's 17 Regions. The outbreak started in January and ended in June 1994. All cases were microbiologically confirmed. The implicated strain had a 3.6 kb plasmid, was susceptible to all antimicrobials tested except nitrofurantoin and was phagetype 4a. Isolates from 8 of 24 Brand "A" milk samples tested had the same characteristics as case isolates. All affected/suspect batches of Brand "A" milk were destroyed and the product withdrawn from sale, which led to the end of the outbreak. This incident underscores the importance of maintaining surveillance systems able to detect and prevent foodborne outbreaks and alert to the possibility of isolating unusual lactose-fermenting Salmonella serotypes in especially sensitive food products.

  9. Comparison of mass spectrometry-based electronic nose and solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique to assess infant formula oxidation.

    PubMed

    Fenaille, François; Visani, Piero; Fumeaux, René; Milo, Christian; Guy, Philippe A

    2003-04-23

    Two headspace techniques based on mass spectrometry detection (MS), electronic nose, and solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) were evaluated for their ability to differentiate various infant formula powders based on changes of their volatiles upon storage. The electronic nose gave unresolved MS fingerprints of the samples gas phases that were further submitted to principal component analysis (PCA). Such direct MS recording combined to multivariate treatment enabled a rapid differentiation of the infant formulas over a 4 week storage test. Although MS-based electronic nose advantages are its easy-to-use aspect and its meaningful data interpretation obtained with a high throughput (100 samples per 24 h), its greatest disadvantage is that the present compounds could not be identified and quantified. For these reasons, a SPME-GC/MS measurement was also investigated. This technique allowed the identification of saturated aldehydes as the main volatiles present in the headspace of infant milk powders. An isotope dilution assay was further developed to quantitate hexanal as a potential indicator of infant milk powder oxidation. Thus, hexanal content was found to vary from roughly 500 and 3500 microg/kg for relatively non-oxidized and oxidized infant formulas, respectively.

  10. Human milk vs. cow's milk and the evolution of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Hernell, Olle

    2011-01-01

    Until the early 20th century, a wet nurse was the only safe alternative to breastfeeding, one reason being that each species has a unique composition of its milk. When techniques for chemical analyses of milks and assessment of the energy requirements of infants became available during the 19th century, reasonably safe breast milk substitutes started to be developed. Successively, these were developed into modern infant formulas during the 20th century using human milk composition as reference and cow's milk as protein source. Even with a composition similar to human milk there are differences in performance between formula-fed and breastfed infants. Novel ingredients and new techniques within the dairy industry will contribute to minimize these differences and so might techniques in molecular biology allowing large scale production of recombinant human milk proteins. This technique may be used for production of bioactive substances present in low concentrations in human milk but absent from bovine milk with proven effect on nutrient utilization or other health benefits. For formulas containing novel ingredients with potent biological activities produced with new techniques it will be extremely important that their safety and efficacy are rigorously evaluated because 'functional effects' are not necessarily the same as health benefits. PMID:21335987

  11. Generation of furosine and color in infant/enteral formula-resembling systems.

    PubMed

    Rufián-Henares, José Angel; García-Villanova, Belén; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo

    2004-08-25

    The extent of the Maillard reaction was studied by measuring furosine and color formation in infant and enteral formula-resembling model systems prepared by mixing calcium caseinate, laboratory-obtained or commercial whey protein with lactose or dextrinomaltose (ingredients similar to those used in infant and enteral formula manufacture) and heating the mixture at 100, 120, or 140 degrees C for 0-30 min. The furosine determination was performed by HPLC and the color determination by measuring colorimetric parameters L, a, and b in a reflection photometer. The first steps of the Maillard reaction could be followed by furosine determination when initial ingredients had low thermal damage. Hence, furosine may be an indicator of low thermal damage in ingredients with <100 mg/100 g of protein. At the concentrations used in these model systems, similar to those in infant and enteral formulas, furosine values (indirect measure of lysine losses) were higher in lactose than in dextrinomaltose systems, in which only glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose among all of the sugars present showed reactivity with casein. Finally, the advanced steps could be followed by color determination when the initial ingredients had high thermal damage or the model systems were heated at high temperature or for a long time. Among the parameters assayed, b was the most sensitive.

  12. Human milk vs. cow's milk and the evolution of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Hernell, Olle

    2011-01-01

    Until the early 20th century, a wet nurse was the only safe alternative to breastfeeding, one reason being that each species has a unique composition of its milk. When techniques for chemical analyses of milks and assessment of the energy requirements of infants became available during the 19th century, reasonably safe breast milk substitutes started to be developed. Successively, these were developed into modern infant formulas during the 20th century using human milk composition as reference and cow's milk as protein source. Even with a composition similar to human milk there are differences in performance between formula-fed and breastfed infants. Novel ingredients and new techniques within the dairy industry will contribute to minimize these differences and so might techniques in molecular biology allowing large scale production of recombinant human milk proteins. This technique may be used for production of bioactive substances present in low concentrations in human milk but absent from bovine milk with proven effect on nutrient utilization or other health benefits. For formulas containing novel ingredients with potent biological activities produced with new techniques it will be extremely important that their safety and efficacy are rigorously evaluated because 'functional effects' are not necessarily the same as health benefits.

  13. The Economic Impact of Lower Protein Infant Formula for the Children of Overweight and Obese Mothers.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kevin; Möller, Jörgen; Basarir, Hasan; Orfanos, Panagiotis; Detzel, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The global prevalence of obesity is rising rapidly, highlighting the importance of understanding risk factors related to the condition. Childhood obesity, which has itself become increasingly prevalent, is an important predictor of adulthood obesity. Studies suggest that the protein content consumed in infanthood is an important predictor of weight gain in childhood, which may contribute to higher body mass index (BMI). For instance, there is evidence that a lower protein infant formula (lpIF) for infants of overweight or obese mothers can offer advantages over currently-used infant formulas with regard to preventing excessive weight gain. The current study used health economic modelling to predict the long-term clinical and economic outcomes in Mexico associated with lpIF compared to a currently-used formula. A discrete event simulation was constructed to extrapolate the outcomes of trials on the use of formula in infanthood to changes in lifetime BMI, the health outcomes due to the changes in BMI and the healthcare system costs, productivity and quality of life impact associated with these outcomes. The model predicts that individuals who receive lpIF in infancy go on to have lower BMI levels throughout their lives, are less likely to be obese or develop obesity-related disease, live longer, incur fewer health system costs and have improved productivity. Simulation-based economic modelling suggests that the benefits seen in the short term, with the use of lpIF over a currently-used formula, could translate into considerable health and economic benefits in the long term. Modelling over such long timeframes is inevitably subject to uncertainty. Further research should be undertaken to improve the certainty of the model. PMID:26729161

  14. The Economic Impact of Lower Protein Infant Formula for the Children of Overweight and Obese Mothers.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kevin; Möller, Jörgen; Basarir, Hasan; Orfanos, Panagiotis; Detzel, Patrick

    2016-01-02

    The global prevalence of obesity is rising rapidly, highlighting the importance of understanding risk factors related to the condition. Childhood obesity, which has itself become increasingly prevalent, is an important predictor of adulthood obesity. Studies suggest that the protein content consumed in infanthood is an important predictor of weight gain in childhood, which may contribute to higher body mass index (BMI). For instance, there is evidence that a lower protein infant formula (lpIF) for infants of overweight or obese mothers can offer advantages over currently-used infant formulas with regard to preventing excessive weight gain. The current study used health economic modelling to predict the long-term clinical and economic outcomes in Mexico associated with lpIF compared to a currently-used formula. A discrete event simulation was constructed to extrapolate the outcomes of trials on the use of formula in infanthood to changes in lifetime BMI, the health outcomes due to the changes in BMI and the healthcare system costs, productivity and quality of life impact associated with these outcomes. The model predicts that individuals who receive lpIF in infancy go on to have lower BMI levels throughout their lives, are less likely to be obese or develop obesity-related disease, live longer, incur fewer health system costs and have improved productivity. Simulation-based economic modelling suggests that the benefits seen in the short term, with the use of lpIF over a currently-used formula, could translate into considerable health and economic benefits in the long term. Modelling over such long timeframes is inevitably subject to uncertainty. Further research should be undertaken to improve the certainty of the model.

  15. The Economic Impact of Lower Protein Infant Formula for the Children of Overweight and Obese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Kevin; Möller, Jörgen; Basarir, Hasan; Orfanos, Panagiotis; Detzel, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The global prevalence of obesity is rising rapidly, highlighting the importance of understanding risk factors related to the condition. Childhood obesity, which has itself become increasingly prevalent, is an important predictor of adulthood obesity. Studies suggest that the protein content consumed in infanthood is an important predictor of weight gain in childhood, which may contribute to higher body mass index (BMI). For instance, there is evidence that a lower protein infant formula (lpIF) for infants of overweight or obese mothers can offer advantages over currently-used infant formulas with regard to preventing excessive weight gain. The current study used health economic modelling to predict the long-term clinical and economic outcomes in Mexico associated with lpIF compared to a currently-used formula. A discrete event simulation was constructed to extrapolate the outcomes of trials on the use of formula in infanthood to changes in lifetime BMI, the health outcomes due to the changes in BMI and the healthcare system costs, productivity and quality of life impact associated with these outcomes. The model predicts that individuals who receive lpIF in infancy go on to have lower BMI levels throughout their lives, are less likely to be obese or develop obesity-related disease, live longer, incur fewer health system costs and have improved productivity. Simulation-based economic modelling suggests that the benefits seen in the short term, with the use of lpIF over a currently-used formula, could translate into considerable health and economic benefits in the long term. Modelling over such long timeframes is inevitably subject to uncertainty. Further research should be undertaken to improve the certainty of the model. PMID:26729161

  16. Problem-Solving Formula for Failure to Thrive in Breast-fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Verity H.

    1990-01-01

    Failure to thrive and insufficient milk are common reasons given for terminating breast-feeding early. Mothers often doubt their natural ability to successfully suckle a young infant. This perceived inadequacy may be reinforced by health professionals who advise supplemental formula feeds to ensure rapid weight gain before an accurate diagnosis has been made. The growth of healthy infants depends on maternal milk production, milk transfer at the breasts, and the quantity and quality of milk intake by the baby. Problems with any one of these areas can present as failure to thrive. The author focuses on a diagnostic approach to failure to thrive in a breast-fed infant and outlines ways to assess maternal lactation ability, milk production, milk transfer, and milk intake. The diagnosis of failure to thrive is often simple and follows sound physiological and anatomical principles. ImagesFigure 2Figure 2Figure 2 PMID:21233923

  17. Quantitative determination of sodium monofluoroacetate "1080" in infant formulas and dairy products by isotope dilution LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Bessaire, Thomas; Tarres, Adrienne; Goyon, Alexandre; Mottier, Pascal; Dubois, Mathieu; Tan, Wan Ping; Delatour, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    A fast and easy-to-use confirmatory liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based-method was developed for the analysis of the pesticide sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA, also called "1080") in infant formulas and related dairy products. Extraction of the compound encompassed sample reconstitution and liquid-liquid extraction under acidic conditions. Time-consuming solid-phase extraction steps for clean-up and enrichment and tedious derivatisation were thus avoided. Resulting sample extracts were analysed by electrospray ionisation (ESI) in negative mode. Quantification was performed by the isotopic dilution approach using (13)C-labelled MFA as internal standard. The procedure was validated according to the European document SANCO/12571/2013 and performance parameters such as linearity (r(2) > 0.99), precision (RSD(r) ≤ 9%, RSD(iR) ≤ 11%) and recovery (96-117%) fulfilled its requirements. Limit of quantifications (LOQ) was 1 µg kg(-1) for infant formulas and related dairy products except for whey proteins powders with a LOQ of 5 µg kg(-1). Method ruggedness was further assessed in another laboratory devoted to routine testing for quality control. PMID:26366530

  18. Quantitative determination of sodium monofluoroacetate "1080" in infant formulas and dairy products by isotope dilution LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Bessaire, Thomas; Tarres, Adrienne; Goyon, Alexandre; Mottier, Pascal; Dubois, Mathieu; Tan, Wan Ping; Delatour, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    A fast and easy-to-use confirmatory liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based-method was developed for the analysis of the pesticide sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA, also called "1080") in infant formulas and related dairy products. Extraction of the compound encompassed sample reconstitution and liquid-liquid extraction under acidic conditions. Time-consuming solid-phase extraction steps for clean-up and enrichment and tedious derivatisation were thus avoided. Resulting sample extracts were analysed by electrospray ionisation (ESI) in negative mode. Quantification was performed by the isotopic dilution approach using (13)C-labelled MFA as internal standard. The procedure was validated according to the European document SANCO/12571/2013 and performance parameters such as linearity (r(2) > 0.99), precision (RSD(r) ≤ 9%, RSD(iR) ≤ 11%) and recovery (96-117%) fulfilled its requirements. Limit of quantifications (LOQ) was 1 µg kg(-1) for infant formulas and related dairy products except for whey proteins powders with a LOQ of 5 µg kg(-1). Method ruggedness was further assessed in another laboratory devoted to routine testing for quality control.

  19. Novel insights into human lactation as a driver of infant formula development.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Progress in research on human lactation and breast milk has advanced our knowledge about the significance of breast milk for the recipient infant and the effects of various components on long-term outcomes. Recent findings have expanded our knowledge in this area. Several growth factors and cytokines are present in breast milk and their capacity to persist in the infant gut and exert their activities is likely to affect maturation of immune function, possibly affecting the development of oral tolerance. A proper balance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3/n-6 ratio) may also be of significance for allergy prevention in children, emphasizing the need for the mother to achieve a balance of these fatty acids in her diet. The recent findings that specific strains of bacteria are present in breast milk and act as probiotics in the early colonization of the infant gut and that human milk oligosaccharides are specific substrates for these probiotic strains may not only affect the defense against pathogens, but also affect energy utilization and development of obesity. Previously neglected milk fat globule membranes contain several components involved in protection against infection and may be an additional arm in the multifaceted shield that breastfed infants have developed against bacterial and viral antagonists. All these findings have implications for development of improved infant formulae. PMID:20664213

  20. Novel insights into human lactation as a driver of infant formula development.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Progress in research on human lactation and breast milk has advanced our knowledge about the significance of breast milk for the recipient infant and the effects of various components on long-term outcomes. Recent findings have expanded our knowledge in this area. Several growth factors and cytokines are present in breast milk and their capacity to persist in the infant gut and exert their activities is likely to affect maturation of immune function, possibly affecting the development of oral tolerance. A proper balance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3/n-6 ratio) may also be of significance for allergy prevention in children, emphasizing the need for the mother to achieve a balance of these fatty acids in her diet. The recent findings that specific strains of bacteria are present in breast milk and act as probiotics in the early colonization of the infant gut and that human milk oligosaccharides are specific substrates for these probiotic strains may not only affect the defense against pathogens, but also affect energy utilization and development of obesity. Previously neglected milk fat globule membranes contain several components involved in protection against infection and may be an additional arm in the multifaceted shield that breastfed infants have developed against bacterial and viral antagonists. All these findings have implications for development of improved infant formulae.

  1. Infant formula ingestion is associated with the development of diabetes in the BB/Wor rat.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C S; Monte, W C

    2000-01-01

    The association between early exposure to cow's milk products in infancy and risk for insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is controversial. We examined whether the ingestion of cow's milk-based infant formula altered the expression of the diabetic syndrome in the BB/Wor rat, an animal model of IDDM. Pregnant BB/Wor dams were obtained from the NIH contract colony at the University of Massachusetts and housed under semi-barrier conditions. Rat pups were intubated with 1 to 2 ml of commercially available cow's milk-based infant formula (Enfamil or Nutramigen) or sham intubated (controls) daily from day 12 to day 25 of life. Pups were weaned at day 25 and monitored for glucosuria daily through 120 days of life. All rats including dams consumed a milk-free rat chow and acidified water ad libitum throughout the study. The mean age of disease onset was 4 to 10 days earlier in Nutramigen-fed and Enfamil-fed rats relative to controls (84+/-3, 78+/-2 and 88+/-4 days, respectively); the mean age of disease onset was significantly different between controls and Enfamil-fed animals (p<0.05). At 120 days, 60% (12/20) of control rats developed diabetes versus 100% of animals fed either type of infant formula prior to weaning (15/15:Enfamil-fed; 19/19:Nutramigen-fed) (p<0.05). These data indicate that direct, early ingestion of cow's milk-based formula was related to the expression of diabetes in the BB/Wor rat.

  2. The effect of hypoallergenic formula on the occurrence of allergic diseases in high risk infants.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Y T; Chou, C C; Hsieh, K H

    1991-01-01

    To study the influence of hypoallergenic milk on the occurrence of allergic diseases, thirty-three high risk, normal full-term newborns were divided into two groups with comparable family allergy score (FAS) and cord serum IgE. Group A consisted of 18 babies fed since birth with regular formula, while group B included 15 babies fed breast milk and/or NAN H.A. (Hypoallergenic infant formula) for the first 6 months of life. Close clinical observations for the appearance of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and wheezing as well as serial examination of total serum IgE and milk-specific IgE antibodies were done during the first year of life. The results showed: 1) Infants fed regular formula had a higher incidence of moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic rhinitis (AR) than those fed NAN H.A. (39% vs 13% for AD; and 33% vs 13% for AR), but the difference was not significant. There was no difference in the incidence of wheezing between these two groups; 2) There was no relationship between cord blood IgE and FAS; 3) Neither the cord blood IgE nor FAS influenced the occurrence of allergic diseases and total serum IgE at one year of age; 4) Hypoallergenic milk (NAN H.A.) could support normal growth and development. In conclusion, a higher incidence of moderate to severe AD and AR was found in high risk infants fed regular formula than in those fed hypoallergenic milk. However, a study with a larger number of babies and a longer period of follow-up is needed to obtain a solid conclusion.

  3. Differences in vitamin E and C profile between infant formula and human milk and relative susceptibility to lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Elisia, Ingrid; Kitts, David D

    2013-01-01

    The vitamin E isoforms and vitamin (vit) C content of infant formulas were compared to human milk and related to relative susceptibilities to lipid peroxidation. We report that a highly distinct vitamin E and C profile exists between formula and human milk. Whileα-tocopherol (α-Toc) is the dominant vit E isoform in human milk, formula contains a substantial amount of α-Toc and δ-Toc that was greater than the level found in human milk (12- and 32-fold, respectively). Vitamin C was also two- fold higher in infant formula compared to human milk. Despite the higher vitamin E and C content, we also observed higher rates of lipid oxidation in the formula when compared to human milk. Storing human milk for one day at refrigeration temperatures did not produce hexanal in human milk, but this storage resulted in an increase in hexanal in formulas. We conclude that the higher concentrations of γ-Toc and δ-Toc in infant formulas did not provide similar protection from lipid oxidation as human milk. We also observed that vit C content was reduced during storage in both infant formula and human milk, which did not occur with the Toc isoforms.

  4. Rapid determination of vitamin D₃ in milk-based infant formulas by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Byung-Man; Jeong, In-Seek; Lee, Moon-Seok; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Park, Jong-Su

    2014-12-15

    A rapid and simple sample preparation method for vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) was developed for emulsified dairy products such as milk-based infant formulas. A sample was mixed in a 50 mL centrifuge tube with the same amount of water and isopropyl alcohol to achieve chemical extraction. Ammonium sulfate was used to induce phase separation. No-heating saponification was performed in the sample tube by adding KOH, NaCl, and NH3. Vitamin D3 was then separated and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results for added recovery tests were in the range 93.11-110.65%, with relative standard deviations between 2.66% and 2.93%. The results, compared to those obtained using a certified reference material (SRM 1849a), were within the range of the certificated values. This method could be implemented in many laboratories that require time and labour saving.

  5. Determination of Chloride in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Potentiometric Titration: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.07.

    PubMed

    Bolong, Wu; Fengxia, Zhang; Xiaoning, Ma; Fengjuan, Zhou; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2016-01-01

    A potentiometric method for determination of chloride was validated against AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR(®)) 2014.015. Ten AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) matrixes, including National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849a, were tested in duplicate on 6 independent days. The repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 0.43 to 1.34%, and the intermediate reproducibility (RSDiR) ranged from 0.80 to 3.04%. All results for NIST SRM 1849a were within the range of the certified concentration (701 ± 17 mg/100 g). Recovery was demonstrated with two overspike levels, 50 and 100%, in the 10 SPIFAN matrixes. Samples were tested in duplicate on 3 different days, and all results were within the SMPR requirement of 95 to 105%. The LOQs of the method for powdered products and ready-to-feed or reconstituted products were 20 mg/100 g and 2.2 mg/100 mL, respectively. A wide analytical range from the LOQ to 99.5% chlorine content can be reached with an appropriate dilution factor, but in practice, the upper analytical value observed in routine matrix testing was approximately 1080 mg/100 g in skim milk powder. This is a rapid, simple, and reliable chlorine-testing method applicable to infant formula, adult nutritionals, and ingredients used in these dairy-based products, such as skim milk powder, desalted whey powder, whey protein powder, and whole milk powder. PMID:26822885

  6. Effects of a low birthweight infant formula containing human milk levels of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, B; Edenhofer, S; Lipowsky, G; Reinhardt, D

    1995-08-01

    Long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (LCP) are considered conditionally essential nutrients for low birth weight infants (LBWI). Therefore, enrichment of LBWI formulae with metabolites both linoleic (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic (omega-3) acids at levels typical for human milk has been recommended. However, previous feeding trials with LCP-enriched formulae evaluated only a dietary supplementation with omega-3 LCP from fish oils alone or with both omega-3 and omega-6 LCP at levels considerably lower than usual human milk contents. We studied the effects of an LBWI formula providing the major omega-3 and omega-6 LCP, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids, in amounts similar to those in average human milk. Twenty-seven LBWIs were enrolled in this study when they tolerated full enteral feeding (> or = 130 ml milk/kg/day). Infants either received their own mother's milk (n = 8, birthweight 1218 +/- 146 g, gestational age 30.2 +/- 1.5 weeks, mean +/- SD) fortified with protein and minerals (FM-85, Nestle Ag, Munchen, Germany; dosage 5 g/100 ml milk) or were randomly assigned to blinded batches of an LBWI formula (Prematil, Milupa AG, Friedrichsdorf, Germany) without LCP (n = 10, 1280 +/- 229 g, 31.1 +/- 3.1 weeks) or with LCP (n = 9, 1253 +/- 334 g, 30.4 +/- 3.3 wks.). During the study period of 21 days, the three feeding groups did not differ in growth and feeding tolerances as assessed by occurrence of gastric residuals, spitting, or abdominal distention; however, firms stools were noted more frequently in the two formula groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing Growth of Infants Fed a 100% Whey Extensively Hydrolyzed Formula Compared With a Casein-Based Extensively Hydrolyzed Formula.

    PubMed

    Fields, David; Czerkies, Laura; Sun, Shumei; Storm, Heidi; Saavedra, José; Sorensen, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the growth of healthy infants fed a hypoallergenic 100% whey-based extensively hydrolyzed formula (EHF) with Bifidobacterium lactis (test) with that of infants fed an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (control). Formula-fed infants (14 ± 3 days) were randomized to test or control groups until 112 days of age. Anthropometrics were assessed at 14, 28, 56, 84, and 112 days, and daily records were kept for 2 days prior to study visits. Serum albumin and plasma amino acids at 84 days were assessed in a subset. A total of 282 infants were randomized (124 test, 158 control). Significantly more infants dropped out of the control (56%) as compared with the test (41%) group. Mean daily weight gain was significantly higher in the test group compared with the control group (27.95 ± 5.91 vs 25.93 ± 6.12 g/d; P = .027) with the test group reporting significantly fewer stools (2.2 vs 3.6 stools/d; P < .0001). The control group reported significantly more days with >3 loose stools/d and a higher incidence of vomiting as compared with the test group. There were no differences in gas, mood, sleep, or serum albumin. Plasma arginine and valine were significantly lower in the test group, whereas leucine and lysine were higher; all values were within normal limits. Significantly more adverse events attributed to the study formula were reported in the control group. The 100% whey-based hypoallergenic EHF containing Bifidobacterium lactis and medium chain triglycerides supported growth of healthy infants. Future studies on the application of this formula in clinically indicated populations are warranted.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing Growth of Infants Fed a 100% Whey Extensively Hydrolyzed Formula Compared With a Casein-Based Extensively Hydrolyzed Formula

    PubMed Central

    Fields, David; Czerkies, Laura; Sun, Shumei; Storm, Heidi; Saavedra, José; Sorensen, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the growth of healthy infants fed a hypoallergenic 100% whey-based extensively hydrolyzed formula (EHF) with Bifidobacterium lactis (test) with that of infants fed an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (control). Formula-fed infants (14 ± 3 days) were randomized to test or control groups until 112 days of age. Anthropometrics were assessed at 14, 28, 56, 84, and 112 days, and daily records were kept for 2 days prior to study visits. Serum albumin and plasma amino acids at 84 days were assessed in a subset. A total of 282 infants were randomized (124 test, 158 control). Significantly more infants dropped out of the control (56%) as compared with the test (41%) group. Mean daily weight gain was significantly higher in the test group compared with the control group (27.95 ± 5.91 vs 25.93 ± 6.12 g/d; P = .027) with the test group reporting significantly fewer stools (2.2 vs 3.6 stools/d; P < .0001). The control group reported significantly more days with >3 loose stools/d and a higher incidence of vomiting as compared with the test group. There were no differences in gas, mood, sleep, or serum albumin. Plasma arginine and valine were significantly lower in the test group, whereas leucine and lysine were higher; all values were within normal limits. Significantly more adverse events attributed to the study formula were reported in the control group. The 100% whey-based hypoallergenic EHF containing Bifidobacterium lactis and medium chain triglycerides supported growth of healthy infants. Future studies on the application of this formula in clinically indicated populations are warranted. PMID:27336009

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing Growth of Infants Fed a 100% Whey Extensively Hydrolyzed Formula Compared With a Casein-Based Extensively Hydrolyzed Formula.

    PubMed

    Fields, David; Czerkies, Laura; Sun, Shumei; Storm, Heidi; Saavedra, José; Sorensen, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the growth of healthy infants fed a hypoallergenic 100% whey-based extensively hydrolyzed formula (EHF) with Bifidobacterium lactis (test) with that of infants fed an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (control). Formula-fed infants (14 ± 3 days) were randomized to test or control groups until 112 days of age. Anthropometrics were assessed at 14, 28, 56, 84, and 112 days, and daily records were kept for 2 days prior to study visits. Serum albumin and plasma amino acids at 84 days were assessed in a subset. A total of 282 infants were randomized (124 test, 158 control). Significantly more infants dropped out of the control (56%) as compared with the test (41%) group. Mean daily weight gain was significantly higher in the test group compared with the control group (27.95 ± 5.91 vs 25.93 ± 6.12 g/d; P = .027) with the test group reporting significantly fewer stools (2.2 vs 3.6 stools/d; P < .0001). The control group reported significantly more days with >3 loose stools/d and a higher incidence of vomiting as compared with the test group. There were no differences in gas, mood, sleep, or serum albumin. Plasma arginine and valine were significantly lower in the test group, whereas leucine and lysine were higher; all values were within normal limits. Significantly more adverse events attributed to the study formula were reported in the control group. The 100% whey-based hypoallergenic EHF containing Bifidobacterium lactis and medium chain triglycerides supported growth of healthy infants. Future studies on the application of this formula in clinically indicated populations are warranted. PMID:27336009

  10. Determination of Chloride in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Automated Potentiometry: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.08.

    PubMed

    Jaudzems, Gregory G

    2015-01-01

    A direct potentiometric method involving titration against a standard volumetric silver nitrate solution using a silver electrode to detect the end point was evaluated for the determination of chloride in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. It was assessed for compliance against AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR®) established by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN). A single-laboratory validation (SLV) study was conducted as a first step in the process to validate the method. In this SLV, 17 SPIFAN matrixes representing a range of infant formula and adult nutritional products were evaluated for their chloride content. The analytical range was found to be between 1.4 and 1060 mg/100 g reconstituted product or ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid. The LOQ was estimated as 1.4 mg/100 g. Method repeatability was between 0.03 and 1.60% in the range of 20 to 167 mg/100 g RTF, and intermediate precision was between 0.09 and 2.77% in the same range. Recovery values based on spiking experiments at two different levels of chloride ranged from 99.0 to 103% for 15 different SPIFAN products. Evaluation of trueness was performed on National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1849a (Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula) and showed 97.2% of the theoretical value, with no bias at the 95% confidence level. Based on the results of the SLV, the method met the SMPR and was approved as a First Action method by the AOAC Expert Review Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals on March 17, 2015.

  11. Determination of Chloride in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Automated Potentiometry: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.08.

    PubMed

    Jaudzems, Gregory G

    2015-01-01

    A direct potentiometric method involving titration against a standard volumetric silver nitrate solution using a silver electrode to detect the end point was evaluated for the determination of chloride in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. It was assessed for compliance against AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR®) established by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN). A single-laboratory validation (SLV) study was conducted as a first step in the process to validate the method. In this SLV, 17 SPIFAN matrixes representing a range of infant formula and adult nutritional products were evaluated for their chloride content. The analytical range was found to be between 1.4 and 1060 mg/100 g reconstituted product or ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid. The LOQ was estimated as 1.4 mg/100 g. Method repeatability was between 0.03 and 1.60% in the range of 20 to 167 mg/100 g RTF, and intermediate precision was between 0.09 and 2.77% in the same range. Recovery values based on spiking experiments at two different levels of chloride ranged from 99.0 to 103% for 15 different SPIFAN products. Evaluation of trueness was performed on National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1849a (Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula) and showed 97.2% of the theoretical value, with no bias at the 95% confidence level. Based on the results of the SLV, the method met the SMPR and was approved as a First Action method by the AOAC Expert Review Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals on March 17, 2015. PMID:26525259

  12. Characteristics of enterotoxin distribution, hemolysis, lecithinase, and starch hydrolysis of Bacillus cereus isolated from infant formulas and ready-to-eat foods.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Yeon; Park, Jong-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous environmental microbe implicated as a main cause of food poisoning with various symptoms, depending on the strain type and the isolation source. In this study, the potential virulence factors and biochemical properties of B. cereus isolated from infant formulas and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods were analyzed and compared. A total of 347 B. cereus strains were isolated and identified from 687 infant food formulas and RTE food samples. All the isolates had one or more enterotoxin genes, and one-half of the strains had all 3 enterotoxin genes (hbl, nhe, and cytK) that are involved in food poisoning in humans. Here, all the 3 genes were detected in 50% of the B. cereus isolates from RTE foods and only 14% of the isolates were identified from infant formulas. The latter harbored low cytK and bceT, and very low hbl genes. Most B. cereus isolates possessed the hemolysis gene, but not the ces gene. The infant formula isolates showed stronger hemolysis activity than the other isolates. In addition, 26% of the total isolates showed low lecithinase activities and 10% showed high lecithinase activities. A greater number of isolates from the infant formula showed high lecithinase activity than those from the RTE foods. Approximately 83% of the isolates were positive and 17% were negative for starch hydrolysis. Over 90% of the RTE food isolates and only 35% of the infant formula isolates were positive for starch hydrolysis. However, all the strains possessed nhe, but their harboring patterns of hbl and cytK were significantly different. Most starch-hydrolyzing strains possessed hbl, but only 23% nonstarch-hydrolyzing isolates possessed this gene. Moreover, very low nonstarch hydrolyzing strains harbored cytK. Most nonstarch-hydrolyzing isolates showed high lecithinase and strong hemolysis activities, and very low hbl and cytK harboring. In summary, most infant formula isolates showed stronger hemolysis and higher lecithinase activities with lower

  13. Does soy-based infant formula cause ADHD? Update and public policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Crinella, Francis M

    2012-04-01

    An earlier article hypothesized a relationship between soy-based infant formulas, manganese (Mn) neurotoxicity and symptoms of ADHD. In this update, more recent literature on ADHD, Mn and Mn neurotoxicity is reviewed, as well as the risks of Mn toxicity that may accompany ingestion of soy-based infant formula. The results of several critical studies are described, including rodent and primate models that demonstrate an association between ingestion of relatively high levels of Mn and: overactivity, disinhibition and inattention; stereotypes and disturbances of social relatedness; and alterations of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and dopamine transporter in critical brain regions. Similar deficits have been shown in children with ADHD. In addition, ADHD-like symptoms of behavioral disinhibition were found to be correlated with Mn content in tooth enamel, apparently deposited at or before the fifth gestational month. The results are discussed in terms of their weight as a risk factor in ADHD, vis-à-vis compelling evidence of genetic, epigenetic and other environmental risk factors associated with the disorder, as well as the appropriateness of additional public policy decisions regarding the safety of soy formula. PMID:22449212

  14. A comparison of polymerase chain reaction and international organization for standardization methods for determination of Enterobacter sakazakii contamination of infant formulas from Chinese mainland markets.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yingwang; Wu, Qingping; Yao, Lin; Dong, Xiaohui; Wu, Kui; Zhang, Jumei

    2009-12-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging foodborne pathogen associated with meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in infants. One of the main transmission vehicles is the commercially available infant formulas. To provide efficient options and direction for detecting E. sakazakii in infant formulas, evaluation of different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the ompA gene, and the alpha-1,4-glucosidase gene (gluA) of this organism, were compared to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) method for detecting E. sakazakii in the 243 commercial infant formula samples. Twelve samples were found to be positive for E. sakazakii by all the PCR assays used, followed by sequencing of PCR products. Ten samples were found to be positive by the ISO method, and all 10 gave positive signals for all the PCR amplifications. In contrast, four false-positive results were generated by single-PCR of the ITS region and one false-positive result targeting the ompA gene, while two false-negative results occurred with the ISO method. Combined with selective enrichment step(s), duplex-PCR targeting ITS and ompA and targeting ompA and gluA genes or single-PCR of the gluA gene can be used to test for contamination by E. sakazakii in infant formulas before they enter the market. PCR techniques will be helpful for routine monitoring and risk assessment for large-scale screenings. PMID:19743923

  15. Determination of vitamin B12 in infant formula and adult nutritionals by surface plasmon resonance: First Action 2011.16 (test kit method).

    PubMed

    Vyas, Pathik; O'Kane, Anthony A; Dowell, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    At the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting" on June 29, 2011, an Expert Review Panel (ERP) agreed to further examine AOAC Official Method 2011.01, "Determination of Vitamin B12 by Surface Plasmon Resonance," for use with infant formula and adult nutritionals. The original collaborative study was conducted using the Biacore Q biosensor instrument and the Biacore Q Qflex Kit Vitamin B12 PI. Samples included in the study were infant formula, cereals, premixes, vitamin tablets, dietary supplements, and baby food. Eleven laboratories participated in the collaborative study. The results demonstrated a repeatability RSD (RSDr) of 1.59-27.8 and HorRat values for reproducibility of 0.34-1.89 in samples with levels ranging from ppm to ppb. The assay studied is a label-free protein binding-based assay that uses the principle of surface plasmon resonance to measure the interaction between vitamin B12 and a specific binding protein by passing a portion of the prepared sample extract combined with binding protein solution across a functionalized sensor chip. The response from the functionalized sensor chip is given as free-binding protein, as the mixture binds to the prepared surface of the chip. The ready-to-use Qflex Kit Vitamin B12 PI provides the reagents and accessories necessary to perform this assay. AOAC Method 2011.01 was approved by the AOAC Method Committee on Food Nutrition for Official First Action status, applicable to a wide range of food products, dietary supplements, and multivitamin premixes. After evaluation of the validation data available, an ERP agreed in June 2011 that the method meets standard method performance requirements, as articulated by the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals. The ERP granted the method First Action status, applicable to infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula.

  16. Effect of an α-Lactalbumin-Enriched Infant Formula Supplemented With Oligofructose on Fecal Microbiota, Stool Characteristics, and Hydration Status

    PubMed Central

    Northington, Robert; Kullen, Martin J.; Yao, Manjiang; Bettler, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the impact of oligofructose (OF)-supplemented infant formula on fecal microbiota, stool characteristics, and hydration. Methods. Ninety-five formula-fed infants were randomized to α-lactalbumin-enriched control formula (CF) or identical formula with 3.0 g/L OF (EF) for 8 weeks; 50 infants fed human milk (HM) were included. Results. Eighty-four infants completed the study, 70 met per-protocol criteria. Over 8 weeks, bifidobacteria increased more in EF than CF group (0.70 vs 0.16 log10 bacterial counts/g dry feces, P = .008); EF was not significantly different from HM group (P = .32). EF group stool consistency was intermediate between CF and HM groups; at week 8, EF group had softer stools than CF (5-point scale: 1 = hard, 5 = watery; consistency score 3.46 vs 2.82, P = .015) without significant differences in stool frequency. Physician-assessed hydration status was normal for all infants. Conclusions. Infant formula with 3.0 g/L OF promoted bifidobacteria growth and softer stools without adversely affecting stool frequency or hydration. PMID:25297064

  17. Toxic Metals (Pb and Cd) and Their Respective Antagonists (Ca and Zn) in Infant Formulas and Milk Marketed in Brasilia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    De Castro, Clarissa S. P.; Arruda, Andréa F.; Da Cunha, Leandro R.; SouzaDe, Jurandir R.; Braga, Jez W. B.; Dórea, José G.

    2010-01-01

    In non-ideal scenarios involving partial or non-breastfeeding, cow’s milk-based dairy products are mainstream in infant feeding. Therefore, it is important to study the concentrations of potentially neurotoxic contaminants (Pb and Cd) and their respective counteracting elements (Ca and Zn) in infant dairy products. Fifty-five brands of infant formulas and milk sold in Brasilia, Brazil were analyzed. The dairy products came from areas in the central-west (26%), southeast (29%) and south of Brazil (36%) extending as far as Argentina (7%) and the Netherlands (2%). For toxic Pb and Cd, median concentrations in powdered samples were 0.109 mg/kg and 0.033 mg/kg, respectively; in fluid samples median Pb concentration was 0.084 mg/kg, but median Cd concentration was below the limit of detection and overall values were below reference safety levels. However, 62% of these samples presented higher Pb concentration values than those established by FAO/WHO. Although the inverse correlation between Cd and Zn (Spearman r = −0.116; P = 0.590) was not statistically significant, the positive correlation between Ca and Pb was (Spearman r = 0.619; P < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a significant correlation between Pb and Cd. Furthermore, the study also revealed that provision of the essential trace element Zn in infant formulas can provide adequate amounts of the recommended daily requirements. Infant formulas and milk sold for consumption by infants and children can be an efficient tool to monitor neurotoxic metal risk exposure among young children. PMID:21139877

  18. Cronobacter Species Contamination of Powdered Infant Formula and the Implications for Neonatal Health

    PubMed Central

    Kalyantanda, Gautam; Shumyak, Lyudmila; Archibald, Lennox Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Cronobacter is a class of Enterobacteriaceae that cause infections in neonates, especially those born prematurely. Over 90% of these infections have been linked epidemiologically to powdered infant formula (PIF). Contamination of PIF can occur at manufacture, reconstitution, or storage of reconstituted product. Intrinsic properties that enable Cronobacter to cause disease include resistance to heat, ultraviolet radiation, oxygen radicals, stomach acids, and pasteurization; an ability to utilize sialic acid (a nutrition additive to PIF that facilitates the organism’s growth and survival), and an exceptional affinity for biofilms in enteral feeding tubes. As part of ongoing endeavors to reduce the incidence of neonatal PIF-associated Cronobacter infections, the World Health Organization and the US Food and Drug Administration have established guidelines for PIF production, preparation for infant feeding, and storage of reconstituted product. PMID:26191519

  19. Characterization of lactosylated proteins of infant formula powders using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Laure F; Parisod, Véronique; Fay, Laurent B; Guy, Philippe A

    2002-08-01

    Infant formula powders were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) to assess the whey proteins quality, which may be altered by the heat treatment used during the processing conditions. Lactosylation was found to be the major chemical modification occurring in whey proteins. In parallel, a two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis was performed on the milk sample and the entire protein patterns were analyzed by nano-ESI-MS after cutting the different gel spots and in-gel trypsin digestion. A highly selective and specific tandem MS technique has been developed to characterize and localize up to ten lactosylation sites in beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) and alpha(S2)-casein. alpha-Lactalbumin (alpha-La), with five lactosylated peptides, was found to be an interesting protein marker in the milk powder sample to detect chemical modification induced by the processing/storage conditions.

  20. The Measurement of Protein in Powdered Milk Products and Infant Formulas: A Review and Recent Developments.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Dave; Evers, Jaap M; Holroyd, Stephen E; Johnson, Richard; Rowan, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are a key nutritional component of both powdered milk and infant formula types of product, and reliable methods for their determination are important for manufacturing and international trade. In this review, we distinguish between methods used for determining protein quality for nutrition purposes and those used for determining chemically defined protein. The former methods cover the ability of a dietary protein source to meet human nutritional requirements for the indispensable amino acids. The latter are chemical methods for the determination of total protein and can be divided into three broad types: total nitrogen determination, direct protein determination, and indirect protein determination. Current techniques and recent developments in each are reviewed. PMID:26823162

  1. An investigation of plasma and salivary oxytocin responses in breast- and formula-feeding mothers of infants

    PubMed Central

    GREWEN, KAREN M.; DAVENPORT, RUSSELL E.; LIGHT, KATHLEEN C.

    2011-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a peptide increasingly studied in relation to human social interactions, affiliation, and clinical disorders. Studies are constrained by use of invasive blood draws and would benefit from a reliable salivary OT assay. Our goals were to examine feasibility of salivary OT measurement, compare salivary to plasma OT responses in 12 breast- and 8 formula-feeding mothers, and assess the degree of correlation between plasma and salivary OT. Using a commercial EIA kit, we measured OT in 5 saliva and 7 plasma samples in a protocol designed to elicit changes in OT (Rest, Infant Interaction, Stress, Feeding). Breast-feeders had higher OT levels than formula-feeders across all conditions in plasma (+36%) and saliva (+23%). OT levels and ranges were similar in saliva and plasma, with slightly greater variance in saliva. Concurrently sampled plasma and salivary OT were correlated at end of Baseline Rest (r = +.59, p = .022) and Post-Stress Recovery (r = +.59, p = .025). These data suggest that salivary OT assay is feasible, and will be of value where plasma samples are not possible. Validation with larger samples is needed. PMID:20102537

  2. Determination of total folates in infant formula and adult nutritionals by trienzyme extraction and UPLC-MS/MS Quantitation: First Action 2011.06.

    PubMed

    Szpylka, John; DeVries, Jon; Cheney, Andrea; House, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The method for "Determination of Total Folates in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals by Trienzyme Extraction and UPLC-MS/MS Quantitation" was submitted to the Folate Working Group for consideration for adoption as Official First Action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. This method uses ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to determine the total folates in infant formulas and adult nutritionals after trienzyme digestion. Deconjugation of the various folate polyglutamates to folate monoglutamates is achieved by using rat plasma conjugase after the sample digestion with protease and a-amylase during the trienzyme digestion process. This method shows linearity of folate concentrations in the range of 10-19 100 microg/100 g. Extension of the range to cover folate concentrations of 5-2 000 000 microg/100 g can be achieved with appropriate adjustment of the sample weight and SPE cleanup loading volume. The recoveries ranged from 94.10 to 101.34%.

  3. The potential use of chickpeas in development of infant follow-on formula

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Undernutrition during childhood is a common disorder in the developing countries, however most research has focussed much on its treatment rather than its prevention. Objective We investigated the potential of using chickpeas in infant follow-on formula production against the requirements of WHO/FAO on complementary foods and EU regulations on follow-on formula. Methods Chickpeas were germinated for 72 hours followed by boiling, drying and dehulling in order to minimise associated anti-nutrition factors. Saccharifying enzymes were used to hydrolyse starch to maltose and the resulting flours were analysed for their protein content and amino acid profile. Results The protein content (percentage) increased from 16.66 ± 0.35 and 20.24 ± 0.50 to 20.00 ± 0.15 and 21.98 ± 0.80 for the processed desi and kabuli cultivar compared to raw chickpeas, respectively (P < 0.05). There was insignificant change (P = 0.05) in amino acid profile following processing and the resulting flour was found to meet the amino acid requirements of WHO/FAO protein reference for 0–24 month’s children. Conclusion The designed chickpea based infant follow-on formula meets the WHO/FAO requirements on complementary foods and also the EU regulations on follow-on formula with minimal addition of oils, minerals and vitamins. It uses chickpea as a common source of carbohydrate and protein hence making it more economical and affordable for the developing countries without compromising the nutrition quality. PMID:24447426

  4. A critical review of methods for comparing estrogenic activity of endogenous and exogenous chemicals in human milk and infant formula.

    PubMed Central

    Borgert, Christopher J; LaKind, Judy S; Witorsch, Raphael J

    2003-01-01

    The two primary sources of nutrition for infants are human milk and infant formula. Both contain an array of endogenous and exogenous chemicals that may act through many separate hormonal mechanisms. The safety of infant nutrition sources has been questioned based on the possibility that exogenous chemicals may exert adverse effects on nursing or formula-fed infants through estrogen-mediated mechanisms. In response to these and other concerns, the National Research Council recommended assessing the estrogenic potency of natural and anthropogenic hormonally active agents. Furthermore, the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency specifically recommended testing chemicals present in human milk as a representative mixture to which large segments of the population are exposed. To date, no clinical or epidemiologic evidence demonstrates that levels of chemicals currently found in human milk or infant formulas cause adverse effects in infants. Nonetheless, the question is sufficiently important to warrant a consideration of how best to evaluate potential estrogenic risks. We reviewed the types of data available for measuring estrogenic potency as well as methods for estimating health risks from mixtures of chemicals in infant nutrition sources that act via estrogenic mechanisms. We conclude that the science is insufficiently developed at this time to allow a credible assessment of health risks to infants based on estimates of estrogenic potency or on an understanding of toxicologic effects mediated by estrogenic mechanisms. However, clinical and epidemiologic data for infant nutrition sources may provide insights about risks of such substances in human milk and infant formulas. PMID:12826475

  5. Do thickening properties of locust bean gum affect the amount of calcium, iron and zinc available for absorption from infant formula? In vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Bosscher, D; Van Caillie-Bertrand, M; Deelstra, H

    2003-07-01

    Locust bean gum acts as a milk thickener in infant formula because of its high apparent viscosity. The effects of such thickening agents on metabolic and physiologic responses during infancy have not been clarified sufficiently. Due to the increased volume of the digest and the bulking and trapping effects, digestion and absorption of nutrients may be influenced in presence of locust bean gum. The central question addressed in this paper is whether the thickening properties of locust bean gum affect the availability of calcium, iron, and zinc. Increasing amounts of powdered locust bean gum were homogenised with infant formula and samples were diluted to 0.14, 0.27, 0.42 and 0.71 g/100 ml. Viscosity of the samples was measured by a Carrie-Med CSL100 rheometer. Available amounts of calcium, iron, and zinc were evaluated using a continuous-flow dialysis model with preliminary digestion. Elemental contents of samples and dialysates were analysed with atomic absorption spectrometry. The first set of experiments showed that addition of locust bean gum to infant formulas increased the viscosity of the luminal contents. Correlations between the locust bean gum concentration and the viscosity of the samples before and after gastric or intestinal digestion were highly significant (0.97). In the second set of experiments, the correlations between the locust bean gum concentration and the amounts of calcium trapped by the locust bean gum fraction also showed high significance (0.93). In the third experimental design, again strong correlations were found between the viscosity of the intestinal digest and the amounts of calcium trapped by the fibre fraction (0.90). For iron and zinc, no such relationships were found. From this experimental set-up it appears that locust bean gum influences calcium availability in infant formulas by means of its physical properties to act as thickening agent, rather than its chemical ability to form complexes as demonstrated earlier with respect

  6. Official Methods for the Determination of Minerals and Trace Elements in Infant Formula and Milk Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The minerals and trace elements that account for about 4% of total human body mass serve as materials and regulators in numerous biological activities in body structure building. Infant formula and milk products are important sources of endogenic and added minerals and trace elements and hence, must comply with regulatory as well as nutritional and safety requirements. In addition, reliable analytical data are necessary to support product content and innovation, health claims, or declaration and specific safety issues. Adequate analytical platforms and methods must be implemented to demonstrate both the compliance and safety assessment of all declared and regulated minerals and trace elements, especially trace-element contaminant surveillance. The first part of this paper presents general information on the mineral composition of infant formula and milk products and their regulatory status. In the second part, a survey describes the main techniques and related current official methods determining minerals and trace elements in infant formula and milk products applied for by various international organizations (AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the International Organization for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the European Committe for Standardization). The third part summarizes method officialization activities by Stakeholder Panels on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals and Stakeholder Panel on Strategic Food Analytical Methods. The final part covers a general discussion focusing on analytical gaps and future trends in inorganic analysis that have been applied for in infant formula and milk-based products. PMID:26821839

  7. Monitoring ultraviolet (UV) radiation inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii in dry infant formula using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Lu, Xiaonan; Swanson, Barry G; Rasco, Barbara A; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen associated with dry infant formula presenting a high risk to low birth weight neonates. The inactivation of C. sakazakii in dry infant formula by ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone and combined with hot water treatment at temperatures of 55, 60, and 65 °C were applied in this study. UV radiation with doses in a range from 12.1 ± 0.30 kJ/m² to 72.8 ± 1.83 kJ/m² at room temperature demonstrated significant inactivation of C. sakazakii in dry infant formula (P < 0.05). UV radiation combining 60 °C hot water treatment increased inactivation of C. sakazakii cells significantly (P < 0.05) in reconstituted infant formula. Significant effects of UV radiation on C. sakazakii inactivation kinetics (D value) were not observed in infant formula reconstituted in 55 and 65 °C water (P > 0.05). The inactivation mechanism was investigated using vibrational spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy detected significant stretching mode changes of macromolecules on the basis of spectral features, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. Minor changes on cell membrane composition of C. sakazakii under UV radiation could be accurately and correctly monitored by infrared spectroscopy coupled with 2nd derivative transformation and principal component analysis.

  8. Official Methods for the Determination of Minerals and Trace Elements in Infant Formula and Milk Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The minerals and trace elements that account for about 4% of total human body mass serve as materials and regulators in numerous biological activities in body structure building. Infant formula and milk products are important sources of endogenic and added minerals and trace elements and hence, must comply with regulatory as well as nutritional and safety requirements. In addition, reliable analytical data are necessary to support product content and innovation, health claims, or declaration and specific safety issues. Adequate analytical platforms and methods must be implemented to demonstrate both the compliance and safety assessment of all declared and regulated minerals and trace elements, especially trace-element contaminant surveillance. The first part of this paper presents general information on the mineral composition of infant formula and milk products and their regulatory status. In the second part, a survey describes the main techniques and related current official methods determining minerals and trace elements in infant formula and milk products applied for by various international organizations (AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the International Organization for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the European Committe for Standardization). The third part summarizes method officialization activities by Stakeholder Panels on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals and Stakeholder Panel on Strategic Food Analytical Methods. The final part covers a general discussion focusing on analytical gaps and future trends in inorganic analysis that have been applied for in infant formula and milk-based products.

  9. Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ryan W; Goran, Michael I

    2015-07-16

    Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ≥20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either <10% or >10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children.

  10. Isolation and Identification Enterobacter asburiae from Consumed Powdered Infant Formula Milk (PIF) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

    PubMed

    Mardaneh, Jalal; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen that its strains are isolated from a variety of clinical and environmental specimens. Since powdered infant formula milk (PIF) is not a sterile product, it is an excellent medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify E. asburiae from PIF in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of this bacterium. A total 125 PIF samples were purchased from drug stores between June 2011 to March 2012. E. asburiae was isolated according to FDA method. For final confirmation, biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system were used. The drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Out of the 125 PIF samples investigated, 2 (1.6%) samples were positive for E. asburiae. All isolated strains were uniformly susceptible to aztreonam, cefotaxim, amikacin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, meropenem, tetracycline, ceftazidime, and colistin. Variable susceptibility was seen to the some antimicrobial agents tested. Each country should categorize its own designed guidelines for the preparation and handling of PIF adapted to the local environment. Moreover, the pathogenesis of the E. asburiae in infants hospitalized in NICU and other groups such as immunosuppressed patients and HIV infected individuals is uncertain and requires further study. PMID:26853289

  11. Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ryan W; Goran, Michael I

    2015-07-01

    Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ≥20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either <10% or >10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children. PMID:26193309

  12. Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ryan W.; Goran, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ≥20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either <10% or >10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children. PMID:26193309

  13. Isolation and Identification Enterobacter asburiae from Consumed Powdered Infant Formula Milk (PIF) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

    PubMed

    Mardaneh, Jalal; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen that its strains are isolated from a variety of clinical and environmental specimens. Since powdered infant formula milk (PIF) is not a sterile product, it is an excellent medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify E. asburiae from PIF in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of this bacterium. A total 125 PIF samples were purchased from drug stores between June 2011 to March 2012. E. asburiae was isolated according to FDA method. For final confirmation, biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system were used. The drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Out of the 125 PIF samples investigated, 2 (1.6%) samples were positive for E. asburiae. All isolated strains were uniformly susceptible to aztreonam, cefotaxim, amikacin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, meropenem, tetracycline, ceftazidime, and colistin. Variable susceptibility was seen to the some antimicrobial agents tested. Each country should categorize its own designed guidelines for the preparation and handling of PIF adapted to the local environment. Moreover, the pathogenesis of the E. asburiae in infants hospitalized in NICU and other groups such as immunosuppressed patients and HIV infected individuals is uncertain and requires further study.

  14. A neutral sampling formula for multiple samples and an 'exact' test of neutrality.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Rampal S

    2007-07-01

    As the utility of the neutral theory of biodiversity is increasingly being recognized, there is also an increasing need for proper tools to evaluate the relative importance of neutral processes (dispersal limitation and stochasticity). One of the key features of neutral theory is its close link to data: sampling formulas, giving the probability of a data set conditional on a set of model parameters, have been developed for parameter estimation and model comparison. However, only single local samples can be handled with the currently available sampling formulas, whereas data are often available for many small spatially separated plots. Here, I present a sampling formula for multiple, spatially separated samples from the same metacommunity, which is a generalization of earlier sampling formulas. I also provide an algorithm to generate data sets with the model and I introduce a general test of neutrality that does not require an alternative model; this test compares the probability of the observed data (calculated using the new sampling formula) with the probability of model-generated data sets. I illustrate this with tree abundance data from three large Panamanian neotropical forest plots. When the test is performed with model parameters estimated from the three plots, the model cannot be rejected; however, when parameter estimates previously reported for BCI are used, the model is strongly rejected. This suggests that neutrality cannot explain the structure of the three Panamanian tree communities on the local (BCI) and regional (Panama Canal Zone) scale simultaneously. One should be aware, however, that aspects of the model other than neutrality may be responsible for its failure. I argue that the spatially implicit character of the model is a potential candidate. PMID:17542939

  15. Short communication: determination of potential 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde and 2-furaldehyde compounds in follow-on milks and infant formulas using the high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Er Demirhan, B; Demirhan, B; Sönmez, C; Torul, H; Tamer, U; Yentür, G

    2015-02-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the levels of potential 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (F) in 109 baby food samples (60 follow-on milks, 49 cereal- and milk-based infant formulas) obtained from different markets in Ankara (Turkey). Potential HMF and F compounds were determined by HPLC. Mean levels (± standard error) of HMF and F of follow-on milk samples were found to be 237.85±18.25 and 9.44±0.39 µg/100mL, respectively. Regarding the infant formulas, mean levels of HMF and F were found to be 905.41±91.94 and 13.22±1.21 µg/100g. As a result, potential HMF was determined in all of the samples; potential F was determined in all the samples except 1. The mean levels of potential HMF and F of infant formulas were higher than mean levels of potential HMF and F of follow-on milks. In addition, HMF and F values of some samples with an imminent expiration date were found to be higher than HMF and F values of the other samples. At present, no limits have been established in the Turkish Food Codex (TFC) for furfural compounds concentrations in infant formula and milks. Establishing limits related to these compounds would be important for protecting the quality of infant foods.

  16. Multipoint NIR spectroscopy for gross composition analysis of powdered infant formula under various motion conditions.

    PubMed

    Cama-Moncunill, Raquel; Markiewicz-Keszycka, Maria; Dixit, Yash; Cama-Moncunill, Xavier; Casado-Gavalda, Maria P; Cullen, Patrick J; Sullivan, Carl

    2016-07-01

    Powdered infant formula (PIF) is a worldwide, industrially produced, human milk substitute. Manufacture of PIF faces strict quality controls in order to ensure that the product meets all compositional requirements. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a rapid, non-destructive and well-qualified technique for food quality assessments. The use of fibre-optic NIR sensors allows measuring in-line and at real-time, and can record spectra from different stages of the process. The non-contact character of fibre-optic sensors can be enhanced by fitting collimators, which allow operation at various distances. The system, based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer, records four spectra concurrently, rather than consecutively as in the "quasi-simultaneous" multipoint NIR systems. In the present study, a novel multipoint NIR spectroscopy system equipped with four fibre-optic probes with collimators was assessed to determine carbohydrate and protein contents of PIF samples under static and motion conditions (0.02, 0.15 and 0.30m/s) to simulate possible industrial scenarios. Best results were obtained under static conditions providing a R(2) of calibration of 0.95 and RMSEP values of 1.89%. Yet, considerably low values of RMSEP, for instance 2.70% at 0.15m/s, were provided with the in-motion predictions, demonstrating the system's potential for in/on-line applications at various levels of speed. The current work also evaluated the viability of using general off-line calibrations developed under static conditions for on/in-line applications subject to motion. To this end, calibrations in both modes were developed and compared. Best results were obtained with specific calibrations; however, reasonably accurate models were obtained with the general calibration. Furthermore, this work illustrated independency of the collimator-probe setup by characterizing PIF samples simultaneously recorded according to their carbohydrate content, even when measured under different conditions. Therefore

  17. Pharmacokinetics of isoflavones from soy infant formula in neonatal and adult rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Doerge, Daniel R; Woodling, Kellie A; Churchwell, Mona I; Fleck, Stefanie C; Helferich, William G

    2016-06-01

    Consumption of soy infant formula represents a unique exposure scenario in which developing children ingest a mixture of endocrine-active isoflavones along with a substantial portion of daily nutrition. Genistein and daidzein were administered as glucoside conjugates to neonatal rhesus monkeys in a fortified commercial soy formula at 5, 35, and 70 days after birth. A single gavage dosing with 10 mg/kg bw genistein and 6 mg/kg bw daidzein was chosen to represent the upper range of typical daily consumption and to facilitate complete pharmacokinetic measurements for aglycone and total isoflavones and equol. Adult monkeys were also gavaged with the same formula solution at 2.8 and 1.6 mg/kg bw genistein and daidzein, respectively, and by IV injection with isoflavone aglycones (5.2 and 3.2 mg/kg bw, respectively) to determine absolute bioavailability. Significant differences in internal exposure were observed between neonatal and adult monkeys, with higher values for dose-adjusted AUC and Cmax of the active aglycone isoflavones in neonates. The magnitude and frequency of equol production by the gut microbiome were also significantly greater in adults. These findings are consistent with immaturity of metabolic and/or physiological systems in developing non-human primates that reduces total clearance of soy isoflavones from the body. PMID:27084109

  18. Polydextrose enrichment of infant formula demonstrates prebiotic characteristics by altering intestinal microbiota, organic acid concentrations, and cytokine expression in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Herfel, Tina M; Jacobi, Sheila K; Lin, Xi; Fellner, Vivek; Walker, D Carey; Jouni, Zeina E; Odle, Jack

    2011-12-01

    Oligosaccharides, the 3rd-most abundant component in human milk, are virtually absent from infant formulas and from the cow milk on which most are based. In breast-fed infants, human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) act as both receptor analogs, interfering with pathogen adhesion, and as prebiotics, stimulating the growth of certain commensal bacteria (e.g. bifidobacteria) and supporting the innate immunity. To further align the functional properties of infant formula with those of human milk, polydextrose (PDX) is proposed as a substitute for HMO. To determine the prebiotic functionality of PDX, 1-d-old pigs were fed a cow milk-based formula supplemented with increasing concentrations of PDX (0, 1.7, 4.3, 8.5, or 17 g/L) for 18 d (n = 13). Additional reference groups included pigs sampled at d 0 and sow-reared pigs sampled at d 18 (n = 12). Ileal Lactobacilli CFU, but not Bifidobacteria, increased linearly with increasing PDX (P = 0.02). The propionic acid concentration in digesta linearly increased with the PDX level (P = 0.045) and lactic acid increased linearly by 5-fold with increasing PDX (P = 0.001). Accordingly, digesta pH decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as PDX increased, with a maximal reduction approaching 0.5 pH units in pigs fed 17 g/L. Expression of TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-8 showed a negative quadratic pattern in response to PDX supplementation, declining at intermediate concentrations and rebounding at higher concentrations of PDX. In summary, PDX enrichment of infant formula resulted in a prebiotic effect by increasing ileal lactobacilli and propionic and lactic acid concentrations and decreasing pH with associated alterations in ileal cytokine expression.

  19. Effect of adding different thickening agents on the viscosity properties and in vitro mineral availability of infant formula.

    PubMed

    González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen

    2014-09-15

    The effect of adding different thickening agents (locust bean gum (LBG), modified corn and rice starches (MCS, MRS)) to an infant formula on both in vitro mineral availability (Ca, Fe and Zn), quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), and formula viscosity, after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, was investigated. LBG was the most effective agent to increase formula thickness. However, it showed a negative effect on Ca, Fe and Zn in vitro solubility and dialysability. MCS and MRS only affected calcium solubility and dialysability when they were used at ⩾50% of the maximum legal limit. No negative effect was observed for Fe and Zn when modified starches were added at the different concentrations assessed. The phytate content in the thickening ingredients was also analysed. Despite finding a considerable amount of phytic acid in the raw ingredients, its final concentration in the infant formula was insufficient to decrease in vitro mineral availability. PMID:24767020

  20. Amino acid ratings of different forms of infant formulas based on varying degrees of processing.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, G

    1991-01-01

    Amino acid profiles, protein digestibility and/or amino acid bioavailability for the various forms (powder, liquid concentrate, ready-to-use, etc.) of infant formulas (involving varying degrees of heat processing during preparation) have been determined. Amino acid scores (based on the single most limiting amino acid) were calculated by comparing the essential amino acid data with that of human milk. Amino acid scores were multiplied by total protein (g/100 kcal) to obtain amino acid ratings, which take into account both quality and quantity of protein. Amino acid scores for milk- and soy-based formulas ranged from 49 to 90 and 59 to 81%, respectively, due to deficiencies in methionine plus cystine and/or tryptophan. The deficiency in the limiting amino acids was more marked in liquid concentrate than powder prepared by the same manufacturer. Because of significantly higher total protein contents (g/100 kcal) of soy- (2.65-3.68) and milk-based (2.20-2.95) formulas compared to human milk (1.5), the relative amino acid ratings (human milk = 100) of all formulas except two milk-based liquid concentrates and one ready-to-feed (with values of 77-87%) were greater than 100%. When corrected for protein digestibility, the relative amino acid ratings for all four liquid concentrates were less than 100%. Lower levels of digestible protein and bioavailable amino acids in liquid concentrate compared with powder (prepared by the same manufacturer) would suggest that inferior protein quality of liquid concentrates may be due to more severe heat treatment involved in their preparation.

  1. Enzymatic interesterification of tripalmitin with vegetable oil blends for formulation of caprine milk infant formula analogs.

    PubMed

    Maduko, C O; Akoh, C C; Park, Y W

    2007-02-01

    The structure of triacylglycerols in vegetable oil blends was enzymatically modified, and the blends were incorporated into skim caprine milk to produce goat milk-based infant formula analogs, homologous to human milk. A modified lipid containing palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids, resembling the composition of human milk fat, was synthesized by enzymatic interesterification reactions between tripalmitin and a vegetable oil blend containing a 2.5:1.1:0.8 ratio of coconut, safflower, and soybean oils. A commercial sn-1,3-specific lipase obtained from Rhyzomucor miehei, Lipozyme RM IM, was used as the biocatalyst. The effects of substrate molar ratio and reaction time on the incorporation of palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids at the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerols were investigated. The fatty acid composition and sn-2 position of the experimental formulas were analyzed using gas chromatography. Results showed that the highest incorporation of palmitic acid was obtained at 12 h of incubation at 55 degrees C with a substrate molar ratio of 1:0.4 of tripalmitin to vegetable oil blend. However, the modified milk interesterified for 12 h at a 1:1 molar ratio had a greater resemblance to human milk compared with the other formulas. The level of oleic acid incorporation at the sn-2 position increased with the molar ratio of tripalmitin to vegetable oil blend. It was concluded that, unlike the original goat milk and other formulas, the formulated caprine milk with a molar ratio of 1:1 and a 12-h incubation was similar to the fatty acid composition of human milk. PMID:17235135

  2. A systematic review of controlled trials of lower-protein or energy-containing infant formulas for use by healthy full-term infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infant formulas have historically been developed based on providing macronutrients at intake concentrations approximately matching the composition of human milk. In most countries, targets of 1.4–1.5 g of protein/dL and 20 kcal/oz (67–68 kcal/dL) have been set as the protein and energy concentration...

  3. Infant formula supplemented with polyamines alters the intestinal microbiota in neonatal BALB/cOlaHsd mice.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gallego, Carlos; Collado, María C; Ilo, Toni; Jaakkola, Ulla-Marjut; Bernal, María J; Periago, María J; Salminen, Seppo; Ros, Gaspar; Frias, Rafael

    2012-11-01

    Polyamines play a critical role in the development of intestinal and immune systems during the infant breastfeeding period, but the effect of polyamines on the microbiota has not been reported. The aim of our study was to characterize the impact on the colonization pattern in neonatal BALB/cOlaHsd mice after supplementing an infant formula (IF) with a mixture of putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM). A total of 48 pups (14 days old) were randomly assigned to 4-day intervention groups as follows: breast-fed (unweaned) pups (n=12); weaned pups (n=12) fed an infant formula (IF); weaned pups (n=12) fed an IF enriched with a low concentration of PUT, SPD and SPM (2.10, 22.05 and 38.00 μg/day, respectively); and weaned pups (n=12) fed with IF enriched with a high concentration of PUT, SPD and SPM (8.40, 88.20 and 152.00 μg/day, respectively) of polyamines in accordance with normal proportions found in human milk. Microbiota composition was analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with flow cytometry detection. Microbiota changes in formula-fed mice were significantly greater following supplementation with polyamines (P<.01). Bifidobacterium group bacteria, Akkermansia-like bacteria and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group levels were higher in the groups fed infant formula supplemented with polyamines, resulting in even higher numbers of bacteria than in the breastfed pups. Our findings indicate that infant formulas enriched with polyamines may interact with gut microbiota, suggesting that further studies in human infants are required to assess the impact of polyamines on both growth and microbiota levels.

  4. Infant formula supplemented with polyamines alters the intestinal microbiota in neonatal BALB/cOlaHsd mice.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gallego, Carlos; Collado, María C; Ilo, Toni; Jaakkola, Ulla-Marjut; Bernal, María J; Periago, María J; Salminen, Seppo; Ros, Gaspar; Frias, Rafael

    2012-11-01

    Polyamines play a critical role in the development of intestinal and immune systems during the infant breastfeeding period, but the effect of polyamines on the microbiota has not been reported. The aim of our study was to characterize the impact on the colonization pattern in neonatal BALB/cOlaHsd mice after supplementing an infant formula (IF) with a mixture of putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM). A total of 48 pups (14 days old) were randomly assigned to 4-day intervention groups as follows: breast-fed (unweaned) pups (n=12); weaned pups (n=12) fed an infant formula (IF); weaned pups (n=12) fed an IF enriched with a low concentration of PUT, SPD and SPM (2.10, 22.05 and 38.00 μg/day, respectively); and weaned pups (n=12) fed with IF enriched with a high concentration of PUT, SPD and SPM (8.40, 88.20 and 152.00 μg/day, respectively) of polyamines in accordance with normal proportions found in human milk. Microbiota composition was analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with flow cytometry detection. Microbiota changes in formula-fed mice were significantly greater following supplementation with polyamines (P<.01). Bifidobacterium group bacteria, Akkermansia-like bacteria and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group levels were higher in the groups fed infant formula supplemented with polyamines, resulting in even higher numbers of bacteria than in the breastfed pups. Our findings indicate that infant formulas enriched with polyamines may interact with gut microbiota, suggesting that further studies in human infants are required to assess the impact of polyamines on both growth and microbiota levels. PMID:22402370

  5. Determination of Chromium, Selenium, and Molybdenum in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritional Products by Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2011.19.

    PubMed

    Pacquette, Lawrence H; Thompson, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    AOAC First Action Method 2011.19: Chromium, Selenium, and Molybdenum in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritional Products, was collaboratively studied. This method uses microwave digestion of samples with nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and internal standard followed by simultaneous detection of the elements by an inductively coupled plasma (ICP)/MS instrument equipped with a collision/reaction cell. During this collaborative study, nine laboratories from four different countries, using seven different models of ICP/MS instruments, analyzed blind duplicates of seven infant, pediatric, and adult nutritional formulas. One laboratory's set of data was rejected in its entirety. The method demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and met the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) for almost all of the matrixes analyzed. The Cr, Mo, and Se SPIFAN requirement for repeatability was ≤5% RSD. The SMPR called for a reproducibility of ≤15% RSD for products with ultratrace element concentrations above the targeted LOQ of 20 μg/kg Cr/Mo and 10 μg/kg Se (as ready-to-feed). During this collaborative study, RSDr ranged from 1.0 to 7.0% and RSDR ranged from 2.5 to 13.4% across all three ultratrace elements. PMID:26651583

  6. Determination of Chromium, Selenium, and Molybdenum in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritional Products by Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2011.19.

    PubMed

    Pacquette, Lawrence H; Thompson, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    AOAC First Action Method 2011.19: Chromium, Selenium, and Molybdenum in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritional Products, was collaboratively studied. This method uses microwave digestion of samples with nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and internal standard followed by simultaneous detection of the elements by an inductively coupled plasma (ICP)/MS instrument equipped with a collision/reaction cell. During this collaborative study, nine laboratories from four different countries, using seven different models of ICP/MS instruments, analyzed blind duplicates of seven infant, pediatric, and adult nutritional formulas. One laboratory's set of data was rejected in its entirety. The method demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and met the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) for almost all of the matrixes analyzed. The Cr, Mo, and Se SPIFAN requirement for repeatability was ≤5% RSD. The SMPR called for a reproducibility of ≤15% RSD for products with ultratrace element concentrations above the targeted LOQ of 20 μg/kg Cr/Mo and 10 μg/kg Se (as ready-to-feed). During this collaborative study, RSDr ranged from 1.0 to 7.0% and RSDR ranged from 2.5 to 13.4% across all three ultratrace elements.

  7. Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) in Infant Formula and Adult/ Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.16.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frederic; Campos-Giménez, Esther

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine repeatability and reproducibility of AOAC First Action Method 2012.16 [Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry], a collaborative study was organized. The study was divided in two parts: method setup and qualification of participants (part 1) and collaborative study participation (part 2). For part 1, each participating laboratory was asked to analyze two practice samples using the aforementioned method. Laboratories that provided results within a range of expected levels were qualified for part 2, during which each laboratory received 10 samples in blind duplicates. Results have been compared to the Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR®) 2012.009 established for pantothenic acid. Precision results (repeatability and reproducibility) were within the limits stated in the SMPR. Repeatability ranged from 1.3 to 3.3%, and reproducibility ranged from 4.1 to 7.0%. Horwitz ratio (HorRat) values were all <1, ranging from 0.33 to 0.69. The AOAC Expert Review Panel on Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals Nutrient Methods determined that the data presented met the SMPR and recommended the method for Final Action status, which was then granted by the AOAC Official Methods Board.

  8. Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) in Infant Formula and Adult/ Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.16.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frederic; Campos-Giménez, Esther

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine repeatability and reproducibility of AOAC First Action Method 2012.16 [Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry], a collaborative study was organized. The study was divided in two parts: method setup and qualification of participants (part 1) and collaborative study participation (part 2). For part 1, each participating laboratory was asked to analyze two practice samples using the aforementioned method. Laboratories that provided results within a range of expected levels were qualified for part 2, during which each laboratory received 10 samples in blind duplicates. Results have been compared to the Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR®) 2012.009 established for pantothenic acid. Precision results (repeatability and reproducibility) were within the limits stated in the SMPR. Repeatability ranged from 1.3 to 3.3%, and reproducibility ranged from 4.1 to 7.0%. Horwitz ratio (HorRat) values were all <1, ranging from 0.33 to 0.69. The AOAC Expert Review Panel on Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals Nutrient Methods determined that the data presented met the SMPR and recommended the method for Final Action status, which was then granted by the AOAC Official Methods Board. PMID:26651582

  9. Thermal resistance of Francisella tularensis in infant formula and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Trujillo, S; Hao, Y Y D; Whiting, R C

    2008-11-01

    Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause gastrointestinal or oropharyngeal tularemia from ingestion of contaminated food or water. Despite the potential for accidental or intentional contamination of foods with F. tularensis, little information exists on the thermal stability of this organism in food matrices. In the present study, the thermal resistance of the live vaccine strain of F. tularensis in four food products (liquid infant formula, apple juice, mango juice, and orange juice) was investigated. D-values ranged from 12 s (57.5 degrees C) to 580 s (50 degrees C) in infant formula with a z-value of 4.37 degrees C. D-values in apple juice ranged from 8 s (57.5 degrees C) to 59 s (50 degrees C) with a z-value of 9.17 degrees C. The live vaccine strain did not survive at temperatures above 55 degrees C in mango juice and orange juice (>6-log inactivation). D-values at 55 to 47.5 degrees C were 15 to 59 s in mango juice and 16 to 105 s in orange juice with z-values of 9.28 and 12.30 degrees C, respectively. These results indicate that current pasteurization parameters used for destroying common foodborne bacterial pathogens are adequate for eliminating F. tularensis in the four foods tested. This study is the first to determine thermal inactivation of F. tularensis in specific foods and will permit comparisons with the thermal inactivation data of other more traditional foodborne pathogens.

  10. Effect of amino acid supplementation on protein quality of soy-based infant formulas fed to rats.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, G; Peace, R W; Botting, H G

    1993-05-01

    The powder forms of soy-based infant formulas obtained from four manufacturers were fed to weanling rats for two weeks, as the sole source of protein in diets containing 8% protein, 20% fat, and adequate amounts of minerals and vitamins. The relative protein efficiency ratio (RPER) and the relative net protein ratio (RNPR) values (casein + methionine = 100) of diets containing unsupplemented formulas were 71-81 and 78-85, respectively. Supplementation of the formula diets with lysine (0.2%), methionine (0.2%), threonine (0.1%) or tryptophan (0.05%) increased the level of the supplemental amino acid in rat serum but generally failed to improve the RPER or RNPR values. Addition of all four essential amino acids to the formula diets, however, caused a marked improvement in their protein quality (RPER or RNPR values = 100). The data suggested that proteins in soy-based formulas could be marginally co-limited in several indispensable amino acids.

  11. A novel infant milk formula concept: Mimicking the human milk fat globule structure.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Vocking, Karin; Post, Jan Andries; Van De Heijning, Bert; Acton, Dennis; Van Der Beek, Eline M; Van Baalen, Ton

    2015-12-01

    Human milk (HM) provides all nutrients to support an optimal growth and development of the neonate. The composition and structure of HM lipids, the most important energy provider, have an impact on the digestion, uptake and metabolism of lipids. In HM, the lipids are present in the form of dispersed fat globules: large fat droplets enveloped by a phospholipid membrane. Currently, infant milk formula (Control IMF) contains small fat droplets primarily coated by proteins. Recently, a novel IMF concept (Concept IMF) was developed with a different lipid architecture, Nuturis(®), comprising large fat droplets with a phospholipid coating. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), with appropriate fluorescent probes, and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine and compare the interfacial composition and structure of HM fat globules, Concept IMF fat droplets and Control IMF fat droplets. The presence of a trilayer-structured HM fat globule membrane, composed of phospholipids, proteins, glycoproteins and cholesterol, was confirmed; in addition exosome-like vesicles are observed within cytoplasmic crescents. The Control IMF fat droplets had a thick protein-only interface. The Concept IMF fat droplets showed a very thin interface composed of a mixture of phospholipids, proteins and cholesterol. Furthermore, the Concept IMF contained fragments of milk fat globule membrane, which has been suggested to have potential biological functions in infants. By mimicking more closely the structure and composition of HM fat globules, this novel IMF concept with Nuturis(®) may have metabolic and digestive properties that are more similar to HM compared to Control IMF.

  12. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement of either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models fo...

  13. Growth inhibition of Cronobacter spp. strains in reconstituted powdered infant formula acidified with organic acids supported by natural stomach acidity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S; Schnell, S; Fischer, M

    2013-09-01

    Cronobacter is associated with outbreaks of rare, but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in newborns. This study was conducted to determine the effect of organic acids on growth of Cronobacter in laboratory medium and reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF) as well as the bacteriostatic effect of slightly acidified infant formula when combined with neonatal gastric acidity. Inhibitory effect of seven organic acids on four acid sensitive Cronobacter strains was determined in laboratory medium with broth dilution method at pH 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0. Acetic, butyric and propionic acids were most inhibitive against Cronobacter in the laboratory medium. The killing effect of these three acids was partially buffered in reconstituted PIF. Under neonatal gastric acid condition of pH 5.0, the slightly acidified formula which did not exert inhibition effect solely reduced significantly the Cronobacter populations. A synergistic effect of formula moderately acidified with organic acid combined with the physiological infant gastric acid was visible in preventing the rapid growth of Cronobacter in neonatal stomach. The study contributed to a better understanding of the inhibitory effect of organic acids on Cronobacter growth in different matrixes and provided new ideas in terms of controlling bacteria colonization and translocation by acidified formula.

  14. [Preventative effect of a whey hydrolyzed formula (Nestle, NAN H.A.) on the development of allergic symptoms in infants].

    PubMed

    Akimoto, K; Saito, H; Akasawa, A; Iikura, Y

    1997-10-01

    We examined the prevent effect of a whey hydrolyzed formula (NAN H.A.) on the development of allergic disease from new born infants. A hundred thirty three pregnant women were divided into the NAN H.A. group and the control group. Mothers, who agreed to use the whey hydrolyzed formula to their infant, were classified into the NAN H.A. group. We examined laboratory date such as IgE levels of these infants as well as clinical symptoms for evaluating of the preventive effect of NAN H.A. The serum IgE levels from infants of the NAN H.A. group were lower than those of the control group. The incidance of the infants who showed allergic clinical symptoms was significant lower in the NAN H.A. group. The odds ratio to skin symptom at 3 years of age with multiple logistic regression was 5.32 between the control group and the NAN H.A. group (p < 0.05). It was 6.68 between mother's history of allergy was positive and negative (p < 0.02). These results suggest that NAN H.A. can prevent the development of allergic symptoms in infants.

  15. Determination of Minerals and Trace Elements in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry A Performance Evaluation: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.06.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Joseph J; Pacquette, Lawrence; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2015-01-01

    A method for determination of 12 minerals and trace elements (Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo) in infant formula and adult/ pediatric nutritional formula was developed and evaluated in a single-laboratory validation. Some additional reproducibility data were obtained from a small interlaboratory study. The method involves microwave digestion of the sample followed by inductively coupled plasma/MS and uses Ge and Te as internal standards. The method is an extension of Official Method(SM) 2011.19 and was compared to AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) 2011.009 and 2014.004 developed by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN). Repeatability precision for the 12 elements in 11 SPIFAN matrixes and National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849a was <5%, meeting the SMPR criterion for repeatability. Intermediate reproducibility (8 days, two analysts, two instruments) in the 11 SPIFAN matrixes was <5% for nine (Na, Mg, P, K, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se) of the 12 elements in all 11 matrixes. The mean reproducibility across 6-7 laboratories and seven SPIFAN matrixes ranged from 2.5% for Cu to 7.1% for P. Recovery from spiked matrixes varied from 90.1 to 109%, and accuracy of determination using SRM 1849a ranged from 96.2 to 107.7%, meeting the requirement of 90-110% recovery/accuracy. PMID:26651584

  16. Determination of Minerals and Trace Elements in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry A Performance Evaluation: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.06.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Joseph J; Pacquette, Lawrence; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2015-01-01

    A method for determination of 12 minerals and trace elements (Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo) in infant formula and adult/ pediatric nutritional formula was developed and evaluated in a single-laboratory validation. Some additional reproducibility data were obtained from a small interlaboratory study. The method involves microwave digestion of the sample followed by inductively coupled plasma/MS and uses Ge and Te as internal standards. The method is an extension of Official Method(SM) 2011.19 and was compared to AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) 2011.009 and 2014.004 developed by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN). Repeatability precision for the 12 elements in 11 SPIFAN matrixes and National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849a was <5%, meeting the SMPR criterion for repeatability. Intermediate reproducibility (8 days, two analysts, two instruments) in the 11 SPIFAN matrixes was <5% for nine (Na, Mg, P, K, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se) of the 12 elements in all 11 matrixes. The mean reproducibility across 6-7 laboratories and seven SPIFAN matrixes ranged from 2.5% for Cu to 7.1% for P. Recovery from spiked matrixes varied from 90.1 to 109%, and accuracy of determination using SRM 1849a ranged from 96.2 to 107.7%, meeting the requirement of 90-110% recovery/accuracy.

  17. Zinc status and growth of Korean infants fed human milk, casein-based, or soy-based formula: three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Hee; Yon, Miyong; Han, Heon-Seok; Johnston, Kelley E; Tamura, Tsunenobu; Hyun, Taisun

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of feeding methods on growth and zinc nutritional status of infants early in life, we monitored from birth to 36 months in 51 infants who were exclusively fed human milk (HM, n = 20), casein-based formula (CBF, n = 12), or soy-based formula (SBF, n = 19) during the first five months of life. Zinc status was assessed by analyzing serum zinc concentrations and zinc intakes. Zinc contents in HM and formulas were measured. Zinc intake was estimated by weighing infants before and after feeding in the HM group and by collecting formula-intake records in the CBF and SBF groups. After solid foods were introduced, all foods consumed were also included to estimate zinc intake. The growth of infants in all groups was similar to that established for normal Korean infants. Human milk zinc concentrations declined as lactation progressed. Zinc concentrations in all formulas tested in this study were higher than HM and were also higher than those claimed by the manufacturers. During the first twelve months, mean serum zinc concentrations of infants were similar in all groups, although infants in the HM group consistently had the lowest zinc intake among the groups, and the overall zinc intake in infants fed SBF was highest. This finding could be explained by the different zinc bioavailability of HM and formulas. In conclusion, infants fed HM, CBF or SBF has normal growth up to three years of age, although HM contained the lowest zinc concentration followed by CBF, then SBF.

  18. Optimization and validation of an LC-fLD method for biotin in infant formula, infant cereals, cocoa-malt beverages, and clinical nutrition products.

    PubMed

    Campos Giménez, Esther; Trisconi, Marie-Jose; Kilinc, Tamara; Andrieux, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    A fast and simple chromatographic method to determine biotin in foods is presented. Biotin is extracted using papain (60 degrees C, 1 h). After pH adjustment and filtration, biotin is determined by LC with fluorescence detection using postcolumn reagent avidin-FITC (avidin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate). The method has been validated in a large range of products: milk- and soy-based infant formulas, cereals, cocoa-malt beverages, and clinical nutrition products. The method showed recovery rates of 98.1 +/- 5.7% (average +/- SD) in a large range of concentrations. Biotin concentrations determined in infant formula standard reference materials 1846 and 1849 were in agreement with reference values. RSD of repeatability (RSDr) varied from 2.0 to 4.5%, and intermediate reproducibility (RSD(iR)) from 5.8 to 9.4%. LOD and LOQ were 3.0 and 5.0 microg/100 g, respectively. The proposed method is suitable for routine analysis of biotin in fortified foods (infant formulas, infant cereals, cocoa-malt beverages, and clinical nutrition products). It can be used as a faster, more selective, and precise alternative to the classical microbiological determination, and is easily transferable among laboratories.

  19. Optimization and validation of an LC-fLD method for biotin in infant formula, infant cereals, cocoa-malt beverages, and clinical nutrition products.

    PubMed

    Campos Giménez, Esther; Trisconi, Marie-Jose; Kilinc, Tamara; Andrieux, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    A fast and simple chromatographic method to determine biotin in foods is presented. Biotin is extracted using papain (60 degrees C, 1 h). After pH adjustment and filtration, biotin is determined by LC with fluorescence detection using postcolumn reagent avidin-FITC (avidin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate). The method has been validated in a large range of products: milk- and soy-based infant formulas, cereals, cocoa-malt beverages, and clinical nutrition products. The method showed recovery rates of 98.1 +/- 5.7% (average +/- SD) in a large range of concentrations. Biotin concentrations determined in infant formula standard reference materials 1846 and 1849 were in agreement with reference values. RSD of repeatability (RSDr) varied from 2.0 to 4.5%, and intermediate reproducibility (RSD(iR)) from 5.8 to 9.4%. LOD and LOQ were 3.0 and 5.0 microg/100 g, respectively. The proposed method is suitable for routine analysis of biotin in fortified foods (infant formulas, infant cereals, cocoa-malt beverages, and clinical nutrition products). It can be used as a faster, more selective, and precise alternative to the classical microbiological determination, and is easily transferable among laboratories. PMID:21140662

  20. A validated method for the determination of nucleotides in infant formulas by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnación; Domínguez-Álvarez, Javier; Mateos-Vivas, María; García-Gómez, Diego; Carabias-Martínez, Rita

    2014-06-01

    In this work CE-ESI-MS is proposed for the identification and simultaneous quantification of several ribonucleotide 5'-monophosphates in infant formula (IF) samples. The target compounds were adenosine 5'-monophosphate, cytidine 5'-monophosphate, guanosine 5'-monophosphate, uridine 5'-monophosphate, and inosine 5'-monophosphate. To our knowledge, the application of CE for the determination of these bioactive compounds in IFs has not yet been described. Optimization of the composition of the electrophoretic separation buffer and -mainly- the injection medium was carried out with a view to obtaining the best sensitivity and separation efficiency for the CE-MS coupling. Different sample treatments were assayed and one based on centrifugal ultrafiltration proved to be the simplest and most compatible with CE separation of the analytes and their ionization by the electrospray source. The whole optimized method (centrifugal ultrafiltration treatment prior to CE-MS) was validated according to the 2002/657/EC decision, obtaining a reliable and robust CE-MS method to determine these compounds in IF samples, with LODs between 0.8 and 1.8 μg/g (S/N = 3) and recoveries in the 90-106% range.

  1. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  2. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  3. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  5. The influence of infant diet on early developmental changes in processing human voice speech stimuli: ERP variations in breast and milk formula-fed infants at three and six months after birth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if processing of language stimuli during the first half year of life in breast-fed infants differs from that of formula-fed infants. This question was addressed by examining the brain event-related potentials of healthy infants receiving breast milk...

  6. Calciuria and aminoaciduria in very low birth weight infants fed a high-mineral premature formula with varying levels of protein.

    PubMed

    Hillman, L S; Salmons, S S; Erickson, M M; Hansen, J W; Hillman, R E; Chesney, R

    1994-08-01

    To assess the influence of protein intake on renal excretion of calcium and amino acids and on bone mineralization in preterm infants, we randomly selected within weight group strata 27 infants who weighed < 1500 gm at birth (nine per group) to be fed a high-mineral (calcium, 940 mg/L; phosphorus, 470 mg/L) premature formula with one of the following protein contents: formula A, 3.0 gm/100 kcal; formula B, 2.7 gm/100 kcal; and formula C, 2.2 gm/100 kcal. Mean (+/- SD) daily weight gain was greater in infants receiving the higher protein intakes for the first 30 days (formula A, 24.8 +/- 5.1 gm; formula B, 20.5 +/- 3.8 gm; formula C, 16.2 +/- 5.9 gm (analysis of variance: p < 0.01; C < A, p < 0.05)). Bone mineral content did not differ at any time point, and all groups had a high prevalence of generalized aminoaciduria (4 weeks: formula A, 56%; formula B, 71%; formula C, 75%). Urinary calcium corrected for creatinine (in milligrams per milligram) increased as protein content decreased (2 weeks: formula A, 0.16 +/- 0.10; formula B, 0.20 +/- 013; formula C, 0.44 +/- 0.33 (C > A, C > B, p < 0.05); 4 weeks: formula A, 0.23 +/- 0.15; formula B,0.34 +/- 0.47; formula C, 0.49 +/- 0.22 (C > A, p < 0.01). We conclude that the high mineral content and other components of premature formulas result in a higher growth rate and may increase protein requirements. Failure to meet protein requirements may result in underutilization of absorbed calcium and increased renal excretion of calcium. In preterm infants, higher protein intake probably supports rather than jeopardizes bone mineral accretion, and reduces rather then increases calciuria.

  7. Determination of Myo-Inositol in Infant, Pediatric, and Adult Formulas by Liquid Chromatography-Pulsed Amperometric Detection with Column Switching: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2011.18.

    PubMed

    Butler-Thompson, Linda D; Jacobs, Wesley A; Schimpf, Karen J

    2015-01-01

    AOAC First Action Method 2011.18, Myo-Inositol (Free and Bound as Phosphatidylinositol) in Infant and Pediatric Formulas and Adult Nutritionals, was collaboratively studied. With this method free myo-inositol and phosphatidylinositol bound myo-inositol are extracted using two different sample preparation procedures, separated by ion chromatography using a combination of Dionex Carbo Pac PA1 and MA1 columns with column switching, and detected with pulsed amperometry using a gold electrode. Free myo-inositol is extracted from samples with dilute hydrochloric acid and water. Phosphatidylinositol is extracted from samples with chloroform and separated from other fats with silica SPE cartridges. Myo-inositol is then released from the glycerol backbone with concentrated acetic and hydrochloric acids at 120°C. During this collaborative study, nine laboratories from five different countries analyzed blind duplicates of nine infant and pediatric nutritional formulas for both free and phosphatidylinositol bound myo-inositol, and one additional laboratory only completed the free myo-inositol analyses. The method demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and met the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) for free myo-inositol plus phosphatidylinositol bound myo-inositol for all the matrixes analyzed. SMPRs for repeatability were ≤5% RSD at myo-inositol concentrations of 2-68 mg/100 g ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid. SMPRs for reproducibility were ≤8% RSD in products with myo-inositol concentrations ranging from 2 to 68 mg/100 g RTF liquid. During this collaborative study, repeatability RSDs ranged from 0.51 to 3.22%, and RSDs ranged from 2.66 to 7.55% for free myo-inositol plus phosphatidylinositol bound myo-inositol.

  8. Growth of Cronobacter spp. under dynamic temperature conditions occurring during cooling of reconstituted powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Kandhai, M C; Breeuwer, P; Gorris, L G M; Zwietering, M H; Reij, M W

    2009-12-01

    Reconstituted infant formulae are excellent growth media for Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) and other microorganisms that may be present in such products. Immediate consumption or rapid cooling and storage at a low temperature are therefore recommended as control measures to prevent microbial growth. Placing a container filled with reconstituted liquid formula in the refrigerator, however, does not mean that the temperature of the liquid is directly the same as the set-point of the refrigerator. This study describes the temperature profiles and methods to predict lag time and possible growth of Cronobacter spp. during the cooling process in three types of containers. The overall heat transfer coefficients (alpha) were determined and were shown to have a very large variability in both household refrigerators and an air-ventilated refrigerator equipped with a fan. A mathematical model was built to predict the growth of Cronobacter spp. under dynamic temperature conditions using three models for the lag time. The various estimations for the lag time had a remarkably strong impact on the predicted growth. The assumption of a constant k-value (k = lag time x specific growth rate = lambda x micro = 2.88) fitted the experimental data best. Predictions taking into account the large variability in heat transfer showed that proliferation of Cronobacter spp. during cooling may be prevented by limiting the volume to be cooled to portion size only, or by reconstituting at temperatures of 25 degrees C or lower. The model may also be used to predict growth in other situations where dynamic temperature conditions exist.

  9. Circulating GLP-1 in infants born small-for-gestational-age: breast-feeding versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    Díaz, M; Bassols, J; Sebastiani, G; López-Bermejo, A; Ibáñez, L; de Zegher, F

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal growth restraint associates with the risk for later diabetes, particularly if such restraint is followed by postnatal formula-feeding (FOF) rather than breast-feeding (BRF). Circulating incretins can influence the neonatal programming of hypothalamic setpoints for appetite and energy expenditure, and are thus candidate mediators of the long-term effects exerted by early nutrition. We have tested this concept by measuring (at birth and at age 4 months) the circulating concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; n=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either BRF (n=28) or FOF (n=26). At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations were higher than at birth; SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. In conclusion, nutrition appears to influence the circulating GLP-1 concentrations in SGA infants and may thereby modulate long-term diabetes risk.

  10. Multiple analysis of a foodborne outbreak caused by infant formula contaminated by an atypical Salmonella virchow strain.

    PubMed

    Usera, M A; Rodriguez, A; Echeita, A; Cano, R

    1998-08-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning involving most autonomous Spanish communities was detected in the first half of 1994. The causative food was infant formula milk contaminated by lactose-fermenting Salmonella virchow. It was not possible to isolate the causative strain from the manufacturer's facilities. During the same period of time, there was a significant increase in lactose-non-fermenting Salmonella virchow strains compared with the same period in previous years. Simultaneously, lactose-non-fermenting strains were recovered from clinical samples from children and from some milk samples that were involved in the outbreak. Therefore, it was speculated that the outbreak might be more extensive than initially thought. The following epidemiological markers were used for typing the Salmonella virchow strains involved in the outbreak: (i) phage typing: (ii) ribotyping, using a set of 20 different endonucleases: and (iii) pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, using three different endonucleases. The most useful markers for this serotype were phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, since ribotyping was not able to distinguish all strains tested. The results obtained revealed that the outbreak was caused by at least two strains: one presenting phage type 4-4a and pulsed-field patterns A1 or A2 and L+ or L-, and another presenting phage type 2 and pulsed-field patterns A1 or A2 and L+ or L-. The results indicate that the outbreak was more extensive than initially thought and that the Virchow serotype is very clonal in Spain.

  11. Supplementation of a bovine milk formula with an oligosaccharide mixture increases counts of faecal bifidobacteria in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, G; Lidestri, M; Casetta, P; Jelinek, J; Negretti, F; Stahl, B; Marini, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: The establishment of a balanced intestinal microflora which may protect against infection is desirable for the preterm infant. Objective: To investigate the effect of a preterm formula milk supplement consisting of oligosaccharides in similar proportions to human milk on the faecal flora and stool characteristics of preterm infants. Study design: To resemble the effect of human milk, an oligosaccharide mixture consisting of 90% galacto-oligosaccharides and 10% fructo-oligosaccharides was used to supplement a standard preterm formula at a concentration of 10 g/l. This supplemented formula was studied in 15 preterm infants, and the results were compared with those found in 15 infants fed a formula supplemented with maltodextrin as placebo. A group fed fortified mother's milk was investigated as a reference group (n = 12). On four days during a 28 day feeding period (1, 7, 14, and 28), the faecal flora was investigated, and stool characteristics, growth, and possible side effects were recorded. Results: During the study period, the number of bifidobacteria in the group fed the oligosaccharide supplemented formula increased to the upper range of bifidobacteria counts in the reference group. The difference between the supplemented and non-supplemented groups was highly significant (p = 0.0008). The stool characteristics were also influenced by the supplement: the stool frequency after 28 days was significantly lower in the control group than in the oligosaccharide supplemented group (p = 0.0079) and the reference group (p < 0.0001). Over the study period, the stool consistency in the control group became harder, but remained fairly stable in the other two groups. There was no effect of the different diets on the incidence of side effects (crying, regurgitation, vomiting) or on weight gain or length gain. Conclusion: Supplementing preterm formula with a mixture of galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides at a concentration of 10 g/l stimulates the growth of

  12. Efficacy of a pre-thickened infant formula: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel group trial in 104 infants with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoof, Jon A; Moran, J Roberto; Harris, Cheryl L; Merkel, Kimberly L; Orenstein, Susan R

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate a pre-thickened formula (Enfamil AR) for regurgitant gastroesophageal reflux, 104 infants were enrolled in a 5-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel group trial. The Enfamil AR group showed greater symptom reduction by the end of the first week: percent feedings with any regurgitation (p = 0.045), total regurgitation volume score (p = 0.035), and percent feedings with choke-gag-cough (p = 0.004). The most symptomatic infants at baseline had a reduction in trouble sleeping significantly with Enfamil AR by the end of the study (p = 0.030). This formula flows through a standard nipple, reduces regurgitation and choking-gagging-coughing within a week, and improves sleep in the most symptomatic babies by 5 weeks, without causing constipation.

  13. Determination of mycotoxins in milk-based products and infant formula using stable isotope dilution assay and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wong, Jon W; Hayward, Douglas G; Vaclavikova, Marta; Liao, Chia-Ding; Trucksess, Mary W

    2013-07-01

    A stable isotope dilution assay and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of 12 mycotoxins, aflatoxins B₁, B₂, G₁, G₂, and M₁, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins B₁, B₂, and B₃, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone, in milk-based infant formula and foods. Samples were fortified with 12 ¹³C uniformly labeled mycotoxins ([¹³C]-mycotoxins) that correspond to the 12 target mycotoxins and prepared by dilution and filtration, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Quantitation was achieved using the relative response factors of [¹³C]-mycotoxins and target mycotoxins. The average recoveries in fortified milk, milk-based infant formula, milk powder, and baby yogurt of aflatoxins B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂ (2, 10, and 50 μg/kg), aflatoxin M₁ (0.5, 2.5, and 12.5 μg/kg), deoxynivalenol, fumonisins B₁, B₂, and B₃ (40, 200, and 1000 μg/kg), ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone (20, 100, and 500 μg/kg), range from 89 to 126% with RSDs of <20%. The individual recoveries in the four fortified matrices range from 72% (fumonisin B₃, 20 μg/kg, milk-based infant formula) to 136% (T-2 toxin, 20 μg/kg, milk powder), with RSDs ranging from 2 to 25%. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were from 0.01 μg/kg (aflatoxin M₁) to 2 (fumonisin B₁) μg/kg. Aflatoxin M₁ was detected in two European Reference materials at 0.127 ± 0.013 μg/kg (certified value = 0.111 ± 0.018 μg/kg) and 0.46 ± 0.04 μg/kg (certified value = 0.44 ± 0.06 μg/kg), respectively. In 60 local market samples, aflatoxins B₁ (1.14 ± 0.10 μg/kg) and B₂ (0.20 ± 0.03 μg/kg) were detected in one milk powder sample. Aflatoxin M₁ was detected in three imported samples (condensed milk, milk-based infant formula, and table cream), ranging from 0.10 to 0.40 μg/kg. The validated method provides sufficient selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility to screen for aflatoxin M₁ at nanograms per

  14. Cross-sectional survey shows that follow-up formula and growing-up milks are labelled similarly to infant formula in four low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catherine; Ford, Rosalyn; Feeley, Alison B; Sweet, Lara; Badham, Jane; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional survey assessed the characteristics of labels of follow-up formula (FUF) and growing-up milk (GUM) compared with infant formula (IF), including cross-promotion practices between FUF/GUM and IF manufactured by the same company, sold in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. All products were imported. A wide recommended age/age range for introduction was provided by manufacturers across all sites, with products with an age recommendation of 0-6 months being most prevalent in three sites, representing over a third of all products. Various age categories (e.g. 1, 1+ and Stage 1) commonly appeared on labels. A number of descriptive names (e.g. infant formula and milk formula) per category of age of introduction were used with some appearing across more than one category. Images of feeding bottles were found on most labels across all age categories, but prevalence decreased with older age categories. The majority of FUF/GUM manufactured by IF companies across all sites displayed at least one example of cross-promotion with one or more of the company's IF: two-thirds or more contained similar colour schemes/designs and similar brand names; 20-85% had similar slogans/mascots/symbols. A wide and potentially confusing range of ages/categories of introduction and descriptive names were found, and cross-promotion with IF was common on FUF/GUM labels. Global guidance from normative bodies forms the basis of most low and middle income countries policies and should provide specific guidance to prohibit cross-promotion between FUF/GUM and IF, and all three categories should be classified as breastmilk substitutes. PMID:27061959

  15. Cross-sectional survey shows that follow-up formula and growing-up milks are labelled similarly to infant formula in four low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catherine; Ford, Rosalyn; Feeley, Alison B; Sweet, Lara; Badham, Jane; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional survey assessed the characteristics of labels of follow-up formula (FUF) and growing-up milk (GUM) compared with infant formula (IF), including cross-promotion practices between FUF/GUM and IF manufactured by the same company, sold in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. All products were imported. A wide recommended age/age range for introduction was provided by manufacturers across all sites, with products with an age recommendation of 0-6 months being most prevalent in three sites, representing over a third of all products. Various age categories (e.g. 1, 1+ and Stage 1) commonly appeared on labels. A number of descriptive names (e.g. infant formula and milk formula) per category of age of introduction were used with some appearing across more than one category. Images of feeding bottles were found on most labels across all age categories, but prevalence decreased with older age categories. The majority of FUF/GUM manufactured by IF companies across all sites displayed at least one example of cross-promotion with one or more of the company's IF: two-thirds or more contained similar colour schemes/designs and similar brand names; 20-85% had similar slogans/mascots/symbols. A wide and potentially confusing range of ages/categories of introduction and descriptive names were found, and cross-promotion with IF was common on FUF/GUM labels. Global guidance from normative bodies forms the basis of most low and middle income countries policies and should provide specific guidance to prohibit cross-promotion between FUF/GUM and IF, and all three categories should be classified as breastmilk substitutes.

  16. Perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk from several Asian countries, and in infant formula and dairy milk from the United States.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lin; Ma, Jing; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Libelo, E Laurence; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2008-11-15

    The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in human blood is known to be widespread; nevertheless, the sources of exposure to humans, including infants, are not well understood. In this study, breast milk collected from seven countries in Asia was analyzed (n=184) for nine PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). In addition, five brands of infant formula (n=21) and 11 brands of dairy milk (n=12) collected from retail stores in the United States were analyzed, for comparison with PFC concentrations previously reported for breast milk from the U.S. PFOS was the predominant PFC detected in almost all Asian breast milk samples, followed by perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and PFOA. Median concentrations of PFOS in breast milk from Asian countries varied significantly;the lowest concentration of 39.4 pg/mL was found in India, and the highest concentration of 196 pg/mL was found in Japan. The measured concentrations were similarto or less than the concentrations previously reported from Sweden, the United States, and Germany (median, 106-166 pg/mL). PFHxS was found in more than 70% of the samples analyzed from Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam, at mean concentrations ranging from 6.45 (Malaysia) to 15.8 (Philippines) pg/mL PFOA was found frequently only in samples from Japan; the mean concentration for that country was 77.7 pg/mL. None of the PFCs were detected in the infant-formula or dairy-milk samples from the U.S. except a few samples that contained concentrations close to the limit of detection. The estimated average daily intake of PFOS by infants from seven Asian countries, via breastfeeding, was 11.8 +/- 10.6 ng/kg bw/ day; this value is 7-12 times higher than the estimated adult dietary intakes previously reported from Germany, Canada, and Spain. The average daily intake of PFOA by Japanese infants was 9.6 +/- 4.9 ng/kg bw/day, a value 3-10 times greater than the estimated adult dietary intakes reported from

  17. Perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk from several Asian countries, and in infant formula and dairy milk from the United States.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lin; Ma, Jing; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Libelo, E Laurence; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2008-11-15

    The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in human blood is known to be widespread; nevertheless, the sources of exposure to humans, including infants, are not well understood. In this study, breast milk collected from seven countries in Asia was analyzed (n=184) for nine PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). In addition, five brands of infant formula (n=21) and 11 brands of dairy milk (n=12) collected from retail stores in the United States were analyzed, for comparison with PFC concentrations previously reported for breast milk from the U.S. PFOS was the predominant PFC detected in almost all Asian breast milk samples, followed by perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and PFOA. Median concentrations of PFOS in breast milk from Asian countries varied significantly;the lowest concentration of 39.4 pg/mL was found in India, and the highest concentration of 196 pg/mL was found in Japan. The measured concentrations were similarto or less than the concentrations previously reported from Sweden, the United States, and Germany (median, 106-166 pg/mL). PFHxS was found in more than 70% of the samples analyzed from Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam, at mean concentrations ranging from 6.45 (Malaysia) to 15.8 (Philippines) pg/mL PFOA was found frequently only in samples from Japan; the mean concentration for that country was 77.7 pg/mL. None of the PFCs were detected in the infant-formula or dairy-milk samples from the U.S. except a few samples that contained concentrations close to the limit of detection. The estimated average daily intake of PFOS by infants from seven Asian countries, via breastfeeding, was 11.8 +/- 10.6 ng/kg bw/ day; this value is 7-12 times higher than the estimated adult dietary intakes previously reported from Germany, Canada, and Spain. The average daily intake of PFOA by Japanese infants was 9.6 +/- 4.9 ng/kg bw/day, a value 3-10 times greater than the estimated adult dietary intakes reported from

  18. Studies on N-terminal glycation of peptides in hypoallergenic infant formulas: quantification of alpha-N-(2-furoylmethyl) amino acids.

    PubMed

    Penndorf, Ilka; Biedermann, Daniela; Maurer, Sarah V; Henle, Thomas

    2007-02-01

    To obtain information about the extent of the early Maillard reaction between the N-termini of peptides and lactose, alpha-N-(2-furoylmethyl) amino acids (FMAAs) were quantified together with epsilon-N-(2-furoylmethyl)lysine (furosine) in acid hydrolyzates of hypoallergenic infant formulas, conventional infant formulas, and human milk samples using RP-HPLC with UV-detection. FMAAs are formed during acid hydrolysis of peptide-bound N-terminal Amadori products (APs), and furosine is formed from the Amadori products of peptide-bound lysine. Unambiguous identification was achieved by means of LC/MS and UV-spectroscopy using independently prepared reference material. The extent of acid-induced conversion of APs to FMAAs was studied by RP-HPLC with chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (CLND). Depending on the corresponding alpha-N-lactulosyl amino acid, between 6.0% and 18.1% of FMAAs were formed during hydrolysis for 23 h at 110 degrees C in 8 N HCl. From epsilon-N-lactulosyllysine, 50% furosine is formed under these conditions. Whereas furosine was detectable in all assayed samples, five different FMAAs, alpha-FM-Lys, alpha-FM-Ala, alpha-FM-Val, alpha-FM-Ile, and alpha-FM-Leu, were exclusively detected in acid hydrolyzates of hypoallergenic infant formulas in amounts ranging from 35 to 396 mumol/100 g protein. Taking the conversion factors into account, modification of N-terminal amino acids in peptides by reducing carbohydrates was between 0.3% and 8.4%. This has to be considered within the discussion concerning the nutritional quality of peptide-containing foods.

  19. The effect of a partially hydrolysed formula based on rice protein in the treatment of infants with cow’s milk protein allergy

    PubMed Central

    Reche, M; Pascual, C; Fiandor, A; Polanco, I; Rivero-Urgell, M; Chifre, R; Johnston, S; Martín-Esteban, M

    2010-01-01

    Reche M, Pascual C, Fiandor A, Polanco I, Rivero-Urgell M, Chifre R, Johnston S, Martín-Esteban M. The effect of a partially hydrolysed formula based on rice protein in the treatment of infants with cow’s milk protein allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: 577–585. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Infants diagnosed with allergy to cow’s milk protein (CMP) are fed extensively hydrolysed cow’s milk formulas, modified soy formulas or even amino acid-based formulas. Hydrolysed rice protein infant formulas have become available and have been shown to be well tolerated by these infants. A prospective open, randomized clinical study to compare the clinical tolerance of a new hydrolysed rice protein formula (HRPF) with an extensively hydrolysed CMP formula (EHF) in the feeding of infants with IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy. Ninety-two infants (46 boys and 46 girls, mean age 4.3 months, range 1.1–10.1 months) diagnosed with IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy were enrolled in the study. Clinical tolerance to the formula products was tested. Clinical evaluation included skin prick tests with whole cow’s milk, soya and rice as well as antigens of CMP (beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, casein and bovine seroalbumin), HRPF and EHF and specific IgE determinations to CMP using CAP technology. Patients were randomized to receive either an EHF based on CMP or a new HRPF. Follow-up was at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Growth parameters were measured at each visit. One infant showed immediate allergic reaction to EHF, but no reaction was shown by any infant in the HRPF group. The number of infants who did not become tolerant to CMP during the study was not statistically different between the two groups. Measurement of IgE levels of infants allergic to CMP during the study showed no significant differences between the two formula groups. Growth parameters were in the normal range and similar between groups. In this study, the HRPF was well tolerated by infants with

  20. Current good manufacturing practices, quality control procedures, quality factors, notification requirements, and records and reports, for infant formula. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule that adopts, with some modifications, the interim final rule (IFR) entitled "Current Good Manufacturing Practices, Quality Control Procedures, Quality Factors, Notification Requirements, and Records and Reports, for Infant Formula'' (February 10, 2014). This final rule affirms the IFR's changes to FDA's regulations and provides additional modifications and clarifications. The final rule also responds to certain comments submitted in response to the request for comments in the IFR.

  1. Current good manufacturing practices, quality control procedures, quality factors, notification requirements, and records and reports, for infant formula. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule that adopts, with some modifications, the interim final rule (IFR) entitled "Current Good Manufacturing Practices, Quality Control Procedures, Quality Factors, Notification Requirements, and Records and Reports, for Infant Formula'' (February 10, 2014). This final rule affirms the IFR's changes to FDA's regulations and provides additional modifications and clarifications. The final rule also responds to certain comments submitted in response to the request for comments in the IFR. PMID:24922980

  2. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in baby food (infant formula) by immunoaffinity column cleanup liquid chromatography with postcolumn bromination: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Stroka, J; Anklam, E; Joerissen, U; Gilbert, J

    2001-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an immunoaffinity column cleanup liquid chromatography (LC) method for determination of aflatoxin B, in a milk powder based infant formula at a possible future European regulatory limit (0.1 ng/g). The test portion was extracted with methanol-water (8 + 2 [v + v]), filtered, diluted with water, and applied to an immunoaffinity column. The column was washed with water to remove interfering compounds, and the purified aflatoxin B1 was eluted with methanol. The separation and determination of the aflatoxin B1 was performed by reversed-phase LC and detected by fluorescence after postcolumn derivatization (PCD) involving bromination. PCD was achieved with either pyridinum hydrobromide perbromide (PBPB) or an electrochemical (Kobra) cell by addition of bromide to the mobile phase. The baby food (infant formula) test samples, both spiked and naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1, were sent to 14 laboratories in 13 different European countries. Test portions were spiked at levels of 0.1 and 0.2 ng/g for aflatoxin B1. Recoveries ranged from 101 to 92%. Based on results for spiked test samples (blind pairs at 2 levels) and naturally contaminated test samples (blind pairs at 3 levels), the relative standard deviation for repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 3.5 to 14%. The relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR) ranged from 9 to 23%. Nine participants used PBPB derivatization, and PMID:11501912

  3. Detection of Cronobacter Genus in Powdered Infant Formula by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Anti-Cronobacter Antibody.

    PubMed

    Song, Xinjie; Shukla, Shruti; Lee, Gibaek; Park, Sunhyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2016-01-01

    Cronobacter species (Cronobacter spp.) are hazardous foodborne pathogens associated with baby food, powdered infant formula (PIF). To develop a rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous detection of seven Cronobacter spp. in PIF, an indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (INC-ELISA) was developed based on a novel immunoglobulin G (IgG), anti-Cronobacter IgG. The developed INC-ELISA was able to detect seven Cronobacter spp. at concentrations ranging from (5.6 ± 0.30) × 10(3) to (2.1 ± 0.01) × 10(5) colony forming unit (CFU)/mL in pure culture. Further, INC-ELISA employing anti-Cronobacter IgG was applicable for analysis of PIF samples contaminated with less than <10 cells of Cronobacter spp. per 25 g of PIF in 36 h. The developed antibody showed slight cross-reactivity with Franconibacter pulveris (LMG 24057) at high concentration (10(8) CFU/mL). The INC-ELISA method displayed excellent specificity without compromising cross-reactivity with other foodborne pathogens. The INC-ELISA assay method developed in this study using a novel anti-Cronobacter IgG facilitated highly sensitive, efficient, and rapid detection of Cronobacter spp. in baby food. PMID:27493642

  4. Detection of Cronobacter Genus in Powdered Infant Formula by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Anti-Cronobacter Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xinjie; Shukla, Shruti; Lee, Gibaek; Park, Sunhyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2016-01-01

    Cronobacter species (Cronobacter spp.) are hazardous foodborne pathogens associated with baby food, powdered infant formula (PIF). To develop a rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous detection of seven Cronobacter spp. in PIF, an indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (INC-ELISA) was developed based on a novel immunoglobulin G (IgG), anti-Cronobacter IgG. The developed INC-ELISA was able to detect seven Cronobacter spp. at concentrations ranging from (5.6 ± 0.30) × 103 to (2.1 ± 0.01) × 105 colony forming unit (CFU)/mL in pure culture. Further, INC-ELISA employing anti-Cronobacter IgG was applicable for analysis of PIF samples contaminated with less than <10 cells of Cronobacter spp. per 25 g of PIF in 36 h. The developed antibody showed slight cross-reactivity with Franconibacter pulveris (LMG 24057) at high concentration (108 CFU/mL). The INC-ELISA method displayed excellent specificity without compromising cross-reactivity with other foodborne pathogens. The INC-ELISA assay method developed in this study using a novel anti-Cronobacter IgG facilitated highly sensitive, efficient, and rapid detection of Cronobacter spp. in baby food. PMID:27493642

  5. Detection of Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula using an immunoliposome-based immunomagnetic concentration and separation assay

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Shruti; Lee, Gibaek; Song, Xinjie; Park, Jung Hyun; Cho, Hyunjeong; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Myunghee

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize the applicability of an immunoliposome-based immunomagnetic concentration and separation assay to facilitate rapid detection of Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). To determine the detection limit, specificity, and pre-enrichment incubation time (0, 4, 6, and 8 h), assay tests were performed with different cell numbers of C. sakazakii (2 × 100 and 2 × 101 CFU/ml) inoculated in 10 g of PIF. The assay was able to detect as few as 2 cells of C. sakazakii/10 g of PIF sample after 6 h of pre-enrichment incubation with an assay time of 2 h 30 min. The assay was assessed for cross-reactivity with other bacterial strains and exhibited strong specificity to C. sakazakii. Moreover, the assay method was applied to the detection of C. sakazakii in PIF without pre-enrichment steps, and the results were compared with INC-ELISA and RT-PCR. The developed method was able to detect C. sakazakii in spiked PIF without pre-enrichment, whereas INC-ELISA failed to detect C. sakazakii. In addition, when compared with the results obtained with RT-PCR, our developed assay required lesser detection time. The developed assay was also not susceptible to any effect of the food matrix or background contaminant microflora. PMID:27721500

  6. Why Do Mothers of Young Infants Choose to Formula Feed in China? Perceptions of Mothers and Hospital Staff

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Tang, Li; Wang, Hong; Qiu, Li-Qian; Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2015-01-01

    In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers’ and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers’ decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of “insufficient breast milk” was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74%) as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers’ confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law’s and “confinement ladies” misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54%) lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly. PMID:25918908

  7. Determination of selenium in infant formula and enteral formula by dry ash graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction.

    PubMed

    Cook, K K

    1996-01-01

    A method was developed to determine selenium in infant formula using a graphite furnace equipped with deuterium background correction after dry ashing. The method circumvents the use of perchloric acid, 2,3-diaminonapthalene (DAN) and hydride generation without the use of Zeeman background correction. Twelve commercial infant and enteral formulas and corresponding spiked products (30-500 ng) were analyzed in triplicate for Se to evaluate this method. All test portions were digested on a hot plate after addition of magnesium nitrate-nitric acid. Following heating, digests were evaporated to dryness and placed in a 500 degrees C muffle furnace for 30 min to complete ashing. All Se was converted to Se+4 by dissolving the ash in HCl (5 + 1) and holding the solution for 20 min in a 60 degrees C water bath. Se+4 was subsequently reduced to Se(zero) with ascorbic acid and collected on a membrane filter. The membrane filters were digested in a small volume of nitric acid in a microwave oven. Following digestion, contents of the vessels were diluted and analyzed for Se by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Selenium standards in starch or in unfortified formula containing trace levels of Se were carried through the entire process. The recovery range for Se was 85-127%, and analyzed reference materials fell within their certified range for Se. This method is as sensitive (detection limit 0.44 ng Se/g) as methods reported in the literature and may be applicable to other foods. PMID:8823924

  8. Determination of vitamin B12 in infant formula and adult nutritionals by liquid chromatography/UV detection with immunoaffinity extraction: First Action 2011.08.

    PubMed

    Campos-Giménez, Esther; Fontannaz, Patric; Trisconi, Marie-José; Kilinc, Tamara; Gimenez, Catherine; Andrieux, Pierre; Nelson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    At the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting," on June 29, 2011, an Expert Review Panel agreed that the method "Determination of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formulas and Adult Nutritionals by Liquid Chromatography/UV Detection with Immunoaffinity Extraction" be adopted AOAC Official First Action status. The method is applicable for the determination of vitamin B12, which includes added cyanocobalamin and natural forms, making it applicable to both fortified and nonfortified products. Vitamin B12 is extracted from the sample in sodium acetate buffer in the presence of sodium cyanide (100 degrees C, 30 min). After purification and concentration with an immunoaffinity column, vitamin B12 is determined by LC with UV detection (361 nm). A single-laboratory validation study was conducted on a range of products, including milk- and soy-based infant formulas, cereals, cocoa beverages, health care products, and polyvitamin premixes. The method demonstrated linear response over a large range of concentrations, recovery rates of 100.8 +/- 7.5% (average +/- SD), repeatability RSD (RSDr) of 2.1%, and intermediate reproducibility (RSD(iR)) of 4.3%. LOD and LOQ values were 0.10 and 0.30 microg/100 g, respectively, and correlation with the reference microbiological assay was good (R2 = 0.9442). The results of the study were published in J. AOAC Int. 91, 786-793 (2008). The performance characteristics of the method met the standard method performance requirements set forth by the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals; thus, the method was determined to be appropriate for First Action status. PMID:22649911

  9. Determination of vitamin B12 in infant formula and adult nutritionals by liquid chromatography/UV detection with immunoaffinity extraction: First Action 2011.08.

    PubMed

    Campos-Giménez, Esther; Fontannaz, Patric; Trisconi, Marie-José; Kilinc, Tamara; Gimenez, Catherine; Andrieux, Pierre; Nelson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    At the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting," on June 29, 2011, an Expert Review Panel agreed that the method "Determination of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formulas and Adult Nutritionals by Liquid Chromatography/UV Detection with Immunoaffinity Extraction" be adopted AOAC Official First Action status. The method is applicable for the determination of vitamin B12, which includes added cyanocobalamin and natural forms, making it applicable to both fortified and nonfortified products. Vitamin B12 is extracted from the sample in sodium acetate buffer in the presence of sodium cyanide (100 degrees C, 30 min). After purification and concentration with an immunoaffinity column, vitamin B12 is determined by LC with UV detection (361 nm). A single-laboratory validation study was conducted on a range of products, including milk- and soy-based infant formulas, cereals, cocoa beverages, health care products, and polyvitamin premixes. The method demonstrated linear response over a large range of concentrations, recovery rates of 100.8 +/- 7.5% (average +/- SD), repeatability RSD (RSDr) of 2.1%, and intermediate reproducibility (RSD(iR)) of 4.3%. LOD and LOQ values were 0.10 and 0.30 microg/100 g, respectively, and correlation with the reference microbiological assay was good (R2 = 0.9442). The results of the study were published in J. AOAC Int. 91, 786-793 (2008). The performance characteristics of the method met the standard method performance requirements set forth by the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals; thus, the method was determined to be appropriate for First Action status.

  10. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel L; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM; raw bovine milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm pigs received parenteral and enteral nutrition consisting of IF (n = 13), BM (n = 13), or BC (n = 14). In a second study, WMP (n = 15) was compared with IF (n = 10) and BM (n = 9). Compared with pigs fed IF, pigs that were fed BM had significantly improved intestinal structure (mucosal weight, villus height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk) and milk processing (e.g., homogenization, fractionation, pasteurization, spray-drying) are important factors in determining milk quality during the early postnatal period of preterm neonates.

  11. Total calcium absorption is similar from infant formulas with and without prebiotics and exceeds that in human milk-fed infants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background 1) To evaluate calcium absorption in infants fed a formula containing prebiotics (PF) and one without prebiotics (CF). 2) To compare calcium absorption from these formulas with a group of human milk-fed (HM) infants. Methods A dual tracer stable isotope method was used to assess calcium absorption in infants exclusively fed CF (n = 30), PF (n = 25) or HM (n = 19). Analysis of variance was used to analyze calcium intake, fractional calcium absorption, and the amount of calcium absorbed. Results Calcium intake (Mean ± SEM) for PF was 534 ± 17 mg/d and 557 ± 16 mg/d for CF (p = 0.33). Fractional calcium absorption was 56.8 ± 2.6 % for PF and 59.2 ± 2.3 % for CF (p = 0.49). Total calcium absorbed for PF was 300 ± 14 mg/d and 328 ± 13 mg/d for CF (p = 0.16). For HM infants calcium intake was 246 ± 20 mg/d, fractional calcium absorption was 76.0 ± 2.9 % and total calcium absorbed was 187 ± 16 mg/d (p <0.001, compared to either PF or CF). Conclusions Despite lower fractional calcium absorption of CF and PF compared to HM, higher calcium content in both led to higher total calcium absorption compared to HM infants. No significant effect of prebiotics was observed on calcium absorption or other markers of bone mineral metabolism. PMID:22871243

  12. Infant formula promotes bone growth in neonatal piglets by enhancing osteoblastogenesis through bone morphogenic protein signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively few studies have examined the effects of formula feeding relative to breast-feeding on bone in the neonate. Using peripheral quantitative CT scan and histomorphometric analysis, we demonstrated that neonatal piglets fed with soy-based formula (SF) and cow milk-based formula (MF) for 21 or...

  13. Growth and tolerance of infants fed formula supplemented with polydextrose (PDX) and/or galactooligosaccharides (GOS): double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To ensure the suitability of an infant formula as the sole source of nutrition or provide benefits similar to outcomes in breastfed infants, advancements in formula composition are warranted as more research detailing the nutrient composition of human milk becomes available. This study was designed to evaluate growth and tolerance in healthy infants who received one of two investigational cow’s milk-based formulas with adjustments in carbohydrate, fat, and calcium content and supplemented with a prebiotic blend of polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) or GOS alone. Methods In this multi-center, double-blind, parallel-designed, gender-stratified prospective study 419 infants were randomized and consumed either a marketed routine cow’s milk-based infant formula (Control; Enfamil® LIPIL®, Mead Johnson Nutrition, Evansville, IN) (n = 142) or one of two investigational formulas from 14 to 120 days of age. Investigational formulas were supplemented with 4 g/L (1:1 ratio) of a prebiotic blend of PDX and GOS (PDX/GOS; n = 139) or 4 g/L of GOS alone (GOS; n = 138). Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Daily recall of formula intake, tolerance, and stool characteristics was collected during study weeks 1 and 2 and 24-h recall was collected at 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Medically-confirmed adverse events were recorded throughout the study. Results There were no group differences in growth rate from 14 to 120 days of age. Discontinuation rates were not significantly different among study groups. No differences in formula intake or infant fussiness or gassiness were observed. During study weeks 1 and 2 and at 60 days of age stool consistency ratings were higher (i.e. softer stools) for infants in the PDX/GOS and GOS groups versus Control and remained higher at 120 days for the PDX/GOS group (all P < 0.05). The overall incidence of medically-confirmed adverse events was

  14. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Shen, René L; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V; Støy, Ann Cathrine F; Krych, Łukasz; Nielsen, Dennis S; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J; Burrin, Douglas G; Sangild, Per T

    2015-09-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models for preterm infants. Pigs were given either total parenteral nutrition (TPN, n = 14) or slowly advancing volumes (16-64 ml·kg(-1)·day(-1)) of preterm infant formula (IF, n = 15) or bovine colostrum (BC, n = 13), both given as adjunct to parenteral nutrition. On day 5, both enteral diets increased intestinal mass (27 ± 1 vs. 22 ± 1 g/kg) and glucagon-like peptide 2 release, relative to TPN (P < 0.05). The incidence of mild NEC lesions was higher in IF than BC and TPN pigs (60 vs. 0 and 15%, respectively, P < 0.05). Only the IF pigs showed reduced gastric emptying and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release, and increased tissue proinflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β and IL-8, P < 0.05) and expression of immune-related genes (AOAH, LBP, CXCL10, TLR2), relative to TPN. The IF pigs also showed reduced intestinal villus-to-crypt ratio, lactose digestion, and some plasma amino acids (Arg, Cit, Gln, Tyr, Val), and higher intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P < 0.05). Colonic microbiota analyses showed limited differences among groups. Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother's milk is absent during the first week after preterm birth. A diet-dependent feeding guideline may be required for newborn preterm infants. PMID:26138468

  15. The European Food Safety Authority recommendation for polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of infant formula overrules breast milk, puts infants at risk, and should be revised.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Michael A; Wang, Yiqun; Forsyth, Stewart; Brenna, J Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has concluded from a limited review of the literature that although docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is required for infant formula, arachidonic acid is not required "even in the presence of DHA" (EFSA Journal, 12 (2014) 3760). This flawed opinion is grounded in human trials which tested functionality of DHA in neural outcomes and included arachidonic acid ostensibly to support growth. The EFSA report mistakes a nutrient ubiquitous in the diets of newborn infants, through breast milk and with wide-ranging health and neurodevelopmental effects, for an optional drug targeted to a particular outcome that is properly excluded when no benefit is found for that particular outcome. Arachidonic acid has very different biological functions compared to DHA, for example, arachidonic acid has unique functions in the vasculature and in specific aspects of immunity. Indeed, the overwhelming majority of trials include both DHA and arachidonic acid, and test development specific to DHA such as neural and visual development. DHA suppresses membrane arachidonic acid concentrations and its function. An infant formula with DHA and no arachidonic acid runs the risk of cardio and cerebrovascular morbidity and even mortality through suppression of the favorable oxylipin derivatives of arachidonic acid. The EFSA recommendation overruling breast milk composition should be revised forthwith, otherwise being unsafe, ungrounded in most of the evidence, and risking lifelong disability.

  16. No difference indicated in electroencephalographic power spectral analysis in 3- and 6-month-old infants fed soy- or milk-based formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing concern has been recently raised on the possible effects of soy-derived phytoestrogens on the development of cognitive functions in infants. However, limited studies have been conducted to date, and no data have been made available for determining whether infant soy formula can affect nor...

  17. Total zinc quantification by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and its speciation by size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in human milk and commercial formulas: Importance in infant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Menéndez, Sonia; Fernández-Sánchez, María L; Fernández-Colomer, Belén; de la Flor St Remy, Rafael R; Cotallo, Gil Daniel Coto; Freire, Aline Soares; Braz, Bernardo Ferreira; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarises results of zinc content and its speciation in human milk from mothers of preterm and full-term infants at different stages of lactation and from synthetic formula milks. Human milk samples (colostrum, 7th, 14th, and 28th day after delivery) from Spanish and Brazilian mothers of preterm and full-term infants (and also formula milks) were collected. After adequate treatment of the sample, total Zn was determined, while speciation analysis of the Zn was accomplished by size exclusion chromatography coupled online with the ICP-MS. It is observed that total zinc content in human milk decreases continuously during the first month of lactation, both for preterm and full term gestations. All infant formulas analysed for total Zn were within the currently legislated levels. For Zn speciation analysis, there were no differences between preterm and full term human milk samples. Moreover Zn species elute mainly associated with immunoglobulins and citrate in human milk whey. Interestingly the speciation in formula milk whey turned out to be completely different as the observed Zn(2+) was bound almost exclusively to low molecular weight ligands (citrate) and only comparatively very low amounts of the metal appeared to be associated with higher mass biomolecules (e.g. proteins).

  18. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula, and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2012.13.

    PubMed

    Golay, Pierre-Alain; Dong, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The method described is intended for the quantification of all fatty acids, including commercially important groups of fatty acids used for labeling reasons [i. e., trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9] and/or individual fatty acids (i. e., linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, ecosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) in milk products, infant formula, and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. These products often contain milk fat and/or vegetable oils and are supplemented or not supplemented with oils rich in long-chain PUFA. The determination is performed by direct transesterification of ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid concentrate or powder products without prior fat extraction. Single-laboratory validation (SLV) data were submitted to the AOAC Expert Review Panel (ERP) on Nutrient Methods for review at the AOAC Annual Meeting held on September 30 to October 3, 2012, in Las Vegas, NV. The ERP determined that the data reviewed met the Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR® 2012.011) set by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) and was approved as an AOAC Official First Action method. The analytical range for SPIFAN samples was between 0.001 and 7.94 g/100 g reconstituted product or RTF liquid. LOQ was estimated as 0.001 g/100 g, while repeatability and intermediate precision were both less than 1.8% RSD above 0.05 g/100 g and <3.5% RSD at 0.005 g/100 g. Recovery values based on spiking experiments at two different levels of linoleic and linolenic acids ranged from 100.0 to 102.9% for three different SPIFAN products. All the parameters evaluated during the SLV were well within the values defined in SMPR 2012.011.

  19. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula, and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2012.13.

    PubMed

    Golay, Pierre-Alain; Dong, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The method described is intended for the quantification of all fatty acids, including commercially important groups of fatty acids used for labeling reasons [i. e., trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9] and/or individual fatty acids (i. e., linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, ecosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) in milk products, infant formula, and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. These products often contain milk fat and/or vegetable oils and are supplemented or not supplemented with oils rich in long-chain PUFA. The determination is performed by direct transesterification of ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid concentrate or powder products without prior fat extraction. Single-laboratory validation (SLV) data were submitted to the AOAC Expert Review Panel (ERP) on Nutrient Methods for review at the AOAC Annual Meeting held on September 30 to October 3, 2012, in Las Vegas, NV. The ERP determined that the data reviewed met the Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR® 2012.011) set by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) and was approved as an AOAC Official First Action method. The analytical range for SPIFAN samples was between 0.001 and 7.94 g/100 g reconstituted product or RTF liquid. LOQ was estimated as 0.001 g/100 g, while repeatability and intermediate precision were both less than 1.8% RSD above 0.05 g/100 g and <3.5% RSD at 0.005 g/100 g. Recovery values based on spiking experiments at two different levels of linoleic and linolenic acids ranged from 100.0 to 102.9% for three different SPIFAN products. All the parameters evaluated during the SLV were well within the values defined in SMPR 2012.011. PMID:26651581

  20. Effects of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation of Infant Formula on Cognition and Behaviour at 9 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Corina; Kikkert, Hedwig K.; Fidler, Vaclav; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of infant formula may have a beneficial effect on cognitive development. This study aimed to investigate the effect of LCPUFA formula supplementation primarily on cognition and secondarily on behaviour at age 9 years. Special attention was paid to the potentially modifying effect…

  1. Flow Cytometric and 16S Sequencing Methodologies for Monitoring the Physiological Status of the Microbiome in Powdered Infant Formula Production

    PubMed Central

    Anvarian, Amir H. P.; Cao, Yu; Srikumar, Shabarinath; Fanning, Séamus; Jordan, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop appropriate protocols for flow cytometric (FCM) and 16S rDNA sequencing investigation of the microbiome in a powdered infant formula (PIF) production facility. Twenty swabs were collected from each of the three care zones of a PIF production facility and used for preparing composite samples. For FCM studies, the swabs were washed in 200 mL phosphate buffer saline (PBS). The cells were harvested by three-step centrifugation followed by a single stage filtration. Cells were dispersed in fresh PBS and analyzed with a flow cytometer for membrane integrity, metabolic activity, respiratory activity and Gram characteristics of the microbiome using various fluorophores. The samples were also plated on agar plates to determine the number of culturable cells. For 16S rDNA sequencing studies, the cells were harvested by centrifugation only. Genomic DNA was extracted using a chloroform-based method and used for 16S rDNA sequencing studies. Compared to the dry low and high care zones, the wet medium care zone contained a greater number of viable, culturable, and metabolically active cells. Viable but non-culturable cells were also detected in dry-care zones. In total, 243 genera were detected in the facility of which 42 were found in all three care zones. The greatest diversity in the microbiome was observed in low care. The genera present in low, medium and high care were mostly associated with soil, water, and humans, respectively. The most prevalent genera in low, medium and high care were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Streptococcus, respectively. The integration of FCM and metagenomic data provided further information on the density of different species in the facility. PMID:27446009

  2. Flow Cytometric and 16S Sequencing Methodologies for Monitoring the Physiological Status of the Microbiome in Powdered Infant Formula Production.

    PubMed

    Anvarian, Amir H P; Cao, Yu; Srikumar, Shabarinath; Fanning, Séamus; Jordan, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop appropriate protocols for flow cytometric (FCM) and 16S rDNA sequencing investigation of the microbiome in a powdered infant formula (PIF) production facility. Twenty swabs were collected from each of the three care zones of a PIF production facility and used for preparing composite samples. For FCM studies, the swabs were washed in 200 mL phosphate buffer saline (PBS). The cells were harvested by three-step centrifugation followed by a single stage filtration. Cells were dispersed in fresh PBS and analyzed with a flow cytometer for membrane integrity, metabolic activity, respiratory activity and Gram characteristics of the microbiome using various fluorophores. The samples were also plated on agar plates to determine the number of culturable cells. For 16S rDNA sequencing studies, the cells were harvested by centrifugation only. Genomic DNA was extracted using a chloroform-based method and used for 16S rDNA sequencing studies. Compared to the dry low and high care zones, the wet medium care zone contained a greater number of viable, culturable, and metabolically active cells. Viable but non-culturable cells were also detected in dry-care zones. In total, 243 genera were detected in the facility of which 42 were found in all three care zones. The greatest diversity in the microbiome was observed in low care. The genera present in low, medium and high care were mostly associated with soil, water, and humans, respectively. The most prevalent genera in low, medium and high care were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Streptococcus, respectively. The integration of FCM and metagenomic data provided further information on the density of different species in the facility. PMID:27446009

  3. Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A and bisphenol B in beverages and powdered infant formula by dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction and heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cunha, S C; Almeida, C; Mendes, E; Fernandes, J O

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a reliable, cost-effective, fast and simple method to quantify simultaneously both bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol B (BPB) in liquid food matrixes such as canned beverages (soft drinks and beers) and powdered infant formula using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) with in-situ derivatisation coupled with heart-cutting gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the optimisation of the DLLME procedure different amounts of various extractive and dispersive solvents as well as different amounts of the derivative reagent were compared for their effects on extraction efficiency and yields. The optimised procedure consisted of the injection of a mixture containing tetrachloroethylene (extractant), acetonitrile (dispersant) and acetic anhydride (derivatising reagent) directly into an aliquot of beverage samples or into an aqueous extract of powdered milk samples obtained after a pretreatment of the samples. Given the compatibility of the solvents used, and the low volumes involved, the procedure was easily associated with GC-MS end-point determination, which was accomplished by means of an accurate GC dual column (heart-cutting) technique. Careful optimisation of heart-cutting GC-MS conditions, namely pressure of front and auxiliary inlets, have resulted in a good analytical performance. The linearity of the matrix-matched calibration curves was acceptable, with coefficients of determination (r2) always higher than 0.99. Average recoveries of the BPA and BPB spiked at two concentration levels into beverages and powdered infant formula ranged from 68% to 114% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was <15%. The limits of detection (LOD) in canned beverages were 5.0 and 2.0 ng l(-1) for BPA and BPB, respectively, whereas LOD in powdered infant formula were 60.0 and 30.0 ng l(-1), respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ) in canned beverages were 10.0 and 7.0 ng l-1 for BPA and BPB, respectively

  4. Content and evolution of potential furfural compounds in commercial milk-based infant formula powder after opening the packet.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; de la Torre Carbot, Karina; García-Gasca, Teresa; Castellote, Ana I; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Potential furfural compounds were examined by RP-HPLC-DAD in 20 commercial milk-based powdered infant formula (IF) brands from local markets from Paris, France; DF, Mexico; Copenhagen, Denmark; England, UK; and Barcelona, Spain. We traced the evolution of these compounds after the packets had been opened at 0, 30 and 70 days of storage at room temperature (≈25 °C; minimum 23 °C and maximum 25.5 °C). All formula brands were analysed during the first 3-5 months of their shelf life. The mean values of all IFs for potential 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF)+2-furaldehyde (F) were 1115.2 μg/100 g (just opened), 1157.6 μg/100 g (30 days) and 1344.5 μg/100 g of product (70 days). In general, slight increases of potential furfural contents were observed in most of the studied IFs, which suggests that the Maillard reaction increases after opening the packets. The main furfural compound found was HMF, as expected. The range of potential HMF consumed for an infant about 6 months old feeding only on formula was estimated between 0.63 mg and 3.25 mg per day.

  5. Rapid Detection and Simultaneous Genotyping of Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) in Powdered Infant Formula Using Real-time PCR and High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xian-Quan; Yu, Hai-Qiong; Ruan, Zhou-Xi; Yang, Lei-Liang; Bai, Jian-Shan; Qiu, De-Yi; Jian, Zhi-Hua; Xiao, Yi-Qian; Yang, Jie-Yang; Le, Thanh Hoa; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Cronobacter spp. is an emerging pathogen that causes meningitis, sepsis, bacteremia, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and children. The present study developed an assay integrating real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis targeting the OmpA gene for the specific detection and rapid identification of Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) in powdered infant formula. Eleven Cronobacter field isolates and 25 reference strains were examined using one pair of primers, having the accuracy of 100% in reference to conventional methods. The assay was proved to be highly sensitive with a detection limit of 102 CFU/ml without pre-enrichment, and highly concordant (100%) when compared with ISO-IDF 22964 in 89 actual samples. The method performed for Cronobacter spp. detection was less than 24 h, drastically shortened, compared to several days using standard culturing method, it is probe-free and reduces a risk of PCR carryover. Moreover, all Cronobacter strains examined in this study were genotyped into two species according to their HRM profiles. The established method should provide a molecular tool for direct detection and simultaneous genotyping of Cronobacter spp. in powdered infant formula. PMID:23825624

  6. Identification of bioactive peptides in hypoallergenic infant milk formulas by CE-TOF-MS assisted by semiempirical model of electromigration behavior.

    PubMed

    Català-Clariana, Sergio; Benavente, Fernando; Giménez, Estela; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria

    2013-07-01

    Biologically active peptides derived from complex bovine milk protein hydrolysates are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play different physiological roles, providing benefits in human health. In this study, we used CE-TOF-MS for separation and identification of bioactive peptides in three hypoallergenic infant milk formulas. An appropriate sample cleanup using a citrate buffer with DTT and urea followed by SPE with Sep-Pack® C18 and StrataX™ cartridges allowed the detection of a large number of low molecular mass bioactive peptides. This preliminary identification was solely based on the measured experimental monoisotopic molecular mass values (M(exp)). Later, we evaluated the classical semiempirical relationships between electrophoretic mobility and charge-to-mass ratio (m(e) vs. q/M(α), α = 1/2 for the classical polymer model) to describe their migration behavior. The assistance of migration prediction proved to be useful to improve reliability of the identification, avoiding misinterpretations and solving some identity conflicts. After revision, the identity of 24, 30, and 38 bioactive peptides was confirmed in each of the three infant milk formulas. A significant number of these peptides were reported as inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme, however, the presence of sequences with other biological activities such as antihypertensive, antithrombotic, hypocholesterolemic, immunomodulation, cytotoxicity, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antigenic, or opioid was also confirmed.

  7. Simultaneous determination of free carnitine and total choline by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in infant formula and health-care products: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Andrieux, Pierre; Kilinc, Tamara; Perrin, Christian; Campos-Giménez, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for a liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric (LCIMS) method for the simultaneous determination of the free carnitine and total choline in milk-based infant formula and health-care products. The sample preparation used for both carnitine and choline was adapted from AOAC Official Method 999.14, with an acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis of esterified forms of choline. Carnitine and choline were quantified by ion-pair chromatography with single-quadrupole MS detection, using their respective deuterated internal standards. The repeatability relative standard deviation was < or =2.5 and 2.1%, respectively, for carnitine and choline. The intermediate reproducibility relative standard deviation was <4.7 and 2.4%, respectively, for carnitine and choline. The ranges of the average product-specific recoveries were 92-98 and 94-103%, respectively, for carnitine and choline. Choline concentration determined in infant formula reference material SRM 1846 was in agreement with the reference value. The proposed method was compared with the enzymatic methods for a range of products; good correlation (r = 0.99) was obtained, although a significant bias was observed for both analytes. The method, with a short chromatographic run time (7 min), is convenient for routine analysis to enhance analytical throughput and is a good alternative to enzymatic assays.

  8. Adherence of medium-chain fatty acids to feeding tubes of premature infants fed formula fortified with medium-chain triglyceride.

    PubMed

    Mehta, N R; Hamosh, M; Bitman, J; Wood, D L

    1991-10-01

    Adherence of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil to feeding tubes during gavage feeding of Enfamil formula was quantitated. Infants were fed similar volumes of either unfortified formula (n = 11) or MCT oil-fortified formula (0.5 ml/oz); either the MCT oil was mixed with the formula before feeding (n = 11) or the MCT oil was delivered into the feeding tube and then was followed by formula (n = 11). The fat residue in the feeding sets was quantitated by gravimetry, and individual fatty acids were characterized by gas-liquid chromatography. The data show that only trace amounts of lipid (0.23 +/- 0.04%) adhered to feeding sets during feeding of unfortified formula. Significantly more lipid (p less than 0.0005) adhered when formula was fortified with MCT oil, and the method of feeding greatly affected lipid adherence, i.e., 1.52 +/- 0.21% when the MCT oil was followed by formula versus 10.20 +/- 1.76% when the MCT oil was mixed with formula before feeding. Analysis of the fat residue of fortified formula showed that greater than 90% was composed of C8:0 and C10:0, the major fatty acid components of MCT oil. We suggest that care be exercised when fortifying infant formula with MCT oil.

  9. [Use of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as a chicken complement in an infant formula].

    PubMed

    Modernell, Marisa Guerra; Granito, Marisela; Paolini, Mariangel; Olaizola, Cristina

    2008-09-01

    Legumes represent an important protein source worldwide. In Venezuela, they are generally prepared at home and are consumed by adults, as soup or stew, while children eat them in very small quantities. In order to include legumes in the children's diet, the following work was done using cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as an complement of chicken in the preparation of a nutritionally balanced formula, adapted to the requirements of children. Several formulas were developed and three of them were selected based on their acceptability. In the first formula, the protein source was only of chicken. In the second formula, the chicken was partially substituted by cowpea, and in the third formula, the protein source was only made of cowpea. Other formula ingredients included rice, pumpkin (Curcubita maxima), carrot and some seasonings. Proximal analysis, protein quality (as protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility) and sensory evaluation (7-point hedonic scale) were performed on the formulas. The proximal composition was similar in the three formulas: protein (3.5%), fat (1.3%) and carbohydrates (19.7%), with a good distribution of the energy contribution (98.9 kcal/100 g or 413.8 kJ/100 g). The protein quality and protein digestibility were higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability with the mothers was higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability of the chicken-cowpea formula with children was 77% (7-point hedonic facial scale) and 92% (measuring consumption). Due to the high acceptability and good protein quality, the chicken-cowpea formula could be included in the lunch meal of the children in daycare homes.

  10. Vitamin C in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional Formula by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with Ultraviolet detection: first action 2012.22.

    PubMed

    Campos-Giménez, Esther; Fontannaz, Patric; Redeuil, Karine; Kilinc, Tamara; Dowell, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    During the AOAC Annual Meeting held in Las Vegas, NV from September 30 to October 3, 2012, the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals convened to review single-laboratory validation data submitted for the method, Vitamin C in Adult/Pediatric Formula by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection. This method is a modified version of the method "HPLC-UV Determination of Total Vitamin C in a Wide Range of Fortified Food Products" previously published in Food Chem., 94, 626-631 (2006). The SLV data from the modified method were reviewed and compared to the standard method performance requirements (SMPR 2012.012), and it was concluded that the method meets the requirements. The method was approved as AOAC Official First Action. The method is based on the acidic extraction of ascorbic acid in the presence of Tris[2-carboxyethyl] phosphine (TCEP) as a reducing agent. Separation was achieved on a C18 column with a sodium acetate eluent (pH 5.4) combined with TCEP and decylamine as an ion-pairing agent. Accuracy rates were between 90 and 100%. Repeatability RSD (RSD,) ranged from 1.4 to 2.5%, and intermediate reproducibility RSD (RSDiR) ranged from 1.3 to 7.5%. PMID:24282948

  11. Vitamin C in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional Formula by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with Ultraviolet detection: first action 2012.22.

    PubMed

    Campos-Giménez, Esther; Fontannaz, Patric; Redeuil, Karine; Kilinc, Tamara; Dowell, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    During the AOAC Annual Meeting held in Las Vegas, NV from September 30 to October 3, 2012, the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals convened to review single-laboratory validation data submitted for the method, Vitamin C in Adult/Pediatric Formula by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection. This method is a modified version of the method "HPLC-UV Determination of Total Vitamin C in a Wide Range of Fortified Food Products" previously published in Food Chem., 94, 626-631 (2006). The SLV data from the modified method were reviewed and compared to the standard method performance requirements (SMPR 2012.012), and it was concluded that the method meets the requirements. The method was approved as AOAC Official First Action. The method is based on the acidic extraction of ascorbic acid in the presence of Tris[2-carboxyethyl] phosphine (TCEP) as a reducing agent. Separation was achieved on a C18 column with a sodium acetate eluent (pH 5.4) combined with TCEP and decylamine as an ion-pairing agent. Accuracy rates were between 90 and 100%. Repeatability RSD (RSD,) ranged from 1.4 to 2.5%, and intermediate reproducibility RSD (RSDiR) ranged from 1.3 to 7.5%.

  12. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Julian F; Yang, Ariana C; Oba, Jane; Rodrigues, Maraci; Caetano, Rosane; Polster, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of three alternative dietetic strategies for cow’s milk allergy in Brazil: 1) using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF; Nutramigen) as a first-line formula, but switching to an amino acid formula (AAF) if infants remain symptomatic; 2) using an AAF as a first-line formula and then switching to an eHCF after 4 weeks once infants are symptom-free, but switching back to an AAF if infants become symptomatic; and 3) using an AAF as a first-line formula and keeping all infants on that formula. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Brazilian public health care system, Sistema Único de Saude. Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated and non-IgE-mediated allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 12 months from starting a formula. The models also estimated the Sistema Único de Saude cost (at 2013/2014 prices) of managing infants over 12 months after starting a formula, as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the dietetic strategies. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 12 months from starting a formula was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated allergy who were initially fed with an eHCF, compared with those who were initially fed with an AAF. The total health care cost of initially feeding an eHCF to cow’s milk allergic infants was less than that of initially feeding both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated infants with an AAF. Conclusion Within the study’s limitations, using an eHCF instead of an AAF for the first-line management of newly-diagnosed infants with cow’s milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources, since it improves the outcome for less cost. PMID:27799804

  13. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes.

  14. Arachidonate and docosahexaenoate added to infant formula influence fatty acid composition and subsequent eicosanoid production in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Huang, M C; Craig-Schmidt, M C

    1996-09-01

    As natural components of human milk, arachdonic and docosahexaenoic acids play important roles in neonatal development; thus, addition of these fatty acids to infant formula has been suggested. This study examined the effects of supplementation of infant formula with microbial sources of either arachidonate or docosahexaenoate or both on accretion of these fatty acids in phospholipids and subsequent modulation of eicosanoid production in neonatal pig lung. One-day-old piglets received for 25 d one of four diets (n = 5): 1) standard diet containing a fat blend similar to that of conventional infant formula, 2) diet containing 0.9 g/100 g of total fatty acids as arachidonate, 3) diet containing 0.7 g/100 g as docosahexaenoate, or 4) a diet containing both 1.0 g/100 g as arachidonate and 0.8 g/100 g as docosahexaenoate. Arachidonate supplementation resulted in 30-60% significantly greater arachidonate in lung phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. In phosphatidylinositol, however, arachidonate was resistant to dietary manipulation. Accretion of docosahexaenoate in all three phospholipid classes was 2.6- to 4.7-fold greater in docosahexaenoate-supplemented groups than in the standard group. Inclusion of arachidonate in the diet augmented both prostacyclin and thromboxane production by 25 to 35%. Docosahexaenoate supplementation resulted in the least eicosanoid production among the treatments, and significant suppression was observed for thromboxane when supplementation with both fatty acids was compared with supplementation with arachidonate alone. Thus, dietary arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid at concentrations only slightly greater than those found in human milk tended to exercise opposing effects on lung eicosanoid production.

  15. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Julian F; Weidlich, Diana; Mascuñan Díaz, J Ignacio; Díaz, Juan J; Ojeda, Pedro Manuel; Ferrer-González, J Pablo; Gil, David; Onrubia, Isabel; Rincón Victor, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as a first-line management for cow’s milk allergy compared with eHCF alone, and amino acid formulae in Spain, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (SNS). Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated and non–IgE-mediated allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months. The models also estimated the SNS cost (at 2012/2013 prices) of managing infants over 18 months after starting a formula as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulae. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non–IgE-mediated allergy who were fed eHCF + LGG compared with those fed one of the other formulae. The total health care cost of initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG was less than that of feeding infants with one of the other formulae. Hence, eHCF + LGG affords the greatest value for money to the SNS for managing both IgE-mediated and non–IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy. Conclusion Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF alone or amino acid formulae for first-line management of newly-diagnosed infants with cow’s milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources because it improves outcome for less cost. A randomized controlled study showing faster tolerance development in children receiving a probiotic-containing formula is required before this conclusion can be confirmed. PMID:26648744

  16. A simple and fast ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure for Fe and Zn determination in milk-based infant formulas using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS).

    PubMed

    Machado, Ignacio; Bergmann, Gabriela; Pistón, Mariela

    2016-03-01

    A simple and fast ultrasound-assisted procedure for the determination of iron and zinc in infant formulas is presented. The analytical determinations were carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariate experiments were performed for optimization; in addition, a comparative study was carried out using two ultrasonic devices. A method using an ultrasonic bath was selected because several samples can be prepared simultaneously, and there is less contamination risk. Analytical precision (sr(%)) was 3.3% and 4.1% for iron and zinc, respectively. Trueness was assessed using a reference material and by comparison of the results obtained analyzing commercial samples using a reference method. The results were statistically equivalent to the certified values and in good agreement with those obtained using the reference method. The proposed method can be easily implemented in laboratories for routine analysis with the advantage of being rapid and in agreement with green chemistry. PMID:26471568

  17. [Powdered infant formulae preparation guide for hospitals based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) principles].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Leguás, H; Rodríguez Garrido, V; Lorite Cuenca, R; Pérez-Portabella, C; Redecillas Ferreiro, S; Campins Martí, M

    2009-06-01

    This guide for the preparation of powdered infant formulae in hospital environments is a collaborative work between several hospital services and is based on national and European regulations, international experts meetings and the recommendations of scientific societies. This guide also uses the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point principles proposed by Codex Alimentarius and emphasises effective verifying measures, microbiological controls of the process and the corrective actions when monitoring indicates that a critical control point is not under control. It is a dynamic guide and specifies the evaluation procedures that allow it to be constantly adapted.

  18. New Methods for the Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritionals.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frederic; Giménez, Ester Campos; Konings, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Water-soluble vitamins (WSVs) are a group of organic compounds which are essential micronutrients. WSVs could be divided between the B complex group and vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid). Within the B complex group, eight vitamins are recognized: vitamins B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin or niacinamide), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid), and B12 (various cobalamins). This paper reviews the new methods for the analysis of these vitamins, with a focus on infant formula and adult nutritionals.

  19. New Methods for the Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritionals.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frederic; Giménez, Ester Campos; Konings, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Water-soluble vitamins (WSVs) are a group of organic compounds which are essential micronutrients. WSVs could be divided between the B complex group and vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid). Within the B complex group, eight vitamins are recognized: vitamins B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin or niacinamide), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid), and B12 (various cobalamins). This paper reviews the new methods for the analysis of these vitamins, with a focus on infant formula and adult nutritionals. PMID:27053467

  20. Analytical Determination of Vitamin B12 Content in Infant and Toddler Milk Formulas by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Jin-Ho; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Ha-Jung; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Kwak, Byung-Man; Kim, Jin-Man

    2015-01-01

    The development of a sample preparation method and optimization of the analytical instrumentation conditions were performed for the determination of the vitamin B12 content in emulsified baby foods sold on the Korea market. After removal of the milk protein and fats by chloroform extraction and centrifugation, the vitamin B12 was water extracted from the sample. Following filtration of the solution through a nylon filter, the water-soluble extract was purified by solid-phase extraction using a Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The solution eluted from the cartridge was dried under a stream of nitrogen gas and reconstituted with 1 mL of water. The sample solution was injected into an LC-MS/MS system after optimizing the mobile phase for vitamin B12 detection. The calibration curve showed good linearity with the coefficient of correlation (r2) value of 0.9999. The limit of detection was 0.03 µg/L and the limit of quantitation was 0.1 µg/L. The method of detection limit was 0.02 µg/kg. The vitamin B12 recovery from a spiking test was 99.62% for infant formula and 99.46% for cereal-based baby food. The sample preparation method developed in this study would be appropriate for the rapid determination of the vitamin B12 content in infant formula and baby foods with emulsified milk characteristics. The ability to obtain stable results more quickly and efficiently would also allow governments to exercise a more extensive quality control inspection and monitoring of products expected to contain vitamin B12. This method could be implemented in laboratories that require time and labor saving. PMID:26877636

  1. Partially hydrolysed 100% whey-based infant formula and the prevention of atopic dermatitis: comparative pharmacoeconomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Spieldenner, Jörg; Belli, Dominique; Dupont, Christophe; Haschke, Ferdinand; Iskedjian, Michael; Nevot Falcó, Santiago; Szajewska, Hania; von Berg, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trials have demonstrated that the risk of developing atopic dermatitis is reduced when using hydrolysed formulas to feed infants with a documented risk of atopy (i.e. an affected parent and/or sibling)when breastfeeding is not practised. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of using hydrolysed formulas. Consequently, economic analyses in 5 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Spain and Switzerland) have evaluated the costs and cost-effectiveness of a specific brand of 100% whey-based partially hydrolysed infant formula, NAN-HA® (PHF-W) compared with a cow's milk standard formula (SF) in the prevention of atopic dermatitis in at-risk children. This review synthesises the findings of these studies. Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) used a decision-analytic model to determine treatment pathways, resource utilisation and costs associated with the management of atopic dermatitis in healthy at-risk newborns who were not exclusively breastfed. The model had a 12-month horizon and applied reimbursement rates of 60-100% depending on the country. Outcomes were considered from the perspective of the public healthcare system (e.g. the Ministry of Health; MOH), family and society. The final outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per avoided case of atopic dermatitis (ICER) for PHF-W versus SF. A cost-minimisation analysis was also performed to compare PHF-W with extensively hydrolysed formulas (EHF). The base-case CEA produced ICERs per avoided case for PHF-W versus SF of EUR 982-1,343 (MOH perspective), EUR -2,202 to -624 (family perspective) indicating savings, and EUR -1,220 to 719 from the societal perspective. The main costs related to formula (MOH and society) and time loss (family). In the cost-minimisation analysis, PHF-W yielded savings of between EUR 4.3 and 120 million compared with EHF-whey when the latter was used in prevention. In conclusion, PHF-W was cost-effective versus SF in the prevention of atopic dermatitis

  2. Partially hydrolysed 100% whey-based infant formula and the prevention of atopic dermatitis: comparative pharmacoeconomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Spieldenner, Jörg; Belli, Dominique; Dupont, Christophe; Haschke, Ferdinand; Iskedjian, Michael; Nevot Falcó, Santiago; Szajewska, Hania; von Berg, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trials have demonstrated that the risk of developing atopic dermatitis is reduced when using hydrolysed formulas to feed infants with a documented risk of atopy (i.e. an affected parent and/or sibling)when breastfeeding is not practised. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of using hydrolysed formulas. Consequently, economic analyses in 5 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Spain and Switzerland) have evaluated the costs and cost-effectiveness of a specific brand of 100% whey-based partially hydrolysed infant formula, NAN-HA® (PHF-W) compared with a cow's milk standard formula (SF) in the prevention of atopic dermatitis in at-risk children. This review synthesises the findings of these studies. Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) used a decision-analytic model to determine treatment pathways, resource utilisation and costs associated with the management of atopic dermatitis in healthy at-risk newborns who were not exclusively breastfed. The model had a 12-month horizon and applied reimbursement rates of 60-100% depending on the country. Outcomes were considered from the perspective of the public healthcare system (e.g. the Ministry of Health; MOH), family and society. The final outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per avoided case of atopic dermatitis (ICER) for PHF-W versus SF. A cost-minimisation analysis was also performed to compare PHF-W with extensively hydrolysed formulas (EHF). The base-case CEA produced ICERs per avoided case for PHF-W versus SF of EUR 982-1,343 (MOH perspective), EUR -2,202 to -624 (family perspective) indicating savings, and EUR -1,220 to 719 from the societal perspective. The main costs related to formula (MOH and society) and time loss (family). In the cost-minimisation analysis, PHF-W yielded savings of between EUR 4.3 and 120 million compared with EHF-whey when the latter was used in prevention. In conclusion, PHF-W was cost-effective versus SF in the prevention of atopic dermatitis

  3. [Simultaneous determination of vitamins A, D3 and E in infant formula and adult nutritions by online two-dimensional liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhai; Qibule, Hasi; Jin, Yan; Wang, Jia; Ma, Wenli

    2015-03-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of vitamins A, D3 and E in infant formula and adult nutritions has been developed using online two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC). First of all, C8 and polar embedded C18 columns were chosen as the first and second dimensional column respectively according to hydrophobic-subtraction model, which constituted excellent orthogonal separation system. The detection wavelengths were set at 263 nm for vitamin D3, 296 nm for vitamin E and 325 nm for vitamin A. The purification of vitamin D3 and quantifications of vitamins A and E were completed simultaneously in the first dimensional separation using the left pump of Dual Gradient LC (DGLC) with methanol, acetonitrile and water as mobile phases. The heart-cutting time window of vitamin D3 was confirmed according to the retention time of vitamin D3 in the first dimensional separation. The elute from the first dimensional column (1-D column) which contained vitamin D3 was collected by a 500 µL sample loop and then taken into the second dimensional column (2-D column) by the right pump of DGLC with methanol, acetonitrile and water as mobile phases. The quantification of vitamin D3 was performed in the second dimensional separation with vitamin D2 as internal standard. At last, this method was applied for the analysis of the three vitamins in milk powder, cheese and yogurt. The injected sample solution with no further purification was pre-treated by hot-saponification using 1. 25 kg/L KOH solution and extracted by petroleum ether solvent. The recoveries of vitamin D3 spiked in all samples were 75.50%-85.00%. There was no statistically significant difference for the results between this method and standard method through t-test. The results indicate that vitamins A, D3 and E in infant formula and adult fortified dairy can be determined rapidly and accurately with this method.

  4. Ewens' sampling formula and related formulae: combinatorial proofs, extensions to variable population size and applications to ages of alleles.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Robert C; Lessard, Sabin

    2005-11-01

    Ewens' sampling formula, the probability distribution of a configuration of alleles in a sample of genes under the infinitely-many-alleles model of mutation, is proved by a direct combinatorial argument. The distribution is extended to a model where the population size may vary back in time. The distribution of age-ordered frequencies in the population is also derived in the model, extending the GEM distribution of age-ordered frequencies in a model with a constant-sized population. The genealogy of a rare allele is studied using a combinatorial approach. A connection is explored between the distribution of age-ordered frequencies and ladder indices and heights in a sequence of random variables. In a sample of n genes the connection is with ladder heights and indices in a sequence of draws from an urn containing balls labelled 1,2,...,n; and in the population the connection is with ladder heights and indices in a sequence of independent uniform random variables.

  5. Efficacy of organic acids, bacteriocins, and the lactoperoxidase system in inhibiting the growth of Cronobacter spp. in rehydrated infant formula.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Satoru; Rea, Mary C; Lothe, Sheba; Morgan, Sheila; Begley, Maire; O'Connor, Paula M; Fitzsimmons, Aidan; Kamikado, Hideaki; Walton, Richard; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-10-01

    Thirty-three antimicrobial agents, including antimicrobial peptides (nisin, lacticin 3147, isracidin), organic acids, emulsifiers (organic acid esters), glycine, lysozyme, tocopherol, EDTA, milk fat globule membrane, and the lactoperoxidase system (LPOS) were screened for anti-Cronobacter sakazakii activity. The compounds were initially screened individually in parallel in synthetic media. Those showing antimicrobial activity were then tested in reconstituted whole milk and finally in reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF), using mild temperatures of reconstitution and prolonged storage at room temperature. Propionic acid and monocaprylin (as POEM M-100) in combination showed inhibitory activity at sufficiently low concentrations (0.1 to 0.2%) in milk to be considered as potential antimicrobial additives for the inhibition of C. sakazakii in reconstituted PIF. More interestingly, LPOS, when combined with the broad-spectrum bacteriocins nisin or lacticin 3147, inhibited outgrowth of C. sakazakii at 37°C for 8 h. The combined effects of POEM M-100 and either acetate or propionate and LPOS with lacticin 3147 or nisin were evaluated under the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations-World Health Organization high-risk scenario for PIF, i.e., low temperature of reconstitution and long storage or feeding times at ambient temperature. In the presence of LPOS and lacticin 3147, growth of Cronobacter spp. was inhibited for up to 12 h when the PIF was rehydrated at 40 or 50°C. These results highlight the potential of combinatory approaches to improving the safety of infant milk formula. PMID:23043820

  6. Efficacy of organic acids, bacteriocins, and the lactoperoxidase system in inhibiting the growth of Cronobacter spp. in rehydrated infant formula.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Satoru; Rea, Mary C; Lothe, Sheba; Morgan, Sheila; Begley, Maire; O'Connor, Paula M; Fitzsimmons, Aidan; Kamikado, Hideaki; Walton, Richard; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-10-01

    Thirty-three antimicrobial agents, including antimicrobial peptides (nisin, lacticin 3147, isracidin), organic acids, emulsifiers (organic acid esters), glycine, lysozyme, tocopherol, EDTA, milk fat globule membrane, and the lactoperoxidase system (LPOS) were screened for anti-Cronobacter sakazakii activity. The compounds were initially screened individually in parallel in synthetic media. Those showing antimicrobial activity were then tested in reconstituted whole milk and finally in reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF), using mild temperatures of reconstitution and prolonged storage at room temperature. Propionic acid and monocaprylin (as POEM M-100) in combination showed inhibitory activity at sufficiently low concentrations (0.1 to 0.2%) in milk to be considered as potential antimicrobial additives for the inhibition of C. sakazakii in reconstituted PIF. More interestingly, LPOS, when combined with the broad-spectrum bacteriocins nisin or lacticin 3147, inhibited outgrowth of C. sakazakii at 37°C for 8 h. The combined effects of POEM M-100 and either acetate or propionate and LPOS with lacticin 3147 or nisin were evaluated under the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations-World Health Organization high-risk scenario for PIF, i.e., low temperature of reconstitution and long storage or feeding times at ambient temperature. In the presence of LPOS and lacticin 3147, growth of Cronobacter spp. was inhibited for up to 12 h when the PIF was rehydrated at 40 or 50°C. These results highlight the potential of combinatory approaches to improving the safety of infant milk formula.

  7. Probiotics and Time to Achieve Full Enteral Feeding in Human Milk-Fed and Formula-Fed Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Aceti, Arianna; Gori, Davide; Barone, Giovanni; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Fantini, Maria Pia; Indrio, Flavia; Maggio, Luca; Meneghin, Fabio; Morelli, Lorenzo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2016-07-30

    Probiotics have been linked to a reduction in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. Recently, probiotics have also proved to reduce time to achieve full enteral feeding (FEF). However, the relationship between FEF achievement and type of feeding in infants treated with probiotics has not been explored yet. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics in reducing time to achieve FEF in preterm infants, according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. formula). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics, and reporting on time to reach FEF were included in the systematic review. Trials reporting on outcome according to type of feeding (exclusive HM vs. formula) were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effect or random-effects models were used as appropriate. Results were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the systematic review. In the five studies recruiting exclusively HM-fed preterm infants, those treated with probiotics reached FEF approximately 3 days before controls (MD -3.15 days (95% CI -5.25/-1.05), p = 0.003). None of the two studies reporting on exclusively formula-fed infants showed any difference between infants receiving probiotics and controls in terms of FEF achievement. The limited number of included studies did not allow testing for other subgroup differences between HM and formula-fed infants. However, if confirmed in further studies, the 3-days reduction in time to achieve FEF in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants might have significant implications for their clinical management.

  8. Probiotics and Time to Achieve Full Enteral Feeding in Human Milk-Fed and Formula-Fed Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aceti, Arianna; Gori, Davide; Barone, Giovanni; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Fantini, Maria Pia; Indrio, Flavia; Maggio, Luca; Meneghin, Fabio; Morelli, Lorenzo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics have been linked to a reduction in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. Recently, probiotics have also proved to reduce time to achieve full enteral feeding (FEF). However, the relationship between FEF achievement and type of feeding in infants treated with probiotics has not been explored yet. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics in reducing time to achieve FEF in preterm infants, according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. formula). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics, and reporting on time to reach FEF were included in the systematic review. Trials reporting on outcome according to type of feeding (exclusive HM vs. formula) were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effect or random-effects models were used as appropriate. Results were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the systematic review. In the five studies recruiting exclusively HM-fed preterm infants, those treated with probiotics reached FEF approximately 3 days before controls (MD −3.15 days (95% CI −5.25/−1.05), p = 0.003). None of the two studies reporting on exclusively formula-fed infants showed any difference between infants receiving probiotics and controls in terms of FEF achievement. The limited number of included studies did not allow testing for other subgroup differences between HM and formula-fed infants. However, if confirmed in further studies, the 3-days reduction in time to achieve FEF in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants might have significant implications for their clinical management. PMID:27483319

  9. Retention of selenium (Se) from vitamin/mineral (V/M) premix and infant formulas

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, A.C.; Borschel, M.W. Ross Lab., Columbus, OH )

    1991-03-11

    Selenate (ATE) and selenite (ITE) represent possible sources of Se for fortification of formula. This study assessed the stability and retention of ATE and ITE from V/M premix and soy- and casein-based formulas after 3 mo of storage. Sodium {sup 75}ATE or {sup 75}ITE was incorporated into premix, added to a torula yeast protein-based diet (TYD), and fed to weanling, male, Sprague Dawley rats as a test meal at 3 time: 0 and after 1 and 3 mo storage at room temperature. A premix/{sup 75}Se solution was also added to formula mixes. Complete formulas were processed and gavage fed to rats at 3 times: 0 and after 1 and 3 mo. Control rats were fed test meals of sodium {sup 75}ATE or {sup 75}ITE TYD. Whole-body retention of {sup 75}Se was determined for 10 d post-dose. Retention of ATE and TIE from all diets significantly decreased after 3 mo of storage; however, all rats retained {ge}42% of {sup 75}Se at 10-d post-dose. ATE was equally stable in premix and formula, whereas ITE was more stable in premix than in formula over 3 mo. Independent of storage time, apparent absorption and retention of {sup 75}Se was significantly greater in rats fed ATE compared to ITE.

  10. Composition of the non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat whole milk powder and goat milk-based infant and follow-on formulae.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Colin G; Mclaren, Robert D; Frost, Deborah; Agnew, Michael; Lowry, Dianne J

    2008-03-01

    The non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat whole milk powder and of infant and follow-on formulae made from goat milk was characterized and compared with cow milk powder and formulae. Goat milk infant formula contained 10% non-protein nitrogen, expressed as a proportion of total nitrogen, compared with 7.1% for cow milk formula. Goat follow-on formula contained 9.3% and cow 7.4% non-protein nitrogen. Urea, at 30%, was quantitatively the most abundant component of the non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat milk and formulae, followed by free amino acids at 7%. Taurine, glycine and glutamic acid were the most abundant free amino acids in goat milk powders. Goat milk infant formula contained 4 mg/100 ml total nucleotide monophosphates, all derived from the goat milk itself. Goat milk has a very different profile of the non-protein nitrogen fraction to cow milk, with several constituents such as nucleotides at concentrations approaching those in human breast milk.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of 10 Ultratrace Elements in Infant Formula, Adult Nutritionals, and Milk Products by ICP/MS After Pressure Digestion: Single-Laboratory Validation.

    PubMed

    Dubascoux, Stephane; Nicolas, Marine; Rime, Celine Fragniere; Payot, Janique Richoz; Poitevin, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) is presented for the simultaneous determination of 10 ultratrace elements (UTEs) including aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and tin (Sn) in infant formulas, adult nutritionals, and milk based products by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)/MS after acidic pressure digestion. This robust and routine multielemental method is based on several official methods with modifications of sample preparation using either microwave digestion or high pressure ashing and of analytical conditions using ICP/MS with collision cell technology. This SLV fulfills AOAC method performance criteria in terms of linearity, specificity, sensitivity, precision, and accuracy and fully answers most international regulation limits for trace contaminants and/or recommended nutrient levels established for 10 UTEs in targeted matrixes. PMID:26268978

  12. Simultaneous Determination of 10 Ultratrace Elements in Infant Formula, Adult Nutritionals, and Milk Products by ICP/MS After Pressure Digestion: Single-Laboratory Validation.

    PubMed

    Dubascoux, Stephane; Nicolas, Marine; Rime, Celine Fragniere; Payot, Janique Richoz; Poitevin, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) is presented for the simultaneous determination of 10 ultratrace elements (UTEs) including aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and tin (Sn) in infant formulas, adult nutritionals, and milk based products by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)/MS after acidic pressure digestion. This robust and routine multielemental method is based on several official methods with modifications of sample preparation using either microwave digestion or high pressure ashing and of analytical conditions using ICP/MS with collision cell technology. This SLV fulfills AOAC method performance criteria in terms of linearity, specificity, sensitivity, precision, and accuracy and fully answers most international regulation limits for trace contaminants and/or recommended nutrient levels established for 10 UTEs in targeted matrixes.

  13. Bisphenol A and nonylphenol in foodstuffs: Chinese dietary exposure from the 2007 total diet study and infant health risk from formulas.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yumin; Zhang, Jing; Duan, Hejun; Wu, Yongning; Shao, Bing

    2015-01-15

    Concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) were measured in food samples from the 2007 Chinese total diet study (TDS). BPA and NP were detected in 72 and 143 of 144 TDS samples, respectively, with concentrations ranging from 20 ng/kg to 267 μg/kg and 30 ng/kg to 1,268 μg/kg, respectively. BPA was highest in Hebei (HB) province for most food groups. NP was much higher in milk than in other foods across all the provinces. Mean exposures to BPA and NP were estimated to be 43 ng/kg bw/day and 520 ng/kg bw/day for a Chinese adult, respectively, well below the tolerable daily intake (TDI). Mean exposure to NP from formula for infants aged 0-6 years ranged from 300 ng/kg bw/day to 17 μg/kg bw/day. For infants aged 0-1 year, intakes ranged from 5 to 17 μg/kg bw/day, which is above the TDI.

  14. FOLLOW-UP OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF IRON-FORTIFIED (12.7 MG/L) VS. LOW-IRON (2.3 MG/L) INFANT FORMULA: DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME AT 10 YEARS

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M.; Smith, Julia B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess long-term developmental outcome in children who received iron-fortified or low-iron formula. Design Follow-up at 10 years of randomized controlled trial (1991–1994) of 2 levels of formula iron. Examiners blind to group. Setting Urban areas around Santiago, Chile. Participants Original study enrolled healthy full-term infants in community clinics; 835 completed the trial. At 10 years, 573 were assessed (57%). Intervention Iron-fortified (12.7 mg/l) or low-iron (2.3 mg/l) formula from 6 to 12 months. Main Outcome Measures IQ, spatial memory, arithmetic achievement, visual-motor integration, visual perception, and motor functioning. We used covaried regression to compare iron-fortified and low-iron groups and consider hemogobin (HB) prior to randomization and sensitivity analyses to identify 6-month HB at which groups diverged in outcome. Results Compared to low-iron, the iron-fortified group scored lower on every 10-year outcome (significant for spatial memory, visual-motor integration; suggestive for IQ, arithmetic, visual perception, motor coordination; 1.4 – 4.6 points lower, effect sizes 0.13 – 0.21). Children with high 6-month HB (> 128 g/l) showed poorer outcome on these measures if they received iron-fortified formula (10.7 – 19.3 points lower; large effect sizes, 0.85 – 1.36); those with low HB (< 105 g/l) showed better outcome (2.6 – 4.5 points higher; small but significant effects, 0.22 – 0.36). High HB represented 5.5% of sample (n = 26); low HB, 17.0% (n = 87). Conclusions Long-term development may be adversely affected in infants with high HB who receive 12.7 mg/l iron-fortified formula. Optimal amounts of iron in infant formula warrant further study. PMID:22064877

  15. No difference indicated in electroencephalographic power spectral analysis in 3- and 6-month-old infants fed soy- or milk-based formula.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hongkui; Pivik, R T; Gilchrist, Janet M; Badger, Thomas M

    2008-04-01

    Increasing concern has been recently raised on the possible effects of soy-derived phyto-oestrogens on the development of cognitive functions in infants. However, limited studies have been conducted to date, and no data have been made available for determining whether infant soy formula can affect normal development of the human brain. We compared electroencephalographic (EEG) spectral power derived from high-density recordings of infants fed milk-based or soy formula (46 fed milk-based formula and 39 fed soy formula) at 3 and 6 months of age. The spectral parameters included absolute power, relative power and spectral edge frequency (SEF) at 85%, 90% and 95% levels. The frequency domain contained four bands (0.1-3, 3-6, 6-9 and 9-12 Hz). EEG signals were collected from eight brain areas in each hemisphere. The results showed that the highest spectral power was mainly distributed in the low-frequency bands and was predominant in the frontal and anterior temporal areas. None of the spectral variables significantly differed between the soy- and milk-fed infants (anova, all P > 0.2). However, significant effects were indicated on the SEFs for factors of sex, age and brain area (all P < 0.01). Hemispheric differences in the absolute and relative power were also indicated. Our results suggest that the EEG power spectral development of soy-fed infants does not differ from that of infants fed milk-based formula. In addition, EEG spectral development appears more advanced in female than in male infants at 6 months.

  16. Growth and plasma amino acid concentrations in very low birthweight infants fed either human milk protein fortified human milk or a whey-predominant formula.

    PubMed

    Moro, G; Fulconis, F; Minoli, I; Pohlandt, F; Räihä, N

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective, study involving 20 VLBW-infants (AGA), divided into two study groups of 10 infants, we have evaluated the effects on growth and metabolism of human milk fortified with ultrafiltrated human milk protein and a whey-predominant (whey/casein = 60/40) formula containing 2 g/dl of protein. The study was initiated at a mean age of 30 days when an oral intake of 180 ml/kg/d was tolerated and continued until a weight of 2 kg was reached. The protein intake in both groups was about 3.7 g/kg/d. All infants in both groups reached intrauterine rates of growth for the age, weight gain 18.0 g/kg/d, and length 1.2 cm/week. BUN, acid-base status, total protein and albumin were normal and similar in the two groups. Plasma levels of threonine, glycine, citrulline and methionine were significantly greater in the formula-fed infants. Taurine and proline had higher concentrations in the protein fortified human milk group. There was good tolerance of protein from both sources but the differences in plasma amino acid profiles suggest that the dietary protein quality in formulas for preterm infants must be further modified, if the goal of formula feeding is to achieve metabolic indices of protein metabolism similar to those found when human milk protein is used.

  17. Influences of timing and duration of formula feeding on infant growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All national and international groups responsible for making nutritional recommendations for infants endorse exclusive breastfeeding for the first several months of life continued with breastfeeding for as long as 2 years or more and timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods. However, ...

  18. 78 FR 28854 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... rulemaking published in the Federal Register of July 9, 1996 (61 FR 36154), we proposed changes in our infant... Register of April 28, 2003 (68 FR 22341) (the 2003 reopening), FDA reopened the comment period for the..., 2003 (68 FR 38247, June 27, 2003). FDA again reopened the comment period on August 1, 2006 (71 FR...

  19. Minimally Invasive Sampling Method Identifies Differences in Taxonomic Richness of Nasal Microbiomes in Young Infants Associated with Mode of Delivery.

    PubMed

    Shilts, Meghan H; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Larkin, Emma K; Torralba, Manolito; Akopov, Asmik; Halpin, Rebecca; Peebles, R Stokes; Moore, Martin L; Anderson, Larry J; Nelson, Karen E; Hartert, Tina V; Das, Suman R

    2016-01-01

    To date, there is a limited understanding of the role of the airway microbiome in the early life development of respiratory diseases such as asthma, partly due to a lack of simple and minimally invasive sample collection methods. In order to characterize the baseline microbiome of the upper respiratory tract (URT) in infants, a comparatively non-invasive method for sampling the URT microbiome suitable for use in infants was developed. Microbiome samples were collected by placing filter paper in the nostrils of 33 healthy, term infants enrolled as part of the Infant Susceptibility to Pulmonary Infections and Asthma Following RSV Exposure (INSPIRE) study. After bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from the filters, amplicons were generated with universal primers targeting the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene. This method was capable of capturing a wide variety of taxa expected to inhabit the nasal cavity. Analyses stratifying subjects by demographic and environmental factors previously observed or predicted to influence microbial communities were performed. Microbial community richness was found to be higher in infants who had been delivered via Cesarean section and in those who had been formula-fed; an association was observed between diet and delivery, which confounds this analysis. We have established a baseline URT microbiome using a non-invasive filter paper nasal sampling for this population, and future studies will be performed in this large observational cohort of infants to investigate the relationship between viral infections, the URT microbiota, and the development of childhood wheezing illnesses. PMID:26370110

  20. Determination of Vitamin E and Vitamin A in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals by Normal-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.10.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Adrienne

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) project is to establish international consensus methods for infant formula and adult nutritionals, which will benefit intermarket supply and dispute resolution. A collaborative study was conducted on AOAC First Action Method 2012.10 Simultaneous Determination of 13-cis and All-trans Vitamin A Palmitate (Retinyl Palmitate), Vitamin A Acetate (Retinyl Acetate), and Total Vitamin E (α-Tocopherol and D-α-tocopherol acetate) in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals by Normal-Phase HPLC. Fifteen laboratories from 11 countries participated in an interlaboratory study to determine 13-cis and all-trans vitamin A palmitate (retinyl palmitate), vitamin A acetate (retinyl acetate), and total vitamin E (α-tocopherol and D-α-tocopherol acetate) in infant formula and adult nutritionals by normal-phase HPLC and all laboratories returned valid data. Eighteen test portions of nine blind duplicates of a variety of infant formula and adult nutritional products were used in the study. The matrixes included milk-based and soy-based hydrolyzed protein as well as a low fat product. Each of the samples was prepared fresh and analyzed in singlicate. As the number of samples exceeded the recommended number to be prepared in a single day, analysis took place over 2 days running 12 samples on day one and 10 samples on day two. The reference standard stock was prepared once and the six-point curve diluted freshly on each day. Results obtained from all 15 laboratories are reported. The RSDR for total vitamin A (palmitate or acetate) ranged from 6.51 to 22.61% and HorRat values ranged from 0.33 to 1.25. The RSDR for total vitamin E (as tocopherol equivalents) ranged from 3.84 to 10.78% and HorRat values ranged from 0.27 to 1.04. Except for an adult low fat matrix which generated reproducibility RSD >40% for some isomers, most SPIFAN matrixes gave results within the acceptance criteria of <16

  1. Effects of Nucleotides Supplementation of Infant Formulas on Plasma and Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Composition: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lanfang; Liu, Jing; Lv, Huan; Zhang, Xingwei; Shen, Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective Nucleotides (NTs) have been added to infant formulas for several years due to their health benefits. However, studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between NTs and fatty acid (FA) composition. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of NTs supplementation of infant formula on erythrocyte and plasma FA composition. Methods Randomized controlled trials that evaluated the association between NTs supplementation and FA composition and were published before October 2014 were included. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Heterogeneity was assessed using Q and I2 tests. Results Eight studies (364 infants) were included in the meta-analysis. NTs supplementation did not affect the concentrations of total saturated FAs (SMD= 0.05; 95% CI= -0.23–0.32; P = 0.75) or total monounsaturated FAs (SMD= -0.01; 95% CI= -0.28–0.27; P = 0.95) in erythrocyte membranes. Erythrocyte total n-3 (SMD= 0.15; 95% CI= -0.11–0.41; P = 0.27) and n-6 PUFA (SMD= -0.16; 95% CI= -0.42–0.10, P = 0.22) concentrations did not increase with NTs supplementation. The concentrations of erythrocyte n-3 PUFA (18:3, 20:5, 22:5, and 22:6) and n-6 PUFA (18:2, 20:3, 20:4, and 22:4) were not affected by NTs supplementation. NTs significantly increased plasma concentrations of 18:2 n-6 (SMD= 0.90; 95% CI= 0.47–1.33; P < 0.0001), 20:3 n-6 (SMD= 0.56; 95% CI= 0.14–0.97; P = 0.009), and 20:4 n-6 PUFA (SMD= 0.92; 95% CI= 0.50–1.35; P < 0.0001), and significantly decreased the concentration of plasma 18:3 n-3 PUFA (SMD= -0.60; 95% CI -1.12 to -0.09; P = 0.02). No effect was obtained on plasma 20:2 n-6 PUFA concentrations (SMD= 0.06; 95 % CI, -1.03 to -0.2; P = 0.93). Conclusions Our meta-analysis revealed that NTs supplementation significantly increased plasma 18:2 n-6, 20:3 n-6, and 20:4 n-6 PUFA concentrations in infants, but did not affect erythrocyte FA composition. PMID:26102282

  2. Simultaneous quantitative determination of melamine and cyanuric acid in cow's milk and milk-based infant formula by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Guillamon Cuadra, Miriam; Delatour, Thierry; Mottier, Pascal

    2009-08-26

    An isotope dilution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of melamine and cyanuric acid in cow's milk (range of 0-0.3 mg/kg) and milk-based infant formulas (ranges of 0-0.3 and 0-2.0 mg/kg) is described. This quantitative method entails simple sample preparation, limited to a protein precipitation in acetonitrile/water followed by a centrifugation and direct injection of the supernatant. Selected reaction monitoring of two diagnostic transition reactions for each analyte and each corresponding ((13)C(3),(15)N(3))-labeled compound enables selective and confirmatory detection. Acquisition was performed sequentially in the negative ion mode for cyanuric acid, while in the positive mode for melamine within the same run. Validation of the method was conducted according to European Union criteria (CD 2002/657/EC). Internal standard-corrected recoveries were within the 99-116% range for both analytes in the two matrix types, along with repeatability and intermediate reproducibility values of infant formula powder endorsed by WHO, were respectively 1.03 and 1.05 mg/kg for melamine and 1.04 and 1.09 mg/kg for cyanuric acid. PMID:19627151

  3. Simultaneous quantitative determination of melamine and cyanuric acid in cow's milk and milk-based infant formula by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Guillamon Cuadra, Miriam; Delatour, Thierry; Mottier, Pascal

    2009-08-26

    An isotope dilution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of melamine and cyanuric acid in cow's milk (range of 0-0.3 mg/kg) and milk-based infant formulas (ranges of 0-0.3 and 0-2.0 mg/kg) is described. This quantitative method entails simple sample preparation, limited to a protein precipitation in acetonitrile/water followed by a centrifugation and direct injection of the supernatant. Selected reaction monitoring of two diagnostic transition reactions for each analyte and each corresponding ((13)C(3),(15)N(3))-labeled compound enables selective and confirmatory detection. Acquisition was performed sequentially in the negative ion mode for cyanuric acid, while in the positive mode for melamine within the same run. Validation of the method was conducted according to European Union criteria (CD 2002/657/EC). Internal standard-corrected recoveries were within the 99-116% range for both analytes in the two matrix types, along with repeatability and intermediate reproducibility values of infant formula powder endorsed by WHO, were respectively 1.03 and 1.05 mg/kg for melamine and 1.04 and 1.09 mg/kg for cyanuric acid.

  4. Use of amino acid profiles of preterm and term human milks in evaluating scoring patterns for routine protein quality assessment of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, G; Darling, P; Ujiie, M; Botting, H G; Pencharz, P B

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the amino acid composition of human milk vary considerably with respect to concentrations of sulfur amino acids. Often, analyses forego tryptophan determination. A complete analysis of protein and amino acid concentrations was performed on human milk samples (5-10 days postpartum) collected from mothers of preterm (gestations of 25-32 weeks) and term (gestations of > 36 weeks) infants. Careful attention was given to quantitate amino acids such as cysteine and tryptophan, which are vulnerable to acidic hydrolysis conditions. Differences in concentrations of total amino acids (expressed on protein basis) between preterm and term milks were small, despite the higher true protein content of preterm milk versus term milk (19.20 versus 12.60 g/L). The methionine + cyst(e)ine contents of term and preterm milks (3.72-3.84 g/100 g protein) were comparable with those reported in 1991 by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) for mature human milk (4.20 g/100 g protein) but higher than those reported in 1991 by the European Commission (2.9 g/100 g protein). The amino acid pattern of human milk obtained in this study confirms that the 1991 FAO/WHO amino acid scoring pattern for predicting protein quality of infant formulas is representative of the amino acid quality of both preterm and term human milks.

  5. A new formula for assessing skeletal age in growing infants and children by measuring carpals and epiphyses of radio and ulna.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Stefano; Mangiulli, Tatiana; Merelli, Vera; Conforti, Federica; Velandia Palacio, Luz Andrea; Agostini, Susanna; Spinas, Enrico; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a specific formula for the purpose of assessing skeletal age in a sample of Italian growing infants and children by measuring carpals and epiphyses of radio and ulna. A sample of 332 X-rays of left hand-wrist bones (130 boys and 202 girls), aged between 1 and 16 years, was analyzed retrospectively. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to study how sex affects the growth of the ratio Bo/Ca in the boys and girls groups. The regression model, describing age as a linear function of sex and the Bo/Ca ratio for the new Italian sample, yielded the following formula: Age = -1.7702 + 1.0088 g + 14.8166 (Bo/Ca). This model explained 83.5% of total variance (R(2) = 0.835). The median of the absolute values of residuals (observed age minus predicted age) was -0.38, with a quartile deviation of 2.01 and a standard error of estimate of 1.54. A second sample test of 204 Italian children (108 girls and 96 boys), aged between 1 and 16 years, was used to evaluate the accuracy of the specific regression model. A sample paired t-test was used to analyze the mean differences between the skeletal and chronological age. The mean error for girls is 0.00 and the estimated age is slightly underestimated in boys with a mean error of -0.30 years. The standard deviations are 0.70 years for girls and 0.78 years for boys. The obtained results indicate that there is a high relationship between estimated and chronological ages. PMID:26874435

  6. A new formula for assessing skeletal age in growing infants and children by measuring carpals and epiphyses of radio and ulna.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Stefano; Mangiulli, Tatiana; Merelli, Vera; Conforti, Federica; Velandia Palacio, Luz Andrea; Agostini, Susanna; Spinas, Enrico; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a specific formula for the purpose of assessing skeletal age in a sample of Italian growing infants and children by measuring carpals and epiphyses of radio and ulna. A sample of 332 X-rays of left hand-wrist bones (130 boys and 202 girls), aged between 1 and 16 years, was analyzed retrospectively. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to study how sex affects the growth of the ratio Bo/Ca in the boys and girls groups. The regression model, describing age as a linear function of sex and the Bo/Ca ratio for the new Italian sample, yielded the following formula: Age = -1.7702 + 1.0088 g + 14.8166 (Bo/Ca). This model explained 83.5% of total variance (R(2) = 0.835). The median of the absolute values of residuals (observed age minus predicted age) was -0.38, with a quartile deviation of 2.01 and a standard error of estimate of 1.54. A second sample test of 204 Italian children (108 girls and 96 boys), aged between 1 and 16 years, was used to evaluate the accuracy of the specific regression model. A sample paired t-test was used to analyze the mean differences between the skeletal and chronological age. The mean error for girls is 0.00 and the estimated age is slightly underestimated in boys with a mean error of -0.30 years. The standard deviations are 0.70 years for girls and 0.78 years for boys. The obtained results indicate that there is a high relationship between estimated and chronological ages.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Salmonella Serovars Anatum and Ealing Associated with Two Historical Outbreaks, Linked to Contaminated Powdered Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Lynda; Finn, Sarah; Hurley, Daniel; Bai, Li; Wall, Ellen; Iversen, Carol; Threlfall, John E.; Fanning, Séamus

    2016-01-01

    Powdered infant formula (PIF) is not intended to be produced as a sterile product unless explicitly stated and on occasion may become contaminated during production with pathogens such as Salmonella enterica. This retrospective study focused on two historically reported salmonellosis outbreaks associated with PIF from the United Kingdom and France, in 1985 and 1996/1997. In this paper, the molecular characterization of the two outbreaks associated Salmonella serovars Anatum and Ealing is reported. Initially the isolates were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which revealed the clonal nature of the two outbreaks. Following from this two representative isolates, one from each serovar was selected for whole genome sequencing (WGS), wherein analysis focused on the Salmonella pathogenicity islands. Furthermore, the ability of these isolates to survive the host intercellular environment was determined using an ex vivo gentamicin protection assay. Results suggest a high level of genetic diversity that may have contributed to survival and virulence of isolates from these outbreaks.

  8. Thermal tolerance and survival of Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillic acid.

    PubMed

    Yemiş, Gökçe Polat; Pagotto, Franco; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    The thermal tolerance Cronobacter sakazakii was examined in sterile powdered infant formula (PIF) rehydrated at 58 °C in water or apple juice supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid. All three compounds decreased thermal tolerance during-rehydration and the lowest decimal reduction time (D-value, 0.19 ± 0.01 min) was measured in PIF rehydrated in apple juice supplemented with 20 mM vanillic acid. At this level of supplementation no C. sakazakii were detected in PIF stored for 48 h at 10 and 24 h at 21 °C subsequent to a sublethal heat treatment. Thermal tolerance during rehydration and survival in reconstituted PIF were influenced by compound type, concentration, and temperature. Supplementation of PIF with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid could enhance the safety of PIF or other dehydrated foods contaminated with C. sakazakii.

  9. Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P; Nohr, S; Jorgensen, A; Andersen, S

    1999-05-01

    The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from <1.0 to 139 microg/l. In general the iodine content was low in Jutland (median 4.1 microg/l) with higher values on Sealand (23 microg/l) and other islands. Preparation of coffee or tea did not reduce the iodine content of tap water with a high initial iodine concentration. A statistically significant correlation was found between tap water iodine content today and the urinary iodine excretion measured in 41 towns in 1967 (r=0.68, P<0.001). The correlation corresponded to a basic urinary iodine excretion in Denmark of 43 microg/24h excluding iodine in water and a daily water intake of 1.7 l. The iodine content of infant formulas prepared by addition of demineralized water varied from 37 to 138 microg/l (median 57 microg/l, n=18). Hence the final iodine content would depend heavily on the source of water used for preparation. We found that iodine in tap water was a major determinant of regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark. Changes in water supply and possibly water purification methods may influence the population iodine intake level and the occurrence of thyroid disorders.

  10. Pilot study with a glutamine-supplemented enteral formula in critically ill infants.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, E; Moreira, E A; Goes, J E; Faintuch, J

    1999-01-01

    Seriously ill infants often display protein-calorie malnutrition due to the metabolic demands of sepsis and respiratory failure. Glutamine has been classified as a conditionally essential amino acid, with special usefulness in critical patients. Immunomodulation, gut protection, and prevention of protein depletion are mentioned among its positive effects in such circumstances. With the intent of evaluating the tolerance and clinical impact of a glutamine supplement in seriously ill infants, a prospective randomized study was done with nine patients. Anthropometric and biochemical determinations were made, and length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), in the hospital, and under artificial ventilation, and septic morbidity and mortality were tabulated. Infants in the treatment group (n = 5) were enterally administered 0.3 g/kg of glutamine, whereas controls received 0.3 g/kg of casein during a standard period of five days. Septic complications occurred in 75% of the controls (3/4) versus 20% of the glutamine-treated group (1/5, p < or = 0.10), and two patients in the control group died of bacterial infections (50% vs. 0%, p < or = 0.10). Days in the ICU, in the hospital, and with ventilation numerically favored glutamine therapy, although without statistical significance. The supplements were usually well tolerated, and no patient required discontinuation of the program. The conclusion was that glutamine supplementation was safe and tended to be associated with less infectious morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population.

  11. Tracking strategies involving fourteen sources for locating a transient study sample: parents of sudden infant death syndrome infants and control infants.

    PubMed

    Klonoff-Cohen, H

    1996-07-01

    Strategies involving 14 sources were used to locate 230 parents of sudden infant death syndrome infants who died in Southern California between 1989 and 1992 and 255 parents of healthy, living infants matched by birth hospital, birth date, race and sex. The sample consisted of adults of reproductive age residing in Southern California. After an event of sudden infant death, many parents moved without a forwarding address; only their names, last known address, and the infant's race, birth date, and sex were available. There was no access to birth certificates, obstetric or pediatric medical records, parents' Social Security numbers, or parents' birth dates. The most successful tracking sources for case parents were the Department of Motor Vehicles, postal service, reverse directory and neighbors, private investigator, and California Medicaid services. For control parents, the post office, Department of Motor Vehicles, and Folks Finders proved the most helpful. Using a combination of the 14 sources achieved an adequate sample size.

  12. Human milk and infant formula can induce in vitro adipocyte differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lyle, R E; Corley, J D; McGehee, R E

    1998-11-01

    The potential of infant diet to influence fat cell development has largely been examined in clinical studies with conflicting results. In this study, the direct effects of two standard infant formulas, Enfamil and Similac, as well as human milk were examined using a well characterized model of adipocyte differentiation, the 3T3-L1 murine preadipocyte cell line. After exposure to a hormonal regimen of insulin, dexamethasone, and 1-methyl-3-isobutylmethylxanthine, these cells undergo a mitotic expansion phase followed by terminal differentiation. On d 4 of hormonal exposure, greater than 95% of 3T3-L1 cells exhibit the morphologic and biochemical characteristics of mature adipocytes. In this study, cells were exposed to control medium, or control medium supplemented with either 10% Enfamil, 10% Similac, 10% human milk (skim or whole), or the standard hormonal regimen. Oil Red O-detectable lipid accumulation, immunocytochemical cell proliferation assays, and activated expression of adipocyte differentiation-specific mRNAs by Northern blot analysis were used to assess the effects of treatment on adipocyte differentiation. Results from each level of assessment revealed that both Enfamil and human milk were as effective as the standard hormonal regimen at stimulating adipocyte differentiation. In contrast, results from treatment with Similac or human skim milk were indistinguishable from control unstimulated cells. This study, demonstrating that Enfamil and human milk are capable of independently inducing in vitro adipocyte differentiation, suggests that diet during infancy could influence body fat development.

  13. Early Life Predictors of Socio-Emotional Development in a Sample of Egyptian Infants

    PubMed Central

    Metwally, Ammal M.; Salah El- Din, Ebtissam M.; Shehata, Manal A.; Shaalan, Ashraf; El Etreby, Lobna A.; Kandeel, Wafaa A.; Shaaban, Sanaa Y.; Rabah, Thanaa M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Emotional problems are amongst the most critical concerns to be intentionally handled to enhance the wellbeing and development of children. Objective To determine the predictors of socio-emotional development of Egyptian infants related to infant feeding practices, aspects of infant and maternal health and socioeconomic status. Subjects and Methods A cross-sectional comparative study included 322 breast fed, 240 bottle fed and 93 mixed fed infants, from 6–24 months of age, who were enrolled in the Well–Baby Clinic of the National Research Centre and from pediatric outpatient facilities in urban Cairo. Assessment of socio-emotional development was performed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley III). Detailed maternal and infant history was recorded. Levels of serum zinc, copper, iron, vitamin B12 and complete blood count (CBC) were assessed in a subsample of 193 infants. Results The risk of having below average socio-emotional composite score was nearly two and half times among formula-fed infants than among breast-fed infants. By binary logistical regression analysis, predictors of below average socio-emotional score were a lower serum zinc value, being formula fed during the first half-year and introduction of complementary food before the age of six months (p< 0.05). Conclusion Exclusive breastfeeding and to a lesser extent mixed feeding during the first half year is correlated with above average socio-emotional development. Maternal education and zinc status were also determinants of better infant mental health. Our endeavors ought to be directed towards integrated interventions addressing multiple risks to children’s development. PMID:27379907

  14. Development of Multiplex Real-time PCR with Internal Amplification Control for Simultaneous Detection of Salmonella and Cronobacter sakazakii in Powdered Infant Formula.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of powdered infant formula (PIF) by the bacteria Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica was deemed a matter of great concern by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 2004. Therefore, we developed a rapid and sensitive m...

  15. Magnetic bead based immuno-detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables using the Bio-Plex suspension array system.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Basavanna, U

    2015-04-01

    Listeriosis, a disease contracted via the consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic Listeria species, can produce severe symptoms and high mortality in susceptible people and animals. The development of molecular methods and immuno-based techniques for detection of pathogenic Listeria in foods has been challenging due to the presence of assay inhibiting food components. In this study, we utilize a macrophage cell culture system for the isolation and enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables for subsequent identification using the Luminex xMAP technique. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to infant formula, lettuce and celery contaminated with L. monocytogenes or L. ivanovii. Magnetic microspheres conjugated to Listeria specific antibody were used to capture Listeria from infected macrophages and then analyzed using the Bio-Plex 200 analyzer. As few as 10 CFU/mL or g of L. monocytogenes was detected in all foods tested. The detection limit for L. ivanovii was 10 CFU/mL in infant formula and 100 CFU/g in leafy greens. Microsphere bound Listeria obtained from infected macrophage lysates could also be isolated on selective media for subsequent confirmatory identification. This method presumptively identifies L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii from infant formula, lettuce and celery in less than 28 h with confirmatory identifications completed in less than 48 h. PMID:25475329

  16. Magnetic bead based immuno-detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables using the Bio-Plex suspension array system.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Basavanna, U

    2015-04-01

    Listeriosis, a disease contracted via the consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic Listeria species, can produce severe symptoms and high mortality in susceptible people and animals. The development of molecular methods and immuno-based techniques for detection of pathogenic Listeria in foods has been challenging due to the presence of assay inhibiting food components. In this study, we utilize a macrophage cell culture system for the isolation and enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables for subsequent identification using the Luminex xMAP technique. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to infant formula, lettuce and celery contaminated with L. monocytogenes or L. ivanovii. Magnetic microspheres conjugated to Listeria specific antibody were used to capture Listeria from infected macrophages and then analyzed using the Bio-Plex 200 analyzer. As few as 10 CFU/mL or g of L. monocytogenes was detected in all foods tested. The detection limit for L. ivanovii was 10 CFU/mL in infant formula and 100 CFU/g in leafy greens. Microsphere bound Listeria obtained from infected macrophage lysates could also be isolated on selective media for subsequent confirmatory identification. This method presumptively identifies L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii from infant formula, lettuce and celery in less than 28 h with confirmatory identifications completed in less than 48 h.

  17. Application of Neurodevelopmental Screening to a Sample of South American Infants: The Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS)

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Ann Marie; Wehby, George L.; Barron, Sheila; Aylward, Glen P.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Javois, Lorette C.; Goco, Norman; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the utility of the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS), standardized in the US, for South American infants, 3 to 24 months of age. Method Thirty-five physicians administered the BINS to 2,471 South American infants recruited during routine well-child visits, 578 (23%) from Brazil and 1,893 (77%) from six other South American countries. The BINS was translated into Spanish and Portuguese and participating physicians were trained to administer the BINS. Physician inter-rater agreement with training tapes was 84.4%; test-retest reliability for age item sets ranged from 0.80 to 0.93 (Pearson’s r). Infants were classified into being at low, moderate, or high risk for developmental delay or neurological impairment based on their total BINS score. The sample was stratified by infant’s age, sex and language (Spanish and Portuguese). The BINS scores were compared to the scores of the US infant sample used to standardize the BINS. Results Female infants performed higher than male at 16 to 20 months and 21 to 24 months; male infant scores were more variable at 5 to 6 months. Scores on only two items were significantly different between Spanish and Portuguese speaking participants. South American scores were typically significantly higher than the US sample, and a lower proportion of infants were classified as being at high risk in the South American sample than in the US standardization sample. Conclusion Overall, the results of this study indicate that the BINS is feasible and appropriate for neurodevelopmental screening in South America. Further studies are needed to confirm the BINS utility in South America, including its use with a clinical sample. PMID:22244313

  18. Intake and fecal excretion of PCDDs, PCDFs, HCB and PCBs (138, 153, 180) in a breast-fed and a formula-fed infant.

    PubMed

    Abraham, K; Hille, A; Ende, M; Helge, H

    1994-01-01

    Intake and fecal excretion of PCDDs, PCDFs, HCB and PCBs (IUPAC Nos. 138, 153, 180) were measured in a breast-fed and a formula-fed infant at the age of 1 and 5 months. As expected, the intake of these compounds was clearly higher in the breast-fed infant. In this baby an almost complete absorption was observed for lower chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs and also for HCB and PCBs, whereas for hepta- and octachlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs fecal excretion was considerably higher (from 20% up to nearly 100% of the intake). Due to low concentrations in diet and feces of the formula-fed infant an evaluation was possible only for a few compounds at the age of 5 months. These values were in the same range when compared with those of the breast-fed infant. For collection of feces new cotton diapers were used which were pre-extracted in order to reduce the levels of polychlorinated compounds. Unexpectedly, after washing the tissue a much higher contamination was observed which made a calculation of fecal excretion rates in the formula-fed infant at the age of 1 month impossible. PMID:7850375

  19. Effects of different enzyme treatments in extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and other food products prior to microbiological assay and radioassay

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Four different enzyme treatments-conjugase alone, conjugase and alpha-amylase, conjugase and Pronase{reg sign} and a triple enzyme combination of conjugase, Pronase {reg sign} and alpha-amylase were applied in the extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and various other foods by microbiological and radioassay methods. Significant increases (P < 0.05) in measurable folate were obtained using the triple enzyme system in spinach, Camembert cheese, soy-based infant formula and cereal-based, meat-based and fruit-based infant foods over the use of conjugase alone by the microbiological method. Increases were also observed in many of the same foods using Pronase{reg sign} or alpha-amylase in addition to conjugase alone. Increases obtained by microbiological assay were confirmed by radioassay in a number of foods studied.

  20. Characteristic chromatographic fingerprint study of short-chain fatty acids in human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhenzuo; Liu, Yanan; Zhu, Yan; Yang, Jing; Sun, Lili; Chai, Xin; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-09-01

    Human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk as food products or dietary supplements provide a range of nutrients required to both infants and adults. Recently, a growing body of evidence has revealed the beneficial roles of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), a subset of fatty acids produced from the fermentation of dietary fibers by gut microbiota. The objective of this study was to establish a chromatographic fingerprint technique to investigate SCFAs in human milk and dairy products by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The multivariate method for principal component analysis assessed differences between milk types. Human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk were grouped independently, mainly because of differences in formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and hexanoic acid levels. This method will be important for the assessment of SCFAs in human milk and various dairy products.

  1. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Julian F; Weidlich, Diana; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Jarocka-Cyrta, Elzbieta; Kobelska-Dubiel, Natalia; Krauze, Agnieszka; Sakowska-Maliszewska, Iwona; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF) containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as an initial treatment for cow’s milk allergy compared with eHCF alone and amino acid formulas (AAF) in Poland from the perspective of the Polish National Health Fund (Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia [NFZ]) and parents. Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of cow’s milk allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months. The model also estimated the cost to the NFZ and parents (Polish Zloty [PLN] at 2013–2014 prices) for managing infants over 18 months after starting one of the formulas as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulas. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants who were fed eHCF + LGG (0.82) compared with those fed eHCF alone (0.53) or an AAF (0.22). An infant who is initially managed with eHCF + LGG is expected to consume fewer health care resources than infants managed with the other formulas. Hence, the estimated total health care cost incurred by the NFZ for initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG (PLN 5,693) was less than that of feeding infants with eHCF alone (PLN 7,749) or an AAF (PLN 24,333). However, the total cost incurred by parents for initially feeding infants with an AAF (PLN 815) was marginally less than that of feeding with eHCF + LGG (PLN 993), which was less than that of feeding with eHCF alone (PLN 1,226). Conclusion Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF alone or an AAF for first-line management of newly diagnosed infants with cow’s milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of NFZ-funded resources, since it improves outcome for less cost. Whether eHCF + LGG would be viewed as being cost-effective by parents is dependent on their willingness to pay an additional cost for additional tolerance acquisition to cow’s milk. PMID:27418845

  2. Effects of breast-feeding compared with formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pan; Zhou, Jianghua; Yin, Yanan; Jing, Wenjuan; Luo, Biru; Wang, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of breast-feeding and formula-feeding on body composition of preterm infants. We searched the literature using PubMed, Cochrane Central Library Issue, Ovid (Medline), Embase and other resources such as Google Scholar, electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles; two reviewers collected and extracted data independently. All the authors assessed risk of bias independently using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). A fixed-effects meta-analysis was undertaken with RevMan 5 software (The Cochrane Collaboration) using the inverse variance method (P≥0·05; χ 2 test). In contrast, a random-effects meta-analysis was carried out. Altogether, 630 articles were identified using search strategy, and the references within retrieved articles were also assessed. A total of six studies were included in this systematic review. In formula-fed infants, fat mass was higher at term (mean difference 0·24 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) kg), fat-free mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestational (mean difference 0·12 (95 % CI 0·04, 0·21) kg) and the percentage of fat mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestation (mean difference 3·70 (95 % CI 1·81, 5·59) kg) compared with breast-fed infants. Compared with breast-feeding, formula-feeding is associated with altered body composition from birth to term in preterm infants. The effects of formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition from term to 12-month corrected age are inconclusive in our study. Well-designed studies are required in the future to explore the effects of formula-feeding compared with breast-feeding.

  3. Using activated attapulgite as sorbent for solid-phase extraction of melamine in milk formula samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Xuan, Rong-Rong; Ma, Jun-Feng; Tan, Yao; Jin, Zhen-Feng; Chen, Yi-Hui; Zhang, Li-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Kui

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) approach by using activated attapulgite as sorbent was successfully developed for the determination of melamine in milk formula samples. Crucial factors impacting the extraction efficiency, including sample solvent, elution solvent, and sample loading volume, were investigated. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the sample loading volume was up to 200 mL and the adsorption capacity of the melamine gave rise to 1154 μg g(-1). Excellent linear calibration curves (r (2)  > 0.999) were achieved, and then the limit of detection (S/N = 3) and the limit of quantification (S/N = 10) were found to be 0.15 and 0.5 ng mL(-1), respectively. The recoveries of the melamine spiked in four milk formula samples at three concentration levels ranged from 83.5 to 111.0 % with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10.2 %. Furthermore, RSDs of batch to batch (n = 4) of the acidified attapulgite used in this developed method were in the range of 2.3∼7.3 %. In comparison to the commercial Oasis MCX, the acidified attapulgite sorbent even outperformed (at least in terms of reproducibility) for melamine analysis in real food samples. Because of its simplicity, the newly developed SPE method based on acidified attapulgite nanoparticles should provide a promising tool for daily monitoring of doped melamine in milk formula or other complex matrices. PMID:27430500

  4. A simple formula for the calculation of sample size in pilot studies.

    PubMed

    Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Smits, Luc; Kotz, Daniel; Budé, Luc; Spigt, Mark; Serroyen, Jan; Crutzen, Rik

    2015-11-01

    One of the goals of a pilot study is to identify unforeseen problems, such as ambiguous inclusion or exclusion criteria or misinterpretations of questionnaire items. Although sample size calculation methods for pilot studies have been proposed, none of them are directed at the goal of problem detection. In this article, we present a simple formula to calculate the sample size needed to be able to identify, with a chosen level of confidence, problems that may arise with a given probability. If a problem exists with 5% probability in a potential study participant, the problem will almost certainly be identified (with 95% confidence) in a pilot study including 59 participants. PMID:26146089

  5. [Simultaneous determination of vitamins A, D3 and E in infant formula and adult nutritions by online two-dimensional liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhai; Qibule, Hasi; Jin, Yan; Wang, Jia; Ma, Wenli

    2015-03-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of vitamins A, D3 and E in infant formula and adult nutritions has been developed using online two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC). First of all, C8 and polar embedded C18 columns were chosen as the first and second dimensional column respectively according to hydrophobic-subtraction model, which constituted excellent orthogonal separation system. The detection wavelengths were set at 263 nm for vitamin D3, 296 nm for vitamin E and 325 nm for vitamin A. The purification of vitamin D3 and quantifications of vitamins A and E were completed simultaneously in the first dimensional separation using the left pump of Dual Gradient LC (DGLC) with methanol, acetonitrile and water as mobile phases. The heart-cutting time window of vitamin D3 was confirmed according to the retention time of vitamin D3 in the first dimensional separation. The elute from the first dimensional column (1-D column) which contained vitamin D3 was collected by a 500 µL sample loop and then taken into the second dimensional column (2-D column) by the right pump of DGLC with methanol, acetonitrile and water as mobile phases. The quantification of vitamin D3 was performed in the second dimensional separation with vitamin D2 as internal standard. At last, this method was applied for the analysis of the three vitamins in milk powder, cheese and yogurt. The injected sample solution with no further purification was pre-treated by hot-saponification using 1. 25 kg/L KOH solution and extracted by petroleum ether solvent. The recoveries of vitamin D3 spiked in all samples were 75.50%-85.00%. There was no statistically significant difference for the results between this method and standard method through t-test. The results indicate that vitamins A, D3 and E in infant formula and adult fortified dairy can be determined rapidly and accurately with this method. PMID:26182471

  6. Soy-Based Infant Formula Feeding and Ultrasound-Detected Uterine Fibroids among Young African-American Women with No Prior Clinical Diagnosis of Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Upson, Kristen; Harmon, Quaker E.; Baird, Donna D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early-life soy phytoestrogen exposure has been shown in Eker rats to increase uterine fibroid incidence in adulthood. Two large epidemiologic cohorts have provided some support for increased fibroid risk with infant soy formula feeding in women, but both cohorts relied on self-report of clinically diagnosed fibroids. Objective: We evaluated the relationship between infant soy formula feeding and ultrasound-detected fibroids. Methods: The Study of Environment, Lifestyle & Fibroids (SELF) is an ongoing cohort study of 1,696 African-American women ages 23–34 years with baseline ultrasound screening to detect and measure fibroids ≥ 0.5 cm in diameter. Questionnaire data on soy formula feeding during infancy was ascertained for 1,553 participants (89% based on mother’s report), of whom 345 were found to have fibroids. We estimated the association between soy formula feeding and fibroid prevalence and tumor number using log-binomial regression. Among those with fibroids, we compared fibroid size between soy formula-exposed and unexposed women using multivariable linear regression. Results: We did not observe an association between soy formula feeding and fibroid prevalence [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.9, 95% CI: 0.7, 1.3]. Nor were exposed women with fibroids more likely to have ≥ 2 tumors than unexposed women with fibroids (aPR 1.0, 95% CI: 0.7, 1.6). However, exposed women with fibroids had significantly larger fibroids than unexposed women with fibroids. On average, soy formula feeding was associated with a 32% increase in the diameter of the largest fibroid (95% CI: 6%, 65%) and a 127% increase in total tumor volume (95% CI: 12%, 358%). Conclusions: Our observation that women fed soy formula as infants have larger fibroids than unexposed women provides further support for persistent effects of early life phytoestrogen exposure on the uterus. Citation: Upson K, Harmon QE, Baird DD. 2016. Soy-based infant formula feeding and ultrasound

  7. Infants fed formula with added long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have reduced incidence of respiratory illnesses and diarrhea during the first year of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) may influence the immune system. Our objective was to compare the frequency of common illnesses in infants who received formula with or without added LCPUFAs. Methods In this observational, multi-center, prospective study, infants consumed formula with 17 mg DHA and 34 mg ARA/100 kcal (n = 233) or with no added DHA or ARA (n = 92). Pediatricians recorded respiratory illnesses, otitis media, eczema, and diarrhea through 1 year of age. Results Infants who consumed formula with DHA/ARA had lower incidence of bronchitis/bronchiolitis (P = 0.004), croup (P = 0.044), nasal congestion (P = 0.001), cough (P = 0.014), and diarrhea requiring medical attention (P = 0.034). The odds ratio (OR) of having at least one episode of bronchitis/bronchiolitis (0.41, 95% CI 0.24, 0.70; P = 0.001), croup (0.23, 95% CI 0.05, 0.97; P = 0.045), nasal congestion (0.37, 95% CI 0.20, 0.66; P = 0.001), cough (0.52, 95% CI 0.32, 0.86; P = 0.011), and diarrhea requiring medical attention (0.51, 95% CI 0.28, 0.92; P = 0.026) was lower in infants fed DHA/ARA. The OR of an increased number of episodes of bronchitis/bronchiolitis, croup, nasal congestion, cough, and diarrhea, as well as the hazard ratio for shorter time to first episode of bronchitis/bronchiolitis, nasal congestion, cough, and diarrhea were also significantly lower in the DHA/ARA group. Conclusions In healthy infants, formula with DHA/ARA was associated with lower incidence of common respiratory symptoms and illnesses, as well as diarrhea. PMID:24989353

  8. The effects of parental sensitivity and involvement in caregiving on mother-infant and father-infant attachment in a Portuguese sample.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Marina; Faria, Anabela; Beeghly, Marjorie; Lopes-dos-Santos, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    In the present longitudinal study, we investigated attachment quality in Portuguese mother-infant and in father-infant dyads, and evaluated whether attachment quality was related to parental sensitivity during parent-infant social interaction or to the amount of time each parent spent with the infant during play and in routine caregiving activities (e.g., feeding, bathing, play). The sample consisted of 82 healthy full-term infants (30 girls, 53 boys, 48 first born), and their mothers and fathers from mostly middle-class households. To assess parental sensitivity, mothers and fathers were independently observed during free play interactions with their infants when infants were 9 and 15 months old. The videotaped interactions were scored by masked coders using the Crittenden's CARE-Index. When infants were 12 and 18 months old, mother-infant and father-infant dyads were videotaped during an adaptation of Ainsworth's Strange Situation. Parents also described their level of involvement in infant caregiving activities using a Portuguese version of the McBride and Mills Parent Responsibility Scale. Mothers were rated as being more sensitive than fathers during parent-infant free play at both 9 and 15 months. There also was a higher prevalence of secure attachment in mother-infant versus father-infant dyads at both 12 and 18 months. Attachment security was predicted by the amount of time mothers and fathers were involved in caregiving and play with the infant, and with parents' behavior during parent-infant free play.

  9. Clinical observation of childhood urinary stones induced by melamine-tainted infant formula in Anhui province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Hu, Bo; Lu, Ling; Zhang, Min

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The current report detailed an investigation of melamine-linked urinary stones in children exposed to contaminated formula. Material and methods A total of 1062 children fed with melamine-contaminated infant formula were screened for urinary stones. Sixty healthy children without melamine exposure were recruited as a control group. Ultrasonography of the urinary tract system was performed. Urinalysis, renal function, liver status, and serum electrolytes were determined. Results We encountered 49 affected children from the 1062 screened ones, at a rate of 4.6% per ultrasound performed. Thirty-two were male, and 17 were female. The affected children ranged in age from 1 month to 96 months, with a mean of 25 months. Duration of exposure was from 1.3 months to 84 months, with a mean of 19.5 months. The melamine contents in serum were between 12 mg/kg and 2563 mg/kg, with mean concentration of 1295.3 mg/kg. Most affected children were asymptomatic with no urinary findings. Patients with urinary stones exhibited lower urine pH and serum HCO3 – than those in the healthy children, whereas for serum uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and anion gap the opposite trends were observed. The stone diameter ranged from 2 mm to 18 mm with a median of 6.5 mm. Multiple stones were noted in all patients. After 1 week of conservative management, stone diameters of 38 cases (77.6%) were significantly decreased. Among them, urinary stones were discharged completely in 21 affected children (42.9%). Conclusions The short-term outcome of melamine-linked urinary stones is satisfactory. PMID:23515431

  10. Temperament and the mother-infant dyad: associations with breastfeeding and formula feeding with a bottle.

    PubMed

    Kielbratowska, Bogumila; Kazmierczak, Maria; Michalek, Justyna; Preis, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding supports the formation of an emotional bond between mothers and their children. The feeding method is associated with both the child's temperament and the mother's perception of herself and the child. Therefore, the present study focuses on the feeding method, mothers' reaction during feeding, and infants' temperament traits. Ninety-eight mothers with children aged 3 to 5 months participated in the study. Children were assessed with the Children Development Scale (A. Matczak et al., 2007) to measure their temperament. Mothers completed the Mother and Baby Scale (D. Wolke & I. St James-Roberts, 1987, as cited in T.B. Brazelton & K. Nugent, 1995), which measures mothers' evaluation of their children's behaviors during feeding and their overall experiences with their children's care. The results show that breastfed newborns, as compared to bottle-fed newborns, demonstrate higher vigor, which includes activity and the intensity of reaction. Bottle-fed children demonstrate higher regularity than do breastfed children. Mothers who bottle-feed their children perceive themselves to be less confident in the feeding domain than do mothers who breastfeed. Our results indicate that children's temperament might be an important factor in the decision regarding the feeding method. The study supports the idea of promoting knowledge of children's behaviors during feeding among mothers even before their children are born, such as during antenatal classes.

  11. An extensively hydrolysed rice protein-based formula in the management of infants with cow's milk protein allergy: preliminary results after 1 month

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Hauser, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Background Guidelines recommend extensively hydrolysed cow's milk protein formulas (eHF) in the treatment of infants diagnosed with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Extensively hydrolysed rice protein infant formulas (eRHFs) have recently become available, and could offer a valid alternative. Methods A prospective trial was performed to evaluate the clinical tolerance of a new eRHF in infants with a confirmed CMPA. Patients were followed for 1 month. Clinical tolerance of the eRHF was evaluated with a symptom-based score (SBS) and growth (weight and length) was monitored. Results Thirty-nine infants (mean age 3.4 months, range 0.5–6 months) diagnosed with CMPA were enrolled. All infants tolerated the eRHF and experienced a normal growth. Conclusions In accordance with current guidelines, this eRHF is tolerated by more than 90% of children with proven CMPA with a 95% CI, and is an adequate alternative to cow's milk-based eHF. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01998074. PMID:24914098

  12. Type-II generalized family-wise error rate formulas with application to sample size determination.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Phillipe; de Micheaux, Pierre Lafaye; Liquet, Benoit; Riou, Jérémie

    2016-07-20

    Multiple endpoints are increasingly used in clinical trials. The significance of some of these clinical trials is established if at least r null hypotheses are rejected among m that are simultaneously tested. The usual approach in multiple hypothesis testing is to control the family-wise error rate, which is defined as the probability that at least one type-I error is made. More recently, the q-generalized family-wise error rate has been introduced to control the probability of making at least q false rejections. For procedures controlling this global type-I error rate, we define a type-II r-generalized family-wise error rate, which is directly related to the r-power defined as the probability of rejecting at least r false null hypotheses. We obtain very general power formulas that can be used to compute the sample size for single-step and step-wise procedures. These are implemented in our R package rPowerSampleSize available on the CRAN, making them directly available to end users. Complexities of the formulas are presented to gain insight into computation time issues. Comparison with Monte Carlo strategy is also presented. We compute sample sizes for two clinical trials involving multiple endpoints: one designed to investigate the effectiveness of a drug against acute heart failure and the other for the immunogenicity of a vaccine strategy against pneumococcus. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26914402

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Total Vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in Infant Formula and Related Nutritionals by Enzymatic Digestion and LC-MS/MS: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.14.

    PubMed

    Salvati, Louis M; McClure, Sean C; Reddy, Todime M; Cellar, Nicholas A

    2016-05-01

    This method provides simultaneous determination of total vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in infant formula and related nutritionals (adult and infant). The method was given First Action for vitamins B1, B2, and B6, but not B3, during the AOAC Annual Meeting in September 2015. The method uses acid phosphatase to dephosphorylate the phosphorylated vitamin forms. It then measures thiamine (vitamin B1); riboflavin (vitamin B2); nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (vitamin B3); and pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine (vitamin B6) from digested sample extract by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A single-laboratory validation was performed on 14 matrixes provided by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) to demonstrate method effectiveness. The method met requirements of the AOAC SPIFAN Standard Method Performance Requirement for each of the three vitamins, including average over-spike recovery of 99.6 ± 3.5%, average repeatability of 1.5 ± 0.8% relative standard deviation, and average intermediate precision of 3.9 ± 1.3% relative standard deviation. PMID:27297842

  14. New decontamination method based on caprylic acid in combination with citric acid or vanillin for eliminating Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in reconstituted infant formula.

    PubMed

    Choi, M J; Kim, S A; Lee, N Y; Rhee, M S

    2013-09-16

    The antimicrobial effects of natural compounds (caprylic acid, CA; citric acid, CTA; and vanillin, VNL) on the inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were examined in reconstituted infant formula. The samples were treated with: 1) CA, CTA, or VNL alone (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80 mM); 2) a combination of CA (10 and 20 mM) and CTA (15 and 30 mM); and 3) a combination of CA (10 and 20 mM) and VNL (15 and 30 mM), at mild feeding temperatures (40 °C and 45 °C), and the bacterial populations were assayed periodically (0, 5, 10, and 30 min). For both bacteria, the combined treatments had marked synergistic antimicrobial effects compared with the sum of the effects of each individual treatment. For example, there was no noticeable reduction (P > 0.05) in the population of C. sakazakii following an individual treatment with 20 mM CA or 30 mM CTA for 5 min at 40 °C, whereas the population was reduced to undetectable levels (reduction > 7.3 log CFU/ml) following treatment with a combination of CA and CTA (20 CA+30 CTA for 5 min at 40 °C). As the temperature increased, the bactericidal effect was stronger at all time points with a synergistic effect. In a validation assay using a low level inoculum (approximately 10³ CFU/ml) of desiccation-stressed bacteria in certain conditions, the combined treatments (e.g., CA 10 mM+CTA 30 mM for 5 min at 45 °C for C. sakazakii, and CA 10mM+VNL 15 mM for 10 min at 45 °C for S. Typhimurium) completely destroyed the bacteria with no recovery of cell viability. Disintegration of the membrane and changes in the cell structure or morphology, such as plasmolysis and membrane disruption, were detected by flow cytometry and electron microscopy, respectively. These methods use antimicrobials that could be applied as food additives in infant formula, which may help to eliminate bacteria. PMID:24042002

  15. Evaluation of a revised U.S. Food and Drug Administration method for the detection of Cronobacter in powdered infant formula: a collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Noe, Kathy E; Thompson, Sandra; Elems, Carol A; Brown, Eric W; Lampel, Keith A; Hammack, Thomas S

    2012-06-01

    A revised U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) method for the isolation and detection of Cronobacter from powdered infant formula was recently developed, which combines real-time PCR, chromogenic agars, and RAPID ID 32E biochemical tests. This method provides an expedient analysis within 24 to 48 h. A collaborative validation study involving four different laboratories was conducted to compare the revised FDA method with the reference FDA method using casein- and soy-based powdered infant formula inoculated with different Cronobacter strains. Valid results from 216 test portions and controls from collaborating laboratories were obtained and showed that the revised FDA method performed significantly better than the reference FDA method. Newly revised PCR protocols and VITEK 2 were also evaluated to be integrated into the complete detection procedure.

  16. Erythrocyte incorporation of iron by infants: iron bioavailability from a low-iron infant formula and an evaluation of the usefulness of correcting erythrocyte incorporation values, using a reference dose or plasma ferritin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, L; Ziegler, E E; Kastenmayer, P; Hurrell, R F

    2000-12-01

    Bioavailability of iron (Fe) from a low-Fe infant formula was determined by erythrocyte incorporation of 58Fe 14 d after administration in ten healthy, non-Fe-deficient infants. Two feeding protocols were compared, with each infant acting as his/her own control. At 140 and 154 d of age, infants were fed 1000 g of 58Fe-labelled formula (1.44 mg total Fe/1000 g) as six feeds over 24 h (Protocol A) or as two feeds/day on three consecutive days (Protocol B). A water solution with 57Fe and ascorbic acid was given separately as a reference dose in both study protocols. Erythrocyte incorporation of 58Fe and 57Fe was determined by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. Geometric mean 58Fe incorporation was 7.6% (range 3.3-13.5%) with Protocol A as compared to 10.6% (range 6.7-18.6%) with Protocol B (P = 0.05); paired t test. Inter-individual variability of 58Fe was not reduced by correcting for the incorporation of 57Fe from the reference dose, or by correcting for plasma ferritin concentration. Fractional erythrocyte incorporation of Fe from low-Fe infant formula was in the same range as our earlier published data on erythrocyte incorporation of Fe from human milk extrinsically labelled with 58Fe (Davidsson et al. 1994a). The methodological evaluations included in this study clearly indicate the importance of using standardised study protocols when evaluating Fe bioavailability in infants. Corrections of erythrocyte incorporation data based on plasma ferritin or erythrocyte incorporation of Fe from a reference dose were not found to be useful.

  17. Evidence for the Need to Renorm the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Based on the Performance of a Population-Based Sample of 12-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Suzann K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A recommendation to renorm the Bayley Scales of Infant Development is based on (1) high scores obtained on infants in rural North Carolina (N=305); (2) published means for other samples of infants born in the 1970s; (3) recent age placement revisions of items on the Gesell Developmental Examination. (Author/JW)

  18. Saturated fatty acid chain length and positional distribution in infant formula: effects on growth and plasma lipids and ketones in piglets.

    PubMed

    Innis, S M; Quinlan, P; Diersen-Schade, D

    1993-03-01

    Human milk contains a large proportion of palmitic acid (16:0) with > 70% esterified to the center sn-2 position of the milk triglyceride. Infant formulas often use 8:0 + 10:0 [medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)] or 12:0 + 14:0 (coconut oil) as the saturated fat. The effect of formula saturated fatty acid composition; 8:0 + 10:0, 12:0 + 14:0, or 16:0 from palm oil or synthesized triglyceride containing predominantly sn-2 16:0 on plasma lipids and fatty acids was studied in piglets. Although the formulas contained similar 18:1 and 18:2n-6, plasma lipid percentages of 18:1 and 18:2n-6 were higher in piglets fed the formula with MCT or coconut oil rather than the formulas with 16:0, or sow milk. The sn-2 16:0 of the synthesized triglyceride had unique properties. Specifically, piglets fed synthesized triglyceride had significantly higher cholesteryl ester 16:0 identical to that in piglets fed sow milk and higher plasma total and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol than piglets fed the other formulas. PMID:8438772

  19. Higher vitamin D intake in preterm infants fed an isocaloric, protein- and mineral-enriched postdischarge formula is associated with increased bone accretion.

    PubMed

    van de Lagemaat, Monique; Rotteveel, Joost; Schaafsma, Anne; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Lafeber, Harrie N

    2013-09-01

    During the first half of infancy, bone accretion in preterm infants fed an isocaloric, protein- and mineral-enriched postdischarge formula (PDF) is higher compared with those fed term formula (TF) or human milk (HM). This may be related to higher protein, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D intakes. This study investigated serum calcium, phosphate, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in relation to bone mineral content (BMC) in PDF-, TF-, and HM-fed preterm infants between term age (40 wk postmenstrual age) and 6 mo corrected age (CA). Between term age and 6 mo CA, 52 preterm infants were fed PDF (per 100 mL: 67 kcal, 1.7 g protein, 65 mg calcium, 38 mg phosphorus, 56 IU vitamin D), 41 were fed TF (per 100 mL: 67 kcal, 1.47 g protein, 50 mg calcium, 30 mg phosphorus, 48 IU vitamin D), and 46 were fed HM. Serum calcium, phosphorus, and 25(OH)D were measured at term age and at 3 and 6 mo CA. BMC (g) was measured by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at term age and at 6 mo CA. Between term age and 6 mo CA, intakes of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D were significantly higher in PDF- compared with TF-fed infants, and PDF-fed infants reached significantly higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations at 6 mo CA (103 ± 24.3 vs. 92.8 ± 15.5 nmol/L, P = 0.003). Between term age and 6 mo CA, increases in serum 25(OH)D were associated with an increase in BMC (β = 0.001; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.003; P = 0.046). In conclusion, during the first 6 mo postterm, higher vitamin D intake and greater increase in serum 25(OH)D concentration in PDF-fed preterm infants were associated with increased bone accretion.

  20. Molecular epidemiological survey of Citrobacter freundii misidentified as Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) and Enterobacter hormaechei isolated from powdered infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Giammanco, Giovanni M; Aleo, Aurora; Guida, Ivana; Mammina, Caterina

    2011-04-01

    A total of 75 powdered infant milk formula (PIF) samples collected from pharmacies and drugstores in Western Sicily, Italy, and representative of 12 different brands were analyzed in this study to evaluate their microbiological quality. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration protocol, 32 samples out of 75 were contaminated by enterobacteria. Commercial biochemical API(r) 20E-system identification method indicated that six PIF samples were presumptively contaminated by Cronobacter spp., but further characterization by alpha-glucosidase based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay identification strongly suggested that these strains did not belong to the genus Cronobacter. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA (rrs) sequences combined with the results of biochemical tests allowed to identify the six strains as Citrobacter freundii. Similarly, rrs sequence analysis identified as Enterobacter hormaechei 23 strains originally ascribed to Enterobacter cloacae by the API 20E system. Characterization of C. freundii and E. hormaechei PIF isolates by the DiversiLab(r) repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) typing method revealed a variety of amplification patterns, but the recovery of the same rep-PCR genotype in several products might indicate a special adaptation of genetic clones to this food or cross-contamination through common ingredients. Antibiotic-resistance profiles were also determined, but none of the strains tested was resistant to third-generation cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase activity was not detected. Our results confirm that E. hormaechei contamination of PIF is widespread, thus making it a cause for concern. Similarly to what was demonstrated for E. hormaechei, we suggest that C. freundii also may be an under-reported cause of bacterial infection, especially in high-risk neonates, due to misidentification.

  1. How many infants are temperamentally difficult? Comparing norms from the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire to a population sample of UK infants.

    PubMed

    Chong, Shiau Yun; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Gregory, Tess; Lynch, John W; Smithers, Lisa G

    2015-08-01

    The original norms for the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire (RITQ) were published in 1978 and were based on a small sample from the US. The aim of this study is to compare temperament scores from the original RITQ against scores from a large population-based cohort of infants from the UK. This study consists of 10,937 infants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) born between April 1991 and December 1992 in the southwest of England. Infant temperament at 6 months of age was reported by parents using the adapted RITQ. Responses were scored according to the RITQ manual and then categorized into temperament groups (easy, intermediate low, intermediate high, and difficult) using either the RITQ norms or norms derived from the data. The scores for each temperament subscale and the proportion of children in each temperament group were compared across the two methods. Subscale scores for the ALSPAC sample were higher (more "difficult") than the RITQ norms for rhythmicity, approach, adaptability, intensity, and distractibility. When RITQ norms were applied, 24% infants were categorized as difficult and 25% as easy, compared with 15% difficult and 38% easy when ALSPAC norms were used. There are discrepancies between RITQ norms and the ALSPAC norms which resulted in differences in the distribution of temperament groups. There is a need to re-examine RITQ norms and categorization for use in primary care practice and contemporary population-based studies.

  2. Post Discharge Formula Fortification of Maternal Human Milk of Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: An Introduction of a Feeding Protocol in a University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    El Sakka, Abeer; El Shimi, Mohamed Sami; Salama, Kareem; Fayez, Hend

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers and complications of fortification of human milk by post discharge formula of preterm very low birth weight newborns (VLBW). Fifty preterm infants less than 37 weeks with weight less than 1500 g were enrolled in the study. They received parental nutrition and feeding according to our protocol. When enteral feeding reached 100 cc/kg/day, infants were randomized into two groups: group I, Cases, n=25, where post discharge formula (PDF) was used for fortification, group II, Controls, n=25 with no fortification. Infants of both groups were given 50% of required enteral feeding as premature formula. This protocol was used until infants’ weight reached 1800 g. Daily weight, weekly length and head circumference were recorded. Hemoglobin, albumin (Alb), electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and clinical complications were documented. Human milk fortification with PDF resulted in better growth with increase in weight 16.8 and 13.78 g/kg/day (P=0.0430), length 0.76 and 0.58 cm/week (P=0.0027), and head circumference of 0.59 and 0.5 cm/week (P=0.0217) in cases and controls respectively. Duration of hospital stay was less in cases (22.76 versus 28.52 days in Controls), P=0.02. No significant changes were found in serum electrolytes, BUN, or Alb between both groups. Hemoglobin was significantly higher in Cases, P=0.04. There were no significant clinical complications. Our feeding protocol of fortification of human milk with PDF in preterm very low birth weight newborns resulted in better growth and decrease in length of hospital stay. The use of PDF could be an alternative option for fortification of mothers’ milk for preterm VLBW infants in developing countries with low resources. PMID:27777705

  3. Extensive protein hydrolysate formula effectively reduces regurgitation in infants with positive and negative challenge tests for cow’s milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Y; De Greef, E

    2014-01-01

    Aim Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) is treated using an elimination diet with an extensive protein hydrolysate. We explored whether a thickened or nonthickened version was best for infants with suspected CMPA, which commonly causes regurgitation/vomiting. Methods Diagnosis of CMPA was based on a positive challenge test. We compared the efficacy of two casein extensive hydrolysates (eCH), a nonthickened version (NT-eCH) and a thickened version (T-eCH), using a symptom-based score covering regurgitation, crying, stool consistency, eczema, urticarial and respiratory symptoms. Results A challenge was performed in 52/72 infants with suspected CMPA and was positive in 65.4%. All confirmed CMPA cases tolerated eCH. The symptom-based score decreased significantly in all infants within a month, and the highest reduction was in those with confirmed CMPA. Regurgitation was reduced in all infants (6.4 ± 3.2–2.8 ± 2.9, p < 0.001), but fell more with the T-eCH (−4.2 ± 3.2 regurgitations/day vs. −3.0 ± 4.5, ns), especially in infants with a negative challenge (−3.9 ± 4.0 vs. −1.9 ± 3.4, ns). Conclusion eCH fulfilled the criteria for a hypoallergenic formula, and the NT-eCH and T-eCH formulas both reduced CMPA symptoms. The symptom-based score is useful for evaluating how effective dietary treatments are for CMPA. PMID:24575806

  4. Modulation of infant formula fat profile alters the low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio and plasma fatty acid distribution relative to those with breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Hayes, K C; Pronczuk, A; Wood, R A; Guy, D G

    1992-04-01

    The effect of breast-feeding was compared with that of two fat-modified milk formulas in 45 infants (15 per group) studied by assessing body weight gain for 4 months and plasma lipids, lipoprotein profiles, fatty acid profiles of plasma and red blood cells, and plasma tocopherol status 3 months after birth. A saturated fat formula with coconut oil/soybean oil (COCO/SOY) had a fatty acid content and polyunsaturated/saturated ratio (P/S, 0.55) comparable with that of human milk fat (P/S, 0.39) and had the same fat energy content (50% kcal). The second formula, with corn oil/soybean oil (CORN/SOY), was highly unsaturated (P/S, 4.6), with only 35% kcal from fat. Energy intake and body weight gain were similar for all groups. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid levels were significantly lower (greater than 20% on average) in infants fed the CORN/SOY formula than in infants fed either the COCO/SOY formula or human milk. Infants fed the CORN/SOY formula also had lower (25% to 35%) plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratios. Plasma, red blood cell, and cholesteryl ester fatty acids from infants fed COCO/SOY contained less 18:1 and more 18:2; cholesterol esters in plasma from breast-fed infants had the highest 20:4n-6 levels. Plasma tocopherol levels were higher in infants consuming formulas. The presence of cholesterol in human milk appeared to expand the low-density lipoprotein pool and exert an "unfavorable" increase in the low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio. Thus modulation of infant lipoproteins by changing dietary fat and cholesterol is feasible and in keeping with the known response in adults. PMID:1560323

  5. Very extensive nonmaternal care predicts mother-infant attachment disorganization: Convergent evidence from two samples.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Nancy L; Allen, Sydnye D; Christopher, Caroline Heaton; Umemura, Tomotaka; Jacobvitz, Deborah B

    2015-08-01

    We examined whether a maximum threshold of time spent in nonmaternal care exists, beyond which infants have an increased risk of forming a disorganized infant-mother attachment. The hours per week infants spent in nonmaternal care at 7-8 months were examined as a continuous measure and as a dichotomous threshold (over 40, 50 and 60 hr/week) to predict infant disorganization at 12-15 months. Two different samples (Austin and NICHD) were used to replicate findings and control for critical covariates: mothers' unresolved status and frightening behavior (assessed in the Austin sample, N = 125), quality of nonmaternal caregiving (assessed in the NICHD sample, N = 1,135), and family income and infant temperament (assessed in both samples). Only very extensive hours of nonmaternal care (over 60 hr/week) and mothers' frightening behavior independently predicted attachment disorganization. A polynomial logistic regression performed on the larger NICHD sample indicated that the risk of disorganized attachment exponentially increased after exceeding 60 hr/week. In addition, very extensive hours of nonmaternal care only predicted attachment disorganization after age 6 months (not prior). Findings suggest that during a sensitive period of attachment formation, infants who spend more than 60 hr/week in nonmaternal care may be at an increased risk of forming a disorganized attachment. PMID:25212870

  6. Short-term effect of partially hydrolyzed formula on the prevention of development of atopic dermatitis in infants at high risk.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Shin; Park, Hwa-Young; Ahn, Kang-Mo; Lee, Ju-Seok; Choi, Hay-Mie; Lee, Sang-Il

    2003-01-01

    This short-term, prospective study was aimed to assess the effects of partially hydrolyzed formula (PHF) on the prevention of the development of atopic dermatitis in infants at high risk. The infants of parents with allergy symptoms and serum total IgE over 200 kU/L were divided into 3 groups by their feeding patterns: PHF group (n=15), standard formula (SF) group (n=32), and breast milk (BM) group (n=22). No allergenic food was given during the study period of 6 months, and breastfeeding mothers avoided egg ingestion. Their atopic symptoms were monitored every 2 months. The cumulative incidence and prevalence of atopic dermatitis at the age of 6 months were significantly less in the PHF group than in the SF group (47% vs. 78%, p<0.05; 20% vs. 59%, p<0.05). Those rates of the PHF group were also less than those of the BM group, but they were not statistically significant. There was no difference in the onset age and disease severity. These results suggest that early feeding of PHF to infants at high risk has a short-term preventive effect on the development of atopic dermatitis during the first 6 months of life. Long-term preventive effects should be evaluated. PMID:12923332

  7. Non-compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes is not confined to the infant formula industry.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Stewart

    2013-06-01

    Infant feeding policy and practice continues to be a contentious area of global health care. The infant formula industry is widely considered to be the bête noire with frequent claims that they adopt marketing and sales practices that are not compliant with the WHO Code. However, failure to resolve these issues over three decades suggests that there may be wider systemic failings. Review of published papers, commentaries and reports relating to the implementation and governance of the WHO Code with specific reference to issues of non-compliance. The analysis set out in this paper indicates that there are systemic failings at all levels of the implementation and monitoring process including the failure of WHO to successfully 'urge' governments to implement the Code in its entirety; a lack of political will by Member States to implement and monitor the Code and a lack of formal and transparent governance structures. Non-compliance with the WHO Code is not confined to the infant formula industry and several actions are identified, including the need to address issues of partnership working and the establishment of governance systems that are robust, independent and transparent.

  8. Non-compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes is not confined to the infant formula industry.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Stewart

    2013-06-01

    Infant feeding policy and practice continues to be a contentious area of global health care. The infant formula industry is widely considered to be the bête noire with frequent claims that they adopt marketing and sales practices that are not compliant with the WHO Code. However, failure to resolve these issues over three decades suggests that there may be wider systemic failings. Review of published papers, commentaries and reports relating to the implementation and governance of the WHO Code with specific reference to issues of non-compliance. The analysis set out in this paper indicates that there are systemic failings at all levels of the implementation and monitoring process including the failure of WHO to successfully 'urge' governments to implement the Code in its entirety; a lack of political will by Member States to implement and monitor the Code and a lack of formal and transparent governance structures. Non-compliance with the WHO Code is not confined to the infant formula industry and several actions are identified, including the need to address issues of partnership working and the establishment of governance systems that are robust, independent and transparent. PMID:23658390

  9. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. D Appendix D to Part 110—Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 110 - Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) C Appendix C to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. C Appendix C to Part 110—Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone I...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. D Appendix D to Part 110—Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 110 - Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and