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Sample records for infant formula samples

  1. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. ... 12 months old who are not drinking breast milk . While there are some differences, infant formulas sold ...

  2. Infant formula samples: perinatal sources and breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Amanda; Bolin, Jocelyn H; Chezem, Jo Carol

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to describe sources of infant formula samples during the perinatal period and assess their associations with breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum. Subjects included expectant mothers who anticipated breast-feeding at least 1 month. Infant feeding history and sources of formula samples were obtained at 1 month postpartum. Associations between sources and breast-feeding outcomes were assessed using partial correlation. Of the 61 subjects who initiated breast-feeding, most were white (87%), married (75%), college-educated (75%), and planned exclusive breast-feeding (82%). Forty-two subjects (69%) continued breast-feeding at 1 month postpartum. Subjects received formula samples from the hospital (n = 40; 66%), physician's office (n = 10; 16%), and mail (n = 41; 67%). There were no significant correlations between formula samples from the hospital, physician's office, and/or mail and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month (P > .05). In addition to the hospital, a long-standing source of formula samples, mail was also frequently reported as a route for distribution. The lack of statistically significant associations between formula samples and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month may be related to small sample size and unique characteristics of the group studied.

  3. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited.

  4. Lead levels in retail samples of Spanish infant formulae and their contribution to dietary intake of infants.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Blasco, I; Alvarez-Galindo, J I

    2005-08-01

    Lead concentrations in 82 different types of infant formulae (cow's milk and soy based) marked in Spain were analysed by acid-microwave decomposition and anodic stripping voltammetry. Dietary lead intake from infant formula and tap water used for powder formula reconstitution were estimated in comparison with the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). Additionally, the influence of physical state (powder and ready-to-use formulae), the type of container used and the impact of the industrial process from different manufacturers on lead levels were evaluated. According to the results, lead exposure from drinking water was negligible with respect to formulae investigated; where soya formulae contributed the highest intake (58-73% PTWI), non-adapted starter and specialized formulae gave an moderate intake (31-42 and 26-37% PTWI, respectively), and, finally, pre-term, adapted starter and follow-up formulae provided the lowest lead intake (22-25, 22-26 and 16-22% PTWI, respectively). Based on the current state of knowledge about lead toxicity, manufacturers are called to make an additional effort in order to keep a maximum lead level at 20 microg l-1 for all infant formulae, although it is recommendable that these formulations supply the upper limit (5 microg l-1) of 'normal' human milk.

  5. Development of an optical biosensor based immunoassay to screen infant formula milk samples for adulteration with melamine.

    PubMed

    Fodey, Terence L; Thompson, Colin S; Traynor, Imelda M; Haughey, Simon A; Kennedy, D Glenn; Crooks, Steven R H

    2011-06-15

    The illegal adulteration of milk with melamine in 2008 in China led to adverse kidney and urinary tract effects in hundreds of thousands of children and the reported deaths of six. The milk had been deliberately adulterated to elevate the apparent protein content, and subsequently melamine was detected in many milk-related products which had been exported. This led to the banning of imports of milk and milk products from China intended for the nutritional use of children and to the implementation of analytical methods to test products containing milk products. An optical biosensor inhibition immunoassay has been developed as a rapid and robust method for the analysis of infant formula and infant liquid milk samples. A compound with a chemical structure similar to that of melamine was employed as a hapten to raise a polyclonal antibody and as the immobilized antigen on the surface of a biosensor chip. The sensitivity of the assay, given as an IC(50), was calculated to be 67.9 ng mL(-1) in buffer. The antibody did not cross-react with any of the byproducts of melamine manufacture; however, significant cross-reactivity was observed with the insecticide cyromazine of which melamine is a metabolite. When sample matrix was applied to the assay, a limit of detection of <0.5 μg mL(-1) was determined in both infant formula and infant liquid milk. The development of the immunoassay and validation data for the detection of melamine is presented together with the results obtained following the analysis of melamine-contaminated milk powder.

  6. Microwave-assisted extraction and determination of dicyandiamide residue in infant formula samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Zhou, Xiujin; Chen, Xiangzhun; Huang, Fuzhen; Zhu, Zhenou

    2013-01-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of dicyandiamide residue in infant formula samples. Following microwave-assisted extraction with 5% formic acid and clean-up on a Sep-Pak AC-2 SPE cartridge, samples were separated on a ZIC-HILIC HPLC column (150 × 2.1mm i.d., 5-µm film thickness; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) with 20mM ammonium acetate solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. A linear calibration curve was obtained in the concentration range from 1.0 to 50 ng/mL. Infant formula samples were fortified with dicyandiamide at 3 levels, producing average recovery yields of 83.6 to 95.7%. The limits of detection and quantification of dicyandiamide were 3 and 10 μg/kg, respectively. Due to its simplicity and accuracy, the straightforward method is particularly suitable for routine dicyandiamide detection.

  7. New supplements to infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Eshach Adiv, Orly; Berant, Moshe; Shamir, Raanan

    2004-12-01

    Foods, which, in addition to their nutritional attributes, contain also elements that are considered to be health-promoting, have been termed "functional foods". In this regard, human milk has gained recognition as being the ultimate functional food for infants - by its biological compatibility, nutritional value and the undisputed added value of its health promoting qualities. Intensive research activity has recently evolved in a quest to identify and define the components of human milk that might confer disease-preventing and health-enhancing properties and to determine the instances and clinical conditions in which these factors become particularly important. The outcome of such research would also provide a rationale for advocating the supplementation of commercial infant formulas with such substances. In effect, the body of data accumulated from scientific and clinical studies on nucleotides, probiotics, prebiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and as additives to infant formula, has become regarded as convincing enough by the infant formula industry so as to launch into the market formulas supplemented with one or more of these factors - in an effort to emulate human milk and its beneficial effects. The following review is intended for the reader to obtain a general idea of the new supplements that have been introduced to infant formulas. We summarize the pertinent experimental and clinical observations concerning each of the supplements, pointing out their potential specific benefits, their possible disadvantages and the issues that still remain unresolved.

  8. Dietary glycotoxins and infant formulas

    PubMed Central

    Kutlu, Tufan

    2016-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products constitute a complex group of compounds derived from the nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids formed endogenously, but also from exogenous supplies such as tobacco smoking (glycotoxins). Accumulating evidence underlies the beneficial effect of the dietary restriction of glycotoxins in animal studies and also in patients with diabetic complications and metabolic diseases. Composition of infant formulas and their processing methods render an extraordinary favorable milieu for the formation of glycotoxins, and the content of glycotoxins in infant formula exceeds that of breast milk by hundred folds. Data from a limited number of short-term small studies in healthy infants do not provide direct evidence of acute negative health effects of glycotoxins in early infancy. However, the effects in sensitive groups on the state of future health in adulthood remain unclear. PMID:28123329

  9. Fast determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using a slurry sampling procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, I.; Viñas, P.; Romero-Romero, R.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas using slurried samples is described. Suspensions prepared in a medium containing 50% v/v concentrated hydrogen peroxide, 1% v/v concentrated nitric acid, 10% m/v glucose, 5% m/v sucrose and 100 mg l - 1 of potassium were introduced directly into the furnace. For the honey samples, multiple injection of the sample was necessary. The modifier selected was a mixture of 20 μg palladium and 5 μg magnesium nitrate, which was injected after the sample and before proceeding with the drying and calcination steps. Calibration was performed using aqueous standards prepared in the same suspension medium and the graph was linear between 5 and 80 mg l - 1 of phosphorus. The reliability of the procedure was checked by comparing the results obtained by the new developed method with those found when using a reference spectrophotometric method after a mineralization step, and by analyzing several certified reference materials.

  10. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome.

  11. Actual distribution of Cronobacter spp. in industrial batches of powdered infant formula and consequences for performance of sampling strategies.

    PubMed

    Jongenburger, I; Reij, M W; Boer, E P J; Gorris, L G M; Zwietering, M H

    2011-11-15

    The actual spatial distribution of microorganisms within a batch of food influences the results of sampling for microbiological testing when this distribution is non-homogeneous. In the case of pathogens being non-homogeneously distributed, it markedly influences public health risk. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Cronobacter spp. in powdered infant formula (PIF) on industrial batch-scale for both a recalled batch as well a reference batch. Additionally, local spatial occurrence of clusters of Cronobacter cells was assessed, as well as the performance of typical sampling strategies to determine the presence of the microorganisms. The concentration of Cronobacter spp. was assessed in the course of the filling time of each batch, by taking samples of 333 g using the most probable number (MPN) enrichment technique. The occurrence of clusters of Cronobacter spp. cells was investigated by plate counting. From the recalled batch, 415 MPN samples were drawn. The expected heterogeneous distribution of Cronobacter spp. could be quantified from these samples, which showed no detectable level (detection limit of -2.52 log CFU/g) in 58% of samples, whilst in the remainder concentrations were found to be between -2.52 and 2.75 log CFU/g. The estimated average concentration in the recalled batch was -2.78 log CFU/g and a standard deviation of 1.10 log CFU/g. The estimated average concentration in the reference batch was -4.41 log CFU/g, with 99% of the 93 samples being below the detection limit. In the recalled batch, clusters of cells occurred sporadically in 8 out of 2290 samples of 1g taken. The two largest clusters contained 123 (2.09 log CFU/g) and 560 (2.75 log CFU/g) cells. Various sampling strategies were evaluated for the recalled batch. Taking more and smaller samples and keeping the total sampling weight constant, considerably improved the performance of the sampling plans to detect such a type of contaminated batch. Compared to random sampling

  12. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  13. Breastfeeding versus infant formula: the Kenyan case.

    PubMed

    Elliot, T C; Agunda, K O; Kigondu, J G; Kinoti, S N; Latham, M C

    1985-02-01

    An Infant Feeding Practices Study (IFPS) in 1982 in Kenya, which included a cross-sectional survey of a weighted sample of 980 low and middle income Nairobi mothers who had given birth in the previous 18 months, found that most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternate feeding, especially infant formula, in the 1st 4 months (86 and 50% of the infants were breastfed at 6 and 15 months respectively, but 50% of the 2 month-olds and 63% of the 4 month-olds were receiving substitutes, mostly formula). This is done largely out of the belief that infant formula is an additional health benefit. A workshop to discuss the findings of the IFPS and other available data, and to make policy recommendations urged the adoption of a policy of protection, support and promotion of breastfeeding. Since breastfeeding is already widely prevalent in Kenya, protection of breastfeeding should receive the 1st priority in policy related to infant feeding. Attention should be directed at at least 2 influences which help undermine breastfeeding: widespread availability and promotion of breast milk substitutes. Support for breastfeeding is viewed as the 2nd policy priority. Situations where support can play a helpful role are, women's paid employment outside the home, hospital practices, maternal morbidity, and difficulties in breastfeeding. Since promotion is the least cost effective of the 3 options, and most Kenyan women are already motivated to breastfeed, this should be the last priority. Promotion includes reeduction of mothers to make them better aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. The workshop recommended the dissemination of appropriate information, consisting of standarized messages based on clearcut guidelines, using mass media techniques.

  14. Preconcentration and determination of boron in milk, infant formula, and honey samples by solid phase extraction-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, I.; Viñas, P.; Romero-Romero, R.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2009-02-01

    This work presents alternative procedures for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of boron in milk, infant formulas, and honey samples. Honey samples (10% m/v) were diluted in a medium containing 1% v/v HNO 3 and 50% v/v H 2O 2 and introduced in the atomizer. A mixture of 20 µg Pd and 0.5 µg Mg was used for chemical modification. Calibration was carried out using aqueous solutions prepared in the same medium, in the presence of 10% m/v sucrose. The detection limit was 2 µg g - 1 , equivalent to three times the standard error of the estimate ( sy/ x) of the regression line. For both infant formulas and milk samples, due to their very low boron content, we used a procedure based on preconcentration by solid phase extraction (Amberlite IRA 743), followed by elution with 2 mol L - 1 hydrochloric acid. Detection limits were 0.03 µg g - 1 for 4% m/v honey, 0.04 µg g - 1 for 5% m/v infant formula and 0.08 µg mL - 1 for 15% v/v cow milk. We confirmed the accuracy of the procedure by comparing the obtained results with those found via a comparable independent procedure, as well by the analysis of four certified reference materials.

  15. Types of Infant Formulas Consumed in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rossen, Lauren M.; Simon, Alan E.; Herrick, Kirsten A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined consumption of different types of infant formula (eg, cow’s milk, soy, gentle/lactose-reduced, and specialty) and regular milk among a nationally representative sample of 1864 infants, 0 to 12 months old, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010. Among the 81% of infants who were fed formula or regular milk, 69% consumed cow’s milk formula, 12% consumed soy formula, 5% consumed gentle/ lactose-reduced formulas, 6% consumed specialty formulas, and 13% consumed regular milk products. There were differences by household education and income in the percentage of infants consuming cow’s milk formula and regular milk products. The majority of infants in the United States who were fed formula or regular milk consumed cow’s milk formula (69%), with lower percentages receiving soy, specialty, gentle/sensitive, or lactose-free/reduced formulas. Contrary to national recommendations, 13% of infants younger than 1 year consumed regular milk, and the percentage varied by household education and income levels. PMID:26149849

  16. Types of Infant Formulas Consumed in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Lauren M; Simon, Alan E; Herrick, Kirsten A

    2016-03-01

    We examined consumption of different types of infant formula (eg, cow's milk, soy, gentle/lactose-reduced, and specialty) and regular milk among a nationally representative sample of 1864 infants, 0 to 12 months old, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010. Among the 81% of infants who were fed formula or regular milk, 69% consumed cow's milk formula, 12% consumed soy formula, 5% consumed gentle/ lactose-reduced formulas, 6% consumed specialty formulas, and 13% consumed regular milk products. There were differences by household education and income in the percentage of infants consuming cow's milk formula and regular milk products. The majority of infants in the United States who were fed formula or regular milk consumed cow's milk formula (69%), with lower percentages receiving soy, specialty, gentle/sensitive, or lactose-free/reduced formulas. Contrary to national recommendations, 13% of infants younger than 1 year consumed regular milk, and the percentage varied by household education and income levels.

  17. Nutritional adequacy and safety of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Frattali, V P

    1982-11-01

    The Infant Formula Act contains specific requirements for minimum and, in some cases, maximum levels for a list of nutrients that may be revised as warranted by the development of new scientific information. Formulas are required to be manufactured in accordance with quality control procedures to ensure that the safety and nutritional potency of a formula is built into the manufacturing process. A formula that does not provide the minimum level for any required nutrient shall be deemed to be adulterated and may be subject to removal from the market. A manufacturer is required to promptly notify the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services of instances whereby a formula does not meet the nutrient requirements, is otherwise adulterated or misbranded, and, as such, presents a risk to human health. There are other provisions in the Act, but these establish that, for infant formulas, nutritional safety is clearly recognized as an integral part of food safety.

  18. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... for newsletters, special programs, and deals on formula company websites. They often send out coupons and free samples. Ask your pediatrician for samples. Consider generic or store-brand formulas. By law, they must meet the same nutritional and quality ...

  19. Direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and solid sample analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arlene S; Brandao, Geovani C; Matos, Geraldo D; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2015-11-01

    The present work proposed an analytical method for the direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing the high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry combined with the solid sample analysis (SS-HR-CS ET AAS). Sample masses up to 2.0mg were directly weighted on a solid sampling platform and introduced into the graphite tube. In order to minimize the formation of carbonaceous residues and to improve the contact of the modifier solution with the solid sample, a volume of 10 µL of a solution containing 6% (v/v) H2O2, 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1% (v/v) HNO3 was added. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures established were 1600 and 2400 °C, respectively, using magnesium as chemical modifier. The calibration technique was evaluated by comparing the slopes of calibration curves established using aqueous and solid standards. This test revealed that chromium can be determined employing the external calibration technique using aqueous standards. Under these conditions, the method developed allows the direct determination of chromium with limit of quantification of 11.5 ng g(-1), precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) in the range of 4.0-17.9% (n=3) and a characteristic mass of 1.2 pg of chromium. The accuracy was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of tomato leaves furnished by National Institute of Standards and Technology. The method proposed was applied for the determination of chromium in five different infant formula samples. The chromium content found varied in the range of 33.9-58.1 ng g(-1) (n=3). These samples were also analyzed employing ICP-MS. A statistical test demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the results found by two methods. The chromium concentrations achieved are lower than the maximum limit permissible for chromium in foods by Brazilian Legislation.

  20. Assay of ghrelin concentration in infant formulas and breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Savino, Francesco; Petrucci, Elisa; Lupica, Maria Maddalena; Nanni, Giuliana Eva; Oggero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To test if total ghrelin is present in infant formulas. METHODS: Using a radioimmunoassay, we measured total ghrelin concentrations in 19 samples of commercial infant formulas and in 20 samples of human milk. We also determined ghrelin concentration in the serum of infants and lactating mothers. RESULTS: Ghrelin concentrations were significantly higher in artificial milk (2007.1 ± 1725.36 pg/mL) than in human milk (828.17 ± 323.32 pg/mL) (P = 0.005). The mean ghrelin concentration in infant serum (n = 56) was 1115.86 ± 42.89 pg/mL, and was significantly higher (P = 0.023) in formula-fed infants (1247.93 ± 328.07 pg/mL) than in breast-fed infants (1045.7 ± 263.38 pg/mL). The mean serum ghrelin concentration (mean ± SD) in lactating mothers (n = 20) was 1319.18 ± 140.18 pg/mL. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that total ghrelin is present in infant formulas. This finding raises diverse questions regarding the uptake, absorption and metabolic effects of this hormone. PMID:21528074

  1. Sensitive determination of melamine in milk and powdered infant formula samples by high-performance liquid chromatography using dabsyl chloride derivatization followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Faraji, M; Adeli, M

    2017-04-15

    A new and sensitive pre-column derivatization with dabsyl chloride followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the analysis of melamine (MEL) in raw milk and powdered infant formula samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with visible detection. Derivatization with dabsyl chloride leads to improving sensitivity and hydrophobicity of MEL. Under optimum conditions of derivatization and microextraction steps, the method yielded a linear calibration curve ranging from 1.0 to 500μgL(-1) with a determination coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9995. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.1 and 0.3μgL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD%) for intra-day (repeatability) and inter-day (reproducibility) at 25 and 100μgL(-1) levels of MEL was less than 7.0% (n=6). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the preconcentration and determination of MEL in different raw milk and powdered infant formula, and satisfactory results were obtained (relative recovery ⩾94%).

  2. Safety assessment of essential and toxic metals in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, Hande; Eken, Ayşe; Aydın, Ahmet; Şahin, Gönül; Baydar, Terken

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess toxic metal (Cd, Pb and Al) contamination and levels of three essential trace elements (Mn, Cr and Co) in 63 infant formulas. In addition, the levels of these metals in the study samples were compared with the acceptable limits of toxic heavy metals and the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) of essential trace elements. According to our results, the toxic metal levels measured in the formulas were within the acceptable limits, with the exception of Al levels in 8 of the 63 samples. In 16 samples, Mn levels exceeded 600 μg/day, and the Cr content in 7 samples was higher than 5.5 μg/day, these amounts being the adequate intake levels for infants. Cobalt levels in 10 formulas were higher than the RDA. In view of these findings, which indicate that metal levels in infant formulas are generally much higher than those found in breast milk, breast milk should be preferred for infant feeding. Moreover, since infants are potentially more susceptible to metals, infant foods should be monitored regularly and checked for contamination by toxic metals as well as for levels of essential trace elements.

  3. Microbiological assessment and evaluation of rehydration instructions on powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdullah Sani, N; Hartantyo, S H P; Forsythe, S J

    2013-01-01

    A total of 90 samples comprising powdered infant formulas (n=51), follow-up formulas (n=21), and infant foods (n=18) from 15 domestic and imported brands were purchased from various retailers in Klang Valley, Malaysia and evaluated in terms of microbiological quality and the similarity of rehydration instructions on the product label to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Microbiological analysis included the determination of aerobic plate count (APC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Cronobacter spp. Isolates of interest were identified using ID 32E (bioMérieux France, Craponne, France). In this study, 87% of powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods analyzed had an APC below the permitted level of <10(4) cfu/g. These acceptable APC ranged between <10(2) to 7.2×10(3) cfu/g. The most frequently isolated Enterobacteriaceae was Enterobacter cloacae, which was present in 3 infant formulas and 1 infant food tested. Other Enterobacteriaceae detected from powdered infant and follow-up formulas were Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and other Enterobacter spp. No Cronobacter species were found in any samples. Rehydration instructions from the product labels were collated and it was observed that none directed the use of water with a temperature >70°C for formula preparation, as specified by the 2008 revised World Health Organization guidelines. Six brands instructed the use of water at 40 to 55°C, a temperature range that would support the survival and even growth of Enterobacteriaceae.

  4. Isolation and identification of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant milk formulas.

    PubMed

    Torres-Chavolla, Edith; Ramírez-Cerda, Elsa; Gutiérrez-Rojo, Rosalba

    2007-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is a pathogen of increasing medical concern, due to it being implicated in cases of meningitis, sepis, and necrotizing enterocolitis associated with the consumption of contaminated infant milk formula. At present, the method adopted by the Mexican food industry for the isolation and identification of E. sakazakii is based on the methodology of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, this procedure is laborious and requires 7 days to obtain a confirmative result. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of E. sakazakii in two types of powdered infant milk formula, using an alternative method that requires less time and a smaller sample size than the FDA protocol. We adapted Leuschner's procedure by eliminating violet red bile glucose agar (VRBG) plates and instead adopting white light incubation to stimulate yellow pigment development. This allowed for isolation of E. sakazakii from powdered infant milk formula using a smaller sample and requiring only 5 days for analysis. Results showed that 92% of formula 1 and 32% of formula 2 was positive for E. sakazakii. The high contamination level of E. sakazakii suggests the need for monitoring hygienic conditions in the manufacturing plant and to assess the prevalence of E. sakazakii in powdered infant milk formulas sold in México.

  5. High aluminium content of infant milk formulas.

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, R; Hams, G; Meerkin, M; Rosenberg, A R

    1986-01-01

    The aluminium content of several commercially available infant milk formulas was measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Results were compared with those for fresh breast milk, cow's milk, and local tap water. Differences in aluminium concentration of greater than 150-fold were found, with the lowest concentrations in breast milk. PMID:3767424

  6. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... that do not produce a soy-based infant formula to subcontract with another manufacturer to supply a soy... winning bidder pay the State agency a rebate on the soy-based infant formula supplied by the subcontractor... soy-based infant formula supplied by a subcontractor) to be calculated in accordance with paragraph...

  7. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... that do not produce a soy-based infant formula to subcontract with another manufacturer to supply a soy... winning bidder pay the State agency a rebate on the soy-based infant formula supplied by the subcontractor... soy-based infant formula supplied by a subcontractor) to be calculated in accordance with paragraph...

  8. Infant formula increases bone turnover favoring bone formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the first year of life, the major infant food choices have traditionally been breast milk (BM), cow's milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF). Studies examining the effects of infant formula on early life skeletal development are extremely limited. We have enrolled 120 healthy 6-month-old infants ...

  9. WIC's promotion of infant formula in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kent, George

    2006-01-01

    Background The United States' Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) distributes about half the infant formula used in the United States at no cost to the families. This is a matter of concern because it is known that feeding with infant formula results in worse health outcomes for infants than breastfeeding. Discussion The evidence that is available indicates that the WIC program has the effect of promoting the use of infant formula, thus placing infants at higher risk. Moreover, the program violates the widely accepted principles that have been set out in the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and in the human right to adequate food. Summary There is no good reason for an agency of government to distribute large quantities of free infant formula. It is recommended that the large-scale distribution of free infant formula by the WIC program should be phased out. PMID:16722534

  10. The infant formula industry, the Infant Formula Act of 1980, and quality control.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, R C

    1982-11-01

    Throughout the months following the discovery of the low-chloride problem in infant formula, the industry undertook independent and voluntary measures to ensure the compositional quality of formulas. Members of the Infant Formula Council reviewed industry procedures, practices, and policies, and submitted a detailed description of its quality control and clinical testing procedures to the Food and Drug Administration. New product concepts and product reformulation proposals are based on medical and nutritional findings, on changes in medical concepts for nutritional support, on availability of improved nutrient sources, or on improved ingredients or processing technologies. Quality control is maintained throughout the manufacturing process through inspection of raw materials, analysis of major and minor constituents, equipment and process controls, and continuous product monitoring. However, despite cooperation of the infant formula industry with FDA and Congress during the development of the infant formula bills, the proposed document was too rigid and did not take into account that manufacturing methods of a given manufacturer often vary for the same product, for different products, and on different production equipment. The statistical criteria established uneven and inconsistent requirements for various manufacturers. Congress did not forsee that the proposed regulatory procedures would significantly affect industry.

  11. Determination of iodine in human milk and infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sánchez, Luisa Maria; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Fraga-Bermudez, José Maria; Szpunar, Joanna; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to determine iodine in human milk and infant formulas using ICP-MS. The milk samples were digested using an alkaline digestion (5% NH(3), 45 W, 2 min and 30s), and the method was validated using a certified reference material (CRM) BCR CRM151. On the other hand the milk was separated in three fractions, whey, fat and caseins using ultracentrifugation (15 min, 4 degrees C, 50,000 rpm) and the iodine was determined in the different fractions. About 27 samples of different infant formulas and 14 samples of human milk have been studied. In the human milk the values found were between 144+/-93.2 microg kg(-1), whereas in the infant formulas the values were 53.3+/-19.5. For both types of samples the bigger amount of iodine is in the whey fraction, between 80% and 90%, whereas in the fat there is about a 2% of the total iodine and in the casein fraction the levels are between 5% and 10% depending on the type of sample.

  12. Infant formula and infant nutrition: bioactive proteins of human milk and implications for composition of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-03-01

    Human milk contains an abundance of biologically active components that are highly likely to contribute to the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding. Many of these components are proteins; this article describes some of these proteins, such as α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, osteopontin, and milk fat globule membrane proteins. The possibility of adding their bovine counterparts to infant formula is discussed as well as the implications for infant health and development. An important consideration when adding bioactive proteins to infant formula is that the total protein content of formula needs to be reduced, because formula-fed infants have significantly higher concentrations of serum amino acids, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen than do breastfed infants. When reducing the protein content of formula, the amino acid composition of the formula protein becomes important because serum concentrations of the essential amino acids should not be lower than those in breastfed infants. Both the supply of essential amino acids and the bioactivities of milk proteins are dependent on their digestibility: some proteins act only in intact form, others act in the form of larger or small peptides formed during digestion, and some are completely digested and serve as a source of amino acids. The purity of the proteins or protein fractions, potential contaminants of the proteins (such as lipopolysaccharide), as well as the degree of heat processing used during their isolation also need to be considered. It is likely that there will be more bioactive components added to infant formulas in the near future, but guidelines on how to assess their bioactivities in vitro, in animal models, and in clinical studies need to be established. The extent of testing needed is likely going to depend on the degree of complexity of the components and their bioequivalence with the human compounds whose effects they are intended to mimic.

  13. The health implications of soy infant formula.

    PubMed

    Badger, Thomas M; Gilchrist, Janet M; Pivik, R Terry; Andres, Aline; Shankar, Kartik; Chen, Jin-Ran; Ronis, Martin J

    2009-05-01

    Soy formula (SF) has been fed to millions of infants worldwide. It has been shown to promote growth and development as well as milk-based formula (MF). Controversy has developed over the adequacy and safety of SF. Most concerns are based on in vivo and in vitro data that raise the possibility of estrogenic effects of isoflavones contained in SF. There are few studies of children who were fed SF, and thus insufficient data are available to judge if SF feeding results in clinically significant developmental effects and if there are any long-term health consequences (adverse or beneficial). However, the Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center is conducting a prospective longitudinal study comparing growth, development, and health of breastfed children with formula-fed (SF and MF) children from birth through age 6 y. After 5 y of study, children in all 3 groups (n > 300) are growing and developing within normal limits, and there are no indications of adverse effects in the soy-fed children. Neonatal pig studies comparing SF, MF, and breast milk (BM) have shown diet-specific gene expression profiles in various target tissues. Therefore, although SF differed significantly from BM, MF also differed from BM, and SF differed from MF. Nonetheless, these animals grew and developed normally, and SF piglets had several health benefits (eg, increased bone quality) and no observable adverse effects. Thus, to date, our results suggest that SF supports normal growth and may have advantages in promoting bone development.

  14. [Outbreaks of Salmonella in infants associated with powdered infant formula].

    PubMed

    Toyofuku, Hajime; Kubota, Kunihiro; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2006-01-01

    Historically, outbreaks associated with Salmonella-contaminated milk products were recognized as early as the 1950's in the United Kingdom and Bulgaria. In the 1960's and 1970's there were also a number of outbreaks related to Salmonella in various powdered milk products. As a result, Salmonella criterion was included in the Codex Code of hygienic practice for foods for infants and children. Between 1985 and 2005 at least 6 outbreaks of salmonellosis, involving as many as 250 infants, have been associated with powdered infant formula (PIF). In 2005, in France, an outbreak affecting more than 100 infants was associated with PIF contaminated with Salmonella Agona. These reported outbreaks indicated that problems persisted. Experts from two FAO/WHO Expert Consultations, held in 2004 and 2006, concluded that intrinsic contamination of PIF with Enterobacter sakazakii and Salmonella has been a cause of infection and illness in infants, including severe disease which can lead to serious developmental sequelae and death. Most of the Salmonella outbreaks associated with PIF involved unusual Salmonella serotypes, which likely aided in the recognition of these outbreaks. In many regions of the world where Salmonella serotyping is not routinely performed, identification of geographically or temporarily diffused outbreaks could be difficult. It is therefore important to use the appropriate methodology to detect unusual strains of Salmonella that cause illnesses in infants, such as the lactose-positive strain, and to perform serotyping and/or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping for rapid identification of Salmonella outbreaks and to establish linkages between the illness and implicated food.

  15. Glycation products in infant formulas: chemical, analytical and physiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pischetsrieder, Monika; Henle, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Infant formulas are milk-based products, which are adapted to the composition of human milk. To ensure microbiological safety and long shelf life, infant formulas usually undergo rigid heat treatment. As a consequence of the special composition and the heat regimen, infant formulas are more prone to thermally induced degradation reactions than regular milk products. Degradation reactions observed during milk processing comprise lactosylation yielding the Amadori product lactulosyllysine, the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and protein-free sugar degradation products, as well as protein or lipid oxidation. Several methods have been developed to estimate the heat impact applied during the manufacturing of infant formulas, including indirect methods such as fluorescence analysis as well as the analysis of defined reaction products. Most studies confirm a higher degree of damage in infant formulas compared to regular milk products. Differences between various types of infant formulas, such as liquid, powdered or hypoallergenic formulas depend on the analyzed markers and brands. A considerable portion of protein degradation products in infant formulas can be avoided when process parameters and the quality of the ingredients are carefully controlled. The nutritional consequences of thermal degradation products in infant formulas are largely unknown.

  16. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  17. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  18. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  19. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  20. What's in the Bottle? A Review of Infant Formulas.

    PubMed

    Green Corkins, Kelly; Shurley, Teresa

    2016-09-19

    Infant formulas are designed to be a substitute for breast milk. Since they are sole source of nutrition for growing and developing infants, they are highly regulated by the government. All ingredients in infant formulas must be considered "generally recognized as safe." Manufacturers are continually modifying their products to make them more like breast milk. Functional ingredients added to infant formula include long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, nucleotides, prebiotics, and probiotics. The most common breast milk substitutes are standard cow's milk-based term infant formulas, which include subcategories of organic and breast milk supplementation, and come in standard dilutions of 19 or 20 calories per ounce. In addition to standard cow's milk-based term infant formulas, there is a line of term infant formulas marketed for signs and symptoms of intolerance. These products include modifications in lactose content, partially hydrolyzed protein, added probiotics, or added rice starch. There are also specialized formulas for medical conditions such as prematurity, gastrointestinal disorders, allergy, disorders of fat metabolism, and renal insufficiency. Infants on specialty formulas should be monitored closely by medical professionals. Formulas come in ready-to-feed, liquid concentrate, and powder forms. Each offers advantages and disadvantages. Each step in the formula mixing process or each manipulation required for the feeding is another opportunity to introduce bacteria to the formula. There are guidelines for preparing formula in institutions. Standard dilution and mixing instructions are different for each formula, so individual recipes are needed. Caregivers should also be educated on proper hygiene when preparing formula at home.

  1. NTP-CERHR monograph on Soy Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    2010-09-01

    Soy infant formula contains soy protein isolates and is fed to infants as a supplement to or replacement for human milk or cow milk. Soy protein isolates contains estrogenic isoflavones ("phytoestrogens") that occur naturally in some legumes, especially soybeans. Phytoestrogens are non-steroidal, estrogenic compounds. In plants, nearly all phytoestrogens are bound to sugar molecules and these phytoestrogen-sugar complexes are not generally considered hormonally active. Phytoestrogens are found in many food products in addition to soy infant formula, especially soy-based foods such as tofu, soy milk, and in some over-the-counter dietary supplements. Soy infant formula was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of the: (1)availability of large number of developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals exposed to the isoflavones found in soy infant formula (namely, genistein) or other soy products, as well as a number of studies on human infants fed soy infant formula, (2)the availability of information on exposures in infants fed soy infant formula, and (3)public concern for effects on infant or child development. The NTP evaluation was conducted through its Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) and completed in September 2010. The results of this soy infant formula evaluation are published in an NTP Monograph. This document contains the NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula, which presents NTP's opinion on the potential for exposure to soy infant formula to cause adverse developmental effects in humans. The NTP Monograph also contains an expert panel report prepared to assist the NTP in reaching conclusions on soy infant formula. The NTP concluded there is minimal concern for adverse effects on development in infants who consume soy infant formula. This level of concern represents a "2" on the five-level scale of concern used by the NTP that ranges from negligible concern ("1") to serious concern ("5"). This

  2. Ultrasonographic patterns of reproductive organs in infants fed soy formula: Comparisons to infants fed breast milk and milk formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine if differences exist in hormone sensitive organ size between infants fed soy formula (SF), milk formula (MF), or breast milk (BF). Breast buds, uterus, ovaries, prostate, and testicular volumes were assessed by ultrasonography in 40 BF, 41 MF, and 39 SF infants at age ...

  3. Partly Fermented Infant Formulae With Specific Oligosaccharides Support Adequate Infant Growth and Are Well-Tolerated

    PubMed Central

    Huet, Frédéric; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; Tims, Sebastian; Simeoni, Umberto; Beley, Gérard; Savagner, Christoph; Vandenplas, Yvan; Hourihane, Jonathan O’B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Fermented formulae (FERM) and a specific mixture of 90% short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and 10% long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS; 9:1) have a potential beneficial effect on gastrointestinal function and microbiota development in infants. The present study assessed the safety and tolerance of the combination of partly fermented infant milk formulae and scGOS/lcFOS compared with either 1 feature, in healthy term infants. Methods: Four hundred thirty-two infants were enrolled before 28 days of age and followed up to 17 weeks of age and assigned to 1 of the 4 groups: (i) formula with scGOS/lcFOS, (ii) scGOS/lcFOS + 15% FERM, (iii) scGOS/lcFOS + 50% FERM, or (iv) 50% fermented formula (50% FERM). Primary outcome was daily weight gain during intervention (equivalence criterion: difference in daily weight gain ≤3 g/day). Infants’ anthropometrics, formula intake, number, and type of (serious) AEs were monitored monthly. Stool samples were collected at baseline and after 17 weeks for analysis of physiological and microbiological parameters. Results: Equivalence of weight gain per day was demonstrated in both the intention-to-treat and per-protocol population, with a mean weight gain (SD) of 29.7 (6.1), 28.2 (4.8), 28.5 (5.0), and 28.7 (5.9) g/day for the groups i to iv respectively. No differences were observed in other growth parameters, formula intake, and the number or severity of AEs. In all scGOS/lcFOS-containing formulae, a beneficial effect of scGOS/lcFOS was observed, indicated by the lower pH, lower Clostridium difficile levels, and higher secretory immunoglobulin A levels. Conclusions: The partly fermented infant milk formulae containing the specific mixture scGOS/lcFOS were well-tolerated and resulted in normal growth in healthy infants. PMID:27472478

  4. Background levels of carbon-13 reduced in breath and stool by new infant formula.

    PubMed

    Boutton, T W; Hopkinson, J M; Benton, D A; Klein, P D

    1988-01-01

    Studies of the absorption and bioavailability of nutrients naturally enriched with 13C require accurate measurements of small increases of 13C in respiratory CO2 and stool carbon. The sensitivity of these measurements would be increased if the natural background of 13C in these excreta were reduced. We have developed a 13C-depleted infant formula based on lactose, whey, and casein from New Zealand cows that consume only C3 vegetation naturally low in 13C. This formula, designated CNRC3, was produced by a commercial infant formula manufacturer and was comparable with a 60:40 whey/casein product. To test the ability of the formula to reduce baseline levels of 13C in infant excreta, 10 formula-fed infants 28-60 days old and free of metabolic disorders were enrolled in the 9-day study. Two stool samples were collected daily. Infants received their usual formula on days 1 and 2 and were switched to CNRC3 formula for days 3-9. On days 2 and 9, seven breath samples were collected at 30-min intervals with a face mask. Breath and stool samples were analyzed for 13C content by gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Infants consuming their commercial formula had breath delta 13C values of -21.1 +/- 0.6% over the 3-h collection period; stool values were -22.9 +/- 0.4%. After 7 days on the CNRC3 formula, delta 13C values of breath declined by 5.6% to -26.7 +/- 0.7%; stool values declined by 3.0% to -25.6 +/- 0.5%. The reduced background of 13C achieved by the CNRC3 formula can improve resolution of excess 13C from naturally enriched substrates in infant breath by approximately 50% and in stool by approximately 30%.

  5. Infant Formula Fat Analogs and Human Milk Fat: New Focus on Infant Developmental Needs.

    PubMed

    Zou, Long; Pande, Garima; Akoh, Casimir C

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is generally and universally recognized as the optimal choice for nutrition during the first year of life. In certain cases in which it is not feasible to breast-feed the infant or the breast milk is not sufficient, especially in the case of preterm infants, infant formula is the next best alternative to provide nutrition to nurture the infant. Therefore, it is highly important that the nutrient composition of the infant formula is as close to breast milk as possible for proper growth and development of the infant. However, human milk is a complex dynamic matrix, and therefore significant research has been done and is still ongoing to fully understand and mimic human breast milk, particularly its fat composition. Lipids play a critical role in infant nutrition. A number of advances have been made in infant formula lipid content and composition so that formula can better simulate or mimic the nutritional functions of human maternal milk.

  6. [Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in human milk and infant formulas].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, E M; Sanz Alaejos, M; Díaz Romero, C

    2002-12-01

    Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium were determined in 55 samples of mature human milk from Canary women and 5 samples of powdered infant formula. According to the literature our data fell within the normal intervals described for each kind of milk. The mean concentration of Ca, Mg, Na y K of powdered infant formula was higher than those concentrations found in the human milks. Significant differences among the concentrations of Ca, Mg and Na for the milks of the considered mothers were observed. Only the Ca intakes for infants fed with human milk were lower than those requirements recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board (1989). However, the infants fed with powdered infant formula had an adequate intake of all the studied metals. A progressive decrease of the Na, K and Ca concentrations with the lactation stage was observed. Maternal age, parity and sex of the newborns did not affect the metal concentrations significantly.

  7. Carrageenan analysis. Part 1: Characterisation of the carrageenan test material and stability in swine-adapted infant formula.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, William R; Davis, Steven R; Hroncich, Maggie M; Vurma, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    A method was developed and validated in support of a 28-day feeding study of swine-adapted infant formula stabilised with carrageenan administered to neonatal piglets. Carrageenan concentrations in the test formulations were 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 mg kg(-1) formula. Extraction of carrageenan from swine-adapted infant formula was achieved by breaking carrageenan-protein cross-linkages using saturated sodium chloride, followed by separation of the non-gelling carrageenan fraction via centrifugation. The extraction of carrageenan from formula was successful with respect to consistent recovery of the non-gelling carrageenan fraction from both test and control formula samples. Molecular weight analysis (Mw) of the recovered carrageenan fractions from the test and control formula samples confirmed that the carrageenan used to manufacture the formula was not degraded during the infant formula production process and subsequent storage for 4 months covering the 28-day piglet dietary feeding study. Carrageenan has excellent stability in infant formulations.

  8. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Camilia R.; Ling, Pei-Ra; Blackburn, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required. PMID:27187450

  9. Enterobacter pulveris sp. nov., isolated from fruit powder, infant formula and an infant formula production environment.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Roger; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Iversen, Carol; Joosten, Han; De Vos, Paul; Lehner, Angelika

    2008-01-01

    Six Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming, coccoid rod-shaped isolates were obtained from fruit powder (n=3), infant formula (n=2) and an infant formula production environment (n=1) and investigated in a polyphasic taxonomic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis combined with rpoB gene sequence analysis allocated the isolates to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The highest rpoB gene sequence similarities (91.2-95.8%) were obtained with Enterobacter helveticus, Enterobacter radicincitans, Enterobacter turicensis and Enterobacter sakazakii and the phylogenetic branch formed by these species was supported by a high bootstrap value. Biochemical data revealed that the isolates could be differentiated from their nearest neighbours by their ability to utilize melibiose, sucrose, D-arabitol, mucate and 1-O-methyl-alpha-galactopyranoside and their negative reactions for D-sorbitol utilization and the Voges-Proskauer test. On the basis of the phylogenetic analyses, DNA-DNA hybridization data, and unique physiological and biochemical characteristics, it is proposed that the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Enterobacter, Enterobacter pulveris sp. nov. The type strain is 601/05(T) (=LMG 24057(T)=DSM 19144(T)).

  10. Occurrence of fatty acid esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidol in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Wöhrlin, Friederike; Fry, Hildburg; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiß-Weigert, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and glycidol generated during the refinement process in vegetable fats and oils caused concerns about possible adverse health effects. As these fats are components of infant formula, the current investigation of the MCPD and glycidyl ester contents in infant formula was necessary to update the data for risk assessment purposes. For the analysis of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula, an existing method for fats and oils had to be modified and validated. The fat fraction containing MCPD and glycidyl esters was extracted from infant formula by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The extracted fat was then analysed according to an established method for fats and oils. Glycidyl esters are converted to monobrompropanediol (3-MBPD) esters, MCPD and 3-MBPD esters hydrolysed subsequently and after derivatisation detected by GC-MS. Seven different products of infant formula, covering two types and five lots each, altogether 70 samples, were bought in retail markets and analysed. In all samples, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters could be detected. Both 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters' concentration levels were found to be lower in comparison with earlier investigations described in the literature. The occurrence of 2-MCPD esters in infant formula was investigated for the first time and revealed concentrations about half of 3-MCPD ester concentrations.

  11. The U.S. infant formula industry: is direct-to-consumer advertising unethical or inevitable?

    PubMed

    Cutler, Bob D; Wright, Robert F

    2002-01-01

    Throughout their history, U.S. based infant formula companies have promoted their products as though they required a prescription. This form of marketing is called "ethical" promotion, which focuses on gaining a physician to parent recommendation for a brand of infant formula. Until Nestle's entry into the U.S. infant formula market in 1988, there was little direct-to-consumer promotion of infant formula. This article provides a background on the history of infant formula practices in the United States and then focuses on a descriptive model to explain how mothers' make their infant formula selection. Finally, we offer suggestions for the "ethical" marketers of infant formula.

  12. Phospholipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulas: Benefits and Needs for Correct Infant Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Cilla, Antonio; Diego Quintaes, Késia; Barberá, Reyes; Alegría, Amparo

    2016-08-17

    The composition of human milk has served as a basis for the development of infant formulas, which are used when breastfeeding is not possible. Among the human milk nutrients, 50% of the total energetic value corresponds to fat, with a high level of fatty acids and 0.2-2.0% present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). The PL contents and fatty acid distribution in PL species have been investigated as bioactive elements for the production of infant formulas, since they offer potential benefits for the optimum growth and health of the newborn infant. The differences in the amount of PLs and in fatty acid distribution in PL species between human milk and infant formulas can imply biologically significant differences for newborn infants fed with infant formulas versus human milk-mainly due to the greater proportion of sphingomyelin with respect to phosphatidylcholine in infant formulas. The limited information referred to the characterization of fatty acid distribution in PL species in infant formulas or in ingredients used to enrich them merits further research in order to obtain products with benefits similar to those of human milk in terms of infant growth, visual acuity, and neurological development. The present review establishes the scientific basis for helping to adjust formulations to the requirements of infant nutrition.

  13. Comparison of evoked arousability in breast and formula fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Horne, R; Parslow, P; Ferens, D; Watts, A; Adamson, T

    2004-01-01

    Background: Currently, there is no consistent evidence that breast feeding reduces the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Arousal from sleep is believed to be an important survival mechanism that may be impaired in victims of SIDS. Previously it has been shown that arousability is impaired by the major risk factors for SIDS such as prone sleeping and maternal smoking. Aims: To establish whether arousability was altered by method of feeding, and whether breast fed infants would have lower arousal thresholds. Methods: Forty three healthy term infants were studied using daytime polysomnography on three occasions: 2–4 weeks post-term, 2–3 months post-term, and 5–6 months post-term. Multiple measurements of arousal threshold (cm H2O) in response to nasal air jet stimulation applied alternately to the nares were made in both active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS) while infants slept supine. Arousal thresholds and sleep period lengths were compared between formula fed and breast fed infants at each age. Results: Arousal thresholds were not different between breast fed and formula fed infants in QS. However, in AS breast fed infants were significantly more arousable than formula fed infants at 2–3 months of age. There was no difference between groups of infants when sleep period length was compared at any study. Conclusions: Breast fed infants are more easily aroused from AS at 2–3 months of age than formula fed infants. This age coincides with the peak incidence of SIDS. PMID:14709496

  14. GI Symptoms in Infants Are a Potential Target for Fermented Infant Milk Formulae: A Review

    PubMed Central

    van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Berton, Amelie; Bouritius, Hetty; Goulet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Besides pre- and pro-biotic-containing infant formulae, fermented infant formulae are commonly used to relieve or prevent symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort in young infants. During the fermentation process in cow’s milk-based formulae, the beneficial bacteria modulate the product by forming several beneficial compounds, which contribute to the alleviation of the symptoms observed. This review summarizes the clinical evidence on the impact of fermented infant formulae on common pediatric GI-symptoms. The potential mechanisms involved are discussed: i.e., the lactose and protein (in-) digestibility, effects on gastric emptying and gut transit and modulation of the colonic microbiota. Although initial evidence indicates a beneficial effect of fermented formulae on GI discomfort in newborns, validation and confirmation of the clinical proof obtained so far is warranted, as well as further research to (more fully) understand the mode of action. PMID:25255831

  15. Powder infant formula milk contaminated with Enterobacter sakazakii.

    PubMed

    Oonaka, Kenji; Furuhata, Katsunori; Hara, Motonobu; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2010-03-01

    To clarify the route and source of Enterobacter sakazakii infection in a basic study, we analyzed powder infant formula milk (PIF), which may be an important source of infantile infection, regarding contamination with Enterobacteriaceae including this type of bacteria, and conducted drug sensitivity tests with various antimicrobial agents. Enterobacteriaceae was isolated 36 (24.2%) of 149 PIF samples. These comprised of 12 (19.7%) of 61 domestically produced samples and 24 (27.3%) of 88 imported samples. E. sakazakii was isolated in 9 (6.6%) of the 149 PIF samples. These comprised 4 (6.6%) of 61 domestically produced samples and 5 (5.7%) of 88 imported samples. In 8 of the 9 samples in which E. sakazakii was isolated, the bacterial levels were estimated to be 0.36 MPN/100 g. However, one imported sample showed a bacterial level of 0.91 MPN/100 g. In the drug sensitivity tests of E. sakazakii isolated from PIF, we compared the MIC(90) values. E. sakazakii was highly sensitive to 9 agents: cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, cefpirome, cefozopran, gentamicin, meropenem, and ciprofloxacin, and moderately sensitive to 5 agents: piperacillin, erythromycin, minocycline, chloramphenicol, and rifampicin. However, it was resistant to 2 agents, ampicillin and lincomycin.

  16. Dietary fluoride intake from infant and toddler formulas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Opydo-Szymaczek, Justyna; Opydo, Jadwiga

    2011-08-01

    Risk of enamel fluorosis associated with excessive fluoride intake during infancy and early childhood has been widely reported in literature. Results of several studies indicate that infant formula consumption, especially in the form of powdered concentrate, may appreciably increase children's fluoride exposure in optimally fluoridated communities. The aim of the study was to measure fluoride content of infant and toddler formulas available in Poland and to discuss implications of the results. Twenty nine brands of powdered formulas were evaluated. Analyzes were performed with the use of ionselective fluoride electrode (09-37 type) and a RAE 111 chloride-silver reference electrode (MARAT). Results revealed that concentration of fluoride in all products was low (mean 29.0 μg/100 g), and that the formula itself is not a significant source of fluoride exposure. However, when reconstituted with water containing more than 0.5 ppm of fluoride, starting formulas and follow-on formulas may provide a daily fluoride intake of above the suggested threshold for fluorosis. Thus, fully formula-fed infants consuming mother milk substitutes prepared with optimally fluoridated water may be at increased risk of dental fluorosis.

  17. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii of dehydrated infant formula by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Jang-Ho; Woon, Jae-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2007-11-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii has been implicated as a causal organism in a severe form of neonatal meningitis, with reported mortality rates of 20%. The population at greatest risk is immunocompromised infants of any age. Dried infant formula has been identified as a potential source of the organism in both outbreaks and sporadic cases. The objective of this study was to investigate theirradiation effect of the inactivation on E. sakazakii (ATCC 29544) of a dehydrated infant formula. The D10-values were 0.22-0.27 and 0.76 kGy for broth and dehydrated infant formula, respectively. The irradiation at 5.0 kGy was able to completely eliminate the E. sakazakii inoculated at 8.0 to 9.0 log CFU g -1 onto a dehydrated infant formula. There was no regrowth for all samples during the time they were stored at 10 °C for 6 h after rehydration. The present results indicated that a gamma-irradiation could potentially be used to inactivate E. sakazakii in a dehydrated powdered infant formula.

  18. Extensively and partially hydrolysed infant formulas for allergy prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Oldaeus, G; Anjou, K; Bjorksten, B; Moran, J; Kjellman, N

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 17 March 1997
 The allergy preventive effect of extensively (N) and partially (PH) hydrolysed cows' milk formulas compared with a regular formula (RM) was assessed in 155 infants with a family history of allergy. No cows' milk was given during the first nine months of life and no egg and fish up to 12 months of age. Breast feeding mothers avoided the same foods. At weaning the infants were randomised to one of the formula groups. The cumulative incidence of atopic symptoms at 18 months was 51, 64, and 84% in the N, PH, and RM groups, respectively. From 6 to 18 months there were significantly less cumulative atopic symptoms in the N group compared with the RM group, and significantly less than the PH group up to 6 (N= 25%; PH = 46%) and 9 months (N = 34%, PH = 58%). At 9 months significantly fewer infants in the N group (10%) than in the PH group (33%) had a positive skin prick test to eggs. The findings support an allergy preventive effect of an extensively hydrolysed formula, but not of a partially hydrolysed formula, during the first 18 months of life of high risk infants.

 PMID:9279143

  19. Defective Infant Formulas and Expressive Language Problems: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Clara S.

    1990-01-01

    Children who used chloride-deficient soy-based infant formulas (Neo-Mull-Soy and Cho-Free) have been found to exhibit expressive language disorders. Medical studies of such children are reviewed, and a case study compares the language development deficits of an eight-year-old boy who used the formula with that of his fraternal twin who did not.…

  20. Growth and development during the first year of life of infants fed breast-milk, milk formula or soy formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adequacy of soy infant formulas to support growth and development is still under debate. The concerns center on the phytochemicals such as isoflavones which are associated with the soy proteins, the sole source of protein in soy infant formulas. To assess growth and development of infants fed br...

  1. Palm olein in infant formula: absorption of fat and minerals by normal infants.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S E; Rogers, R R; Frantz, J A; Ziegler, E E

    1996-09-01

    Palm olein, a low-melting fraction of palm oil, and soy oil can be combined to obtain fat blends with proportions of palmitic and oleic acids similar to those of human milk. We compared the absorption of fat and calcium by infants fed a formula containing a blend of palm olein (53%) and soy oil (47%) (Formula PO/S) with that by infants fed a formula containing a blend of soy oil (60%) and coconut oil (40%) (Formula S/C). In a randomized crossover design, one study was performed with each formula in each of 11 normal infants ranging in age from 27 to 161 d. Six of the infants were admitted for 72-h metabolic balance studies. In the other five infants, feces (with some admixture of urine) were collected at home for 96 h by using acid-washed cloth diapers. Mean (+/- SD) absorption of fat was 90.6 +/- 1.6% of intake when Formula PO/S was fed and 95.2 +/- 1.1% of intake when Formula S/C was fed; the difference was significant (P < 0.001). The difference in excretion of fat by infants fed the two formulas was explained by the difference in excretion of palmitic acid. Absorption of calcium averaged 39.0 +/- 8.3% of intake with Formula PO/S and 48.4 +/- 10.3% with Formula S/C; the difference was significant (P < 0.01). We conclude that fat is less well absorbed from a mixture of 53% palm olein and 47% soy oil than from a mixture of 60% soy oil and 40% coconut oil, and that absorption of calcium is less from a formula containing palm olein, presumably because of the formation of insoluble calcium soaps of unabsorbed palmitic acid.

  2. Certification of nutrients in Standard Reference Material 1846: infant formula.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, K E; Schiller, S B; Margolis, S A; Thomas, J B; Iyengar, G V; Colbert, J C; Gills, T E; Wise, S A; Tanner, J T; Wolf, W R

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) released Standard Reference Material 1846 (Infant Formula), which can be used as a control material for assigning values to in-house control materials and for validating analytical methods for measurement of proximates, vitamins, and minerals in infant formula and similar matrixes. The SRM was manufactured by preparing a spray-dried formula base containing fat, protein, carbohydrates, and minerals and then combining that formula base with a dry-blend vitamin premix that supplied the vitamins. The Certificate of Analysis for SRM 1846 provides assigned values for concentrations of proximates (fat, protein, etc.), vitamins, and minerals for which product labeling is required by the Infant Formula Act of 1980 and by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990. These assigned values were based on agreement of measurements by NIST and/or collaborating laboratories. Certified values are provided for vitamins A (trans), E, C, B2, and B6 and niacin. Noncertified values are provided for solids, ash, fat, nitrogen, protein, carbohydrate, calories, vitamin D, delta-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, vitamin B1, vitamin B12, folic acid, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, inositol, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, sodium, potassium, and chloride. Information values are provided for iodine, manganese, selenium, and vitamin K.

  3. The relationship between stool hardness and stool composition in breast- and formula-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, P T; Lockton, S; Irwin, J; Lucas, A L

    1995-01-01

    "Constipation" and "hard stools" are associated with formula feeding of both term and preterm infants and, in the latter, can lead to life-threatening complications. This study tested the hypothesis that stool hardness is related to excretion of fatty acid (FA) soaps in term infants, and in the extreme to milk bolus obstruction in premature infants. Stools (n = 44) were collected from 20 formula-fed and 10 breast-fed infants aged 6 weeks and were classified using visual charts for stool hardness on a 5-point scale (1, watery; 5, hard). Stools were analysed for nitrogen, minerals, and lipid, the latter divided between the soap and nonsoap fractions. We explored the relationship between stool hardness or solids content and stool constituents, relative to both wet and dry weight. Calcium and FA soaps were the dominant factors significantly related to stool solids and hardness score across the breast- and formula-fed groups. An 8% increase in stool dry weight FA soap content corresponded to a 1-point change in stool hardness score. Stools from formula-fed infants had a higher solids content and were classified as significantly harder than those from breast-fed infants (hardness scores, 4.0 +/- 0.5 versus 2.6 +/- 0.7, mean +/- SD) and on both a wet- and dry-weight basis contained severalfold higher levels of minerals and lipid and considerably less carbohydrate. Differences in lipids between formula- and breast-fed infants' stools were due almost entirely to FAs (mainly C16:0 and C18:0) excreted as soaps (27.7 +/- 7.5% compared to 3.1 +/- 4.1% of dry weight), suggesting the groups differed markedly in their handling of saturated FAs. An inspissated stool sample from a premature infant requiring surgical disempaction of an obstructed small intestine was found to be enriched in FA and calcium relative to the preterm formula. FA soaps, predominantly saturated, accounted for one third of the stool dry weight. These data support the hypothesis that calcium FA soaps are

  4. Effect of processing on polyamine content and bioactive peptides released after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gallego, C; Recio, I; Gómez-Gómez, V; Ortuño, I; Bernal, M J; Ros, G; Periago, M J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the influence of processing on polyamines and peptide release after the digestion of a commercial infant formula designed for children during the first months of life. Polyamine oxidase activity was not suppressed during the manufacturing process, which implicates that polyamine concentrations were reduced over time and during infant formula self-life. In gel electrophoresis, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of samples with reduced amount of enzymes and time of digestion shows an increase in protein digestibility, reflected in the increase in nonprotein nitrogen after digestion and the disappearance of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin bands in gel electrophoresis. Depending on the sample, between 22 and 87 peptides were identified after gastrointestinal digestion. A peptide from β-casein f(98-105) with the sequence VKEAMAPK and antioxidant activity appeared in all of the samples. Other peptides with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial activities were frequently found, which could have an effect on infant health. The present study confirms that the infant formula manufacturing process determines the polyamine content and peptidic profile after digestion of the infant formula. Because compositional dissimilarity between human milk and infant formula in polyamines and proteins could be responsible for some of the differences in health reported between breast-fed and formula-fed children, these changes must be taken into consideration because they may have a great effect on infant nutrition and development.

  5. Amino acid profile of milk-based infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Viadel, B; Alegriá, A; Farré, R; Abellán, P; Romero, F

    2000-09-01

    The protein content and amino acid profile of three milk-based infant formulas, two of which were powdered (adapted and follow-on) and the third liquid, were determined to check their compliance with the EU directive and to evaluate whether or not they fulfil an infant's nutritional needs. To obtain the amino acid profile proteins were subjected to acid hydrolysis, prior to which the sulfur-containing amino acids were oxidized with performic acid. The amino acids were derivatized with phenylisothiocyanate (PITC) and then determined by ion-pair reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) In the case of tryptophan a basic hydrolysis was applied and there was no need of derivatization. The protein contents of the analysed formulas were in the ranges established by the EU directive for these products and the amino acid contents were in the ranges reported by other authors for these types of formulas. In all cases the tryptophan content determined the value of the chemical score, which was always lower than 80% of the reference protein but in the ranges reported by other authors. The analysed adapted infant formula provides amino acids in amounts higher than the established nutritional requirements.

  6. Melamine milk powder and infant formula sold in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Schoder, Dagmar

    2010-09-01

    This is the first study proving the existence of melamine in milk powder and infant formula exported to the African market. A total of 49 milk powder batches were collected in Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania, East Africa), the center of international trade in East Africa, which serves as a commercial bottleneck and shipment hub for sub-Saharan, Central, and East Africa. Two categories of samples were collected between October and December 2008, immediately after the melamine contamination of Chinese products became public: (i) market brands of all international companies supplying the East African market and (ii) illegally sold products from informal channels. Melamine concentration was determined with the AgraQuant Melamine Sensitive Assay. Despite the national import prohibition of Chinese milk products and unlabeled milk powder in Tanzania, 11% (22 of 200) of inspected microretailers sold milk powder on the local black market. Manufacturers could be identified for only 55% (27) of the 49 investigated batches. Six percent (3 of 49) of all samples and 11% (3 of 27) of all international brand name products tested revealed melamine concentrations up to 5.5 mg/kg of milk powder. This amount represents about twice the tolerable daily intake as suggested by the U.S Food and Drug Administration. Based on our study, we can assume that the number of affected children in Africa is substantial.

  7. Liquid infant formulas: technological tools for limiting heat damage.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Stefano; Masotti, Fabio; Pellegrino, Luisa

    2009-11-25

    In a study considering 15 commercial samples of liquid milk-based infant formulas (MBF) from different manufacturers, the levels of selected molecules, that is, furosine (FUR), galactosyl-beta-pyranone (GAP), lactulose (LCT), and lysinoalanine (LAL), have been measured to provide estimation of the heat damage in these products. The ranges of the studied markers were as follows: FUR=153-600 mg 100 g(-1) of protein, GAP=0.5-4.3 mg L(-1), LCT=226-1511 mg L(-1), and LAL=1.0-16.1 mg 100 g(-1) of protein. The highest levels were found in MBF intended for the youngest babies. Experimental samples were produced in an industrial plant to evaluate the relative contribution of individual technological aspects to the final heat damage. About 90% of both GAP and LCT contents was due to the ultrahigh-temperature sterilization process itself. This effect was more than halved when the pH of the ingredient mixture was adjusted from 7.2 to 6.9 before sterilization or when the product recirculated in the plant was discarded. Up to 60 and 20%, respectively, of the FUR and LAL levels in the finished product were already present in protein ingredients (whey powder, whey protein concentrate). Accurate optimization of processing conditions and scrupulous selection of raw materials proved to be effective means to minimize heat damage in such special food products.

  8. Hypochloremic alkalosis in infants associated with soy protein formula.

    PubMed

    Linshaw, M A; Harrison, H L; Gruskin, A B; Prebis, J; Harris, J; Stein, R; Jayaram, M R; Preston, D; DiLiberti, J; Baluarte, H J; Elzouki, A; Carroll, N

    1980-04-01

    Thirteen infants, 2 to 10 months of age, developed hypochloremic alkalosis (serum chloride 59 to 92 mEq/l) while taking Neo-Mull-Soy (Syntex), a soy-based formula low in chloride (measured to be 0 to 2 mEq/l) but with considerable potassium citrate. Range of symptoms included lethargy, anorexia, mild spitting up, diarrhea, hematuria, and growth failure. Urine chloride excretion was less than 3 mEq/l. Plasma renin activity or aldosterone, measured in six infants, was elevated. All responded promptly to supplemental salt. One infant receiving Neo-Mull-Soy redeveloped alkalosis when supplemental salt was discontinued. Two of nine apparently normal infants receiving Neo-Mull-Soy also had hypochloremia (85, 86 mEq/l). Three of four receiving Prosobee (Mead Johnson; Cl content 7 mEq/l) had urine chloride concentration less than 20 mEq/l. The chloride content of some infant formulas is insufficient to offset salt losses following mild stress.

  9. Production of ethanol from infant food formulas by common yeasts.

    PubMed

    Bivin, W S; Heinen, B N

    1985-04-01

    Four common yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Torulopsis glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were combined with five infant food formulas and/or supplements (Isomil, Nutramigen, 5% glucose, Coca Cola and Similac) and incubated at 37 degrees C. Gas chromatography was used to measure ethanol production after 24 and 48 h incubation. The quantities of ethanol produced suggest a possible explanation for patients exhibiting the 'Auto-Brewery Syndrome' and raises interest in the role auto-produced ethanol could have in explaining the etiology of Sudden Infant Death.

  10. Comparative analysis of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula using varied milk delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Jimi; Rogers, Kristy; Brewer, Paul; Dickton, Darby; Pardini, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Background The expression of human milk for later use is on the rise. Bottle systems are used to deliver the expressed milk. Research has shown that storage of both human milk and artificial baby milk, or infant formula, leads to a loss of ascorbic acid (commonly called Vitamin C). As milk is removed from the bottle during feeding and replaced by ambient air, it is unknown if loss of ascorbic acid occurs during the course of a feeding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the milk delivery system on levels of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula. The objectives are to 1) determine changes in ascorbic acid concentration during a 20 minute "feed," 2) determine if there is a difference in ascorbic acid concentration between delivery systems, and 3) evaluate if any differences are of clinical importance. Methods Commonly available bottles were used for comparison of bottle delivery systems. Mature human milk was standardized to 42 mg/L of ascorbic acid. Infant formula with iron and infant formula with docosahexanoic acid were used for the formula samples. Each sample was analyzed for ascorbic acid concentration at baseline (0), 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes. Each collection of samples was completed in triplicate. Samples were analyzed for ascorbic acid using normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results Ascorbic acid concentration declined in all bottle systems during testing, Differences between the bottle systems were noted. Ascorbic acid concentrations declined to less than 40% of recommended daily intake for infants in 4 of the bottles systems at the 20 minute sampling. Conclusion The bottle systems used in this study had measurable decreases in the mean concentration of ascorbic acid. More research is needed to determine if the observed decreases are related to lower plasma ascorbic acid concentration in infants exclusively bottle fed. The decrease of ascorbic acid concentration observed in both human milk and infant

  11. Occurrence of 3-monochloropropanediol esters and glycidyl esters in commercial infant formulas in the United States.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Jessica; MacMahon, Shaun

    2017-03-01

    This work presents occurrence data for fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol in 98 infant formula samples purchased in the United States. These contaminants are considered potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in refined oils and foods a potential health risk. Recently, attention has focused on methodology to quantify MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula for risk-assessment purposes. Occurrence data for 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters were produced using a procedure for extracting fat from infant formula and an LC-MS/MS method for analysing fat extracts for intact esters. Infant formulas were produced by seven manufacturers, five of which use palm oil and/or palm olein in their formulations. In formulas containing palm/palm olein, concentrations for bound 3-MCPD and glycidol ranged from 0.021 to 0.92 mg kg(-)(1) (ppm) and from < LOQ to 0.40 mg kg(-)(1) (ppm), respectively. Formulas not containing palm/palm olein, bound 3-MCPD and glycidol concentrations ranged from 0.072 to 0.16 mg kg(-)(1) (ppm) and from 0.005 to 0.15 mg kg(-)(1) (ppm), respectively. Although formulas from manufacturers A and G did not contain palm/palm olein, formulas from manufacturer E (containing palm olein) had the lowest concentrations of bound 3-MCPD and glycidol, demonstrating the effectiveness of industrial mitigation strategies.

  12. [Use of probiotics and prebiotics in infant formulas].

    PubMed

    Martínez Suárez, Venancio

    2015-02-07

    Currently there are insufficient data to recommend routine supplementation of infant formula with probiotics and/or prebiotics. However, administration of either food components in isolation or in combination early or follow-on or toddler infant formulas has been associated with clinical benefit beyond the first months of life. Thus, among them, a reduced risk of gastrointestinal infections and their treatment, control of atopy manifestations, decreased antibiotic use and a lower frequency of colic or irritability can be included. Furthermore, different studies have shown no harmful consequences of its consumption. From a review of the most relevant studies, this paper aims to provide a quick overview of the main clinical issues this topic brings up today.

  13. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%–53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk–fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation. PMID:27801820

  14. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-10-28

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%-53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk-fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  15. Infant Formula Crisis in China: A Cohort Study in Sichuan Province

    PubMed Central

    Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers’ opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers’ opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China. PMID:25995728

  16. Historic records on the commercial production of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Industrialized food production first appeared in 1856, pioneered by Borden in the USA, Liebig in Germany, Nestlé in Switzerland, and Mellin in the UK. Their products differed remarkably and deviated from human and cow's milk, and physicians discussed the importance of minute variations in protein, fat and carbohydrates. Proprietary formulas were free of bacteria, and the companies prospered with mass production, international marketing and aggressive advertising. From 1932 on, medical societies restricted advertising to the laity. In 1939 Williams in Singapore and in 1970 Jelliffe in Jamaica suspected that commercial formula may be increasing infant mortality in the Third World. Breastfeeding continued to decline during the early 20th century, falling in 1970 below 10% in the USA. The Swiss 'Third World Group' and the US 'Infant Formula Action Coalition' linked infant mortality and industry marketing in the Third World. The controversy of 1970-1984 led to the WHO Code, which regulated the advertising and marketing of baby food. This was one of several public health statements contributing to the resurgence of breastfeeding.

  17. Improved AOAC First Action 2011.08 for the Analysis of Vitamin B₁₂ in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Formulas: First Action 2014.02.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Esther Campos

    2014-01-01

    This report documents improvement and single-laboratory validation performed on AOAC First Action Method 2011.08 for vitamin B12 in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. The original validation study included a range of fortified products, from infant formulas to breakfast cereals or beverages. Extended validation data, including additional infant formulas and adult/pediatric nutritionals, has now been produced. In addition, the method has been modified to use ultra-HPLC and the calibration range extended in a multilevel calibration curve. Detection and quantification limits were also improved by increasing the sample weight used for analysis and the reconstitution rate adapted to the requirements. The Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals Test Material Kit, designed to represent a large range of products within the category (infant formula and adult nutritionals made from any combination of milk, soy, rice, whey, hydrolyzed protein, starch, and amino acids, with and without intact protein), was used to determine performance characteristics of the method. The modifications included allow now full compliance with standard method performance requirements established for vitamin B12 (SMPR 2011.005). LOQ was ≤0.01 μg/100 g, working range between 0.01 and 5.0 μg/100 g, repeatability ≤7%, and recovery in the range 90-110%. The method was granted AOAC First Action status 2014.02.

  18. Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

  19. Chromium content in different kinds of Spanish infant formulae and estimation of dietary intake by infants fed on reconstituted powder formulae.

    PubMed

    Sola-Larrañaga, Cristina; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo

    2006-11-01

    Chromium is well documented as an essential element for humans. Trivalent chromium, the main chemical form found in foods, is essential for maintaining normal glucose metabolism. Owing to analytical difficulties, several literature reports of chromium content of foods, especially for the lower levels, show large variability and should be interpreted with caution. Zeeman background correction, transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the chromium content of 104 different infant formulae (cow's milk and soy protein based) marketed in Spain following an acid-digestion sample preparation procedure in a closed, pressurized and microwave digestion unit. The mean and range of chromium values, regarding types and main protein-based infant formulae are presented. Additionally, the influence of the type of container used, the impact of industrial process from different manufacturers and the physical state (powder and liquid formulae) on chromium levels is also discussed. In general, the infant formulae contain a higher chromium concentration than that found in human milk (reference range: 0.20-8.18 microg l-1), particularly in the case of hypoallergenic (18.16 +/- 7.89 microg l-1), lactose-free (11.37 +/- 3.07 microg l-1), pre-term (11.48 +/- 3.15 microg l-1) and soya (10.43 +/- 4.05 microg l-1) formulae. The maximum theoretical estimated intake of infants fed on the studied formulae was lower than the upper limit safety for trivalent chromium of 1 mg kg-1 (14 microg kg-1 b.w. day-1) recommended by the experts of Council for Responsible Nutrition (Hathcock 2004; available at: http://crnusa.org/safety.html), amounting to about 10, 15-18 and 26% of the standard (adapted and follow-up) and toddler, soya, lactose-free and pre-term, and hypoallergenic formulae, respectively. Therefore, manufacturers are called upon to make continued efforts to routinely monitor chromium levels, particularly for specialised and pre-term formulae

  20. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants

    PubMed Central

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A; Gilbert, Jack A; Nagler, Cathryn R

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. Our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut. PMID:26394008

  1. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants

    DOE PAGES

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T.; ...

    2015-09-22

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow’s milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceaemore » (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. As a result, our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut.« less

  2. Phospholipid Species in Newborn and 4 Month Old Infants after Consumption of Different Formulas or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Olaf; Fleddermann, Manja; Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for neuronal and cognitive development and are ingredients of infant formulae that are recommended but there is no evidence based minimal supplementation level available. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the effect of supplemented AA and DHA on phospholipid metabolism. Methods Plasma samples of a randomized, double-blind infant feeding trial were used for the analyses of phospholipid species by flow-injection mass spectrometry. Healthy term infants consumed isoenergetic formulae (intervention formula with equal amounts of AA and DHA—IF, control formula without additional AA and DHA—CF) from the first month of life until the age of 120 days. A group of breast milk (BM) -fed infants was followed as a reference. Results The plasma profile detected in newborns was different from 4 month old infants, irrespective of study group. Most relevant changes were seen in higher level of LPC16:1, LPC20:4, PC32:1, PC34:1 and PC36:4 and lower level of LPC18:0, LPC18:2, PC32:2, PC36:2 and several ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in newborns. The sum of all AA and DHA species at 4 month old infants in the CF group showed level of 40% (AA) and 51% (DHA) of newborns. The supplemented amount of DHA resulted in phospholipid level comparable to BM infants, but AA phospholipids were lower than in BM infants. Interestingly, relative contribution of DHA was higher in ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in CF fed infants, but IF and BM fed infants showed higher overall ether-linked phosphatidylcholines levels. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that infant plasma phospholipid profile changes remarkably from newborn over time and is dependent on the dietary fatty acid composition. A supplementation of an infant formula with AA and DHA resulted in increased related phospholipid species. PMID:27571269

  3. Isoflavones in urine, saliva, and blood of infants: data from a pilot study on the estrogenic activity of soy formula.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Calafat, Antonia M; Doerge, Daniel R; Umbach, David M; Bernbaum, Judy C; Twaddle, Nathan C; Ye, Xiaoyun; Rogan, Walter J

    2009-02-01

    In the United States, about 25% of infant formula sold is based on soy protein, which is an important source of estrogenic isoflavones in the human food supply. Nevertheless, few studies report isoflavone levels in infants. We did a partly cross-sectional and partly longitudinal pilot study to examine children's exposure to isoflavones from different feeding methods. A total of 166 full-term infants between birth and 1 year of age were recruited into soy formula, cow milk formula, or breast milk regimens according to their feeding histories. A total of 381 urine, 361 saliva, and 88 blood samples were collected at 382 visits. We used automated online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for measuring three isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and equol) in urine, and used similar LC/MS/MS techniques for saliva and blood spots. Concentrations of daidzein and genistein were undetectable in most blood or saliva samples from children fed breast milk or cow milk formula. The proportion of non-detectable values was somewhat lower in urine than in the other matrices. Concentrations of equol were detectable only in a few urine samples. For both daidzein and genistein, urine contained the highest median concentrations, followed by blood and then saliva. Urinary concentrations of genistein and daidzein were about 500 times higher in the soy formula-fed infants than in the cow milk formula-fed infants. The correlations between matrices for either analyte were strikingly lower than the correlation between the two analytes in any single matrix. We did not find significant correlations between isoflavone concentrations and the levels of certain hormones in children fed soy formula. Our results, based on much larger numbers of infants, strongly confirm previous reports, but whether phytoestrogens in soy formula are biologically active in infants is still an open question. We plan further longitudinal studies

  4. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment. 246.16a Section 246.16a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND... FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN State Agency Provisions § 246.16a Infant formula and authorized...

  5. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment. 246.16a Section 246.16a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND... FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN State Agency Provisions § 246.16a Infant formula and authorized...

  6. Mechanical Milk: An Essay on the Social History of Infant Formula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Michael G.

    1996-01-01

    Describes how infant formula became an "icon of modernity" separating mothers from babies and causing health and social problems. Gives a 300-year social history of the rise in popularity of infant formula, covering aspects including the body as machine, rise of science and industrialization, formula and public health, the clean milk…

  7. Oral Microbiota in Infants Fed a Formula Supplemented with Bovine Milk Fat Globule Membranes - A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Timby, Niklas; Domellöf, Magnus; Holgerson, Pernilla Lif; West, Christina E.; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2017-01-01

    Background In a recent study, supplementation of infant formula with milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) decreased the incidence of otitis media in infants <6 months of age. Objectives The aim of the present study was to characterize the oral microbiota in infants fed MFGM-supplemented formula and compare it to that of infants fed standard formula or breast milk. Methods In a prospective double-blinded randomized controlled trial, exclusively formula-fed infants <2 months of age were randomized to be fed experimental formula (EF, n = 80) with reduced energy and protein and supplemented with a bovine MFGM concentrate, or standard formula (SF, n = 80) until 6 months of age. A breast-fed reference (BFR, n = 80) group was also recruited. The oral microbiota was analyzed at 4 (n = 124) and 12 (n = 166) months of age using Illumina MiSeq multiplex sequencing and taxonomic resolution against the HOMD 16S rDNA database of oral bacteria. Results Species richness in the oral samples did not differ between the EF and SF groups, but partial least square modeling identified a few taxa that were significantly associated with being in either group, e.g. lower level of Moraxella catarrhalis in the EF group. Infants in the BFR group had significantly lower species richness at 4 months of age and their microbiota pattern differed markedly from the formula-fed groups. Conclusions Supplementation of infant formula with MFGM yielded moderate effects on the oral microbiome. Moraxella catarrhalis was less prevalent in infants fed EF than in those fed SF and may be associated with the decrease in otitis media seen in the same group. PMID:28099499

  8. The History of Infant Formula: Quality, Safety, and Standard Methods.

    PubMed

    Wargo, Wayne F

    2016-01-01

    Food-related laws and regulations have existed since ancient times. Egyptian scrolls prescribed the labeling needed for certain foods. In ancient Athens, beer and wines were inspected for purity and soundness, and the Romans had a well-organized state food control system to protect consumers from fraud or bad produce. In Europe during the Middle Ages, individual countries passed laws concerning the quality and safety of eggs, sausages, cheese, beer, wine, and bread; some of these laws still exist today. But more modern dietary guidelines and food regulations have their origins in the latter half of the 19th century when the first general food laws were adopted and basic food control systems were implemented to monitor compliance. Around this time, science and food chemistry began to provide the tools to determine "purity" of food based primarily on chemical composition and to determine whether it had been adulterated in any way. Since the key chemical components of mammalian milk were first understood, infant formulas have steadily advanced in complexity as manufacturers attempt to close the compositional gap with human breast milk. To verify these compositional innovations and ensure product quality and safety, infant formula has become one of the most regulated foods in the world. The present paper examines the historical development of nutritional alternatives to breastfeeding, focusing on efforts undertaken to ensure the quality and safety from antiquity to present day. The impact of commercial infant formulas on global regulations is addressed, along with the resulting need for harmonized, fit-for-purpose, voluntary consensus standard methods.

  9. Fermentation pattern of infant formulas containing different prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoof, Jon; Ferguson, Paul; Pauley-Hunter, Rosemary; Prestridge, Laurel

    2015-05-01

    Prebiotics play a role in the development of intestinal flora. When exposed to unabsorbed food, such as prebiotic carbohydrates, intestinal bacteria produce hydrogen. Increases in hydrogen may signify a slower rate of fermentation or digestion. In this blinded, crossover study, infants (n = 13) consumed formula containing either 4 g/L galactooligosaccharide (GOS) or 4 g/L polydextrose (PDX) + GOS, and breath hydrogen was measured. Breath hydrogen was higher in the PDX/GOS group versus GOS alone (mean ± standard error, 25.35 ± 2.87 ppm vs 13.69 ± 2.87 ppm, P = 0.0001). These results indicate that the formula with PDX/GOS may have undergone slower digestion.

  10. Qualitative evaluation of maternal milk and commercial infant formulas via LIBS.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Z; Al Sharnoubi, J; Harith, M A

    2013-10-15

    This study focuses on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the evaluation of the nutrients in maternal milk and some commercially available infant formulas. The results of such evaluation are vital for adequate and healthy feeding for babies during lactation period. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy offers special advantages in comparison to the other conventional analytical techniques. Specifically, LIBS is a straightforward technique that can be used in situ to provide qualitative analytical information in few minutes for the samples under investigation without preparation processes. The samples studied in the current work were maternal milk samples collected during the first 3 months of lactation (not colostrum milk) and samples from six different types of commercially available infant formulas. The samples' elemental composition has been compared with respect to the relative abundance of the elements of nutrition importance, namely Mg, Ca, Na, and Fe using their spectral emission lines in the relevant LIBS spectra. In addition, CN and C2 molecular emission bands in the same spectra have been studied as indicators of proteins content in the samples. The obtained analytical results demonstrate the higher elemental contents of the maternal milk compared with the commercial formulas samples. Similar results have been obtained as for the proteins content. It has been also shown that calcium and proteins have similar relative concentration trends in the studied samples. This work demonstrates the feasibility of adopting LIBS as a fast, safe, less costly technique evaluating qualitatively the nutrients content of both maternal and commercial milk samples.

  11. Safety of soya-based infant formulas in children.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Castrellon, Pedro Gutierrez; Rivas, Rodolfo; Gutiérrez, Carlos Jimenez; Garcia, Luisa Diaz; Jimenez, Juliana Estevez; Anzo, Anahi; Hegar, Badriul; Alarcon, Pedro

    2014-04-28

    Soya-based infant formulas (SIF) containing soya flour were introduced almost 100 years ago. Modern soya formulas are used in allergy/intolerance to cows' milk-based formulas (CMF), post-infectious diarrhoea, lactose intolerance and galactosaemia, as a vegan human milk (HM) substitute, etc. The safety of SIF is still debated. In the present study, we reviewed the safety of SIF in relation to anthropometric growth, bone health (bone mineral content), immunity, cognition, and reproductive and endocrine functions. The present review includes cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies or clinical trials that were carried out in children fed SIF compared with those fed other types of infant formulas and that measured safety. The databases that were searched included PubMed (1909 to July 2013), Embase (1988 to May 2013), LILACS (1990 to May 2011), ARTEMISA (13th edition, December 2012), Cochrane controlled trials register, Bandolier and DARE using the Cochrane methodology. Wherever possible, a meta-analysis was carried out. We found that the anthropometric patterns of children fed SIF were similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. Despite the high levels of phytates and aluminium in SIF, Hb, serum protein, Zn and Ca concentrations and bone mineral content were found to be similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. We also found the levels of genistein and daidzein to be higher in children fed SIF; however, we did not find strong evidence of a negative effect on reproductive and endocrine functions. Immune measurements and neurocognitive parameters were similar in all the feeding groups. In conclusion, modern SIF are evidence-based safety options to feed children requiring them. The patterns of growth, bone health and metabolic, reproductive, endocrine, immune and neurological functions are similar to those observed in children fed CMF or HM.

  12. Comparative study on the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in breast milk and infant formula and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Santonicola, Serena; De Felice, Alessandra; Cobellis, Luigi; Passariello, Nicola; Peluso, Angela; Murru, Nicoletta; Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Mercogliano, Raffaelina

    2017-05-01

    The study compared the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) profile of human milk collected from Italian mothers and different brands of infant formula available on Italian market. Levels of 14 PAHs most frequently occurred in food, PAH markers listed by Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006, and carcinogenic PAHs classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. The average concentrations of total PAHs were 114.93 in breast milk and 53.68 μg kg(-1) in infant formula. Furthermore, Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and the sum of ∑PAH4 markers (BaP, Chrysene, Benzo(a,h)anthracene and Benzo(b)fluoranthene) were higher than the permissible limit of 1 μg kg(-1) in 43% and 86% for breast milk and in 10% and 76% for infant formula samples, respectively. Breast milk showed higher levels (P < 0.05) of carcinogenic, and possible carcinogenic hydrocarbons than infant formula samples. Both in human and commercial milk, data showed the occurrence of low and high molecular weight PAHs, respectively from petrogenic and pyrolytic environmental sources, characterizing the infant and mother exposure. Particularly, waste incineration could have represented an important exposure source for infants during breastfeeding, through exposition of mothers resident in some areas of Southern Italy. High PAH levels detected in infant formula enriched with LC-PUFA might be related to the contamination of the vegetable oils added as ingredients. Results showed a high percentage of samples of both breast milk and infant formulas with margin of exposure (MOE) value indicating a potential concern for consumer health.

  13. Isoflavones and soyasaponins in soy infant formulas in Brazil: profile and estimated consumption.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Nívea D; Villar, Marcos Paulo Melo; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; Perrone, Daniel

    2014-01-15

    In the present study we determine the contents of isoflavones and soyasaponins in seven soy-based infant formulas available in the Brazilian market to estimate the intake of these bioactive compounds by infants. The mean contents of isoflavones and soyasaponins were 65.9mg/kg and 55.0mg/100g, respectively. β-Glycosylated isoflavones and soyasaponin B-I were the most abundant components in the analysed samples. The mean estimated intake of isoflavones by infants fed soy-based formulas was 0.8mg/day/kg of body weight, which is twice that of Japanese adults. For soyasaponins, the mean estimated intake was 9.2mg/day/kg of body weight, which is up to 6 times higher than the daily intake of saponins from beans by vegetarians. Considering the estimated intake of these bioactive compounds from soy-based formulas and the paucity of data regarding their bioavailability, the potential biological effects of isoflavones and soyasaponins in infants should not be overlooked and merits further investigation.

  14. Formula-fed full term infants have lower fractional but greater total calcium absorption than human milk-fed infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The fatty acid (FA) profile of infant formula resembles the FA profile of human milk (HM), but the % of palmitic acid in the sn-2 or beta position of the triglyceride in infant formula is lower than that of HM, and this may limit calcium (Ca) absorption. This is important to consider in ...

  15. Soy protein infant formulae and follow-on formulae: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Axelsson, Irene; Goulet, Olivier; Koletzko, Berthold; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischerm; Puntis, John; Rieu, Daniel; Rigo, Jacques; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique

    2006-04-01

    This comment by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition summarizes available information on the composition and use of soy protein formulae as substitutes for breastfeeding and cows' milk protein formulae as well as on their suitability and safety for supporting adequate growth and development in infants. Soy is a source of protein that is inferior to cows' milk, with a lower digestibility and bioavailability as well as a lower methionine content. For soy protein infant formulae, only protein isolates can be used, and minimum protein content required in the current European Union legislation is higher than that of cows' milk protein infant formulae (2.25 g/100 kcal vs. 1.8 g/100kcal). Soy protein formulae can be used for feeding term infants, but they have no nutritional advantage over cows' milk protein formulae and contain high concentrations of phytate, aluminum, and phytoestrogens (isoflavones), which might have untoward effects. There are no data to support the use of soy protein formulae in preterm infants. Indications for soy protein formulae include severe persistent lactose intolerance, galactosemia, and ethical considerations (e.g., vegan concepts). Soy protein formulae have no role in the prevention of allergic diseases and should not be used in infants with food allergy during the first 6 months of life. If soy protein formulae are considered for therapeutic use in food allergy after the age of 6 months because of their lower cost and better acceptance, tolerance to soy protein should first be established byclinical challenge. There is no evidence supporting the use of soy protein formulae for the prevention or management of infantile colic, regurgitation, or prolonged crying.

  16. Lead, cadmium and aluminum in Canadian infant formulae, oral electrolytes and glucose solutions.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, Robert; Fouquet, Andre; Belisle, Stephane; Turcotte, Stephane

    2011-06-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) were determined in 437 individual samples of infant formulae, oral electrolytes and 5% glucose solutions available in Canada. In the electrolytes, Cd and Pb concentrations were all below 0.01 and 0.041 ng g(-1), respectively. In the 5% glucose solutions, Pb and Cd levels averaged 0.01 and 0.09 ng g(-1), respectively. Reported on an as-consumed basis, Pb levels in milk- and soya-based formulae averaged 0.90 and 1.45 ng g(-1), respectively, while Cd levels averaged 0.23 and 1.18 ng g(-1), respectively Average Al levels on an as-consumed basis were 440 ng g(-1) (range 10-3400 ng g(-1)) in milk-based formulae and 730 ng g(-1) (range 230-1100 ng g(-1)) in soy-based formulae. Al concentrations increased in the following order: plain formula < low-iron formula < iron-supplemented formula < casein hydrolysate formula ≈ premature formula ≤ soy formula. For example, in the powdered formulae, average Al concentrations were 18 ng g(-1) for plain milk-based, 37 ng g(-1) for low-iron, 128 ng g(-1) for iron supplemented, 462 ng g(-1) for lactose-free, 518 ng g(-1) for hypoallergenic and 619 ng g(-1) for soy-based formula. Al concentrations, as-consumed, increased with decreasing levels of concentration: powder < concentrated liquid < ready-to-use. Formulae stored in glass bottles contained between 100 and 300 ng g(-1) more Al than the same formulae stored in cans. The source of the increased Al did not appear to be the glass itself, because most electrolytes and glucose solutions, also stored in glass, contained less than 8 ng g(-1) Al. Corresponding differences in Pb and Cd levels were not observed. Al concentrations varied substantially among manufacturers; however, all manufacturers were able to produce plain milk-based formulae containing less than 50 ng g(-1) Al, i.e. within the range of Al concentrations found in human milk. Next to soya-based and hypoallergenic formulae, premature formulae contained among the highest

  17. Lead, cadmium and aluminum in Canadian infant formulae, oral electrolytes and glucose solutions

    PubMed Central

    Dabeka, Robert; Fouquet, Andre; Belisle, Stephane; Turcotte, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) were determined in 437 individual samples of infant formulae, oral electrolytes and 5% glucose solutions available in Canada. In the electrolytes, Cd and Pb concentrations were all below 0.01 and 0.041 ng g−1, respectively. In the 5% glucose solutions, Pb and Cd levels averaged 0.01 and 0.09 ng g−1, respectively. Reported on an as-consumed basis, Pb levels in milk- and soya-based formulae averaged 0.90 and 1.45 ng g−1, respectively, while Cd levels averaged 0.23 and 1.18 ng g−1, respectively Average Al levels on an as-consumed basis were 440 ng g−1 (range 10–3400 ng g−1) in milk-based formulae and 730 ng g−1 (range 230–1100 ng g−1) in soy-based formulae. Al concentrations increased in the following order: plain formula < low-iron formula < iron-supplemented formula < casein hydrolysate formula ≈ premature formula ≤ soy formula. For example, in the powdered formulae, average Al concentrations were 18 ng g−1 for plain milk-based, 37 ng g−1 for low-iron, 128 ng g−1 for iron supplemented, 462 ng g−1 for lactose-free, 518 ng g−1 for hypoallergenic and 619 ng g−1 for soy-based formula. Al concentrations, as-consumed, increased with decreasing levels of concentration: powder < concentrated liquid < ready-to-use. Formulae stored in glass bottles contained between 100 and 300 ng g−1 more Al than the same formulae stored in cans. The source of the increased Al did not appear to be the glass itself, because most electrolytes and glucose solutions, also stored in glass, contained less than 8 ng g−1 Al. Corresponding differences in Pb and Cd levels were not observed. Al concentrations varied substantially among manufacturers; however, all manufacturers were able to produce plain milk-based formulae containing less than 50 ng g−1 Al, i.e. within the range of Al concentrations found in human milk. Next to soya-based and hypoallergenic formulae, premature formulae contained among the highest

  18. Similar calcium status is present in infants fed formula with and without prebiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides can increase calcium absorption in adolescents and adults. Whether they affect calcium absorption in infants has not been assessed. Few data are available to compare the calcium status of infants fed modern infant formulas to that of breast fed infants. To evaluate calcium...

  19. Determination of bovine lactoferrin in infant formula by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Ding, Xiaojing; Chen, Yongyan; Song, Baohua; Zhao, Shan; Wang, Zhi

    2012-06-29

    A new and simple method for the quantitative determination of bovine lactoferrin (Lf) in infant formula by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet (CE-UV) detection was established. Effective sample pre-treatment and the addition of buffer additive to the running buffer played key roles in the accurate assay of the Lf in infant formula. In the method, the infant formula samples were pretreated with 50 mmol/L acetic acid without pH adjustment, which is beneficial for high sample throughput. The separation was carried out in an uncoated capillary with 50 μm i.d. and total length of 27 cm (20 cm to the detector). The running buffer consisted of 40 mmol/L NaH₂PO₄, 40 mmol/L H₃PO₄ and 5 mmol/L polyethylene glycol dodecylether (Brij 35). The addition of the non-ionic surfactant Brij 35 to the running buffer served to suppress the Lf adsorption to the capillary wall, and also allowed for high-efficiency separation of Lf from adjacent unknown proteins. The intra- and inter-day precision of the method were 2.4% and 4.6% (n=7), respectively. The corrected peak area (A(c)) and the concentration of Lf showed a strong linear relationship within the range of 10-400 mg/L with a linear correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 3mg/L (S/N=3) and 10mg/L (S/N=10), respectively. The method was successfully used to quantitate the Lf in infant formula with satisfactory results.

  20. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula by trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Hoagland, Thomas A; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2009-02-15

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging pathogen which causes a life-threatening form of meningitis, necrotizing colitis and meningoencephalitis in neonates and children. Epidemiological studies implicate dried infant formula as the principal source of the pathogen. Trans-cinnamaldehyde is a major component of bark extract of cinnamon. It is classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and is approved for use in food (21 CFR 182.60). The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde on E. sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula. A 5-strain mixture of E. sakazakii was inoculated into 10 ml samples of reconstituted infant formula (at 6.0 log CFU/ml) containing 0%, 0.15%, 0.3% or 0.5% trans-cinnamaldehyde. The samples were incubated at 37, 23, 8 or 4 degrees C for 0, 6, 10 and 24 h, and the surviving populations of E. sakazakii at each sampling time were enumerated. In addition, potential cytotoxicity of trans-cinnamaldehyde, if any, was determined on human embryonic intestinal cells (INT-407). The treatments containing trans-cinnamaldehyde significantly reduced (P<0.05) the population of E. sakazakii, compared to the controls. Trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.5%) reduced the pathogen to undetectable levels by 4 h of incubation at 37 or 23 degrees C and 10 h of incubation at 8 or 4 degrees C, respectively. Trans-cinnamaldehyde produced no cytotoxic effects on human embryonic intestinal cells at the tested concentrations. Results indicate that trans-cinnamaldehyde could potentially be used to kill E. sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula, however sensory studies are warranted before recommending its use.

  1. Erythrocyte fatty acids of term infants fed either breast milk, standard formula, or formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturates.

    PubMed

    Makrides, M; Neumann, M A; Simmer, K; Gibson, R A

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess whether a supplement of fish oil (FO) and evening primrose oil (EPO) for formula-fed infants was capable of avoiding reductions in erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) associated with standard formula feeding. Healthy, term infants, whose mothers chose to formula feed, were randomized to either a placebo or supplemented formula for their first 30 wk of life. A reference group of beast-fed infants also was enrolled. Erythrocyte fatty acids were measured by capillary gas chromatography on day 5 and in weeks 6, 16, and 30. Supplementation of formula with 0.36% of total fatty acids as DHA resulted in erythrocyte DHA being maintained at or above breast-fed levels for the entire 30-wk study period, and breast feeding (0.21% DHA) resulted in a modest fall in erythrocyte DHA relative to baseline (day 5) values. The level of erythrocyte DHA in placebo formula-fed infants was halved by week 16. AA levels decreased in all infants in the first six weeks, but the levels in breast- and placebo formula-fed infants increased with age and returned to approximate baseline (day 5) values by 16 and 30 wk of age, respectively. Erythrocyte AA in FO+EPO-supplemented infants remained low and below breast- and placebo formula-fed levels. Our data suggest that dietary supplementation with DHA at 0.36% total fatty acids results in erythrocyte DHA levels above those found in breast-fed infants. EPO supplementation was not effective at maintaining erythrocyte AA when given with FO.

  2. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sookyoung; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Emily E.; Kuchan, Matthew J.; Pereira, Suzette L.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Erdman, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group). All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions. PMID:28075370

  3. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sookyoung; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Emily E; Kuchan, Matthew J; Pereira, Suzette L; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Erdman, John W

    2017-01-10

    Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group). All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions.

  4. Evaluation of an Amino Acid-Based Formula in Infants Not Responding to Extensively Hydrolyzed Protein Formula.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoof, Jon; Moore, Nancy; de Boissieu, Delphine

    2016-11-01

    Nearly 2% to 3% of infants and children younger than 3 years have confirmed cow's milk protein allergy with multiple clinical presentations including atopic dermatitis (AD), diarrhea, and vomiting/spitting up. Although most infants with cow's milk protein allergy experience clinical improvement with the use of an extensively hydrolyzed (EH) formula, highly sensitive infants may require an amino acid-based formula. In this observational, prospective study, 30 infants (1-12 months of age) with a history of weight loss and persistent allergic manifestations while on an EH formula were provided an amino acid-based formula for 12 weeks. Mean weight gain (z score change) improved +0.43 ± 0.28 (mean ± standard deviation) after the 12-week feeding period. Improvement was observed for many allergic symptoms including significant decreases in AD severity (P = 0.02). These results indicate the new amino acid-based infant formula supported healthy weight gain and improvement in allergic manifestations in infants not responding to EH formulas.

  5. Evaluation of an Amino Acid−Based Formula in Infants Not Responding to Extensively Hydrolyzed Protein Formula

    PubMed Central

    Vanderhoof, Jon; Moore, Nancy; de Boissieu, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nearly 2% to 3% of infants and children younger than 3 years have confirmed cow's milk protein allergy with multiple clinical presentations including atopic dermatitis (AD), diarrhea, and vomiting/spitting up. Although most infants with cow's milk protein allergy experience clinical improvement with the use of an extensively hydrolyzed (EH) formula, highly sensitive infants may require an amino acid−based formula. In this observational, prospective study, 30 infants (1–12 months of age) with a history of weight loss and persistent allergic manifestations while on an EH formula were provided an amino acid−based formula for 12 weeks. Mean weight gain (z score change) improved +0.43 ± 0.28 (mean ± standard deviation) after the 12-week feeding period. Improvement was observed for many allergic symptoms including significant decreases in AD severity (P = 0.02). These results indicate the new amino acid–based infant formula supported healthy weight gain and improvement in allergic manifestations in infants not responding to EH formulas. PMID:27526059

  6. Biotin and carnitine deficiency due to hypoallergenic formula nutrition in infants with milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hisako; Tokuriki, Shuko; Okuno, Takashi; Shigematsu, Yosuke; Yasushi, Akiba; Matsuyama, Go; Sawada, Ken; Ohshima, Yusei

    2014-04-01

    Amino acid formulas and hydrolyzed formulas given to infants in Japan with milk allergies theoretically contain little, if any, biotin and carnitine. We assessed biotin and carnitine insufficiency in six infants with milk allergy who were fed amino acid formulas and/or hydrolyzed formulas, by measuring urine 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIA) and serum free carnitine (C0), respectively. All patients presented with elevated urine 3-HIA and lowered serum C0 compared with post-menstrual age-matched infants who were fed breast milk or standard infant formulas. Supplementation with biotin and L-carnitine immediately improved the insufficiency. Care should be taken to avoid biotin and carnitine deficiency in allergic infants fed amino acid or hydrolyzed formulas.

  7. Regulating fatty acids in infant formula: critical assessment of U.S. policies and practices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatty acids in breast-milk such as docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, commonly known as DHA and ARA, contribute to the healthy development of children in various ways. However, the manufactured versions that are added to infant formula might not have the same health benefits as those in breast-milk. There is evidence that the manufactured additives might cause harm to infants’ health, and they might lead to unwarranted increases in the cost of infant formula. The addition of such fatty acids to infant formula needs to be regulated. In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration has primary responsibility for regulating the composition of infant formula. The central purpose of this study is to assess the FDA’s efforts with regard to the regulation of fatty acids in infant formula. Methods This study is based on critical analysis of policies and practices described in publicly available documents of the FDA, the manufacturers of fatty acids, and other relevant organizations. The broad framework for this work was set out by the author in his book on Regulating Infant Formula, published in 2011. Results The FDA does not assess the safety or the health impacts of fatty acid additives to infant formula before they are marketed, and there is no systematic assessment after marketing is underway. Rather than making its own independent assessments, the FDA accepts the manufacturers’ claims regarding their products’ safety and effectiveness. Conclusions The FDA is not adequately regulating the use of fatty acid additives to infant formula. This results in exposure of infants to potential risks. Adverse reactions are already on record. Also, the additives have led to increasing costs of infant formula despite the lack of proven benefits to normal, full term infants. There is a need for more effective regulation of DHA and ARA additives to infant formula. PMID:24433303

  8. Determination of total fat in milk- and soy-based infant formula powder by supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    LaCroix, Denis E; Wolf, Wayne R

    2003-01-01

    Commercially available simple benchtop systems using CO2 supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) eliminate expensive organic solvent disposal problems and offer potential to meet a demand for rapid, accurate high-volume gravimetric determinations of total fat content of infant formula powders. A Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) approach was used to evaluate the performance characteristics of instrumental SFE extraction for determination of total gravimetric fat in infant formula. The established DQOs included the following: ACCURACY: Correct values were obtained for a suitable reference material, SRM 1846 Infant Formula [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD]. RUGGEDNESS: Variables were defined as (1) extraction time (35 min optimum); (2) ratio of sample size to diatomaceous earth support material (1 g sample/2 g support); (3) ratio of distilled water to alcohol (50% isopropanol optimum for both milk- and soy-based infant formula samples); (4) extraction flow rate was 3-3.5 mL/min optimum. PRECISION: Relative standard deviations of multiple determinations fell within the Horwitz limits of acceptability of < or = 2.8% at the level of analyte determined (0.34-2.5% obtained). SCOPE OF APPLICABILITY: Includes milk- and soy-based infant formula powders. Research data were obtained by use of a commercially available fat analyzer. Samples of the SRM, 2 commercial milk-based and 3 commercial soy-based infant formula products were distributed to 2 additional collaborating laboratories. Very good agreement was obtained among the submitting and collaborating laboratories for these samples. The use of clearly defined DQOs to establish method performance characteristics, along with the commercially available reference material, provided the mechanism for verification and validation of analytical methodology.

  9. Folate contents in human milk and casein-based and soya-based formulas, and folate status in Korean infants.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Hee; Yon, Miyong; Han, Heon-Seok; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Tamura, Tsunenobu; Hyun, Taisun H

    2009-06-01

    We assessed folate nutritional status from birth to 12 months in fifty-one infants who were fed human milk (HM; n 20), casein-based formula (CBF; n 12) or soya-based formula (SBF; n 19). Folate contents in ninety-five HM samples obtained from twenty mothers for the first 6-month period and twelve CBF and nineteen SBF samples were measured by bioassay after trienzyme extraction. Folate intake was estimated by weighing infants before and after feeding in the HM group and by collecting formula intake records in the formula-fed groups. After solid foods were introduced, all foods consumed were included to estimate folate intake. Serum folate and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations were determined at 5 and 12 months of age, and infant growth was monitored for the first 12 months. Mean HM folate contents ranged from 201 to 365 nmol/l with an overall mean of 291 nmol/l, and the contents peaked at 2 months postpartum. HM folate contents were higher than those reported in North America. Folate contents in CBF and SBF were markedly higher than those in HM and those claimed on the product labels. The overall folate intakes in formula-fed infants were significantly higher than those in HM-fed infants, and this was associated with significantly higher folate and lower tHcy in formula-fed infants than HM-fed infants at 5 months. At 12 months, serum folate was significantly higher in the SBF group than the other groups, whereas serum tHcy and overall growth were similar among all groups.

  10. Effects of soy infant formula on growth and development in the first year of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of infants to potential estrogenic isoflavones has made the use of soy formula somewhat controversial. Thus, it is important to determine the long-term health consequences of feeding soy formula to infants. The Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center is conducting a nonrandomized, longitud...

  11. Mothers Who Formula Feed: Their Practices, Support Needs and Factors Influencing Their Infant Feeding Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrant, Roslyn C.; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret; McCarthy, Roberta A.; Younger, Katherine M.; Kearney, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to six months postpartum,…

  12. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  13. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  14. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  15. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 107.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an... chapter for transmittal to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-605), for action....

  16. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 107.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an... chapter for transmittal to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-605), for action....

  17. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 107.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an... chapter for transmittal to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-605), for action....

  18. High protein pre-term infant formula: effect on nutrient balance, metabolic status and growth.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard; Embleton, Nick; Rigo, Jacques; Carrie, Annelise; Haschke, Ferdinand; Ziegler, Ekhard

    2006-02-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that formula with protein content of 3.0 g/100 kcal does not fully meet the protein needs of very-low-birth weight infants. Our purpose was to compare nitrogen balance, metabolic status and growth in infants fed a standard (3.0 g/100 kcal; RegPro) and high (3.6 g/100 kcal; HiPro) protein infant formula. Infants were fed both formulas, each formula for one week in balanced cross-over design. Metabolic status was monitored throughout. Nutrient balance and plasma amino acids were determined at the end of each week. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model. Eighteen infants were studied. Nine infants received the RegPro and nine received HiPro formula first. Nitrogen intake, absorption and retention were greater with the HiPro formula. None of the infants developed uremia or metabolic acidosis but retinol-binding-protein and weight gain were greater with the HiPro formula. Increased protein accretion paralleled by better weight gain without evidence of metabolic stress indicates that a formula with a protein content of 3.6 g/100 kcal better meets protein needs in these rapidly-growing infants. Further studies are needed to determine whether these short-term outcomes will be translated into long-term benefits.

  19. Novel Approaches to Improve the Intrinsic Microbiological Safety of Powdered Infant Milk Formula

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Robert M.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is recognised as the best form of nutrition for infants. However; in instances where breast-feeding is not possible, unsuitable or inadequate, infant milk formulae are used as breast milk substitutes. These formulae are designed to provide infants with optimum nutrition for normal growth and development and are available in either powdered or liquid forms. Powdered infant formula is widely used for convenience and economic reasons. However; current manufacturing processes are not capable of producing a sterile powdered infant formula. Due to their immature immune systems and permeable gastro-intestinal tracts, infants can be more susceptible to infection via foodborne pathogenic bacteria than other age-groups. Consumption of powdered infant formula contaminated by pathogenic microbes can be a cause of serious illness. In this review paper, we discuss the current manufacturing practices present in the infant formula industry, the pathogens of greatest concern, Cronobacter and Salmonella and methods of improving the intrinsic safety of powdered infant formula via the addition of antimicrobials such as: bioactive peptides; organic acids; probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:25685987

  20. Nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas for term infants: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shao J; Sullivan, Thomas; Gibson, Robert A; Lönnerdal, Bo; Prosser, Colin G; Lowry, Dianne J; Makrides, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The safety and nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas have been questioned. The primary aim of the present study was to compare the growth and nutritional status of infants fed a goat milk infant formula with those of infants fed a typical whey-based cow milk infant formula. The secondary aim was to examine a range of health- and allergy-related outcomes. A double-blind, randomised controlled trial with 200 formula-fed term infants randomly assigned to receive either goat or cow milk formula from 2 weeks to at least 4 months of age was conducted. A cohort of 101 breast-fed infants was included for comparison. Weight, length and head circumference were measured at 2 weeks and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Nutritional status was assessed from serum albumin, urea, creatinine, Hb, ferritin, and folate and plasma amino acid concentrations at 4 months. Z-scores for weight, length, head circumference and weight for length were not different between the two formula-fed groups. There were differences in the values of some amino acids and blood biomarkers between the formula-fed groups, but the mean values for biomarkers were within the normal reference range. There were no differences in the occurrence of serious adverse events, general health, and incidence of dermatitis or medically diagnosed food allergy. The incidence of parentally reported blood-stained stools was higher in the goat milk formula-fed group, although this was a secondary outcome and its importance is unclear. Goat milk formula provided growth and nutritional outcomes in infants that did not differ from those provided by a standard whey-based cow milk formula.

  1. Determination of vitamin A (retinol) in infant and medical nutritional formulas with AOAC method 992.06 using a modified extraction procedure: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Linda B; Schimpf, Karen J; Stiner, Lisa A; Schmitz, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of AOAC Official Method 992.06, vitamin A (retinol) in milk-based infant formula can be extended to specialty infant formulas, and medical and adult nutritional products with a few minor modifications to the sample preparation procedure. Currently, AOAC Official Method 992.06 is only applicable to milk-based infant formulas containing >500 IU vitamin A per reconstituted quart. When this method is used as written to test specialty infant formulas, vitamin A recoveries are low compared to results generated with alternate validated vitamin A methods. AOAC Method 992.06 vitamin A recoveries can be improved significantly in specialty infant formulas if the amount of potassium hydroxide used during the saponification step is doubled. With this one minor modification to the sample preparation procedure, AOAC Method 992.06 demonstrates acceptable precision and accuracy for the quantitation of vitamin A (retinol) in specialty infant formulas, milk- and soy-based infant formulas, and adult and medical nutritionals. Because increasing the amount of potassium hydroxide can cause emulsions to form, 2-4 mL aliquots of reagent alcohol may need to be added to some samples to separate the organic and aqueous layers during the extraction step. A single-laboratory validation of these modifications was completed. During validation, 15 different product matrixes were analyzed. The intermediate precision averaged 2.70% RSD, and spike recovery data averaged 96.3%.

  2. Comparative analysis of human milk and infant formula derived peptides following in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Su, M-Y; Broadhurst, M; Liu, C-P; Gathercole, J; Cheng, W-L; Qi, X-Y; Clerens, S; Dyer, J M; Day, L; Haigh, B

    2017-04-15

    It has long been recognised that there are differences between human milk and infant formulas which lead to differences in health and nutrition for the neonate. In this study we examine and compare the peptide profile of human milk and an exemplar infant formula. The study identifies both similarities and differences in the endogenous and postdigestion peptide profiles of human milk and infant formula. This includes differences in the protein source of these peptides but also with the region within the protein producing the dominant proteins. Clustering of similar peptides around regions of high sequence identity and known bioactivity was also observed. Together the data may explain some of the functional differences between human milk and infant formula, while identifying some aspects of conserved function between bovine and human milks which contribute to the effectiveness of modern infant formula as a substitute for human milk.

  3. Survey of total mercury in infant formulae and oral electrolytes sold in Canada.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, Robert W; McKenzie, Arthur D

    2012-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg) was measured in 150 infant formula products (as sold) and oral electrolyte solutions purchased in Canada in 2003. Results less than the limit of detection (LOD) were reported as the numeric value of the LOD. Electrolytes contained the lowest concentrations, averaging 0.026 ng/g. Average levels in milk-based ready-to-use, concentrated liquid and powdered concentrate were 0.028, 0.069 and 0.212 ng/g, respectively. In soy-based formulae, the respective mean concentrations were 0.049, 0.101 and 0.237 ng/g. These concentrations cannot be considered on an absolute basis because 76% of sample concentrations fell below the limit of detection. Despite the inability to measure many of the actual background concentrations, the method was sufficiently sensitive to identify clear cases of low-level Hg contamination (up to 1.5 ng/g) of individual lots of powdered formula. Also, all the different lots of one brand of concentrated liquid infant formulae had significantly higher concentrations of Hg than those of all other concentrated liquid products. After dilution with preparation water, the Hg concentrations in all products would be lower than the Canadian Drinking Water Guideline for Hg of 1 ng/mL and too low to impact on health.

  4. Choline in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional Formula by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography/ Tandem mass spectrometry: AOAC First Action 2012.18.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frederic; Gimenez, Catherine; Fontannaz, Patric; Kilinc, Tamara; Campos-Giménez, Esther; Dowell, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The method described below is for the determination of choline in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The single-laboratory validation data were submitted to the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Expert Review Panel (ERP) for review at the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Annual Meeting held September 30 to October 3, 2012 in Las Vegas, NV. The ERP determined that the data reviewed met the standard method performance requirements set by SPIFAN, and the method was approved as AOAC Official First Action. The analytical range was found to be between 0.16 and 3.2 microg/mL. The recovery rates were within 80-120% at 50 and 100% of native levels for all samples. Repeatability precision (RSDr) was < 3%, with intermediate reproducibility (RSDir) no higher than 4%.

  5. A position statement on kidney disease from powdered infant formula-based melamine exposure in Chinese infants.

    PubMed

    Langman, Craig B; Alon, Uri; Ingelfinger, Julie; Englund, Märta; Saland, Jeffrey M; Somers, Michael J G; Stapleton, F Bruder; Sibú, Nelson Orta; Cochat, Pierre; Wong, William; Eke, Felicia U; Satlin, Lisa; Salusky, Isidro

    2009-07-01

    Melamine, a man-made non-nutritive substance containing nitrogen, can falsely elevate measures of protein content in foodstuffs. Several manufacturers of powdered infant formula in China apparently added melamine to raise the measured protein content and thereby exposed thousands of infants and young children to very high levels of melamine. Such exposure resulted in cases of acute kidney failure and nephrolithiasis. This Editorial from members of the world-wide Pediatric Nephrology community provides a common-sense approach to the care of infants who may have been exposed to powdered infant formula in 2007-2008.

  6. Aflatoxin M1 Levels in Raw Milk, Pasteurised Milk and Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Sharaf S.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of contamination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples collected from the Jordanian market was investigated by using the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. A total of 175 samples were collected during 2014-2015. All tested samples were contaminated with various levels of AFM1 ranging from 9.71 to 288.68 ng/kg. The concentration of AFM1 in 66% of fresh milk samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union (50 ng/kg) and 23% higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the US (500 ng/kg). Percentages of contaminated raw cow, sheep, goat and camel milk exceeding the European tolerance limit were 60, 85, 75 and 0%, respectively. Of AFM1 contaminated pasteurised cow milk samples, 12% exceeded the European tolerance limit with a range of contamination between 14.60 and 216.78 ng/kg. For infant formula samples, the average concentration of AFM1 was 120.26 ng/kg (range from 16.55 to 288.68 ng/kg), the concentration of AFM1 in 85% of infant formula samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the US (25 ng/kg). PMID:27853711

  7. Aflatoxin M1 Levels in Raw Milk, Pasteurised Milk and Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    Omar, Sharaf S

    2016-06-03

    The incidence of contamination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples collected from the Jordanian market was investigated by using the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. A total of 175 samples were collected during 2014-2015. All tested samples were contaminated with various levels of AFM1 ranging from 9.71 to 288.68 ng/kg. The concentration of AFM1 in 66% of fresh milk samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union (50 ng/kg) and 23% higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the US (500 ng/kg). Percentages of contaminated raw cow, sheep, goat and camel milk exceeding the European tolerance limit were 60, 85, 75 and 0%, respectively. Of AFM1 contaminated pasteurised cow milk samples, 12% exceeded the European tolerance limit with a range of contamination between 14.60 and 216.78 ng/kg. For infant formula samples, the average concentration of AFM1 was 120.26 ng/kg (range from 16.55 to 288.68 ng/kg), the concentration of AFM1 in 85% of infant formula samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the US (25 ng/kg).

  8. Growth of healthy term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey-based infant formula: a randomized, blinded, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Borschel, Marlene W; Choe, Yong S; Kajzer, Janice A

    2014-12-01

    Partially hydrolyzed formulas (pHF) represent a significant percentage of the infant formula market. A new whey-based, palm olein oil (PO)-free pHF was developed and a masked, randomized, parallel growth study was conducted in infants fed this formula or a commercially available whey-based pHF with PO. Infants between 0 and 8 days were to be enrolled and studied to 119 days of age. Growth and tolerance of infants were evaluated. Mean weight gain from 14 to 119 days of age was similar between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in weight, length, head circumference (HC), or length or HC gains. Infants fed the new PO-free pHF had significantly softer stools than those fed the PO-containing formula except at 119 days of age. This study demonstrates that whereas growth of infants fed different formulas during the first 4 months of life may be similar, infants may tolerate individual formulas differently.

  9. Pantoea gaviniae sp. nov. and Pantoea calida sp. nov., isolated from infant formula and an infant formula production environment.

    PubMed

    Popp, Alexandra; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Iversen, Carol; De Vos, Paul; Stephan, Roger

    2010-12-01

    Five Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming, coccoid rod-shaped bacterial isolates were obtained from infant formula and an infant formula production environment and were investigated by use of a polyphasic taxonomic study. Biochemical tests and partial rpoB gene sequence analysis of the five isolates revealed that they formed two distinct groups in the family Enterobacteriaceae, closely related to several species of the genera Pantoea and Erwinia, which indicated a phylogenetic position within the genus Pantoea or the genus Erwinia. Multilocus sequence analysis of concatenated partial atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB gene sequences of two of the isolates suggested that they represented two novel species of the genus Pantoea, phylogenetically related most closely to Pantoea septica. The five isolates had general characteristics consistent with those of the genus Pantoea, and DNA-DNA hybridizations between two representatives and the type strains of their phylogenetically closest relatives based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolates represented two novel genospecies. These two genospecies could be differentiated from each other based on fermentation of galacturonate, sorbitol and potassium 5-ketogluconate. They could be differentiated from phylogenetically related Pantoea species based on their ability to ferment lactose and to utilize β-gentiobiose and raffinose, their inability to ferment or utilize d-arabitol, and their inability to produce indole. On the basis of the results obtained, the five isolates are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Pantoea, for which the names Pantoea gaviniae sp. nov. (type strain A18/07(T) =LMG 25382(T) =DSM 22758(T)) and Pantoea calida sp. nov. (type strain 1400/07(T) =LMG 25383(T) =DSM 22759(T)) are proposed.

  10. Gas chromatographic analysis of infant formulas for total fatty acids, including trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Satchithanandam, Subramaniam; Fritsche, Jan; Rader, Jeanne I

    2002-01-01

    Twelve powdered and 13 liquid infant formulas were analyzed by using an extension of AOAC Official Method 996.01 for fat analysis in cereal products. Samples were hydrolyzed with 8 N HCl and extracted with ethyl and petroleum ethers. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared by refluxing the mixed ether extracts with methanolic sodium hydroxide in the presence of 14% boron trifluoride in methanol. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. In powdered formulas, saturated fatty acid (SFA) content (mean +/- SD; n = 12) was 41.05 +/- 3.94%, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content was 36.97 +/- 3.38%, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content was 20.07 +/- 3.08%, and total trans fatty acid content was 1.30 +/- 1.27%. In liquid formulas, SFA content (mean +/- SD; n = 13) was 42.29 +/- 2.98%, MUFA content was 36.05 +/- 2.47%, PUFA content was 20.65 +/- 2.40%, and total trans fatty acid content was 0.88 +/- 0.54%. Total fat content in powdered formulas ranged from 4.4 to 5.5 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 868 to 1166 mg/100 kcal. In liquid formulas, total fat content ranged from 4.1 to 5.1 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 820 to 1100 mg/100 kcal. There were no significant differences between powdered and liquid infant formulas in concentrations of total fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or trans fatty acids.

  11. Bioactive peptides released by in vitro digestion of standard and hydrolyzed infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2015-11-01

    Hydrolyzed infant formulas serve as appropriate nutritional sources for infants afflicted with cow's milk allergy, and milk proteins in hydrolyzed formulas are industrially hydrolyzed extensively or partially. To investigate whether industrial hydrolysis may modulate the digestive trajectory of milk proteins, thereby releasing different profiles of bioactive peptides compared with standard formulas, both standard and hydrolyzed formulas were subjected to in vitro digestion and formation of bioactive peptides were compared. One standard, one extensively hydrolyzed, and one partially hydrolyzed infant formula were digested in vitro with pepsin and pancreatin, taking into account the higher gastric pH of infants, and the digesta were subjected to peptidomic analysis. The standard formula released a larger variety of bioactive peptides than from the hydrolyzed formulas, indicating that industrial hydrolysis of milk proteins may generally attenuate their indigenous bioactivities such as antibacterial, immuno-regulatory, and anti-oxidative activities. Conversely, industrial hydrolysis may facilitate the formation of bioactive peptides from hydrophobic proteins/regions such as β-LG and the "strategic zone" of β-CN, which encrypt bioactive peptides including a dipeptidyl dipeptidase-4-inhibitory, hypocholesterolemic, and opioid peptides. Infants fed hydrolyzed infant formulas may be influenced by milk protein-derived bioactive peptides in a manner different from those fed standard formula.

  12. Short communication: investigation of aflatoxin M1 levels in infant follow-on milks and infant formulas sold in the markets of Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Er, B; Demirhan, B; Yentür, G

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins are fungal toxins known to be carcinogenic and are classified as food contaminants. This study was performed to investigate aflatoxin (AF) M1 levels in baby foods sold in Ankara (Turkey) and to evaluate the obtained results according to the Turkish Food Codex (TFC). For this purpose, a total of 84 baby food samples (50 follow-on milks and 34 infant formulas) were obtained from different markets in Ankara and the presence of AFM1 in the samples was analyzed by ELISA. In 32 (38.1%) of 84 infant food samples, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations ranging between 0.0055 and 0.0201 µg/kg. The mean level (± standard error) of AFM1 was found to be 0.0089 ± 0.0006 µg/kg in positive infant follow-on milks. Aflatoxin M1 was detected in only 1 infant formula sample (2.94%) at a concentration of 0.0061 µg/kg. The extrapolated levels of AFB1 contamination in feedstuffs were calculated based on levels of AFM1 in baby food samples. The data estimating AFB1 contamination in dairy cattle feedstuff indicate that contamination may range from 0.3410 to 1.2580 µg/kg, with the mean level (± standard error) being 0.5499 ± 0.0385 µg/kg, which is lower than the level set by the TFC and European Union regulations (5 µg/kg). According to the obtained results, the levels of AFM1 in analyzed samples were within the allowed limit (0.025 µg/kg) set in the TFC. Low levels of AFM1 in infant follow-on milks and infant formula samples obtained during the study do not pose a health risk to infants.

  13. Oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formulas compared to human milk--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Marie-Caroline; Calzada, Catherine; Makino, Asami; Michaud, Sabine; Guichardant, Michel

    2008-12-01

    Information about lipid oxidation in fresh and stored human milk compared with infant formulas is scarce. We aimed to assess n-6 and n-3 PUFA oxidation in these milks by measuring the 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) content. Human milk samples (n = 4), obtained from volunteer mothers, were analyzed fresh and after 1 wk at 4 degrees C or 24 h at 18 degrees C. Vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by HPLC and fatty acid profile by GC. The 4-HHE and 4-HNE contents were measured by GC-MS. Infant formulas (n = 10) were tested; their fat droplet size was measured by laser light scattering and observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Human milk samples contained 31.0 +/- 6.3 g/L of lipids and 1.14 +/- 0.26 mg/L of vitamin E. Fat droplets were smaller in infant formulas than reported in human milk. The (4-HHE/n-3 PUFA) ratio was 0.19 +/- 0.01 microg/g in fresh human milk (unchanged after storage) versus 3.6 +/- 3.1 microg/g in dissolved powder formulas and 4.3 +/- 3.8 microg/g in liquid formula. (4-HNE/n-6 PUFA) was 0.004 +/- 0.000 microg/g in fresh milk (0.03 +/- 0.01 microg/g after storage) versus 1.1 +/- 1.0 microg/g in dissolved powder formulas and 0.2 +/- 0.3 microg/g in liquid formula. Infant formulas also contained more MDA than human milk. n-3 PUFA were more prone to oxidation than n-6 PUFA. Whether threshold levels of 4-HHE and 4-HNE would be of health concern should be elucidated.

  14. Health and nutrition content claims on websites advertising infant formula available in Australia: A content analysis.

    PubMed

    Berry, Nina J; Gribble, Karleen D

    2016-10-14

    The use of health and nutrition content claims in infant formula advertising is restricted by many governments in response to WHO policies and WHA resolutions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such prohibited claims could be observed in Australian websites that advertise infant formula products. A comprehensive internet search was conducted to identify websites that advertise infant formula available for purchase in Australia. Content analysis was used to identify prohibited claims. The coding frame was closely aligned with the provisions of the Australian and New Zealand Food Standard Code, which prohibits these claims. The outcome measures were the presence of health claims, nutrition content claims, or references to the nutritional content of human milk. Web pages advertising 25 unique infant formula products available for purchase in Australia were identified. Every advertisement (100%) contained at least one health claim. Eighteen (72%) also contained at least one nutrition content claim. Three web pages (12%) advertising brands associated with infant formula products referenced the nutritional content of human milk. All of these claims appear in spite of national regulations prohibiting them indicating a failure of monitoring and/or enforcement. Where countries have enacted instruments to prohibit health and other claims in infant formula advertising, the marketing of infant formula must be actively monitored to be effective.

  15. Lead and iron status of breast and formula-fed infants

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, A.H.; Kasler, J.S.; Shrock, R.O.; Signs, S.A.

    1981-06-01

    We examined the iron and lead status of breast-fed and formula-fed infants from birth through the first year of life. Not only has the adequacy of iron intake of breast and formula-fed infants been questioned but also the contamination of breast milk with environmental pollutants such as Pb. In addition, it is believed that a state of Fe deficiency may promote the absorption of Pb. We compared the blood Pb and Fe levels of 23 breast-fed and 23 formula-fed infants whose mothers were enrolled in a longitudinal study determining the effects of maternal nutritional and environmental factors on the infants' subsequent growth and development. Serum iron, TIBC and %SAT values were obtained at 6 and 12 mo. Additional biochemical values including Pb and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentrations were obtained at birth and 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 mo. Iron status was similar at 6 mo for the breast-fed and formula-fed infants, but somewhat higher for the breast-fed infants at 12 mo (NS). Results indicate no differences in Pb or EP status between breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Biochemical values were within normal limits. We conclude that dietary intake of Pb and Fe by infants whether breast-feeding or formula-feeding reflects adequate Fe status and apparent safe Pb state.

  16. Mineral retention in three-week-old piglets fed goat and cow milk infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, S M; Darragh, A J; Hendriks, W H; Prosser, C G; Lowry, D

    2006-12-01

    Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula with respect to mineral absorption and deposition using the 3-wk-old piglet as a model for the 3-mo-old infant. Equal numbers of piglets (n = 8) were fed either the goat milk formula or the cow milk formula. The mineral composition of the prepared goat milk formula was higher than that of the prepared cow milk formula for most minerals, including calcium (75.1 vs. 56.7 mg/100 mL) but excluding iron, which was higher in the prepared cow milk formula (0.92 vs. 0.74 mg/100 mL). The amounts of calcium, phosphorus, and manganese absorbed by the piglets were significantly higher for the goat milk formula, whereas the amounts of zinc, iron, and magnesium absorbed were significantly higher for the cow milk formula. Apparent mineral absorption, relative to intake, was statistically higher in the cow milk formula for calcium and phosphorus, although the actual differences were very small (less than 1.3%). For copper, zinc, iron, and magnesium there was no significant difference between treatments in apparent mineral absorption, whereas for manganese, absorption was higher for the goat milk infant formula. The absolute mineral deposition was higher in piglets fed the goat milk formula for calcium, phosphorus, and manganese, whereas iron deposition was higher in the piglets fed cow milk formula. For all other minerals tested, there were no significant differences between treatments. The goat milk infant formula provided a pattern of mineral retention in the 3-wk-old piglet very similar to that of the adapted cow milk infant formula. The minor differences observed between the 2 appeared to be due to the different mineral contents of the 2 formulas.

  17. Soy Protein-Based Infant Formulas with Supplemental Fructooligosaccharides: Gastrointestinal Tolerance and Hydration Status in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lasekan, John; Baggs, Geraldine; Acosta, Sonja; Mackey, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Unlike milk-based infant formulas, soy-based infant formulas containing supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have not been clinically evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, 28 day parallel feeding trial compared gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and hydration in healthy term newborn infants fed either a commercialized soy formula (with history of safe use) containing sucrose as 20% of total carbohydrate, no supplemental short-chain FOS (scFOS) and no mixed carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene) as a control (CF, n = 62 infants) or one of two experimental soy-based formulas, EF1 (n = 64) and EF2 (n = 62) containing scFOS (2.5 g/L) and mixed carotenoids. EF1 differed from EF2 by containing sucrose. Results indicated no significant study group differences (p > 0.05) in study completion rates (CF = 81, EF1 = 86, & EF2 = 87%), growth, mean rank stool consistency, stool frequency, formula intake, spit-up/vomit, and safety measures (urine specific gravity, USG; hydration status and adverse events). Mean USGs for study groups were normal (<1.03). The EF1 > CF group in percent yellow stools (p < 0.01 at age 14 days). In conclusion, the study suggested that term infants fed soy-based formulas supplemented with scFOS and mixed carotenoids, with or without sucrose in the 1st 35 days of infancy demonstrated good tolerance and hydration comparable to the control soy-based formula with history of safe use. PMID:25912040

  18. Soy protein-based infant formulas with supplemental fructooligosaccharides: gastrointestinal tolerance and hydration status in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Lasekan, John; Baggs, Geraldine; Acosta, Sonja; Mackey, Amy

    2015-04-22

    Unlike milk-based infant formulas, soy-based infant formulas containing supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have not been clinically evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, 28 day parallel feeding trial compared gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and hydration in healthy term newborn infants fed either a commercialized soy formula (with history of safe use) containing sucrose as 20% of total carbohydrate, no supplemental short-chain FOS (scFOS) and no mixed carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene) as a control (CF, n = 62 infants) or one of two experimental soy-based formulas, EF1 (n = 64) and EF2 (n = 62) containing scFOS (2.5 g/L) and mixed carotenoids. EF1 differed from EF2 by containing sucrose. Results indicated no significant study group differences (p > 0.05) in study completion rates (CF = 81, EF1 = 86, & EF2 = 87%), growth, mean rank stool consistency, stool frequency, formula intake, spit-up/vomit, and safety measures (urine specific gravity, USG; hydration status and adverse events). Mean USGs for study groups were normal (<1.03). The EF1 > CF group in percent yellow stools (p < 0.01 at age 14 days). In conclusion, the study suggested that term infants fed soy-based formulas supplemented with scFOS and mixed carotenoids, with or without sucrose in the 1st 35 days of infancy demonstrated good tolerance and hydration comparable to the control soy-based formula with history of safe use.

  19. Tolerance, bone mineral content, and serum vitamin D concentration of term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey-based infant formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to assess the tolerance (intake, incidence of spit up/vomit, and stool patterns), bone mineral status, and vitamin D status of healthy, term infants fed one of two partially hydrolyzed bovine whey protein infant formulas from birth to 56 or 84 days of age. The control ...

  20. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula, and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.13.

    PubMed

    Golay, Pierre-Alain; Moulin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on AOAC First Action Method 2012.13 "Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products and Infant Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography," which is based on an initial International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-International Dairy Federation (IDF) New Work Item that has been moved forward to ISO 16958:2015|IDF 231:2015 in November 2015. It was decided to merge the two activities after the agreement signed between ISO and AOAC in June 2012 to develop common standards and to avoid duplicate work. The collaborative study was performed after having provided highly satisfactory single-laboratory validation results [Golay, P.A., & Dong, Y. (2015) J. AOAC Int. 98, 1679-1696] that exceeded the performance criteria defined in AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR(®)) 2012.011 (September 29, 2012) on 12 products selected by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula (SPIFAN). After a qualification period of 1 month, 18 laboratories participated in the fatty acids analysis of 12 different samples in duplicate. Six samples were selected to meet AOAC SPIFAN requirements (i.e., infant formula and adult nutritionals in powder and liquid formats), and the other Six samples were selected to meet ISO-IDF requirements (i.e., dairy products such as milk powder, liquid milk, cream, butter, infant formula with milk, and cheese). The fatty acids were analyzed directly in all samples without preliminary fat extraction, except in one sample (cheese). Powdered samples were analyzed after dissolution (i.e., reconstitution) in water, whereas liquid samples (or extracted fat) were analyzed directly. After addition of the internal standards solution [C11:0 fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and C13:0 triacylglycerols (TAG)] to the samples, fatty acids attached to lipids were transformed into FAMEs by direct transesterification using methanolic sodium methoxide. FAMEs were separated using highly polar capillary GLC and were

  1. Forms and Amounts of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formula: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Greibe, Eva; Nexo, Ebba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Infant formula is based on cow’s milk and designed to mimic breast milk for substitution. Vitamin B12 (B12) is bound to proteins in both breast milk and cow’s milk, and in milk from both species the vitamin occurs mainly in its natural form such as hydroxo-B12 with little or no synthetic B12 (cyano-B12). Here we test commercially available infant formulas. Methods Eleven commercially available infant formulas were measured for content of B12 and analyzed for the presence of B12-binding proteins and forms of B12 using size exclusion chromatography and HPLC. Results All infant formulas contained B12 by and large in accord with the informations given on the package inserts. None of the formulas contained protein-bound B12, and cyano-B12 accounted for 19–78% of the total amount of B12 present, while hydroxo-B12 constituted more or less the rest. Conclusions This pilot study shows that infant formula differs from breast milk in providing the infant with free B12, rather than protein-bound B12, and by a relative high content of cyano-B12. The consequence of supplying the infant with synthetic cyano-B12 remains to be elucidated. PMID:27851744

  2. Soy-based formulae and infant growth and development: a review.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Michelle A; Anthony, Mary S; Arab, Lenore

    2002-08-01

    Soy-based infant formulae, initially developed for infants who were lactose intolerant or allergic to cow's milk-based formulae, now account for >25% of the infant formulae sold in the United States. Formulations have changed over the years to improve digestibility, the stability and availability of minerals, and protein quality. Recent concerns have been raised regarding the phytoestrogenic isoflavone content of soy-based formulae. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate various measures of infant health and development in clinical studies comparing modern soy-based formulae with other diets and to document areas in which further research seems warranted. Results suggest that modern soy-based formulae support normal growth and nutritional status in healthy term infants in y 1 of life. However, there are very limited data on sexual and reproductive development or outcomes such as immune function, visual acuity/cognitive development and thyroid function. Available data do not provide evidence of meaningful differences in timing of maturation, sexual development or fertility in adolescents or adults. Nonetheless, given evidence suggesting that early exposure to soy and/or isoflavones might have long-term effects, further research following infants fed soy-based formulae into adulthood is warranted.

  3. Estimated Exposure to Arsenic in Breastfed and Formula-Fed Infants in a United States Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Carignan, Courtney C.; Jackson, Brian P.; Farzan, Shohreh F.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Punshon, Tracy; Folt, Carol L.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that concentrations of arsenic in breast milk are relatively low even in areas with high drinking-water arsenic. However, it is uncertain whether breastfeeding leads to reduced infant exposure to arsenic in regions with lower arsenic concentrations. Objective: We estimated the relative contributions of breast milk and formula to arsenic exposure during early infancy in a U.S. population. Methods: We measured arsenic in home tap water (n = 874), urine from 6-week-old infants (n = 72), and breast milk from mothers (n = 9) enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using data from a 3-day food diary, we compared urinary arsenic across infant feeding types and developed predictive exposure models to estimate daily arsenic intake from breast milk and formula. Results: Urinary arsenic concentrations were generally low (median, 0.17 μg/L; maximum, 2.9 μg/L) but 7.5 times higher for infants fed exclusively with formula than for infants fed exclusively with breast milk (β = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.83; p < 0.0001, adjusted for specific gravity). Similarly, the median estimated daily arsenic intake by NHBCS infants was 5.5 times higher for formula-fed infants (0.22 μg/kg/day) than for breastfed infants (0.04 μg/kg/day). Given median arsenic concentrations measured in NHBCS tap water and previously published for formula powder, formula powder was estimated to account for ~ 70% of median exposure among formula-fed NHBCS infants. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that breastfed infants have lower arsenic exposure than formula-fed infants, and that both formula powder and drinking water can be sources of exposure for U.S. infants. Citation: Carignan CC, Cottingham KL, Jackson BP, Farzan SF, Gandolfi AJ, Punshon T, Folt CL, Karagas MR. 2015. Estimated exposure to arsenic in breastfed and formula-fed infants in a United States cohort. Environ Health Perspect 123:500–506;

  4. Determination of vitamin A (retinol) in infant formula and adult nutritionals by liquid chromatography: First Action 2011.15.

    PubMed

    DeVries, Jonathan W; Silvera, Karlene R; McSherry, Elliot; Dowell, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    During the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting," held on June 29, 2011, an Expert Review Panel (ERP) reviewed the method for the "Determination of Vitamins A (Retinol) and E (alpha-Tocopherol) in Foods by Liquid Chromatography: Collaborative Study," published by Jonathan W. DeVries and Karlene R. Silvera in J. AOAC Int. in 2002. After evaluation of the original validation data, an ERP agreed in June 2011 that the method meets standard method performance requirements (SMPRs) for vitamin A, as articulated by the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals. The ERP granted the method First Action status, applicable to determining vitamin A in ready-to-eat infant and adult nutritional formula. In an effort to achieve Final Action status, it was recommended that additional information be generated for different types of infant and adult nutritional formula matrixes at varied concentration levels as indicated in the vitamin A (retinol) SMPR. Existing AOAC LC methods are suited for specific vitamin A analytical applications. The original method differs from existing methods in that it can be used to assay samples in all nine sectors of the food matrix. One sector of the food matrix was powdered infant formula and gave support for the First Action approval for vitamin A in infant and adult nutritional formula. In this method, standards and test samples are saponified in basic ethanol-water solution, neutralized, and diluted, converting fats to fatty acids and retinol esters to retinol. Retinol is quantitated by an LC method, using UV detection at 313 or 328 nm for retinol. Vitamin concentration is calculated by comparison of the peak heights or peak areas of retinol in test samples with those of standards.

  5. Effects of cow milk versus extensive protein hydrolysate formulas on infant cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.; Trabulsi, Jillian C.; Papas, Mia A.

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on infant developmental effects, other than growth, of formulas that differ substantially in the form of protein. To examine development of infants fed formulas differing in free amino acid content, we randomized 0.5-month-old infants (n=79) to either a control group who fed only cow milk formula (CMF) during the first 8 months (CMF8), or to one of two experimental groups: one experimental group fed extensively protein hydrolyzed formula (EHF) for 1–3 months during first 4.5 months (EHF1-3) of life, and the other fed EHF for 8 months (EHF8). The Mullen Scales of Early Learning were administered monthly from 1.5 to 8.5 months to assess fine (FM) and gross (GM) motor control, receptive (RL) and expressive (EL) language, visual reception (VR), and an early learning composite (ELC). Across the 5.5–8.5 month time period, when compared to CMF8 infants, GM scores in EHF1-3 infants averaged 1.5 points higher (95% CI: 0.1, 3.0) and in EHF8 infants 2.2 points higher (95% CI: 0.3, 4.0). Similarly, VR scores averaged 1.9 points higher (95% CI: 0.1, 3.8) in EHF1-3 infants and 2.2 points higher (95% CI: −0.2, 4.5) in EHF8 infants. EHF8 infants RL scores averaged 1.8 points lower (95% CI: 0.1, 3.6) than CMF8 infants. These data suggest that the form of protein in infant formula may impact cognitive development and that the higher free amino acid content in breast milk may be a contributing factor to the differential cognitive development between breastfed and CMF-fed infants. Clinical Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov NCT00994747. PMID:26497857

  6. Webinar Presentation: Effects of Formula Supplementation on the Composition of the Infant Microbiome

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Effects of Formula Supplementation on the Composition of the Infant Microbiome, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Food and Children's Health held on Dec. 9, 2015.

  7. Preterm formula use in the preterm very low birth weight infant.

    PubMed

    Hay, William W; Hendrickson, Kendra C

    2017-02-01

    Whereas human milk is the recommended diet for all infants, preterm formulas are indicated for enteral feeding of preterm very low birth weight infants when sufficient maternal breast milk and donor human milk are not available. Feeding with preterm formulas helps to ensure consistent delivery of nutrients. The balance of risks and benefits of feeding preterm formulas versus supplemented maternal and donor breast milk for preterm infants, however, is uncertain. Numerous studies and extensive practice have shown improved growth with preterm formulas, but there is concern for increased risks of necrotizing enterocolitis, possibly from cow milk antigen in the formulas or from different gut microbiomes, increased duration of total parenteral nutrition, and increased rates of sepsis in infants receiving preterm formulas. Furthermore, whereas preterm formulas improve neurodevelopmental outcomes compared to term formulas and unfortified donor milk, they do not produce neurodevelopmental outcomes better than fortified human milk, again indicating that maternal milk has unique properties that formulas need to mimic as closely as possible.

  8. Disinfection methods used in decontamination of bottles used for feeding powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Elizabeth; Griffith, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Infant susceptibility and the risks posed by infections associated with bottle-fed powdered infant formula (PIF) have received increased attention in recent years. Intrinsic contamination of PIF with pathogens has been reported and extrinsic contamination can be introduced from the handler or the environment during reconstitution. Recommended disinfection advice and bottle decontamination have changed in recent years and the aim of this study was to validate the efficacy of four current disinfection methods using bottles that had contained reconstituted PIF spiked with either a representative mixed bacterial culture or specific pathogens. Initially, bottles (n = 6) of reconstituted formula were spiked with 10(5) cfu/ml representative mixed culture. For subsequent experiments, reconstituted formula was spiked with either 10(2) and 10(4) cfu/ml of Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter), Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Before disinfection, bottles were cleaned according to recommended guidelines. Disinfection procedures tested included a hypochlorite-based chemical solution and three heat-based methods. Bottles were sampled in four sites. Before cleaning and disinfection, the inner screw cap and inner-teat were the most heavily contaminated sites with 1.6-7.4 x 10(3) cfu/per-area-sampled; the bottle interior was more contaminated overall with 1.2 x 10(4) cfu/per-area-sampled. After disinfection, adherence to recommended procedures (combined with good hygiene) enabled effective decontamination to be achieved using all methods. Small differences in disinfection ability were not significant (p > 0.05). Cumulatively, 800 sites were sampled and no B. cereus or E. sakazakii were isolated. S. aureus was isolated from 0.1% of sites with one site exceeding 1 cfu/ml. Findings indicate the potential for bottle contamination and that strict adherence to four currently used methods allowed effective decontamination. This highlights the importance of effective consumer

  9. [Determination of nucleotides in infant formula milk powder by ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ye, Mingli; Pan, Guangwen; Hu, Zhongyang; Wang, Qiong

    2010-09-01

    A method was developed for the determination of nucleotides in infant formula milk powder by ion chromatography (IC). The separation was performed on an IonPac AS16 column with KOH solution as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and 25 degrees C. The detection wavelength was set at 260 nm and the sample injection volume was 25 microL. There were good linear relationships between the mass concentrations and the peak areas of cytidine monophosphate (CMP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), uridine monophosphate (UMP), inosine monophosphate (IMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP) in the ranges of 0.09-50, 0.06-50, 0.06-50, 0.09-50, 0.06-50 mg/L, respectively. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) of CMP, AMP, UMP, IMP and GMP were 0.03, 0.02, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.02 mg/L, respectively. The method has been applied for the determination of the five nucleotides in infant formula milk powder with the recoveries of 92.5%-102.4%. This method is rapid, simple and suitable for the determination of real samples.

  10. Modernization of AOAC Nutrient Methods by Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Darryl

    2016-01-01

    Infant formula is one of the most highly regulated products in the world. To comply with global regulations and to ensure the products are manufactured within product specifications, accurate analytical testing is required. Most of the AOAC INTERNATIONAL legacy test methods for infant formula were developed and validated in the 1980s and 1990s. Although these methods performed very well for many years, infant formulas have been updated, and today's products contain many new and novel ingredients. There were a number of cases in which the legacy AOAC methods began to result in problems with the analysis of modern infant formulas, and the use of these methods caused some disputes with regulatory agencies. In 2010, AOAC reached an agreement with the International Formula Council, which has changed its name to the Infant Nutrition Council of America, regarding a project to modernize these AOAC infant-formula test methods. This agreement led to the development of Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs(®)) for 28 nutrients. After SMPR approval, methods were collected, evaluated, validated, and approved through the AOAC Official Methods(SM) process. Forty-seven methods have been approved as AOAC First Action Methods, and eight have been approved as Final Action.

  11. Comparison of the Compositions of the Stool Microbiotas of Infants Fed Goat Milk Formula, Cow Milk-Based Formula, or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Gowri Pathmanathan, Siva; Zhou, Shao J.; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A.; Sullivan, Thomas; Prosser, Colin G.; Lowry, Dianne; Hodgkinson, Alison J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milk-fed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained. PMID:23455335

  12. A metabolic balance study in term infants fed lactose-containing or lactose-free formula.

    PubMed

    Moya, M; Lifschitz, C; Ameen, V; Euler, A R

    1999-11-01

    Lactose-free (L-) formulas are recommended for infants with conditions affecting lactose digestion. Cows' milk protein-based formulas containing other carbohydrate sources are most often used for such infants. This study compared fat absorption and absorption and retention of nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium in term infants fed either a L- or standard lactose-containing (L+) bovine milk protein-based formula. Data from three single-centre, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group metabolic balance studies were combined. After a 4-7-d equilibration period on either L- or L+ formula, a 72-h balance study was performed. Twenty infants received L- and 21 received L+ formula. Besides the L- group having a higher percentage of males (65%) and the L+ group a higher percentage of females (52.4%), other baseline measurements were similar. The majority of nutrient balance data was similar between the two groups. Exceptions were relative nitrogen absorption, calcium intake and calcium retention, magnesium retention, and faecal phosphorus excretion, all of which were significantly higher in the L- group. Vitamin D supplementation did not significantly affect either calcium or phosphorus data. This new L- formula provided similar nutrients and is a suitable alternative to a L+ formula in term infants requiring L- feedings.

  13. Decreasing retinol and α-tocopherol concentrations in human milk and infant formula using varied bottle systems.

    PubMed

    Francis, Jimi; Rogers, Kristy; Dickton, Darby; Twedt, Roxanna; Pardini, Ron

    2012-04-01

    Expressing human milk has become a more common alternative for mothers, as the average work demand has increased. As more mothers must work, bottle feeding trends are increasingly common. The handling and storage of human milk introduce the risk of degradation to expressed human milk and infant formula. In following a 20-minute simulated feeding, Vitamin C has been found to degrade. Vitamin C acts as an anti-oxidant and is responsible for shielding other nutrients from oxidation, such as retinol and alpha-tocopherol. By analyzing a 20-minute simulated feeding, retinol and alpha-tocopherol each displayed decreases over time significantly different than that of the Control, which was milk not exposed to bottle feeding. In human milk, retinol showed as high as a 9.5% decrease compared to the Control. Similar trends were seen with the infant formula samples. The correlation between degradation and bottle feeding systems was dependent upon the formation of bubbles in the milk as the milk was removed from the bottle. The analysis indicated a decrease of up to 12%, as seen in retinol, and 35%, as seen in alpha-tocopherol. These decreases in retinol and alpha-tocopherol should be considered when using a bottle feeding system to deliver either human milk or formula to an infant. More research is necessary to determine the effect of this decrease on the nutritional status of infants, particularly premature infants, who are at higher risk for nutrient deficiencies.

  14. Growth of Enterobacter sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula as affected by composition and temperature.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Beuchat, Larry R

    2007-09-01

    The ability of Enterobacter sakazakii to cause infections in infants, coupled with its documented presence in some lots of commercially manufactured powdered infant formula, raises a concern about the potential for its growth in reconstituted formula, with consequent increased safety risk. A study was done to determine these characteristics in four commercial milk-based powdered infant formulas and two soy-based formulas reconstituted with water and inoculated with a 10-strain mixture of E. sakazakii at populations of 0.02 and 0.53 CFU/ml (ca. 13 CFU/100 g and ca. 409 CFU/100 g of powdered formula, respectively). Reconstituted formulas were stored at 4, 12, 21, and 30 degrees C, and populations were monitored up to 72 h. E. sakazakii did not grow in formulas stored at 4 degrees C, although it was detected by enrichment of all formulas 72 h after reconstitution. Initially at a population of 0.02 CFU/ml, E. sakazakii grew to populations > or = 1 log CFU/ml of reconstituted formulas held at 12, 21, and 30 degrees C for 48, 12, and 8 h, respectively. At an initial population of 0.53 CFU/ml, the pathogen grew to populations > or = 1 log CFU/ml in reconstituted infant formula held at 12 and 21 degrees C for 24 and 8 h, respectively, and to populations 2.55 to 3.14 log CFU/ml when held at 30 degrees C for 8 h. Populations initially at 0.02 and 0.53 CFU/ml of reconstituted formula increased to < or = 0.25 and 0.4 log CFU/ml, respectively, when formulas were held at 30 degrees C for 4 h. Growth was not greatly influenced by the composition of formulas. Results show that the hang time for reconstituted infant formula held at temperatures in neonatal intensive care units should be no longer than 4 h. Portions of reconstituted infant formula not fed to infants should be stored at < or = 4 degrees C, a temperature at which E. sakazakii will not grow.

  15. Growth kinetics and model comparison of cronobacter sakazakii in reconstituted powdered infant formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a life-threatening bacterium, primarily implicated in illnesses associated with the consumption of powdered infant formula (PIF). It can cause rare but invasive infections, leading to sepsis, meningitis, or necrotizing enterocolitis in infants fed with contaminated PIF. Th...

  16. NTP-CERHR expert panel report on the developmental toxicity of soy infant formula.

    PubMed

    McCarver, Gail; Bhatia, Jatinder; Chambers, Christina; Clarke, Robert; Etzel, Ruth; Foster, Warren; Hoyer, Patricia; Leeder, J Steven; Peters, Jeffrey M; Rissman, Emilie; Rybak, Michael; Sherman, Claire; Toppari, Jorma; Turner, Katie

    2011-10-01

    Soy infant formula contains soy protein isolates and is fed to infants as a supplement to or replacement for human milk or cow milk. Soy protein isolates contains estrogenic isoflavones (phytoestrogens) that occur naturally in some legumes, especially soybeans. Phytoestrogens are nonsteroidal, estrogenic compounds. In plants, nearly all phytoestrogens are bound to sugar molecules and these phytoestrogen-sugar complexes are not generally considered hormonally active. Phytoestrogens are found in many food products in addition to soy infant formula, especially soy-based foods such as tofu, soy milk, and in some over-the-counter dietary supplements. Soy infant formula was selected for National Toxicology Program (NTP) evaluation because of (1) the availability of large number of developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals exposed to the isoflavones found in soy infant formula (namely, genistein) or other soy products, as well as few studies on human infants fed soy infant formula, (2) the availability of information on exposures in infants fed soy infant formula, and (3) public concern for effects on infant or child development. On October 2, 2008 (73 FR 57360), the NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) announced its intention to conduct an updated review of soy infant formula to complete a previous evaluation that was initiated in 2005. Both the current and previous evaluations relied on expert panels to assist the NTP in developing its conclusions on the potential developmental effects associated with the use of soy infant formula, presented in the NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula. The initial expert panel met on March 15 to 17, 2006, to reach conclusions on the potential developmental and reproductive toxicities of soy infant formula and its predominant isoflavone constituent genistein. The expert panel reports were released for public comment on May 5, 2006 (71 FR 28368). On November 8, 2006 (71 FR 65537), CERHR staff released

  17. Randomized trial of exclusive human milk versus preterm formula diets in extremely premature infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare the duration of parenteral nutrition, growth, and morbidity in extremely premature infants fed exclusive diets of either bovine milk-based preterm formula (BOV) or donor human milk and human milk-based human milk fortifier (HUM), in a randomized trial of formula vs human...

  18. Body composition of infants fed breast-milk, milk-based formula or soy-based formula during the first 6 months of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Literature on the impact of infant feeding on body composition is sparse and inconclusive. We assessed body composition in infants exclusively fed breast-milk (BF), milk-based formula (MF) or soy-based formula (SF) for at least the first 4 months of life. Participants are part of the on-going prosp...

  19. Body fat and bone mineral content of infants fed breast-milk, cow's-milk formula, or soy formula during the first year of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to characterize growth, fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), and bone mineral content (BMC) longitudinally in breast-fed (BF), cow's milk formula-fed (CMF), or soy formula-fed (SF) healthy infants during the first year of life. Infants were assessed at ages 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo. Growt...

  20. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide do not affect iron absorption from formula in healthy term infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron absorption from infant formula is relatively low. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide have been suggested to enhance mineral absorption. We therefore assessed the effect of alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide on iron absorption from infant formula in healthy term infants. ...

  1. [Determination of lutein in infant formula milk powder using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Huang, Junrong; Zhang, Li; Feng, Feng; Ling, Yun; Chu, Xiaogang; Li, Hongliang

    2013-12-01

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (U-HPLC) method for the determination of lutein in the infant formula milk powder was developed. The sample was extracted with acetone and defatted using freezing centrifugation method. The U-HPLC separation was achieved using a YMC Carotenoid C30 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 3 microm) with the mixture of methanol/methyl tert-butyl ether (70: 30, v/v) as the mobile phase under isocratic elution. The flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and the column oven temperature was 25 degrees C. The injection volume was 5 microL. It was detected on a photodiode array detector at a wavelength of 445 nm. The results showed that the linear range was 20-500 microg/L (r = 0.9999), and the limit of quantification was 20 microg/L. The mean recoveries of lutein varied from 97.9% to 104.4% spiked at 50, 250 and 2,000 microg/kg. The established method is simple, accurate and sensitive for the rapid determination of lutein in infant formula milk powder.

  2. Effects of Fructans from Mexican Agave in Newborns Fed with Infant Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Parra-Ortiz, Minerva; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; García-Torres, Itzhel; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Alcántara-Ortigoza, Miguel Angel; González-del Angel, Ariadna; Velázquez-Aragón, José; Ortiz-Hernández, Rosario; Cruz-Rubio, José Manuel; Villa-Barragán, Pablo; Jiménez-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background: The importance of prebiotics consumption is increasing all over the world due to their beneficial effects on health. Production of better prebiotics from endemic plants raises possibilities to enhance nutritional effects in vulnerable population groups. Fructans derived from Agave Plant have demonstrated their safety and efficacy as prebiotics in animal models. Recently, the safety in humans of two fructans obtained from Agave tequilana (Metlin® and Metlos®) was demonstrated. Methods: This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy as prebiotics of Metlin® and Metlos® in newborns of a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with a pilot study design. Biological samples were taken at 20 ± 7 days, and three months of age from healthy babies. Outcomes of efficacy include impact on immune response, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, bone metabolism, and gut bacteria changes. Results: There were differences statistically significant for the groups of infants fed only with infant formula and with formula enriched with Metlin® and Metlos®. Conclusions: Our results support the efficacy of Metlin® and Metlos® as prebiotics in humans, and stand the bases to recommend their consumption. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 01251783. PMID:26529006

  3. Comparison Among Commonly Available Infant Formula Milks in the Iraqi Market

    PubMed Central

    Mikhael, Ehab Mudher

    2015-01-01

    Breast-feeding is the best method of feeding infants. In some cases, formula milk can be a suitable alternative, so this study aimed to compare the safety and nutritional adequacy of commonly available formula milks in the Iraqi market. An observational study for the commonly available formula milks was conducted in the largest supermarkets of Baghdad, Iraq, during January-March 2015. The macronutrient and micronutrient contents as presented in the label of each type of formula milk was compared with the standard requirement of formula milk according to the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) guidelines. Dielac formula milk is the commonest formula milk in the Iraqi market, with the lowest price when compared with other formula milks. All infant formula milks (Similac, Guigoz, and S-26 Gold) except Dielac have the mandatory contents within the specified ranges, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. Dielac lacks more than 1 of the major mandatory contents besides lacking all optional contents in its formula. Guigoz formula milk lacks the optional ingredients arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and nucleotides. Similac milk was supplemented with a higher-than-specified level of nucleotides, and its l-carnitine contents were not declared. Only S26 Gold formula milk contained all mandatory and optional ingredients within the specified range, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. In conclusion, no formula milk can resemble breast milk; however, S26 Gold formula milk is the most acceptable formula, and Dielac formula milk is the worst. Therefore, it is recommended that Dielac be withdrawn from the Iraqi market. PMID:27335982

  4. SN2-Palmitate Reduces Fatty Acid Excretion in Chinese Formula-fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Lifshitz, Yael; Cohen, Tzafra; Malard, Patrice; Xu, Chungdi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Palmitic acid (PA) comprises 17% to 25% of human milk fatty acids, of which 70% to 75% are esterified to the SN2 position of the triglyceride (SN2-palmitate). In vegetable oils, which are commonly used in infant formulas, palmitate is primarily esterified to other positions, resulting in reduced calcium and fat absorption and hard stools. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of SN2-palmitate on nutrient excretion. Methods: In total, 171 Chinese infants were included (within 14 days of birth) in this multicenter study. Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either SN2-palmitate formula (INFAT, n = 57) or control formula (n = 57). The formulas (Biostime, China) differed only in their SN2 PA proportions. Stool was collected at 6 postnatal weeks. Results: The stool dry weight and fat content of the SN2-palmitate group were lower compared with the control group (dry weight 4.25 g vs 7.28 g, P < 0.05; fat 0.8 g vs 1.2 g, P < 0.05). The lipid component was also significantly lower for the SN2-palmitate group (0.79 g vs 1.19 g, P < 0.05). PA, representing ∼50% of the saponified fatty acids, was significantly lower in the SN2-palmitate group compared with the control group (0.3 g vs 0.7 g, P < 0.01). Breast-fed infants had a significantly lower stool dry weight, fat content, and saponified fat excretion compared with formula-fed infants (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Similar to breast milk, the SN2-palmitate infant formula primarily reduced calcium-saponified fat excretion. The results of this study further emphasize the nutritional importance of SN2-palmitate structured fat for infants. PMID:26334255

  5. Perchlorate exposure from infant formula and comparisons with the perchlorate reference dose.

    PubMed

    Schier, Joshua G; Wolkin, Amy F; Valentin-Blasini, Lisa; Belson, Martin G; Kieszak, Stephanie M; Rubin, Carol S; Blount, Benjamin C

    2010-05-01

    Perchlorate exposure may be higher in infants compared with older persons, due to diet (infant formula) and body weight versus intake considerations. Our primary objective was to quantitatively assess perchlorate concentrations in commercially available powdered infant formulas (PIFs). Secondary objectives were: (1) to estimate exposure in infants under different dosing scenarios and compare them with the perchlorate reference dose (RfD); (2) estimate the perchlorate concentration in water used for preparing PIFs that would result in a dose exceeding the RfD; and (3) estimate iodine intakes from PIFs. We quantified perchlorate levels in three samples (different lot numbers) of reconstituted PIF (using perchlorate-free water) from commercial brands of PIF in each of the following categories: bovine milk-based with lactose, soy-based, bovine milk-based but lactose-free, and elemental (typically consisting of synthetic amino acids). Exposure modeling was conducted to determine whether the RfD might be exceeded in 48 dosing scenarios that were dependent on age, centile energy intake per unit of body weight, body weight percentile, and PIF perchlorate concentration. We obtained three different samples in each of the five brands of bovine- and soy-based PIF, three different samples in each of the three brands of lactose-free PIF, and three different samples in two brands of elemental PIF. The results were as follows: bovine milk-based with lactose (1.72 microg/l, range: 0.68-5.05); soy-based (0.21 microg/l, range: 0.10-0.44); lactose-free (0.27 microg/l, range: 0.03-0.93); and elemental (0.18 microg/l, range: 0.08-0.4). Bovine milk-based PIFs with lactose had a significantly higher concentration of perchlorate (P<0.05) compared with all. Perchlorate was a contaminant of all commercially available PIFs tested. Bovine milk-based PIFs with lactose had a significantly higher perchlorate concentration perchlorate than soy, lactose-free, and elemental PIFs. The perchlorate Rf

  6. Two cases of hemorrhagic diarrhea caused by Cronobacter sakazakii in hospitalized nursing infants associated with the consumption of powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Flores, J Parra; Medrano, S Arvizu; Sánchez, J Silva; Fernández-Escartín, E

    2011-12-01

    Two cases of acute gastroenteritis occurred in 5-month-old infants hospitalized in a mother-and-child hospital in Queretaro, Mexico, on 24 January 2010. C. sakazakii was recovered from the powdered infant formula (PIF), rehydrated PIF (R-PIF) fed to infants, and their fecal samples. The microorganism was present at levels of 0.33 most probable number (MPN)/g and 24 MPN/ml in PIF and R-PIF, respectively. The total ingested dose for the day before the onset of the diarrheic syndrome ranged between 2,160 and 3,600 MPN/ml. All strains of C. sakazakii recovered from the three sources (R-PIF, PIF, and fecal matter) showed identical biotypes, adhesion and invasiveness factors, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. No deaths were observed. Salmonella, Shigella, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli were not found in food or fecal samples.

  7. Soy-based infant formula supplemented with DHA and ARA supports growth and increases circulating levels of these fatty acids in infants.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Dennis; Ziegler, Ekhard; Mitmesser, Susan H; Harris, Cheryl L; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    Healthy term infants (n = 244) were randomized to receive: (1) control, soy-based formula without supplementation or (2) docosahexaenoic acid-arachidonic acid (DHA + ARA), soy-based formula supplemented with at least 17 mg DHA/100 kcal (from algal oil) and 34 mg ARA/100 kcal (from fungal oil) in a double-blind, parallel group trial to evaluate safety, benefits, and growth from 14 to 120 days of age. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age and 24-h dietary and tolerance recall were recorded at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Adverse events were recorded throughout the study. Blood samples were drawn from subsets of 25 infants in each group. Capillary column gas chromatography was used to analyze the percentages of fatty acids in red blood cell (RBC) lipids and plasma phospholipids. Compared with the control group, percentages of fatty acids such as DHA and ARA in total RBC and plasma phospholipids were significantly higher in infants in the DHA + ARA group at 120 days of age (P < 0.001). Growth rates did not differ significantly between feeding groups at any assessed time point. Supplementation did not affect the tolerance of formula or the incidence of adverse events. Feeding healthy term infants soy-based formula supplemented with DHA and ARA from single cell oil sources at concentrations similar to human milk significantly increased circulating levels of DHA and ARA when compared with the control group. Both formulas supported normal growth and were well tolerated.

  8. Iron nutritional status in preterm infants fed formulas fortified with iron

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, I.; Cooke, R.; Reid, M.; McCormick, K.; Smith, J.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To prospectively evaluate the iron nutritional status of preterm infants fed either a term (0.5 mg/dl iron) or preterm (0.9mg/dl) formulas fortified with iron after hospital discharge.
METHODS—Healthy low birthweight preterm infants were randomly assigned into three groups at the time of hospital discharge. Group A were fed an iron fortified preterm formula (0.9 mg/dl iron) until 6 months corrected age; group B, a fortified term formula (0.5 mg/l iron) until 6 months corrected age group C, the preterm formula between hospital discharge and term, then the term formula until 6 months corrected age.
RESULTS—Seventy eight infants were followed up to 6 months corrected age. Iron intake from formula differed significantly between the groups (A, 1.17 mg/kg/day (SD 0.32) > C, 0.86 mg/kg/day (SD 0.40) = B, 0.81 mg/kg/day (SD 0.23); p < 0.0001). Haemoglobin concentrations were similar to those of iron sufficient preterm infants of the same postnatal age, and term infants of the same postmenstrual age (after 3 months of age). There were no significant differences in haemoglobin concentration (p = 0.391), plasma ferritin (A vs B, p = 0.322), or in the incidence of iron deficiency (A vs B, p = 0.534).
CONCLUSIONS—Iron fortified formulas containing between 0.5 and 0.9 mg/dl iron seem to meet the iron nutritional needs of preterm infants after hospital discharge.

 PMID:10375362

  9. A randomised multicentre study of human milk versus formula and later development in preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, A; Morley, R; Cole, T J; Gore, S M

    1994-01-01

    Whether breast milk influences later neurodevelopment has been explored in non-randomised studies, potentially confounded by social and demographic differences between feed groups. Here in a strictly randomised prospective multicentre trial, Bayley psychomotor and mental development indices (PDI and MDI) were assessed at 18 months postterm in survivors of 502 preterm infants assigned to receive, during their early weeks, mature donor breast milk or a preterm formula. These diets were compared as sole enteral feeds or as supplements to the mother's expressed breast milk. No differences in outcome at 18 months were seen between the two diet groups despite the low nutrient content of donor milk in relation to the preterm formula and to the estimated needs of preterm infants. These results contrast with those reported from our parallel two centre study that compared infants randomly assigned a standard term formula or the preterm formula during their early weeks; those fed standard formula, now regarded as nutritionally insufficient for preterm infants, were substantially disadvantaged in PDI and MDI at 18 months post-term. It is shown here that infants from that study fed solely on standard formula had significantly lower developmental scores at 18 months than those fed on donor breast milk in the present study; yet the standard formula had a higher nutrient content than the donor milk. Thus, donor milk feeding was associated with advantages for later development that may have offset any potentially deleterious effects of its low nutrient content for preterm infants. As these outcome advantages were not confounded by the social and educational biases usually associated with mothers' choice to breast feed, our data add significant support to the view that breast milk promotes neurodevelopment. PMID:8154907

  10. A new sample preparation and separation combination for precise, accurate, rapid, and simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, and B9 in infant formula and related nutritionals by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cellar, Nicholas A; McClure, Sean C; Salvati, Louis M; Reddy, Todime M

    2016-08-31

    An improved method was developed for simultaneous determination of the fortified forms of thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), and folic acid (B9) in infant formulas and related nutritionals. The method employed a simple, effective, and rapid sample preparation followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It improved upon previous methodologies by offering facile and rugged sample preparation with improved chromatographic conditions, which culminated in a highly accurate and precise method for water-soluble vitamin determination in a wide range of formulas. The method was validated over six days in ten unique matrices with two analysts and on instruments in two different labs. Intermediate precision averaged 3.4 ± 2.6% relative standard deviation and over-spike recovery averaged 100.2 ± 2.4% (n = 160). Due to refinements in sample preparation, the method had high sample throughput capacity.

  11. Copper absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas using a suckling rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Loennerdal, B.B.; Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Since copper deficiency is known to occur during infancy, it becomes important to assess copper uptake from various infant diets. The authors have investigated the uptake of copper from human milk, cow's milk, cow's milk formulas, cereal/milk formula and soy formula, compensating for the decay of /sup 64/Cu and using the suckling rat as a model. Radiocopper was added to the diet in trace amounts. Ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, and gel filtration were used to show that the added /sup 64/Cu bound to milk fractions and individual binding compounds in a manner analogous to the distribution of native copper, thus validating the use of extrinsically labeled diets. Labeled diets were intubated into 14-day-old suckling rats. Animals were killed after 6 h and tissues removed and counted. Liver copper uptake was 25% from human milk, 23% from cow's milk formula, 18% from cow's milk, 17% from premature (cow's milk based) infant formula, 17% from cereal/milk formula and 10% from soy formula. These results show that the rat pup model may provide a rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive method to assay bioavailability of copper from infant foods.

  12. Determination of the phospholipid content of human milk, cow's milk and various infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Kynast, G; Schmitz, C

    1988-12-01

    The phospholipid (PL) content of human milk, cow's milk, and various infant formulas was determined by recently developed high performance liquid chromatography (6). As the examinations promised, the content of phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and sphingomyelin (SP) was not changed by homogenization and pasteurization of cow's milk. Levels of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) were below the detection limit. Furthermore it has been proved that human milk and cow's milk are more or less identical in PL content. Some of the PL in human milk varies during the course of pregnancy and postpartum. PI, PC, and SP content in the prepartum mammarial secretion lies above the average content of mature human milk after delivery. Before the contractions start, all the PL examined show a more or less considerable decrease. PC drops to 30% of the value at the beginning of the examination six weeks before delivery. PG contents are very low throughout the whole period. Contrary to the others, PC content recovers three weeks after delivery, which may be the result of the endogenous surfactant replacement system. To compare PL content with human milk and cow's milk, 13 different infant formulas have been examined. There are considerable differences to be found in and among adapted milk, partially adapted milk, and special formulas. None of the PL examined could be found in all the infant formulas, where PG content was usually low, except in some Milupa formulas. PE and PI were not to be found in some special formulas. Most of the formulas contain high amounts of SP, in some cases higher than the amount of PC. To a certain extent infant formulas contain a considerably greater amount of other PL concentrations than human milk and cow's milk. In most of the formulas examined the PL content is generally so high, that it can be used as a source of PL for the newborn.

  13. Rapid determination of thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and niacinamide in infant formulas by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Woollard, David C; Indyk, Harvey E

    2002-01-01

    A simplified, simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in supplemented infant formulas was developed from a single deproteinized sample extract, with analysis by reversed-phase, ion-pair chromatography with an acidified methanol-water mobile phase. The dioctylsulfosuccinate counter-ion facilitates unique retention of the pyridine-based vitamins (niacinamide and pyridoxine) and allows for concurrent measurement of both the pyridoxal and riboflavin 5'-phosphate endogenous components of milk. Other naturally occurring undetected vitamin congeners have minimal analytical significance. UV detection is used for niacinamide, and programmed fluorescence detection is used for riboflavin and the B6 vitamins. Thiamine is routinely determined sequentially under modified elution conditions.

  14. [Phytic phosphorus and phytase activity in cereal-based infant formulas].

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Alvaro; Villavicencio, Iraidis; Linares, Zoraida

    2012-12-01

    Phytic acid is an organic acid present in cereal grains. The phosphorus inside its molecule (PPhy) is not available because of its low solubility, though the bioavailability could be increased by the activity of phytase enzymes (PhyA). With the purpose of quantifying the PPhy and PhyA in supplements manufactured from cereals and intended for lactating infants, five formulas of wide distribution in local markets were selected and identified depending on the main vegetable ingredients as A (rice), T (wheat), ATS (rice, wheat and soy isolate), ATM (rice, wheat and maize) and ATMS (rice, wheat, maize and soy isolate). Five samples were taken from each formula, each one corresponded to a commercial brand (400 to 500 g), coming from different batches and before their expiration date. The crude protein ranged from 7.2 to 16.8%, with de highest value for ATS and the lowest for T and ATM (P < 0.01). Ether extract varied from 0.31 to 0.75%, while the calcium: phosphorus ratio from 1.6 for ATM, to 1.1 for the rest. The PPhy was 61.5% of the total phosphorus in T, with differences (P < 0.01) compared to the other formulas (39.9 +/- 6.8%). PhyA was only detected in ATS, T and ATM (152, 300 and 570 U/kg, respectively). The chemical composition complied with the manufacturer report, with a high content of PPhy and PhyA associated to the wheat presence in the formula.

  15. Quantitative determination of bovine caseinoglycomacropeptide in infant formulas by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingshun; Ren, Yiping; Ma, Zhenyi; Huang, Baifen; Cai, Zengxuan; Li, Duo

    2011-10-01

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry method has been developed for determining caseinoglycomacropeptide (CGMP) in infant formulas by selected ion reaction and area monitoring modes. The present study focused on the optimization of sample pretreatment, chromatographic resolution and mass spectrometry parameters. After a simple sample pretreatment, the two genetic variants of caseinoglycomacropeptide, CGMP(A) and CGMP(B), were separated using a BEH300 C(18) column by gradient elution. The established method was extensively validated by determining the linearity (R(2)>0.999), average recovery (95.8-118.4%), inter-day precision (relative standard deviation ≤7.81%) and intra-day precision (relative standard deviation ≤6.99%) based on two scan modes. To further verify the applicability of the method, 21 brands of commercial available infant formulas were analyzed. The results showed that the present method is selective, sensitive and reliable for separating and quantifying two genetic variants (CGMP(A) and CGMP(B)) of caseinoglycomacropeptide in infant formulas with complex matrix.

  16. Determination of dicyandiamide in infant formula by stable isotope dilution hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Koichi; Sakamoto, Tasuku; Min, Jun Zhe; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2014-08-01

    Dicyandiamide is a compound for reducing the negative effects of greenhouse gas emissions and nitrate leaching into waterways. In this study, the trace contamination of dicyandiamide in infant formula was analysed by stable isotope dilution hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). Dicyandiamide and a stable isotope internal standard were monitored by multiple reaction-monitoring with mass transitions: m/z 85→68/43 and m/z 89→71/45 in the electrospray positive ion mode. For sample preparation of the infant formula, a diluted/filtered procedure was developed for this assay. The calculated LOD and LOQ values were 0.01 or 0.05ng/mL for the standard solution, respectively. The averaged recovery and precision were 110.8% and 7.4%, respectively. This assay was applied to monitor 23 infant formulas, and the dicyandiamide contamination in one sample was detected and quantified at 79.1±1.2ng/g (ppb) powder. We suggest that it is necessary to cautiously monitor the DCD in common products from international countries.

  17. Infant digestion physiology and the relevance of in vitro biochemical models to test infant formula lipid digestion.

    PubMed

    Poquet, Laure; Wooster, Tim J

    2016-08-01

    Lipids play an important role in the diet of preterm and term infants providing a key energy source and essential lipid components for development. While a lot is known about adult lipid digestion, our understanding of infant digestion physiology is still incomplete, the greatest gap being on the biochemistry of the small intestine, particularly the activity and relative importance of the various lipases active in the intestine. The literature has been reviewed to identify the characteristics of lipid digestion of preterm and term infants, but also to better understand the physiology of the infant gastrointestinal tract compared to adults that impacts the absorption of lipids. The main differences are a higher gastric pH, submicellar bile salt concentration, a far more important role of gastric lipases as well as differences at the level of the intestinal barrier. Importantly, the consequences of improper in vitro replication of gastric digestions conditions (pH and lipase specificity) are demonstrated using examples from the most recent of studies. It is true that some animal models could be adapted to study infant lipid digestion physiology, however the ethical relevance of such models is questionable, hence the development of accurate in vitro models is a must. In vitro models that combine up to date knowledge of digestion biochemistry with intestinal cells in culture are the best choice to replicate digestion and absorption in infant population, this would allow the adaptation of infant formula for a better digestion and absorption of dietary lipids by preterm and term infants.

  18. Lead intoxication from lead-contaminated water used to reconstitute infant formula

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, M.; Graef, J.W. )

    1989-08-01

    The lead found in drinking water can be a source of lead poisoning to young children, particularly those who consume large amounts of water. The authors describe a 13-month-old infant who was discovered to have plumbism during routine evaluation. The lead source was ultimately traced to the daily administration of powdered formula which was prepared with home tap water having a first-draw lead content of 130 parts per billion. This case suggests that whenever infants are fed powdered formula, consideration should be given to analysis of the home tap water for lead content.

  19. Nonthermal Inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii in Infant Formula Milk: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pina-Pérez, M C; Rodrigo, D; Martínez, A

    2016-07-26

    Up-to-date, nonthermal technologies and combinations of them, in accordance with the "hurdle technology" concept, are being applied by different research groups in response to calls by the International Food and Human Health Organizations (ESPGHAN, 2004; FAO/WHO, 2006, 2008) for alternatives to thermal control of Cronobacter sakazakii in reconstituted powdered infant formula milk. This review highlights (i) current knowledge on the application of nonthermal technologies to control C. sakazakii in infant formula milk and (ii) the importance of the application of nonthermal technologies for the control of C. sakazakii as part of the development of strategies in the context of improving food safety and quality of this product.

  20. The structure of infant formulas impacts their lipolysis, proteolysis and disintegration during in vitro gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Bourlieu, Claire; Ménard, Olivia; De La Chevasnerie, Alix; Sams, Laura; Rousseau, Florence; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Robert, Benoît; Deglaire, Amélie; Pezennec, Stéphane; Bouhallab, Saïd; Carrière, Frédéric; Dupont, Didier

    2015-09-01

    Milk lipids supply most of the calories necessary for newborn growth in maternal milk or infant formulas. The chemical composition of infant formulas has been optimized but not the structure of the emulsion. There is still a major difference between the native emulsions of milk fat globules and processed submicronic emulsions in infant formulas. This difference may modify the kinetics of digestion of emulsions in newborns and influence lipid metabolism. To check this, semi-dynamic gastric in vitro digestions were conducted on three matrices: a standardized milk emulsion containing native milk fat globules referred to as minimally-processed emulsion and two processed model infant formulas (homogenized or homogenized/pasteurized). Gastric conditions mimicked those reported in newborns. The minimally-processed emulsion was lipolyzed and proteolyzed slower than processed formulas. The difference in initial structure persisted during digestion. The surface of the droplets was the key parameter to control gastric lipolysis kinetics, the pattern of released fatty acids and proteolysis by faster hydrolysis of adsorbed proteins.

  1. Potential of selected infant food formulas for production of Bacillus cereus emetic toxin, cereulide.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Ranad; Andersson, Maria A; Apetroaie, Camelia; Schulz, Anja; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Ollilainen, Veli-Matti; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2006-04-01

    Cereulide producing Bacillus cereus was isolated from randomly chosen commercial infant foods. The cereulide production in infant food formulas was investigated. When the reconstituted foods were inoculated with >10(5) cfu ml(-1) of cereulide producing B. cereus, 2 to 200 microg of cereulide per 100 ml of food accumulated during 24 h of non-refrigerated storage. The amount of cereulide measured in the foods by the accurate chemical assay (LC-MS) matched with that found by sperm micro assay, proving the cereulide was the sole heat stable toxin in the foods and present in its toxic form. The infant formulas containing both cereal and dairy ingredients were the most supportive for cereulide production. Cereulide accumulation was affected by the infant food composition as well as by the handling of the food. Diluting the reconstituted food with water resulted in increased toxin production expressed as mug per volume. More cereulide was accumulated when the food was incubated stationary compared with moderate shaking. The amount of cereulide accumulated within 24 h at room temperature per 100 ml of cereal and dairy or in rice-nondairy reconstituted infant formulas, inoculated with >or=10(5) cfu ml(-1) of B. cereus strain F4810/72, was higher or similar to the amounts reported for foods implicated in emetic type of food poisonings. Thus mishandling and temperature abuse of infant foods may cause food poisoning when emetic B. cereus is present.

  2. Formula-fed full term infants have lower fractional absorption but greater total calcium absorption than human milk-fed infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The fatty acid (FA) profile of infant formula resembles the FA profile of human milk (HM), but the % of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of the triglyceride in infant formula is lower than that of HM, and this may limit calcium (Ca) absorption. Objective: We sought to evaluate the effe...

  3. Total calcium absorption is similar from infant formulas with and without prebiotics and exceeds that in human milk-fed infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal was to evaluate calcium absorption in infants fed a formula containing prebiotics (PF) and one without prebiotics (CF), and to compare calcium absorption from these formulas with a group of human milk-fed (HM) infants. A dual tracer stable isotope method was used to assess calcium absorptio...

  4. Should Partial Hydrolysates Be Used as Starter Infant Formula? A Working Group Consensus.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Alarcon, Pedro; Fleischer, David; Hernell, Olle; Kolacek, Sanja; Laignelet, Hugo; Lönnerdal, Bo; Raman, Rita; Rigo, Jacques; Salvatore, Silvia; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria; Szajewska, Hania; Van Goudoever, Hans J; von Berg, Andrea; Lee, Way S

    2016-01-01

    Partially hydrolyzed formulas (pHFs) are increasingly used worldwide, both in the prevention of atopic disease in at-risk infants and in the therapeutic management of infants with functional gastrointestinal manifestations. Because prevention is always preferable to treatment, we reviewed the literature aiming to find an answer for the question whether pHF may be recommended for feeding all infants if breast-feeding is not possible. PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched up to December 2014. In addition, to search for data that remained undetected by the searches, we approached authors of relevant articles and major producers of pHFs asking for unpublished data. Because few data were found, nonrandomized, controlled trials and trials in preterm infants were included as well. Overall, only limited data could be found on the efficacy and safety of pHF in healthy term infants. Available data do not indicate that pHFs are potentially harmful for healthy, term infants. With respect to long-term outcomes, particularly referring to immune, metabolic and hormonal effects, data are, however, nonexistent. From a regulatory point of view, pHFs meet the nutrient requirements to be considered as standard formula for term healthy infants. Cost, which is different from country to country, should be considered in the decision-making process. Based on limited available data, the use of pHF in healthy infants is safe with regard to growth. The lack of data, in particular for metabolic consequences and long-term outcomes, is, however, the basis for our recommendation that health authorities should develop and support long-term follow-up studies. Efficacy and long-term safety data are required before a recommendation of this type of formula for all infants can be made.

  5. Severe acquired cytomegalovirus infection in a full-term, formula-fed infant: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cases of cytomegalovirus colitis are exceptionally reported in immuno-competent infant. The pathogenesis is uncertain but breast-feeding is considered as a main source of postnatal infection. Case Presentation Here we report a full-term, formula-fed infant who developed a severe cytomegalovirus anaemia and colitis when aged 2 months. Conclusion Even if the molecular identity between the cytomegalovirus-isolate of the infant and the maternal virus could not be demonstrated, we confirmed through laboratory investigation that cytomegalovirus infection was acquired postnatally. However, the source of cytomegalovirus infection remained unclear. Alternative modes of cytomegalovirus transmission are discussed. PMID:21645352

  6. Intestinal absorption of the antiepileptic drug substance vigabatrin is altered by infant formula in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Nøhr, Martha Kampp; Thale, Zia I; Brodin, Birger; Hansen, Steen H; Holm, René; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

    2014-01-01

    Vigabatrin is an antiepileptic drug substance mainly used in pediatric treatment of infantile spasms. The main source of nutrition for infants is breast milk and/or infant formula. Our hypothesis was that infant formula may affect the intestinal absorption of vigabatrin. The aim was therefore to investigate the potential effect of coadministration of infant formula with vigabatrin on the oral absorption in vitro and in vivo. The effect of vigabatrin given with an infant formula on the oral uptake and transepithelial transport was investigated in vitro in Caco-2 cells. In vivo effects of infant formula and selected amino acids on the pharmacokinetic profile of vigabatrin was investigated after oral coadministration to male Sprague–Dawley rats using acetaminophen as a marker for gastric emptying. The presence of infant formula significantly reduced the uptake rate and permeability of vigabatrin in Caco-2 cells. Oral coadministration of vigabatrin and infant formula significantly reduced Cmax and prolonged tmax of vigabatrin absorption. Ligands for the proton-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1, sarcosine, and proline/l-tryptophan had similar effects on the pharmacokinetic profile of vigabatrin. The infant formula decreased the rate of gastric emptying. Here we provide experimental evidence for an in vivo role of PAT1 in the intestinal absorption of vigabatrin. The effect of infant formula on the oral absorption of vigabatrin was found to be due to delayed gastric emptying, however, it seems reasonable that infant formula may also directly affect the intestinal absorption rate of vigabatrin possibly via PAT1. PMID:25505585

  7. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants

    SciTech Connect

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T.; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Nagler, Cathryn R.

    2015-09-22

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow’s milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. As a result, our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut.

  8. Growth of healthy term infants fed ready-to-feed and powdered forms of an extensively hydrolyzed casein-based infant formula: a randomized, blinded, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Borschel, Marlene W; Baggs, Geraldine E; Barrett-Reis, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    Extensively hydrolyzed formulas present a complex matrix subject to adverse conditions during manufacture that could influence growth and tolerance of infants fed these formulas. A masked, randomized, parallel growth study was conducted in infants fed a ready-to-feed (RTF) or powdered (PWD) form of an extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula. Infants were enrolled between 0 and 9 days and studied to 112 days of age. Growth, formula intake, and stool patterns were assessed. There were no significant differences between groups in weight, length, head circumference, or their respective gains. Tolerance was similar between groups except that the RTF group had greater formula intakes and passed more stools/day compared to the PWD group. This study demonstrates that the PWD formulation of this RTF formula supports similar growth and tolerance in infants during the first 4 months of life.

  9. Cognitive and neurodevelopmental benefits of extended formula-feeding in infants: re: Deoni et al. 2013.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ariana; Burggren, Alison

    2014-10-15

    The recent Deoni et al. (2013) manuscript proposed that breastfeeding was associated with increased cognitive ability and white-matter in older children (over 26 months), using ms-DESPOT MRI imaging to indirectly measure white matter in children who were either breastfed, formula fed, or combined breast+formula fed. In this response, we identify limitations in drawing causal inference among white matter, cognitive ability, and breastfeeding. We propose that the observed cognitive and neurodevelopmental differences between breastfed and formula-fed infants might actually be caused by the premature introduction of cow's milk in the second year of life, among other contributing factors. The implication of a causal relationship between intelligence and white matter metrics, especially in a developmentally young population, is premature given the recency of this field. The original analyses did not control for important covariates; when comparing both white matter and test scores, mothers were not controlled for age and socio-economic status (SES) and their children were not controlled for gender. Raw test scores, instead of age-adjusted test scores, were used even though the children were of different ages. Mothers were not controlled for reason(s) not to breastfeed, even though many prenatal factors are known to predict this such as stress, parity, obesity, and smoking habits. The observed cognitive ability and white matter benefits identified primarily within the long-term breastfed children are at least partially attributable to other factors such as age, gender, and SES. We suggest methodological approaches to removing such ambiguity, and ways to dissociate cause from effect. The formula and breastfeeding groups didn't show differences until the "formula fed" children likely had been fed cow's milk for longer than they had been fed formula, at 2.2 years. The greatest cognitive differences however were observed within the high SES breastfed infants depending on

  10. Growth and Tolerance Assessment of a Lutein-fortified Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Igor Ya.; Gmoshinskaya, Maria V.; Safronova, Adilya I.; Alarcon, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate safety, gastrointestinal tolerance, and growth of a new experimental starter formula (NESF) fortified with lutein, prebiotics, probiotics, nucleotides and beta-carotene, fed to infants within the first months of life. Methods This was a non-randomized, open, uncontrolled study conducted from December 2010 to May 2011. Twenty-three healthy infants aged 10 days to 2 months old were enrolled. Outcomes included gastrointestinal tolerance, physical growth and safety. Prior to the initiation of the trial, the Scientific Research Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences confirmed that the NESF met all safety and nutritional parameters. Results NESF was well tolerated. The majority of infants fed this formula passed semi-liquid, yellow or yellow-brown. The mean stool frequency/day was 2.5±0.4 on study-day 14 and 1.8±0.5 on study-day 28. The mean daily weight gain was 30.9±3.8 grams and the mean length gain during the 28 days of follow up was 3.1±0.8 cm, corresponding to the average physical growth normally seen in the first months of life in Russian infants. Six children left the study: one refused to drink the formula, one left the study as parents changed residence; and one child's parents have recalled their informed consent due to adverse event unrelated to the product. Three infants presented adverse events possibly related to the product (rash; colic and abdominal pain; constipation). Seventeen infants completed the trial. Conclusion This study demonstrated that lutein-fortified formula is safe, well-tolerated and supported physical growth of evaluated infants. PMID:25061586

  11. Compared with feeding infants breast milk or cow-milk formula, soy formula feeding does not affect subsequent reproductive organ size at 5 years of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract Background: Literature reports suggest that phytochemicals, such as isoflavones found in soybeans, impair reproductive function in animals and raise the possibility that consuming soy infant formula could alter hormonally sensitive organ development in children. Objective: This study compar...

  12. Genotyping and Source Tracking of Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus Isolates from Powdered Infant Formula and an Infant Formula Production Factory in China.

    PubMed

    Fei, Peng; Man, Chaoxin; Lou, Binbin; Forsythe, Stephen J; Chai, Yunlei; Li, Ran; Niu, Jieting; Jiang, Yujun

    2015-08-15

    Cronobacter spp. (formerly defined as Enterobacter sakazakii) are opportunistic bacterial pathogens of both infants and adults. In this study, we analyzed 70 Cronobacter isolates from powdered infant formula (PIF) and an infant formula production facility in China to determine possible contamination routes. The strains were profiled by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PCR-based O-antigen serotyping, and ompA and rpoB sequence analyses. The isolates were primarily Cronobacter sakazakii (66/70) or Cronobacter malonaticus (4/70). The strains were divided into 38 pulsotypes (PTs) using PFGE and 19 sequence types (STs) by MLST. In contrast, rpoB and ompA sequence analyses divided the strains into 10 overlapping clusters each. PCR serotyping of the 66 C. sakazakii and 4 C. malonaticus strains resulted in the identification of four C. sakazakii serotypes (O1, O2, O4, and O7) and a single C. malonaticus serotype, O2. The dominant C. sakazakii sequence types from PIF and an infant formula production factory in China were C. sakazakii clonal complex 4 (CC4) (n = 19), ST1 (n = 14), and ST64 (n = 11). C. sakazakii CC4 is a clonal lineage strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. In the process of manufacturing PIF, the spray-drying, fluidized-bed-drying, and packing areas were the main areas with Cronobacter contamination. C. sakazakii strains with the same pulsotypes (PT3 and PT2) and sequence types (ST1 and ST64) were isolated both from processing equipment and from the PIF finished product.

  13. Certificate of Analysis, Standard Reference Material® 1849, Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard Reference material (SRM) 1849 is intended primarily for validation of methods for determining proximates, fatty acids, vitamins, elements and nucleotides in infant and adult nutritional formulas and similar materials. This SRM can also be used for quality assurance when assigning values to ...

  14. 78 FR 28854 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ..., quality control procedures, notification requirements, and recordkeeping. DATES: Submit either electronic... quality control procedures, notify us when a batch of infant formula that has left the manufacturers... enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (4) ways to minimize...

  15. 75 FR 23777 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... labeling, quality control procedures, notification requirements, and recordkeeping. DATES: Submit written.... 350a) requires manufacturers of infant formula to establish and adhere to quality control procedures... information, including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used; (3) ways to enhance the...

  16. Plasma selenium levels and dietary selenium intakes of formula-fed (FF) and cow's milk-fed (CMF) infants

    SciTech Connect

    Gropper, S.; Anderson, K.; Landing, W.; Acosta, P. Florida State Univ., Tallahassee Ross Labs., Columbus, OH )

    1990-02-26

    The plasma selenium concentrations of 57 infants eight to 12 months of age ingesting either cow's milk or milk-based infant formula as their primary beverage as part of a mixed diet for at least three months was assessed using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean ({plus minus}SD) daily dietary selenium intake of 26 cow's milk-fed infants (34{plus minus} 13 ug) was significantly greater than that of 31 formula-fed infants (22{plus minus}11 ug). The mean ({plus minus}SD) plasma selenium concentration of infants fed cow's mild (39{plus minus}11 ug/L) was also significantly greater than that of infants fed formula (31{plus minus}12 ug/L). Both groups of infants ingested similar total energy intakes; however, the infants fed cow's milk received more total protein and selenium and a greater percentage of protein and selenium from their primary beverage than the infants receiving formula. Both groups of infants were consuming a mixed diet with similar sources of selenium. These data suggest that cow's milk is a richer source of selenium than infant formulas.

  17. Effect of age on manganese uptake and retention from milk and infant formulas in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Keen, C.L.; Bell, J.G.; Loennerdal, B.

    1986-03-01

    Manganese nutrition of the neonate is poorly understood, due in part to a paucity of information on the amount and availability of manganese in infant foods. We have developed a suckling pup model to assess the uptake of manganese from fluid diets by using extrinsic labeling. Human milk, cow milk and infant formulas were fed by intubation to fasted rat pups and adults. Rats were killed after varying time periods, and tissues were removed and counted. A period of 6 h was found to be adequate to allow for stomach emptying while limiting tissue redistribution; 24 h was found to reflect pup manganese retention. From human milk, manganese retention was highest (greater than or equal to 80%) in pups less than or equal to 15 days of age; in older pups average retention decreased to 40%. Using d 14 pups to assess relative Mn uptake from diets, wholebody Mn uptake was highest from cow milk (approximately 89%); uptake from human and cow milk formula was similar (approximately 80%) whereas it was lower from soy formula (approximately 60%). These findings suggest that bioavailability of Mn from infant diets is very high during the suckling period. Since most formulas contain considerably more manganese than is found in human milk, Mn deficiency may be less of a concern than possible toxicity from formulas.

  18. Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk: Health, Nutrition, and Implications for Infant Formulas.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Breast milk confers many benefits to the newborn and developing infant. There is substantial support for better long-term outcomes, such as less obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants. More short-term outcomes, such as incidence and duration of illness, nutrient status, and cognitive development during the first year of life also demonstrate benefits of breastfeeding. Several proteins in breast milk, including lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, milk fat globule membrane proteins, and osteopontin, have been shown to have bioactivities that range from involvement in the protection against infection to the acquisition of nutrients from breast milk. In some cases, bovine counterparts of these proteins exert similar bioactivities. It is possible by dairy technology to add protein fractions highly enriched in these proteins to infant formula.

  19. Determination of Total Iodine in Infant Formula and Adult/ Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS): Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.15.

    PubMed

    Zywicki, Richard S; Sullivan, Darryl M

    2015-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to determine total iodine in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula by inductively coupled plasma-MS (ICP-MS) using AOAC First Action Official Method(SM) 2012.15. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the method's intralaboratory and interlaboratory performance and submit the results to AOAC INTERNATIONAL for adoption as a Final Action Official Method for the determination of total iodine in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. Upon providing acceptable results for practice samples National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849a and a low-fat adult nutritional powder, 13 laboratories analyzed seven various infant and adult nutritional products including a blind duplicate of each. Products were chosen with varying levels of iodine and included low-fat, soy-based, and milk-based formulas and NIST SRM 1849a. Random identification numbers were assigned to each of the seven fortified test materials. Digestion of the test samples occurred using a potassium hydroxide solution in an oven or open-vessel microwave system. Iodine was stabilized with ammonium hydroxide and sodium thiosulfate after digestion. The solutions were brought to volume followed by filtration. The filtrates were then analyzed by ICP-MS after dilution. Results for all seven test samples met all the AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR(®) 2012.008) guidelines. The RSDr ranged from 0.77 to 4.78% and the RSDR from 5.42 to 11.5%. The Horwitz ratio (HorRat) for each result was excellent, ranging from 0.35 to 1.31%. The results demonstrate that the method is fit-for-purpose to determine iodine in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula.

  20. Cortical Responses to Speech Sounds in 3- and 6-Month-Old Infants Fed Breast Milk, Milk Formula, or Soy Formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of the three most common infant diets (breast milk, milk-based and soy-based formulas) on growth, behavioral development, and cortical responses (ERPs) to the consonant-vowel syllable /pa/, was examined in 130 healthy infants from an ongoing longitudinal study of 600 from birth through...

  1. Different pre-term formulas for different pre-term infants.

    PubMed

    Fanaro, Silvia; Ballardini, Elisa; Vigi, Vittorio

    2010-07-01

    Optimal nutrition is one of the most important aspects in the care of pre-term infants, especially for the gestationally youngest ones. These infants should receive a supply of nutrients that can sustain growth similar to that of a third trimester normal foetus. Traditional pre-term formulas do not ensure an optimal protein supply except when fed at high volumes, with an excess of fat and carbohydrates. Formulas with a protein content of 2-2.5 g 100ml(-1) and a protein/energy (P:E) ratio of less than 3g 100 kcal(-1) are not the best choice for the very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. We have tested a new formulation designed for the nutrition of the VLBW infants that is characterised by a protein content of 2.9 g 100ml(-1) and a P:E ratio of 3.5 g 100 kcal(-1). The milk formula was well tolerated and associated with better weight gain compared with fortified breast milk (18.1 vs. 15.2 g kg(-1)day(-1); p=0.0015). These results were obtained with a noticeably lower fluid supply (157 vs. 177 ml kg day(-1); p<0.0001) and lower energy intake (130 vs. 151 kcal kg(-1)day(-1); p<0.0001). Infant length and head circumference did not differ significantly between groups. Currently, the use of a formula with a P:E ratio of 3.5 g 100 kcal(-1) appears to be safe and to represent the best choice available for the gestationally youngest infants.

  2. Specific probiotics in enhancing maturation of IgA responses in formula-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Rautava, Samuli; Arvilommi, Heikki; Isolauri, Erika

    2006-08-01

    The first months of life represent a critical period for the maturation of the infant's immune system and, thus, a window of opportunity for measures to reduce the risk of disease. We hypothesized that specific probiotics might promote mucosal immunologic maturation in formula-fed infants. The numbers of cow's milk-specific and total IgA-secreting cells were measured at 3, 7, and 12 mo of age in a double-blind placebo-controlled study of 72 infants with early artificial feeding. The infants consumed infant formula supplemented with specific probiotics (Lactobacillus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12) or placebo during the first year of life. Further analyses of the serum concentrations of the IgA-inducing cytokine TGF-beta2 and the soluble innate microbial receptor sCD14 were conducted. The numbers of cow's milk-specific IgA secreting cells were significantly higher in infants receiving probiotics compared with those receiving placebo (p = 0.045, ANOVA for repeated measures). At 12 mo of age, the serum concentrations of sCD14 were 1479 pg/mL [95% confidence interval (CI) 1373-1592] in infants receiving probiotics and 1291 pg/mL (95% CI 1152-1445) in infants receiving placebo (p = 0.046). Administration of the probiotics Lactobacillus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 at the time of introduction of cow's milk in the infant's diet results in cow's milk-specific IgA antibody responsiveness that may be the result of increased production of sCD14.

  3. Bone mineralization and vitamin D/calcium daily intake of infants fed breast-milk, milk-based formula or soy-based formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cross-sectional analysis of bone mineralization during the first year of life of infants (N=107) exclusively fed breast-milk (BF), milk-based formula (MF), or soy-based formula (SF) for at least the first 4 months of life was conducted. Participants were part of the longitudinal Beginnings study. ...

  4. Effects of Infant Formula With Human Milk Oligosaccharides on Growth and Morbidity: A Randomized Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Puccio, Giuseppe; Alliet, Philippe; Cajozzo, Cinzia; Janssens, Elke; Corsello, Giovanni; Sprenger, Norbert; Wernimont, Susan; Egli, Delphine; Gosoniu, Laura; Steenhout, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of infant formula supplemented with 2 human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) on infant growth, tolerance, and morbidity. Methods: Healthy infants, 0 to 14 days old, were randomized to an intact-protein, cow's milk–based infant formula (control, n = 87) or the same formula with 1.0 g/L 2′fucosyllactose (2′FL) and 0.5 g/L lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) (test, n = 88) from enrollment to 6 months; all infants received standard follow-up formula without HMOs from 6 to 12 months. Primary endpoint was weight gain through 4 months. Secondary endpoints included additional anthropometric measures, gastrointestinal tolerance, behavioral patterns, and morbidity through age 12 months. Results: Weight gain was similar in both groups (mean difference [95% confidence interval] test vs control: −0.30 [−1.94, 1.34] g/day; lower bound of 95% confidence interval was above noninferiority margin [−3 g/day]). Digestive symptoms and behavioral patterns were similar between groups; exceptions included softer stool (P = 0.021) and fewer nighttime wake-ups (P = 0.036) in the test group at 2 months. Infants receiving test (vs control) had significantly fewer parental reports (P = 0.004–0.047) of bronchitis through 4 (2.3% vs 12.6%), 6 (6.8% vs 21.8%), and 12 months (10.2% vs 27.6%); lower respiratory tract infection (adverse event cluster) through 12 months (19.3% vs 34.5%); antipyretics use through 4 months (15.9% vs 29.9%); and antibiotics use through 6 (34.1% vs 49.4%) and 12 months (42.0% vs 60.9%). Conclusions: Infant formula with 2′FL and LNnT is safe, well-tolerated, and supports age-appropriate growth. Secondary outcome findings showing associations between consuming HMO-supplemented formula and lower parent-reported morbidity (particularly bronchitis) and medication use (antipyretics and antibiotics) warrant confirmation in future studies. PMID:28107288

  5. Formula and scale for body surface area estimation in high-risk infants.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Youngmee

    2010-12-01

    Advances in medical technology and the health sciences have lead to a rapid increase in the prevalence and morbidity of high-risk infants with chronic or permanent sequels such as the birth of early preterm infants. A suitable formula is therefore needed for body surface area (BSA) estimation for high-risk infants to more accurately devise therapeutic regimes in clinical practice. A cohort study involving 5014 high-risk infants was conducted to develop a suitable formula for estimating BSA using four of the existing formulas in the literature. BSA of high-risk infants was calculated using the four BSA equations (Boyd-BSA, Dubois-BSA, Meban-BSA, Mosteller-BSA), from which a new calculation, Mean-BSA, was arithmetically derived as a reference BSA measure. Multiple-regression was performed using nonlinear least squares curve fitting corresponding to the trend line and the new equation, Neo-BSA, developed using Excel and SPSS 17.0. The Neo-BSA equation was constructed as follows: Neo-BSA = 5.520 x W(0.5526) x L(0.300). With the assumption of the least square root relation between weight and length, a BSA scale using only weight was fabricated specifically for clinical applications where weight is more available in high-risk infant populations than is length. The validity of Neo-BSA was evaluated against Meban-BSA, the best of the four equations for high-risk infants, as there is a similarity of subjects in the two studies. The other formulas revealed substantial variances in BSA compared to Neo-BSA. This study developed a new surface area equation, Neo-BSA, as the most suitable formula for BSA measurement of high-risk infants in modern-day societies, where an emerging population of newborns with shorten gestational ages are becoming more prevalent as a result of new advances in the health sciences and new development of reproductive technologies. In particular, a scale for 400-7000 g body weight babies derived from the Neo-BSA equation has the clinical advantage of

  6. Determination of Chloride in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Potentiometric Titration: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.07.

    PubMed

    Bolong, Wu; Fengxia, Zhang; Xiaoning, Ma; Fengjuan, Zhou; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2016-01-01

    A potentiometric method for determination of chloride was validated against AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR(®)) 2014.015. Ten AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) matrixes, including National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849a, were tested in duplicate on 6 independent days. The repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 0.43 to 1.34%, and the intermediate reproducibility (RSDiR) ranged from 0.80 to 3.04%. All results for NIST SRM 1849a were within the range of the certified concentration (701 ± 17 mg/100 g). Recovery was demonstrated with two overspike levels, 50 and 100%, in the 10 SPIFAN matrixes. Samples were tested in duplicate on 3 different days, and all results were within the SMPR requirement of 95 to 105%. The LOQs of the method for powdered products and ready-to-feed or reconstituted products were 20 mg/100 g and 2.2 mg/100 mL, respectively. A wide analytical range from the LOQ to 99.5% chlorine content can be reached with an appropriate dilution factor, but in practice, the upper analytical value observed in routine matrix testing was approximately 1080 mg/100 g in skim milk powder. This is a rapid, simple, and reliable chlorine-testing method applicable to infant formula, adult nutritionals, and ingredients used in these dairy-based products, such as skim milk powder, desalted whey powder, whey protein powder, and whole milk powder.

  7. Infants Fed a Lower Calorie Formula With 2′FL Show Growth and 2′FL Uptake Like Breast-Fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Marriage, Barbara J.; Buck, Rachael H.; Goehring, Karen C.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Williams, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the present study was to examine the growth and tolerance of infants fed infant formulas with a caloric density closer to human milk (HM) supplemented with human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and to study uptake of the HMOs. Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled, growth and tolerance study was conducted in healthy, singleton infants (birth weight ≥2490 g), who were enrolled by day of life (DOL) 5. Formula-fed infants were randomized to 1 of 3 formulas with a caloric density of 64.3 kcal/dL. Each formula contained galactooligosaccharides, and the 2 experimental formulas contained varying levels (0.2 and 1.0 g/L) of the HMO 2′-fucosyllactose (2′FL). The 3 formula groups were compared with an HM-fed reference group. Infants were exclusively fed either formula (n = 189) or HM (n = 65) from enrollment to 119 DOL. 2′FL was measured in the blood and urine collected from a subset of infants at DOL 42 and 119, and in HM collected from breast-feeding mothers at DOL 42. Results: There were no significant differences among any groups for weight, length, or head circumference growth during the 4-month study period. All of the formulas were well tolerated and comparable for average stool consistency, number of stools per day, and percent of feedings associated with spitting up or vomit. 2′FL was present in the plasma and urine of infants fed 2′FL, and there were no significant differences in 2′FL uptake relative to the concentration fed. Conclusions: This is the first report of infants fed 2′FL-fortified formulas with a caloric density similar to HM. Growth and 2′FL uptake were similar to those of HM-fed infants. PMID:26154029

  8. Neutral oligosaccharides in feces of breastfed and formula-fed infants at different ages.

    PubMed

    Dotz, Viktoria; Adam, Rüdiger; Lochnit, Günter; Schroten, Horst; Kunz, Clemens

    2016-12-01

    Beneficial effects have been proposed for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), as deduced from in vitro and animal studies. To date, in vivo evidence of the link between certain oligosaccharide structures in milk and their consumption by infant gut microbiota is still missing, although likely. Whereas many studies have described HMO patterns in human milk from larger cohorts, data on the excretion of HMO and possible metabolites produced in the infant gut are still very limited. From smaller-scale studies, an age-dependency according to infant gut maturation and microbiota adaptation has previously been hypothesized. To further investigate this, we profiled neutral fecal oligosaccharides from term-born infants who were exclusively breastfed, formula-fed or mixed-fed at the age of 2 months, and from a follow-up of a subgroup at 7 months of age (INFABIO study). Data on maternal antibiotic exposure was also included. Automated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of HMO and metabolites in the feces of most, but not all breastfed infants at 2 months, with highly varying patterns that appeared not to differ with maternal antibiotics exposure. Formula-fed infants at 2 months and most of the breastfed infants at 7 months did not excrete HMO-like structures in their feces, the latter corresponding to the hypothesis of age-dependency. Together with our previous results that were partly contradictory to what has been proposed by others, here, we suggest alternative explanations for the described association of oligosaccharide excretion with age and feeding type in infants below 7 months of age.

  9. Nitrite and Nitrate Concentrations and Metabolism in Breast Milk, Infant Formula, and Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jesica A.; Ninnis, Janet R.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T. Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G.; Blood, Arlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P < .01). Nitrate concentrations averaged 13.6 ± 3.7 μM and 12.7 ± 4.9 μM, respectively. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations in infant formulas varied from undetectable to many-fold more than breast milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ∼64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite. PMID:23894175

  10. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations and metabolism in breast milk, infant formula, and parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jesica A; Ninnis, Janet R; Hopper, Andrew O; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-09-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P < .01). Nitrate concentrations averaged 13.6 ± 3.7 μM and 12.7 ± 4.9 μM, respectively. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations in infant formulas varied from undetectable to many-fold more than breast milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ~64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite.

  11. Global standard for the composition of infant formula: recommendations of an ESPGHAN coordinated international expert group.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Baker, Susan; Cleghorn, Geoff; Neto, Ulysses Fagundes; Gopalan, Sarath; Hernell, Olle; Hock, Quak Seng; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Lonnerdal, Bo; Pencharz, Paul; Pzyrembel, Hildegard; Ramirez-Mayans, Jaime; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Zong-Yi, Ding

    2005-11-01

    The Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) develops food standards, guidelines and related texts for protecting consumer health and ensuring fair trade practices globally. The major part of the world's population lives in more than 160 countries that are members of the Codex Alimentarius. The Codex Standard on Infant Formula was adopted in 1981 based on scientific knowledge available in the 1970s and is currently being revised. As part of this process, the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses asked the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition to initiate a consultation process with the international scientific community to provide a proposal on nutrient levels in infant formulae, based on scientific analysis and taking into account existing scientific reports on the subject. ESPGHAN accepted the request and, in collaboration with its sister societies in the Federation of International Societies on Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, invited highly qualified experts in the area of infant nutrition to form an International Expert Group (IEG) to review the issues raised. The group arrived at recommendations on the compositional requirements for a global infant formula standard which are reported here.

  12. Influence of formulas with borage oil or borage oil plus fish oil on the arachidonic acid status in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Demmelmair, H; Feldl, F; Horváth, I; Niederland, T; Ruszinkó, V; Raederstorff, D; De Min, C; Muggli, R; Koletzko, B

    2001-06-01

    Several studies have reported that feeding gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) has resulted in no increase in arachidonic acid (AA) in newborns. This result was ascribed to the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich fish oil used in these formulas. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) sources with only minor amounts of EPA are now available, thus the addition of GLA to infant formulas might be considered an alternative to AA supplementation. Sixty-six premature infants were randomized to feeding one of four formulas [ST: no GLA, no long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; BO: 0.6% GLA (borage oil); BO + FOLOW: 0.6% GLA, 0.3% DHA, 0.06% EPA; BO + FOHIGH: 0.6% GLA, 0.3% DHA, 0.2% EPA] or human milk (HM, nonrandomized) for 4 wk. Anthropometric measures and blood samples were obtained at study entry and after 14 and 28 d. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric measures, tocopherol, and retinol status at any of the studied time points. The AA content of plasma phospholipids was similar between groups at study start and decreased significantly until day 28 in all formulafed groups, but not in the breast-fed infants [ST: 6.6 +/- 0.2%, BO: 6.9 +/- 0.3%, BO + FOLOW: 6.9 +/- 0.4%, BO + FOHIGH: 6.7 +/- 0.2%, HM: 8.6 +/- 0.5%, where values are reported as mean +/- standard error; all formulas significantly different (P< 0.05) from HM]. There was no significant influence of GLA or fish oil addition to the diet. GLA had only a very limited effect on AA status which was too small to obtain satisfactory concentrations (concentrations similar to breast-fed babies) under the circumstances tested. The effect of GLA on AA is independent of the EPA and DHA content in the diet within the dose ranges studied.

  13. Infant Formula Feeding at Birth Is Common and Inversely Associated with Subsequent Breastfeeding Behavior in Vietnam123

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuan T; Withers, Mellissa; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association between infant formula feeding at birth and subsequent feeding patterns in a low- or middle-income context is not clear. Objective: We examined the association of infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth with subsequent infant formula feeding and early breastfeeding cessation in Vietnam. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, we interviewed 10,681 mothers with children aged 0−23 mo (mean age: 8.2 mo; 52% boys) about their feeding practices during the first 3 d after birth and on the previous day. We used stratified analysis, multiple logistic regression, propensity score-matching analysis, and structural equation modeling to minimize the limitation of the cross-sectional design and to ensure the consistency of the findings. Results: Infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth (50%) was associated with a higher prevalence of subsequent infant formula feeding [stratified analysis: 7−28% higher (nonoverlapping 95% CIs for most comparisons); propensity score-matching analysis: 13% higher (P < 0.001); multiple logistic regression: OR: 1.47 (95% CI: 1.30, 1.67)]. This practice was also associated with a higher prevalence of early breastfeeding cessation (e.g., <24 mo) [propensity score-matching analysis: 2% (P = 0.08); OR: 1.33 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.59)]. Structural equation modeling showed that infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth was associated with a higher prevalence of subsequent infant formula feeding (β: 0.244; P < 0.001), which in turn was linked to early breastfeeding cessation (β: 0.285; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth was associated with increased subsequent infant formula feeding and the early cessation of breastfeeding, which underscores the need to make early, exclusive breastfeeding normative and to create environments that support it. PMID:27605404

  14. The potential mechanistic link between allergy and obesity development and infant formula feeding

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a new view of the cellular mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the links between infant formula feeding and the development of atopy and obesity. Epidemiological evidence points to an allergy- and obesity-preventive effect of breastfeeding. Both allergy and obesity development have been traced back to accelerated growth early in life. The nutrient-sensitive kinase mTORC1 is the master regulator of cell growth, which is predominantly activated by amino acids. In contrast to breastfeeding, artificial infant formula feeding bears the risk of uncontrolled excessive protein intake overactivating the infant’s mTORC1 signalling pathways. Overactivated mTORC1 enhances S6K1-mediated adipocyte differentiation, but negatively regulates growth and differentiation of FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs), which are deficient in atopic individuals. Thus, the “early protein hypothesis” not only explains increased mTORC1-mediated infant growth but also the development of mTORC1-driven diseases such as allergy and obesity due to a postnatal deviation from the appropriate axis of mTORC1-driven metabolic and immunologic programming. Remarkably, intake of fresh unpasteurized cow’s milk exhibits an allergy-preventive effect in farm children associated with increased FoxP3+ Treg numbers. In contrast to unprocessed cow’s milk, formula lacks bioactive immune-regulatory microRNAs, such as microRNA-155, which plays a major role in FoxP3 expression. Uncontrolled excessive protein supply by formula feeding associated with the absence of bioactive microRNAs and bifidobacteria in formula apparently in a synergistic way result in insufficient Treg maturation. Treg deficiency allows Th2-cell differentiation promoting the development of allergic diseases. Formula-induced mTORC1 overactivation is thus the critical mechanism that explains accelerated postnatal growth, allergy and obesity development on one aberrant pathway. PMID:25071855

  15. Estrogens in the daily diet: in vitro analysis indicates that estrogenic activity is omnipresent in foodstuff and infant formula.

    PubMed

    Behr, Maximilian; Oehlmann, Jörg; Wagner, Martin

    2011-10-01

    Food is a main source of exposure to endocrine active compounds, many of which have been linked to adverse health effects. Phytoestrogens, especially from soy, are the major dietary source of estrogenicity. However, foodstuff contains a variety of estrogen-like compounds that might not be detected analytically. To assess the total estrogenic activity of foodstuff, we employed the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES). We analyzed 18 food samples and five milk-based infant formulas. Soy-based products contained potent estrogenicity of 100-1500ng estradiol equivalents per kilogram (EEQ/kg). The estrogenicity in soy-free products was far lower (10-40ng EEQ/kg). We also detected significant estrogenic activity in three infant formulas (14-22ng EEQ/kg). Furthermore, we found soy lecithin to be strongly estrogenic. It might, therefore, be a major contributor to total estrogenicity. We conclude that dietary estrogens are omnipresent and not limited to soy-based food. In an exposure assessment we calculated a total dietary intake of 27.5 and 34.0ng EEQ/d for adults and 1.46ng EEQ/d for infants. While the dietary exposure to estrogenic activity is lower than previously estimated, our results demonstrate that many food types are a source of unidentified estrogen-like compounds still awaiting toxicological evaluation.

  16. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: First Action 2012.13.

    PubMed

    2015-06-24

    The method described below is intended for the quantification of all fatty acids, including commercially important groups of fatty acids used for labeling reasons (i.e., TFA, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, omega-3, omega-6, omega-9) and/or individual fatty acids (i.e., LA, ALA, ARA, EPA, DHA) in milk products, infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. These products often contain milk fat and/or vegetable oils, and are supplemented or not supplemented with oils rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The determination is performed by direct transesterification of ready-to-feed liquid concentrate or powder products, without prior fat extraction. The single laboratory validation (SLV) data was submitted to the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Expert Review Panel (ERP) for review at the AOAC INTERNATIONAL annual meeting held September 30 to October 3, 2012 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The ERP determined that the data reviewed met the Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR 2012.11) set by SPIFAN and was approved as an AOAC Official First Action. The analytical range for SPIFAN samples was between 0.001-7.94 g/100 g reconstituted product, or ready-to-feed liquid. The quantitation limit was estimated as 0.001 g/100 g, while repeatability and intermediate precision were both less than 1.8 % RSD above 0.05 g/100 g, and <3.5% RSD at 0.00 5g/100 g, respectively. Recovery values based on spiking experiments at two different levels of linoleic and linolenic acids ranged from 100.0% to 102.9% for 3 different SPIFAN products. All the parameters evaluated during the SLV were well within the values defined in SMPR 2012.011 (September 2012).

  17. Rapid Determination of L-carnitine in Infant and Toddler Formulas by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Kwak, Byung-Man; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Na-Kyeoung; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and simple analytical method for L-carnitine was developed for infant and toddler formulas by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A 0.3 g of infant formula and toddler formula sample was mixed in a 50 mL conical tube with 9 mL water and 1 mL 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) to chemical extraction. Then, chloroform was used for removing a lipid fraction. After centrifuged, L-carnitine was separated and quantified using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. The precursor ion for L-carnitine was m/z 162, and product ions were m/z 103 (quantitative) and m/z 85 (qualitative), respectively. The results for spiked recovery test were in the range of 93.18-95.64% and the result for certified reference material (SRM 1849a) was within the range of the certificated values. This method could be implemented in many laboratories that require time and labor saving.

  18. Rapid Determination of L-carnitine in Infant and Toddler Formulas by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Kwak, Byung-Man

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and simple analytical method for L-carnitine was developed for infant and toddler formulas by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A 0.3 g of infant formula and toddler formula sample was mixed in a 50 mL conical tube with 9 mL water and 1 mL 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) to chemical extraction. Then, chloroform was used for removing a lipid fraction. After centrifuged, L-carnitine was separated and quantified using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. The precursor ion for L-carnitine was m/z 162, and product ions were m/z 103 (quantitative) and m/z 85 (qualitative), respectively. The results for spiked recovery test were in the range of 93.18-95.64% and the result for certified reference material (SRM 1849a) was within the range of the certificated values. This method could be implemented in many laboratories that require time and labor saving. PMID:26761670

  19. Multi-dimension microchip-capillary electrophoresis device for determination of functional proteins in infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruige; Wang, Zhiping; Zhao, Wenfeng; Yeung, William Shu-Biu; Fung, Ying Sing

    2013-08-23

    To improve resolution of important minor proteins and eliminate time-consuming precipitation of major protein with associated analyte co-precipitation risk, a multi-dimension strategy is adopted in the 2D microchip-CE device to isolate major proteins on-chip, enrich minor proteins in capillary before their separation in CE for UV quantitation. A standard fluorescent protein mixture containing FITC-BSA, myoglobin and cytochrome as specific pI markers has prepared to demonstrate capability of the device to fractionate minor proteins by IEF. The results using a standard protein mixture with profile resembling infant milk formula show a complete isolation of high abundance proteins by a 2-min 1D IEF run. The subsequent t-ITP/CZE run by on-chip high voltage switching delivers a high stacking ratio, realizing 60 folds enrichment of isolated protein fractions. All five important functional proteins (LF, IgG, α-LA, β-LgA and β-LgB) known to fortify infant milk formula are isolated and determined using two consecutive t-ITP-CZE runs within a 18-min total assay time, a significant saving compared to several hours conventional pretreatment. For a 100g infant milk formula sample, working ranges of 20-8000mg, repeatability 3.8-5.3% and detection limits 2.3-10mg have been achieved to meet government regulations. Method reliability is established by 100% recoveries and agreeable results within expected ranges and labeled values. The capability of the device for field operation, rapid assay with quick results, label-free universal detection, simple operation by aqueous dissolution before injection, and the demanding matching in 2D separation based on isolated fractions at specified pI ranges, closely matched migration time and baseline-resolved peak shape makes the device a general tool to detect unknown proteins and determine known minor proteins in protein-rich samples with interfering constituents.

  20. Formula fed twin infants with recurrent hypocalcemic seizures with vitamin D deficient rickets and hyperphosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Byung Wook; Shim, Ye Jee; Choi, Jin Hyeok; Kim, Jun Sik; Lee, Hee Joung

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficient rickets is generally known to occur in breast fed infants. And excessive phosphate ingestion is a main cause of late onset hypocalcemia in formula fed infants. Here we introduce 45-day-old formula fed hypocalcemic twins with recurrent seizure attacks. They were diagnosed as having both of vitamin D deficient rickets and hyperphosphatemia. Radiologic findings indicated mild rickets and the twins were treated with calcium and alfacalcidol. After 3-5 months of oral supplementation, medication was discontinued in both twins. They showed normal growth and calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D levels during the 6-month follow-up period. Twins can be at risk for hypocalcemia because of their high risk of vitamin D deficiency, low birth weight, and premature birth. Therefore twin pregnant women need ingestion of sufficient vitamin D and calcium. PMID:26191515

  1. Multilocus sequence type profiles of Bacillus cereus isolates from infant formula in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Yu, Xiaofeng; Zhan, Li; Chen, Jiancai; Zhang, Yunyi; Zhang, Junyan; Chen, Honghu; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Yanjun; Lu, Yiyu; Mei, Lingling

    2017-04-01

    Bacillus cereus sensu stricto is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen. The multilocus sequence type (MLST) of 74 B. cereus isolated from 513 non-random infant formula in China was analyzed. Of 64 sequence types (STs) detected, 50 STs and 6 alleles were newly found in PubMLST database. All isolates except for one singleton (ST-1049), were classified into 7 clonal complexes (CC) by BURST (n-4), in which CC1 with core ancestral clone ST-26 was the largest group including 86% isolates, and CC2, 3, 9, 10 and 13 were first reported in China. MLST profiles of the isolates from 8 infant formula brands were compared. It was found the brands might be potentially tracked by the variety of STs, such as ST-1049 of singleton and ST-1062 of isolate from goat milk source, though they could not be easily tracked just by clonal complex types of the isolates.

  2. Nutritional and technological evaluation of an enzymatically methionine-enriched soy protein for infant enteral formulas.

    PubMed

    de Regil, Luz María; de la Barca, Ana María Calderón

    2004-03-01

    Enzymatically modified soy proteins have the amino acid profile and functional properties required for dietary support. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and technological properties of an enzymatically modified soy protein ultrafiltered fraction with bound methionine (F(1-10)E) to be used as a protein ingredient for infant enteral formulas. F(1-10)E was chemically characterized and biologically evaluated. Thirty-six weaning Wistar rats were fed during 3 weeks with a 4% casein-containing diet. Rats were divided into three groups and recovered for 3 weeks with 18% protein-containing diets based on: (1) F(1-10)E, (2) casein or (3) soy isolate+methionine. Nutritional indicators were weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, plasma proteins, apparent digestibility and protein in the carcass. Additionally, F(1-10)E was added as a protein ingredient of an enteral formula, and its sensory and rheological properties were compared with a hydrolyzed-whey protein commercial formula. F(1-10)E contained 68% protein and 5% sulphur amino acids, with 60% of peptides 0.05) in weight gain (108 g and 118 g, respectively), protein efficiency ratio (2.7), apparent digestibility (93% and 95%), plasma proteins (5.7 mg/100 ml) and carcass protein (61%), and better than soy isolate-based+methionine diet (P<0.05). Viscosity of the commercial formula and our formula was similar during a 24-h period. Sensory acceptability was 8 for our formula and 3.5 for the commercial one, on a scale of 1-10 (P<0.05). Due to its nutritional, sensorial and rheological properties, F(1-10)E could be used as a protein source in infant enteral formulas.

  3. A randomized controlled trial of feeding a concentrated formula to infants born to women infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Harland S.; Oleske, James M.; Hughes, Michael D.; McKinney, Ross E.; Elgie, Carol; Powell, Christine; Purdue, Lynette; Puga, Ana M.; Jimenez, Eleanor; Scott, Gwendolyn B.; Cruz, Maria Leticia Santos; Moye, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective We tested the hypothesis that concentrated formula begun within the first two weeks of life increases growth in infants born to HIV-infected mothers. Study Design HIV-exposed infants from the U.S., Bahamas, and Brazil were randomized in a double-blind controlled trial to receive either a concentrated 87 kcal/100 ml (26 kcal/oz) formula (CF) or standard 67 kcal/100 ml (20 kcal/oz) formula (SF) for 8 weeks. This paper presents results for infants who were not determined to be HIV-infected based on testing at 4 weeks. Primary outcomes were safety, tolerability, and growth in weight and length. Results 2,097 infants were enrolled, of whom 1998 were uninfected and had study formula dispensed. At weeks 4 and 8, uninfected infants receiving CF showed higher energy intake compared with uninfected infants receiving SF (P<0.001). By week 8, uninfected infants assigned to CF weighed more than infants on SF. There were no consistent differences in measures of tolerability, and rates of discontinuation or perceived formula intolerance were similar between treatment groups. Conclusions A concentrated formula is well tolerated and results in increased weight gain compared with SF. Until the HIV-status of an infant is reliably determined, early introduction of a concentrated formula in HIV-exposed children may have beneficial effects on growth. The role of early nutritional intervention remains to be determined for individuals living in countries with endemic malnutrition for whom formula feeding is a viable option. PMID:19543114

  4. Effect of an α-lactalbumin-enriched infant formula with lower protein on growth

    PubMed Central

    Trabulsi, J; Capeding, R; Lebumfacil, J; Ramanujam, K; Feng, P; McSweeney, S; Harris, B; DeRusso, P

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Protein concentration is lower in human milk (HM) than in infant formula. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an α-lactalbumin-enriched formula with a lower protein concentration on infant growth, protein markers and biochemistries. Subjects/Methods: Healthy term formula-fed (FF) infants 5–14 days old were randomized in this controlled, double-blind trial to standard formula (SF: 14.1 g/l protein, 662 kcal/l) group (n=112) or experimental formula (EF: 12.8 g/l protein, 662 kcal/l) group (n=112) for 120 days; a HM reference group (n=112) was included. Primary outcome was weight gain (g/day) from D0 to D120. Secondary outcomes included serum albumin, plasma amino acids insulin and incidence of study events. Anthropometric measures were expressed as Z-scores using 2006 World Health Organization growth standards. Results: A total of 321 of the 336 infants (96%) who enrolled, completed the study. Mean age was 9.6 (±2.9) days; 50% were girls. Mean weight gain (g/day) did not significantly differ between SF vs EF (P=0.67) nor between EF vs HM (P=0.11); however weight gain (g/day) was significantly greater in the SF vs HM group (P=0.04). At day 120, mean weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) and weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) did not significantly differ between SF vs EF nor EF vs HM; however the WAZ was significantly greater in SF vs HM (P=0.025). Secondary outcomes were within normal ranges for all groups. Incidence of study events did not differ among groups. Conclusions: α-Lactalbumin-enriched formula containing12.8 g/l protein was safe and supported age-appropriate growth; weight gain with EF was intermediate between SF and HM groups and resulted in growth similar to HM-fed infants in terms of weight gain, WAZ and WLZ. PMID:21063429

  5. GFAAS determination of selenium in infant formulas using a microwave digestion method.

    PubMed

    Alegria, A; Barbera, R; Farré, R; Moreno, A

    1994-01-01

    A method for determining the selenium content of infant formulas is proposed. It includes wet digestion with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in medium pressure teflon bombs in a microwave oven and determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The absence of interferences is checked. Values obtained for the limit of detection (19.4 ng/g), precision (RSD = 2.2%) and accuracy by analysis of a reference material show that the method is reliable.

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus Strains Obtained from Powdered Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Laurenda; Chase, Hannah R.; Choi, Hyerim; Jun, SoYoung; Park, JiHyeon; Jeong, Seungeun; Kim, MiJeong; Han, KyuYoung; Lee, ChaeYoon; Jeong, HyeJin; Finkelstein, Samantha; Negrete, Flavia; Cinar, Hediye N.; Tall, Ben D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We introduce the draft genome sequences of five enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus strains: Bc 12, Bc 67, Bc 111, Bc 112, and Bc 113, which were obtained from powdered infant formula. The genome sizes of the strains ranged from 5.5 to 5.8 Mb, and the G+C contents were ~35.2%. PMID:28232440

  7. In vivo digestomics of milk proteins in human milk and infant formula using a suckling rat pup model.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Phinney, Brett S; Weber, Darren; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-02-01

    Human milk is the optimal mode of infant feeding for the first several months of life, and infant formulas serve as an alternative when breast-feeding is not possible. Milk proteins have a balanced amino acid composition and some of them provide beneficial bioactivities in their intact forms. They also encrypt a variety of bioactive peptides, possibly contributing to infant health and growth. However, there is limited knowledge of how milk proteins are digested in the gastrointestinal tract and bioactive peptides are released in infants. A peptidomic analysis was conducted to identify peptides released from milk proteins in human milk and infant formula, using a suckling rat pup model. Among the major milk proteins targeted, α-lactalbumin and β-casein in human milk, and β-lactoglobulin and β-casein in infant formula were the main sources of peptides, and these peptides covered large parts of the parental proteins' sequences. Release of peptides was concentrated to specific regions, such as residues 70-92 of β-casein in human milk, residues 39-55 of β-lactoglobulin in infant formula, and residues 57-96 and 145-161 of β-CN in infant formula, where resistance to gastrointestinal digestion was suggested. In the context of bioactive peptides, release of fragments containing known bioactive peptides was confirmed, such as β-CN-derived opioid and antihypertensive peptides. It is therefore likely that these fragments are of biological significance in neonatal health and development.

  8. Determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Lin, Zhengfeng; Zhou, Xiujin; Wang, Chengjun; Zhu, Zhenou

    2014-02-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula samples. Following ultrasonic extraction with methanol/water (1:1, vol/vol), and clean-up on an HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge (Waters Corp., Milford, MA), samples were separated on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 column (150 × 2.1-mm i.d., 5-μm film thickness; Waters Corp.), with 0.1% formic acid solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Quantification of the target was performed by the internal standard approach, using isotopically labeled compounds for each chemical group, to correct matrix effects. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode, monitoring 2 multiple reaction monitoring transitions to ensure an accurate identification of target compounds in the samples. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus of the linear ion trap. The novel liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application.

  9. Growth Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii in Experimentally Contaminated Powdered Infant Formula by Kefir Supernatant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Hong-Seok; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Kefir is a type of fermented milk containing lactic and acetic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). In a spot-on-lawn test, the growth of 20 C. sakazakii strains, including 10 clinical and 10 food isolates, was completely inhibited in the presence of kefir supernatant. Significant differences in the diameters of inhibition zones were observed upon treatment with kefir compared with the results for Lactobacillus kefiri and Candida kefyr culture supernatants or solutions of lactic and acetic acid and ethyl alcohol in the agar well diffusion test (P < 0.05). The addition of 100 μl of kefir supernatant to 1 ml of nutrient broth completely inhibited the growth of C. sakazakii, as evaluated by spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant in experimentally contaminated PIF was also tested; we found no viable C. sakazakii cells remaining in PIF rehydrated with 30% kefir supernatant solution for 1 h, demonstrating that the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against C. sakazakii could be applied in real food samples.

  10. Interregional foodborne salmonellosis outbreak due to powdered infant formula contaminated with lactose-fermenting Salmonella virchow.

    PubMed

    Usera, M A; Echeita, A; Aladueña, A; Blanco, M C; Reymundo, R; Prieto, M I; Tello, O; Cano, R; Herrera, D; Martinez-Navarro, F

    1996-08-01

    Spain's Salmonella surveillance system backed by regionally-based epidemiologists around the country made it possible to detect and halt the spread of a foodborne salmonellosis outbreak due to powdered infant formula contaminated with a lactose-fermenting strain of Salmonella virchow. Forty-eight cases involving children, mostly under 7 months old, were detected in 14 out of Spain's 17 Regions. The outbreak started in January and ended in June 1994. All cases were microbiologically confirmed. The implicated strain had a 3.6 kb plasmid, was susceptible to all antimicrobials tested except nitrofurantoin and was phagetype 4a. Isolates from 8 of 24 Brand "A" milk samples tested had the same characteristics as case isolates. All affected/suspect batches of Brand "A" milk were destroyed and the product withdrawn from sale, which led to the end of the outbreak. This incident underscores the importance of maintaining surveillance systems able to detect and prevent foodborne outbreaks and alert to the possibility of isolating unusual lactose-fermenting Salmonella serotypes in especially sensitive food products.

  11. Generation of furosine and color in infant/enteral formula-resembling systems.

    PubMed

    Rufián-Henares, José Angel; García-Villanova, Belén; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo

    2004-08-25

    The extent of the Maillard reaction was studied by measuring furosine and color formation in infant and enteral formula-resembling model systems prepared by mixing calcium caseinate, laboratory-obtained or commercial whey protein with lactose or dextrinomaltose (ingredients similar to those used in infant and enteral formula manufacture) and heating the mixture at 100, 120, or 140 degrees C for 0-30 min. The furosine determination was performed by HPLC and the color determination by measuring colorimetric parameters L, a, and b in a reflection photometer. The first steps of the Maillard reaction could be followed by furosine determination when initial ingredients had low thermal damage. Hence, furosine may be an indicator of low thermal damage in ingredients with <100 mg/100 g of protein. At the concentrations used in these model systems, similar to those in infant and enteral formulas, furosine values (indirect measure of lysine losses) were higher in lactose than in dextrinomaltose systems, in which only glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose among all of the sugars present showed reactivity with casein. Finally, the advanced steps could be followed by color determination when the initial ingredients had high thermal damage or the model systems were heated at high temperature or for a long time. Among the parameters assayed, b was the most sensitive.

  12. Human milk vs. cow's milk and the evolution of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Hernell, Olle

    2011-01-01

    Until the early 20th century, a wet nurse was the only safe alternative to breastfeeding, one reason being that each species has a unique composition of its milk. When techniques for chemical analyses of milks and assessment of the energy requirements of infants became available during the 19th century, reasonably safe breast milk substitutes started to be developed. Successively, these were developed into modern infant formulas during the 20th century using human milk composition as reference and cow's milk as protein source. Even with a composition similar to human milk there are differences in performance between formula-fed and breastfed infants. Novel ingredients and new techniques within the dairy industry will contribute to minimize these differences and so might techniques in molecular biology allowing large scale production of recombinant human milk proteins. This technique may be used for production of bioactive substances present in low concentrations in human milk but absent from bovine milk with proven effect on nutrient utilization or other health benefits. For formulas containing novel ingredients with potent biological activities produced with new techniques it will be extremely important that their safety and efficacy are rigorously evaluated because 'functional effects' are not necessarily the same as health benefits.

  13. Tolerance and Safety Evaluation in a Large Cohort of Healthy Infants Fed an Innovative Prebiotic Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Piemontese, Pasqua; Giannì, Maria L.; Braegger, Christian P.; Chirico, Gaetano; Grüber, Christoph; Riedler, Josef; Arslanoglu, Sertac; van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Boehm, Günther; Jelinek, Jürgen; Roggero, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Background the addition of oligosaccharides to infant formula has been shown to mimic some of the beneficial effects of human milk. The aim of the study was to assess the tolerance and safety of a formula containing an innovative mixture of oligosaccharides in early infancy. Methodology/Principal Findings this study was performed as a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial including healthy term infants. Infants were recruited before the age of 8 weeks, either having started with formula feeding or being fully breast-fed (breastfeeding group). Formula-fed infants were randomized to feeding with a regular formula containing a mixture of neutral oligosaccharides and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (prebiotic formula group) or regular formula without oligosaccharides (control formula group). Growth, tolerance and adverse events were assessed at 8, 16, 24 and 52 weeks of age. The prebiotic and control groups showed similar mean weight, length and head circumference, skin fold thicknesses, arm circumference gains and stool frequency at each study point. As far as the anthropometric parameters are concerned, the prebiotic group and the control group did not attain the values shown by the breastfeeding group at any study point. The skin fold thicknesses assessed in the breastfeeding group at 8 weeks were strikingly larger than those in formula fed infants, whereas at 52 weeks were strikingly smaller. The stool consistency in the prebiotic group was softer than in the control group at 8, 16 and 24 weeks (p<0.001) and closer to that of the breastfeeding group. There was no difference in the incidence of adverse events between the two formula groups. Conclusions our findings demonstrate the tolerability and the long term safety of a formula containing an innovative mixture of oligosaccharides in a large cohort of healthy infants. Trial Registration: drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de DRKS 00000201 PMID:22140499

  14. Creatine and guanidinoacetate content of human milk and infant formulas: implications for creatine deficiency syndromes and amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Edison, Erica E; Brosnan, Margaret E; Aziz, Khalid; Brosnan, John T

    2013-09-28

    Creatine is essential for normal neural development; children with inborn errors of creatine synthesis or transport exhibit neurological symptoms such as mental retardation, speech delay and epilepsy. Creatine accretion may occur through dietary intake or de novo creatine synthesis. The objective of the present study was to determine how much creatine an infant must synthesise de novo. We have calculated how much creatine an infant needs to account for urinary creatinine excretion (creatine's breakdown product) and new muscle lay-down. To measure an infant's dietary creatine intake, we measured creatine in mother's milk and in various commercially available infant formulas. Knowing the amount of milk/formula ingested, we calculated the amount of creatine ingested. We have found that a breast-fed infant receives about 9 % of the creatine needed in the diet and that infants fed cows' milk-based formula receive up to 36 % of the creatine needed. However, infants fed a soya-based infant formula receive negligible dietary creatine and must rely solely on de novo creatine synthesis. This is the first time that it has been shown that neonatal creatine accretion is largely due to de novo synthesis and not through dietary intake of creatine. This has important implications both for infants suffering from creatine deficiency syndromes and for neonatal amino acid metabolism.

  15. Free formula milk for infants of HIV-infected women: blessing or curse?

    PubMed

    Coutsoudis, A; Goga, A E; Rollins, N; Coovadia, H M

    2002-06-01

    There is vigorous controversy around whether HIV-infected women in developing countries should choose formula or breastfeeding for their infants. Formula eliminates HIV transmission but incurs risk of increased mortality, whereas breastfeeding has multiple benefits but entails risk of HIV transmission. International guidelines are available but need to be strengthened. This commentary summarizes data on the scale and rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV through breastfeeding, and the hazards and benefits of breast- and formula-feeding. The case against providing free or subsidized formula to HIV-infected mothers is based on the following: it exacerbates disadvantages of formula feeding; compromises free choice; targets beneficiaries erroneously; creates a false perception of endorsement by health workers; compromises breastfeeding; results in disclosure of HIV status; ignores hidden costs of preparation of formula; increases mixed breastfeeding, which is an unsatisfactory method for all women; requires organization and management of programmes that are complicated and costly; and finally increases the 'spill-over' effect into the normal breastfeeding population. Recommendations to minimize these drawbacks include use of affordable antiretrovirals to reduce MTCT; investments in high-quality, widely available HIV counselling; support for choice of feeding; and exclusive breastfeeding for those who choose to breastfeed.

  16. [Estimation of potentially available protein in infant starting formulas for term and preterm neonates].

    PubMed

    Binaghi, María J; Baroni, Andrea; Greco, Carola; Ronayne de Ferrer, Patricia A; Valencia, Mirta

    2002-03-01

    Sixteen milk-based starting formulas were analyzed with the aim of calculating their "true protein" content and assessing "in vitro" protein digestibility, in order to estimate levels of potentially available protein. Ten of them were designed for term infants: 7 had a casein:whey protein ratio 40:60 (adapted formulas) and 3 a ratio 80:20 (non-adapted); the 6 remaining formulas (all adapted) were for preterm infants. Nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldahl method. True protein was calculated as (total N--non-protein N) x 6.25. NPN was determined in the soluble fraction, after protein precipitation with 24% trichloroacetic acid and centrifugation. Digestibility was assessed by digestion with pepsin and pancreatin, and defined as the increase in non-protein N after enzymatic digestion. Values for true protein were from 1.3 to 2.3 g/dL and for non protein N, from 4.5 to 13.7%. Digestibility values varied between 59.0 and 92.5%; an inverse trend was observed between protein digestibility and protein content. Considering both the "true protein" levels and their digested proportions, all preterm and 60% of the term formulas would present potentially available amounts below those recommended. These observations constitute an alert, even though this method of assessing "in vitro" protein digestibility represents only an approximation to physiological processes; however, it could be useful in order to evaluate the intensity of the heat treatments to which these formulas were subjected. On the other hand, since NPN allows the estimation of the true protein provided by the formulas, either its percentage or the true protein content could be included on the label.

  17. Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Detection of 3-Monochloropropanediol Esters and Glycidyl Esters in Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Jessica K; MacMahon, Shaun

    2016-12-14

    A method was developed for the extraction of fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol from infant formula, followed by quantitative analysis of the extracts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These process-induced chemical contaminants are found in refined vegetable oils, and studies have shown that they are potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in edible oils (and processed foods containing these oils) a potential health risk. The extraction procedure involves a liquid-liquid extraction, where powdered infant formula is dissolved in water and extracted with ethyl acetate. Following shaking, centrifugation, and drying of the organic phase, the resulting fat extract is cleaned-up using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Method performance was confirmed by verifying the percent recovery of each 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester in a homemade powdered infant formula reference material. Average ester recoveries in the reference material ranged from 84.9 to 109.0% (0.6-9.5% RSD). The method was also validated by fortifying three varieties of commercial infant formulas with a 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester solution. Average recoveries of the esters across all concentrations and varieties of infant formula ranged from 88.7 to 107.5% (1.0-9.5% RSD). Based on the validation results, this method is suitable for producing 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester occurrence data in all commercially available varieties of infant formula.

  18. Concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols in human breast milk during the first months of lactation and in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Martysiak-Żurowska, Dorota; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zagierski, Maciej

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols in human breast milk samples from different periods of lactation and to compare them with tocopherol content in commercially available formulas for infants at corresponding ages. The study included 93 breast milk samples obtained on the 2nd (colostrum, n = 17), 14th (n = 30), 30th (n = 27) and 90th day of lactation (n = 19), along with 90 samples of commercially available initial and follow-on infant formulas. Concentrations of tocopherols were determined using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Depending on the stage of lactation, human breast milk contained 2.07-9.99 mg L⁻¹ of alpha-tocopherol and 0.22-0.60 mg L⁻¹ of gamma-tocopherol. Breast milk concentrations of alpha-tocopherol decreased with the time of lactation, while significant differences in gamma-tocopherol concentration were observed only between the 14th and 30th day of lactation. There was no significant correlation between the dietary intake of vitamin E and its estimated breast milk concentration, also in women who declared vitamin supplementation. Compared with colostrum, infant formulas were characterised by significantly lower concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and vitamin E. This finding indicates the need of additional vitamin E supplementation of bottle-fed infants during the initial 2-3 days of life.

  19. Novel insights into human lactation as a driver of infant formula development.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Progress in research on human lactation and breast milk has advanced our knowledge about the significance of breast milk for the recipient infant and the effects of various components on long-term outcomes. Recent findings have expanded our knowledge in this area. Several growth factors and cytokines are present in breast milk and their capacity to persist in the infant gut and exert their activities is likely to affect maturation of immune function, possibly affecting the development of oral tolerance. A proper balance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3/n-6 ratio) may also be of significance for allergy prevention in children, emphasizing the need for the mother to achieve a balance of these fatty acids in her diet. The recent findings that specific strains of bacteria are present in breast milk and act as probiotics in the early colonization of the infant gut and that human milk oligosaccharides are specific substrates for these probiotic strains may not only affect the defense against pathogens, but also affect energy utilization and development of obesity. Previously neglected milk fat globule membranes contain several components involved in protection against infection and may be an additional arm in the multifaceted shield that breastfed infants have developed against bacterial and viral antagonists. All these findings have implications for development of improved infant formulae.

  20. Soy Formula and Epigenetic Modifications: Analysis of Vaginal Epithelial Cells from Infant Girls in the IFED Study

    PubMed Central

    Harlid, Sophia; Adgent, Margaret; Jefferson, Wendy N.; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Umbach, David M.; Xu, Zongli; Stallings, Virginia A.; Williams, Carmen J.; Rogan, Walter J.; Taylor, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early-life exposure to estrogenic compounds affects the development of the reproductive system in rodent models and humans. Soy products, which contain phytoestrogens such as genistein, are one source of exposure in infants fed soy formula, and they result in high serum concentrations. Objectives: Our goal was to determine whether soy exposure is associated with differential DNA methylation in vaginal cells from soy-fed infant girls. Methods: Using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, we evaluated epigenome-wide DNA methylation in vaginal cells from four soy formula–fed and six cow formula–fed girls from the Infant Feeding and Early Development (IFED) study. Using pyrosequencing we followed up the two most differentially methylated sites in 214 vaginal cell samples serially collected between birth and 9 months of age from 50 girls (28 soy formula–fed and 22 cow formula–fed). With a mouse model, we examined the effect of neonatal exposure to genistein on gene specific mRNA levels in vaginal tissue. Results: The epigenome-wide scan suggested differences in methylation between soy formula–fed and cow formula–fed infants at three CpGs in the gene proline rich 5 like (PRR5L) (p < 104). Pyrosequencing of the two feeding groups found that methylation levels progressively diverged with age, with pointwise differences becoming statistically significant after 126 days. Genistein-exposed mice showed a 50% decrease in vaginal Prr5l mRNA levels compared to controls. Conclusions: Girls fed soy formula have altered DNA methylation in vaginal cell DNA which may be associated with decreased expression of an estrogen-responsive gene. Citation: Harlid S, Adgent M, Jefferson WN, Panduri V, Umbach DM, Xu Z, Stallings VA, Williams CJ, Rogan WJ, Taylor JA. 2017. Soy formula and epigenetic modifications: analysis of vaginal epithelial cells from infant girls in the IFED study. Environ Health Perspect 125:447–452; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP428 PMID

  1. Supplementation of infant formula with probiotics and/or prebiotics: a systematic review and comment by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition.

    PubMed

    Braegger, Christian; Chmielewska, Anna; Decsi, Tamas; Kolacek, Sanja; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis; Pieścik, Małgorzata; Puntis, John; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2011-02-01

    Infant formulae are increasingly supplemented with probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics despite uncertainties regarding their efficacy. The present article, developed by the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, systematically reviews published evidence related to the safety and health effects of the administration of formulae supplemented with probiotics and/or prebiotics compared with unsupplemented formulae. Studies in which probiotics/prebiotics were not administered during the manufacturing process, but thereafter, for example in capsules, the contents of which were supplemented to infant formula or feeds, were excluded.On the basis of this review, available scientific data suggest that the administration of currently evaluated probiotic- and/or prebiotic-supplemented formula to healthy infants does not raise safety concerns with regard to growth and adverse effects. The safety and clinical effects of 1 product should not be extrapolated to other products. At present, there is insufficient data to recommend the routine use of probiotic- and/or prebiotic-supplemented formulae. The Committee considers that the supplementation of formula with probiotics and/or prebiotics is an important field of research. There is a need in this field for well-designed and carefully conducted randomised controlled trials, with relevant inclusion/exclusion criteria and adequate sample sizes. These studies should use validated clinical outcome measures to assess the effects of probiotic and/or prebiotic supplementation of formulae. Such trials should also define the optimal doses and intake durations, as well as provide more information about the long-term safety of probiotics and/or prebiotics. Because most of the trials were company funded, independent trials, preferentially financed jointly by national/governmental/European Union bodies and other international organisations, would be desirable.

  2. Rapid determination of vitamin D₃ in milk-based infant formulas by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Byung-Man; Jeong, In-Seek; Lee, Moon-Seok; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Park, Jong-Su

    2014-12-15

    A rapid and simple sample preparation method for vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) was developed for emulsified dairy products such as milk-based infant formulas. A sample was mixed in a 50 mL centrifuge tube with the same amount of water and isopropyl alcohol to achieve chemical extraction. Ammonium sulfate was used to induce phase separation. No-heating saponification was performed in the sample tube by adding KOH, NaCl, and NH3. Vitamin D3 was then separated and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results for added recovery tests were in the range 93.11-110.65%, with relative standard deviations between 2.66% and 2.93%. The results, compared to those obtained using a certified reference material (SRM 1849a), were within the range of the certificated values. This method could be implemented in many laboratories that require time and labour saving.

  3. Effects of Cesarean delivery and formula supplementation on the intestinal microbiome of six-week old infants

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Juliette C.; Hoen, Anne G.; Lundgren, Sara N.; Farzan, Shohreh F.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Li, Hongzhe; Moore, Jason H.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2016-01-01

    Importance The intestinal microbiome plays a critical role in infant development, and delivery mode and feeding method (breastmilk vs. formula) are determinants of its composition. However, the importance of delivery mode beyond the first days of life is unknown, and studies of associations between infant feeding and microbiome composition have been generally limited to comparisons between exclusively breastfed and formula fed infants, with little consideration given to combination feeding of both breastmilk and formula. Objectives To examine the relative effects of delivery mode and feeding method on infant intestinal microbiome composition at approximately six weeks of life. Design, Setting and Participants Prospective observational study of 102 infants followed as part of a US pregnancy cohort study. Exposures Delivery mode was abstracted from delivery medical records and feeding method prior to the time of stool collection was ascertained through detailed questionnaires. Main Outcomes and Measures Stool microbiome composition was characterized using next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results We identified independent associations between microbial community composition and both delivery mode and feeding method. Differences in microbial community composition between vaginally and infants delivered by Cesarean section were equivalent to or significantly larger than those between feeding groups. Bacterial communities associated with combination feeding were more similar to those associated with exclusive formula feeding than exclusive breastfeeding. We identified individual bacterial genera that were differentially abundant between delivery mode and feeding groups. Conclusions and Relevance The infant intestinal microbiome at approximately six weeks of age is significantly associated with both delivery mode and feeding method, and the supplementation of breastmilk feeding with formula is associated with a microbiome composition that resembles that of

  4. Determination of Chloride in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Automated Potentiometry: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.08.

    PubMed

    Jaudzems, Gregory G

    2015-01-01

    A direct potentiometric method involving titration against a standard volumetric silver nitrate solution using a silver electrode to detect the end point was evaluated for the determination of chloride in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. It was assessed for compliance against AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR®) established by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN). A single-laboratory validation (SLV) study was conducted as a first step in the process to validate the method. In this SLV, 17 SPIFAN matrixes representing a range of infant formula and adult nutritional products were evaluated for their chloride content. The analytical range was found to be between 1.4 and 1060 mg/100 g reconstituted product or ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid. The LOQ was estimated as 1.4 mg/100 g. Method repeatability was between 0.03 and 1.60% in the range of 20 to 167 mg/100 g RTF, and intermediate precision was between 0.09 and 2.77% in the same range. Recovery values based on spiking experiments at two different levels of chloride ranged from 99.0 to 103% for 15 different SPIFAN products. Evaluation of trueness was performed on National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1849a (Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula) and showed 97.2% of the theoretical value, with no bias at the 95% confidence level. Based on the results of the SLV, the method met the SMPR and was approved as a First Action method by the AOAC Expert Review Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals on March 17, 2015.

  5. Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness ... Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness ...

  6. Characteristics of enterotoxin distribution, hemolysis, lecithinase, and starch hydrolysis of Bacillus cereus isolated from infant formulas and ready-to-eat foods.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Yeon; Park, Jong-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous environmental microbe implicated as a main cause of food poisoning with various symptoms, depending on the strain type and the isolation source. In this study, the potential virulence factors and biochemical properties of B. cereus isolated from infant formulas and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods were analyzed and compared. A total of 347 B. cereus strains were isolated and identified from 687 infant food formulas and RTE food samples. All the isolates had one or more enterotoxin genes, and one-half of the strains had all 3 enterotoxin genes (hbl, nhe, and cytK) that are involved in food poisoning in humans. Here, all the 3 genes were detected in 50% of the B. cereus isolates from RTE foods and only 14% of the isolates were identified from infant formulas. The latter harbored low cytK and bceT, and very low hbl genes. Most B. cereus isolates possessed the hemolysis gene, but not the ces gene. The infant formula isolates showed stronger hemolysis activity than the other isolates. In addition, 26% of the total isolates showed low lecithinase activities and 10% showed high lecithinase activities. A greater number of isolates from the infant formula showed high lecithinase activity than those from the RTE foods. Approximately 83% of the isolates were positive and 17% were negative for starch hydrolysis. Over 90% of the RTE food isolates and only 35% of the infant formula isolates were positive for starch hydrolysis. However, all the strains possessed nhe, but their harboring patterns of hbl and cytK were significantly different. Most starch-hydrolyzing strains possessed hbl, but only 23% nonstarch-hydrolyzing isolates possessed this gene. Moreover, very low nonstarch hydrolyzing strains harbored cytK. Most nonstarch-hydrolyzing isolates showed high lecithinase and strong hemolysis activities, and very low hbl and cytK harboring. In summary, most infant formula isolates showed stronger hemolysis and higher lecithinase activities with lower

  7. Determination of vitamin B12 in infant formula and adult nutritionals by surface plasmon resonance: First Action 2011.16 (test kit method).

    PubMed

    Vyas, Pathik; O'Kane, Anthony A; Dowell, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    At the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting" on June 29, 2011, an Expert Review Panel (ERP) agreed to further examine AOAC Official Method 2011.01, "Determination of Vitamin B12 by Surface Plasmon Resonance," for use with infant formula and adult nutritionals. The original collaborative study was conducted using the Biacore Q biosensor instrument and the Biacore Q Qflex Kit Vitamin B12 PI. Samples included in the study were infant formula, cereals, premixes, vitamin tablets, dietary supplements, and baby food. Eleven laboratories participated in the collaborative study. The results demonstrated a repeatability RSD (RSDr) of 1.59-27.8 and HorRat values for reproducibility of 0.34-1.89 in samples with levels ranging from ppm to ppb. The assay studied is a label-free protein binding-based assay that uses the principle of surface plasmon resonance to measure the interaction between vitamin B12 and a specific binding protein by passing a portion of the prepared sample extract combined with binding protein solution across a functionalized sensor chip. The response from the functionalized sensor chip is given as free-binding protein, as the mixture binds to the prepared surface of the chip. The ready-to-use Qflex Kit Vitamin B12 PI provides the reagents and accessories necessary to perform this assay. AOAC Method 2011.01 was approved by the AOAC Method Committee on Food Nutrition for Official First Action status, applicable to a wide range of food products, dietary supplements, and multivitamin premixes. After evaluation of the validation data available, an ERP agreed in June 2011 that the method meets standard method performance requirements, as articulated by the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals. The ERP granted the method First Action status, applicable to infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula.

  8. Effect of an α-Lactalbumin-Enriched Infant Formula Supplemented With Oligofructose on Fecal Microbiota, Stool Characteristics, and Hydration Status

    PubMed Central

    Northington, Robert; Kullen, Martin J.; Yao, Manjiang; Bettler, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the impact of oligofructose (OF)-supplemented infant formula on fecal microbiota, stool characteristics, and hydration. Methods. Ninety-five formula-fed infants were randomized to α-lactalbumin-enriched control formula (CF) or identical formula with 3.0 g/L OF (EF) for 8 weeks; 50 infants fed human milk (HM) were included. Results. Eighty-four infants completed the study, 70 met per-protocol criteria. Over 8 weeks, bifidobacteria increased more in EF than CF group (0.70 vs 0.16 log10 bacterial counts/g dry feces, P = .008); EF was not significantly different from HM group (P = .32). EF group stool consistency was intermediate between CF and HM groups; at week 8, EF group had softer stools than CF (5-point scale: 1 = hard, 5 = watery; consistency score 3.46 vs 2.82, P = .015) without significant differences in stool frequency. Physician-assessed hydration status was normal for all infants. Conclusions. Infant formula with 3.0 g/L OF promoted bifidobacteria growth and softer stools without adversely affecting stool frequency or hydration. PMID:25297064

  9. Toxic Metals (Pb and Cd) and Their Respective Antagonists (Ca and Zn) in Infant Formulas and Milk Marketed in Brasilia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    De Castro, Clarissa S. P.; Arruda, Andréa F.; Da Cunha, Leandro R.; SouzaDe, Jurandir R.; Braga, Jez W. B.; Dórea, José G.

    2010-01-01

    In non-ideal scenarios involving partial or non-breastfeeding, cow’s milk-based dairy products are mainstream in infant feeding. Therefore, it is important to study the concentrations of potentially neurotoxic contaminants (Pb and Cd) and their respective counteracting elements (Ca and Zn) in infant dairy products. Fifty-five brands of infant formulas and milk sold in Brasilia, Brazil were analyzed. The dairy products came from areas in the central-west (26%), southeast (29%) and south of Brazil (36%) extending as far as Argentina (7%) and the Netherlands (2%). For toxic Pb and Cd, median concentrations in powdered samples were 0.109 mg/kg and 0.033 mg/kg, respectively; in fluid samples median Pb concentration was 0.084 mg/kg, but median Cd concentration was below the limit of detection and overall values were below reference safety levels. However, 62% of these samples presented higher Pb concentration values than those established by FAO/WHO. Although the inverse correlation between Cd and Zn (Spearman r = −0.116; P = 0.590) was not statistically significant, the positive correlation between Ca and Pb was (Spearman r = 0.619; P < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a significant correlation between Pb and Cd. Furthermore, the study also revealed that provision of the essential trace element Zn in infant formulas can provide adequate amounts of the recommended daily requirements. Infant formulas and milk sold for consumption by infants and children can be an efficient tool to monitor neurotoxic metal risk exposure among young children. PMID:21139877

  10. Enterobacter sakazakii in food and beverages (other than infant formula and milk powder).

    PubMed

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2007-05-01

    The ubiqitous microorganism Enterobacter sakazakii is a rare contaminant of infant formula and may cause severe systemic infection in neonates. So far, other food is not known to cause E. sakazakii-infections. The scarce information about the ecology of E. sakazakii and the uncertainty concerning the source of infection in children and adults warrant a summary of the current knowledge about the presence of this opportunistic microorganism in food other than infant formula. This review systematizes publications on the presence of E. sakazakii in food and beverages until June 2006. Food other than infant formula has been rarely investigated for the presence of E. sakazakii. Nevertheless, this microorganism could be isolated from a wide spectrum of food and food ingredients. E. sakazakii was isolated from plant food and food ingredients like cereal, fruit and vegetables, legume products, herbs and spices as well as from animal food sources like milk, meat and fish and products made from these foods. The spectrum of E. sakazakii-contaminated food covers both raw and processed food. The kind of processing of E. sakazakii-contaminated food was not restricted to dry products. Fresh, frozen, ready-to-eat, fermented and cooked food products as well as beverages and water suitable for the preparation of food, were found to be contaminated by E. sakazakii. Although E. sakazakii-contaminated food do not have general public health significance, measures for prevention should consider the presence of E. sakazakii in food, food ingredients, their processing and preparation as possible source of contamination, colonization or infection.

  11. In vivo digestion of infant formula in piglets: protein digestion kinetics and release of bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Bouzerzour, Karima; Morgan, François; Cuinet, Isabelle; Bonhomme, Cécile; Jardin, Julien; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Dupont, Didier

    2012-12-28

    The first months of life correspond to a key period in human life where dramatic physiological changes (establishment of microbiota, development of the immune system, etc.) occur. In order to better control these changes it is necessary to understand the behaviour of food in the gastrointestinal tract of the newborn. Infant formula is the only food for the newborn when breast-feeding is impossible. The kinetics of digestion of milk proteins and the nature of the peptides liberated in the small intestine throughout infant formula digestion have never been extensively investigated so far and were therefore studied using the piglet as a model of the newborn child. Piglets were fed infant formula by an automatic delivery system during 28 d, and slaughtered 30, 90 and 210 min after the last meal. Contents of stomach, proximal and median jejunum and ileum were collected and characterised. The extent of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg), α-lactalbumin (α-la) and casein proteolysis was monitored by inhibition ELISA, SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting and MS. At 30 min after the last meal, caseins were shown to be extensively hydrolysed in the stomach. Nevertheless, peptides originating mainly from β-caseins (from 509 to 2510 Da) were identified in the jejunum and ileum of the piglets. β-Lg partially resisted gastric digestion but completely disappeared in the stomach after 210 min. α-La had a similar behaviour to that of β-lg. Two large peptides (4276 and 2674 Da) generated from β-lg were present in the ileum after 30 and 210 min and only one (2674 Da) after 90 min.

  12. New Methods for the Analysis of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, Don

    2016-01-01

    The AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) defined fat-soluble vitamins (FSVs) to include vitamins A, D, E, and K. The levels of FSVs have been closely scrutinized because of a number of factors, including nutrition value especially in foods used to provide sole-source nutrition and the potential for health risks associated with content both below and above recommended levels. Stricter scrutiny and emphasis on nutrient-level compliance with regulatory requirements placed an increased demand on analytical methods that were fit-for-purpose, provided accurate and precise results. Over time, compendial methods have been developed and published by organizations such as AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the European Committee for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the International Organization for Standardization, among others. In general, these methods have shown adequate precision for regulatory compliance based on example food matrixes for which they were designed. However, method evaluation for infant formulas and adult nutritional products was limited to very few matrixes within these categories. As such, method applicability gaps were noted and correlated with more complicated or diverse product matrixes. AOAC undertook the task of modernizing test methods for the determination of nutrients in infant formulas and in adult nutritional products formulated specifically for both healthy adults and those requiring specific nutritional intake. Composition of products in this category continued to evolve, which in turn presented increasing and new challenges to analytical methodology. A summary of a new generation of candidate compendial methods for determination of FSVs in these matrixes, identified by SPIFAN, is presented here.

  13. Characterization of lactosylated proteins of infant formula powders using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Laure F; Parisod, Véronique; Fay, Laurent B; Guy, Philippe A

    2002-08-01

    Infant formula powders were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) to assess the whey proteins quality, which may be altered by the heat treatment used during the processing conditions. Lactosylation was found to be the major chemical modification occurring in whey proteins. In parallel, a two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis was performed on the milk sample and the entire protein patterns were analyzed by nano-ESI-MS after cutting the different gel spots and in-gel trypsin digestion. A highly selective and specific tandem MS technique has been developed to characterize and localize up to ten lactosylation sites in beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) and alpha(S2)-casein. alpha-Lactalbumin (alpha-La), with five lactosylated peptides, was found to be an interesting protein marker in the milk powder sample to detect chemical modification induced by the processing/storage conditions.

  14. The Measurement of Protein in Powdered Milk Products and Infant Formulas: A Review and Recent Developments.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Dave; Evers, Jaap M; Holroyd, Stephen E; Johnson, Richard; Rowan, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are a key nutritional component of both powdered milk and infant formula types of product, and reliable methods for their determination are important for manufacturing and international trade. In this review, we distinguish between methods used for determining protein quality for nutrition purposes and those used for determining chemically defined protein. The former methods cover the ability of a dietary protein source to meet human nutritional requirements for the indispensable amino acids. The latter are chemical methods for the determination of total protein and can be divided into three broad types: total nitrogen determination, direct protein determination, and indirect protein determination. Current techniques and recent developments in each are reviewed.

  15. A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials of Lower-Protein or Energy-Containing Infant Formulas for Use by Healthy Full-Term Infants123

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Steven A; Hawthorne, Keli M; Pammi, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Infant formulas have historically been developed based on providing macronutrients at intake concentrations approximately matching the composition of human milk. In most countries, targets of 1.4–1.5 g of protein/dL and 20 kcal/oz (67–68 kcal/dL) have been set as the protein and energy concentrations for formulas during the first year of life, although this may be an overestimation of these contents. Recent introduction of lower-protein and -energy formulas in full-term infants led us to systematically review the literature for its effects on growth. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, our inclusion criteria were studies that enrolled healthy full-term infants and evaluated lower-protein or lower-energy formula, reported anthropometric outcomes including weight and length, and followed infants for at least 6 mo. Six studies were eligible for inclusion. These studies varied in the content of nutrients provided in the intervention and control groups, by additional dietary components in the study groups, and the timing and length of the intervention, which limit their usefulness for interpreting newly introduced lower-protein and -energy formulas in the United States. These studies suggest adequate growth during infancy and early childhood with infant formulas with concentrations of protein and energy slightly below historical standards in the United States. Further long-term research is needed to assess the impact of the use of lower-protein and/or lower-energy products, especially for nutritionally at-risk populations such as preterm infants and infants who are born small for gestational age. PMID:25770256

  16. An investigation of plasma and salivary oxytocin responses in breast- and formula-feeding mothers of infants.

    PubMed

    Grewen, Karen M; Davenport, Russell E; Light, Kathleen C

    2010-07-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a peptide increasingly studied in relation to human social interactions, affiliation, and clinical disorders. Studies are constrained by use of invasive blood draws and would benefit from a reliable salivary OT assay. Our goals were to examine feasibility of salivary OT measurement, compare salivary to plasma OT responses in 12 breast- and 8 formula-feeding mothers, and assess the degree of correlation between plasma and salivary OT. Using a commercial EIA kit, we measured OT in 5 saliva and 7 plasma samples in a protocol designed to elicit changes in OT (Rest, Infant Interaction, Stress, Feeding). Breast-feeders had higher OT levels than formula-feeders across all conditions in plasma (+36%) and saliva (+23%). OT levels and ranges were similar in saliva and plasma, with slightly greater variance in saliva. Concurrently sampled plasma and salivary OT were correlated at end of Baseline Rest (r=+.59, p=.022) and Post-Stress Recovery (r=+.59, p=.025). These data suggest that salivary OT assay is feasible, and will be of value where plasma samples are not possible. Validation with larger samples is needed.

  17. Effects of formula temperature on postprandial thermogenesis and body temperature of premature infants.

    PubMed

    Eckburg, J J; Bell, E F; Rios, G R; Wilmoth, P K

    1987-10-01

    To study the effect of formula temperature on the thermogenic response to gavage feeding, we fed formula at room temperature (mean 24.0 degrees C, SD 1.1) and at body temperature (mean 36.9 degrees C, SD 1.7) to premature infants in a crossover design while monitoring their metabolic heat production and gastric, rectal, and skin temperatures. After feeding with room temperature formula, stomach temperature fell by 6.9 degrees C, rectal temperature by 0.2 degree C, and mean skin temperature by 0.6 degree C, and metabolic rate increased by 16% in the first postprandial hour. After body temperature feedings, mean skin temperature fell by 0.2 degree C, but stomach and rectal temperatures did not change appreciably. The metabolic rate rose by 12% in the first hour, which was not significantly less than the rise after room temperature feeding. The heat required to warm the formula to body temperature did not result in a detectably greater rise in metabolic rate after cool feeding than after warm feeding. The effects of feed temperatures below room temperature were not studied, but it remains possible that cooler feedings might produce even greater body cooling and a greater thermogenic response.

  18. The potential use of chickpeas in development of infant follow-on formula

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Undernutrition during childhood is a common disorder in the developing countries, however most research has focussed much on its treatment rather than its prevention. Objective We investigated the potential of using chickpeas in infant follow-on formula production against the requirements of WHO/FAO on complementary foods and EU regulations on follow-on formula. Methods Chickpeas were germinated for 72 hours followed by boiling, drying and dehulling in order to minimise associated anti-nutrition factors. Saccharifying enzymes were used to hydrolyse starch to maltose and the resulting flours were analysed for their protein content and amino acid profile. Results The protein content (percentage) increased from 16.66 ± 0.35 and 20.24 ± 0.50 to 20.00 ± 0.15 and 21.98 ± 0.80 for the processed desi and kabuli cultivar compared to raw chickpeas, respectively (P < 0.05). There was insignificant change (P = 0.05) in amino acid profile following processing and the resulting flour was found to meet the amino acid requirements of WHO/FAO protein reference for 0–24 month’s children. Conclusion The designed chickpea based infant follow-on formula meets the WHO/FAO requirements on complementary foods and also the EU regulations on follow-on formula with minimal addition of oils, minerals and vitamins. It uses chickpea as a common source of carbohydrate and protein hence making it more economical and affordable for the developing countries without compromising the nutrition quality. PMID:24447426

  19. A formula for determining the standard liver volume in children: a special reference for neonates and infants.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Isamu; Tokunaga, Shoji; Matsuura, Toshiharu; Hayashida, Makoto; Yanagi, Yusuke; Taguchi, Tomoaki

    2012-05-01

    Accurately evaluating the ratio of GV to the SLV (GV/SLV) is important in successful pediatric liver transplantation. However, the formula used to calculate the SLV of children, including neonates and infants, has not yet been established. The aim of the current study was to estimate the SLV of children, including neonates, and to establish an accurate formula. The LV of 100 children (including 7 neonates and 15 infants) were measured using thin slice (3-5 mm) helical CT images. Their BSA was calculated from height and weight. A new formula to estimate the SLV was established as follows: SLV (mL) =689.9 × BSA (m(2)) -24.7. The SLV of children was significantly lower than that in previous reports (p < 0.001). A formula for calculating the SLV of children including neonates was established. This new formula will be useful in pediatric liver transplantation.

  20. A critical review of methods for comparing estrogenic activity of endogenous and exogenous chemicals in human milk and infant formula.

    PubMed Central

    Borgert, Christopher J; LaKind, Judy S; Witorsch, Raphael J

    2003-01-01

    The two primary sources of nutrition for infants are human milk and infant formula. Both contain an array of endogenous and exogenous chemicals that may act through many separate hormonal mechanisms. The safety of infant nutrition sources has been questioned based on the possibility that exogenous chemicals may exert adverse effects on nursing or formula-fed infants through estrogen-mediated mechanisms. In response to these and other concerns, the National Research Council recommended assessing the estrogenic potency of natural and anthropogenic hormonally active agents. Furthermore, the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency specifically recommended testing chemicals present in human milk as a representative mixture to which large segments of the population are exposed. To date, no clinical or epidemiologic evidence demonstrates that levels of chemicals currently found in human milk or infant formulas cause adverse effects in infants. Nonetheless, the question is sufficiently important to warrant a consideration of how best to evaluate potential estrogenic risks. We reviewed the types of data available for measuring estrogenic potency as well as methods for estimating health risks from mixtures of chemicals in infant nutrition sources that act via estrogenic mechanisms. We conclude that the science is insufficiently developed at this time to allow a credible assessment of health risks to infants based on estimates of estrogenic potency or on an understanding of toxicologic effects mediated by estrogenic mechanisms. However, clinical and epidemiologic data for infant nutrition sources may provide insights about risks of such substances in human milk and infant formulas. PMID:12826475

  1. Simultaneous Determination of 2- and 3-MCPD Esters in Infant Formula Milk Powder by Solid-Phase Extraction and GC-MS Analysis.

    PubMed

    2016-04-07

    The objective of this study was to establish a method for detecting fatty acid esters of chloropropanols [including 2-monochloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) ester and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) ester] in infant milk powder using isotope dilution and GC-MS. The fat fraction in infant milk powder samples was extracted and treated with sodium methylate-methanol to cleave the ester bonds of the 2- and 3-MCPD esters. The resultant 2- and 3-MCPDs in the samples were purified with matrix solid-phase liquid-liquid extraction and derivatized with heptafluorobutyryl imidazole for GC-MS analysis. Standard samples of deuterium isotope-labeled 2- and 3-MCPD palmitic acid double esters and stearic acid double esters were used as the internal standards. We also detected 2- and 3-MCPD ester contents in 88 commercial samples of infant formula milk powder using this system. The detection system we established showed a good linearity of 2- and 3-MCPD ester contents in serially diluted standard solutions within the concentration range 25-1000 μg/L, with r(2) > 0.9995 and an LOD of 30 μg/kg for both of the MCPD esters. The recoveries of the two MCPD esters spiked at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/kg in blank infant formula milk ranged from 98.2 to 110.5%, with RSDs <4.8%, suggesting good accuracy and reliability of this method. In the 88 commercial infant formula milk powder samples, the mean content of 2-MCPD ester was 41 μg/kg (0-52 μg/kg) and that of 3-MCPD was 185 μg/kg (0-316 μg/kg). Based on these results, we estimated the exposure levels of the two MCPD esters in infants fed on formula milk, and the results indicate potential health risks of consuming formula milk products contaminated by the two MCPD esters.

  2. Monitoring ultraviolet (UV) radiation inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii in dry infant formula using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Lu, Xiaonan; Swanson, Barry G; Rasco, Barbara A; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen associated with dry infant formula presenting a high risk to low birth weight neonates. The inactivation of C. sakazakii in dry infant formula by ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone and combined with hot water treatment at temperatures of 55, 60, and 65 °C were applied in this study. UV radiation with doses in a range from 12.1 ± 0.30 kJ/m² to 72.8 ± 1.83 kJ/m² at room temperature demonstrated significant inactivation of C. sakazakii in dry infant formula (P < 0.05). UV radiation combining 60 °C hot water treatment increased inactivation of C. sakazakii cells significantly (P < 0.05) in reconstituted infant formula. Significant effects of UV radiation on C. sakazakii inactivation kinetics (D value) were not observed in infant formula reconstituted in 55 and 65 °C water (P > 0.05). The inactivation mechanism was investigated using vibrational spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy detected significant stretching mode changes of macromolecules on the basis of spectral features, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. Minor changes on cell membrane composition of C. sakazakii under UV radiation could be accurately and correctly monitored by infrared spectroscopy coupled with 2nd derivative transformation and principal component analysis.

  3. Official Methods for the Determination of Minerals and Trace Elements in Infant Formula and Milk Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The minerals and trace elements that account for about 4% of total human body mass serve as materials and regulators in numerous biological activities in body structure building. Infant formula and milk products are important sources of endogenic and added minerals and trace elements and hence, must comply with regulatory as well as nutritional and safety requirements. In addition, reliable analytical data are necessary to support product content and innovation, health claims, or declaration and specific safety issues. Adequate analytical platforms and methods must be implemented to demonstrate both the compliance and safety assessment of all declared and regulated minerals and trace elements, especially trace-element contaminant surveillance. The first part of this paper presents general information on the mineral composition of infant formula and milk products and their regulatory status. In the second part, a survey describes the main techniques and related current official methods determining minerals and trace elements in infant formula and milk products applied for by various international organizations (AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the International Organization for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the European Committe for Standardization). The third part summarizes method officialization activities by Stakeholder Panels on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals and Stakeholder Panel on Strategic Food Analytical Methods. The final part covers a general discussion focusing on analytical gaps and future trends in inorganic analysis that have been applied for in infant formula and milk-based products.

  4. Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ryan W.; Goran, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ≥20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either <10% or >10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children. PMID:26193309

  5. Isolation and Identification Enterobacter asburiae from Consumed Powdered Infant Formula Milk (PIF) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

    PubMed

    Mardaneh, Jalal; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen that its strains are isolated from a variety of clinical and environmental specimens. Since powdered infant formula milk (PIF) is not a sterile product, it is an excellent medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify E. asburiae from PIF in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of this bacterium. A total 125 PIF samples were purchased from drug stores between June 2011 to March 2012. E. asburiae was isolated according to FDA method. For final confirmation, biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system were used. The drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Out of the 125 PIF samples investigated, 2 (1.6%) samples were positive for E. asburiae. All isolated strains were uniformly susceptible to aztreonam, cefotaxim, amikacin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, meropenem, tetracycline, ceftazidime, and colistin. Variable susceptibility was seen to the some antimicrobial agents tested. Each country should categorize its own designed guidelines for the preparation and handling of PIF adapted to the local environment. Moreover, the pathogenesis of the E. asburiae in infants hospitalized in NICU and other groups such as immunosuppressed patients and HIV infected individuals is uncertain and requires further study.

  6. Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ryan W; Goran, Michael I

    2015-07-16

    Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ≥20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either <10% or >10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children.

  7. Determination of Aflatoxin M1 and Heavy Metals in Infant Formula Milk Brands Available in Pakistani Markets

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saeed; Shahzad, Muhammad Arif; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Ismail, Amir; Hameed, Aneela; Ismail, Tariq; Riaz, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) after its bioconversion from aflatoxin B1 in animal liver becomes the part of milk while heavy metals get entry into milk and milk products during handling in the supply chain. Aflatoxin M1 and heavy metals being toxic compounds are needed to be monitored continuously to avoid any ailments among consumers of foods contaminated with such toxicants. Thirteen commercially available infant formula milk (IFM) brands available in Pakistani markets were analyzed for the quantitative determination of AFM1 and heavy metals through ELISA and atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. AFM1 was found positive in 53.84% samples while 30.76% samples were found exceeding the maximum EU limit i.e. 0.025 μg/kg for AFM1 in IFM. Heavy metals lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were found below the detection limits in any of the sample, whereas the concentrations of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni) ranged between 45.40-97.10, 29.72-113.50 and <0.001-50.90 μg/kg, respectively. The concentration of Fe in all the tested brands was found in normal ranges while the concentrations of Zn and Ni were found exceeding the standard norms. Elevated levels of AFM1, Zn and Ni in some of the tested IFM brands indicated that a diet completely based on these IFM brands might pose sever health implications in the most vulnerable community i.e., infants. PMID:28316474

  8. A neutral sampling formula for multiple samples and an 'exact' test of neutrality.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Rampal S

    2007-07-01

    As the utility of the neutral theory of biodiversity is increasingly being recognized, there is also an increasing need for proper tools to evaluate the relative importance of neutral processes (dispersal limitation and stochasticity). One of the key features of neutral theory is its close link to data: sampling formulas, giving the probability of a data set conditional on a set of model parameters, have been developed for parameter estimation and model comparison. However, only single local samples can be handled with the currently available sampling formulas, whereas data are often available for many small spatially separated plots. Here, I present a sampling formula for multiple, spatially separated samples from the same metacommunity, which is a generalization of earlier sampling formulas. I also provide an algorithm to generate data sets with the model and I introduce a general test of neutrality that does not require an alternative model; this test compares the probability of the observed data (calculated using the new sampling formula) with the probability of model-generated data sets. I illustrate this with tree abundance data from three large Panamanian neotropical forest plots. When the test is performed with model parameters estimated from the three plots, the model cannot be rejected; however, when parameter estimates previously reported for BCI are used, the model is strongly rejected. This suggests that neutrality cannot explain the structure of the three Panamanian tree communities on the local (BCI) and regional (Panama Canal Zone) scale simultaneously. One should be aware, however, that aspects of the model other than neutrality may be responsible for its failure. I argue that the spatially implicit character of the model is a potential candidate.

  9. Choline in infant formula and adult nutritionals by ion chromatography and suppressed conductivity: First Action 2012.20.

    PubMed

    Oates, Kassandra; Chen, Lillian; De Borba, Brian; Mohindra, Deepali; Rohrer, Jeffrey; Dowell, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Single-laboratory validation (SLV) data from a method for the determination of choline in infant formula and adult nutritionals by ion chromatography (IC) and suppressed conductivity were generated and presented to the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Expert Review Panel (ERP) at the AOAC Annual Meeting held in Las Vegas, NV, during September 30 to October 3, 2012. The ERP reviewed the data and concluded that the data met the standard method performance requirements (SMPRs) established and approved the method as AOAC Official First Action. At the ERP's request, a second, full SLV was performed on 17 SPIFAN matrixes that included fortified and placebo products. Prior to IC analysis, microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was used to digest and release bound choline from powder and ready-to-feed (RTF) infant formula and adult nutritional samples. Following hydrolysis, separation of choline from common cations was achieved on a Thermo Scientific Dionex IonPac CS19 column followed by suppressed conductivity detection. Total choline was measured and reported as the choline ion in mg/100 g reconstituted material or RTF as-is. The system was calibrated over the analytical range specified in the SMPR (2-250 mg/100 g). Recoveries of spiked samples at 50 and 100% of the fortified choline amounts ranged from 93.1 to 100.7% with RSDs < or = 6.7% for product containing < 2 mg/100 g and < or = 4.1% for product containing 2-100 mg/100 g. Accuracy for the National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1849a was determined over a 6-day interval and found to be 10.2 +/- 0.2 mg/100 g calculated as the reconstituted powder with an RSD of 1.8%. The LOD was determined to be 0.009, and the LOQ 0.012 mg/100 g, well below the SMPR requirements of 0.7 and 2 mg/100 g, respectively. Repeatability RSDs over the range of the assay (2-200 mg/100 g) ranged from 1.0 to 5.93%

  10. Quantitative determination of total L-carnitine in infant formula, follow-up formula, and raw materials by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nadaoka, Isao; Hatakeyama, Emi; Tanada, Chihiro; Sakamoto, Tasuku; Fukaya, Shinichi; Akiba, Takashi; Inoue, Koichi; Yamano, Yutaka; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2014-01-01

    We developed a rapid and useful routine screening assay for total L-carnitine content in various infant formulas and materials by liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) and alkaline hydrolysis. For separation of L-carnitine, a multi-mode octadecylsilane (ODS) column was used that contained ODS ligands, anion ligands, and cation ligands to avoid using ion-pairing agents. The stable isotope L-carnitine-d3 (m/z 165 → 103/85) was used in electrospray MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode with the ion transitions of m/z 162 → 103/85 for detection and quantitation of L-carnitine. Alkaline hydrolysis of short/medium chain (C2 - C15) acyl-L-carnitines in infant formula was analyzed by LC with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS). The majority of short/medium chain acyl-L-carnitines were hydrolyzed to free L-carnitine. The overall standard deviations for L-carnitine in infant formula, follow-up formula and raw materials ranged from 2.1 to 4.0. The overall mean recoveries ranged from 90.2 to 94.2%.

  11. A probabilistic estimation of fluoride intake by infants up to the age of 4 months from infant formula reconstituted with tap water in the fluoridated regions of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W A; Pratt, I; Ryan, M R; Flynn, A

    2004-01-01

    Two probabilistic models were developed to estimate the acute and chronic exposure to fluoride of exclusively formula-fed infants aged 0-4 months as a result of the consumption of infant formula reconstituted with fluoridated tap water in Ireland. The estimates were based on calculated infant formula consumption and accepted body weight standards, together with reported concentrations of fluoride in infant formula powder and measured values for the fluoride content of water in Ireland. The mean acute exposure of infants to fluoride on any single day in areas served by 387 fluoridated water supplies was estimated to be between 0.11 and 0.14 mg/kg body weight depending on age group (95th percentiles 0.2 and 0.26 mg/kg b.w., respectively). These predicted intakes were well below the intake of fluoride associated with acute toxic effects, which is considered to be 5 mg fluoride (F(-))/kg body weight. The mean chronic exposure of infants to fluoride was estimated to be between 0.106 and 0.170 mg/kg b.w./day depending on body weight (95th percentiles 0.108 and 0.172 mg/kg b.w./day, respectively). This estimate described the average daily fluoride intake of infants during the first 4 months of life residing in the areas served by 226 water supplies that achieved an average yearly fluoride concentration below 1.03 mg/l. Dental fluorosis may be considered to be the only risk at these low doses and from our work it is estimated that there is a very low risk of moderate dental fluorosis of the permanent dentition in infants exposed to fluoride at these levels.

  12. Multipoint NIR spectroscopy for gross composition analysis of powdered infant formula under various motion conditions.

    PubMed

    Cama-Moncunill, Raquel; Markiewicz-Keszycka, Maria; Dixit, Yash; Cama-Moncunill, Xavier; Casado-Gavalda, Maria P; Cullen, Patrick J; Sullivan, Carl

    2016-07-01

    Powdered infant formula (PIF) is a worldwide, industrially produced, human milk substitute. Manufacture of PIF faces strict quality controls in order to ensure that the product meets all compositional requirements. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a rapid, non-destructive and well-qualified technique for food quality assessments. The use of fibre-optic NIR sensors allows measuring in-line and at real-time, and can record spectra from different stages of the process. The non-contact character of fibre-optic sensors can be enhanced by fitting collimators, which allow operation at various distances. The system, based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer, records four spectra concurrently, rather than consecutively as in the "quasi-simultaneous" multipoint NIR systems. In the present study, a novel multipoint NIR spectroscopy system equipped with four fibre-optic probes with collimators was assessed to determine carbohydrate and protein contents of PIF samples under static and motion conditions (0.02, 0.15 and 0.30m/s) to simulate possible industrial scenarios. Best results were obtained under static conditions providing a R(2) of calibration of 0.95 and RMSEP values of 1.89%. Yet, considerably low values of RMSEP, for instance 2.70% at 0.15m/s, were provided with the in-motion predictions, demonstrating the system's potential for in/on-line applications at various levels of speed. The current work also evaluated the viability of using general off-line calibrations developed under static conditions for on/in-line applications subject to motion. To this end, calibrations in both modes were developed and compared. Best results were obtained with specific calibrations; however, reasonably accurate models were obtained with the general calibration. Furthermore, this work illustrated independency of the collimator-probe setup by characterizing PIF samples simultaneously recorded according to their carbohydrate content, even when measured under different conditions. Therefore

  13. Rapid screening for detection and differentiation of detergent powder adulteration in infant milk formula by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Tay, Manjun; Fang, Guihua; Chia, Poh Ling; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2013-10-10

    Reports of infant milk formula adulteration by detergent powders as economic frauds and poisoning incidents are common as detergents are readily available and are inexpensive household items. Liquid chromatography (LC)-Qtrap and LC-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) in combination with chemometrics were effectively employed to detect the presence of detergent powder adulterated in infant milk formula. Partial least square analysis (PLS) regression was also utilized to quantify the amount of detergent powder in adulterated infant milk formula without the need to purchase any standards. Dodecylbenzenesulfonate (C12-LAS) was identified and verified as the marker which existed in detergent powder using LC-QTOF-MS. The amount of C12-LAS present in the admixture was successfully quantified through standard addition method.

  14. A preterm infant with secondary carnitine deficiency due to MCT formula--effective treatment of L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Ishida, A; Goto, A; Takahashi, Y; Nakajima, W; Arai, H; Tazawa, Y; Takada, G

    1994-01-01

    We report a preterm infant who was prescribed an MCT formula and subsequently developed carnitine deficiency with liver dysfunction and an elevation of serum CK level. A male infant who had been born at 24 weeks' gestation with birth weight 799 g, was fed with an MCT formula containing 76.8% of all kinds of lipids, because of his steatorrhea after the 30th day. On the 100th day, he was noted hepatomegaly and elevation of serum levels of AST, ALT and CK. The needle biopsy of the liver indicated the existence of the liver damage. He showed low serum carnitine with high urinary loss of acylcarnitine and dicarboxylic aciduria. Administration of L-carnitine was an effective treatment. The carnitine deficiency might be exaggerated by an increased urinary loss of acylcarnitine. We should be cautious of the risk of carnitine deficiency in preterm infants during prolonged use of MCT formula.

  15. Method validation for simultaneous determination of chromium, molybdenum and selenium in infant formulas by ICP-OES and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naeem; Jeong, In Seon; Hwang, In Min; Kim, Jae Sung; Choi, Sung Hwa; Nho, Eun Yeong; Choi, Ji Yeon; Kwak, Byung-Man; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Yoon, Taehyung; Kim, Kyong Su

    2013-12-15

    This study aimed to validate the analytical method for simultaneous determination of chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), and selenium (Se) in infant formulas available in South Korea. Various digestion methods of dry-ashing, wet-digestion and microwave were evaluated for samples preparation and both inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were compared for analysis. The analytical techniques were validated by detection limits, precision, accuracy and recovery experiments. Results showed that wet-digestion and microwave methods were giving satisfactory results for sample preparation, while ICP-MS was found more sensitive and effective technique than ICP-OES. The recovery (%) of Se, Mo and Cr by ICP-OES were 40.9, 109.4 and 0, compared to 99.1, 98.7 and 98.4, respectively by ICP-MS. The contents of Cr, Mo and Se in infant formulas by ICP-MS were found in good nutritional values in accordance to nutrient standards for infant formulas CODEX values.

  16. Effect of hydrolyzed whey protein on surface morphology, water sorption, and glass transition temperature of a model infant formula.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Grace M; O'Mahony, James A; Kelly, Alan L; O'Callaghan, Donal J

    2016-09-01

    Physical properties of spray-dried dairy powders depend on their composition and physical characteristics. This study investigated the effect of hydrolyzed whey protein on the microstructure and physical stability of dried model infant formula. Model infant formulas were produced containing either intact (DH 0) or hydrolyzed (DH 12) whey protein, where DH=degree of hydrolysis (%). Before spray drying, apparent viscosities of liquid feeds (at 55°C) at a shear rate of 500 s(-1) were 3.02 and 3.85 mPa·s for intact and hydrolyzed infant formulas, respectively. On reconstitution, powders with hydrolyzed whey protein had a significantly higher fat globule size and lower emulsion stability than intact whey protein powder. Lactose crystallization in powders occurred at higher relative humidity for hydrolyzed formula. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer equation, fitted to sorption isotherms, showed increased monolayer moisture when intact protein was present. As expected, glass transition decreased significantly with increasing water content. Partial hydrolysis of whey protein in model infant formula resulted in altered powder particle surface morphology, lactose crystallization properties, and storage stability.

  17. Infant milk formulas differ regarding their allergenic activity and induction of T-cell and cytokine responses

    PubMed Central

    Hochwallner, H.; Schulmeister, U.; Swoboda, I.; Focke-Tejkl, M.; Reininger, R.; Civaj, V.; Campana, R.; Thalhamer, J.; Scheiblhofer, S.; Balic, N.; Horak, F.; Ollert, M.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Quirce, S.; Szepfalusi, Z.; Herz, U.; van Tol, E. A. F.; Spitzauer, S.; Valenta, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Several hydrolyzed cow’s milk (CM) formulas are available for avoidance of allergic reactions in CM-allergic children and for prevention of allergy development in high-risk infants. Our aim was to compare CM formulas regarding the presence of immunoreactive CM components, IgE reactivity, allergenic activity, ability to induce T-cell proliferation, and cytokine secretion. Methods A blinded analysis of eight CM formulas, one nonhydrolyzed, two partially hydrolyzed (PH), four extensively hydrolyzed (EH), and one amino acid formula, using biochemical techniques and specific antibody probes was conducted. IgE reactivity and allergenic activity of the formulas were tested with sera from CM-allergic patients (n = 26) in RAST-based assays and with rat basophils transfected with the human FcεRI, respectively. The induction of T-cell proliferation and the secretion of cytokines in Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture from CM allergic patients and nonallergic individuals were assessed. Results Immune-reactive α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin were found in the two PH formulas and casein components in one of the EH formulas. One PH formula and the EH formula containing casein components showed remaining IgE reactivity, whereas the other hydrolyzed formulas lacked IgE reactivity. Only two EH formulas and the amino acid formula did not induce T-cell proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine release. The remaining formulas varied regarding the induction of Th2, Th1, and proinflammatory cytokines. Conclusion Our results show that certain CM formulas without allergenic and low proinflammatory properties can be identified and they may also explain different outcomes obtained in clinical studies using CM formulas. PMID:27455132

  18. Comparison of growth and nutritional status in infants receiving goat milk–based formula and cow milk–based formula: a randomized, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meihong; Wang, Yibin; Dai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yanchun; Li, Yong; Wang, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the growth and nutritional status of infants fed goat milk–based formula (GMF) and cow milk–based formula (CMF). Methods The study was conducted in Beijing, China. It was a double-blind randomized controlled trial. A total of 79 infants aged 0–3 months old were recruited and randomized in GMF or CMF group. The infants were fed the allocated formula to 6 months. The weight, length, and head circumference were measured at the enrolment, 3 and 6 months. The start time and types of solid food were recorded. Blood elements, urinal, and fecal parameters were also tested. Results The average weight of infants in the GMF group (mean±SD) was 4.67±0.99 kg and in the CMF group 4.73±1.10 kg at enrolment, and 8.75±0.98 kg (GMF) and 8.92±0.88 kg (CMF) at 6 months. There were no differences in the adjusted intention-to-treat analyses of weight, length, head circumference, and BMI z-scores between the two formula-fed groups over the 6-month study. Similarly, there were no remarkable differences in the timing and types of solid food, blood elements, urinal, and feces parameters, between the GMF and CMF group. No group differences have been shown in bowel motion consistency, duration of crying, ease of settling, or frequency of adverse events. Conclusions GMF-provided growth and nutritional outcomes did not differ from those provided by CMF. PMID:26652603

  19. Improving the New Zealand dairy industry's contribution to local and global wellbeing: the case of infant formula exports.

    PubMed

    Galtry, Judith A

    2013-11-22

    On narrow economic measures of wellbeing, New Zealand's dairy industry is a huge success. Infant formula, in particular, is New Zealand's 'export superstar'. However, using a broader wellbeing lens, there is some public disquiet about environmental, human and animal wellbeing associated with the dairy industry. This article questions whether New Zealand's dairy industry is also undermining global 'best practice' infant feeding. It argues that while there is support for increased trade and exports, there are few voices promoting global infant health and that discussion is needed on this issue by the New Zealand public health community.

  20. A systematic review of controlled trials of lower-protein or energy-containing infant formulas for use by healthy full-term infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infant formulas have historically been developed based on providing macronutrients at intake concentrations approximately matching the composition of human milk. In most countries, targets of 1.4–1.5 g of protein/dL and 20 kcal/oz (67–68 kcal/dL) have been set as the protein and energy concentration...

  1. Extension of AOAC official method 999.14 (choline in infant formula and milk) to the determination of choline in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Rader, Jeanne I; Weaver, Carol M; Trucksess, Mary W

    2004-01-01

    AOAC Official Method 999.14 is applicable for the determination of choline in milk and infant formulas. To date, its use has not been extended beyond these matrixes. We modified Official Method 999.14 and applied it to the determination of choline in a range of choline-containing dietary supplements. Dietary supplement tablets, capsules, wafers, softgels, liquid products, and drink powders were included. We found that the standard curve could be extended to cover a wider range of choline concentrations and defined a procedure for the use of Norit for samples in which the vitamin C content was high enough to interfere with the analysis. Recoveries of choline added to infant formula powders and to representative dietary supplement tablets, capsules, powdered drink mix, and wafer products were 85-114%. The use of Norit during the procedure did not affect the recovery of choline added to infant formula powders or to dietary supplements. An alkaline digestion was included for use with a product containing lecithin as the sole source of choline. Ten of 11 dietary supplement products analyzed by the modified method contained amounts of choline at or above declarations found on the product labels. The remaining product contained about 40% of the label-declared amount of choline.

  2. Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) in Infant Formula and Adult/ Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.16.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frederic; Campos-Giménez, Esther

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine repeatability and reproducibility of AOAC First Action Method 2012.16 [Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry], a collaborative study was organized. The study was divided in two parts: method setup and qualification of participants (part 1) and collaborative study participation (part 2). For part 1, each participating laboratory was asked to analyze two practice samples using the aforementioned method. Laboratories that provided results within a range of expected levels were qualified for part 2, during which each laboratory received 10 samples in blind duplicates. Results have been compared to the Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR®) 2012.009 established for pantothenic acid. Precision results (repeatability and reproducibility) were within the limits stated in the SMPR. Repeatability ranged from 1.3 to 3.3%, and reproducibility ranged from 4.1 to 7.0%. Horwitz ratio (HorRat) values were all <1, ranging from 0.33 to 0.69. The AOAC Expert Review Panel on Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals Nutrient Methods determined that the data presented met the SMPR and recommended the method for Final Action status, which was then granted by the AOAC Official Methods Board.

  3. Leucine supplementation of an infant formula increases skeletal muscle and visceral tissue protein synthesis in a neonatal animal model by stimulating mTOR-dependent translation initiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low birth weight infants are often discharged weighing less than the tenth percentile for age and some remain small to adulthood with adverse long-term outcomes related to inadequate nutrition. Infant formula fortifiers had been used to improve the nutritional value of milk formulas. Leucine (Leu) a...

  4. A novel infant milk formula concept: Mimicking the human milk fat globule structure.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Vocking, Karin; Post, Jan Andries; Van De Heijning, Bert; Acton, Dennis; Van Der Beek, Eline M; Van Baalen, Ton

    2015-12-01

    Human milk (HM) provides all nutrients to support an optimal growth and development of the neonate. The composition and structure of HM lipids, the most important energy provider, have an impact on the digestion, uptake and metabolism of lipids. In HM, the lipids are present in the form of dispersed fat globules: large fat droplets enveloped by a phospholipid membrane. Currently, infant milk formula (Control IMF) contains small fat droplets primarily coated by proteins. Recently, a novel IMF concept (Concept IMF) was developed with a different lipid architecture, Nuturis(®), comprising large fat droplets with a phospholipid coating. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), with appropriate fluorescent probes, and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine and compare the interfacial composition and structure of HM fat globules, Concept IMF fat droplets and Control IMF fat droplets. The presence of a trilayer-structured HM fat globule membrane, composed of phospholipids, proteins, glycoproteins and cholesterol, was confirmed; in addition exosome-like vesicles are observed within cytoplasmic crescents. The Control IMF fat droplets had a thick protein-only interface. The Concept IMF fat droplets showed a very thin interface composed of a mixture of phospholipids, proteins and cholesterol. Furthermore, the Concept IMF contained fragments of milk fat globule membrane, which has been suggested to have potential biological functions in infants. By mimicking more closely the structure and composition of HM fat globules, this novel IMF concept with Nuturis(®) may have metabolic and digestive properties that are more similar to HM compared to Control IMF.

  5. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement of either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models fo...

  6. Developmental status of one year old infants fed breast-milk, cow's milk formula or soy formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although soy formula has been reported to support normal growth, concerns exist regarding potential adverse effects of phytochemicals associated with soy protein. This study characterized growth, body composition, and behavioral development of breast-fed (BF), milk-based formula-fed (MF), or soy pro...

  7. Growth inhibition of Cronobacter spp. strains in reconstituted powdered infant formula acidified with organic acids supported by natural stomach acidity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S; Schnell, S; Fischer, M

    2013-09-01

    Cronobacter is associated with outbreaks of rare, but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in newborns. This study was conducted to determine the effect of organic acids on growth of Cronobacter in laboratory medium and reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF) as well as the bacteriostatic effect of slightly acidified infant formula when combined with neonatal gastric acidity. Inhibitory effect of seven organic acids on four acid sensitive Cronobacter strains was determined in laboratory medium with broth dilution method at pH 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0. Acetic, butyric and propionic acids were most inhibitive against Cronobacter in the laboratory medium. The killing effect of these three acids was partially buffered in reconstituted PIF. Under neonatal gastric acid condition of pH 5.0, the slightly acidified formula which did not exert inhibition effect solely reduced significantly the Cronobacter populations. A synergistic effect of formula moderately acidified with organic acid combined with the physiological infant gastric acid was visible in preventing the rapid growth of Cronobacter in neonatal stomach. The study contributed to a better understanding of the inhibitory effect of organic acids on Cronobacter growth in different matrixes and provided new ideas in terms of controlling bacteria colonization and translocation by acidified formula.

  8. Effects of preculturing conditions on lag time and specific growth rate of Enterobacter sakazakii in reconstituted powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Kandhai, M C; Reij, M W; Grognou, C; van Schothorst, M; Gorris, L G M; Zwietering, M H

    2006-04-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii can be present, although in low levels, in dry powdered infant formulae, and it has been linked to cases of meningitis in neonates, especially those born prematurely. In order to prevent illness, product contamination at manufacture and during preparation, as well as growth after reconstitution, must be minimized by appropriate control measures. In this publication, several determinants of the growth of E. sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula are reported. The following key growth parameters were determined: lag time, specific growth rate, and maximum population density. Cells were harvested at different phases of growth and spiked into powdered infant formula. After reconstitution in sterile water, E. sakazakii was able to grow at temperatures between 8 and 47 degrees C. The estimated optimal growth temperature was 39.4 degrees C, whereas the optimal specific growth rate was 2.31 h(-1). The effect of temperature on the specific growth rate was described with two secondary growth models. The resulting minimum and maximum temperatures estimated with the secondary Rosso equation were 3.6 degrees C and 47.6 degrees C, respectively. The estimated lag time varied from 83.3 +/- 18.7 h at 10 degrees C to 1.73 +/- 0.43 h at 37 degrees C and could be described with the hyperbolic model and reciprocal square root relation. Cells harvested at different phases of growth did not exhibit significant differences in either specific growth rate or lag time. Strains did not have different lag times, and lag times were short given that the cells had spent several (3 to 10) days in dry powdered infant formula. The growth rates and lag times at various temperatures obtained in this study may help in calculations of the period for which reconstituted infant formula can be stored at a specific temperature without detrimental impact on health.

  9. Determination of Free and Total Choline and Carnitine in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS): Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.10.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, David J; Shippar, Jeffrey J; Gilmore, Justin M

    2016-01-01

    Analytical methods for the analysis of both L-carnitine and choline are needed for reliable and accurate determination in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. These compounds are different in how they are utilized by the human body, but are structurally similar. L-carnitine and choline are quaternary ammonium compounds, enabling both to be retained under acidic conditions with strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography. This method analyzes both compounds simultaneously as either the free forms or as a total amount that includes bound sources such as phosphatidylcholine or acetylcarnitine. The free analysis consists of water extraction and analysis by LC/MS/MS, while the total analysis consists of extraction by acid assisted microwave hydrolysis and analysis by LC/MS/MS. Calibration standards used for calculations are extracted with all samples in the batch. A single laboratory validation (SLV) was performed following the guidelines of the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) utilizing the kit of materials provided. The results achieved meet the requirements of SMPR 2012.010 and 2012.013 for L-carnitine and total choline, respectively.

  10. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  13. Copper fractionation by SEC-HPLC and ETAAS: study of breast milk and infant formulae whey used in lactation of full-term newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, P; Peña, E; Fompedriña, D; Domínguez, R; Bermejo, A; Fraga, J M; Cocho, J A

    2001-05-01

    This method will allow the determination of bound copper to low relative molecular mass compounds in milk. The milk whey obtained by ultracentrifugation was submitted to fractionation by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) on a TSK-Gel2000 (Toso Haas) column with a mobile phase of 0.2 M NH4NO3 + NH3, pH 6.7. Fractions of effluent corresponding to the protein peaks were collected and the copper content was determined by ETAAS. The method was sensitive (LOD 0.4 microgram l-1 and LOQ 1.5 micrograms l-1 in the fraction; LOQ 7.5-22.5 micrograms l-1 referred to the milk sample and depended on fraction volume) and precise (RSD +/- 10%). Media sample recoveries from the column were 101.2%. Cu was predominantly present in fractions corresponding to relative molecular mass 76 and 15 kDa of breast milk while copper was mostly found in fractions corresponding to 14 and 38 kDa of cow's milk-based infant formulae; moreover, copper was eluted in the relative molecular mass region < 6 kDa.

  14. The influence of infant diet on early developmental changes in processing human voice speech stimuli: ERP variations in breast and milk formula-fed infants at three and six months after birth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if processing of language stimuli during the first half year of life in breast-fed infants differs from that of formula-fed infants. This question was addressed by examining the brain event-related potentials of healthy infants receiving breast milk...

  15. Growth of Infants Fed Formula with Evolving Nutrition Composition: A Single-Arm Non-Inferiority Study

    PubMed Central

    Spalinger, Johannes; Nydegger, Andreas; Belli, Dominique; Furlano, Raoul I.; Yan, Jian; Tanguy, Jerome; Pecquet, Sophie; Destaillats, Frédéric; Egli, Delphine; Steenhout, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional composition of human milk evolves over the course of lactation, to match the changing needs of infants. This single-arm, non-inferiority study evaluated growth against the WHO standards in the first year of life, in infants consecutively fed four age-based formulas with compositions tailored to infants’ nutritional needs during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd–6th, and 7th–12th months of age. Healthy full-term formula-fed infants (n = 32) were enrolled at ≤14 days of age and exclusively fed study formulas from enrollment, to the age of four months. Powdered study formulas were provided in single-serving capsules that were reconstituted using a dedicated automated preparation system, to ensure precise, hygienic preparation. The primary outcome was the weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) at the age of four months (vs. non-inferiority margin of −0.5 SD). Mean (95% CI) z-scores for the WAZ (0.12 (−0.15, 0.39)), as well as for the length-for-age (0.05 (−0.19, 0.30)), weight-for-length (0.16 (−0.16, 0.48)), BMI-for-age (0.11 (−0.20, 0.43)), and head circumference-for-age (0.41 (0.16, 0.65)) at the age of four months, were non-inferior. Throughout the study, anthropometric z-scores tracked closely against the WHO standards (within ±1 SD). In sum, a four-stage, age-based infant formula system with nutritional compositions tailored to infants’ evolving needs, supports healthy growth consistent with WHO standards, for the first year of life. PMID:28257044

  16. Single-laboratory validation of a liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of free and total carnitine in infant formula and raw ingredients.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Dustin E; Denison, James E; Seipelt, C Thomas; Jacobs, Wesley A

    2008-01-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for the determination of free carnitine (FC) and total carnitine (TC) in infant formula and raw ingredients. Preparation of samples for FC determination required only nonvolumetric dilution in water, followed by filtration. Determination of TC in whey-based samples required a common saponification procedure, which hydrolyzed the acylcarnitines to FC. L-Carnitine standards were prepared in water at 3 concentrations (7.5, 30, and 60 ng/mL). L-Carnitine-d3 was incorporated in the sample and standard preparations as a stable isotope internal standard (ISTD), which helped to normalize signal suppression due to fouling of the ionization source, or matrix effects. A short C8 column (50 x 2.1 mm id) was used for liquid chromatography, with mobile phases consisting of 0.1% heptafluorobutyric acid in water and methanol. L-Carnitine and the ISTD eluted at about 2 min, and the injection-to-injection cycle time was about 11 min. Multiple-reaction monitoring was used for quantitation by monitoring the ion transitions m/z 162 > 103 and 162 > 85 for L-carnitine, and m/z 165 > 103 and 165 > 85 for the ISTD. The values for overall method precision for a whey-based infant formula, a protein hydrolyzate infant formula, and a water-soluble vitamin/amino acid premix were relative standard deviations of 1.32, 1.86, and 3.33%, respectively. The overall mean recoveries were between 97.3 and 102.8%. Additionally, the method results showed good correlation with those obtained for a radioenzymatic assay done in-house.

  17. Circulating GLP-1 in infants born small-for-gestational-age: breast-feeding versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    Díaz, M; Bassols, J; Sebastiani, G; López-Bermejo, A; Ibáñez, L; de Zegher, F

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal growth restraint associates with the risk for later diabetes, particularly if such restraint is followed by postnatal formula-feeding (FOF) rather than breast-feeding (BRF). Circulating incretins can influence the neonatal programming of hypothalamic setpoints for appetite and energy expenditure, and are thus candidate mediators of the long-term effects exerted by early nutrition. We have tested this concept by measuring (at birth and at age 4 months) the circulating concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; n=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either BRF (n=28) or FOF (n=26). At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations were higher than at birth; SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. In conclusion, nutrition appears to influence the circulating GLP-1 concentrations in SGA infants and may thereby modulate long-term diabetes risk.

  18. Multiple analysis of a foodborne outbreak caused by infant formula contaminated by an atypical Salmonella virchow strain.

    PubMed

    Usera, M A; Rodriguez, A; Echeita, A; Cano, R

    1998-08-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning involving most autonomous Spanish communities was detected in the first half of 1994. The causative food was infant formula milk contaminated by lactose-fermenting Salmonella virchow. It was not possible to isolate the causative strain from the manufacturer's facilities. During the same period of time, there was a significant increase in lactose-non-fermenting Salmonella virchow strains compared with the same period in previous years. Simultaneously, lactose-non-fermenting strains were recovered from clinical samples from children and from some milk samples that were involved in the outbreak. Therefore, it was speculated that the outbreak might be more extensive than initially thought. The following epidemiological markers were used for typing the Salmonella virchow strains involved in the outbreak: (i) phage typing: (ii) ribotyping, using a set of 20 different endonucleases: and (iii) pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, using three different endonucleases. The most useful markers for this serotype were phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, since ribotyping was not able to distinguish all strains tested. The results obtained revealed that the outbreak was caused by at least two strains: one presenting phage type 4-4a and pulsed-field patterns A1 or A2 and L+ or L-, and another presenting phage type 2 and pulsed-field patterns A1 or A2 and L+ or L-. The results indicate that the outbreak was more extensive than initially thought and that the Virchow serotype is very clonal in Spain.

  19. Determination of mycotoxins in milk-based products and infant formula using stable isotope dilution assay and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wong, Jon W; Hayward, Douglas G; Vaclavikova, Marta; Liao, Chia-Ding; Trucksess, Mary W

    2013-07-03

    A stable isotope dilution assay and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of 12 mycotoxins, aflatoxins B₁, B₂, G₁, G₂, and M₁, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins B₁, B₂, and B₃, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone, in milk-based infant formula and foods. Samples were fortified with 12 ¹³C uniformly labeled mycotoxins ([¹³C]-mycotoxins) that correspond to the 12 target mycotoxins and prepared by dilution and filtration, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Quantitation was achieved using the relative response factors of [¹³C]-mycotoxins and target mycotoxins. The average recoveries in fortified milk, milk-based infant formula, milk powder, and baby yogurt of aflatoxins B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂ (2, 10, and 50 μg/kg), aflatoxin M₁ (0.5, 2.5, and 12.5 μg/kg), deoxynivalenol, fumonisins B₁, B₂, and B₃ (40, 200, and 1000 μg/kg), ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone (20, 100, and 500 μg/kg), range from 89 to 126% with RSDs of <20%. The individual recoveries in the four fortified matrices range from 72% (fumonisin B₃, 20 μg/kg, milk-based infant formula) to 136% (T-2 toxin, 20 μg/kg, milk powder), with RSDs ranging from 2 to 25%. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were from 0.01 μg/kg (aflatoxin M₁) to 2 (fumonisin B₁) μg/kg. Aflatoxin M₁ was detected in two European Reference materials at 0.127 ± 0.013 μg/kg (certified value = 0.111 ± 0.018 μg/kg) and 0.46 ± 0.04 μg/kg (certified value = 0.44 ± 0.06 μg/kg), respectively. In 60 local market samples, aflatoxins B₁ (1.14 ± 0.10 μg/kg) and B₂ (0.20 ± 0.03 μg/kg) were detected in one milk powder sample. Aflatoxin M₁ was detected in three imported samples (condensed milk, milk-based infant formula, and table cream), ranging from 0.10 to 0.40 μg/kg. The validated method provides sufficient selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility to screen for aflatoxin M₁ at nanograms per

  20. Cross-sectional survey shows that follow-up formula and growing-up milks are labelled similarly to infant formula in four low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catherine; Ford, Rosalyn; Feeley, Alison B; Sweet, Lara; Badham, Jane; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional survey assessed the characteristics of labels of follow-up formula (FUF) and growing-up milk (GUM) compared with infant formula (IF), including cross-promotion practices between FUF/GUM and IF manufactured by the same company, sold in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. All products were imported. A wide recommended age/age range for introduction was provided by manufacturers across all sites, with products with an age recommendation of 0-6 months being most prevalent in three sites, representing over a third of all products. Various age categories (e.g. 1, 1+ and Stage 1) commonly appeared on labels. A number of descriptive names (e.g. infant formula and milk formula) per category of age of introduction were used with some appearing across more than one category. Images of feeding bottles were found on most labels across all age categories, but prevalence decreased with older age categories. The majority of FUF/GUM manufactured by IF companies across all sites displayed at least one example of cross-promotion with one or more of the company's IF: two-thirds or more contained similar colour schemes/designs and similar brand names; 20-85% had similar slogans/mascots/symbols. A wide and potentially confusing range of ages/categories of introduction and descriptive names were found, and cross-promotion with IF was common on FUF/GUM labels. Global guidance from normative bodies forms the basis of most low and middle income countries policies and should provide specific guidance to prohibit cross-promotion between FUF/GUM and IF, and all three categories should be classified as breastmilk substitutes.

  1. Determination of vitamin B12 in fortified bovine milk-based infant formula powder, fortified soya-based infant formula powder, vitamin premix, and dietary supplements by surface plasmon resonance: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Pathik; O'Kane, Anthony A

    2011-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on an inhibition-based protein-binding assay using the Biacore Q biosensor instrument and the Biacore Qflex Kit Vitamin B12 PI. The samples studied included infant formula, cereals, premixes, vitamin tablets, dietary supplements, and baby food. The collaborative study, which involved 11 laboratories, demonstrated that the assay showed an RSDr of 1.59-27.8 and HorRat values for reproducibility of 0.34-1.89 in samples with levels ranging from ppm to ppb. The assay studied is a label-free protein binding-based assay that uses the principle of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to measure the interaction between vitamin B12 and a specific binding protein. A Biacore Q biosensor uses this principle to detect binding directly at the surface of a sensor chip with a hydrophilic gold-dextran surface. The instrument passes a mixture of prepared sample extract and binding protein solution across a covalently immobilized vitamin B12 chip surface, and the response is given as free-binding protein as the mixture binds to the immobilized surface. This technique uses the specificity and robustness of the protein-ligand interaction to allow minimal sample preparation and a wide range of matrixes to be analyzed rapidly. The reagents and accessories needed to perform this assay are provided as the ready-to-use format "Qflex Kit Vitamin B12 PI." The method is intended for routine use in the quantitative determination of vitamin B12 (as cyanocobalamin) in a wide range of food products, dietary vitamin supplements, and multivitamin premixes.

  2. Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Bacillus licheniformis Strains Isolated from Retail Powdered Infant Milk Formulae.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Begley, Máire; Clifford, Tanya; Deasy, Thérèse; Considine, Kiera; O'Connor, Paula; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the potential antimicrobial activity of ten Bacillus licheniformis strains isolated from retail infant milk formulae against a range of indicator (Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Listeria innocua) and clinically relevant (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli) microorganisms. Deferred antagonism assays confirmed that all B. licheniformis isolates show antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive target organisms. PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses indicated that four of the B. licheniformis isolates produce the bacteriocin lichenicidin. The remaining six isolates demonstrated a higher antimicrobial potency than lichenicidin-producing strains. Further analyses identified a peptide of ~1,422 Da as the most likely bioactive responsible for the antibacterial activity of these six isolates. N-terminal sequencing of the ~1,422 Da peptide from one strain identified it as ILPEITXIFHD. This peptide shows a high homology to the non-ribosomal peptides bacitracin and subpeptin, known to be produced by Bacillus spp. Subsequent PCR analyses demonstrated that the six B. licheniformis isolates may harbor the genetic machinery needed for the synthesis of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase similar to those involved in production of subpeptin and bacitracin, which suggests that the ~1,422 Da peptide might be a variant of subpeptin and bacitracin.

  3. Liquid chromatography-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the separation and preconcentration of molybdenum in milk and infant formulas.

    PubMed

    López-García, I; Viñas, P; Romero-Romero, R; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2007-08-06

    Two procedures for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of molybdenum in milk and infant formulas using slurried samples are described. For powdered milk samples, 10% (m/v) slurries were prepared in a medium containing 25 and 75% (v/v) concentrated hydrogen peroxide and hydrofluoric acid, respectively, and introduced directly into the furnace. Palladium (200 microg mL(-1)) was used as the modifier and calibration was carried out using aqueous standards prepared in the same medium. The detection limit was 0.02 microg g(-1) for powdered milk samples suspended at 10% (m/v) (equivalent to 2 microg L(-1)). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for five measurements was 1.9%, the characteristic mass being 25 pg. For liquid milk samples, a procedure was proposed based on preconcentration and removal of the matrix, using ionic exchange (Amberlite IRA 743) and elution of molybdenum with 5% (m/v) NaOH. In this case, a 30-fold improvement in the calibration slope was achieved, leading to a detection limit of 0.04 microg L(-1) for liquid samples diluted to 10%. The R.S.D. was 3.5%. Using a size-based separation procedure, it was found that molybdenum is present in its inorganic form or associated to low molecular weight substances in cow milk, while in breast milk it is associated to proteins. The reliability of the procedure was checked by comparing the results obtained with those found using a previous mineralization stage and by analyzing three certified reference materials, namely, BCR 063R (skim milk powder), NBS 1549 (non-fat milk powder) and NBS 8435 (whole milk powder).

  4. Determination of niacin in infant formula by solid-phase extraction and anion-exchange liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    LaCroix, D E; Wolf, W R; Porter, E; Cantellops, D; Chase, G W; Woollard, D

    2001-01-01

    A peer-verified, solid-phase extraction (SPE)/anion exchange liquid chromatographic method is presented for the determination of niacin in milk-based and soy-based infant formula. Analysis is in 3 steps: test sample digestion, extraction/cleanup, and liquid chromatography (LC). Digestion uses a standard AOAC digestion procedure that involves autoclaving at 121 degrees C for 45 min in (1 + 1) H2SO4 to free endogenous niacin from protein and to convert added niacinamide to niacin. The digest solution is adjusted to pH 6.5 with 7.5M NaOH. Acidification to pH <1.0 with (1 + 1) H2SO4 precipitates the protein. The clarified solution is then filtered, and the filtrate is brought to volume. SPE of niacin is accomplished by passing an aliquot of the digest solution through an aromatic sulfonic acid-SPE (ArSCX-SPE) column. After the column is washed with methanol and water to remove extraneous material, the niacin is eluted with 0.25M sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer at pH 5.6. An anion-exchange polystyrene-divinylbenzene column with 0.1 M sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer at pH 4.0 is used for LC. Niacin is determined by UV detection at 260 nm. A standard curve is prepared by passing known amounts of niacin through the ArSCX-SPE columns used for niacin extraction. The following values for x and relative standard deviation (RSD) were obtained for National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (NIST SRM) 1846 Infant Formula with a certified value for niacin of 63.3 +/- 7.6 microg/g: Submitting laboratory.-- x = 59.7 +/- 4.0 microg/g; RSD = >6.7%; confidence interval (CI) = +/- 1.4 microg/g; n = 27. Peer laboratory.--x = 56.6 +/- 6.6 microg/g; RSD = >11.7%; CI =+/- 4.1 microg/g; n = 8.

  5. Evaluation of GC-ion trap-MS/MS methodology for monitoring PCDD/Fs in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Lorán, Susana; Bayarri, Susana; Conchello, Pilar; Herrera, Antonio

    2007-03-01

    The application of high resolution gas chromatography in combination with low resolution mass spectrometry with electron ionization and MS/MS detection (HRGC-MS/MS) is tested for its use in the analysis of PCDD/Fs in infant formulas. Development of the analytical method was based upon EPA directrices and international recommendations. Calibration linearity was tested and average relative response for any native and labelled compound over the five-point calibration range below 14% was found. The precision and accuracy of the proposed analytical procedure are also presented. Results obtained are in agreement with EPA criteria. The method is applied to the analysis of a number of initial and follow-on milk based infant formulas. In general, HRGC-MS/MS constitutes an interesting method for the analysis of dioxins in such matrices.

  6. Guide to capillary heelstick blood sampling in infants.

    PubMed

    Folk, Laura A

    2007-08-01

    Capillary blood sampling is an essential method of blood collection performed by nurses of all skill levels to obtain samples for routine laboratory tests in neonates. Accuracy of results depends on proper heelstick and sample collection technique. Recent advances including development of devices designed specifically for heelstick capillary blood sampling and research into expanded safe heel capillary sampling sites are discussed. A step-by-step guide to capillary blood sampling is outlined along with evidence-based practice incorporating neonatal-appropriate disinfection and nonpharmacological analgesia that contribute to improved infant safety and comfort during and after the procedure.

  7. Current good manufacturing practices, quality control procedures, quality factors, notification requirements, and records and reports, for infant formula. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule that adopts, with some modifications, the interim final rule (IFR) entitled "Current Good Manufacturing Practices, Quality Control Procedures, Quality Factors, Notification Requirements, and Records and Reports, for Infant Formula'' (February 10, 2014). This final rule affirms the IFR's changes to FDA's regulations and provides additional modifications and clarifications. The final rule also responds to certain comments submitted in response to the request for comments in the IFR.

  8. Detection of Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula using an immunoliposome-based immunomagnetic concentration and separation assay

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Shruti; Lee, Gibaek; Song, Xinjie; Park, Jung Hyun; Cho, Hyunjeong; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Myunghee

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize the applicability of an immunoliposome-based immunomagnetic concentration and separation assay to facilitate rapid detection of Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). To determine the detection limit, specificity, and pre-enrichment incubation time (0, 4, 6, and 8 h), assay tests were performed with different cell numbers of C. sakazakii (2 × 100 and 2 × 101 CFU/ml) inoculated in 10 g of PIF. The assay was able to detect as few as 2 cells of C. sakazakii/10 g of PIF sample after 6 h of pre-enrichment incubation with an assay time of 2 h 30 min. The assay was assessed for cross-reactivity with other bacterial strains and exhibited strong specificity to C. sakazakii. Moreover, the assay method was applied to the detection of C. sakazakii in PIF without pre-enrichment steps, and the results were compared with INC-ELISA and RT-PCR. The developed method was able to detect C. sakazakii in spiked PIF without pre-enrichment, whereas INC-ELISA failed to detect C. sakazakii. In addition, when compared with the results obtained with RT-PCR, our developed assay required lesser detection time. The developed assay was also not susceptible to any effect of the food matrix or background contaminant microflora. PMID:27721500

  9. Detection of Cronobacter Genus in Powdered Infant Formula by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Anti-Cronobacter Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xinjie; Shukla, Shruti; Lee, Gibaek; Park, Sunhyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2016-01-01

    Cronobacter species (Cronobacter spp.) are hazardous foodborne pathogens associated with baby food, powdered infant formula (PIF). To develop a rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous detection of seven Cronobacter spp. in PIF, an indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (INC-ELISA) was developed based on a novel immunoglobulin G (IgG), anti-Cronobacter IgG. The developed INC-ELISA was able to detect seven Cronobacter spp. at concentrations ranging from (5.6 ± 0.30) × 103 to (2.1 ± 0.01) × 105 colony forming unit (CFU)/mL in pure culture. Further, INC-ELISA employing anti-Cronobacter IgG was applicable for analysis of PIF samples contaminated with less than <10 cells of Cronobacter spp. per 25 g of PIF in 36 h. The developed antibody showed slight cross-reactivity with Franconibacter pulveris (LMG 24057) at high concentration (108 CFU/mL). The INC-ELISA method displayed excellent specificity without compromising cross-reactivity with other foodborne pathogens. The INC-ELISA assay method developed in this study using a novel anti-Cronobacter IgG facilitated highly sensitive, efficient, and rapid detection of Cronobacter spp. in baby food. PMID:27493642

  10. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet in infants and young children with refractory epilepsies using a formula-based powder.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Ahmad; Zamani, Gholam Reza; Mohammadi, Mahmoud; Tavassoli, Alireza; Badv, Reza Shervin; Heidari, Morteza; Karimi, Parviz; Malamiri, Reza Azizi

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a classic 4:1 ketogenic diet using a formula-based powder in infants and children with refractory seizures who are reluctant to eat homemade foods. We conducted an open label trial and administered a ketogenic diet using formula-based power (Ketocal(®)). Twenty-seven infants and children aged between 12 months and 5 years were enrolled who had refractory seizures and were reluctant to eat homemade foods. Of 27 children, 5 were lost to follow-up and 22 were remained at the end of the study. After 4 months, the median frequency of seizures per week was reduced >50% in 68.2% of patients, while 9/22 children (40.9%) showed a 50-90% reduction in seizure frequency per week, and 6/22 children (27.3%) showed more than 90% reduction in seizure frequency per week. Over the study course, 6/22 (27%) children who continued to receive the diet developed constipation, one child developed gastroesophageal reflux, and one child developed hypercholesterolemia. None of these children discontinued the diet because of the complications. Thirteen children and their parents (59%) reported that the diet was palatable and tolerable enough. The ketogenic diet using a formula-based powder (Ketocal(®)) is effective, safe, and tolerable in infants and children with refractory seizures who are reluctant to eat homemade foods according to the rules of the ketogenic diet.

  11. Minimally Invasive Sampling Method Identifies Differences in Taxonomic Richness of Nasal Microbiomes in Young Infants Associated with Mode of Delivery.

    PubMed

    Shilts, Meghan H; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Larkin, Emma K; Torralba, Manolito; Akopov, Asmik; Halpin, Rebecca; Peebles, R Stokes; Moore, Martin L; Anderson, Larry J; Nelson, Karen E; Hartert, Tina V; Das, Suman R

    2016-01-01

    To date, there is a limited understanding of the role of the airway microbiome in the early life development of respiratory diseases such as asthma, partly due to a lack of simple and minimally invasive sample collection methods. In order to characterize the baseline microbiome of the upper respiratory tract (URT) in infants, a comparatively non-invasive method for sampling the URT microbiome suitable for use in infants was developed. Microbiome samples were collected by placing filter paper in the nostrils of 33 healthy, term infants enrolled as part of the Infant Susceptibility to Pulmonary Infections and Asthma Following RSV Exposure (INSPIRE) study. After bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from the filters, amplicons were generated with universal primers targeting the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene. This method was capable of capturing a wide variety of taxa expected to inhabit the nasal cavity. Analyses stratifying subjects by demographic and environmental factors previously observed or predicted to influence microbial communities were performed. Microbial community richness was found to be higher in infants who had been delivered via Cesarean section and in those who had been formula-fed; an association was observed between diet and delivery, which confounds this analysis. We have established a baseline URT microbiome using a non-invasive filter paper nasal sampling for this population, and future studies will be performed in this large observational cohort of infants to investigate the relationship between viral infections, the URT microbiota, and the development of childhood wheezing illnesses.

  12. Why Do Mothers of Young Infants Choose to Formula Feed in China? Perceptions of Mothers and Hospital Staff

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Tang, Li; Wang, Hong; Qiu, Li-Qian; Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2015-01-01

    In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers’ and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers’ decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of “insufficient breast milk” was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74%) as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers’ confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law’s and “confinement ladies” misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54%) lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly. PMID:25918908

  13. Determination of vitamin B12 in infant formula and adult nutritionals using HPLC after purification on an immunoaffinity column: first action 2011.09.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Ursula; Degenhardt, Katharina; Raffler, Guenther; Nelson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    During the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting," on June 29, 2011, the method "Determination of vitamin B12 in infant formula and adult nutritionals using HPLC after purification on an immunoaffinity column" was recommended by an Expert Review Panel and adopted as AOAC Official First Action status. The method is applicable for the determination of vitamin B12 in milk-based infant formula. Vitamin B12 is extracted from the sample in sodium acetate buffer in the presence of potassium cyanide. After purification and concentration with an immunoaffinity column (IAC), vitamin B12 is determined by LC with UV detection (361 nm). Data supplied by CLF demonstrated linear response over a wide range of concentrations (1.4-39 microg/100 mL). The analytical range is 0.2-10 microg/100 g, depending on the capacity of the IACs (0.01-0.5 microg), the input weight, and dilutions. Recovery rates were assessed using National Institute of Standards and Technology SRM 1849, and determined to be 95.1%, with SD of 0.34 and CV of 9.0. Measurement uncertainty (UE) was 0.8 microg/100 g, which was calculated from the validation data. It is an expanded measurement uncertainty and was obtained through multiplication with a coverage factor k. LOQ values were reported as 0.10 microg/100 g. The performance characteristics of the method met the standard method performance requirements set forth by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals; thus, the method was determined to be appropriate for First Action status.

  14. Determination of vitamin B12 in infant formula and adult nutritionals by liquid chromatography/UV detection with immunoaffinity extraction: First Action 2011.08.

    PubMed

    Campos-Giménez, Esther; Fontannaz, Patric; Trisconi, Marie-José; Kilinc, Tamara; Gimenez, Catherine; Andrieux, Pierre; Nelson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    At the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting," on June 29, 2011, an Expert Review Panel agreed that the method "Determination of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formulas and Adult Nutritionals by Liquid Chromatography/UV Detection with Immunoaffinity Extraction" be adopted AOAC Official First Action status. The method is applicable for the determination of vitamin B12, which includes added cyanocobalamin and natural forms, making it applicable to both fortified and nonfortified products. Vitamin B12 is extracted from the sample in sodium acetate buffer in the presence of sodium cyanide (100 degrees C, 30 min). After purification and concentration with an immunoaffinity column, vitamin B12 is determined by LC with UV detection (361 nm). A single-laboratory validation study was conducted on a range of products, including milk- and soy-based infant formulas, cereals, cocoa beverages, health care products, and polyvitamin premixes. The method demonstrated linear response over a large range of concentrations, recovery rates of 100.8 +/- 7.5% (average +/- SD), repeatability RSD (RSDr) of 2.1%, and intermediate reproducibility (RSD(iR)) of 4.3%. LOD and LOQ values were 0.10 and 0.30 microg/100 g, respectively, and correlation with the reference microbiological assay was good (R2 = 0.9442). The results of the study were published in J. AOAC Int. 91, 786-793 (2008). The performance characteristics of the method met the standard method performance requirements set forth by the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals; thus, the method was determined to be appropriate for First Action status.

  15. Determination of iodide and thiocyanate in powdered milk and infant formula by on-line enrichment ion chromatography with photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Richard A; Anderson, David L

    2008-07-25

    Thiocyanate ranks after perchlorate as a potent inhibitor of iodide uptake by the thyroid but may be more concentrated in some food items such as milk products as to supersede perchlorate as the goitrogen of concern. A column-switching anion-exchange chromatographic method with UV spectral detection was developed to measure and confirm iodide and thiocyanate in powders of dry milk and infant formula. An aqueous solution was subjected to centrifugal ultrafiltration, the ultrafiltrate was cleaned up on a carbon solid-phase extraction column, and an aliquot was transferred to a precolumn for enrichment and subsequent injection onto an analytical column. In infant formula samples, thiocyanate was found at 2.0-5.1 mg/kg in five of seven milk-based products and was not found in the other two nor in three soy-based products tested (0.2 mg/kg LOQ); iodide was found at 0.3-1.3mg/kg (0.04 mg/kg LOQ). In 13 dry milk samples, thiocyanate was found at 27-38 mg/kg (1 mg/kg LOQ), and iodide was found at 1.8-3.2 mg/kg (0.2 mg/kg LOQ).

  16. Off-line coupling of pressurized liquid extraction and LC/ED for the determination of retinyl acetate and tocopherols in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Zamarreño, M M; Bustamante-Rangel, M; García-Jiménez, M; Sánchez-Pérez, A; Carabias-Martínez, R

    2006-12-15

    An analytical methodology including pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) as sample treatment to isolate retinyl acetate and tocopherols from infant formulas has been developed. The milk extracts were kept at -18 degrees C for 30min and after filtration could be injected directly into the chromatographic system. Thus, a rapid and simple routine control method of these products is possible. The parameters affecting both the extraction process and the liquid chromatography (LC) system were optimized. PLE was performed using one cycle of extraction during a static time of 5min. Methanol was chosen as the extraction solvent for a temperature of 50 degrees C. Chromatographic separation was accomplished using a RP-18 column; the mobile phase used was methanol-water (94:6, v/v) containing 2.5mM acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer. Electrochemical detection in amperometric mode with a glassy carbon electrode at +1100mV was applied. The proposed methodology was successfully used for the determination of retinyl acetate, delta-tocopherol, (beta+gamma)-tocopherol and alpha-tocopherol in different infant formulas. The analytes were evaluated in the same chemical form present in the samples. Recoveries were between 92 and 106%. A certified reference material of milk powder was also analyzed.

  17. Different attitudes during breastfeeding consultations when infant formula was given: a phenomenographic approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background WHO and UNICEF believe that both antenatal and maternity care organizations are in an excellent position to protect and, if necessary, reinstate a culture that promotes breastfeeding, and that they are responsible for doing so. In Sweden, the number of breastfeeding women has been decreasing annually since 1996. Thus the aim of this study is to identify, describe and analyze the attitude midwives have towards the mother, child and breastfeeding when infant formula is given. Methods From the theoretical standpoint of Buber's I-Thou and I-It concept, the different attitudes during breastfeeding consultations are interpreted. By using a phenomenographic approach based on 101 accounts of varying lengths from 39 midwives, different attitudes or approaches were identified. Results Four different approaches are distinguished in the breastfeeding consultation. The first is the family as a whole, the second is mother and child as separate and equal, the third views the mother as superior and the fourth views the child as superior. Conclusions The approach of the midwife is related to how she defines the overall perspective of the mother-child relationship and how she looks upon her relationship to the mother-child dyad. Her approach varies depending on whether she meets the mother and child as a subject, similar to herself, or whether she sees one of them as an object. A midwife may also take an outside position, as an object, thus excluding a genuine relationship with the mother. The results also indicate that health care professionals focus on parts of the whole instead of maintaining a holistic perspective. PMID:21281517

  18. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel L; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM; raw bovine milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm pigs received parenteral and enteral nutrition consisting of IF (n = 13), BM (n = 13), or BC (n = 14). In a second study, WMP (n = 15) was compared with IF (n = 10) and BM (n = 9). Compared with pigs fed IF, pigs that were fed BM had significantly improved intestinal structure (mucosal weight, villus height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk) and milk processing (e.g., homogenization, fractionation, pasteurization, spray-drying) are important factors in determining milk quality during the early postnatal period of preterm neonates.

  19. Infant formula promotes bone growth in neonatal piglets by enhancing osteoblastogenesis through bone morphogenic protein signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively few studies have examined the effects of formula feeding relative to breast-feeding on bone in the neonate. Using peripheral quantitative CT scan and histomorphometric analysis, we demonstrated that neonatal piglets fed with soy-based formula (SF) and cow milk-based formula (MF) for 21 or...

  20. The European Food Safety Authority recommendation for polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of infant formula overrules breast milk, puts infants at risk, and should be revised.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Michael A; Wang, Yiqun; Forsyth, Stewart; Brenna, J Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has concluded from a limited review of the literature that although docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is required for infant formula, arachidonic acid is not required "even in the presence of DHA" (EFSA Journal, 12 (2014) 3760). This flawed opinion is grounded in human trials which tested functionality of DHA in neural outcomes and included arachidonic acid ostensibly to support growth. The EFSA report mistakes a nutrient ubiquitous in the diets of newborn infants, through breast milk and with wide-ranging health and neurodevelopmental effects, for an optional drug targeted to a particular outcome that is properly excluded when no benefit is found for that particular outcome. Arachidonic acid has very different biological functions compared to DHA, for example, arachidonic acid has unique functions in the vasculature and in specific aspects of immunity. Indeed, the overwhelming majority of trials include both DHA and arachidonic acid, and test development specific to DHA such as neural and visual development. DHA suppresses membrane arachidonic acid concentrations and its function. An infant formula with DHA and no arachidonic acid runs the risk of cardio and cerebrovascular morbidity and even mortality through suppression of the favorable oxylipin derivatives of arachidonic acid. The EFSA recommendation overruling breast milk composition should be revised forthwith, otherwise being unsafe, ungrounded in most of the evidence, and risking lifelong disability.

  1. Total zinc quantification by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and its speciation by size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in human milk and commercial formulas: Importance in infant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Menéndez, Sonia; Fernández-Sánchez, María L; Fernández-Colomer, Belén; de la Flor St Remy, Rafael R; Cotallo, Gil Daniel Coto; Freire, Aline Soares; Braz, Bernardo Ferreira; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2016-01-08

    This paper summarises results of zinc content and its speciation in human milk from mothers of preterm and full-term infants at different stages of lactation and from synthetic formula milks. Human milk samples (colostrum, 7th, 14th, and 28th day after delivery) from Spanish and Brazilian mothers of preterm and full-term infants (and also formula milks) were collected. After adequate treatment of the sample, total Zn was determined, while speciation analysis of the Zn was accomplished by size exclusion chromatography coupled online with the ICP-MS. It is observed that total zinc content in human milk decreases continuously during the first month of lactation, both for preterm and full term gestations. All infant formulas analysed for total Zn were within the currently legislated levels. For Zn speciation analysis, there were no differences between preterm and full term human milk samples. Moreover Zn species elute mainly associated with immunoglobulins and citrate in human milk whey. Interestingly the speciation in formula milk whey turned out to be completely different as the observed Zn(2+) was bound almost exclusively to low molecular weight ligands (citrate) and only comparatively very low amounts of the metal appeared to be associated with higher mass biomolecules (e.g. proteins).

  2. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula, and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2012.13.

    PubMed

    Golay, Pierre-Alain; Dong, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The method described is intended for the quantification of all fatty acids, including commercially important groups of fatty acids used for labeling reasons [i. e., trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9] and/or individual fatty acids (i. e., linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, ecosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) in milk products, infant formula, and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. These products often contain milk fat and/or vegetable oils and are supplemented or not supplemented with oils rich in long-chain PUFA. The determination is performed by direct transesterification of ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid concentrate or powder products without prior fat extraction. Single-laboratory validation (SLV) data were submitted to the AOAC Expert Review Panel (ERP) on Nutrient Methods for review at the AOAC Annual Meeting held on September 30 to October 3, 2012, in Las Vegas, NV. The ERP determined that the data reviewed met the Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR® 2012.011) set by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) and was approved as an AOAC Official First Action method. The analytical range for SPIFAN samples was between 0.001 and 7.94 g/100 g reconstituted product or RTF liquid. LOQ was estimated as 0.001 g/100 g, while repeatability and intermediate precision were both less than 1.8% RSD above 0.05 g/100 g and <3.5% RSD at 0.005 g/100 g. Recovery values based on spiking experiments at two different levels of linoleic and linolenic acids ranged from 100.0 to 102.9% for three different SPIFAN products. All the parameters evaluated during the SLV were well within the values defined in SMPR 2012.011.

  3. Effects of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation of Infant Formula on Cognition and Behaviour at 9 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Corina; Kikkert, Hedwig K.; Fidler, Vaclav; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of infant formula may have a beneficial effect on cognitive development. This study aimed to investigate the effect of LCPUFA formula supplementation primarily on cognition and secondarily on behaviour at age 9 years. Special attention was paid to the potentially modifying effect…

  4. A case of infant botulism with a possible link to infant formula milk powder: evidence for the presence of more than one strain of Clostridium botulinum in clinical specimens and food.

    PubMed

    Brett, M M; McLauchlin, J; Harris, A; O'Brien, S; Black, N; Forsyth, R J; Roberts, D; Bolton, F J

    2005-08-01

    Infant botulism was confirmed in a 5-month-old female by both isolation of Clostridium botulinum type B and by detection of type B botulinum neurotoxin in rectal washout and faeces. DNA fingerprinting of nine isolates from faeces yielded two different amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) patterns. C. botulinum was isolated from two of 14 food and drink items from the patient's home: C. botulinum type A was recovered from an opened container of dried rice pudding and C. botulinum type B from opened infant formula milk powder. Ten C. botulinum type B isolates from the opened infant formula yielded four AFLP patterns, two of which were indistinguishable from the clinical isolates. Fifteen unopened foods were tested and C. botulinum type B of a unique AFLP pattern was recovered from one unopened infant formula of the same batch as the opened container. It is suggested that multiple C. botulinum were present in both food and the intestine during infant botulism.

  5. Flow Cytometric and 16S Sequencing Methodologies for Monitoring the Physiological Status of the Microbiome in Powdered Infant Formula Production

    PubMed Central

    Anvarian, Amir H. P.; Cao, Yu; Srikumar, Shabarinath; Fanning, Séamus; Jordan, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop appropriate protocols for flow cytometric (FCM) and 16S rDNA sequencing investigation of the microbiome in a powdered infant formula (PIF) production facility. Twenty swabs were collected from each of the three care zones of a PIF production facility and used for preparing composite samples. For FCM studies, the swabs were washed in 200 mL phosphate buffer saline (PBS). The cells were harvested by three-step centrifugation followed by a single stage filtration. Cells were dispersed in fresh PBS and analyzed with a flow cytometer for membrane integrity, metabolic activity, respiratory activity and Gram characteristics of the microbiome using various fluorophores. The samples were also plated on agar plates to determine the number of culturable cells. For 16S rDNA sequencing studies, the cells were harvested by centrifugation only. Genomic DNA was extracted using a chloroform-based method and used for 16S rDNA sequencing studies. Compared to the dry low and high care zones, the wet medium care zone contained a greater number of viable, culturable, and metabolically active cells. Viable but non-culturable cells were also detected in dry-care zones. In total, 243 genera were detected in the facility of which 42 were found in all three care zones. The greatest diversity in the microbiome was observed in low care. The genera present in low, medium and high care were mostly associated with soil, water, and humans, respectively. The most prevalent genera in low, medium and high care were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Streptococcus, respectively. The integration of FCM and metagenomic data provided further information on the density of different species in the facility. PMID:27446009

  6. Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A and bisphenol B in beverages and powdered infant formula by dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction and heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cunha, S C; Almeida, C; Mendes, E; Fernandes, J O

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a reliable, cost-effective, fast and simple method to quantify simultaneously both bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol B (BPB) in liquid food matrixes such as canned beverages (soft drinks and beers) and powdered infant formula using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) with in-situ derivatisation coupled with heart-cutting gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the optimisation of the DLLME procedure different amounts of various extractive and dispersive solvents as well as different amounts of the derivative reagent were compared for their effects on extraction efficiency and yields. The optimised procedure consisted of the injection of a mixture containing tetrachloroethylene (extractant), acetonitrile (dispersant) and acetic anhydride (derivatising reagent) directly into an aliquot of beverage samples or into an aqueous extract of powdered milk samples obtained after a pretreatment of the samples. Given the compatibility of the solvents used, and the low volumes involved, the procedure was easily associated with GC-MS end-point determination, which was accomplished by means of an accurate GC dual column (heart-cutting) technique. Careful optimisation of heart-cutting GC-MS conditions, namely pressure of front and auxiliary inlets, have resulted in a good analytical performance. The linearity of the matrix-matched calibration curves was acceptable, with coefficients of determination (r2) always higher than 0.99. Average recoveries of the BPA and BPB spiked at two concentration levels into beverages and powdered infant formula ranged from 68% to 114% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was <15%. The limits of detection (LOD) in canned beverages were 5.0 and 2.0 ng l(-1) for BPA and BPB, respectively, whereas LOD in powdered infant formula were 60.0 and 30.0 ng l(-1), respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ) in canned beverages were 10.0 and 7.0 ng l-1 for BPA and BPB, respectively

  7. Identification of bioactive peptides in hypoallergenic infant milk formulas by CE-TOF-MS assisted by semiempirical model of electromigration behavior.

    PubMed

    Català-Clariana, Sergio; Benavente, Fernando; Giménez, Estela; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria

    2013-07-01

    Biologically active peptides derived from complex bovine milk protein hydrolysates are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play different physiological roles, providing benefits in human health. In this study, we used CE-TOF-MS for separation and identification of bioactive peptides in three hypoallergenic infant milk formulas. An appropriate sample cleanup using a citrate buffer with DTT and urea followed by SPE with Sep-Pack® C18 and StrataX™ cartridges allowed the detection of a large number of low molecular mass bioactive peptides. This preliminary identification was solely based on the measured experimental monoisotopic molecular mass values (M(exp)). Later, we evaluated the classical semiempirical relationships between electrophoretic mobility and charge-to-mass ratio (m(e) vs. q/M(α), α = 1/2 for the classical polymer model) to describe their migration behavior. The assistance of migration prediction proved to be useful to improve reliability of the identification, avoiding misinterpretations and solving some identity conflicts. After revision, the identity of 24, 30, and 38 bioactive peptides was confirmed in each of the three infant milk formulas. A significant number of these peptides were reported as inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme, however, the presence of sequences with other biological activities such as antihypertensive, antithrombotic, hypocholesterolemic, immunomodulation, cytotoxicity, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antigenic, or opioid was also confirmed.

  8. Content and evolution of potential furfural compounds in commercial milk-based infant formula powder after opening the packet.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; de la Torre Carbot, Karina; García-Gasca, Teresa; Castellote, Ana I; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Potential furfural compounds were examined by RP-HPLC-DAD in 20 commercial milk-based powdered infant formula (IF) brands from local markets from Paris, France; DF, Mexico; Copenhagen, Denmark; England, UK; and Barcelona, Spain. We traced the evolution of these compounds after the packets had been opened at 0, 30 and 70 days of storage at room temperature (≈25 °C; minimum 23 °C and maximum 25.5 °C). All formula brands were analysed during the first 3-5 months of their shelf life. The mean values of all IFs for potential 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF)+2-furaldehyde (F) were 1115.2 μg/100 g (just opened), 1157.6 μg/100 g (30 days) and 1344.5 μg/100 g of product (70 days). In general, slight increases of potential furfural contents were observed in most of the studied IFs, which suggests that the Maillard reaction increases after opening the packets. The main furfural compound found was HMF, as expected. The range of potential HMF consumed for an infant about 6 months old feeding only on formula was estimated between 0.63 mg and 3.25 mg per day.

  9. Multiple reaction monitoring-based determination of bovine α-lactalbumin in infant formulas and whey protein concentrates by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using tryptic signature peptides and synthetic peptide standards.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingshun; Lai, Shiyun; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Baifen; Li, Duo; Ren, Yiping

    2012-05-21

    The determination of α-lactalbumin in various dairy products attracts wide attention in multidiscipline fields because of its nutritional and biological functions. In the present study, we quantified the bovine α-lactalbumin in various infant formulas and whey protein concentrates using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Bovine α-lactalbumin was quantified by employing the synthetic internal standard based on the molar equivalent relationship among the internal standard, bovine α-lactalbumin and their signature peptides. This study especially focused on the recovery rates of the sample preparation procedure and robust quantification of total bovine α-lactalbumin in its native and thermally denatured form with a synthetic internal standard KILDKVGINNYWLAHKALCSE. The observed recovery rates of bovine α-lactalbumin ranged from 95.8 to 100.6% and the reproducibility was excellent (RSD<6%) at different spiking levels. The limit of quantitation is 10 mg/100 g for infant formulas and whey protein concentrates. In order to validate the applicability of the method, 21 brands of infant formulas were analyzed. The acquired contents of bovine α-lactalbumin were 0.67-1.84 g/100g in these infant formulas in agreement with their label claimed values. The experiment of heat treatment time showed that the loss of native α-lactalbumin enhanced with an increasing intensity of heat treatment. Comparing with Ren's previous method by analysis of only native bovine α-lactalbumin, the present method at the peptide level proved to be highly suitable for measuring bovine α-lactalbumin in infant formulas and whey protein concentrates, avoiding forgoing the thermally induced denatured α-lactalbumin caused by the technological processing.

  10. [Use of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as a chicken complement in an infant formula].

    PubMed

    Modernell, Marisa Guerra; Granito, Marisela; Paolini, Mariangel; Olaizola, Cristina

    2008-09-01

    Legumes represent an important protein source worldwide. In Venezuela, they are generally prepared at home and are consumed by adults, as soup or stew, while children eat them in very small quantities. In order to include legumes in the children's diet, the following work was done using cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as an complement of chicken in the preparation of a nutritionally balanced formula, adapted to the requirements of children. Several formulas were developed and three of them were selected based on their acceptability. In the first formula, the protein source was only of chicken. In the second formula, the chicken was partially substituted by cowpea, and in the third formula, the protein source was only made of cowpea. Other formula ingredients included rice, pumpkin (Curcubita maxima), carrot and some seasonings. Proximal analysis, protein quality (as protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility) and sensory evaluation (7-point hedonic scale) were performed on the formulas. The proximal composition was similar in the three formulas: protein (3.5%), fat (1.3%) and carbohydrates (19.7%), with a good distribution of the energy contribution (98.9 kcal/100 g or 413.8 kJ/100 g). The protein quality and protein digestibility were higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability with the mothers was higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability of the chicken-cowpea formula with children was 77% (7-point hedonic facial scale) and 92% (measuring consumption). Due to the high acceptability and good protein quality, the chicken-cowpea formula could be included in the lunch meal of the children in daycare homes.

  11. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Julian F; Yang, Ariana C; Oba, Jane; Rodrigues, Maraci; Caetano, Rosane; Polster, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of three alternative dietetic strategies for cow’s milk allergy in Brazil: 1) using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF; Nutramigen) as a first-line formula, but switching to an amino acid formula (AAF) if infants remain symptomatic; 2) using an AAF as a first-line formula and then switching to an eHCF after 4 weeks once infants are symptom-free, but switching back to an AAF if infants become symptomatic; and 3) using an AAF as a first-line formula and keeping all infants on that formula. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Brazilian public health care system, Sistema Único de Saude. Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated and non-IgE-mediated allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 12 months from starting a formula. The models also estimated the Sistema Único de Saude cost (at 2013/2014 prices) of managing infants over 12 months after starting a formula, as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the dietetic strategies. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 12 months from starting a formula was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated allergy who were initially fed with an eHCF, compared with those who were initially fed with an AAF. The total health care cost of initially feeding an eHCF to cow’s milk allergic infants was less than that of initially feeding both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated infants with an AAF. Conclusion Within the study’s limitations, using an eHCF instead of an AAF for the first-line management of newly-diagnosed infants with cow’s milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources, since it improves the outcome for less cost. PMID:27799804

  12. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes.

  13. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Julian F; Weidlich, Diana; Mascuñan Díaz, J Ignacio; Díaz, Juan J; Ojeda, Pedro Manuel; Ferrer-González, J Pablo; Gil, David; Onrubia, Isabel; Rincón Victor, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as a first-line management for cow’s milk allergy compared with eHCF alone, and amino acid formulae in Spain, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (SNS). Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated and non–IgE-mediated allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months. The models also estimated the SNS cost (at 2012/2013 prices) of managing infants over 18 months after starting a formula as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulae. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non–IgE-mediated allergy who were fed eHCF + LGG compared with those fed one of the other formulae. The total health care cost of initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG was less than that of feeding infants with one of the other formulae. Hence, eHCF + LGG affords the greatest value for money to the SNS for managing both IgE-mediated and non–IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy. Conclusion Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF alone or amino acid formulae for first-line management of newly-diagnosed infants with cow’s milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources because it improves outcome for less cost. A randomized controlled study showing faster tolerance development in children receiving a probiotic-containing formula is required before this conclusion can be confirmed. PMID:26648744

  14. Multipoint near-infrared spectrometry for real-time monitoring of protein conformational stability in powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Pabari, Ritesh M; Togashi, Denisio; Cama-Moncunill, Raquel; El Arnaout, Toufic; Rifai, Hicham; Cruise, Paul; Cullen, Patrick J; Sullivan, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Powdered infant formula (PIF) can be the sole source of nutrition for babies and infants. Monitoring conformational changes in protein during manufacture of PIF is critical in order to maintain its nutritional value. This study presents the development of a calibration model for monitoring conformational changes in PIF protein by applying a novel multipoint near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry. NIR spectra were collected for PIF and PIF proteins, casein and whey protein isolate, before and after heat treatment. Results show that principal component analysis showed discrimination between native protein at room temperature and protein conformational changes caused at elevated temperature. Partial least squares regression analysis showed good calibration models with correlation coefficients ranging between 87% and 99% for the prediction of protein quality. This novel multipoint NIR spectrometry could serve as a simple in-line tool to rapidly monitor protein quality during processing stages, contributing to product nutritional value.

  15. A simple and fast ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure for Fe and Zn determination in milk-based infant formulas using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS).

    PubMed

    Machado, Ignacio; Bergmann, Gabriela; Pistón, Mariela

    2016-03-01

    A simple and fast ultrasound-assisted procedure for the determination of iron and zinc in infant formulas is presented. The analytical determinations were carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariate experiments were performed for optimization; in addition, a comparative study was carried out using two ultrasonic devices. A method using an ultrasonic bath was selected because several samples can be prepared simultaneously, and there is less contamination risk. Analytical precision (sr(%)) was 3.3% and 4.1% for iron and zinc, respectively. Trueness was assessed using a reference material and by comparison of the results obtained analyzing commercial samples using a reference method. The results were statistically equivalent to the certified values and in good agreement with those obtained using the reference method. The proposed method can be easily implemented in laboratories for routine analysis with the advantage of being rapid and in agreement with green chemistry.

  16. New Methods for the Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritionals.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frederic; Giménez, Ester Campos; Konings, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Water-soluble vitamins (WSVs) are a group of organic compounds which are essential micronutrients. WSVs could be divided between the B complex group and vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid). Within the B complex group, eight vitamins are recognized: vitamins B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin or niacinamide), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid), and B12 (various cobalamins). This paper reviews the new methods for the analysis of these vitamins, with a focus on infant formula and adult nutritionals.

  17. Analytical Determination of Vitamin B12 Content in Infant and Toddler Milk Formulas by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Jin-Ho; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Ha-Jung; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Kwak, Byung-Man; Kim, Jin-Man

    2015-01-01

    The development of a sample preparation method and optimization of the analytical instrumentation conditions were performed for the determination of the vitamin B12 content in emulsified baby foods sold on the Korea market. After removal of the milk protein and fats by chloroform extraction and centrifugation, the vitamin B12 was water extracted from the sample. Following filtration of the solution through a nylon filter, the water-soluble extract was purified by solid-phase extraction using a Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The solution eluted from the cartridge was dried under a stream of nitrogen gas and reconstituted with 1 mL of water. The sample solution was injected into an LC-MS/MS system after optimizing the mobile phase for vitamin B12 detection. The calibration curve showed good linearity with the coefficient of correlation (r2) value of 0.9999. The limit of detection was 0.03 µg/L and the limit of quantitation was 0.1 µg/L. The method of detection limit was 0.02 µg/kg. The vitamin B12 recovery from a spiking test was 99.62% for infant formula and 99.46% for cereal-based baby food. The sample preparation method developed in this study would be appropriate for the rapid determination of the vitamin B12 content in infant formula and baby foods with emulsified milk characteristics. The ability to obtain stable results more quickly and efficiently would also allow governments to exercise a more extensive quality control inspection and monitoring of products expected to contain vitamin B12. This method could be implemented in laboratories that require time and labor saving. PMID:26877636

  18. Analytical Determination of Vitamin B12 Content in Infant and Toddler Milk Formulas by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Jin-Ho; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Ha-Jung; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Kwak, Byung-Man; Kim, Jin-Man

    2015-01-01

    The development of a sample preparation method and optimization of the analytical instrumentation conditions were performed for the determination of the vitamin B12 content in emulsified baby foods sold on the Korea market. After removal of the milk protein and fats by chloroform extraction and centrifugation, the vitamin B12 was water extracted from the sample. Following filtration of the solution through a nylon filter, the water-soluble extract was purified by solid-phase extraction using a Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The solution eluted from the cartridge was dried under a stream of nitrogen gas and reconstituted with 1 mL of water. The sample solution was injected into an LC-MS/MS system after optimizing the mobile phase for vitamin B12 detection. The calibration curve showed good linearity with the coefficient of correlation (r (2)) value of 0.9999. The limit of detection was 0.03 µg/L and the limit of quantitation was 0.1 µg/L. The method of detection limit was 0.02 µg/kg. The vitamin B12 recovery from a spiking test was 99.62% for infant formula and 99.46% for cereal-based baby food. The sample preparation method developed in this study would be appropriate for the rapid determination of the vitamin B12 content in infant formula and baby foods with emulsified milk characteristics. The ability to obtain stable results more quickly and efficiently would also allow governments to exercise a more extensive quality control inspection and monitoring of products expected to contain vitamin B12. This method could be implemented in laboratories that require time and labor saving.

  19. An investigation into the fatty acid content of selected fish-based commercial infant foods in the UK and the impact of commonly practiced re-heating treatments used by parents for the preparation of infant formula milks.

    PubMed

    Loughrill, Emma; Zand, Nazanin

    2016-04-15

    The importance of dietary lipids during infancy is paramount for rapid growth and development. Linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) were quantified using RP-HPLC with charged aerosol detection in a range of complementary infant foods and formula milk. Total daily intake of fatty acids for infants aged 6-9 months was calculated based on the consumption of complementary infant foods and formula milk. Total daily intakes of ALA, AA and DHA were below, whereas LA was above the recommended intake. This provides scope for product optimisation, to improve the nutritive value of commercial infant food products. The impact of re-heating treatments by parents on fatty acid content of formula milk was investigated and statistically significant changes were observed. Furthermore, the transparency of the labelling information declared by the manufacturers was within recommendations despite a degree of significant variation.

  20. [Simultaneous determination of vitamins A, D3 and E in infant formula and adult nutritions by online two-dimensional liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhai; Qibule, Hasi; Jin, Yan; Wang, Jia; Ma, Wenli

    2015-03-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of vitamins A, D3 and E in infant formula and adult nutritions has been developed using online two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC). First of all, C8 and polar embedded C18 columns were chosen as the first and second dimensional column respectively according to hydrophobic-subtraction model, which constituted excellent orthogonal separation system. The detection wavelengths were set at 263 nm for vitamin D3, 296 nm for vitamin E and 325 nm for vitamin A. The purification of vitamin D3 and quantifications of vitamins A and E were completed simultaneously in the first dimensional separation using the left pump of Dual Gradient LC (DGLC) with methanol, acetonitrile and water as mobile phases. The heart-cutting time window of vitamin D3 was confirmed according to the retention time of vitamin D3 in the first dimensional separation. The elute from the first dimensional column (1-D column) which contained vitamin D3 was collected by a 500 µL sample loop and then taken into the second dimensional column (2-D column) by the right pump of DGLC with methanol, acetonitrile and water as mobile phases. The quantification of vitamin D3 was performed in the second dimensional separation with vitamin D2 as internal standard. At last, this method was applied for the analysis of the three vitamins in milk powder, cheese and yogurt. The injected sample solution with no further purification was pre-treated by hot-saponification using 1. 25 kg/L KOH solution and extracted by petroleum ether solvent. The recoveries of vitamin D3 spiked in all samples were 75.50%-85.00%. There was no statistically significant difference for the results between this method and standard method through t-test. The results indicate that vitamins A, D3 and E in infant formula and adult fortified dairy can be determined rapidly and accurately with this method.

  1. Efficacy of organic acids, bacteriocins, and the lactoperoxidase system in inhibiting the growth of Cronobacter spp. in rehydrated infant formula.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Satoru; Rea, Mary C; Lothe, Sheba; Morgan, Sheila; Begley, Maire; O'Connor, Paula M; Fitzsimmons, Aidan; Kamikado, Hideaki; Walton, Richard; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-10-01

    Thirty-three antimicrobial agents, including antimicrobial peptides (nisin, lacticin 3147, isracidin), organic acids, emulsifiers (organic acid esters), glycine, lysozyme, tocopherol, EDTA, milk fat globule membrane, and the lactoperoxidase system (LPOS) were screened for anti-Cronobacter sakazakii activity. The compounds were initially screened individually in parallel in synthetic media. Those showing antimicrobial activity were then tested in reconstituted whole milk and finally in reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF), using mild temperatures of reconstitution and prolonged storage at room temperature. Propionic acid and monocaprylin (as POEM M-100) in combination showed inhibitory activity at sufficiently low concentrations (0.1 to 0.2%) in milk to be considered as potential antimicrobial additives for the inhibition of C. sakazakii in reconstituted PIF. More interestingly, LPOS, when combined with the broad-spectrum bacteriocins nisin or lacticin 3147, inhibited outgrowth of C. sakazakii at 37°C for 8 h. The combined effects of POEM M-100 and either acetate or propionate and LPOS with lacticin 3147 or nisin were evaluated under the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations-World Health Organization high-risk scenario for PIF, i.e., low temperature of reconstitution and long storage or feeding times at ambient temperature. In the presence of LPOS and lacticin 3147, growth of Cronobacter spp. was inhibited for up to 12 h when the PIF was rehydrated at 40 or 50°C. These results highlight the potential of combinatory approaches to improving the safety of infant milk formula.

  2. Organization of lipids in milks, infant milk formulas and various dairy products: role of technological processes and potential impacts.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Christelle; Cauty, Chantal; Guyomarc'h, Fanny

    The microstructure of milk fat in processed dairy products is poorly known despite its importance in their functional, sensorial and nutritional properties. However, for the last 10 years, several research groups including our laboratory have significantly contributed to increasing knowledge on the organization of lipids in situ in dairy products. This paper provides an overview of recent advances on the organization of lipids in the milk fat globule membrane using microscopy techniques (mainly confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy). Also, this overview brings structural information about the organization of lipids in situ in commercialized milks, infant milk formulas and various dairy products (cream, butter, buttermilk, butter serum and cheeses). The main mechanical treatment used in the dairy industry, homogenization, decreases the size of milk fat globules, changes the architecture (composition and organization) of the fat/water interface and affects the interactions between lipid droplets and the protein network (concept of inert vs active fillers). The potential impacts of the organization of lipids and of the alteration of the milk fat globule membrane are discussed, and technological strategies are proposed, in priority to design biomimetic lipid droplets in infant milk formulas.

  3. Symptomatology and growth in infants with cow's milk protein intolerance using two different whey-protein hydrolysate based formulas in a Primary Health Care setting.

    PubMed

    Verwimp, J J; Bindels, J G; Barents, M; Heymans, H S

    1995-09-01

    Both growth and the course of allergic symptoms were evaluated in 79 infants with cow's milk protein intolerance, aged three months or younger, diagnosed by standard elimination/provocation and treated with a whey-hydrolysate based infant formula: Nutrilon Pept or Pepti Junior. The efficacy of both products, in terms of symptomatology and growth, was compared with each other. The products differ in fat source (Pepti Junior 50% of its fat as MCT, Nutrilon Pepti normal LCT fat blend) and the presence of lactose (Pepti Junior: lactose free; Nutrilon Pepti: 40% of its carbohydrate as lactose). The study was part of a large project that aimed at standardising the approach towards cow's milk protein intolerance in Baby Health Clinics. Nearly 50 Baby Health Clinics participated in this project. In this study, growth and symptomatology (skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract) were monitored during an intervention period of at least 10 weeks. Infants in both feeding groups showed normal growth, and in at least 80% of the infants an improvement of the overall symptomatology could be seen during the intervention period. Most profound were the decreases in prevalence and severity of eczema and infantile colic. No differences in efficacy were found in this study between the two infant formulas. It was concluded that the exclusive use of either whey hydrolysate based infant formula resulted in an improvement of allergic symptoms and in normal growth in infants diagnosed by elimination/provocation for cow's milk protein intolerance in a Primary Health Care setting.

  4. Application of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for the measurement of vitamin D in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula: First Action 2011.11.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Winters, Doug; Sullivan, Darryl; Dowell, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to measure vitamin D, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was applied to samples. The use of UHPLC-MS/MS decreased the run time by 50%. The UHPLC-MS/MS achieved equal or better separation efficiency with complex food matrixes compared to HPLC-MS/MS. It was also observed that under the optimized conditions of UHPLC, all previtamins of vitamin D3, D2, and isotope-labeled vitamin D3 were baseline-separated from their corresponding vitamins. The sterol isomers found in complex food matrixes that interfere in the analysis were well separated from the analytes. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analyzing National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1849 infant reference material. The average vitamin D3 concentration was 0.251 +/- 0.012 microg/g. This showed excellent agreement with the certified value of 0.251 +/- 0.027 microg/g. The spike recovery study of a commercial infant formula matrix showed a range of recovery from 100 to 108%. The LOQ values determined were 0.0022 and 0.0028 microg/g for vitamins D3 and D2, respectively; LOD values were 0.00065 and 0.00083 microg/g for vitamins D3 and D2, respectively.

  5. Probiotics and Time to Achieve Full Enteral Feeding in Human Milk-Fed and Formula-Fed Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aceti, Arianna; Gori, Davide; Barone, Giovanni; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Fantini, Maria Pia; Indrio, Flavia; Maggio, Luca; Meneghin, Fabio; Morelli, Lorenzo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics have been linked to a reduction in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. Recently, probiotics have also proved to reduce time to achieve full enteral feeding (FEF). However, the relationship between FEF achievement and type of feeding in infants treated with probiotics has not been explored yet. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics in reducing time to achieve FEF in preterm infants, according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. formula). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics, and reporting on time to reach FEF were included in the systematic review. Trials reporting on outcome according to type of feeding (exclusive HM vs. formula) were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effect or random-effects models were used as appropriate. Results were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the systematic review. In the five studies recruiting exclusively HM-fed preterm infants, those treated with probiotics reached FEF approximately 3 days before controls (MD −3.15 days (95% CI −5.25/−1.05), p = 0.003). None of the two studies reporting on exclusively formula-fed infants showed any difference between infants receiving probiotics and controls in terms of FEF achievement. The limited number of included studies did not allow testing for other subgroup differences between HM and formula-fed infants. However, if confirmed in further studies, the 3-days reduction in time to achieve FEF in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants might have significant implications for their clinical management. PMID:27483319

  6. Probiotics and Time to Achieve Full Enteral Feeding in Human Milk-Fed and Formula-Fed Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Aceti, Arianna; Gori, Davide; Barone, Giovanni; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Fantini, Maria Pia; Indrio, Flavia; Maggio, Luca; Meneghin, Fabio; Morelli, Lorenzo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2016-07-30

    Probiotics have been linked to a reduction in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. Recently, probiotics have also proved to reduce time to achieve full enteral feeding (FEF). However, the relationship between FEF achievement and type of feeding in infants treated with probiotics has not been explored yet. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics in reducing time to achieve FEF in preterm infants, according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. formula). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics, and reporting on time to reach FEF were included in the systematic review. Trials reporting on outcome according to type of feeding (exclusive HM vs. formula) were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effect or random-effects models were used as appropriate. Results were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the systematic review. In the five studies recruiting exclusively HM-fed preterm infants, those treated with probiotics reached FEF approximately 3 days before controls (MD -3.15 days (95% CI -5.25/-1.05), p = 0.003). None of the two studies reporting on exclusively formula-fed infants showed any difference between infants receiving probiotics and controls in terms of FEF achievement. The limited number of included studies did not allow testing for other subgroup differences between HM and formula-fed infants. However, if confirmed in further studies, the 3-days reduction in time to achieve FEF in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants might have significant implications for their clinical management.

  7. Composition of the non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat whole milk powder and goat milk-based infant and follow-on formulae.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Colin G; Mclaren, Robert D; Frost, Deborah; Agnew, Michael; Lowry, Dianne J

    2008-03-01

    The non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat whole milk powder and of infant and follow-on formulae made from goat milk was characterized and compared with cow milk powder and formulae. Goat milk infant formula contained 10% non-protein nitrogen, expressed as a proportion of total nitrogen, compared with 7.1% for cow milk formula. Goat follow-on formula contained 9.3% and cow 7.4% non-protein nitrogen. Urea, at 30%, was quantitatively the most abundant component of the non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat milk and formulae, followed by free amino acids at 7%. Taurine, glycine and glutamic acid were the most abundant free amino acids in goat milk powders. Goat milk infant formula contained 4 mg/100 ml total nucleotide monophosphates, all derived from the goat milk itself. Goat milk has a very different profile of the non-protein nitrogen fraction to cow milk, with several constituents such as nucleotides at concentrations approaching those in human breast milk.

  8. Free and total carnitine in infant and adult/pediatric nutritional formulas by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry: first action 2012.17.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Dustin E; Denison, James E; Seipelt, C Thomas; Jacobs, Wesley A; Dowell, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Data from a previously published study in J. AOAC Int. 91,130-142 (2008) was presented to the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) during the AOAC Annual Meeting held in Las Vegas, NV, from September 30 to October 3, 2012. The panel reviewed the data submitted and concluded that the method satisfied the standard method performance requirements established by SPIFAN. Based on this information, the panel approved the method as AOAC First Action. The determination of free carnitine involves dilution and filtration of the sample, followed by determination of L-carnitine by LC/MS/MS. The determination of total carnitine includes a saponification procedure prior to dilution and filtration.

  9. Bisphenol A and nonylphenol in foodstuffs: Chinese dietary exposure from the 2007 total diet study and infant health risk from formulas.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yumin; Zhang, Jing; Duan, Hejun; Wu, Yongning; Shao, Bing

    2015-01-15

    Concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) were measured in food samples from the 2007 Chinese total diet study (TDS). BPA and NP were detected in 72 and 143 of 144 TDS samples, respectively, with concentrations ranging from 20 ng/kg to 267 μg/kg and 30 ng/kg to 1,268 μg/kg, respectively. BPA was highest in Hebei (HB) province for most food groups. NP was much higher in milk than in other foods across all the provinces. Mean exposures to BPA and NP were estimated to be 43 ng/kg bw/day and 520 ng/kg bw/day for a Chinese adult, respectively, well below the tolerable daily intake (TDI). Mean exposure to NP from formula for infants aged 0-6 years ranged from 300 ng/kg bw/day to 17 μg/kg bw/day. For infants aged 0-1 year, intakes ranged from 5 to 17 μg/kg bw/day, which is above the TDI.

  10. FOLLOW-UP OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF IRON-FORTIFIED (12.7 MG/L) VS. LOW-IRON (2.3 MG/L) INFANT FORMULA: DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME AT 10 YEARS

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M.; Smith, Julia B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess long-term developmental outcome in children who received iron-fortified or low-iron formula. Design Follow-up at 10 years of randomized controlled trial (1991–1994) of 2 levels of formula iron. Examiners blind to group. Setting Urban areas around Santiago, Chile. Participants Original study enrolled healthy full-term infants in community clinics; 835 completed the trial. At 10 years, 573 were assessed (57%). Intervention Iron-fortified (12.7 mg/l) or low-iron (2.3 mg/l) formula from 6 to 12 months. Main Outcome Measures IQ, spatial memory, arithmetic achievement, visual-motor integration, visual perception, and motor functioning. We used covaried regression to compare iron-fortified and low-iron groups and consider hemogobin (HB) prior to randomization and sensitivity analyses to identify 6-month HB at which groups diverged in outcome. Results Compared to low-iron, the iron-fortified group scored lower on every 10-year outcome (significant for spatial memory, visual-motor integration; suggestive for IQ, arithmetic, visual perception, motor coordination; 1.4 – 4.6 points lower, effect sizes 0.13 – 0.21). Children with high 6-month HB (> 128 g/l) showed poorer outcome on these measures if they received iron-fortified formula (10.7 – 19.3 points lower; large effect sizes, 0.85 – 1.36); those with low HB (< 105 g/l) showed better outcome (2.6 – 4.5 points higher; small but significant effects, 0.22 – 0.36). High HB represented 5.5% of sample (n = 26); low HB, 17.0% (n = 87). Conclusions Long-term development may be adversely affected in infants with high HB who receive 12.7 mg/l iron-fortified formula. Optimal amounts of iron in infant formula warrant further study. PMID:22064877

  11. Influences of timing and duration of formula feeding on infant growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All national and international groups responsible for making nutritional recommendations for infants endorse exclusive breastfeeding for the first several months of life continued with breastfeeding for as long as 2 years or more and timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods. However, ...

  12. Simultaneous quantitative determination of melamine and cyanuric acid in cow's milk and milk-based infant formula by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Guillamon Cuadra, Miriam; Delatour, Thierry; Mottier, Pascal

    2009-08-26

    An isotope dilution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of melamine and cyanuric acid in cow's milk (range of 0-0.3 mg/kg) and milk-based infant formulas (ranges of 0-0.3 and 0-2.0 mg/kg) is described. This quantitative method entails simple sample preparation, limited to a protein precipitation in acetonitrile/water followed by a centrifugation and direct injection of the supernatant. Selected reaction monitoring of two diagnostic transition reactions for each analyte and each corresponding ((13)C(3),(15)N(3))-labeled compound enables selective and confirmatory detection. Acquisition was performed sequentially in the negative ion mode for cyanuric acid, while in the positive mode for melamine within the same run. Validation of the method was conducted according to European Union criteria (CD 2002/657/EC). Internal standard-corrected recoveries were within the 99-116% range for both analytes in the two matrix types, along with repeatability and intermediate reproducibility values of infant formula powder endorsed by WHO, were respectively 1.03 and 1.05 mg/kg for melamine and 1.04 and 1.09 mg/kg for cyanuric acid.

  13. A new formula for assessing skeletal age in growing infants and children by measuring carpals and epiphyses of radio and ulna.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Stefano; Mangiulli, Tatiana; Merelli, Vera; Conforti, Federica; Velandia Palacio, Luz Andrea; Agostini, Susanna; Spinas, Enrico; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a specific formula for the purpose of assessing skeletal age in a sample of Italian growing infants and children by measuring carpals and epiphyses of radio and ulna. A sample of 332 X-rays of left hand-wrist bones (130 boys and 202 girls), aged between 1 and 16 years, was analyzed retrospectively. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to study how sex affects the growth of the ratio Bo/Ca in the boys and girls groups. The regression model, describing age as a linear function of sex and the Bo/Ca ratio for the new Italian sample, yielded the following formula: Age = -1.7702 + 1.0088 g + 14.8166 (Bo/Ca). This model explained 83.5% of total variance (R(2) = 0.835). The median of the absolute values of residuals (observed age minus predicted age) was -0.38, with a quartile deviation of 2.01 and a standard error of estimate of 1.54. A second sample test of 204 Italian children (108 girls and 96 boys), aged between 1 and 16 years, was used to evaluate the accuracy of the specific regression model. A sample paired t-test was used to analyze the mean differences between the skeletal and chronological age. The mean error for girls is 0.00 and the estimated age is slightly underestimated in boys with a mean error of -0.30 years. The standard deviations are 0.70 years for girls and 0.78 years for boys. The obtained results indicate that there is a high relationship between estimated and chronological ages.

  14. Multivariate Analysis of Water-Soluble Organic Carbon Molecular Formulas in Daily Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Samburova, V.; Hallar, A. G.; Zielinska, B.; Lowenthal, D. H.; Kohl, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in aerosols is a highly complex mixture with thousands of compounds that can be identified using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. In this study, molecular formula characterization of aerosol WSOC was done on individual daily aerosol samples (N = 34) collected consecutively from June 25 to July 28 in 2010 at the Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Spring, Colorado (3220m a.s.l.). The aerosol samples were analyzed using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry after a reverse phase solid phase extraction procedure. 2000-5000 monoisotopic molecular formulas were identified in each of the daily samples with a majority of the molecular formulas present in multiple samples. Relative abundance weighted oxygen-to-carbon ratios (O/Cw) and hydrogen-to-carbon ratios (H/Cw) were calculated for each of the daily aerosol samples based on the identified molecular formulas. The overall O/Cw values for each of the daily samples are very similar ranging between 0.47 and 0.55. Similarly, the overall H/Cw values were mostly around 1.55. Relative abundance double bond equivalents (DBEw) were also calculated for each of the samples. DBEw values were approximately 5 for most of the samples with a few exceptions of DBEw > 5.4. Daily aerosol WSOC samples were examined using hierarchical cluster analysis. The hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on the identified monoisotopic molecular formulas and their relative abundance for all of the aerosol samples. Eight of the samples were analyzed twice and all of the eight replicates were closely paired in the cluster analysis dendrogram which partially validates the results. The cluster analysis indicates that the aerosols have similar composition when the air masses have similar origins. For example, aerosol samples collected from July 14th to July 18th are located in the same branch of the dendrogram and their back trajectory analysis indicates the air

  15. Speciation of zinc in low molecular weight proteins of breast milk and infant formulas by size exclusion chromatography/flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, P; Peña, E M; Fompedriña, D; Domínguez, R; Bermejo, A; Cocho, J A; Fernández, J R; Fraga, J M

    2001-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) were used for the separation of metal-containing species in milk whey. After milk ultracentrifugation, the sample was injected into a TSK-Gel G2000 glass column and eluted with 0.2M NH4NO3-NH3, pH 6.7. Low molecular weight proteins were fractionated, and the fractions were characterized by molecular weight. Zinc distributions were obtained by FAAS using a high performance nebulizer. The method was very sensitive (limit of detection = 2.6 x 10(-3) microg/mL; limit of quantitation = 8.9 x 10(-3) microg/mL) and precise (RSDs < or =10%). This method was applied to the determination of Zn in binding compounds in breast milk whey and in commercial cow's milk-based formulas. Distribution patterns were different. The presence of Zn in most fractions in breast milk was most significant, whereas in infant formulas Zn was detected only in fractions of molecular weight <5 kDa and in the highest molecular weight peak.

  16. Thermal tolerance and survival of Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillic acid.

    PubMed

    Yemiş, Gökçe Polat; Pagotto, Franco; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    The thermal tolerance Cronobacter sakazakii was examined in sterile powdered infant formula (PIF) rehydrated at 58 °C in water or apple juice supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid. All three compounds decreased thermal tolerance during-rehydration and the lowest decimal reduction time (D-value, 0.19 ± 0.01 min) was measured in PIF rehydrated in apple juice supplemented with 20 mM vanillic acid. At this level of supplementation no C. sakazakii were detected in PIF stored for 48 h at 10 and 24 h at 21 °C subsequent to a sublethal heat treatment. Thermal tolerance during rehydration and survival in reconstituted PIF were influenced by compound type, concentration, and temperature. Supplementation of PIF with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid could enhance the safety of PIF or other dehydrated foods contaminated with C. sakazakii.

  17. Determination of total iodine in infant formula and nutritional products by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Pacquette, Lawrence H; Levenson, Alan M; Thompson, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was developed for the determination total iodine (m/z 127) in infant formula and adult nutritional products. All samples were digested in nitric acid using a closed vessel microwave oven system; Te (m/z 130) was used as an internal standard. To prevent loss of iodine, ammonium hydroxide solution was added to the samples immediately after digestion. The method quantitation limit for total iodine was 0.3 ng/mL, but a practical LOQ was used at 1.0 ng/mL, a concentration at which there was a negligible bias due to nonlinearity. The total iodine concentrations (112-1900 ng/g) in 14 out of 15 nutritional products were within specification limits. Within-day and day-to-day (6 independent days) precision values were < 10% RSD. The observed precision for the overall mean (18 independent days) of a control sample was approximately 4% RSD. In two National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference materials, total iodine results were within certified limits. Sample spike recoveries for all 15 nutritional products were 92-105%. The data show that a conventional microwave oven digestion procedure can be used to prepare samples for iodine determination. Therefore, this technique is very compatible with other methods being proposed as modern official methods for the analysis of minerals in nutritional products.

  18. Development Rapid Analytical Methods for Inositol as a Trace Component by HPLC and LC-MS/MS in Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Kwak, Byung-Man

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and simple analytical method, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), was developed to detect myo-inositol (MI) in infant formulas. For protein removal: acid hydrolysis and lipid removal through organic solvent extraction. The operating conditions for instrumental analysis were determined based on previously reported analogous methods that used LC-MS/MS. Quantitative analysis was used for the detection limit test, infant formula recovery test, and standard reference material (SRM) 1849a to verify the validity of our LC-MS/MS analytical method, which was developed to quantify MI. For validation, the results of our method were compared with the results of quantitative analyses of certified values. The test results showed that the limit of detection was 0.05 mg/L, the limit of quantitation was 0.17 mg/L, and the method detection limit was 17 mg/kg. The recovery test exhibited a recovery between 98.07-98.43% and a relative standard deviation between 1.93-2.74%. Therefore, the result values were good. Additionally, SRM 1849a was measured to have an MI content of 401.84 mg/kg and recovery of 98.25%, which is comparable to the median certified value of 409 mg/kg. From the aforementioned results, we judged that the instrumental analysis conditions and preparation method used in this study were valid. The rapid analytical method developed herein could be implemented in many laboratories that seek to save time and labor. PMID:26761867

  19. Early Life Predictors of Socio-Emotional Development in a Sample of Egyptian Infants

    PubMed Central

    Metwally, Ammal M.; Salah El- Din, Ebtissam M.; Shehata, Manal A.; Shaalan, Ashraf; El Etreby, Lobna A.; Kandeel, Wafaa A.; Shaaban, Sanaa Y.; Rabah, Thanaa M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Emotional problems are amongst the most critical concerns to be intentionally handled to enhance the wellbeing and development of children. Objective To determine the predictors of socio-emotional development of Egyptian infants related to infant feeding practices, aspects of infant and maternal health and socioeconomic status. Subjects and Methods A cross-sectional comparative study included 322 breast fed, 240 bottle fed and 93 mixed fed infants, from 6–24 months of age, who were enrolled in the Well–Baby Clinic of the National Research Centre and from pediatric outpatient facilities in urban Cairo. Assessment of socio-emotional development was performed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley III). Detailed maternal and infant history was recorded. Levels of serum zinc, copper, iron, vitamin B12 and complete blood count (CBC) were assessed in a subsample of 193 infants. Results The risk of having below average socio-emotional composite score was nearly two and half times among formula-fed infants than among breast-fed infants. By binary logistical regression analysis, predictors of below average socio-emotional score were a lower serum zinc value, being formula fed during the first half-year and introduction of complementary food before the age of six months (p< 0.05). Conclusion Exclusive breastfeeding and to a lesser extent mixed feeding during the first half year is correlated with above average socio-emotional development. Maternal education and zinc status were also determinants of better infant mental health. Our endeavors ought to be directed towards integrated interventions addressing multiple risks to children’s development. PMID:27379907

  20. Time for the 70°C water precautionary option in the home dilution of powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Silano, Marco; Paganin, Paola; Davanzo, Riccardo

    2016-02-19

    Powdered infant formulas (PIF) are usually not sterile and may frequently be contaminated by several bacteria strains. Among them, Cronobacter species, previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii, is one of the most harmful, since it might be the causative agent of sepsis and meningitis in newborns and preterm infants during the first weeks of life. The mortality rate of these infections is up to 80 %. Therefore, some precautions are required in the home handling and dilution of PIF. Whereas there is wide consensus about the need that a PIF should be used immediately after being diluted or, if not, stored at < "5 °C", still recently the optimal temperature of the water used to dilute PIF is controversial among scientific societies and health agencies. The current knowledge is reviewed in this paper and provides sufficient evidence to cautiously advise the use of hot water at a temperature of "70 °C" in the dilution of PIF in order to prevent the Cronobacter sp. contamination and growth.

  1. Spray-dried structured lipid containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for use in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Nagachinta, Supakana; Akoh, Casimir C

    2013-10-01

    Human milk fat (HMF) analogs are structured lipids (SLs) modified to have palmitic acid content at the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerol (TAG) and fatty acid composition comparable to HMF. Some of these SLs are also designed to incorporate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) because of their important role in infant development. In this study, Maillard reaction products (MRPs), obtained from heated whey protein isolates and corn syrup solids (CSS) solution, were used as encapsulants for microencapsulation of 2 enzymatically synthesized SLs for infant formula applications. The encapsulated SL powders were obtained through spray-drying and evaluated in terms of their microencapsulation efficiency, chemical and physical properties, oxidative stability, and dispersibility. The microencapsulation efficiency of the SLs was 90%. Dispersibility test using particle size measurement demonstrated that these powders dispersed quickly into a homogeneous suspension. The encapsulated SL powders had low peroxide and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values. Lower oxidative stability was obtained in the powder containing SL with a higher degree of unsaturation and a lower concentration of tocopherols. The results demonstrated that the degree of fatty acid unsaturation and concentration of endogenous antioxidant in starting oils influenced the oxidative stability of the encapsulated SLs.

  2. Magnetic bead based immuno-detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables using the Bio-Plex suspension array system.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Basavanna, U

    2015-04-01

    Listeriosis, a disease contracted via the consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic Listeria species, can produce severe symptoms and high mortality in susceptible people and animals. The development of molecular methods and immuno-based techniques for detection of pathogenic Listeria in foods has been challenging due to the presence of assay inhibiting food components. In this study, we utilize a macrophage cell culture system for the isolation and enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables for subsequent identification using the Luminex xMAP technique. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to infant formula, lettuce and celery contaminated with L. monocytogenes or L. ivanovii. Magnetic microspheres conjugated to Listeria specific antibody were used to capture Listeria from infected macrophages and then analyzed using the Bio-Plex 200 analyzer. As few as 10 CFU/mL or g of L. monocytogenes was detected in all foods tested. The detection limit for L. ivanovii was 10 CFU/mL in infant formula and 100 CFU/g in leafy greens. Microsphere bound Listeria obtained from infected macrophage lysates could also be isolated on selective media for subsequent confirmatory identification. This method presumptively identifies L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii from infant formula, lettuce and celery in less than 28 h with confirmatory identifications completed in less than 48 h.

  3. Development of Multiplex Real-time PCR with Internal Amplification Control for Simultaneous Detection of Salmonella and Cronobacter sakazakii in Powdered Infant Formula.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of powdered infant formula (PIF) by the bacteria Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica was deemed a matter of great concern by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 2004. Therefore, we developed a rapid and sensitive m...

  4. A longitudinal study of differences in electroencephalographic activity among breastfed, milk formula-fed, and soy formula-fed infants during the first year of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extent to which adequate nutrition from infant diets ddifferentially influences developmental outcomes in healthy infants has not been determined. Thus, our aim was to compare the effects of the major infant diets on development of brain electrical activity during infancy. The study design con...

  5. Analysis of free and total myo-inositol in foods, feeds, and infant formula by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, including a novel total extraction using microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis and enzymatic treatment.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, David; Pritchard, Ted; Foy, Pamela; King, Kathryn; Mitchell, Barbara; Austad, John; Winters, Doug; Sullivan, Darryl

    2012-01-01

    .3%, respectively. Comparison of soy-based infant formula and corn grain samples with high levels of these main sources showed in similar results, indicating both total analyses are acceptable for use. An additional glycerol kinase step was also developed to remove glycerol from the chromatographic elution window of myoinositol in samples with high levels of glycerol.

  6. Effects of different enzyme treatments in extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and other food products prior to microbiological assay and radioassay

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Four different enzyme treatments-conjugase alone, conjugase and alpha-amylase, conjugase and Pronase{reg sign} and a triple enzyme combination of conjugase, Pronase {reg sign} and alpha-amylase were applied in the extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and various other foods by microbiological and radioassay methods. Significant increases (P < 0.05) in measurable folate were obtained using the triple enzyme system in spinach, Camembert cheese, soy-based infant formula and cereal-based, meat-based and fruit-based infant foods over the use of conjugase alone by the microbiological method. Increases were also observed in many of the same foods using Pronase{reg sign} or alpha-amylase in addition to conjugase alone. Increases obtained by microbiological assay were confirmed by radioassay in a number of foods studied.

  7. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Julian F; Weidlich, Diana; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Jarocka-Cyrta, Elzbieta; Kobelska-Dubiel, Natalia; Krauze, Agnieszka; Sakowska-Maliszewska, Iwona; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF) containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as an initial treatment for cow’s milk allergy compared with eHCF alone and amino acid formulas (AAF) in Poland from the perspective of the Polish National Health Fund (Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia [NFZ]) and parents. Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of cow’s milk allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months. The model also estimated the cost to the NFZ and parents (Polish Zloty [PLN] at 2013–2014 prices) for managing infants over 18 months after starting one of the formulas as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulas. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants who were fed eHCF + LGG (0.82) compared with those fed eHCF alone (0.53) or an AAF (0.22). An infant who is initially managed with eHCF + LGG is expected to consume fewer health care resources than infants managed with the other formulas. Hence, the estimated total health care cost incurred by the NFZ for initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG (PLN 5,693) was less than that of feeding infants with eHCF alone (PLN 7,749) or an AAF (PLN 24,333). However, the total cost incurred by parents for initially feeding infants with an AAF (PLN 815) was marginally less than that of feeding with eHCF + LGG (PLN 993), which was less than that of feeding with eHCF alone (PLN 1,226). Conclusion Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF alone or an AAF for first-line management of newly diagnosed infants with cow’s milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of NFZ-funded resources, since it improves outcome for less cost. Whether eHCF + LGG would be viewed as being cost-effective by parents is dependent on their willingness to pay an additional cost for additional tolerance acquisition to cow’s milk. PMID:27418845

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Diagnostic Tools for Oxidative Deterioration of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Infant Formulas during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Siefarth, Caroline; Serfert, Yvonne; Drusch, Stephan; Buettner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The challenge in the development of infant formulas enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is to meet the consumers’ expectations with regard to high nutritional and sensory value. In particular, PUFAs may be prone to fatty acid oxidation that can generate potential rancid, metallic and/or fishy off-flavors. Although such off-flavors pose no health risk, they can nevertheless lead to rejection of products by consumers. Thus, monitoring autoxidation at its early stages is of great importance and finding a suitable analytical tool to perform these evaluations is therefore of high interest in quality monitoring. Two formulations of infant formulas were varied systematically in their mineral composition and their presence of antioxidants to produce 18 model formulas. All models were aged under controlled conditions and their oxidative deterioration was monitored. A quantitative study was performed on seven characteristic odor-active secondary oxidation products in the formulations via two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (2D-HRGC-MS/O). The sensitivity of the multi-dimensional GC-MS/O analysis was supported by two additional analytical tools for monitoring autoxidation, namely the analysis of lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes. Furthermore, an aroma profile analysis (APA) was performed to reveal the presence and intensities of typical odor qualities generated in the course of fatty acid oxidation. The photometrical analyses of lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were found to be too insensitive for early indication of the development of sensory defects. By comparison, the 2D-HRGC-MS/O was capable of monitoring peroxidation of PUFAs at low ppb-level in its early stages. Thereby, it was possible to screen oxidative variances on the basis of such volatile markers already within eight weeks after production of the products, which is an earlier indication of oxidative deterioration than achievable via

  9. Effects of breast-feeding compared with formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pan; Zhou, Jianghua; Yin, Yanan; Jing, Wenjuan; Luo, Biru; Wang, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of breast-feeding and formula-feeding on body composition of preterm infants. We searched the literature using PubMed, Cochrane Central Library Issue, Ovid (Medline), Embase and other resources such as Google Scholar, electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles; two reviewers collected and extracted data independently. All the authors assessed risk of bias independently using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). A fixed-effects meta-analysis was undertaken with RevMan 5 software (The Cochrane Collaboration) using the inverse variance method (P≥0·05; χ 2 test). In contrast, a random-effects meta-analysis was carried out. Altogether, 630 articles were identified using search strategy, and the references within retrieved articles were also assessed. A total of six studies were included in this systematic review. In formula-fed infants, fat mass was higher at term (mean difference 0·24 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) kg), fat-free mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestational (mean difference 0·12 (95 % CI 0·04, 0·21) kg) and the percentage of fat mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestation (mean difference 3·70 (95 % CI 1·81, 5·59) kg) compared with breast-fed infants. Compared with breast-feeding, formula-feeding is associated with altered body composition from birth to term in preterm infants. The effects of formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition from term to 12-month corrected age are inconclusive in our study. Well-designed studies are required in the future to explore the effects of formula-feeding compared with breast-feeding.

  10. A rapid method for the determination of vitamin D3 in milk and infant formula by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gill, Brendon D; Zhu, Xiangjun; Indyk, Harvey E

    2015-01-01

    A rapid method for the determination of vitamin D3 applicable to milk and infant formula products is described. Samples are saponified at high temperature, and lipophilic components are extracted into isooctane in a single tube. Vitamin D3 is derivatized with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) to form a Diels-Alder adduct, which is re-extracted into a small volume of acetonitrile and analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS with quantification accomplished by an internal standard technique utilizing deuterium-labeled vitamin D3. The analysis of vitamin D3 as the PTAD adduct offers a significant increase in sensitivity and selectivity, allowing for rapid sample preparation and short chromatographic run times. The method was shown to be accurate, with spike recoveries of 94.7-104.7% and no statistical bias against both a certified reference material (P = 0.37, α = 0.05) and a reference LC-UV analytical method (P = 0.09, α = 0.05). Acceptable precision was confirmed with a repeatability RSD of 1.4-4.5% and corresponding HorRat values of 0.1-0.2. This high-throughput method is ideal for routine compliance testing, with more than 50 samples/day achievable by a single analyst.

  11. A simple automated method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite in infant formula and milk powder using sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Pistón, Mariela; Mollo, Alicia; Knochen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    A fast and efficient automated method using a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system, based on the Griess, reaction was developed for the determination of nitrate and nitrite in infant formulas and milk powder. The system enables to mix a measured amount of sample (previously constituted in the liquid form and deproteinized) with the chromogenic reagent to produce a colored substance whose absorbance was recorded. For nitrate determination, an on-line prereduction step was added by passing the sample through a Cd minicolumn. The system was controlled from a PC by means of a user-friendly program. Figures of merit include linearity (r(2) > 0.999 for both analytes), limits of detection (0.32 mg kg(-1) NO(3)-N, and 0.05 mg kg(-1) NO(2)-N), and precision (s(r)%) 0.8-3.0. Results were statistically in good agreement with those obtained with the reference ISO-IDF method. The sampling frequency was 30 hour(-1) (nitrate) and 80 hour(-1) (nitrite) when performed separately.

  12. Modified scrub technique for sampling infant skin microflora.

    PubMed Central

    Keswick, B H; Frank, D

    1987-01-01

    Two techniques for quantitatively recovering normal-flora microorganisms from the skin of infants were compared. A technique using a swab to dislodge microorganisms from the skin compared favorably to a technique using a rubber policeman. The swab was easier to use and is suitable for use on infant skin. PMID:3429631

  13. Soy-Based Infant Formula Feeding and Ultrasound-Detected Uterine Fibroids among Young African-American Women with No Prior Clinical Diagnosis of Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Upson, Kristen; Harmon, Quaker E.; Baird, Donna D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early-life soy phytoestrogen exposure has been shown in Eker rats to increase uterine fibroid incidence in adulthood. Two large epidemiologic cohorts have provided some support for increased fibroid risk with infant soy formula feeding in women, but both cohorts relied on self-report of clinically diagnosed fibroids. Objective: We evaluated the relationship between infant soy formula feeding and ultrasound-detected fibroids. Methods: The Study of Environment, Lifestyle & Fibroids (SELF) is an ongoing cohort study of 1,696 African-American women ages 23–34 years with baseline ultrasound screening to detect and measure fibroids ≥ 0.5 cm in diameter. Questionnaire data on soy formula feeding during infancy was ascertained for 1,553 participants (89% based on mother’s report), of whom 345 were found to have fibroids. We estimated the association between soy formula feeding and fibroid prevalence and tumor number using log-binomial regression. Among those with fibroids, we compared fibroid size between soy formula-exposed and unexposed women using multivariable linear regression. Results: We did not observe an association between soy formula feeding and fibroid prevalence [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.9, 95% CI: 0.7, 1.3]. Nor were exposed women with fibroids more likely to have ≥ 2 tumors than unexposed women with fibroids (aPR 1.0, 95% CI: 0.7, 1.6). However, exposed women with fibroids had significantly larger fibroids than unexposed women with fibroids. On average, soy formula feeding was associated with a 32% increase in the diameter of the largest fibroid (95% CI: 6%, 65%) and a 127% increase in total tumor volume (95% CI: 12%, 358%). Conclusions: Our observation that women fed soy formula as infants have larger fibroids than unexposed women provides further support for persistent effects of early life phytoestrogen exposure on the uterus. Citation: Upson K, Harmon QE, Baird DD. 2016. Soy-based infant formula feeding and ultrasound

  14. Growth and tolerance of infants fed formula with a new algal source of docosahexaenoic acid: Double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yeiser, Michael; Harris, Cheryl L; Kirchoff, Ashlee L; Patterson, Ashley C; Wampler, Jennifer L; Zissman, Edward N; Berseth, Carol Lynn

    2016-12-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formula at concentrations based on worldwide human milk has resulted in circulating red blood cell (RBC) lipids related to visual and cognitive development. In this study, infants received study formula (17mg DHA/100kcal) with a commercially-available (Control: n=140; DHASCO®) or alternative (DHASCO®-B: n=127) DHA single cell oil from 14 to 120 days of age. No significant group differences were detected for growth rates by gender through 120 days of age. Blood fatty acids at 120 days of age were assessed by capillary column gas chromatography in a participant subset (Control: n=34; DHASCO-B: n=27). The 90% confidence interval (91-104%) for the group mean (geometric) total RBC DHA (µg/mL) ratio fell within the pre-specified equivalence limit (80-125%), establishing study formula equivalence with respect to DHA. This study demonstrated infant formula with DHASCO-B was safe, well-tolerated, and associated with normal growth. Furthermore, DHASCO and DHASCO-B represented equivalent sources of DHA as measured by circulating RBC DHA.

  15. Simultaneous determination of vitamins D2 and D3 by LC-MS/MS in infant formula and adult nutritionals: First Action 2011.13.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, Donald L; Black, Charles K; Denison, James E; Seipelt, Charles T

    2012-01-01

    During the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting" held on June 29, 2011, an Expert Review Panel (ERP) on behalf of AOAC INTERNATIONAL adopted the method "Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins D2 and D3 by LC-MS/MS in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals" as an AOAC Official First Action method. Vitamins D2 and D3 are extracted from the sample using pentane-ether; the extract is collected and dried under nitrogen. Vitamin D is separated from interfering compounds using UPLC, and quantitated using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Preliminary data showed the intermediate precision ranged from 3.34-8.05% and an accuracy range of 98.5-111% over the samples tested for vitamin D3. For vitamin D2, the intermediate precision ranged from 2.37-5.45% and accuracy ranged from 96.4-104% over the four matrixes evaluated. The analytical range for the method is bounded by the concentrations of the working standards, 21-270 ng/mL, and is equivalent to 0.168-2.16 mcg/100 g in ready-to-feed product. The practical method quantitation limit is 0.168 mcg/100 g product with method detection limit of 60 ng/100 g product. The ERP reviewed the data and determined that the performance characteristics of the method met the standard method performance requirements, and therefore the method was granted First Action status.

  16. Infants' representations of same and different in match- and non-match-to-sample.

    PubMed

    Hochmann, Jean-Rémy; Mody, Shilpa; Carey, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Three experiments investigated the representations that underlie 14-month-old infants' and adults' success at match-to-sample (MTS) and non-match-to-sample (NMTS) tasks. In Experiment 1, 14-month-old infants were able to learn rules based on abstract representations of sameness and/or difference. When presented with one of eighteen sample stimuli (A) and a choice between a stimulus that was the same as the sample (A) and a different stimulus (B), infants learned to choose A in MTS and B in NMTS. In Experiments 2 and 3, we began to explore the nature of the representations at play in these paradigms. Experiment 2 confirmed that abstract representations were at play, as infants generalized the MTS and NMTS rules to stimuli unseen during familiarization. Experiment 2 also showed that infants tested in MTS learned to seek the stimulus that was the same as the sample, whereas infants tested in NMTS did not learn to seek the different stimulus, but instead learned to avoid the stimulus that was the same as the sample. Infants appeared to only use an abstract representation of the relation same in these experiments. Experiment 3 showed that adult participants, despite knowing the words "same" and "different", also relied on representations of sameness in both MTS and NMTS in a paradigm modeled on that of Experiment 2. We conclude with a discussion of how young infants may possibly represent the abstract relation same.

  17. Enzymic dephosphorylation of bovine casein to improve acid clotting properties and digestibility for infant formula.

    PubMed

    Li-Chan, E; Nakai, S

    1989-01-01

    To improve acid clotting properties, enzymic dephosphorylation of caseins with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CAP) or potato acid phosphatase (PAP) was investigated. Greater dephosphorylation was achieved using alpha s1- or beta-casein as substrates, compared to whole casein or skim milk. Electrophoresis of PAP-modified caseins revealed bands with lower mobility and a multibanded pattern in the beta-casein region which was similar to that of human beta-casein. On the other hand, CAP modification produced electrophoretic bands having lower mobility of the beta-casein component, but with higher mobility in the alpha s1-casein component as well as increased net negative charge in the CAP-casein. PAP-casein formed a fine dispersion upon acidification to pH 4, with a microstructure similar to that of acidified human casein. Greater initial rates of hydrolysis by pepsin at pH 4 were observed for both CAP- and PAP-modified caseins, compared to bovine and human caseins. The rate and extent of hydrolysis remained high for CAP-casein but tended to level off with PAP-casein during sequential digestion with pepsin and pancreatin. There may be advantages in the use of partial dephosphorylation to improve acid clotting and digestibility properties of bovine casein for infant feeding.

  18. Temperament and the mother-infant dyad: associations with breastfeeding and formula feeding with a bottle.

    PubMed

    Kielbratowska, Bogumila; Kazmierczak, Maria; Michalek, Justyna; Preis, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding supports the formation of an emotional bond between mothers and their children. The feeding method is associated with both the child's temperament and the mother's perception of herself and the child. Therefore, the present study focuses on the feeding method, mothers' reaction during feeding, and infants' temperament traits. Ninety-eight mothers with children aged 3 to 5 months participated in the study. Children were assessed with the Children Development Scale (A. Matczak et al., 2007) to measure their temperament. Mothers completed the Mother and Baby Scale (D. Wolke & I. St James-Roberts, 1987, as cited in T.B. Brazelton & K. Nugent, 1995), which measures mothers' evaluation of their children's behaviors during feeding and their overall experiences with their children's care. The results show that breastfed newborns, as compared to bottle-fed newborns, demonstrate higher vigor, which includes activity and the intensity of reaction. Bottle-fed children demonstrate higher regularity than do breastfed children. Mothers who bottle-feed their children perceive themselves to be less confident in the feeding domain than do mothers who breastfeed. Our results indicate that children's temperament might be an important factor in the decision regarding the feeding method. The study supports the idea of promoting knowledge of children's behaviors during feeding among mothers even before their children are born, such as during antenatal classes.

  19. Formula allergy and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kerner, J A

    1995-03-01

    There are two major types of adverse reactions in infant formulas: (1) formula allergy/hypersensitivity, which is an immunologic response, and (2) formula intolerance, which is a nonimmunologic response. Formula intolerance can occur in infants with an underlying congenital or acquired enzyme deficiency (disaccharidase deficiency, galactosemia, hereditary fructose intolerance). The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of both reactions are reviewed in this article. The appropriateness of the use of a variety of infant formulas is discussed. Guidelines for the prevention of allergic disease are described as well.

  20. An extensively hydrolysed casein-based formula for infants with cows' milk protein allergy: tolerance/hypo-allergenicity and growth catch-up.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christophe; Hol, Jeroen; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S

    2015-04-14

    Children with cows' milk protein allergy (CMPA) are at risk of insufficient length and weight gain, and the nutritional efficacy of hypo-allergenic formulas should be carefully assessed. In 2008, a trial assessed the impact of probiotic supplementation of an extensively hydrolysed casein-based formula (eHCF) on acquisition of tolerance in 119 infants with CMPA. First analysis of the study results showed that the studied formula allowed improvement of food-related symptoms. The scoring of atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index was assessed at randomisation and after 6 months of feeding. A post hoc analysis was performed using WHO growth software's nutritional survey module (WHO Anthro version 3.2.2). All infants who were fed the study formula tolerated it well. The SCORAD index significantly improved from randomisation to 6 months of feeding with the study formula. Anthropometric data indicated a significant improvement in the weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length z scores, as well as in the restoration of normal BMI. The probiotic supplementation did not show any impact on these parameters. The present data showed that this eHCF was clinically tolerated and significantly improved the SCORAD index and growth indices.

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Total Vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in Infant Formula and Related Nutritionals by Enzymatic Digestion and LC-MS/MS: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.14.

    PubMed

    Salvati, Louis M; McClure, Sean C; Reddy, Todime M; Cellar, Nicholas A

    2016-05-01

    This method provides simultaneous determination of total vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in infant formula and related nutritionals (adult and infant). The method was given First Action for vitamins B1, B2, and B6, but not B3, during the AOAC Annual Meeting in September 2015. The method uses acid phosphatase to dephosphorylate the phosphorylated vitamin forms. It then measures thiamine (vitamin B1); riboflavin (vitamin B2); nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (vitamin B3); and pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine (vitamin B6) from digested sample extract by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A single-laboratory validation was performed on 14 matrixes provided by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) to demonstrate method effectiveness. The method met requirements of the AOAC SPIFAN Standard Method Performance Requirement for each of the three vitamins, including average over-spike recovery of 99.6 ± 3.5%, average repeatability of 1.5 ± 0.8% relative standard deviation, and average intermediate precision of 3.9 ± 1.3% relative standard deviation.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Salmonella Serovars Anatum and Ealing Associated with Two Historical Outbreaks, Linked to Contaminated Powdered Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Lynda; Finn, Sarah; Hurley, Daniel; Bai, Li; Wall, Ellen; Iversen, Carol; Threlfall, John E.; Fanning, Séamus

    2016-01-01

    Powdered infant formula (PIF) is not intended to be produced as a sterile product unless explicitly stated and on occasion may become contaminated during production with pathogens such as Salmonella enterica. This retrospective study focused on two historically reported salmonellosis outbreaks associated with PIF from the United Kingdom and France, in 1985 and 1996/1997. In this paper, the molecular characterization of the two outbreaks associated Salmonella serovars Anatum and Ealing is reported. Initially the isolates were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which revealed the clonal nature of the two outbreaks. Following from this two representative isolates, one from each serovar was selected for whole genome sequencing (WGS), wherein analysis focused on the Salmonella pathogenicity islands. Furthermore, the ability of these isolates to survive the host intercellular environment was determined using an ex vivo gentamicin protection assay. Results suggest a high level of genetic diversity that may have contributed to survival and virulence of isolates from these outbreaks. PMID:27818652

  3. Antibiotic and Desiccation Resistance of Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus Isolates from Powdered Infant Formula and Processing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Peng; Jiang, Yujun; Feng, Jing; Forsythe, Stephen J.; Li, Ran; Zhou, Yanhong; Man, Chaoxin

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial and desiccation resistance of Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus isolates from powdered infant formula and processing environments. The antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that the 70 Cronobacter strains, representing 19 sequence types, were susceptible to the most of the antibiotics except for amoxicillin-clavulanate, ampicillin, and cefazolin. Furthermore, the growth of six C. sakazakii and two C. malonaticus strains from different sequence types (STs) in hyperosmotic media was measured. The growth of the two C. sakazakii strains (CE1 and CE13) from the neonatal pathovars ST4 and ST8, were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of other strains. C. malonaticus strain CM35 (ST201) was the slowest grower in all strains, and most could not grow in more than 8% NaCl solution. Also the survival of these strains under desiccation conditions was followed for 1 year. The viable count of Cronobacter spp. under desiccation conditions was reduced on average by 3.02 log cycles during 1 year, with CE13 (ST8) being the most desiccation resistant strain. These results will improve our understanding of the persistence of the two closely related species C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus which are of concern for neonatal and adult health. PMID:28303125

  4. Antibiotic and Desiccation Resistance of Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus Isolates from Powdered Infant Formula and Processing Environments.

    PubMed

    Fei, Peng; Jiang, Yujun; Feng, Jing; Forsythe, Stephen J; Li, Ran; Zhou, Yanhong; Man, Chaoxin

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial and desiccation resistance of Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus isolates from powdered infant formula and processing environments. The antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that the 70 Cronobacter strains, representing 19 sequence types, were susceptible to the most of the antibiotics except for amoxicillin-clavulanate, ampicillin, and cefazolin. Furthermore, the growth of six C. sakazakii and two C. malonaticus strains from different sequence types (STs) in hyperosmotic media was measured. The growth of the two C. sakazakii strains (CE1 and CE13) from the neonatal pathovars ST4 and ST8, were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of other strains. C. malonaticus strain CM35 (ST201) was the slowest grower in all strains, and most could not grow in more than 8% NaCl solution. Also the survival of these strains under desiccation conditions was followed for 1 year. The viable count of Cronobacter spp. under desiccation conditions was reduced on average by 3.02 log cycles during 1 year, with CE13 (ST8) being the most desiccation resistant strain. These results will improve our understanding of the persistence of the two closely related species C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus which are of concern for neonatal and adult health.

  5. Evaluation Protocol for Review of Method Validation Data by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals Expert Review Panel.

    PubMed

    Gill, Brendon D; Indyk, Harvey E; Blake, Christopher J; Konings, Erik J M; Jacobs, Wesley A; Sullivan, Darryl M

    2015-01-01

    Methods under consideration as part of the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals process are to be evaluated against a set of Standard Method Performance RequirementsSM (SMPRs) via peer review by an expert review panel (ERP). A validation protocol and a checklist have been developed to assist the ERP to evaluate experimental data and to compare multiple candidate methods for each nutrient. Method performance against validation parameters mandated in the SMPRs as well as additional criteria are to be scored, with the method selected by the ERP proceeding to multilaboratory study prior to Final Action approval. These methods are intended to be used by the infant formula industry for the purposes of dispute resolution.

  6. Evidence for the Need to Renorm the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Based on the Performance of a Population-Based Sample of 12-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Suzann K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A recommendation to renorm the Bayley Scales of Infant Development is based on (1) high scores obtained on infants in rural North Carolina (N=305); (2) published means for other samples of infants born in the 1970s; (3) recent age placement revisions of items on the Gesell Developmental Examination. (Author/JW)

  7. Identification of native angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides in commercial soybean based infant formulas using HPLC-Q-ToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Puchalska, Patrycja; Concepción García, M; Luisa Marina, M

    2014-08-15

    This work evaluates, the presence of native antihypertensive peptides in five soybean-based infant formulas (SBIFs). SBIFs peptide extracts (<10 kDa) and their sub-fractions (5-10 kDa, 3-5 kDa, and <3 kDa) from a variety of samples were obtained by ultrafiltration and ACE inhibitory activity was determined. The highest activities were observed in the smaller (<5 kDa) peptide fractions. A set of peptides present in various SBIFs were studied, and identified using HPLC-Q-ToF-MS. Despite ACE inhibitory activity decreasing after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, it still remained at a high value (IC50 values of 18.2±0.1 and 4.9±0.1 μg/mL). Peptides resisting the action of gastrointestinal enzymes were identified and compared to previously identified peptides, highlighting the presence of peptide RPSYT. This peptide was synthesised, its antihypertensive and antioxidant activity were evaluated, and its resistance to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and to high processing temperatures were studied.

  8. Deep sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA of the neonatal oral microbiome: a comparison of breast-fed and formula-fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shehri, S. S.; Sweeney, E. L.; Cowley, D. M.; Liley, H. G.; Ranasinghe, P. D.; Charles, B. G.; Shaw, P. N.; Vagenas, D.; Duley, J. A.; Knox, C. L.

    2016-01-01

    In utero and upon delivery, neonates are exposed to a wide array of microorganisms from various sources, including maternal bacteria. Prior studies have proposed that the mode of feeding shapes the gut microbiota and, subsequently the child’s health. However, the effect of the mode of feeding and its influence on the development of the neonatal oral microbiota in early infancy has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to compare the oral microbiota of healthy infants that were exclusively breast-fed or formula-fed using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing. We demonstrated that the oral bacterial communities were dominated by the phylum Firmicutes, in both groups. There was a higher prevalence of the phylum Bacteroidetes in the mouths of formula-fed infants than in breast-fed infants (p = 0.01), but in contrast Actinobacteria were more prevalent in breast-fed babies; Proteobacteria was more prevalent in saliva of breast-fed babies than in formula-fed neonates (p = 0.04). We also found evidence suggesting that the oral microbiota composition changed over time, particularly Streptococcus species, which had an increasing trend between 4–8 weeks in both groups. This study findings confirmed that the mode of feeding influences the development of oral microbiota, and this may have implications for long-term human health. PMID:27922070

  9. Determination of whey protein content in bovine milk-based infant formula finished products using amino acids calculation method: AOAC First Action 2012.08.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ping; Baugh, Steve

    2013-01-01

    A method for the calculation of the whey protein fraction was developed for milk-based infant formula products based upon amino acid ratio calculated from asparaginelaspartic acid, alanine, proline, and phenylalanine amino acid data. Historical and literature amino acid data were combined to establish the reference amino acid values used in the validation study. This method has been evaluated for accuracy versus label claim for 12 products, with results from 90 to 107.5% of label claim and an overall average of 98.7%. Repeatability and intermediate precision were determined over 4 different days. Repeatability results were 4.75, 2.06, 4.18, and 2.44% RSD, respectively, with an overall intermediate precision of 3.68% RSD. Since the amino acid profile of infant formula finished products depends on the amino acid profile of ingredients used, the applicability of the method needs to be confirmed for specific types of infant formula, for which data will be gathered. Additional reference material data are being gathered for better estimation of milk and whey reference values, which are based on being normalized to total amino acid content, during the two year AOAC INTERNATIONAL Official Methods of Analysis method approval process.

  10. Higher vitamin D intake in preterm infants fed an isocaloric, protein- and mineral-enriched postdischarge formula is associated with increased bone accretion.

    PubMed

    van de Lagemaat, Monique; Rotteveel, Joost; Schaafsma, Anne; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Lafeber, Harrie N

    2013-09-01

    During the first half of infancy, bone accretion in preterm infants fed an isocaloric, protein- and mineral-enriched postdischarge formula (PDF) is higher compared with those fed term formula (TF) or human milk (HM). This may be related to higher protein, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D intakes. This study investigated serum calcium, phosphate, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in relation to bone mineral content (BMC) in PDF-, TF-, and HM-fed preterm infants between term age (40 wk postmenstrual age) and 6 mo corrected age (CA). Between term age and 6 mo CA, 52 preterm infants were fed PDF (per 100 mL: 67 kcal, 1.7 g protein, 65 mg calcium, 38 mg phosphorus, 56 IU vitamin D), 41 were fed TF (per 100 mL: 67 kcal, 1.47 g protein, 50 mg calcium, 30 mg phosphorus, 48 IU vitamin D), and 46 were fed HM. Serum calcium, phosphorus, and 25(OH)D were measured at term age and at 3 and 6 mo CA. BMC (g) was measured by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at term age and at 6 mo CA. Between term age and 6 mo CA, intakes of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D were significantly higher in PDF- compared with TF-fed infants, and PDF-fed infants reached significantly higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations at 6 mo CA (103 ± 24.3 vs. 92.8 ± 15.5 nmol/L, P = 0.003). Between term age and 6 mo CA, increases in serum 25(OH)D were associated with an increase in BMC (β = 0.001; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.003; P = 0.046). In conclusion, during the first 6 mo postterm, higher vitamin D intake and greater increase in serum 25(OH)D concentration in PDF-fed preterm infants were associated with increased bone accretion.

  11. How many infants are temperamentally difficult? Comparing norms from the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire to a population sample of UK infants.

    PubMed

    Chong, Shiau Yun; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Gregory, Tess; Lynch, John W; Smithers, Lisa G

    2015-08-01

    The original norms for the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire (RITQ) were published in 1978 and were based on a small sample from the US. The aim of this study is to compare temperament scores from the original RITQ against scores from a large population-based cohort of infants from the UK. This study consists of 10,937 infants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) born between April 1991 and December 1992 in the southwest of England. Infant temperament at 6 months of age was reported by parents using the adapted RITQ. Responses were scored according to the RITQ manual and then categorized into temperament groups (easy, intermediate low, intermediate high, and difficult) using either the RITQ norms or norms derived from the data. The scores for each temperament subscale and the proportion of children in each temperament group were compared across the two methods. Subscale scores for the ALSPAC sample were higher (more "difficult") than the RITQ norms for rhythmicity, approach, adaptability, intensity, and distractibility. When RITQ norms were applied, 24% infants were categorized as difficult and 25% as easy, compared with 15% difficult and 38% easy when ALSPAC norms were used. There are discrepancies between RITQ norms and the ALSPAC norms which resulted in differences in the distribution of temperament groups. There is a need to re-examine RITQ norms and categorization for use in primary care practice and contemporary population-based studies.

  12. Statistical inference and sensitivity to sampling in 11-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Denison, Stephanie

    2009-07-01

    Research on initial conceptual knowledge and research on early statistical learning mechanisms have been, for the most part, two separate enterprises. We report a study with 11-month-old infants investigating whether they are sensitive to sampling conditions and whether they can integrate intentional information in a statistical inference task. Previous studies found that infants were able to make inferences from samples to populations, and vice versa [Xu, F., & Garcia, V. (2008). Intuitive statistics by 8-month-old infants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 5012-5015]. We found that when employing this statistical inference mechanism, infants are sensitive to whether a sample was randomly drawn from a population or not, and they take into account intentional information (e.g., explicitly expressed preference, visual access) when computing the relationship between samples and populations. Our results suggest that domain-specific knowledge is integrated with statistical inference mechanisms early in development.

  13. Molecular epidemiological survey of Citrobacter freundii misidentified as Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) and Enterobacter hormaechei isolated from powdered infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Giammanco, Giovanni M; Aleo, Aurora; Guida, Ivana; Mammina, Caterina

    2011-04-01

    A total of 75 powdered infant milk formula (PIF) samples collected from pharmacies and drugstores in Western Sicily, Italy, and representative of 12 different brands were analyzed in this study to evaluate their microbiological quality. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration protocol, 32 samples out of 75 were contaminated by enterobacteria. Commercial biochemical API(r) 20E-system identification method indicated that six PIF samples were presumptively contaminated by Cronobacter spp., but further characterization by alpha-glucosidase based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay identification strongly suggested that these strains did not belong to the genus Cronobacter. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA (rrs) sequences combined with the results of biochemical tests allowed to identify the six strains as Citrobacter freundii. Similarly, rrs sequence analysis identified as Enterobacter hormaechei 23 strains originally ascribed to Enterobacter cloacae by the API 20E system. Characterization of C. freundii and E. hormaechei PIF isolates by the DiversiLab(r) repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) typing method revealed a variety of amplification patterns, but the recovery of the same rep-PCR genotype in several products might indicate a special adaptation of genetic clones to this food or cross-contamination through common ingredients. Antibiotic-resistance profiles were also determined, but none of the strains tested was resistant to third-generation cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase activity was not detected. Our results confirm that E. hormaechei contamination of PIF is widespread, thus making it a cause for concern. Similarly to what was demonstrated for E. hormaechei, we suggest that C. freundii also may be an under-reported cause of bacterial infection, especially in high-risk neonates, due to misidentification.

  14. Wild chimpanzee infant urine and saliva sampled noninvasively usable for DNA analyses.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Takenaka, Osamu; Nishida, Toshisada

    2007-04-01

    In many genetic studies on the great apes, fecal or hair samples have been used as sources of DNA. However, feces and hairs are difficult to collect from chimpanzee infants under 3 years of age. As alternative DNA sources, we investigated the efficiency of collecting urine samples from infants compared with fecal samples, as well as the validity of the DNA extracted from urine and saliva samples of well-habituated M group chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. We collected 40 urine and 3 fecal samples from 10 infants under 3 years. Compared with feces, the urine samples were relatively easy to collect. The saliva of infants, which remained on the twigs sucked by them, was collected using cotton swabs. The average amounts of DNA extracted from the 40 urine and 6 saliva samples were 3,920 and 458 pg/mul, respectively. The rate of positive PCR was low and the allelic dropout rate was high when using less than 25 pg of template DNA in the PCR mixtures. Based on the amounts of DNA, 50% of the urine samples and 100% of the saliva samples were judged usable for accurate microsatellite genotyping. For infant chimpanzees in particular, collecting urine and saliva as an alternative to fecal and hair samples can reduce the effort invested in collection in the field.

  15. Predictability of Intraocular Lens Power Calculation Formulae in Infantile Eyes With Unilateral Congenital Cataract: Results from the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    VANDERVEEN, DEBORAH K.; TRIVEDI, RUPAL H.; NIZAM, AZHAR; LYNN, MICHAEL J.; LAMBERT, SCOTT R.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulae in infantile eyes with primary IOL implantation. DESIGN Comparative case series. METHODS The Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, Holladay 2, Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff (SRK) II, and Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff theoretic (SRK/T) formulae were used to calculate predicted postoperative refraction for eyes that received primary IOL implantation in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. The protocol targeted postoperative hyperopia of +6.0 or +8.0 diopters (D). Eyes were excluded for invalid biometry, lack of refractive data at the specified postoperative visit, diagnosis of glaucoma or suspected glaucoma, or sulcus IOL placement. Actual refraction 1 month after surgery was converted to spherical equivalent and prediction error (predicted refraction – actual refraction) was calculated. Baseline characteristics were analyzed for effect on prediction error for each formula. The main outcome measure was absolute prediction error. RESULTS Forty-three eyes were studied; mean axial length was 18.1 ± 1.1 mm (in 23 eyes, it was <18.0 mm). Average age at surgery was 2.5 ± 1.5 months. Holladay 1 showed the lowest median absolute prediction error (1.2 D); a paired comparison of medians showed clinically similar results using the Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulae (median difference, 0.3 D). Comparison of the mean absolute prediction error showed the lowest values using the SRK/T formula (1.4 ± 1.1 D), followed by the Holladay 1 formula (1.7 ± 1.3 D). Calculations with an optimized constant showed the lowest values and no significant difference between the Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulae (median difference, 0.3 D). Eyes with globe AL of less than 18 mm had the largest mean and median prediction error and absolute prediction error, regardless of the formula used. CONCLUSIONS The Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulae gave equally good results and had the best predictive value for infant eyes. PMID:24011524

  16. Determination of Vitamin B12 in Infant, Adult, and Pediatric Formulas by HPLC-UV and Column Switching: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2011.10.

    PubMed

    Butler-Thompson, Linda D; Jacobs, Wesley A; Schimpf, Karen J

    2015-01-01

    AOAC First Action Method 2011.10, Vitamin B12 in Infant and Pediatric Formulas and Adult Nutritionals, was collaboratively studied. This method uses a pH 4.5 sodium acetate buffer and potassium cyanide at 105°C to extract and convert all biologically active forms of vitamin B12 present to cyanocobalamin; octylsilyl (C8) or C18 SPE cartridges to purify and concentrate cyanocobalamin; a combination of size-exclusion and RPLC to isolate cyanocobalamin; and visible absorbance at 550 nm to detect and quantitate cyanocobalamin in infant, pediatric, and adult nutritionals with vitamin B12 concentrations greater than 0.025 μg/100 g ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid. During this collaborative study, nine to 11 laboratories from eight different countries analyzed blind duplicates of 12 infant, pediatric, and adult nutritional formulas. Per the AOAC Expert Review Panel (ERP) on Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Nutrient Methods the method demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and met SPIFAN Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) for the majority of product matrixes analyzed. Vitamin B12 SPIFAN SMPRs for repeatability were ≤15% RSD at vitamin B12 concentrations of 0.01 μg/100 g RTF liquid and ≤7% RSD at vitamin B12 concentrations of 0.2-5.0 μg/100 g RTF liquid. Vitamin B12 SPIFAN SMPRs for reproducibility were ≤11% RSD in products with vitamin B12 concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 5.0 μg/100 g RTF liquid. During this collaborative study, the RSDr ranged from 2.98 to 9.77%, and the RSDR ranged from 3.54 to 19.5%. During previous single-laboratory validation studies, the method LOQ was estimated to be 0.025 μg/100 g RTF liquid.

  17. Release of β-casomorphins 5 and 7 during simulated gastro-intestinal digestion of bovine β-casein variants and milk-based infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Noni, Ivano De

    2008-10-15

    The release of β-casomorphin-5 (BCM5) and β-casomorphin-7 (BCM7) was investigated during simulated gastro-intestinal digestion (SGID) of bovine β-casein variants (n=3), commercial milk-based infant formulas (n=6) and experimental infant formulas (n=3). SGID included pepsin digestion at pH 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 and further hydrolysis with Corolase PP™. β-Casein (β-CN) variants were extracted from raw milks coming from cows of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey breeds. Genomic DNA was isolated from milk and the β-CN genotype was determined by a PCR-based method. Phenotype at protein level was determined by capillary zone electrophoresis in order to ascertain the level of gene expression. Recognition and quantification of BCMs involved HPLC coupled to tandem MS. Regardless of the pH, BCM7 generated from variants A1 and B of β-CN (5-176mmol/mol casein) the highest amount being released during SGID of form B. As expected, the peptide was not released from variant A2 at any steps of SGID. BCM5 was not formed in hydrolysates irrespective of either the genetic variant or the pH value during SGID. Variants A1, A2 and B of β-CN were present in all the commercial infant formulae (IFs) submitted to SGID. Accordingly, 16-297nmol BCM7 were released from 800ml IF, i.e. the daily recommended intake for infant. Industrial indirect-UHT treatments (156°C×6-9s) did not modify release of BCM7 and, during SGID, comparable peptide amounts formed in raw formulation and final heat-treated IFs.

  18. Post Discharge Formula Fortification of Maternal Human Milk of Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: An Introduction of a Feeding Protocol in a University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    El Sakka, Abeer; El Shimi, Mohamed Sami; Salama, Kareem; Fayez, Hend

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers and complications of fortification of human milk by post discharge formula of preterm very low birth weight newborns (VLBW). Fifty preterm infants less than 37 weeks with weight less than 1500 g were enrolled in the study. They received parental nutrition and feeding according to our protocol. When enteral feeding reached 100 cc/kg/day, infants were randomized into two groups: group I, Cases, n=25, where post discharge formula (PDF) was used for fortification, group II, Controls, n=25 with no fortification. Infants of both groups were given 50% of required enteral feeding as premature formula. This protocol was used until infants’ weight reached 1800 g. Daily weight, weekly length and head circumference were recorded. Hemoglobin, albumin (Alb), electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and clinical complications were documented. Human milk fortification with PDF resulted in better growth with increase in weight 16.8 and 13.78 g/kg/day (P=0.0430), length 0.76 and 0.58 cm/week (P=0.0027), and head circumference of 0.59 and 0.5 cm/week (P=0.0217) in cases and controls respectively. Duration of hospital stay was less in cases (22.76 versus 28.52 days in Controls), P=0.02. No significant changes were found in serum electrolytes, BUN, or Alb between both groups. Hemoglobin was significantly higher in Cases, P=0.04. There were no significant clinical complications. Our feeding protocol of fortification of human milk with PDF in preterm very low birth weight newborns resulted in better growth and decrease in length of hospital stay. The use of PDF could be an alternative option for fortification of mothers’ milk for preterm VLBW infants in developing countries with low resources. PMID:27777705

  19. Ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid/ionic liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of sulfonamides in infant formula milk powder using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shiqian; Yang, Xiao; Yu, Wei; Liu, Zhongling; Zhang, Hanqi

    2012-09-15

    Ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid/ionic liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-IL/IL-DLLME) high-performance liquid chromatography was developed and applied to the extraction, separation and determination of sulfonamides in infant formula milk powder samples. The hydrophobic IL and hydrophilic IL were used as extraction solvent and dispersion solvent, respectively. The extraction procedure was induced by the formation of cloudy solution, which was composed of fine drops of [C(6)MIM][PF(6)] dispersed entirely into sample solution with help of [C(4)MIM][BF(4)]. The purification of sample and concentration of target analytes were performed simultaneously. The introduction of ion-pairing agent (NH(4)PF(6)) was beneficial to the improvement of recoveries for IL phase and analytes. The experimental parameters of the UA-IL/IL-DLLME, including concentration of [C(6)MIM][PF(6)] and [C(4)MIM][BF(4)] in sample solution, ultrasound extraction time, pH value of sample solution and amount of ion-pairing agent (NH(4)PF(6)), were evaluated. The limits of detection for sulfamerazine, sulfamethizole, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfmethoxazole and sulfisoxazole were 2.94, 9.26, 16.7, 5.28, 3.35 and 6.66 μg kg(-1), respectively. When the present method was applied to the analysis of infant formula milk powder samples, the recoveries of the analytes ranged from 90.4% to 114.8% and relative standard deviations were lower than 7.5%. The proposed method was compared with the ionic liquid-homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction, ionic liquid-ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction and ionic liquid-temperature-controlled-DLLME. The results indicated that the proposed method is effective for the extraction of the sulfonamides in milk powder samples.

  20. A novel sample size formula for the weighted log-rank test under the proportional hazards cure model.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaoping; Wu, Jianrong

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of cancer has progressed dramatically in recent decades, such that it is no longer uncommon to see a cure or log-term survival in a significant proportion of patients with various types of cancer. To adequately account for the cure fraction when designing clinical trials, the cure models should be used. In this article, a sample size formula for the weighted log-rank test is derived under the fixed alternative hypothesis for the proportional hazards cure models. Simulation showed that the proposed sample size formula provides an accurate estimation of sample size for designing clinical trials under the proportional hazards cure models.

  1. Extensive protein hydrolysate formula effectively reduces regurgitation in infants with positive and negative challenge tests for cow’s milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Y; De Greef, E

    2014-01-01

    Aim Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) is treated using an elimination diet with an extensive protein hydrolysate. We explored whether a thickened or nonthickened version was best for infants with suspected CMPA, which commonly causes regurgitation/vomiting. Methods Diagnosis of CMPA was based on a positive challenge test. We compared the efficacy of two casein extensive hydrolysates (eCH), a nonthickened version (NT-eCH) and a thickened version (T-eCH), using a symptom-based score covering regurgitation, crying, stool consistency, eczema, urticarial and respiratory symptoms. Results A challenge was performed in 52/72 infants with suspected CMPA and was positive in 65.4%. All confirmed CMPA cases tolerated eCH. The symptom-based score decreased significantly in all infants within a month, and the highest reduction was in those with confirmed CMPA. Regurgitation was reduced in all infants (6.4 ± 3.2–2.8 ± 2.9, p < 0.001), but fell more with the T-eCH (−4.2 ± 3.2 regurgitations/day vs. −3.0 ± 4.5, ns), especially in infants with a negative challenge (−3.9 ± 4.0 vs. −1.9 ± 3.4, ns). Conclusion eCH fulfilled the criteria for a hypoallergenic formula, and the NT-eCH and T-eCH formulas both reduced CMPA symptoms. The symptom-based score is useful for evaluating how effective dietary treatments are for CMPA. PMID:24575806

  2. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. D Appendix D to Part 110—Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone...

  3. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. D Appendix D to Part 110—Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. D Appendix D to Part 110—Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 110 - Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) C Appendix C to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. C Appendix C to Part 110—Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone I...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 110 - Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) C Appendix C to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. C Appendix C to Part 110—Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone I...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 110 - Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) C Appendix C to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. C Appendix C to Part 110—Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone I...

  8. Characterisation and optimisation of physical and oxidative stability of structured lipid-based infant formula emulsion: effects of emulsifiers and biopolymer thickeners.

    PubMed

    Zou, Long; Akoh, Casimir C

    2013-12-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the effects of lecithin (0-0.4 g/100 ml), monoacylglycerol (0-0.4 g/100 ml), locust bean gum (LBG; 0-0.1 g/100 ml), and carrageenan (0-0.02 g/100 ml) on the physical and oxidative properties of structured lipid-based infant formula emulsion containing dairy proteins, lactose, vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients. Particle size, optical stability, viscosity, relative content of docosahexaenoic acid, stearidonic acid and total oxidation value were assessed during 28-day storage. ANOVA results showed that the experimental data were satisfactorily fitted to second-order polynomial models by multiple linear regression. The contour plots illustrated that lecithin and monoacylglycerol played a dominant role in controlling the emulsion stability compared to LBG and carrageenan. Lecithin content significantly affected all the responses measured, particularly lipid oxidation. Increasing monoacylglycerol concentration led to an increase in particle size and emulsion viscosity. The optimal condition to achieve the highest stability was predicted to be 0.2, 0.4, 0.045, and 0.015 g/100 ml lecithin, monoacylglycerol, LBG and carrageenan, respectively. The verification data further demonstrated the suitability of the models explored by RSM. Overall, the findings obtained in this study have important implications for the successful incorporation of structured lipid into infant formula emulsion for better infant nutrition and health.

  9. Non-compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes is not confined to the infant formula industry.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Stewart

    2013-06-01

    Infant feeding policy and practice continues to be a contentious area of global health care. The infant formula industry is widely considered to be the bête noire with frequent claims that they adopt marketing and sales practices that are not compliant with the WHO Code. However, failure to resolve these issues over three decades suggests that there may be wider systemic failings. Review of published papers, commentaries and reports relating to the implementation and governance of the WHO Code with specific reference to issues of non-compliance. The analysis set out in this paper indicates that there are systemic failings at all levels of the implementation and monitoring process including the failure of WHO to successfully 'urge' governments to implement the Code in its entirety; a lack of political will by Member States to implement and monitor the Code and a lack of formal and transparent governance structures. Non-compliance with the WHO Code is not confined to the infant formula industry and several actions are identified, including the need to address issues of partnership working and the establishment of governance systems that are robust, independent and transparent.

  10. Quantitative analysis of spatial sampling error in the infant and adult electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Grieve, Philip G; Emerson, Ronald G; Isler, Joseph R; Stark, Raymond I

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this report was to determine the required number of electrodes to record the infant and adult electroencephalogram (EEG) with a specified amount of spatial sampling error. We first developed mathematical theory that governs the spatial sampling of EEG data distributed on a spherical approximation to the scalp. We then used a concentric sphere model of current flow in the head to simulate realistic EEG data. Quantitative spatial sampling error was calculated for the simulated EEG, with additive measurement noise, for 64, 128, and 256 electrodes equally spaced over the surface of the sphere corresponding to the coverage of the human scalp by commercially available "geodesic" electrode arrays. We found the sampling error for the infant to be larger than that for the adult. For example, a sampling error of less than 10% for the adult was obtained with a 64-electrode array but a 256-electrode array was needed for the infant to achieve the same level of error. With the addition of measurement noise, with power 10 times less than that of the EEG, the sampling error increased to 25% for both the infant and adult, for these numbers of electrodes. These results show that accurate measurement of the spatial properties of the infant EEG requires more electrodes than for the adult.

  11. An infant formula toxicity and toxicokinetic feeding study on carrageenan in preweaning piglets with special attention to the immune system and gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M L; Ferguson, H E; Thorsrud, B A; Nelson, K G; Blakemore, W R; Zeigler, B; Cameron, M J; Brant, A; Cochrane, L; Pellerin, M; Mahadevan, B

    2015-03-01

    A toxicity/toxicokinetic swine-adapted infant formula feeding study was conducted in Domestic Yorkshire Crossbred Swine from lactation day 3 for 28 consecutive days during the preweaning period at carrageenan concentrations of 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 ppm under GLP guidelines. This study extends the observations in newborn baboons (McGill et al., 1977) to piglets and evaluates additional parameters: organ weights, clinical chemistry, special gastrointestinal tract stains (toluidine blue, Periodic Acid-Schiff), plasma levels of carrageenan; and evaluation of potential immune system effects. Using validated methods, immunophenotyping of blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, B cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, mature T cells), sandwich immunoassays for blood cytokine evaluations (IL-6, IL-8, IL1β, TNF-α), and immunohistochemical staining of the gut for IL-8 and TNF-α were conducted. No treatment-related adverse effects at any carrageenan concentration were found on any parameter. Glucosuria in a few animals was not considered treatment-related. The high dose in this study, equivalent to ~430 mg/kg/day, provides an adequate margin of exposure for human infants, as affirmed by JECFA and supports the safe use of carrageenan for infants ages 0-12 weeks and older and infants with special medical needs.

  12. Effects of a Follow-On Formula Containing Isomaltulose (Palatinose™) on Metabolic Response, Acceptance, Tolerance and Safety in Infants: A Randomized-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fleddermann, M.; Rauh-Pfeiffer, A.; Demmelmair, H.; Holdt, L.; Teupser, D.; Koletzko, B.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the dietary glycaemic load on postprandial blood glucose and insulin response might be of importance for fat deposition and risk of obesity. We aimed to investigate the metabolic effects, acceptance and tolerance of a follow-on formula containing the low glycaemic and low insulinaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose replacing high glycaemic maltodextrin. Healthy term infants aged 4 to 8 completed months (n = 50) were randomized to receive the intervention follow-on formula (IF, 2.1g isomaltulose (Palatinose™)/100mL) or an isocaloric conventional formula (CF) providing 2.1g maltodextrin/100mL for four weeks. Plasma insulinaemia 60min after start of feeding (primary outcome) was not statistically different, while glycaemia adjusted for age and time for drinking/volume of meal 60min after start of feeding was 122(105,140) mg/dL in IF (median, interquartile range) and 111(100,123) in CF (p = 0.01). Urinary c-peptide:creatinine ratio did not differ (IF:81.5(44.7, 96.0) vs. CF:56.8(37.5, 129),p = 0.43). Urinary c-peptide:creatinine ratio was correlated total intake of energy (R = 0.31,p = 0.045), protein (R = 0.42,p = 0.006) and fat (R = 0.40,p = 0.01) but not with carbohydrate intake (R = 0.22,p = 0.16). Both formulae were well accepted without differences in time of crying, flatulence, stool characteristics and the occurrence of adverse events. The expected lower postprandial plasma insulin and blood glucose level due to replacement of high glycaemic maltodextrin by low glycaemic isomaltulose were not observed in the single time-point blood analysis. In infants aged 4 to 8 completed months fed a liquid formula, peak blood glucose might be reached earlier than 60min after start of feeding. Non-invasive urinary c-peptide measurements may be a suitable marker of nutritional intake during the previous four days in infants. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01627015 PMID:26987056

  13. Protein breakdown and release of β-casomorphins during in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion of sterilised model systems of liquid infant formula.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Stefano; Stuknytė, Milda; Masotti, Fabio; De Noni, Ivano

    2017-02-15

    Protein modifications occurring during sterilisation of infant formulas can affect protein digestibility and release of bioactive peptides. The effect of glycation and cross-linking on protein breakdown and release of β-casomorphins was evaluated during in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion (GID) of six sterilised model systems of infant formula. Protein degradation during in vitro GID was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and by measuring the nitrogen content of ultrafiltration (3kDa) permeates before and after in vitro GID of model IFs. Glycation strongly hindered protein breakdown, whereas cross-linking resulting from β-elimination reactions had a negligible effect. Only β-casomorphin 7 (β-CM7) was detected (0.187-0.858mgL(-1)) at the end of the intestinal digestion in all untreated IF model systems. The level of β-CM7 in the sterilised model systems prepared without addition of sugars ranged from 0.256 to 0.655mgL(-1). The release of this peptide during GID was hindered by protein glycation.

  14. Determination of vitamin A and vitamin E esters in infant formulae and fortified milk powders by HPLC: Use of internal standardisation.

    PubMed

    Woollard, David C; Bensch, Anja; Indyk, Harvey; McMahon, Adrienne

    2016-04-15

    An HPLC method is described using normal phase conditions with an unbonded silica column to determine concentrations of supplementary vitamin A and vitamin E esters and β-carotene in infant formulae. The method utilises selective dual-channel fluoresence for vitamins A and E and visible absorbance for β-carotene. An attribute of the method is the use of retinol propionate, α-tocopheryl propionate and all-E-β-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester internal standards to compensate for analytical variations associated with these labile vitamins. Extraction is performed without saponification, with the aid of protease to remove vitamin encaspsulation and facilitate vitamin partition into hydrocarbon solvent. Figures of merit indicate the method is suitable for its intended purpose in the highly regulated infant formula environment, including liquid formulations. The method is extendable to whole milk powders where total vitamin A content data can be calculated by summing the innate long-chain vitamin A esters with the added esters.

  15. Calcium and fat metabolic balance, and gastrointestinal tolerance in term infants fed milk-based formulas with and without palm olein and palm kernel oils: a randomized blinded crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effects of palm olein (POL) on calcium and fat metabolic balance and gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance have been clinically evaluated but its use in combination with palm kernel oil (PKO), and canola oil has not been similarly assessed in infants. Methods Calcium and fat balance and GI tolerance were evaluated in 33 healthy term infants (age = 68-159d) in a randomized, double-blinded, 14d crossover trial at a day care center in Salvador, Brazil; followed by a 4d hospital ward metabolic balance study in 17 of the male subjects. The study compared two commercially available milk-based powdered formulas in Brazil; one containing POL (44% of total fat), PKO (21.7%) and canola oil (18.5%) as predominant fats (PALM), and the other containing none (NoPALM). Occasional human milk (HM) supplementation was allowed at home. Results Formula and HM intakes, and growth were not different (p > 0.05). Calcium absorption (%) for infants fed NoPALM (58.8 ± 16.7%; means ± SD) was higher (p = 0.023) than those fed PALM (42.1 ± 19.2%), but was not significant (p = 0.104) when calcium intake was used as a covariate. Calcium intake was higher (p < 0.001) in NoPALM versus PALM fed infants. However, calcium retention (%) was higher in infants fed NoPALM compared to PALM with (p = 0.024) or without (p = 0.015) calcium intake as a covariate. Fat absorption (%) for NoPALM was greater than PALM fed infants (NoPALM = 96.9 ± 1.2 > PALM = 95.1 ± 1.5; p = 0.020 in Study Period I). Mean rank stool consistency was softer in infants fed NoPALM versus PALM (p < 0.001; metabolic period). Adverse events, spit-up/vomit, fussiness and gassiness were not different (p > 0.05). Formula acceptability was high and comparable for both formula feedings, regardless of HM supplementation. Conclusions Term infants fed PALM based formula (containing palm olein, palm kernel and canola oils) demonstrated lower calcium retention and

  16. Analysis of Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3 in Fortified Milk Powders and Infant and Nutritional Formulas by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2016.05.

    PubMed

    Gill, Brendon D; Abernethy, Grant A; Green, Rebecca J; Indyk, Harvey E

    2016-09-01

    A method for the determination of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 in fortified milk powders and infant and adult nutritional formulas is described. Samples are saponified at high temperature and lipid-soluble components are extracted into isooctane. A portion of the isooctane layer is transferred and washed, and an aliquot of 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione is added to derivatize the vitamin D to form a high-molecular-mass, easily ionizable adduct. The vitamin D adduct is then re-extracted into a small volume of acetonitrile and analyzed by RPLC. Detection is by tandem MS, using multiple reaction monitoring. Stable isotope-labeled vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 internal standards are used for quantitation to correct for losses in extraction and any variation in derivatization and ionization efficiencies. A single-laboratory validation of the method using AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) kit samples was performed and compared with parameters defined according to the vitamin D Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR(®)). Linearity was demonstrated over the range specified in the SMPR, with the LOD being estimated at below that required. Method spike recovery (vitamin D2, 97.0-99.2%; and vitamin D3, 96.0-101.0%) and RSDr (vitamin D3, 1.5-5.2%) were evaluated and compared favorably with limits in the vitamin D SMPR. Acceptable bias for vitamin D3 was demonstrated against both the certified value for National Institute of Standards and Technology 1849a Standard Reference material (P(α = 0.05) = 0.25) and AOAC INTERNATIONAL reference method 2002.05 (P(α = 0.05) = 0.09). The method was demonstrated to meet the requirements of the vitamin D SMPR as defined by SPIFAN, and was recently approved for Official First Action status by the AOAC Expert Review Panel on SPIFAN Nutrient Methods.

  17. Statistical Inference and Sensitivity to Sampling in 11-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Denison, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Research on initial conceptual knowledge and research on early statistical learning mechanisms have been, for the most part, two separate enterprises. We report a study with 11-month-old infants investigating whether they are sensitive to sampling conditions and whether they can integrate intentional information in a statistical inference task.…

  18. A convenient formula for sample size calculations in clinical trials with multiple co-primary continuous endpoints.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Sozu, Takashi; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu

    2012-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of a new treatment may often be better evaluated by two or more co-primary endpoints. Recently, in pharmaceutical drug development, there has been increasing discussion regarding establishing statistically significant favorable results on more than one endpoint in comparisons between treatments, which is referred to as a problem of multiple co-primary endpoints. Several methods have been proposed for calculating the sample size required to design a trial with multiple co-primary correlated endpoints. However, because these methods require users to have considerable mathematical sophistication and knowledge of programming techniques, their application and spread may be restricted in practice. To improve the convenience of these methods, in this paper, we provide a useful formula with accompanying numerical tables for sample size calculations to design clinical trials with two treatments, where the efficacy of a new treatment is demonstrated on continuous co-primary endpoints. In addition, we provide some examples to illustrate the sample size calculations made using the formula. Using the formula and the tables, which can be read according to the patterns of correlations and effect size ratios expected in multiple co-primary endpoints, makes it convenient to evaluate the required sample size promptly.

  19. High frequencies of antibiotic resistance genes in infants' meconium and early fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Gosalbes, M J; Vallès, Y; Jiménez-Hernández, N; Balle, C; Riva, P; Miravet-Verde, S; de Vries, L E; Llop, S; Agersø, Y; Sørensen, S J; Ballester, F; Francino, M P

    2016-02-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota has been identified as an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that can be horizontally transferred to pathogenic species. Maternal GIT microbes can be transmitted to the offspring, and recent work indicates that such transfer starts before birth. We have used culture-independent genetic screenings to explore whether ARGs are already present in the meconium accumulated in the GIT during fetal life and in feces of 1-week-old infants. We have analyzed resistance to β-lactam antibiotics (BLr) and tetracycline (Tcr), screening for a variety of genes conferring each. To evaluate whether ARGs could have been inherited by maternal transmission, we have screened perinatal fecal samples of the 1-week-old babies' mothers, as well as a mother-infant series including meconium, fecal samples collected through the infant's 1st year, maternal fecal samples and colostrum. Our results reveal a high prevalence of BLr and Tcr in both meconium and early fecal samples, implying that the GIT resistance reservoir starts to accumulate even before birth. We show that ARGs present in the mother may reach the meconium and colostrum and establish in the infant GIT, but also that some ARGs were likely acquired from other sources. Alarmingly, we identified in both meconium and 1-week-olds' samples a particularly elevated prevalence of mecA (>45%), six-fold higher than that detected in the mothers. The mecA gene confers BLr to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and although its detection does not imply the presence of this pathogen, it does implicate the young infant's GIT as a noteworthy reservoir of this gene.

  20. Progress in promoting breast-feeding, combating malnutrition, and composition and use of infant formula, 1981-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. C...

  1. Melamine detection by mid- and near-infrared (MIR/NIR) spectroscopy: a quick and sensitive method for dairy products analysis including liquid milk, infant formula, and milk powder.

    PubMed

    Balabin, Roman M; Smirnov, Sergey V

    2011-07-15

    Melamine (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine) is a nitrogen-rich chemical implicated in the pet and human food recalls and in the global food safety scares involving milk products. Due to the serious health concerns associated with melamine consumption and the extensive scope of affected products, rapid and sensitive methods to detect melamine's presence are essential. We propose the use of spectroscopy data-produced by near-infrared (near-IR/NIR) and mid-infrared (mid-IR/MIR) spectroscopies, in particular-for melamine detection in complex dairy matrixes. None of the up-to-date reported IR-based methods for melamine detection has unambiguously shown its wide applicability to different dairy products as well as limit of detection (LOD) below 1 ppm on independent sample set. It was found that infrared spectroscopy is an effective tool to detect melamine in dairy products, such as infant formula, milk powder, or liquid milk. ALOD below 1 ppm (0.76±0.11 ppm) can be reached if a correct spectrum preprocessing (pretreatment) technique and a correct multivariate (MDA) algorithm-partial least squares regression (PLS), polynomial PLS (Poly-PLS), artificial neural network (ANN), support vector regression (SVR), or least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM)-are used for spectrum analysis. The relationship between MIR/NIR spectrum of milk products and melamine content is nonlinear. Thus, nonlinear regression methods are needed to correctly predict the triazine-derivative content of milk products. It can be concluded that mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy can be regarded as a quick, sensitive, robust, and low-cost method for liquid milk, infant formula, and milk powder analysis.

  2. Quantification of phospholipids in infant formula and growing up milk by high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detector.

    PubMed

    Braun, Marcel; Flück, Brigitte; Cotting, Claudia; Monard, Florence; Giuffrida, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipids (PLs) are well known for their excellent emulsifier properties and more recently for their biological functions, such as cell signing, brain development, immune function, heart health, and cancer prevention, besides their physiological role in membrane composition. In dairy products, PLs represent 0.2-1% of milk fat. The milk PLs comprise phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and sphingomyelin (SPH) as the major compounds; phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine are minor PLs. A new generation of dairy products claiming PL family content, such as SPH, is being produced; therefore, a validated method for quantifying PL families in dairy products is needed. In this study, an HPLC-evaporative light scattering detector method to quantify the most abundant milk PL families, i.e., PC, PE, and SPH, in infant formula and growing up milk was developed and validated.

  3. Using urinary solubility data to estimate the level of safety concern of low levels of melamine (MEL) and cyanuric acid (CYA) present simultaneously in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Estevez, Manuel; Constable, Anne; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Renwick, Andrew G; Schilter, Benoit

    2010-01-01

    Melamine (MEL) and cyanuric acid (CYA) may occur simultaneously in milk products. There is no health based guidance value for the mixture of MEL+CYA. Limited toxicological data indicate that MEL+CYA toxicity occurs at levels lower than the toxic doses of the single compounds. The key adverse effect of MEL+CYA is the formation of crystals in the urinary tract, which is dependent on the solubility of the MEL+CYA complex. Urinary concentrations resulting from oral doses of MEL+CYA and MEL alone have been calculated from published data from animal studies. A human exposure scenario assuming consumption of infant formula contaminated at a level of 1 ppm of MEL and CYA each (2 ppm of MEL+CYA) was also analyzed. Margins of more than two orders or magnitude were observed between estimated urine concentrations known to be without detectable effects in rats and calculated human urine concentrations. Because the hazard is related to the physico-chemical characteristics of the mixture, there would be a negligible concern associated with crystal formation if the urinary concentration of the complex is within the solubility range. The solubility of MEL+CYA was higher in urine than in water. A strong pH-dependency was observed with the lowest solubility found at pH 5-5.5. The calculated human urinary concentration was about 30 times less than the solubility limit for MEL+CYA in adult human urine. Altogether, these data provide preliminary evidence suggesting that the presence of 1 ppm of MEL and CYA each in infant formula is unlikely to be of significant health concern.

  4. Picomolar melamine enhanced the fluorescence of gold nanoparticles: spectrofluorimetric determination of melamine in milk and infant formulas using functionalized triazole capped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Vasimalai, N; Abraham John, S

    2013-04-15

    We wish to report a simple and sensitive method to determine the melamine in milk and infant formulas using 3-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole capped gold nanoparticles (AMTr-AuNPs) as fluorophore. The AMTr-AuNPs were synthesized by a wet chemical method and were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and X-ray diffraction, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The AMTr-AuNPs show the absorption maximum at 520 nm and emission maximum at 759 nm (λ(ex)=520 nm). While adding 10 μM melamine, the wine red color of AMTr-AuNPs was changed into purple and the absorption band at 520 nm was decreased. The observed changes were ascribed to the hydrogen bonding interaction between melamine and AMTr-AuNPs, which led to the aggregation of the nanoparticles. This was confirmed by dynamic light scattering and HR-TEM measurements. No appreciable absorption change was observed for AMTr-AuNPs in the presence of less than micromolar concentrations of melamine. But, the emission intensity of AMTr-AuNPs was enhanced even in the presence of picomolar concentration of melamine. Based on the enhancement of emission intensity, the concentration of melamine was determined. The present fluorophore showed an extreme selectivity towards the determination of 100 nM melamine in the presence of 500-fold common interferents. The good linearly was observed from 1×10⁻⁹ to 100×10⁻¹² M melamine and a detection limit was found to be 10 fM/L (S/N=3). The proposed method was successfully applied to determine melamine in cow milk and infant formulas. The obtained results were validated with HPLC.

  5. Early Benefits of a Starter Formula Enriched in Prebiotics and Probiotics on the Gut Microbiota of Healthy Infants Born to HIV+ Mothers: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Peter; Bolton, Keith D.; Velaphi, Sithembiso; de Groot, Nanda; Emady-Azar, Shahram; Pecquet, Sophie; Steenhout, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota of infants is shaped by both the mode of delivery and the type of feeding. The gut of vaginally and cesarean-delivered infants is colonized at different rates and with different bacterial species, leading to differences in the gut microbial composition, which may persist up to 6 months. In a multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial conducted in South Africa, we tested the effect of a formula supplemented with a prebiotic (a mixture of bovine milk-derived oligosaccharides [BMOS] generated from whey permeate and containing galactooligosaccharides and milk oligosaccharides such as 3′- and 6′-sialyllactose) and the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain CNCM I-3446 on the bifidobacteria levels in the gut of infants born vaginally or via cesarean section in early life. Additionally, the safety of the new formulation was evaluated. A total of 430 healthy, full-term infants born to HIV-positive mothers who had elected to feed their child beginning from birth (≤3 days old) exclusively with formula were randomized into this multicenter trial of four parallel groups. A total of 421 infants who had any study formula intake were included in the full analysis set (FAS). The first two groups consisted of cesarean-delivered infants assigned to the Test formula (n = 92) (a starter infant formula [IF] containing BMOS at a total oligosaccharide concentration of 5.8 ± 1.0 g/100 g of powder formula [8 g/L in the reconstituted formula] + B. lactis [1 × 107 colony-forming units {cfu}/g]) or a Control IF (n = 101); the second two groups consisted of vaginally delivered infants randomized to the same Test (n = 115) or Control (n = 113) formulas from the time of enrollment to 6 months. The primary efficacy outcome was fecal bifidobacteria count at 10 days, and the primary safety outcome was daily weight gain (g/d) between 10 days and 4 months. At 10 days, fecal bifidobacteria counts were significantly higher in the Test

  6. Infant Formula: Our Children Need Better Protection. Report Together with Dissenting Views by the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce (H.R., 96th Congress, Second Session).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce.

    This report of the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigation focuses on issues raised by the marketing of commercially prepared infant formulas that were nutritionally deficient. In this context, the report examines the scope of FDA authority to protect the public and the manner in which the FDA carries out its responsibilities with respect to…

  7. Effect of short-term room temperature storage on the microbial community in infant fecal samples

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yong; Li, Sheng-Hui; Kuang, Ya-Shu; He, Jian-Rong; Lu, Jin-Hua; Luo, Bei-Jun; Jiang, Feng-Ju; Liu, Yao-Zhong; Papasian, Christopher J.; Xia, Hui-Min; Deng, Hong-Wen; Qiu, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Sample storage conditions are important for unbiased analysis of microbial communities in metagenomic studies. Specifically, for infant gut microbiota studies, stool specimens are often exposed to room temperature (RT) conditions prior to analysis. This could lead to variations in structural and quantitative assessment of bacterial communities. To estimate such effects of RT storage, we collected feces from 29 healthy infants (0–3 months) and partitioned each sample into 5 portions to be stored for different lengths of time at RT before freezing at −80 °C. Alpha diversity did not differ between samples with storage time from 0 to 2 hours. The UniFrac distances and microbial composition analysis showed significant differences by testing among individuals, but not by testing between different time points at RT. Changes in the relative abundance of some specific (less common, minor) taxa were still found during storage at room temperature. Our results support previous studies in children and adults, and provided useful information for accurate characterization of infant gut microbiomes. In particular, our study furnished a solid foundation and justification for using fecal samples exposed to RT for less than 2 hours for comparative analyses between various medical conditions. PMID:27226242

  8. Synthesis of structured lipid enriched with omega fatty acids and sn-2 palmitic acid by enzymatic esterification and its incorporation in powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Nagachinta, Supakana; Akoh, Casimir C

    2013-05-08

    Structured lipid (SL) enriched with arachidonic (ARA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids was produced from tripalmitin using Lipozyme TL IM. The effects of acyl donors, that is, free fatty acids vs fatty acid ethyl esters, on the reactions were compared. The highest total incorporation of ARA and DHA was obtained when the reaction continued for 24 h, at a substrate mole ratio of 9, using free fatty acids as acyl donors (acidolysis). The SL prepared by a large-scale acidolysis reaction contained 17.69 ± 0.09% total ARA, 10.75 ± 0.15% total DHA, and 48.53 ± 1.40% sn-2 palmitic acid. SL thermograms exhibited multiple peaks indicating complexity of the triacylglycerol (TAG) distribution. RP-HPLC analysis of SL revealed nine of 26 TAG molecular species that were similar to those of human milk fat. Powdered infant formulas containing the SL were prepared by wet-mixing/spray-drying and dry-blending methods. Formula prepared with microencapsulated SL and the dry-blending method had better oxidative stability and color quality.

  9. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 Metabolic Products and Fermented Milk for Infant Formula Have Anti-Inflammatory Activity on Dendritic Cells In Vitro and Protective Effects against Colitis and an Enteric Pathogen In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zagato, Elena; Mileti, Erika; Massimiliano, Lucia; Fasano, Francesca; Budelli, Andrea; Penna, Giuseppe; Rescigno, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk without live bacteria to be used in infant formula). We found in vitro and ex-vivo that fermented products of Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 act via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release leaving anti-inflammatory cytokines either unaffected or even increased in response to Salmonella typhimurium. These activities are not dependent on the inactivated bacteria but to metabolic products released during the fermentation process. We also show that our in vitro systems are predictive of an in vivo efficacy by the fermented products. Indeed CBA L74 fermented products (both culture medium and fermented milk) could protect against colitis and against an enteric pathogen infection (Salmonella typhimurium). Hence we found that fermented products can act via the inhibition of immune cell inflammation and can protect the host from pathobionts and enteric pathogens. These results open new perspectives in infant nutrition and suggest that L. paracasei CBA L74 fermented formula can provide immune benefits to formula-fed infants, without carrying live bacteria that may be potentially dangerous to an immature infant immune system. PMID:24520333

  10. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 metabolic products and fermented milk for infant formula have anti-inflammatory activity on dendritic cells in vitro and protective effects against colitis and an enteric pathogen in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zagato, Elena; Mileti, Erika; Massimiliano, Lucia; Fasano, Francesca; Budelli, Andrea; Penna, Giuseppe; Rescigno, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk without live bacteria to be used in infant formula). We found in vitro and ex-vivo that fermented products of Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 act via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release leaving anti-inflammatory cytokines either unaffected or even increased in response to Salmonella typhimurium. These activities are not dependent on the inactivated bacteria but to metabolic products released during the fermentation process. We also show that our in vitro systems are predictive of an in vivo efficacy by the fermented products. Indeed CBA L74 fermented products (both culture medium and fermented milk) could protect against colitis and against an enteric pathogen infection (Salmonella typhimurium). Hence we found that fermented products can act via the inhibition of immune cell inflammation and can protect the host from pathobionts and enteric pathogens. These results open new perspectives in infant nutrition and suggest that L. paracasei CBA L74 fermented formula can provide immune benefits to formula-fed infants, without carrying live bacteria that may be potentially dangerous to an immature infant immune system.

  11. Evaluation of the International Organization for Standardization-International Dairy Federation (ISO-IDF) draft standard method for detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered infant food formulas.

    PubMed

    Besse, Nathalie Gnanou; Leclercq, Alexandre; Maladen, Véronique; Tyburski, Corinne; Bertrand, Lombard

    2006-01-01

    As a result of the growing recognition of Enterobacter sakazakii as an emergent pathogen, the International Dairy Federation (IDF) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) have standardized a reference method for the detection of E. sakazakii in milk powder products and powdered infant food formulas (IFF). The objectives of this study were to assess the applicability of the ISO-IDF draft standard, and to compare several chromogenic selective media for E. sakazakii [ready-to-use ESIATM, homemade E. sakazakii isolation agar, and Druggan-Forsythe-lversen (DFI) agar], and a selective media for Enterobacteriaceae Violet Red Bile Glucose (VRBG). We found that the method is sensitive, selective, and applicable to the analysis of powdered IFF, provided that some modifications are added. In particular, definition of typical colonies on chromogenic media should be less restrictive, and the possibility of using chromogenic media other than ESIA should be introduced. Any of the chromogenic media tested here could be used initially, since their performances were similar. In these media, alpha-glucosidase-positive but non-yellow-pigmented isolates should be also considered. Consequently, the yellow pigmentation test should be abandoned, or completed with another test in order to select colonies to confirm. Although the specificity of VRBG was relatively poor, it could be used as a second nonchromogenic medium.

  12. Similar Occurrence of Febrile Episodes Reported in Non-Atopic Children at Three to Five Years of Age after Prebiotics Supplemented Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Stam, José; Grüber, Christoph; Mosca, Fabio; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Chirico, Gaetano; Braegger, Christian P.; Riedler, Josef; Boehm, Günther; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2015-01-01

    This is a follow up study of a multicenter randomised placebo-controlled trial in seven centres in five West European countries. The RCT assessed the effect of infant formula supplemented with a mixture of prebiotics (with neutral short-chain and long-chain oligosaccharides and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides) during infancy in term-born children (n=1130). In the follow-up study 672 children (60% of the study population) participated: 232 (56%) from the prebiotics group (PG), 243 (58%) from the control group (CG), and 197 (66%) from the non-randomised breast-fed group (BG). The primary outcome was the occurrence of febrile episodes at three to five years of age prospectively documented by the parents: in the PG 1.17 (interquartile range 0.50-2.08) episodes per year versus 1.20 (0.52-2.57) in the CG; and 1.48 (0.65-2.60) in the BG. This specific prebiotics mixture given during infancy in healthy non-atopic subjects does not decrease febrile episodes and therefore seems not to prevent infection between their third and fifth birthday. PMID:26076141

  13. Similar Occurrence of Febrile Episodes Reported in Non-Atopic Children at Three to Five Years of Age after Prebiotics Supplemented Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Stam, José; Grüber, Christoph; Mosca, Fabio; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Chirico, Gaetano; Braegger, Christian P; Riedler, Josef; Boehm, Günther; Sauer, Pieter J J

    2015-01-01

    This is a follow up study of a multicenter randomised placebo-controlled trial in seven centres in five West European countries. The RCT assessed the effect of infant formula supplemented with a mixture of prebiotics (with neutral short-chain and long-chain oligosaccharides and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides) during infancy in term-born children (n=1130). In the follow-up study 672 children (60% of the study population) participated: 232 (56%) from the prebiotics group (PG), 243 (58%) from the control group (CG), and 197 (66%) from the non-randomised breast-fed group (BG). The primary outcome was the occurrence of febrile episodes at three to five years of age prospectively documented by the parents: in the PG 1.17 (interquartile range 0.50-2.08) episodes per year versus 1.20 (0.52-2.57) in the CG; and 1.48 (0.65-2.60) in the BG. This specific prebiotics mixture given during infancy in healthy non-atopic subjects does not decrease febrile episodes and therefore seems not to prevent infection between their third and fifth birthday.

  14. Dual-Laboratory Validation of a Method for the Determination of Fructans in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals: First Action 2016.14.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Kommer; Sanders, Peter; Spichtig, Véronique; Ernste-Nota, Veronica; Sawicka, Paulina; Iwanoff, Kimberley; Van Soest, Jeroen; Lin, Paul Kong Thoo; Austin, Sean

    2017-03-07

    Until recently, only two AOAC Official MethodsSM have been available for the analysis of fructans: Method 997.08 and Method 999.03. Both are based on the analysis of the fructan component monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) after hydrolysis. The two methods have some limitations due to the strategies used for removing background interferences (such as from sucrose, α-glucooligosaccharides, and free sugars). The method described in this paper has been developed to overcome those limitations. The method is largely based on Method 999.03 and uses combined enzymatic and SPE steps to remove the interfering components without impacting the final analytical result. The method has been validated in two laboratories on infant formula and adult nutritionals. Recoveries were in the range of 86-119%, with most being in the range of 91-104%. RSDr values were in the range of 0.7-2.6%, with one exception when the fructan concentration was close to the LOQ, resulting in an RSDr of 8.9%. The performance is generally within the requirements outlined in the AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR® 2014.002), which specifies recoveries in the range of 90-110% and RSDr values below 6.

  15. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... which normally fights infections, overreacts to proteins in cow's milk (the basis for most commercial baby formulas). ... days to weeks after they're first given cow milk-based formula. Breastfed infants have a lower ...

  16. Determination of Free and Total Carnitine and Choline in Infant Formulas and Adult Nutritional Products by UPLC/MS/MS: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2014.04.

    PubMed

    Jing, Wei; Thompson, Joseph J; Jacobs, Wesley A; Salvati, Louis M

    2015-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) has been performed for a method that simultaneously determines choline and carnitine in nutritional products by ultra performance LC (UPLC)/MS/MS. All 11 matrixes from the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) were tested. Depending on the sample preparation, either the added (free, with a water dilution and filtering) or total (after microwave digestion at 120°C in nitric acid and subsequent neutralization with ammonia) species can be detected. For nonmilk containing products, the total carnitine is almost always equal to the free carnitine. A substantial difference was noted between free and total choline in all products. All Standard Method Performance Requirements for carnitine and choline have been met. This report summarizes the material sent to the AOAC Expert Review Panel for SPIFAN nutrient methods for the review of this method, as well as some additional data from an internal validation. The method was granted AOAC First Action status for carnitine in 2014 (2014.04), but the choline data are also being presented. A comparison of choline results to those from other AOAC methods is given.

  17. A formula for evaluating colour differences for thread sewn into fabric samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steder, Thorsten

    In-service rails can develop several types of structural defects due to fatigue and wear caused by rolling stock passing over them. Most rail defects will develop gradually over time thus permitting inspection engineers to detect them in time before final failure occurs. In the UK, certain types of severe rail defects such as tache ovales, require the fitting of emergency clamps and the imposing of an Emergency Speed Restriction (ESR) until the defects are removed. Acoustic emission (AE) techniques can be applied for the detection and continuous monitoring of defect growth therefore removing the need of imposing strict ESRs. The work reported herewith aims to develop a sound methodology for the application of AE in order to detect and subsequently monitor damage evolution in rails. To validate the potential of the AE technique, tests have been carried out under laboratory conditions on three and four-point bending samples manufactured from 260 grade rail steel. Further tests, simulating the background noise conditions caused by passing rolling stock have been carried out using special experimental setups. The crack growth events have been simulated using a pencil tip break..

  18. The emotional and practical experiences of formula-feeding mothers.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Victoria; Komninou, Sophia; Bennett, Kate M; Halford, Jason C G; Harrold, Joanne A

    2016-11-14

    The majority of infant-feeding research is focused on identifying mother's reasons for the cessation of breastfeeding. The experience of mothers who choose to use formula is largely overlooked in quantitative designs. This study aimed to describe the emotional and practical experiences of mothers who formula feed in any quantity, and examine whether these experiences would vary among different cohorts of formula-feeding mothers according to prenatal feeding intention and postnatal feeding method. A total of 890 mothers of infants up to 26 weeks of age, who were currently formula feeding in any quantity, were recruited through relevant international social media sites via advertisements providing a link to an online survey. Predictors of emotional experiences included guilt, stigma, satisfaction, and defense as a result of their infant feeding choices. Practical predictor variables included support received from health professionals, respect displayed by their everyday environment, and main sources of infant feeding information. Descriptive findings from the overall sample highlighted a worryingly high percentage of mother's experienced negative emotions as a result of their decision to use formula. Multinomial logit models revealed that negative emotions such as guilt, dissatisfaction, and stigma were directly associated with feeding intention and method. The evidence suggests that the current approach to infant-feeding promotion and support may be paradoxically related to significant issues with emotional well-being. These findings support criticisms of how infant-feeding recommendations are framed by health care professionals and policy makers, and highlight a need to address formula feeding in a more balanced, woman-centered manner.

  19. Agreement and conversion formula between mini-mental state examination and montreal cognitive assessment in an outpatient sample

    PubMed Central

    Helmi, Luqman; Meagher, David; O’Mahony, Edmond; O’Neill, Donagh; Mulligan, Owen; Murthy, Sutha; McCarthy, Geraldine; Adamis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the agreement between the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) within community dwelling older patients attending an old age psychiatry service and to derive and test a conversion formula between the two scales. METHODS Prospective study of consecutive patients attending outpatient services. Both tests were administered by the same researcher on the same day in random order. RESULTS The total sample (n = 135) was randomly divided into two groups. One to derive a conversion rule (n = 70), and a second (n = 65) in which this rule was tested. The agreement (Pearson’s r) of MMSE and MoCA was 0.86 (P < 0.001), and Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was 0.57 (95%CI: 0.45-0.66). In the second sample MoCA scores were converted to MMSE scores according to a conversion rule from the first sample which achieved agreement with the original MMSE scores of 0.89 (Pearson’s r, P < 0.001) and CCC of 0.88 (95%CI: 0.82-0.92). CONCLUSION Although the two scales overlap considerably, the agreement is modest. The conversion rule derived herein demonstrated promising accuracy and warrants further testing in other populations. PMID:27679776

  20. Development and single-laboratory validation of a method for the determination of total fructans in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Cuany, Denis; Bénet, Thierry; Austin, Sean

    2010-01-01

    A number of methods have previously been developed for the determination of fructans in food products, resulting in the frequently used AOAC Official Methods 997.08 and 999.03. Method 997.08 has a lower LOQ, but the accuracy may suffer if significant quantities of sucrose are present. Method 999.03 is less affected by sucrose, but the LOQ is not as low as that of the other method. In this work we have combined these two methods, using the sample preparation steps of AOAC Method 999.03 to remove sucrose and other free sugars, and the detection procedure of AOAC Method 997.08 to achieve a low LOQ. The resulting new method achieved an LOQ of 0.13 g/100 g with powdered products (using 1 g sample weight) and recoveries in the range of 83-103% in the presence of sucrose at 12 g/100 g. Expanded measurement uncertainties were calculated and ranged from +/-17.4% at oligofructose and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) concentrations of around 0.2 g/100 g to -/+21.0% at FOS concentrations of 0.6 g/100 g.

  1. Determination of Fructans in Infant, Adult, and Pediatric Nutritional Formulas: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2016.06.

    PubMed

    Haselberger, Philip; Jacobs, Wesley A

    2016-11-01

    A method for fructan analysis designed to comply with AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR®) 2014.002 is described. It is closely related to existing methods for fructan analysis, including AOAC 997.08 and 999.03, as well as a method previously published by Cuany et al. This new method achieves LOQ of 0.03% fructan on a ready-to-feed (RTF) basis with mean recoveries ranging from 93 to 108% in the presence of up to 9% sucrose (even at the 0.03% level of fructan). Repeatability ranged from 1.09 to 3.67%. Intermediate precision ranged from 2.46 to 6.79%. Sample preparation for quantitative analysis is simplified compared to some of the existing methodologies. The method incorporates a qualitative profile analysis to determine fructan size category. This allows assignment of appropriate correction factors without independent knowledge of fructan type.

  2. Determination of myo-inositol (free and bound as phosphatidylinositol) in infant formula and adult nutritionals by liquid chromatography/pulsed amperometry with column switching: first action 2011.18.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, Karen; Thompson, Linda; Baugh, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Myo-inositol is a 6-carbon cyclic polyalcohol also known as meso-inositol, meat sugar, inosite, and i-inositol. It occurs in nature in both free (myo-inositol) and bound (inositol phosphates and phosphatidylinositol) forms. For the determination of free myo-inositol, samples are mixed with dilute hydrochloric acid to extract myo-inositol and precipitate proteins, diluted with water, and filtered. For the determination of myo-inositol bound as phosphatidylinositol, samples are extracted with chloroform, isolated from other fats with silica SPE cartridges, and hydrolyzed with concentrated acid to free myo-inositol. Prepared samples are first injected onto a Dionex CarboPac PA1 column, which separates myo-inositol from other late-eluting carbohydrates. After column switching, myo-inositol is further separated on a CarboPac MA1 column using a 0.12% sodium hydroxide mobile phase; strongly retained carbohydrates are eluted from the PA1 column with a 3% sodium hydroxide mobile phase. Eluant from the CarboPac MA1 analytical column passes through an electrochemical detector cell where myo-inositol is detected by pulsed amperometry using a gold electrode. The method showed appropriate performance characteristics versus selected established standard method performance requirement parameters for the determination of myo-inositol: linear response; repeatability (RSDr) of 2%; and intermediate precision (RSDir) of 2.5%. Instrument LOD and LOQ were 0.0004 and 0.0013 mg/100 mL, respectively, and correspond to a free myo-inositol quantitation limit of 0.026 mg/100 g and a phosphatidylinositol quantitation limit of 0.016 mg/100 g. Correlation with the reference microbiological assay was good. The proposed method has been accepted by the Expert Review Panel as an AOAC First Action Method, suitable for the routine determination of myo-inositol in infant formula and adult nutritionals.

  3. Evaluation of powdered infant formula milk as chelating agent for copper under simulated gastric conditions of a baby's stomach.

    PubMed

    Arancibia, Verónica; Peña, Claudia; Segura, Rodrigo

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the complexing capacity of four types of powdered commercial milks with copper(II) using square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Two were types of cow milk adapted for babies under one year (A and B), one was soymilk (C) and the other was normal milk (D). Milk solutions were prepared following the instructions shown on the milk container, and they were mixed with a pepsin solution simulating a baby's stomach conditions (pepsin and salts concentration, pH and temperature). Complexing capacity was determined by titrating milk samples with aliquots of a standard copper solution until the peak current due to solvated or free copper ions was increasing. Assuming a 1:1 copper-milk complex, the apparent stability constant was found using the pseudopolarogram method. The log K'(Cu-milk) values were 4.9, 5.0, 3.0 and 5.1 for A, B, C and D types of milk, respectively. Voltammograms of the milk solution as a function of copper added show that the binding properties of the four types of powdered milk studied were different and that saturation of the four types, occurs at different copper concentrations. Concentrations obtained were: 4.9, 5.8, 1.1 and 10.1 mM for A, B, C and D types, respectively. The best complexing agent was the solution prepared with powdered milk D and the worst was that of C. This is important for the bioavailability of this element as a micronutrient.

  4. [Infant nutrition].

    PubMed

    Salle, Bernard

    2009-02-01

    Nutritional quality during the first weeks of life can influence health during both infancy and adulthood. Exclusive long-term breast feeding is strongly recommended, particularly for infants at risk of allergy. It protects against gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, and has been shown to enhance cognitive and intellectual development. Breast-feeding is also associated with a lower risk of obesity and type 1 diabetes in infants and of cardiovascular disease in adults. Breast-feeding is rarely contraindicated. Multiple European and French guidelines and regulations govern the composition of infant formulas, which may be given during the first year of life when breast-feeding is unavailable. Hypoallergenic and soy-based formulas are not recommended for healthy infants.

  5. Calcium and phosphor intake in preterm infants: sensitivity and specifity of 6-hour urine samples to detect deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mihatsch, W; Trotter, A; Pohlandt, F

    2012-03-01

    Aim of the present study was to test whether six-hour (6 h) urine specimens predict the 24-hour (24 h) mineral homeostasis in individual infants born preterm. Urinary Calcium (Ca) and Phosphate (P) concentrations were studied in 60 stable infants; gestational age 34 (25-42) weeks. In 58 infants four 6 h urine specimens and in 2 infants all spot urine specimens obtained within 24 h were analyzed. In 39 infants born preterm coefficients of variation were 0.42 (SD 0.26) and 0.41 (SD 0.26) for Ca and P measurements in the four 6 h urine specimens obtained within 24 h, respectively, The mineral homeostasis of the infants was defined as Ca or P surplus homeostasis if the 24 h urinary concentrations were ≥1 mmol/l. The sensitivity, specificity, and PPV of a 6 h urinary specimen to predict Ca deficiency homeostasis (24 h urinary Ca <1 mmol/l) were 0.93 (0.77-0.98; 95%CI), 0.72 (0.43-0.90) and 0.90 (0.74-0.96). The sensitivity, specificity and PPV for urinary P were 0.8 (0.38-0.96), 0.97 (0.85-0.995), and 0.8 (0.38-0.96). In conclusion, in infants born preterm on regular 3 or 4 h feedings, 6 h urine sampling is sufficiently precise for prediction of Ca and P mineral deficiency homeostasis (PPV 0.92 and 0.83). However, measurements at regular intervals (twice weekly) are recommended not to miss any infant in mineral deficiency homeostasis.

  6. Design and preparation of market baskets of European Union commercial baby foods for the assessment of infant exposure to food chemicals and to their effects.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, R; Pandelova, M; Le Donne, C; Ferrari, M; Schramm, K-W; Leclercq, C

    2010-10-01

    The assessment of acute and chronic dietary exposure to contaminants in baby foods is needed to ensure healthy infant growth. Monthly European Union market baskets of commercial baby foods were designed for the first 9 months of life by the 'babyfood' study group of the CASCADE Network of Excellence for the specific purpose of assessing exposure to potentially toxic substances in infants fed with such foods. The present paper reports the different steps that led to the preparation of monthly pooled samples of commercial baby foods ('Infant formulae and follow-on formulae' and 'Other baby foods') that may constitute the extreme case of the diet for an infant who would not be breast fed at all. Several market baskets were generated for an 'average European Union infant' and for infants of four selected countries (Italy, Sweden, Spain, and the Slovakia), fed with either milk infant formulae, soy infant formulae or hypoallergenic infant formulae and weaned (at the fifth month) with commercial baby foods and beverages available on the European Union market. Market share data for 2007 for baby foods were used to design the baskets. Holding companies and the name of all their products were identified. Monthly diets for European Union infants were elaborated in terms of food categories (e.g. infant cereals) of typologies of products (e.g. infant cereals without gluten) and of a specific product. The number of baskets generated was 30 for 'Infant formulae and follow-on formulae' (including 62 products) and 13 for 'Other baby foods' (including 35 products). These market baskets were designed to be used for the determination of certain contaminants and nutrients in the diet of European Union infants and for the assessment of their effects on infant health.

  7. Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... infancy through old age helps prevent and control tooth decay. Community water fluoridation is a widely accepted practice for preventing and controlling tooth decay by adding fluoride to the public water supply. ...

  8. Maternal recall of infant feeding events is accurate.

    PubMed Central

    Launer, L J; Forman, M R; Hundt, G L; Sarov, B; Chang, D; Berendes, H W; Naggan, L

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--Retrospective infant feeding data are important to the study of child and adult health patterns. The accuracy of maternal recall of past infant feeding events was examined and specifically the infant's age when breast feeding was stopped and formula feeding and solid foods were introduced. DESIGN AND SETTING--The sample consisted of Bedouin Arab women (n = 318) living in the Negev in Israel who were a part of a larger cohort participating in a prospective study of infant health and who were delivered of their infants between July 1 and December 15, 1981. Data from interviews conducted 12 and 18 months postpartum were compared to the standard data collected six months postpartum. MAIN RESULTS--As length of recall increased there was a small increase in the mean difference, and its standard deviation, between the standard and recalled age when breast feeding was stopped and formula feeding and solid foods were started. Recall on formula feeding was less accurate than recall on solid foods and breast feeding. In particular, among those 61% reporting formula use at the six month interview, 51% did not recall introducing formula when interviewed at 18 months. The odds ratio (95% CI) of stunting versus normal length for age for formula fed versus breast fed infants based on recall data (OR = 2.07; 95% CI 0.82-5.22) differed only slightly from those based on the standard data (OR = 2.21; 95% CI 0.77-6.37). The accuracy of a mother's recall varied with her child's nutritional status at the time of the interview, but not with other sociodemographic, infant, or interviewer characteristics. CONCLUSIONS--Retrospective infant feeding data based on maternal recall of events up to 18 months in the past can be used with confidence in epidemiological studies. However, data on formula feeding may not be as accurate as data on breast feeding and solid food feeding, and accuracy may decrease as length of recall increases. PMID:1645071

  9. Effects of binge drinking on infant growth and development in an Inuit sample.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Sarah L; Muckle, Gina; Abdous, Belkacem B; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2012-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to an average of 0.5 oz absolute alcohol per day (the equivalent of 7 standard drinks per week) during pregnancy has been found to be associated with numerous adverse effects on pre- and postnatal development. In the animal model, concentrated alcohol exposure has been found to lead to more adverse effects than exposure to the same total quantity of alcohol ingested in smaller doses over a longer period of time. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether, in a population where binge drinking is common but total alcohol consumption across pregnancy is low, prenatal exposure to alcohol is associated with effects on prenatal growth, visual acuity and cognitive development during infancy. The second aim is to determine which of several indicators of alcohol consumption best predicts pre- and postnatal outcomes. Data were collected from 216 Inuit women and their infants living in Nunavik, the northern region of Québec. Maternal interviews were conducted during mid-pregnancy and at 1 and 6 months postpartum. Birth weight, length, and head circumference were assessed at delivery. Visual acuity and cognitive development were assessed at 6 months of age. In this population in which infrequent heavy episodic drinking is common, even occasional binge exposure was associated with reduced prenatal growth and poorer visual acuity at 6 months of age. A simple dichotomous measure of binge drinking during pregnancy provided the best predictor of fetal growth and 6-month acuity. The population studied here is unusual in terms of its pattern of binge alcohol consumption. To our knowledge, this is the first study to observe effects of binge drinking during pregnancy on infant growth and development in a sample where the average daily alcohol intake is low (<0.5 ounces).

  10. Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Clostridium spp. in fecal samples from breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with and without iron supplement.

    PubMed Central

    Mevissen-Verhage, E A; Marcelis, J H; de Vos, M N; Harmsen-van Amerongen, W C; Verhoef, J

    1987-01-01

    Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Clostridium spp. isolated from the feces of 23 neonates during the first 3 months of life were identified. Of the 23 neonates, 10 were breast fed, 6 received an infant formula with iron supplement (5 mg/liter), and 7 received the formula without iron supplement (iron concentration, less than 0.5 mg/liter). The Bifidobacterium spp. most frequently isolated from the three groups of infants were B. longum, B. breve, B. adolescentis, and B. bifidum. The bacteroides spp. most frequently isolated were B. fragilis and B. vulgatus. The most common Clostridium sp. in the three groups of infants was C. perfringens. The type of milk did not select for species of Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, or Clostridium, except for Clostridium butyricum, which was isolated significantly more often from bottle-fed infants with iron supplement than from the other groups, and Clostridium tertium, which was more often isolated from breast-fed infants. The species of the three anaerobic genera did not persist for a long period of time in the three groups of infants. PMID:3818925

  11. A Behavior-Genetic Study of Parenting Quality, Infant Attachment Security, and Their Covariation in a Nationally Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2008-01-01

    A number of relatively small-sample, genetically sensitive studies of infant attachment security have been published in the past several years that challenge the view that all psychological phenotypes are heritable and that environmental influences on child development--to the extent that they can be detected--serve to make siblings dissimilar.…

  12. EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL WIPES, COTTON SUITES, AND ALTERNATIVE URINARY COLLECTION MATERIALS FOR PESTICIDE SAMPLING FROM INFANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues.

    One...

  13. Effects of music therapy on pain responses induced by blood sampling in premature infants: A randomized cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Fidan; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Karimi, Roghiyeh; Zarei, Khadijeh; Chehrazi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature infants are subjected to many painful procedures during care and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of music therapy on physiological and behavioral pain responses of premature infants during and after blood sampling. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-over clinical trial conducted on 20 infants in a hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences for a 5-month period in 2011. In the experimental group, Transitions music was played from 5 min before until 10 min after blood sampling. The infants’ facial expressions and physiological measures were recorded from 10 min before until 10 min after sampling. All steps and measurements, except music therapy, were the same for the control group. Data were analyzed using SAS and SPSS software through analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square tests. Results: There were significant differences between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.022) in terms of heart rate during needle extraction and at the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). Considering the infant's sleep–wake state in the second 5 min before sampling, the statistical difference was significant (P = 0.044). Difference was significant (P = 0.045) during injection of the needle, in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.002), and in the second 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). There were significant difference in infants’ facial expressions of pain in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Music therapy reduces the physiological and behavioral responses of pain during and after blood sampling. PMID:27563323

  14. Stability and Change in Infant Attachment in a Low-Income Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vondra, Joan I.; Hommerding, Katherine Dowdell; Shaw, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated role of maternal characteristics and behavior, perceptions of social support, and infant characteristics to differentiate early patterns of infant security, organized insecurity and disorganization among socioeconomically disadvantaged families. Found a variety of correlations with different attachment patterns. Also found that change…

  15. Semantic memory processing is enhanced in preadolescents breastfed compared to those formula-fed as infants: An ERP N400 study of sentential semantic congruity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies comparing child cognitive development and brain activity during cognitive functions between children who were fed breast milk (BF), milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF) have not been reported. We recorded event-related scalp potentials reflecting semantic processing (N400 ERP) from 20 homo...

  16. [Infant feeding].

    PubMed

    Robert, M

    2012-09-01

    Infants are vulnerable: their growth and their development depend largely on their nutritional status. It is important to propose for them an optimal food. The human milk is unquestionably the best choice for the infant. When breastfeeding is not possible, the choice of the milk is made among hundreds of formulas for infants. They are regulated by a European directive. The healthcare professionals have to recommend as often as possible an infant formula: low protein content, predominance of whey proteins, enrichment with long chain fatty acids, lactose, addition of pre- or probiotics. The formulas for specific indications will be recommended in case of particular situations after verification that the complaints (constipation, regurgitations, stomach pains) cannot be corrected by simple dietary measures (increasing of the intakes of meals with a concomitant reduction of the volume of the meals). The food diversification is recommended between 17 and 26 weeks according to the neuromuscular capacities of the infant. These meals must be presented with a spoon to assure a sufficient nutritional intake. In Belgium, the use is to begin with fruits. One should avoid adding biscuits or sugar. The meal of vegetables will be introduced a little later. It should consist of starchy foods, vegetables with some fat to which the meat will be added. Numerous foods (biscuits, croissants and similar products, chips) should never be part of the ordinary menu, but should be reserved for particular occasions. The education of the children should begin from this age on.

  17. Effect of low zinc formula on zinc status, zinc absorption and immune function in rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Loennerdal, B.; Polberger, S.; Vruwink, K.; Fletcher, M.; Gershwin, M.E. )

    1991-03-15

    Low Zn intake causes decreased growth and impaired immune function during infancy. However, little is known about the events causing these outcomes and the body's capacity to adapt to a low intake. To study this, 3 groups of infant rhesus monkeys were fed from birth to 5 mo of age either a regular infant formula or a low Zn formula. Since the Fe level of formula may affect Zn absorption, the low Zn formula was given without or with Fe supplement. At monthly intervals, Zn absorption was assessed by gavage feeding with {sup 65}Zn and whole body counting immediately after and at 4 to 7 days post-dosing. Before each dosing, blood samples were drawn and hemoglobin, ferritin, cytokines, plasma Zn and Cu, and metallothionein (Mt) were determined. Infants fed low Zn formula had slower weight gain than controls; however, plasma Zn levels were normal. Plasma Mt levels were lower in low Zn infants at 1 mo, but normalized thereafter. Zn retention was higher in both low Zn groups than in controls. Hemoglobin levels were normal in all groups and Fe intake did not affect Zn absorption or status. Neutrophil chemotaxis assessed at the end of the study was impaired in low Zn infants as compared to controls. In conclusion, low Zn intake causes up-regulation of Zn absorption but not enough to fully compensate for the lower Zn intake.

  18. 454 Pyrosequencing Analysis on Faecal Samples from a Randomized DBPC Trial of Colicky Infants Treated with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Stefan; Dicksved, Johan; Tarasco, Valentina; Locatelli, Emanuela; Ricceri, Fulvio; Grandin, Ulf; Savino, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the global microbial composition, using large-scale DNA sequencing of 16 S rRNA genes, in faecal samples from colicky infants given L. reuteri DSM 17938 or placebo. Methods Twenty-nine colicky infants (age 10–60 days) were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either Lactobacillus reuteri (108 cfu) or a placebo once daily for 21 days. Responders were defined as subjects with a decrease of 50% in daily crying time at day 21 compared with the starting point. The microbiota of faecal samples from day 1 and 21 were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing. The primers: Bakt_341F and Bakt_805R, complemented with 454 adapters and sample specific barcodes were used for PCR amplification of the 16 S rRNA genes. The structure of the data was explored by using permutational multivariate analysis of variance and effects of different variables were visualized with ordination analysis. Results The infants’ faecal microbiota were composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes as the four main phyla. The composition of the microbiota in infants with colic had very high inter-individual variability with Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios varying from 4000 to 0.025. On an individual basis, the microbiota was, however, relatively stable over time. Treatment with L. reuteri DSM 17938 did not change the global composition of the microbiota, but when comparing responders with non-responders the group responders had an increased relative abundance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and genus Bacteroides at day 21 compared with day 0. Furthermore, the phyla composition of the infants at day 21 could be divided into three enterotype groups, dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, respectively. Conclusion L. reuteri DSM 17938 did not affect the global composition of the microbiota. However, the increase of Bacteroidetes in the responder infants indicated that a decrease in colicky symptoms was linked to changes of the microbiota

  19. Determination of vitamins D2 and D3 in infant formula and adult nutritionals by ultra-pressure liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (UPLC-MS/MS): First Action 2011.12.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jack; Dowell, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    The method for the "Determination of Vitamins D2 and D3 in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals by Ultra-Pressure Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry Detection (UPLC-MS/MS)" was adopted as AOAC Official First Action during the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting" held June 29, 2011. During the meeting, an Expert Review Panel (ERP) evaluated the available validation information against standard method performance requirements (SMPRs) articulated by stakeholders. The method, approved by the ERP, is applicable for the determination of vitamin D (total vitamins D2 and D3). A range of products had been tested during a single-laboratory validation study. The products included butter, National Institute of Standards and Technology SRM 1849, eggs, cheese, yogurt, ready-to-eat cereal, bread, mushrooms, and tuna. The testing of the method established linearity in the range of 0.005-50 microg/mL. The recovery range was 93.4-100.9% for vitamin D2 and 102.4-106.2% for vitamin D3. The LOD and LOQ for vitamin D2 were reported as 0.20 and 0.61 microgl100 g, respectively; for vitamin D3, the reported values were 0.47 and 1.44 microg/100 g, respectively. The method met the SMPRs set by the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN). It was, therefore, decided that the method was appropriate for Official First Action Method status.

  20. Fitting formula for the injection volume of a gas chromatograph for radio-xenon sampling in the lower troposphere.

    PubMed

    Shu-jiang, Liu; Zhan-ying, Chen; Shi-lian, Wang; Yin-zhong, Chang; Qi, Li; Yuan-qing, Fan; Yun-gang, Zhao; Huai-mao, Jia; Xin-jun, Zhang; Jun, Wang

    2014-06-01

    GC is usually used for xenon concentration and radon removal in the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. In a gas chromatograph, the injection volume is defined to calculate the column capacity. In this paper, the injection volume was investigated and a fitting formula for the injection volume was derived and discussed subsequently. As a consequence, the xenon injection volume exponentially decreased with the column temperature increased, but exponentially increased as the flow rate increased.

  1. Paid leave benefits among a national sample of working mothers with infants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Bell, Janice F

    2014-01-01

    To describe a range of employment benefits, including maternity and other paid leave, afforded to working women with infants; and to examine the geographic, socio-demographic correlates of such benefits to inform the workplace policy agenda in the US. Using data from the Listening to Mothers II Survey, a national sample of English-speaking women who gave birth in 2005, we conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between socio-demographic factors and employment leave variables (paid maternity, sick and personal leave). Forty-one percent of women received paid maternity leave for an average of 3.3 weeks with 31 % wage replacement. On average women took 10 weeks of maternity leave and received 10.4 days of paid sick leave and 11.6 days of paid personal time per year. Women who were non-Hispanic Black, privately insured, working full-time, and from higher income families were more likely to receive paid maternity leave, for more time, and at higher levels of wage replacement, when controlling for the other socio-demographic characteristics. Race/ethnicity, family income and employment status were associated with the number of paid personal days. Currently, the majority of female employees with young children in the US do not receive financial compensation for maternity leave and women receive limited paid leave every year to manage health-related family issues. Further, women from disadvantaged backgrounds generally receive less generous benefits. Federal policy that supports paid leave may be one avenue to address such disparities and should be modified to reflect accepted international standards.

  2. Mind-Mindedness as a Multidimensional Construct: Appropriate and Nonattuned Mind-Related Comments Independently Predict Infant-Mother Attachment in a Socially Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; de Rosnay, Marc; Arnott, Bronia; Leekam, Susan R.; Turner, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In a socially diverse sample of 206 infant-mother pairs, we investigated predictors of infants' attachment security at 15 months, with a particular emphasis on mothers' tendency to comment appropriately or in a non-attuned manner on their 8-month-olds' internal states (so-called mind-mindedness). Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed…

  3. Salivary Cortisol as a Biomarker of Stress in Mothers and their Low Birth Weight Infants and Sample Collecting Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Vujičić, Ana Đorđević; Đukić, Svjetlana Maglajić

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Salivary cortisol measurement is a non-invasive method suitable for use in neonatal research. Mother-infant separation after birth represents stress and skin-to-skin contact (SSC) has numerous benefits. The aim of the study was to measure salivary cortisol in mothers and newborns before and after SSC in order to assess the effect of SSC on mothers’ and infants’ stress and to estimate the efficacy of collecting small saliva samples in newborns. Methods Salivary cortisol was measured in 35 mother-infant pairs before and after the first and the fifth SSC in small saliva samples (50 μL) using the high sensitivity Quantitative ELISA-Kit (0.0828 nmol/L) for low cortisol levels detection. Samples were collected with eye sponge during 3 to 5 minutes. Results Cortisol level in mothers decreased after SSC: the highest levels were measured before and the lowest after SSC and the differences in values were significant during both the first (p<0.001) and the fifth SSC (p<0.001). During the first SSC the cortisol level decrease was detected in 14 (40%) and an increase in 21 (60%) newborns, and during the fifth SSC a decrease was detected in 16 (45.7%) and an increase in 19 (54.3%) newborns, without confirmed significance of the difference. Saliva sampling efficacy using eye sponge was 75%. Conclusions Cortisol level decrease in mothers proves the stress reduction during SSC, while variable cortisol levels in infants do not indicate stress reduction and imply the need for further research. The used sampling method appeared to be one of the most optimal considering the sample volume, sampling time and efficacy.

  4. Characterization and in vitro properties of oral lactobacilli in breastfed infants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus species can contribute positively to general and oral health and are frequently acquired by breastfeeding in infancy. The present study aimed to identify oral lactobacilli in breast and formula-fed 4 month-old infants and to evaluate potential probiotic properties of the dominant Lactobacillus species detected. Saliva and oral swab samples were collected from 133 infants who were enrolled in a longitudinal study (n=240) examining the effect of a new infant formula on child growth and development. Saliva was cultured and Lactobacillus isolates were identified from 16S rRNA gene sequences. Five L. gasseri isolates that differed in 16S rRNA sequence were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of selected oral bacteria and for adhesion to oral tissues. Oral swab samples were analyzed by qPCR for Lactobacillus gasseri. Results 43 (32.3%) infants were breastfed and 90 (67.7%) were formula-fed with either a standard formula (43 out of 90) or formula supplemented with a milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction (47 out of 90). Lactobacilli were cultured from saliva of 34.1% breastfed infants, but only in 4.7% of the standard and 9.3% of the MFGM supplemented formula-fed infants. L. gasseri was the most prevalent (88% of Lactobacillus positive infants) of six Lactobacillus species detected. L. gasseri isolates inhibited Streptococcus mutans binding to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite, and inhibited growth of S. mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces oris, Candida albicans and Fusobacterium nucleatum in a concentration dependent fashion. L. gasseri isolates bound to parotid and submandibular saliva, salivary gp340 and MUC7, and purified MFGM, and adhered to epithelial cells. L. gasseri was detected by qPCR in 29.7% of the oral swabs. Breastfed infants had significantly higher mean DNA levels of L. gasseri (2.14 pg/uL) than infants fed the standard (0.363 pg/uL) or MFGM (0.697 pg/uL) formula. Conclusions Lactobacilli

  5. Factors Affecting Infant Mortality in Rural Bangladesh: Results from a Retrospective Sample Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Bimal Kanti

    1990-01-01

    Data from interviews with 1,787 women in rural Bangladesh revealed that infant mortality was highly correlated with smaller birth interval and absence of contraceptive use, followed by younger age of mother, prior pregnancy loss, smaller family landholdings, and birth of less preferred sex. Contains 49 references. (Author/SV)

  6. Effects of maternal absence due to employment on the quality of infant-mother attachment in a low-risk sample.

    PubMed

    Barglow, P; Vaughn, B E; Molitor, N

    1987-08-01

    Recent reports have suggested that day-care experience initiated prior to 12 months of age is associated with increased proportions of infants whose attachment to mother is classified as "insecure-avoidant." However, reviewers have questioned the generality of these findings, noting that samples in which associations between early day-care experience and avoidant attachment patterns have been reported come from high-risk populations, and/or that the infants' day-care settings may not have been of high quality. In the present study, effects of maternal absences on infant-mother attachment quality were assessed in a low-risk, middle-class sample (N = 110). In all instances, substitute care had been initiated at least 4 months prior to the infant's first birthday and was provided in the infant's home by a person unrelated to the baby. Infants were assessed using the Ainsworth Strange Situation when they were 12-13 months of age. Analyses indicated that a significantly greater proportion of infants whose mothers worked outside the home (N = 54) were assigned to the category "insecure-avoidant" as compared to infants whose mothers remained in the home (N = 56) throughout the first year of life. Analyses of demographic and psychological data available for the sample indicated that this relation is dependent upon maternal parity (primi- vs. multiparous mother). The association between attachment quality and work status was significant only for firstborn children of full-time working mothers. The results are interpreted as evidence that the repeated daily separations experienced by infants whose mothers are working full-time constitute a "risk" factor for the development of "insecure-avoidant" infant-mother attachments.

  7. [Prebiotics in infant health].

    PubMed

    Chirdo, Fernando G; Menéndez, Ana M; Pita Martín de Portela, María L; Sosa, Patricia; Toca, María del C; Trifone, Liliana; Vecchiarelli, Carmen

    2011-02-01

    The composition of human milk is the main base for the development of infant formulas concerning its macronutrients and micronutrients contents and bioactive compounds. Technological advances in the composition of human milk have identified a great number of bioactive compounds such as prebiotics which are responsible for immunological protection and the prevention of different pathologies. In order to achieve similar benefits, they are part of the contents of infant formulas.

  8. Commercial baby food consumption and dietary variety in a statewide sample of infants receiving benefits from the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2010-10-01

    Dietary variety and exposure to fruits and vegetables in infancy have been associated with nutritional benefits and later acceptance of these foods. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of fruit and vegetable commercial baby food consumption and its relation to dietary variety during infancy. A cross-sectional statewide telephone survey of 733 Maryland mothers and infants receiving benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was conducted between July 2004 and July 2005. A 24-hour dietary recall was examined to assess infant dietary variety. Among infants from birth to age 5 months, 54% had consumed complementary foods in the past 24 hours; 60% received commercial baby foods. Among infants aged 6 to 12 months, 98% had consumed complementary foods in the past 24 hours; 81% received commercial baby foods. In the latter age range, the average daily number of different types of fruits and vegetables consumed was 1.5±1.2, range 0 to 6). In a multivariate model, infants aged 6 to 12 months who received commercial baby foods consumed a greater variety of fruits and vegetables (β=.54, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.84; P<0.001) than infants who did not, characterized by a diet that was lower in white potatoes (14% vs 22%) and higher in dark-green (6% vs 5%) and deep-yellow (35% vs 10%) vegetables. Commercial baby food is consumed by a majority of WIC infants, although many mothers introduce it before the recommended age of 6 months. Among infants aged 6 to 12 months, commercial baby food is associated with dietary variety in fruits and vegetables. By encouraging consumption of fruits and vegetables after 6 months of age, either through the provision of commercial baby foods and/or education and resources related to the preparation of fruits and vegetables for infants, WIC can increase dietary variety and appropriate introduction of complementary foods among infants.

  9. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  10. Approximate Sample Size Formulas for Testing Group Mean Differences when Variances Are Unequal in One-Way ANOVA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Jiin-Huarng; Luh, Wei-Ming

    2008-01-01

    This study proposes an approach for determining appropriate sample size for Welch's F test when unequal variances are expected. Given a certain maximum deviation in population means and using the quantile of F and t distributions, there is no need to specify a noncentrality parameter and it is easy to estimate the approximate sample size needed…

  11. Pyrgeometer formula.

    PubMed

    Kohsiek, W; van Lammeren, A C

    1997-08-20

    In a recent article [Appl. Opt. 34 , 1598 (1995) a new pyrgeometer formula was proposed. This formula leads to a] bias at isothermal conditions. The origin of the bias is explored by a more rigorous treatment of the radiation processes involved in the energy balance of a pyrgeometer. As a result it is found that, for an accuracy of a few watts per square meter, the spectral transmission characteristics of the dome have to be taken into account.

  12. Detection of the Inflammation Biomarker C-Reactive Protein in Serum Samples: Towards an Optimal Biosensor Formula

    PubMed Central

    Fakanya, Wellington M.; Tothill, Ibtisam E.

    2014-01-01

    The development of an electrochemical immunosensor for the biomarker, C-reactive protein (CRP), is reported in this work. CRP has been used to assess inflammation and is also used in a multi-biomarker system as a predictive biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk. A gold-based working electrode sensor was developed, and the types of electrode printing inks and ink curing techniques were then optimized. The electrodes with the best performance parameters were then employed for the construction of an immunosensor for CRP by immobilizing anti-human CRP antibody on the working electrode surface. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was then constructed after sample addition by using anti-human CRP antibody labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The signal was generated by the addition of a mediator/substrate system comprised of 3,3,5',5'-Tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Measurements were conducted using chronoamperometry at −200 mV against an integrated Ag/AgCl reference electrode. A CRP limit of detection (LOD) of 2.2 ng·mL−1 was achieved in spiked serum samples, and performance agreement was obtained with reference to a commercial ELISA kit. The developed CRP immunosensor was able to detect a diagnostically relevant range of the biomarker in serum without the need for signal amplification using nanoparticles, paving the way for future development on a cardiac panel electrochemical point-of-care diagnostic device. PMID:25587427

  13. Compliance with WHO IYCF Indicators and Dietary Intake Adequacy in a Sample of Malaysian Infants Aged 6–23 Months

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Geok Lin; Tan, Sue Yee; Tan, Kok Leong; Chan, Pauline S.; Amarra, Maria Sofia V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO) Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators are useful for monitoring feeding practices. Methods: A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance with each IYCF indicator was computed according to WHO recommendations. Dietary intake based on two-day weighed food records was obtained from a sub-group (N = 119) of the total sample. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR) value was computed as an overall measure of dietary intake adequacy. Contributions of core IYCF indicators to MAR were determined by multinomial logistic regression. Results: Generally, the subjects showed high compliance for (i) timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 to 8 months (97.9%); (ii) minimum meal frequency among non-breastfed children aged 6 to 23 months (95.2%); (iii) consumption of iron-rich foods at 6 to 23 months (92.3%); and minimum dietary diversity (78.0%). While relatively high proportions achieved the recommended intake levels for protein (87.4%) and iron (71.4%), lower proportions attained the recommendations for calcium (56.3%) and energy (56.3%). The intake of micronutrients was generally poor. The minimum dietary diversity had the greatest contribution to MAR (95% CI: 3.09, 39.87) (p = 0.000) among the core IYCF indicators. Conclusion: Malaysian urban infants and toddlers showed moderate to high compliance with WHO IYCF indicators. The robustness of the analytical approach in this study in quantifying contributions of IYCF indicators to MAR should be further investigated. PMID:27916932

  14. Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Westmark, Cara J

    2016-01-01

    Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition.

  15. Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and Cons

    PubMed Central

    Westmark, Cara J.

    2017-01-01

    Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition. PMID:28149839

  16. Fishy Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, William; Sizzo, Jennifer; Curtis, Anita; Klein, Shannon; Micale, Cheryl; Lin, E-Sin

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity presented in sports fishing magazines on developing a formula that predicts the weight in pounds of a game fish given its length in inches by using a TI-83 graphing calculator. Highlights the importance of using real-life problems and mathematical explorations. (ASK)

  17. A rapid analytical method for cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in fortified infant formula, milk and milk powder using Diels-Alder derivatisation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Grant A

    2012-05-01

    A method for analysing vitamin D(3) (VD3, cholecalciferol) has been established and validated. This method is rapid and cost effective and is intended for use in quality control in the manufacture of fortified infant formulae and milk powders. Milk or reconstituted milk powder was solubilised in methanol and extracted in one step into isooctane, which was separated by centrifugation. A portion of the isooctane layer was then transferred, and an aliquot of 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione was added to derivatise VD3. The analyte was then re-extracted into a small volume of acetonitrile and analysed by reverse-phase chromatography. Detection was by triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using a selective transition, m/z 560 → 298. An internal standard, deuterium-labelled VD3, was used to correct for losses in extraction and any variation in derivatisation and ionisation efficiencies. The method has been subjected to a single-laboratory validation and has been found to be linear, highly selective and accurate with respect to National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1849, analyte spiking experiments and comparison with an LC-UV-based method. The repeatability standard deviation was 4.23 %. Significantly for routine laboratories, the method returns results within 2 h, generates minimal waste and minimises health and safety concerns to the analyst.

  18. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. In the current study, piglets were fed soy infant