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Sample records for infant formula samples

  1. The Impact of Mailed Samples of Infant Formula on Breastfeeding Rates.

    PubMed

    Waite, Whitney M; Christakis, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research supports the health benefits of breastfeeding. Prior studies have shown that hospital discharge bags containing free samples of infant formula are associated with decreased breastfeeding exclusivity. This study aims to determine if receiving a free sample of infant formula in the mail has an impact on breastfeeding duration and exclusivity. This was a cohort study analyzing data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. The main outcomes of interest were any breastfeeding through 12 months of age and exclusive breastfeeding through 6 months of age. The main predictor of interest was receipt of a free sample of infant formula in the mail around the time of the infant's birth. Logistic regression models were developed to evaluate the association between the outcomes and predictor of interest at each month. This study included 3,031 infants; mothers of 1,741 (57.4%) received a sample of infant formula in the mail. There was no difference in the likelihood of any breastfeeding at each month among those who received formula in the mail compared with those who did not. There was also no difference in exclusive breastfeeding through 5 months; however, by 6 months of age infants whose mothers received formula in the mail were less likely to be exclusively breastfed (odds ratio = 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.37, 0.89). Receiving infant formula in the mail decreases the likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding by 6 months of age while having no impact on the duration of any breastfeeding.

  2. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. ... 12 months old who are not drinking breast milk . While there are some differences, infant formulas sold ...

  3. Infant formula samples: perinatal sources and breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Amanda; Bolin, Jocelyn H; Chezem, Jo Carol

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to describe sources of infant formula samples during the perinatal period and assess their associations with breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum. Subjects included expectant mothers who anticipated breast-feeding at least 1 month. Infant feeding history and sources of formula samples were obtained at 1 month postpartum. Associations between sources and breast-feeding outcomes were assessed using partial correlation. Of the 61 subjects who initiated breast-feeding, most were white (87%), married (75%), college-educated (75%), and planned exclusive breast-feeding (82%). Forty-two subjects (69%) continued breast-feeding at 1 month postpartum. Subjects received formula samples from the hospital (n = 40; 66%), physician's office (n = 10; 16%), and mail (n = 41; 67%). There were no significant correlations between formula samples from the hospital, physician's office, and/or mail and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month (P > .05). In addition to the hospital, a long-standing source of formula samples, mail was also frequently reported as a route for distribution. The lack of statistically significant associations between formula samples and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month may be related to small sample size and unique characteristics of the group studied.

  4. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited.

  5. Prebiotics in infant formula

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  6. Trends in US hospital distribution of industry-sponsored infant formula sample packs.

    PubMed

    Sadacharan, Radha; Grossman, Xena; Sanchez, Emily; Merewood, Anne

    2011-10-01

    To describe trends in the proportion of US hospitals that distribute industry-sponsored formula sample packs between 2007 and 2010. This is a follow-up of a 2007 study. In 2007, we surveyed all 50 US states to determine the proportion of hospitals that distributed infant formula samples to new mothers. In 2010, we selected the 10 best-record and 10 worst-record states with regard to industry-sponsored formula sample-pack distribution in 2007. We called all hospitals in these 20 states and asked if the maternity service distributed a "formula company-sponsored diaper discharge bag" to new mothers. We also recorded the respondent's job title. We contacted 1239 hospitals in 20 states. In 2007, 14% of these hospitals were sample-pack-free. In 2010, 28% of the same hospitals were sample-pack-free; the proportion of sample-pack-free hospitals per state ranged from 0% (5 states) to 86% (Rhode Island). In the 10 best-record states, the weighted proportion of sample-pack-free hospitals increased by a mean difference of 18% between 2007 and 2010 (P < .0001). In the 10 worst-record states, the weighted proportion of sample-pack-free hospitals increased by a mean difference of 6% (P < .01). Most US hospitals continue to distribute industry-sponsored formula sample packs, but trends indicate a significant change in practice; increasing proportions of hospitals eliminate these packs. Change was more significant in states where higher proportions of hospitals had already eliminated packs in 2007.

  7. Lead levels in retail samples of Spanish infant formulae and their contribution to dietary intake of infants.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Blasco, I; Alvarez-Galindo, J I

    2005-08-01

    Lead concentrations in 82 different types of infant formulae (cow's milk and soy based) marked in Spain were analysed by acid-microwave decomposition and anodic stripping voltammetry. Dietary lead intake from infant formula and tap water used for powder formula reconstitution were estimated in comparison with the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). Additionally, the influence of physical state (powder and ready-to-use formulae), the type of container used and the impact of the industrial process from different manufacturers on lead levels were evaluated. According to the results, lead exposure from drinking water was negligible with respect to formulae investigated; where soya formulae contributed the highest intake (58-73% PTWI), non-adapted starter and specialized formulae gave an moderate intake (31-42 and 26-37% PTWI, respectively), and, finally, pre-term, adapted starter and follow-up formulae provided the lowest lead intake (22-25, 22-26 and 16-22% PTWI, respectively). Based on the current state of knowledge about lead toxicity, manufacturers are called to make an additional effort in order to keep a maximum lead level at 20 microg l-1 for all infant formulae, although it is recommendable that these formulations supply the upper limit (5 microg l-1) of 'normal' human milk.

  8. Lipid profile of different infant formulas for infants.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Marcio Antonio; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho; Borgo, Luiz Antonio; Alencar, Ernandes de Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Situations including premature infants, or those in which there is a rejection to breastfeeding, require the use infant formulas for total or partial replacement of human milk. The objective of this study was to determine the lipid content and to identify the lipid profile of infant formulas. Samples were collected from ten different infant formulas, used as a substitute for breast milk at the Maternal and Child Hospital of Brasilia. The human milk sample consisted of a pool of samples from 10 mature milk donors at the milk bank of the University Hospital of Brasilia. The lipid content and lipid profile of the different infant formulas and human milk were analyzed. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with eleven treatments and three replicates, in triplicate. The data obtained in this study indicated significant differences between infant formulas and human milk, and among the infant formulas analyzed in relation to the percentage of total lipids and the fatty acid profile, except for the fractions of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Regarding the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to the total unsaturated fatty acids, only the Soy Protein Isolate-based Infant Formula (SPIIF) and Whey Protein Extensively Hydrolyzed Infant Formula (WPEHIF) resembled human milk. It was concluded that despite the observed differences, the use of infant formulas is a viable strategy for the development of infants subjected or not to specific physiological conditions.

  9. Lipid profile of different infant formulas for infants

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Marcio Antonio; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho; Borgo, Luiz Antonio; Alencar, Ernandes de Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Situations including premature infants, or those in which there is a rejection to breastfeeding, require the use infant formulas for total or partial replacement of human milk. The objective of this study was to determine the lipid content and to identify the lipid profile of infant formulas. Samples were collected from ten different infant formulas, used as a substitute for breast milk at the Maternal and Child Hospital of Brasilia. The human milk sample consisted of a pool of samples from 10 mature milk donors at the milk bank of the University Hospital of Brasilia. The lipid content and lipid profile of the different infant formulas and human milk were analyzed. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with eleven treatments and three replicates, in triplicate. The data obtained in this study indicated significant differences between infant formulas and human milk, and among the infant formulas analyzed in relation to the percentage of total lipids and the fatty acid profile, except for the fractions of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Regarding the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to the total unsaturated fatty acids, only the Soy Protein Isolate-based Infant Formula (SPIIF) and Whey Protein Extensively Hydrolyzed Infant Formula (WPEHIF) resembled human milk. It was concluded that despite the observed differences, the use of infant formulas is a viable strategy for the development of infants subjected or not to specific physiological conditions. PMID:28570611

  10. Infant formula-handling education and safety.

    PubMed

    Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Fein, Sara B; Shealy, Katherine R

    2008-10-01

    Our goal was to assess the extent to which mothers learn about proper handling of infant formula from health professionals and package labels; mothers' beliefs about the likelihood of germs being in infant formula and the importance of following safe-use directions; whether they take measures while handling infant formula to prevent foodborne illnesses and injury to their infants; and maternal characteristics associated with unsafe infant formula-handling practices. The study cohort consisted of mothers participating in the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II who fed their infant formula. We conducted frequency and multiple logistic regression analyses. Sample sizes for the analyses ranged from 860 to 1533. The majority of formula-feeding mothers did not receive instruction on formula preparation (77%) or storage (73%) from a health professional. Thirty percent did not read some of the safe-use directions on the formula package label; an approximately equal percentage (38%) thought that both powdered (which is not sterile) and ready-to-feed (which is sterile) formula were unlikely to contain germs; and 85% believed that following safe-storage directions was very important. Among the mothers of the youngest infants analyzed, 55% did not always wash their hands with soap before preparing infant formula, 32% did not adequately wash bottle nipples between uses, 35% heated formula bottles in a microwave oven, and 6% did not always discard formula left standing for >2 hours. The prevalence of these unsafe practices was similar among mothers of older infants. No consistent pattern of maternal characteristics was associated with unsafe practices. Many mothers do not follow safe practices when preparing infant formula. Additional research is needed to understand why more mothers do not follow safe formula-handling recommendations.

  11. Microwave-assisted extraction and determination of dicyandiamide residue in infant formula samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Zhou, Xiujin; Chen, Xiangzhun; Huang, Fuzhen; Zhu, Zhenou

    2013-01-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of dicyandiamide residue in infant formula samples. Following microwave-assisted extraction with 5% formic acid and clean-up on a Sep-Pak AC-2 SPE cartridge, samples were separated on a ZIC-HILIC HPLC column (150 × 2.1mm i.d., 5-µm film thickness; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) with 20mM ammonium acetate solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. A linear calibration curve was obtained in the concentration range from 1.0 to 50 ng/mL. Infant formula samples were fortified with dicyandiamide at 3 levels, producing average recovery yields of 83.6 to 95.7%. The limits of detection and quantification of dicyandiamide were 3 and 10 μg/kg, respectively. Due to its simplicity and accuracy, the straightforward method is particularly suitable for routine dicyandiamide detection.

  12. Development of an optical biosensor based immunoassay to screen infant formula milk samples for adulteration with melamine.

    PubMed

    Fodey, Terence L; Thompson, Colin S; Traynor, Imelda M; Haughey, Simon A; Kennedy, D Glenn; Crooks, Steven R H

    2011-06-15

    The illegal adulteration of milk with melamine in 2008 in China led to adverse kidney and urinary tract effects in hundreds of thousands of children and the reported deaths of six. The milk had been deliberately adulterated to elevate the apparent protein content, and subsequently melamine was detected in many milk-related products which had been exported. This led to the banning of imports of milk and milk products from China intended for the nutritional use of children and to the implementation of analytical methods to test products containing milk products. An optical biosensor inhibition immunoassay has been developed as a rapid and robust method for the analysis of infant formula and infant liquid milk samples. A compound with a chemical structure similar to that of melamine was employed as a hapten to raise a polyclonal antibody and as the immobilized antigen on the surface of a biosensor chip. The sensitivity of the assay, given as an IC(50), was calculated to be 67.9 ng mL(-1) in buffer. The antibody did not cross-react with any of the byproducts of melamine manufacture; however, significant cross-reactivity was observed with the insecticide cyromazine of which melamine is a metabolite. When sample matrix was applied to the assay, a limit of detection of <0.5 μg mL(-1) was determined in both infant formula and infant liquid milk. The development of the immunoassay and validation data for the detection of melamine is presented together with the results obtained following the analysis of melamine-contaminated milk powder.

  13. Lead content of milk and infant formula

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.

    1980-03-01

    Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

  14. New supplements to infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Eshach Adiv, Orly; Berant, Moshe; Shamir, Raanan

    2004-12-01

    Foods, which, in addition to their nutritional attributes, contain also elements that are considered to be health-promoting, have been termed "functional foods". In this regard, human milk has gained recognition as being the ultimate functional food for infants - by its biological compatibility, nutritional value and the undisputed added value of its health promoting qualities. Intensive research activity has recently evolved in a quest to identify and define the components of human milk that might confer disease-preventing and health-enhancing properties and to determine the instances and clinical conditions in which these factors become particularly important. The outcome of such research would also provide a rationale for advocating the supplementation of commercial infant formulas with such substances. In effect, the body of data accumulated from scientific and clinical studies on nucleotides, probiotics, prebiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and as additives to infant formula, has become regarded as convincing enough by the infant formula industry so as to launch into the market formulas supplemented with one or more of these factors - in an effort to emulate human milk and its beneficial effects. The following review is intended for the reader to obtain a general idea of the new supplements that have been introduced to infant formulas. We summarize the pertinent experimental and clinical observations concerning each of the supplements, pointing out their potential specific benefits, their possible disadvantages and the issues that still remain unresolved.

  15. Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Over 70 Years of Community Water Fluoridation Other Fluoride Products Water Fluoridation Guidelines & Recommendations Surgeons General’s Statements ... Fluoridation Promotional Resources Community Water Fluoridation FAQs About Fluoride Community Water Fluoridation Bottled Water Private Wells Infant ...

  16. Dietary glycotoxins and infant formulas

    PubMed Central

    Kutlu, Tufan

    2016-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products constitute a complex group of compounds derived from the nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids formed endogenously, but also from exogenous supplies such as tobacco smoking (glycotoxins). Accumulating evidence underlies the beneficial effect of the dietary restriction of glycotoxins in animal studies and also in patients with diabetic complications and metabolic diseases. Composition of infant formulas and their processing methods render an extraordinary favorable milieu for the formation of glycotoxins, and the content of glycotoxins in infant formula exceeds that of breast milk by hundred folds. Data from a limited number of short-term small studies in healthy infants do not provide direct evidence of acute negative health effects of glycotoxins in early infancy. However, the effects in sensitive groups on the state of future health in adulthood remain unclear. PMID:28123329

  17. Fast determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using a slurry sampling procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, I.; Viñas, P.; Romero-Romero, R.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas using slurried samples is described. Suspensions prepared in a medium containing 50% v/v concentrated hydrogen peroxide, 1% v/v concentrated nitric acid, 10% m/v glucose, 5% m/v sucrose and 100 mg l - 1 of potassium were introduced directly into the furnace. For the honey samples, multiple injection of the sample was necessary. The modifier selected was a mixture of 20 μg palladium and 5 μg magnesium nitrate, which was injected after the sample and before proceeding with the drying and calcination steps. Calibration was performed using aqueous standards prepared in the same suspension medium and the graph was linear between 5 and 80 mg l - 1 of phosphorus. The reliability of the procedure was checked by comparing the results obtained by the new developed method with those found when using a reference spectrophotometric method after a mineralization step, and by analyzing several certified reference materials.

  18. Actual distribution of Cronobacter spp. in industrial batches of powdered infant formula and consequences for performance of sampling strategies.

    PubMed

    Jongenburger, I; Reij, M W; Boer, E P J; Gorris, L G M; Zwietering, M H

    2011-11-15

    The actual spatial distribution of microorganisms within a batch of food influences the results of sampling for microbiological testing when this distribution is non-homogeneous. In the case of pathogens being non-homogeneously distributed, it markedly influences public health risk. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Cronobacter spp. in powdered infant formula (PIF) on industrial batch-scale for both a recalled batch as well a reference batch. Additionally, local spatial occurrence of clusters of Cronobacter cells was assessed, as well as the performance of typical sampling strategies to determine the presence of the microorganisms. The concentration of Cronobacter spp. was assessed in the course of the filling time of each batch, by taking samples of 333 g using the most probable number (MPN) enrichment technique. The occurrence of clusters of Cronobacter spp. cells was investigated by plate counting. From the recalled batch, 415 MPN samples were drawn. The expected heterogeneous distribution of Cronobacter spp. could be quantified from these samples, which showed no detectable level (detection limit of -2.52 log CFU/g) in 58% of samples, whilst in the remainder concentrations were found to be between -2.52 and 2.75 log CFU/g. The estimated average concentration in the recalled batch was -2.78 log CFU/g and a standard deviation of 1.10 log CFU/g. The estimated average concentration in the reference batch was -4.41 log CFU/g, with 99% of the 93 samples being below the detection limit. In the recalled batch, clusters of cells occurred sporadically in 8 out of 2290 samples of 1g taken. The two largest clusters contained 123 (2.09 log CFU/g) and 560 (2.75 log CFU/g) cells. Various sampling strategies were evaluated for the recalled batch. Taking more and smaller samples and keeping the total sampling weight constant, considerably improved the performance of the sampling plans to detect such a type of contaminated batch. Compared to random sampling

  19. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  20. Aluminium content of Spanish infant formula.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Blasco, I; Alvarez-Galindo, J I

    2003-05-01

    Levels of aluminium in 82 different infant formulae from nine different manufacturers in Spain were determined by acid-microwave digestion and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The influence of aluminium content in tap water in reconstituted powder formulae was examined and an estimate was made of the theoretical toxic aluminium intake in comparison with the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). Possible interactions between aluminium and certain essential trace elements added to infant formulations have been studied according to the type or main protein-based infant formula. In general, the infant formulae contained a higher aluminium content than that found in human milk, especially in the case of soya, preterm or hydrolysed casein-based formulae. Standard formulae gave lower aluminium intakes amounting to about 4% PTWI. Specialized and preterm formulae resulted in a moderate intake (11-12 and 8-10% PTWI, respectively) and soya formulae contributed the highest intake (15% PTWI). Aluminium exposure from drinking water used for powder formula reconstitution was not considered a potential risk. In accordance with the present state of knowledge about aluminium toxicity, it seems prudent to call for continued efforts to standardize routine quality control and reduce aluminium levels in infant formula as well as to keep the aluminium concentration under 300 microg l(-1) for all infant formulae, most specifically those formulae for premature and low birth neonates.

  1. Breastfeeding versus infant formula: the Kenyan case.

    PubMed

    Elliot, T C; Agunda, K O; Kigondu, J G; Kinoti, S N; Latham, M C

    1985-02-01

    An Infant Feeding Practices Study (IFPS) in 1982 in Kenya, which included a cross-sectional survey of a weighted sample of 980 low and middle income Nairobi mothers who had given birth in the previous 18 months, found that most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternate feeding, especially infant formula, in the 1st 4 months (86 and 50% of the infants were breastfed at 6 and 15 months respectively, but 50% of the 2 month-olds and 63% of the 4 month-olds were receiving substitutes, mostly formula). This is done largely out of the belief that infant formula is an additional health benefit. A workshop to discuss the findings of the IFPS and other available data, and to make policy recommendations urged the adoption of a policy of protection, support and promotion of breastfeeding. Since breastfeeding is already widely prevalent in Kenya, protection of breastfeeding should receive the 1st priority in policy related to infant feeding. Attention should be directed at at least 2 influences which help undermine breastfeeding: widespread availability and promotion of breast milk substitutes. Support for breastfeeding is viewed as the 2nd policy priority. Situations where support can play a helpful role are, women's paid employment outside the home, hospital practices, maternal morbidity, and difficulties in breastfeeding. Since promotion is the least cost effective of the 3 options, and most Kenyan women are already motivated to breastfeed, this should be the last priority. Promotion includes reeduction of mothers to make them better aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. The workshop recommended the dissemination of appropriate information, consisting of standarized messages based on clearcut guidelines, using mass media techniques.

  2. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Preconcentration and determination of boron in milk, infant formula, and honey samples by solid phase extraction-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, I.; Viñas, P.; Romero-Romero, R.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2009-02-01

    This work presents alternative procedures for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of boron in milk, infant formulas, and honey samples. Honey samples (10% m/v) were diluted in a medium containing 1% v/v HNO 3 and 50% v/v H 2O 2 and introduced in the atomizer. A mixture of 20 µg Pd and 0.5 µg Mg was used for chemical modification. Calibration was carried out using aqueous solutions prepared in the same medium, in the presence of 10% m/v sucrose. The detection limit was 2 µg g - 1 , equivalent to three times the standard error of the estimate ( sy/ x) of the regression line. For both infant formulas and milk samples, due to their very low boron content, we used a procedure based on preconcentration by solid phase extraction (Amberlite IRA 743), followed by elution with 2 mol L - 1 hydrochloric acid. Detection limits were 0.03 µg g - 1 for 4% m/v honey, 0.04 µg g - 1 for 5% m/v infant formula and 0.08 µg mL - 1 for 15% v/v cow milk. We confirmed the accuracy of the procedure by comparing the obtained results with those found via a comparable independent procedure, as well by the analysis of four certified reference materials.

  4. Soy infant formula: is it that bad?

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Devreker, Thierry; Hauser, Bruno

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study is to review the indications of soy infant formula (SIF). Structured review of publications is made available through standard search engines (Pubmed,…). The medical indications for SIF are limited to galactosaemia and hereditary lactase deficiency. In the treatment of cow's milk allergy, SIF is used for economic reasons, as extensive hydrolysates are expensive. SIF is dissuaded mainly because of its phytooestrogen content. Isoflavone serum levels are much higher in SIF-fed infants than in breastfed or cow milk formula-fed infants. Administration of pure isoflavones to animals causes decreased fertility, but clinically relevant adverse effects of SIF in infants are not reported.   Soy infant formula remains an option for feeding of term born infants if breastfeeding is not possible and if standard infant formula is not tolerated. © 2010 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  5. Types of Infant Formulas Consumed in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rossen, Lauren M.; Simon, Alan E.; Herrick, Kirsten A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined consumption of different types of infant formula (eg, cow’s milk, soy, gentle/lactose-reduced, and specialty) and regular milk among a nationally representative sample of 1864 infants, 0 to 12 months old, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010. Among the 81% of infants who were fed formula or regular milk, 69% consumed cow’s milk formula, 12% consumed soy formula, 5% consumed gentle/ lactose-reduced formulas, 6% consumed specialty formulas, and 13% consumed regular milk products. There were differences by household education and income in the percentage of infants consuming cow’s milk formula and regular milk products. The majority of infants in the United States who were fed formula or regular milk consumed cow’s milk formula (69%), with lower percentages receiving soy, specialty, gentle/sensitive, or lactose-free/reduced formulas. Contrary to national recommendations, 13% of infants younger than 1 year consumed regular milk, and the percentage varied by household education and income levels. PMID:26149849

  6. Types of Infant Formulas Consumed in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Lauren M; Simon, Alan E; Herrick, Kirsten A

    2016-03-01

    We examined consumption of different types of infant formula (eg, cow's milk, soy, gentle/lactose-reduced, and specialty) and regular milk among a nationally representative sample of 1864 infants, 0 to 12 months old, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010. Among the 81% of infants who were fed formula or regular milk, 69% consumed cow's milk formula, 12% consumed soy formula, 5% consumed gentle/ lactose-reduced formulas, 6% consumed specialty formulas, and 13% consumed regular milk products. There were differences by household education and income in the percentage of infants consuming cow's milk formula and regular milk products. The majority of infants in the United States who were fed formula or regular milk consumed cow's milk formula (69%), with lower percentages receiving soy, specialty, gentle/sensitive, or lactose-free/reduced formulas. Contrary to national recommendations, 13% of infants younger than 1 year consumed regular milk, and the percentage varied by household education and income levels.

  7. Overview of infant and pediatric formulas.

    PubMed

    Joeckel, Rebecca J; Phillips, Sharon K

    2009-01-01

    Because every child has individual needs, there are a variety of infant and pediatric formulas from which to choose. Not only are there several categories of formulas including milk protein-based, soy protein-based, hydrolyzed protein, and amino acid-based, but there are differences between products within each category. Research is being done in the area of formula design for the prevention or treatment of disease. In this article, the authors review types of formulas and their indications for use for infants and children, and review current literature on formula trends.

  8. There is (still) too much aluminium in infant formulas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infant formulas are sophisticated milk-based feeds for infants which are used as a substitute for breast milk. Historically they are known to be contaminated by aluminium and in the past this has raised health concerns for exposed infants. We have measured the aluminium content of a number of widely used infant formulas to determine if their contamination by aluminium and consequent issues of child health persists. Methods Samples of ready-made milks and powders used to make milks were prepared by microwave digestion of acid/peroxide mixtures and their aluminium content determined by THGA. Results The concentration of aluminium in ready-made milks varied from ca 176 to 700 μg/L. The latter concentration was for a milk for preterm infants. The aluminium content of powders used to make milks varied from ca 2.4 to 4.3 μg/g. The latter content was for a soya-based formula and equated to a ready-to-drink milk concentration of 629 μg/L. Using the manufacturer's own guidelines of formula consumption the average daily ingestion of aluminium from infant formulas for a child of 6 months varied from ca 200 to 600 μg of aluminium. Generally ingestion was higher from powdered as compared to ready-made formulas. Conclusions The aluminium content of a range of well known brands of infant formulas remains high and particularly so for a product designed for preterm infants and a soya-based product designed for infants with cow's milk intolerances and allergies. Recent research demonstrating the vulnerability of infants to early exposure to aluminium serves to highlight an urgent need to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas to as low a level as is practically possible. PMID:20807425

  9. There is (still) too much aluminium in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Shelle-Ann M; Exley, Christopher

    2010-08-31

    Infant formulas are sophisticated milk-based feeds for infants which are used as a substitute for breast milk. Historically they are known to be contaminated by aluminium and in the past this has raised health concerns for exposed infants. We have measured the aluminium content of a number of widely used infant formulas to determine if their contamination by aluminium and consequent issues of child health persists. Samples of ready-made milks and powders used to make milks were prepared by microwave digestion of acid/peroxide mixtures and their aluminium content determined by THGA. The concentration of aluminium in ready-made milks varied from ca 176 to 700 μg/L. The latter concentration was for a milk for preterm infants. The aluminium content of powders used to make milks varied from ca 2.4 to 4.3 μg/g. The latter content was for a soya-based formula and equated to a ready-to-drink milk concentration of 629 μg/L. Using the manufacturer's own guidelines of formula consumption the average daily ingestion of aluminium from infant formulas for a child of 6 months varied from ca 200 to 600 μg of aluminium. Generally ingestion was higher from powdered as compared to ready-made formulas. The aluminium content of a range of well known brands of infant formulas remains high and particularly so for a product designed for preterm infants and a soya-based product designed for infants with cow's milk intolerances and allergies. Recent research demonstrating the vulnerability of infants to early exposure to aluminium serves to highlight an urgent need to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas to as low a level as is practically possible.

  10. Infant feeding attitudes of expectant parents: breastfeeding and formula feeding.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Iolanda; Scott, Jane A; Reid, Margaret

    2004-02-01

    Research has indicated that parental attitudes are strong predictors of choice of infant feeding. Identification and understanding of the infant feeding attitudes of mothers and their social networks should be an early step in the design and implementation of breastfeeding interventions. To compare the infant feeding attitudes of parents of breastfed infants with those of parents of formula fed infants. A survey was carried out with a convenience sample of pregnant women (gestational age 8-12 weeks) attending three maternity clinics in Scotland in 2000. Expectant mothers and their partners (n = 108 couples) completed the 17 item Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale. Demographic information was collected by face-to-face interview and the method of feeding at discharge from hospital was obtained from medical records. Parents of breastfed infants had more positive attitudes towards breastfeeding than parents of formula fed infants, and were more knowledgeable about the health benefits and nutritional superiority of breastfeeding. Fathers of both breastfed and formula fed infants were more likely than their partners to disapprove of women breastfeeding in public. Parents considered their chosen method of feeding to be the more convenient alternative. Mothers of formula fed infants were more likely to think that women who occasionally drink alcohol should not breastfeed. Parents of formula fed infants had several misconceptions about breastfeeding. Use of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale could help health professionals identify and address these in infant feeding discussions in the early antenatal period. Efforts should be made to include fathers in these infant-feeding discussions.

  11. Oral Microbial Profile Discriminates Breastfed from Formula-Fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Holgerson, Pernilla Lif; Vestman, Nelly Romani; Claesson, Rolf; Öhman, Carina; Domellöf, Magnus; Tanner, Anne CR; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the impact of diet on the oral microbiota of infants although diet is known to affect the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to compare the oral microbiota in breastfed and formula-fed infants, and investigate growth inhibition of streptococci by infant-isolated lactobacilli. Subjects and Methods 207 mothers consented to participation of their three-month old infants. 146 (70.5%) infants were exclusively and 38 (18.4%) partially breastfed, and 23 (11.1%) were exclusively formula-fed. Saliva from all infants was cultured for Lactobacillus species, with isolate identifications from 21 infants. Lactobacillus isolates were tested for their ability to supress Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis. Oral swabs from 73 infants were analysed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) and by q-PCR for Lactobacilius gasseri. Results Lactobacilli were cultured from 27.8% of exclusively and partially breastfed infants, but not from formula-fed infants. The prevalence of 14 HOMIM detected taxa, and total salivary lactobacilli counts differed by feeding method. Multivariate modelling of HOMIM detected bacteria and possible confounders clustered samples from breastfed infants separately from formula-fed infants. The microbiota of breastfed infants differed based on vaginal or C-section delivery. Isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. gasseri and Lactobacillus vaginalis inhibited growth of the cariogenic S. mutans and the commensal S. sanguinis: L. plantarum > L. gasseri > L. vaginalis. Conclusion The microbiota of the mouth differs between breastfed and formula-fed three-month-old infants. Possible mechanisms for microbial differences observed include species suppression by lactobacilli indigenous to breast milk. PMID:22955450

  12. A "three-in-one" sample preparation method for simultaneous determination of B-group water-soluble vitamins in infant formula using VitaFast(®) kits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Lan, Fang; Shi, Yupeng; Wan, Zhi-Gang; Yue, Zhen-Feng; Fan, Fang; Lin, Yan-Kui; Tang, Mu-Jin; Lv, Jing-Zhang; Xiao, Tan; Yi, Changqing

    2014-06-15

    VitaFast(®) test kits designed for the microbiological assay in microtiter plate format can be applied to quantitative determination of B-group water-soluble vitamins such as vitamin B12, folic acid and biotin, et al. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, VitaFast(®) kits significantly reduce sample processing time and provide greater reliability, higher productivity and better accuracy. Recently, simultaneous determination of vitamin B12, folic acid and biotin in one sample is urgently required when evaluating the quality of infant formulae in our practical work. However, the present sample preparation protocols which are developed for individual test systems, are incompatible with simultaneous determination of several analytes. To solve this problem, a novel "three-in-one" sample preparation method is herein developed for simultaneous determination of B-group water-soluble vitamins using VitaFast(®) kits. The performance of this novel "three-in-one" sample preparation method was systematically evaluated through comparing with individual sample preparation protocols. The experimental results of the assays which employed "three-in-one" sample preparation method were in good agreement with those obtained from conventional VitaFast(®) extraction methods, indicating that the proposed "three-in-one" sample preparation method is applicable to the present three VitaFast(®) vitamin test systems, thus offering a promising alternative for the three independent sample preparation methods. The proposed new sample preparation method will significantly improve the efficiency of infant formulae inspection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutritional adequacy and safety of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Frattali, V P

    1982-11-01

    The Infant Formula Act contains specific requirements for minimum and, in some cases, maximum levels for a list of nutrients that may be revised as warranted by the development of new scientific information. Formulas are required to be manufactured in accordance with quality control procedures to ensure that the safety and nutritional potency of a formula is built into the manufacturing process. A formula that does not provide the minimum level for any required nutrient shall be deemed to be adulterated and may be subject to removal from the market. A manufacturer is required to promptly notify the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services of instances whereby a formula does not meet the nutrient requirements, is otherwise adulterated or misbranded, and, as such, presents a risk to human health. There are other provisions in the Act, but these establish that, for infant formulas, nutritional safety is clearly recognized as an integral part of food safety.

  14. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... for newsletters, special programs, and deals on formula company websites. They often send out coupons and free samples. Ask your pediatrician for samples. Consider generic or store-brand formulas. By law, they must meet the same nutritional and quality ...

  15. Direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and solid sample analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arlene S; Brandao, Geovani C; Matos, Geraldo D; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2015-11-01

    The present work proposed an analytical method for the direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing the high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry combined with the solid sample analysis (SS-HR-CS ET AAS). Sample masses up to 2.0mg were directly weighted on a solid sampling platform and introduced into the graphite tube. In order to minimize the formation of carbonaceous residues and to improve the contact of the modifier solution with the solid sample, a volume of 10 µL of a solution containing 6% (v/v) H2O2, 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1% (v/v) HNO3 was added. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures established were 1600 and 2400 °C, respectively, using magnesium as chemical modifier. The calibration technique was evaluated by comparing the slopes of calibration curves established using aqueous and solid standards. This test revealed that chromium can be determined employing the external calibration technique using aqueous standards. Under these conditions, the method developed allows the direct determination of chromium with limit of quantification of 11.5 ng g(-1), precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) in the range of 4.0-17.9% (n=3) and a characteristic mass of 1.2 pg of chromium. The accuracy was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of tomato leaves furnished by National Institute of Standards and Technology. The method proposed was applied for the determination of chromium in five different infant formula samples. The chromium content found varied in the range of 33.9-58.1 ng g(-1) (n=3). These samples were also analyzed employing ICP-MS. A statistical test demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the results found by two methods. The chromium concentrations achieved are lower than the maximum limit permissible for chromium in foods by Brazilian Legislation.

  16. Sensitive determination of melamine in milk and powdered infant formula samples by high-performance liquid chromatography using dabsyl chloride derivatization followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Faraji, M; Adeli, M

    2017-04-15

    A new and sensitive pre-column derivatization with dabsyl chloride followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the analysis of melamine (MEL) in raw milk and powdered infant formula samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with visible detection. Derivatization with dabsyl chloride leads to improving sensitivity and hydrophobicity of MEL. Under optimum conditions of derivatization and microextraction steps, the method yielded a linear calibration curve ranging from 1.0 to 500μgL(-1) with a determination coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9995. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.1 and 0.3μgL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD%) for intra-day (repeatability) and inter-day (reproducibility) at 25 and 100μgL(-1) levels of MEL was less than 7.0% (n=6). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the preconcentration and determination of MEL in different raw milk and powdered infant formula, and satisfactory results were obtained (relative recovery ⩾94%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assay of ghrelin concentration in infant formulas and breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Savino, Francesco; Petrucci, Elisa; Lupica, Maria Maddalena; Nanni, Giuliana Eva; Oggero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To test if total ghrelin is present in infant formulas. METHODS: Using a radioimmunoassay, we measured total ghrelin concentrations in 19 samples of commercial infant formulas and in 20 samples of human milk. We also determined ghrelin concentration in the serum of infants and lactating mothers. RESULTS: Ghrelin concentrations were significantly higher in artificial milk (2007.1 ± 1725.36 pg/mL) than in human milk (828.17 ± 323.32 pg/mL) (P = 0.005). The mean ghrelin concentration in infant serum (n = 56) was 1115.86 ± 42.89 pg/mL, and was significantly higher (P = 0.023) in formula-fed infants (1247.93 ± 328.07 pg/mL) than in breast-fed infants (1045.7 ± 263.38 pg/mL). The mean serum ghrelin concentration (mean ± SD) in lactating mothers (n = 20) was 1319.18 ± 140.18 pg/mL. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that total ghrelin is present in infant formulas. This finding raises diverse questions regarding the uptake, absorption and metabolic effects of this hormone. PMID:21528074

  18. Safety assessment of essential and toxic metals in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, Hande; Eken, Ayşe; Aydın, Ahmet; Şahin, Gönül; Baydar, Terken

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess toxic metal (Cd, Pb and Al) contamination and levels of three essential trace elements (Mn, Cr and Co) in 63 infant formulas. In addition, the levels of these metals in the study samples were compared with the acceptable limits of toxic heavy metals and the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) of essential trace elements. According to our results, the toxic metal levels measured in the formulas were within the acceptable limits, with the exception of Al levels in 8 of the 63 samples. In 16 samples, Mn levels exceeded 600 μg/day, and the Cr content in 7 samples was higher than 5.5 μg/day, these amounts being the adequate intake levels for infants. Cobalt levels in 10 formulas were higher than the RDA. In view of these findings, which indicate that metal levels in infant formulas are generally much higher than those found in breast milk, breast milk should be preferred for infant feeding. Moreover, since infants are potentially more susceptible to metals, infant foods should be monitored regularly and checked for contamination by toxic metals as well as for levels of essential trace elements.

  19. Determination of choline in infant formula by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Laikhtman, M; Rohrer, J S

    1999-01-01

    Choline was determined in infant formula by ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection. Samples were digested with 1M hydrochloric acid, filtered, diluted, and injected into the chromatographic system. Choline and the alkali and alkaline earth metals were separated on a high-resolution cation-exchange column and detected by suppressed conductivity. The method was linear between 2 and 200 mg/L (r2 = 0.9999), the concentration range of the diluted samples. This method accurately determined choline in powdered, concentrated, and ready-to-feed infant formulas. Recoveries of choline spikes into powdered infant formula at approximately 1, 0.8, 0.5, and 0.2 times the labeled value ranged from 85 to 114%. This method had good agreement for 8 blind duplicates. The values determined for these samples, which were used in an AOAC collaborative study of an enzymatic method, were consistent with the values determined by the enzymatic method.

  20. Microbiological assessment and evaluation of rehydration instructions on powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdullah Sani, N; Hartantyo, S H P; Forsythe, S J

    2013-01-01

    A total of 90 samples comprising powdered infant formulas (n=51), follow-up formulas (n=21), and infant foods (n=18) from 15 domestic and imported brands were purchased from various retailers in Klang Valley, Malaysia and evaluated in terms of microbiological quality and the similarity of rehydration instructions on the product label to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Microbiological analysis included the determination of aerobic plate count (APC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Cronobacter spp. Isolates of interest were identified using ID 32E (bioMérieux France, Craponne, France). In this study, 87% of powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods analyzed had an APC below the permitted level of <10(4) cfu/g. These acceptable APC ranged between <10(2) to 7.2×10(3) cfu/g. The most frequently isolated Enterobacteriaceae was Enterobacter cloacae, which was present in 3 infant formulas and 1 infant food tested. Other Enterobacteriaceae detected from powdered infant and follow-up formulas were Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and other Enterobacter spp. No Cronobacter species were found in any samples. Rehydration instructions from the product labels were collated and it was observed that none directed the use of water with a temperature >70°C for formula preparation, as specified by the 2008 revised World Health Organization guidelines. Six brands instructed the use of water at 40 to 55°C, a temperature range that would support the survival and even growth of Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluoride content of infant formulae in Australia.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Reynolds, E C

    1996-02-01

    The prevalence of dental fluorosis in Australia and the United States of America has increased in both optimally fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas. This has been attributed to an increase in the fluoride level of food and beverages through processing with fluoridated water, inadvertent ingestion of fluoride toothpaste, and the inappropriate use of dietary supplements. A major source of fluoride in infancy is considered to be infant formula which has been implicated as a risk factor for fluorosis in a number of studies. In this study the fluoride content of the infant formulae commonly used in Australia was determined. The acid diffusible fluoride of each powdered formula was isolated by microdiffusion and measured using a fluoride ion-specific electrode. The fluoride content of milk-based formulae ranged from 0.23 to 3.71 micrograms F/g and for soy-based formulae from 1.08 to 2.86 micrograms F/g. When reconstituted, according to the manufacturer's directions, with water not containing fluoride, the formulae ranged in fluoride content from 0.031 to 0.532 ppm, with the average fluoride content 0.240 ppm. Using average infant body masses and suggested volumes of formula consumption for infants 1-12 months of age, possible fluoride ingestion per kg body mass was estimated. None of the formulae, if reconstituted using water containing up to 0.1 ppm F, should provide a daily fluoride intake above the suggested threshold for fluorosis of 0.1 mg F/kg body mass. However, if reconstituted with water containing 1.0 ppm F they should all provide a daily fluoride intake of above the suggested threshold for fluorosis with intakes up to 2-3 times the recommended upper 'optimal' limit of 0.07 mg/kg body mass. Under these conditions the water used to reconstitute the formulae would provide 65-97 percent of the fluoride ingested. These figures are likely to be overestimates due to the intake of nutrients from other sources reducing formulae consumption and also due to the lower

  2. Isolation and identification of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant milk formulas.

    PubMed

    Torres-Chavolla, Edith; Ramírez-Cerda, Elsa; Gutiérrez-Rojo, Rosalba

    2007-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is a pathogen of increasing medical concern, due to it being implicated in cases of meningitis, sepis, and necrotizing enterocolitis associated with the consumption of contaminated infant milk formula. At present, the method adopted by the Mexican food industry for the isolation and identification of E. sakazakii is based on the methodology of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, this procedure is laborious and requires 7 days to obtain a confirmative result. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of E. sakazakii in two types of powdered infant milk formula, using an alternative method that requires less time and a smaller sample size than the FDA protocol. We adapted Leuschner's procedure by eliminating violet red bile glucose agar (VRBG) plates and instead adopting white light incubation to stimulate yellow pigment development. This allowed for isolation of E. sakazakii from powdered infant milk formula using a smaller sample and requiring only 5 days for analysis. Results showed that 92% of formula 1 and 32% of formula 2 was positive for E. sakazakii. The high contamination level of E. sakazakii suggests the need for monitoring hygienic conditions in the manufacturing plant and to assess the prevalence of E. sakazakii in powdered infant milk formulas sold in México.

  3. Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... water supply. Fluoride intake from water and other fluoride sources, such as toothpaste and mouth rinse, during the ages when teeth are forming ( ... purified, demineralized, or distilled. If they have added fluoride, the label ... infants from bacterial and viral infections. Learn more about the benefits ...

  4. Quantification of prebiotics in commercial infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia

    2016-03-01

    Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High aluminium content of infant milk formulas.

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, R; Hams, G; Meerkin, M; Rosenberg, A R

    1986-01-01

    The aluminium content of several commercially available infant milk formulas was measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Results were compared with those for fresh breast milk, cow's milk, and local tap water. Differences in aluminium concentration of greater than 150-fold were found, with the lowest concentrations in breast milk. PMID:3767424

  6. Infant formula increases bone turnover favoring bone formation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the first year of life, the major infant food choices have traditionally been breast milk (BM), cow's milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF). Studies examining the effects of infant formula on early life skeletal development are extremely limited. We have enrolled 120 healthy 6-month-old infants ...

  7. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... that do not produce a soy-based infant formula to subcontract with another manufacturer to supply a soy... winning bidder pay the State agency a rebate on the soy-based infant formula supplied by the subcontractor... soy-based infant formula supplied by a subcontractor) to be calculated in accordance with paragraph...

  8. 78 FR 28854 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... techniques, when appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Infant Formula Requirements--21 CFR... Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... information collection provisions of our infant formula regulations, including infant formula labeling...

  9. Extent of thermal processing of infant formula affects copper status in infant rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, B; Kelleher, S L; Lien, E L

    2001-05-01

    Infant rhesus monkeys are excellent models in which to study the effect of infant formulas on trace element absorption and status. Infants fed powdered formula from birth exhibit normal growth and have blood variables similar to those of breast-fed infants. The objectives were to evaluate the effects of feeding ready-to-feed (RTF) formulas exposed to different heat treatments to infant monkeys, and, for one of these formulas, to compare the effect of fortification with 2 iron concentrations. From birth to age 5 mo, infant monkeys (n = 6/group) were fed one of the following formulas exclusively: 1) 12 mg Fe/L processed in cans (RTF-12), 2) formula in glass bottles with 12 mg Fe/L and manufactured by an ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) process (UHT-12), or 3) formula manufactured by a standard thermal process (STP), containing either 8 (STP-8) or 12 (STP-12) mg Fe/L. All formulas had similar copper concentrations (0.6 mg Cu/L). Anthropometric measures and venous blood samples were taken monthly. Weight and length gain did not differ among groups; however, the STP-12 group weighed less than the UHT-12 group at ages 2, 4, and 5 mo. Hemoglobin values were significantly lower in the RTF-12 group than in all other groups at ages 4 and 5 mo and serum ferritin was lower in the RTF-12 group than in the STP-12 group at age 5 mo. Copper status was lower in STP-12 infants than in STP-8 infants. There was a progressive and significant decline in plasma copper, ceruloplasmin, and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activity in infants fed canned formula (RTF-12). Furthermore, coat color changed from normal brown to silver. These outcomes suggest that the canned formula induced copper deficiency in infant monkeys. Excessive heat treatment of formula can have a pronounced negative effect on copper status. High iron concentrations did not improve iron status but may adversely affect copper status.

  10. Infant formula companies battle for breast.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The infant formula manufacturer Mead Johnson has filed a lawsuit in Ontario courts against its competitor Ross Abbott for false advertising of its new Similac brand of infant formula. Mead Johnson contends that the Ross Abbott advertisement of Similac as providing benefits similar to mother's milk is false and misleading. Breast feeding specialists agree with Mead Johnson's claim. Yet, one year earlier, Mead Johnson claimed that its infant formula is modeled after mother's milk. The Infant Feeding Action Coalition (INFACT) Canada had complained to the Competition Bureau that called for Mead Johnson to cease its claim. Court documents reveal that both companies disregard the World Health Organization (WHO) International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes. This code prohibits manufacturers from advertising directly to pregnant women and mothers. Two Ross Abbott spokespersons have different responses to their advertising practices: increasing emphasis on consumer promotion and support of the principle and objective of the WHO Code. Both companies have sought support of health professionals in Canada. In July 1996 Mead Johnson sent letters to about 7000 clinicians declaring "as someone who cares about infant health and nutrition as much as we do" and "...the most alarming concern is that, although there is no scientific basis for such claims, mothers believe them to be true." Ross Abbott responded to these letters by sending physicians letters declaring "Our business is built on trust, and we assure you that you may trust in Similac Advance and the benefits we have ascribed to it." The two companies will meet again in court on September 30, 1996.

  11. WIC's promotion of infant formula in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kent, George

    2006-01-01

    Background The United States' Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) distributes about half the infant formula used in the United States at no cost to the families. This is a matter of concern because it is known that feeding with infant formula results in worse health outcomes for infants than breastfeeding. Discussion The evidence that is available indicates that the WIC program has the effect of promoting the use of infant formula, thus placing infants at higher risk. Moreover, the program violates the widely accepted principles that have been set out in the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and in the human right to adequate food. Summary There is no good reason for an agency of government to distribute large quantities of free infant formula. It is recommended that the large-scale distribution of free infant formula by the WIC program should be phased out. PMID:16722534

  12. The infant formula industry, the Infant Formula Act of 1980, and quality control.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, R C

    1982-11-01

    Throughout the months following the discovery of the low-chloride problem in infant formula, the industry undertook independent and voluntary measures to ensure the compositional quality of formulas. Members of the Infant Formula Council reviewed industry procedures, practices, and policies, and submitted a detailed description of its quality control and clinical testing procedures to the Food and Drug Administration. New product concepts and product reformulation proposals are based on medical and nutritional findings, on changes in medical concepts for nutritional support, on availability of improved nutrient sources, or on improved ingredients or processing technologies. Quality control is maintained throughout the manufacturing process through inspection of raw materials, analysis of major and minor constituents, equipment and process controls, and continuous product monitoring. However, despite cooperation of the infant formula industry with FDA and Congress during the development of the infant formula bills, the proposed document was too rigid and did not take into account that manufacturing methods of a given manufacturer often vary for the same product, for different products, and on different production equipment. The statistical criteria established uneven and inconsistent requirements for various manufacturers. Congress did not forsee that the proposed regulatory procedures would significantly affect industry.

  13. Determination of iodine in human milk and infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sánchez, Luisa Maria; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Fraga-Bermudez, José Maria; Szpunar, Joanna; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to determine iodine in human milk and infant formulas using ICP-MS. The milk samples were digested using an alkaline digestion (5% NH(3), 45 W, 2 min and 30s), and the method was validated using a certified reference material (CRM) BCR CRM151. On the other hand the milk was separated in three fractions, whey, fat and caseins using ultracentrifugation (15 min, 4 degrees C, 50,000 rpm) and the iodine was determined in the different fractions. About 27 samples of different infant formulas and 14 samples of human milk have been studied. In the human milk the values found were between 144+/-93.2 microg kg(-1), whereas in the infant formulas the values were 53.3+/-19.5. For both types of samples the bigger amount of iodine is in the whey fraction, between 80% and 90%, whereas in the fat there is about a 2% of the total iodine and in the casein fraction the levels are between 5% and 10% depending on the type of sample.

  14. Immunogenicity evaluation of protein hydrolysates for hypoallergenic infant formulae.

    PubMed

    Cordle, C T; Mahmoud, M I; Moore, V

    1991-10-01

    Casein and soy protein were enzymatically hydrolyzed for potential use in a hypoallergenic infant formula. To assess the relative immunoreactivity of the hydrolysates, rabbits were immunized with either the intact proteins or the protein hydrolysates using a vigorous immunization protocol. Serum samples were tested using ELISA methods that quantitated IgG antibody specific for the immunizing protein hydrolysates and the corresponding intact proteins. The results showed that the protein hydrolysates had substantially lower immunogenicity than the parent proteins. Also, antibody specific for the parent protein showed very low cross-reactivity with the hydrolysates. Both of the protein hydrolysates seem to be promising candidates for use in hypoallergenic infant feeding systems.

  15. Growth, Nutrition, and Cytokine Response of Breast-fed Infants and Infants Fed Formula With Added Bovine Osteopontin.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Peerson, Janet M; Donovan, Sharon M; Peng, Yong-mei

    2016-04-01

    Breast milk contains a high concentration of osteopontin (OPN), a protein having multiple functions. In contrast, infant formula is low in OPN. A randomized clinical trial was performed to evaluate effects of adding a highly enriched bovine OPN fraction to formula, and infants whose mothers had already decided not to breast-feed were recruited. They were fed regular formula (F0) or the same formula with bovine OPN at 65 (F65) or 130 (F130) mg/L (50% and 100% of human milk level, respectively) from 1 to 6 months of age and were compared with a reference group of breast-fed (BF) infants. Morbidity was recorded daily and 3-day dietary records collected monthly. Anthropometry was assessed monthly, and blood samples were taken at 1, 4, and 6 months of age. Hematology and iron status, serum cytokines, plasma amino acids, and blood urea nitrogen were analyzed. Formulas were well tolerated and there were no significant differences in formula intake or growth among the formula-fed groups. The F130 group had significantly lower plasma threonine than the F0 and F65 groups, and significantly lower plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) than the F0 group and, thus, was closer to BF infants. Plasma TNF-α was higher in formula-fed infants than in BF infants. Among the formula-fed groups, the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α was significantly lower in the F65 and F130 groups than in the F0 group, suggesting that OPN downregulates inflammatory cytokines and thus affects immune function. Addition of OPN to infant formula changes amino acid metabolism and cytokine responses of FF infants and makes them more similar to BF infants. The lower prevalence of pyrexia in the F130 infants than in F0 infants suggests that adding OPN may confer health benefits.

  16. Infant formula and infant nutrition: bioactive proteins of human milk and implications for composition of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-03-01

    Human milk contains an abundance of biologically active components that are highly likely to contribute to the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding. Many of these components are proteins; this article describes some of these proteins, such as α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, osteopontin, and milk fat globule membrane proteins. The possibility of adding their bovine counterparts to infant formula is discussed as well as the implications for infant health and development. An important consideration when adding bioactive proteins to infant formula is that the total protein content of formula needs to be reduced, because formula-fed infants have significantly higher concentrations of serum amino acids, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen than do breastfed infants. When reducing the protein content of formula, the amino acid composition of the formula protein becomes important because serum concentrations of the essential amino acids should not be lower than those in breastfed infants. Both the supply of essential amino acids and the bioactivities of milk proteins are dependent on their digestibility: some proteins act only in intact form, others act in the form of larger or small peptides formed during digestion, and some are completely digested and serve as a source of amino acids. The purity of the proteins or protein fractions, potential contaminants of the proteins (such as lipopolysaccharide), as well as the degree of heat processing used during their isolation also need to be considered. It is likely that there will be more bioactive components added to infant formulas in the near future, but guidelines on how to assess their bioactivities in vitro, in animal models, and in clinical studies need to be established. The extent of testing needed is likely going to depend on the degree of complexity of the components and their bioequivalence with the human compounds whose effects they are intended to mimic.

  17. The health implications of soy infant formula.

    PubMed

    Badger, Thomas M; Gilchrist, Janet M; Pivik, R Terry; Andres, Aline; Shankar, Kartik; Chen, Jin-Ran; Ronis, Martin J

    2009-05-01

    Soy formula (SF) has been fed to millions of infants worldwide. It has been shown to promote growth and development as well as milk-based formula (MF). Controversy has developed over the adequacy and safety of SF. Most concerns are based on in vivo and in vitro data that raise the possibility of estrogenic effects of isoflavones contained in SF. There are few studies of children who were fed SF, and thus insufficient data are available to judge if SF feeding results in clinically significant developmental effects and if there are any long-term health consequences (adverse or beneficial). However, the Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center is conducting a prospective longitudinal study comparing growth, development, and health of breastfed children with formula-fed (SF and MF) children from birth through age 6 y. After 5 y of study, children in all 3 groups (n > 300) are growing and developing within normal limits, and there are no indications of adverse effects in the soy-fed children. Neonatal pig studies comparing SF, MF, and breast milk (BM) have shown diet-specific gene expression profiles in various target tissues. Therefore, although SF differed significantly from BM, MF also differed from BM, and SF differed from MF. Nonetheless, these animals grew and developed normally, and SF piglets had several health benefits (eg, increased bone quality) and no observable adverse effects. Thus, to date, our results suggest that SF supports normal growth and may have advantages in promoting bone development.

  18. [Thickened infant formula, rheological study of the "in vitro" properties].

    PubMed

    Infante Pina, D; Lara-Villoslada, F; López Ginés, G; Morales Hernández, M E

    2010-05-01

    Thickened infant formulas, specially formulated to increase the viscosity, are commonly used in the treatment of regurgitation in the non-complicated gastroesophageal reflux. To analyse viscosity and the rheological behaviour of different thickened standard formulas on the Spanish market compared to a standard formula with or without the addition of 10 g/100mL of gluten-free cereals. Viscosity of the samples was evaluated in a Bohlim CS-1o controlled-stress rheometer and was performed at basal conditions (25 degrees C, pH 7) and at simulated gastric conditions (37 degrees C, pH 4 and 10 g/100mL of pepsin) at time 0, 30 and after 60 min of incubation. Values were expressed as centipoises (cp) (1 cp=1/100 p). All formulas show a viscosity increase both in basal conditions and in gastric simulated conditions but the behaviour is very heterogeneous. Formulas containing bean gum (carob seed flour) with 2.9 g/100g and a protein ratio similar to cow's milk (80 casein/20 whey) showed the highest and consistent viscosity (70 cp and 90 cp), with significant differences compared to the standard formula in all the measurements. When this thickener is in formulas with a protein ratio similar to breast milk (40 casein/60 whey) the viscosity was lower and reached 50 cp only with the thickener at a concentration of 4.7 gr/100g, achieving significant differences versus standard formula. The formulas with starch thickeners (rice, potatoes and corn) achieved a lower and less consistent viscosity, with no significant difference. The viscosity reached after the addition of cereals both in basal conditions and in gastric simulated conditions was similar to that achieved with more effective thickeners. Lipid concentration is not involved in viscosity and rheological behaviour. The viscosity of the thickened infant formula depends on the agent used, concentration and protein ratio. Not all reach a viscosity of 50 cp, hypothetical value to reach, since it doubles the viscosity of a

  19. Glycation products in infant formulas: chemical, analytical and physiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pischetsrieder, Monika; Henle, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Infant formulas are milk-based products, which are adapted to the composition of human milk. To ensure microbiological safety and long shelf life, infant formulas usually undergo rigid heat treatment. As a consequence of the special composition and the heat regimen, infant formulas are more prone to thermally induced degradation reactions than regular milk products. Degradation reactions observed during milk processing comprise lactosylation yielding the Amadori product lactulosyllysine, the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and protein-free sugar degradation products, as well as protein or lipid oxidation. Several methods have been developed to estimate the heat impact applied during the manufacturing of infant formulas, including indirect methods such as fluorescence analysis as well as the analysis of defined reaction products. Most studies confirm a higher degree of damage in infant formulas compared to regular milk products. Differences between various types of infant formulas, such as liquid, powdered or hypoallergenic formulas depend on the analyzed markers and brands. A considerable portion of protein degradation products in infant formulas can be avoided when process parameters and the quality of the ingredients are carefully controlled. The nutritional consequences of thermal degradation products in infant formulas are largely unknown.

  20. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements: (a...

  1. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements: (a...

  2. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements: (a...

  3. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements: (a...

  4. What's in the Bottle? A Review of Infant Formulas.

    PubMed

    Green Corkins, Kelly; Shurley, Teresa

    2016-09-19

    Infant formulas are designed to be a substitute for breast milk. Since they are sole source of nutrition for growing and developing infants, they are highly regulated by the government. All ingredients in infant formulas must be considered "generally recognized as safe." Manufacturers are continually modifying their products to make them more like breast milk. Functional ingredients added to infant formula include long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, nucleotides, prebiotics, and probiotics. The most common breast milk substitutes are standard cow's milk-based term infant formulas, which include subcategories of organic and breast milk supplementation, and come in standard dilutions of 19 or 20 calories per ounce. In addition to standard cow's milk-based term infant formulas, there is a line of term infant formulas marketed for signs and symptoms of intolerance. These products include modifications in lactose content, partially hydrolyzed protein, added probiotics, or added rice starch. There are also specialized formulas for medical conditions such as prematurity, gastrointestinal disorders, allergy, disorders of fat metabolism, and renal insufficiency. Infants on specialty formulas should be monitored closely by medical professionals. Formulas come in ready-to-feed, liquid concentrate, and powder forms. Each offers advantages and disadvantages. Each step in the formula mixing process or each manipulation required for the feeding is another opportunity to introduce bacteria to the formula. There are guidelines for preparing formula in institutions. Standard dilution and mixing instructions are different for each formula, so individual recipes are needed. Caregivers should also be educated on proper hygiene when preparing formula at home.

  5. [Outbreaks of Salmonella in infants associated with powdered infant formula].

    PubMed

    Toyofuku, Hajime; Kubota, Kunihiro; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2006-01-01

    Historically, outbreaks associated with Salmonella-contaminated milk products were recognized as early as the 1950's in the United Kingdom and Bulgaria. In the 1960's and 1970's there were also a number of outbreaks related to Salmonella in various powdered milk products. As a result, Salmonella criterion was included in the Codex Code of hygienic practice for foods for infants and children. Between 1985 and 2005 at least 6 outbreaks of salmonellosis, involving as many as 250 infants, have been associated with powdered infant formula (PIF). In 2005, in France, an outbreak affecting more than 100 infants was associated with PIF contaminated with Salmonella Agona. These reported outbreaks indicated that problems persisted. Experts from two FAO/WHO Expert Consultations, held in 2004 and 2006, concluded that intrinsic contamination of PIF with Enterobacter sakazakii and Salmonella has been a cause of infection and illness in infants, including severe disease which can lead to serious developmental sequelae and death. Most of the Salmonella outbreaks associated with PIF involved unusual Salmonella serotypes, which likely aided in the recognition of these outbreaks. In many regions of the world where Salmonella serotyping is not routinely performed, identification of geographically or temporarily diffused outbreaks could be difficult. It is therefore important to use the appropriate methodology to detect unusual strains of Salmonella that cause illnesses in infants, such as the lactose-positive strain, and to perform serotyping and/or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping for rapid identification of Salmonella outbreaks and to establish linkages between the illness and implicated food.

  6. NTP-CERHR monograph on Soy Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    2010-09-01

    Soy infant formula contains soy protein isolates and is fed to infants as a supplement to or replacement for human milk or cow milk. Soy protein isolates contains estrogenic isoflavones ("phytoestrogens") that occur naturally in some legumes, especially soybeans. Phytoestrogens are non-steroidal, estrogenic compounds. In plants, nearly all phytoestrogens are bound to sugar molecules and these phytoestrogen-sugar complexes are not generally considered hormonally active. Phytoestrogens are found in many food products in addition to soy infant formula, especially soy-based foods such as tofu, soy milk, and in some over-the-counter dietary supplements. Soy infant formula was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of the: (1)availability of large number of developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals exposed to the isoflavones found in soy infant formula (namely, genistein) or other soy products, as well as a number of studies on human infants fed soy infant formula, (2)the availability of information on exposures in infants fed soy infant formula, and (3)public concern for effects on infant or child development. The NTP evaluation was conducted through its Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) and completed in September 2010. The results of this soy infant formula evaluation are published in an NTP Monograph. This document contains the NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula, which presents NTP's opinion on the potential for exposure to soy infant formula to cause adverse developmental effects in humans. The NTP Monograph also contains an expert panel report prepared to assist the NTP in reaching conclusions on soy infant formula. The NTP concluded there is minimal concern for adverse effects on development in infants who consume soy infant formula. This level of concern represents a "2" on the five-level scale of concern used by the NTP that ranges from negligible concern ("1") to serious concern ("5"). This

  7. Infant Formula: A Little Knowledge Can Be Dangerous.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby-LaRue, Jeannine

    1982-01-01

    Misuse of infant formula products in third-world countries is discussed with regard to the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. The Nestle Company's response to the code is presented and the Infant Formula Action Committee (INFACT) boycott of Nestle products is described. (CM)

  8. Effect of Time and Temperature on Thickened Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    Gosa, Memorie M; Dodrill, Pamela

    2017-04-01

    Unlike adult populations, who primarily depend on liquids for hydration alone, infants rely on liquids to provide them with hydration and nutrition. Speech-language pathologists working within pediatric medical settings often identify dysphagia in patients and subsequently recommend thickened liquids to reduce aspiration risk. Caregivers frequently report difficulty attempting to prepare infant formula to the prescribed thickness. This study was designed to determine (1) the relationship between consistencies in modified barium swallow studies and thickened infant formulas and (2) the effects of time and temperature on the resulting thickness of infant formula. Prepackaged barium consistencies and 1 standard infant formula that was thickened with rice cereal and with 2 commercially available thickening agents were studied. Thickness was determined via a line spread test after various time and temperature conditions were met. There were significant differences between the thickened formula and barium test consistencies. Formula thickened with rice cereal separated over time into thin liquid and solid residue. Formula thickened with a starch-based thickening agent was thicker than the desired consistency immediately after mixing, and it continued to thicken over time. The data from this project suggest that nectar-thick and honey-thick infant formulas undergo significant changes in flow rates within 30 minutes of preparation or if refrigerated and then reheated after 3 hours. Additional empirical evidence is warranted to determine the most reliable methods and safest products for thickening infant formula when necessary for effective dysphagia management.

  9. 78 FR 22442 - Infant Formula: The Addition of Minimum and Maximum Levels of Selenium to Infant Formula and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ..., and Carotenoids'' (Ref. 1); and (3) ``Global Standard for the Composition of Infant Formula... selenium, and there is no room for error in production of a food that serves as the sole source of... production of infant formulas with selenium levels that are at or above the proposed minimum level of 2.0 g...

  10. Infant Formula: The Addition of Minimum and Maximum Levels of Selenium to Infant Formula and Related Labeling Requirements. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-06-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the regulations on nutrient specifications and labeling for infant formula to add the mineral selenium to the list of required nutrients and to establish minimum and maximum levels of selenium in infant formula.

  11. Ultrasonographic patterns of reproductive organs in infants fed soy formula: Comparisons to infants fed breast milk and milk formula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to determine if differences exist in hormone sensitive organ size between infants fed soy formula (SF), milk formula (MF), or breast milk (BF). Breast buds, uterus, ovaries, prostate, and testicular volumes were assessed by ultrasonography in 40 BF, 41 MF, and 39 SF infants at age ...

  12. Effect of Infant Formula on Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Laura M; Moser, Elizabeth A S; Eckert, George; Gregory, Richard L

    This study investigated the effect that infant formula had on biofilm growth of Streptococcus mutans. Specifically, it compared biofilm growth in media containing lactose-based and sucrose-based formulas. It also analyzed biofilm formation with formulas of varying iron content. Biofilm growth was tested with the specific infant formula components sucrose, lactose, and ferric chloride. The study was designed to determine if these types of infant formulas and components affected S. mutans biofilm formation differently. A 24-hour culture of S. mutans was treated with various concentrations of infant formula diluted in bacteriological media. To test for biofilm formation, S. mutans was cultured with and without the infant formula and formula components. The biofilms were washed, fixed, and stained with crystal violet. The absorbance was measured to evaluate biofilm growth and total absorbance. Sucrose-based formulas provided significant increases in biofilm growth when compared to lactose-based formulas at two dilutions (1:5, 1:20). Similac Sensitive RS (sucrose-based) at most dilutions provided the most significant increase in biofilm growth when compared to the control. Sucrose tested as an individual component provided more of a significant increase on biofilm growth than lactose or iron when compared to the control. A low iron formula provided a significant increase in biofilm growth at one dilution (1:5) when compared to formula containing a normal iron content. There was no significant difference in biofilm growth when comparing high iron formula to normal iron formula or low iron formula. There was no significant difference when comparing Similac PM 60/40 (low iron formula) to Similac PM 60/40 with additional ferric chloride. The results of this study demonstrated that sucrose-based formula provided more of a significant increase in biofilm growth compared to lactose-based formula. Sucrose alone provided a significant increase of biofilm growth at more dilutions

  13. Partly Fermented Infant Formulae With Specific Oligosaccharides Support Adequate Infant Growth and Are Well-Tolerated

    PubMed Central

    Huet, Frédéric; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; Tims, Sebastian; Simeoni, Umberto; Beley, Gérard; Savagner, Christoph; Vandenplas, Yvan; Hourihane, Jonathan O’B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Fermented formulae (FERM) and a specific mixture of 90% short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and 10% long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS; 9:1) have a potential beneficial effect on gastrointestinal function and microbiota development in infants. The present study assessed the safety and tolerance of the combination of partly fermented infant milk formulae and scGOS/lcFOS compared with either 1 feature, in healthy term infants. Methods: Four hundred thirty-two infants were enrolled before 28 days of age and followed up to 17 weeks of age and assigned to 1 of the 4 groups: (i) formula with scGOS/lcFOS, (ii) scGOS/lcFOS + 15% FERM, (iii) scGOS/lcFOS + 50% FERM, or (iv) 50% fermented formula (50% FERM). Primary outcome was daily weight gain during intervention (equivalence criterion: difference in daily weight gain ≤3 g/day). Infants’ anthropometrics, formula intake, number, and type of (serious) AEs were monitored monthly. Stool samples were collected at baseline and after 17 weeks for analysis of physiological and microbiological parameters. Results: Equivalence of weight gain per day was demonstrated in both the intention-to-treat and per-protocol population, with a mean weight gain (SD) of 29.7 (6.1), 28.2 (4.8), 28.5 (5.0), and 28.7 (5.9) g/day for the groups i to iv respectively. No differences were observed in other growth parameters, formula intake, and the number or severity of AEs. In all scGOS/lcFOS-containing formulae, a beneficial effect of scGOS/lcFOS was observed, indicated by the lower pH, lower Clostridium difficile levels, and higher secretory immunoglobulin A levels. Conclusions: The partly fermented infant milk formulae containing the specific mixture scGOS/lcFOS were well-tolerated and resulted in normal growth in healthy infants. PMID:27472478

  14. Sterol oxidation in infant milk formulas and milk cereals.

    PubMed

    Zunin, P; Calcagno, C; Evangelisti, F

    1998-11-01

    7-Ketocholesterol and 7-ketositosterol were chosen as reliable markers of the oxidation of cholesterol and phytosterols in infant milk formulas and infant milk cereals. A reversed-phase HPLC method was developed to measure them simultaneously in infant formulas. This method was then tested on a wide range of infant milk formulas and milk cereals on sale in Italy whose lipid composition is representative of the most common commercial formulas. The analytical results revealed no significant differences in the extent of oxidation of cholesterol and sitosterol. As the level of 7-ketocholesterol often followed the cholesterol level, a cholesterol content similar to that of human milk produced amounts of cholesterol oxides with possible negative effects on infant health. In contrast, the low cholesterol content of milk cereals never produced amounts of cholesterol oxides high enough to cause concern. The contents of phytosterols and hence their oxides were always low.

  15. Low biotin content of infant formulas made in Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Fukui, T

    1998-07-01

    Since minor vitamins such as biotin are not yet registered as food additives in Japan, these cannot be used to supplement infant formulas or foods, despite their nutritional value. Therefore, the biotin contents of infant formulas made in Japan were determined and compared with those from the United States (US). The Japanese products were obtained from five companies, while the US products were limited to those from one company. The average content of total biotin in 11 Japanese products for nursing of normal infants (standard formulas) was 1.04 micrograms/100 kcal (0.69 microgram/100 ml), which was significantly lower than that in two US products (2.56 micrograms/100 kcal, 1.71 micrograms/100 ml). The total biotin content in 26 Japanese infant formulas specially prepared for medical treatment and prevention of disease (special formulas) was 0.45 microgram/100 kcal (0.30 microgram/100 ml) on average. This was less than a fifth of the level in the three US products (1.82 micrograms/100 kcal, 1.22 micrograms/100 ml). There was no difference in the proportion of free biotin (the percent of active biotin to total biotin) between the Japanese and US standard formulas (67.7% and 77.2%, respectively). However, in special formulas the mean proportion of the free biotin in the Japanese products (29.4%) was lower than that in the US products (71.2%). The nutrient intake of infants is limited to the maternal milk and/or infant formulas. These findings suggest that Japanese infant formulas should be appropriately improved to maintain growth and good health. Biotin should be registered as a food additive in Japan so that it can be used to fortify infant formulas.

  16. Background levels of carbon-13 reduced in breath and stool by new infant formula.

    PubMed

    Boutton, T W; Hopkinson, J M; Benton, D A; Klein, P D

    1988-01-01

    Studies of the absorption and bioavailability of nutrients naturally enriched with 13C require accurate measurements of small increases of 13C in respiratory CO2 and stool carbon. The sensitivity of these measurements would be increased if the natural background of 13C in these excreta were reduced. We have developed a 13C-depleted infant formula based on lactose, whey, and casein from New Zealand cows that consume only C3 vegetation naturally low in 13C. This formula, designated CNRC3, was produced by a commercial infant formula manufacturer and was comparable with a 60:40 whey/casein product. To test the ability of the formula to reduce baseline levels of 13C in infant excreta, 10 formula-fed infants 28-60 days old and free of metabolic disorders were enrolled in the 9-day study. Two stool samples were collected daily. Infants received their usual formula on days 1 and 2 and were switched to CNRC3 formula for days 3-9. On days 2 and 9, seven breath samples were collected at 30-min intervals with a face mask. Breath and stool samples were analyzed for 13C content by gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Infants consuming their commercial formula had breath delta 13C values of -21.1 +/- 0.6% over the 3-h collection period; stool values were -22.9 +/- 0.4%. After 7 days on the CNRC3 formula, delta 13C values of breath declined by 5.6% to -26.7 +/- 0.7%; stool values declined by 3.0% to -25.6 +/- 0.5%. The reduced background of 13C achieved by the CNRC3 formula can improve resolution of excess 13C from naturally enriched substrates in infant breath by approximately 50% and in stool by approximately 30%.

  17. Phthalate residue in goat milk-based infant formulas manufactured in China.

    PubMed

    Ge, W P; Yang, X J; Wu, X Y; Wang, Z; Geng, W; Guo, C F

    2016-10-01

    Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in humans. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, we investigated the residual profile and levels of 15 phthalates in 90 goat milk-based infant formulas from 15 commercial brands of 10 dairy enterprises located in Shaanxi Province, China. In general, dibutyl phthalate was the most detected phthalate, followed by bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, and dimethyl phthalate; their geometric mean concentrations in the formulas were 38.1, 24.2, 16.6, and 8.7μg/kg, respectively. Other phthalates were not detected in the investigated samples. No significant differences were found in the phthalate levels among different stages of infant formulas, even though the samples were packaged in different types of containers. These findings demonstrate that goat milk-based infant formulas may represent the main source of exposure to phthalates in infants. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Carrageenan analysis. Part 1: Characterisation of the carrageenan test material and stability in swine-adapted infant formula.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, William R; Davis, Steven R; Hroncich, Maggie M; Vurma, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    A method was developed and validated in support of a 28-day feeding study of swine-adapted infant formula stabilised with carrageenan administered to neonatal piglets. Carrageenan concentrations in the test formulations were 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 mg kg(-1) formula. Extraction of carrageenan from swine-adapted infant formula was achieved by breaking carrageenan-protein cross-linkages using saturated sodium chloride, followed by separation of the non-gelling carrageenan fraction via centrifugation. The extraction of carrageenan from formula was successful with respect to consistent recovery of the non-gelling carrageenan fraction from both test and control formula samples. Molecular weight analysis (Mw) of the recovered carrageenan fractions from the test and control formula samples confirmed that the carrageenan used to manufacture the formula was not degraded during the infant formula production process and subsequent storage for 4 months covering the 28-day piglet dietary feeding study. Carrageenan has excellent stability in infant formulations.

  19. α-Lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide do not affect iron absorption from formula in healthy term infants.

    PubMed

    Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Lönnerdal, Bo; Abrams, Steven A; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Domellöf, Magnus; Hernell, Olle

    2012-07-01

    Iron absorption from infant formula is relatively low. α-Lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide have been suggested to enhance mineral absorption. We therefore assessed the effect of α-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide on iron absorption from infant formula in healthy term infants. Thirty-one infants were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 formulas (4 mg iron/L, 13.1 g protein/L) from 4-8 wk to 6 mo of age: commercially available whey-predominant standard infant formula (standard formula), α-lactalbumin-enriched infant formula (α-LAC), or α-lactalbumin-enriched/casein-glycomacropeptide-reduced infant formula (α-LAC/RGMP). Nine breast-fed infants served as a reference. At 5.5 mo of age, (58)Fe was administered to all infants in a meal. Blood samples were collected 14 d later for iron absorption and iron status indices. Iron deficiency was defined as depleted iron stores, iron-deficient erythropoiesis, or iron deficiency anemia. Iron absorption (mean ± SD) was 10.3 ± 7.0% from standard formula, 8.6 ± 3.8% from α-LAC, 9.2 ± 6.5% from α-LAC/RGMP, and 12.9 ± 6.5% from breast milk, with no difference between the formula groups (P = 0.79) or all groups (P = 0.44). In the formula-fed infants only, iron absorption was negatively correlated with serum ferritin (r = -0.49; P = 0.005) and was higher (P = 0.023) in iron-deficient infants (16.4 ± 12.4%) compared with those with adequate iron status (8.6 ± 4.4%). Our findings indicate that α-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide do not affect iron absorption from infant formula in infants. Low serum ferritin concentrations are correlated with increased iron absorption from infant formula.

  20. [Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in human milk and infant formulas].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, E M; Sanz Alaejos, M; Díaz Romero, C

    2002-12-01

    Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium were determined in 55 samples of mature human milk from Canary women and 5 samples of powdered infant formula. According to the literature our data fell within the normal intervals described for each kind of milk. The mean concentration of Ca, Mg, Na y K of powdered infant formula was higher than those concentrations found in the human milks. Significant differences among the concentrations of Ca, Mg and Na for the milks of the considered mothers were observed. Only the Ca intakes for infants fed with human milk were lower than those requirements recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board (1989). However, the infants fed with powdered infant formula had an adequate intake of all the studied metals. A progressive decrease of the Na, K and Ca concentrations with the lactation stage was observed. Maternal age, parity and sex of the newborns did not affect the metal concentrations significantly.

  1. Estimation of fluoride intake from milk-based infant formulas and baby foods.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hie Jin; Sohn, Woosung; Kim, Baek Il; Kwon, Ho Keun; Choi, Choong Ho; Kim, Hae-Young

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the amount of fluoride ingested from infant formula and baby food in infants aged up to 6 months in South Korea. The fluoride content of 20 commercially available formulas and 8 baby food samples from 4 different brands was measured using a modified microdiffusion method and fluoride ion selective electrode. The amount of fluoride (F) ingested by infants was estimated assuming that the samples were reconstituted with water containing 0, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 ppm F. When the reconstituted formulas and baby foods contained 0.8 ppm F water, the infants were estimated to ingest fluoride in the range of 0.018 to 0.298 mg/kg/day. The findings of this study suggest that there is a need for clear guidelines for fluoride consumption by infants that should be followed by manufacturers and parents. © 2013 APJPH.

  2. No difference in urinary iodine concentrations between Boston-area breastfed and formula-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Joshua H; Leung, Angela M; Hale, Andrea R; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E; He, Xuemei; Belfort, Mandy B; Nelson, Sara M; Brown, Rosalind S

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for normal mental and physical development in infancy and childhood and is dependent on adequate iodine intake. During the first few months of life, infants are reliant on breastmilk and/or infant formula as their sole sources of dietary iodine. The iodine status of U.S. infants has not been well studied. This was a cross-sectional study of 95 breastfed and/or formula-fed infants less than 3 months of age in the Boston area. We measured iodine content from infants' single spot urine samples and assessed associations with infant feeding type as well as maternal demographic data, salt and multivitamin use, smoking status, and diet. The median infant urine iodine concentration was 197.5 μg/L (range 40-897.5 μg/L). Median infant urine iodine concentrations were similar between infants who were exclusively breastfed (n=39, 203.5 μg/L; range 61.5-395.5 μg/L), formula-fed (n=44, 182.5 μg/L; range 40-897.5 μg/L), and mixed (n=10, 197.8 μg/L; range 123-592.5) (p=0.88). There were no significant correlations of infant urinary iodine with maternal salt or multivitamin use (regularly or in the past 24 hours), active or secondhand cigarette smoke exposures, infant weight, infant length, or recent maternal ingestion of common iodine-containing foods, although the correlations with iodine-containing foods are difficult to accurately determine due to the small sample sizes of these variables. Both breastfed and formula-fed infants less than 3 months of age in the Boston area were generally iodine sufficient. Larger studies are needed to confirm these observations among infants nationwide and elucidate other factors that may contribute to infant iodine nutrition.

  3. Oral microbial profile discriminates breast-fed from formula-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Holgerson, Pernilla L; Vestman, Nelly R; Claesson, Rolf; Ohman, Carina; Domellöf, Magnus; Tanner, Anne C R; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the effect of diet on the oral microbiota of infants, although diet is known to affect the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to compare the oral microbiota in breast-fed and formula-fed infants, and investigate growth inhibition of streptococci by infant-isolated lactobacilli. A total of 207 mothers consented to participation of their 3-month-old infants. A total of 146 (70.5%) infants were exclusively and 38 (18.4%) partially breast-fed, and 23 (11.1%) were exclusively formula-fed. Saliva from all of their infants was cultured for Lactobacillus species, with isolate identifications from 21 infants. Lactobacillus isolates were tested for their ability to suppress Streptococcus mutans and S sanguinis. Oral swabs from 73 infants were analysed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Lactobacillus gasseri. Lactobacilli were cultured from 27.8% of exclusively and partially breast-fed infants, but not from formula-fed infants. The prevalence of 14 HOMIM-detected taxa, and total salivary lactobacilli counts differed by feeding method. Multivariate modelling of HOMIM-detected bacteria and possible confounders clustered samples from breast-fed infants separately from formula-fed infants. The microbiota of breast-fed infants differed based on vaginal or C-section delivery. Isolates of L plantarum, L gasseri, and L vaginalis inhibited growth of the cariogenic S mutans and the commensal S sanguinis: L plantarum >L gasseri >L vaginalis. The microbiota of the mouth differs between 3-month-old breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Possible mechanisms for microbial differences observed include species suppression by lactobacilli indigenous to breast milk.

  4. Supplementation of Infant Formula with Bovine Milk Fat Globule Membranes.

    PubMed

    Timby, Niklas; Domellöf, Magnus; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hernell, Olle

    2017-03-01

    Studies have shown that supplementation of infant formula with bovine milk fat globule membranes (MFGMs) may substantially narrow the gap in health outcomes between formula-fed and breastfed infants. In one study, consumption of a formula supplemented with a lipid-rich MFGM concentrate between 2 and 6 mo of age improved cognitive performance at 24 wk of age. In another study, a formula supplemented with a protein-rich MFGM concentrate given between 2 and 6 mo of age improved cognitive performance at 12 mo of age, decreased infectious morbidity until 6 mo of age, and yielded serum cholesterol concentrations closer to those of breastfed infants. A third study that assessed the safety of supplementing infant formula with a lipid-rich or a protein-rich MFGM concentrate found a noninferior weight gain for both groups compared with a nonsupplemented formula. In this study, there was an increased risk of eczema in the protein-rich group, but no serious adverse events. Infant formulas with supplemental MFGMs have been launched on the market in several countries. However, the evidence base must still be considered quite limited. Based on 3 randomized controlled trials that are not comparable, the intervention seems safe, but there is not enough evidence for a general recommendation on which MFGM fraction to use and at what concentration as formula supplement for a given outcome. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Infant Formula Fat Analogs and Human Milk Fat: New Focus on Infant Developmental Needs.

    PubMed

    Zou, Long; Pande, Garima; Akoh, Casimir C

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is generally and universally recognized as the optimal choice for nutrition during the first year of life. In certain cases in which it is not feasible to breast-feed the infant or the breast milk is not sufficient, especially in the case of preterm infants, infant formula is the next best alternative to provide nutrition to nurture the infant. Therefore, it is highly important that the nutrient composition of the infant formula is as close to breast milk as possible for proper growth and development of the infant. However, human milk is a complex dynamic matrix, and therefore significant research has been done and is still ongoing to fully understand and mimic human breast milk, particularly its fat composition. Lipids play a critical role in infant nutrition. A number of advances have been made in infant formula lipid content and composition so that formula can better simulate or mimic the nutritional functions of human maternal milk.

  6. Development and validation of a solid-phase extraction method coupled to liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the determination of fluoroquinolone residues in powdered infant formulae. Application to the analysis of samples from the Spanish and Latin American market.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, E; Moreno-Bondi, M C; Marazuela, M D

    2008-10-31

    This paper describes a new method for the effective extraction, clean-up and chromatographic analysis of residues of four fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin and sarafloxacin) in powdered infant formulae and follow-on preparations. Samples were reconstituted following the manufacturer's recommendations and treated with trichloroacetic acid in methanol 10% (w/v) for deproteinization. Two solid-phase extraction cartridges have been evaluated for sample clean-up and preconcentration, Strata Screen A and Strata X and the later provided the best recoveries for all the analytes tested. Chromatographic analysis has been carried out using a polar endcapped column (AQUA C(18)) and fluorescence detection, with lomefloxacin (LOME) as internal standard. Method validation has been performed according to European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria, in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, specificity, decision limit (CC(alpha)) and detection capability (CC(beta)). Typical recoveries ranged between 70 and 110% at levels below and above the maximum residue limits of the target analytes in bovine milk, with an excellent intralab reproducibility (RSDs<7%). Matrix effects did not significantly affect method accuracy, as evidenced by analyzing different brands of milk. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 100 samples of infant and follow-on formulae of the Spanish and Latin American market, using LC-MS/MS as confirmatory technique.

  7. Enterobacter pulveris sp. nov., isolated from fruit powder, infant formula and an infant formula production environment.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Roger; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Iversen, Carol; Joosten, Han; De Vos, Paul; Lehner, Angelika

    2008-01-01

    Six Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming, coccoid rod-shaped isolates were obtained from fruit powder (n=3), infant formula (n=2) and an infant formula production environment (n=1) and investigated in a polyphasic taxonomic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis combined with rpoB gene sequence analysis allocated the isolates to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The highest rpoB gene sequence similarities (91.2-95.8%) were obtained with Enterobacter helveticus, Enterobacter radicincitans, Enterobacter turicensis and Enterobacter sakazakii and the phylogenetic branch formed by these species was supported by a high bootstrap value. Biochemical data revealed that the isolates could be differentiated from their nearest neighbours by their ability to utilize melibiose, sucrose, D-arabitol, mucate and 1-O-methyl-alpha-galactopyranoside and their negative reactions for D-sorbitol utilization and the Voges-Proskauer test. On the basis of the phylogenetic analyses, DNA-DNA hybridization data, and unique physiological and biochemical characteristics, it is proposed that the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Enterobacter, Enterobacter pulveris sp. nov. The type strain is 601/05(T) (=LMG 24057(T)=DSM 19144(T)).

  8. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Camilia R.; Ling, Pei-Ra; Blackburn, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required. PMID:27187450

  9. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    Martin, Camilia R; Ling, Pei-Ra; Blackburn, George L

    2016-05-11

    Mothers' own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow's milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow's milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required.

  10. Occurrence of fatty acid esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidol in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Wöhrlin, Friederike; Fry, Hildburg; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiß-Weigert, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and glycidol generated during the refinement process in vegetable fats and oils caused concerns about possible adverse health effects. As these fats are components of infant formula, the current investigation of the MCPD and glycidyl ester contents in infant formula was necessary to update the data for risk assessment purposes. For the analysis of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula, an existing method for fats and oils had to be modified and validated. The fat fraction containing MCPD and glycidyl esters was extracted from infant formula by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The extracted fat was then analysed according to an established method for fats and oils. Glycidyl esters are converted to monobrompropanediol (3-MBPD) esters, MCPD and 3-MBPD esters hydrolysed subsequently and after derivatisation detected by GC-MS. Seven different products of infant formula, covering two types and five lots each, altogether 70 samples, were bought in retail markets and analysed. In all samples, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters could be detected. Both 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters' concentration levels were found to be lower in comparison with earlier investigations described in the literature. The occurrence of 2-MCPD esters in infant formula was investigated for the first time and revealed concentrations about half of 3-MCPD ester concentrations.

  11. Infant Formulas for Food Allergy Treatment and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Hetu; Bahna, Sami L

    2016-04-01

    The number of infant formulas intended for food allergy treatment or prevention has been increasing. Some products fulfill the criteria for hypoallergenicity, such as extensively hydrolyzed protein (casein or whey) and synthesized amino acid formulas (elemental diet). Numerous partially hydrolyzed formulas have been derived from bovine milk, soybean, and rice. They are not hypoallergenic and are not recommended for children allergic to the parent protein, yet certain preparations have shown efficacy for allergy prevention. Soybean-derived preparations, although not hypoallergenic, have been tolerated by a majority of children allergic to bovine milk. Studies on the addition of probiotics or prebiotics to infant formulas have shown inconsistent findings. Numerous hypoallergenic formulas or milk substitutes are available for pediatricians to choose for children with food allergy. Caution is needed in prescribing formulas that are erroneously marketed as hypoallergenic. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. 75 FR 23777 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Infant Formula Requirements--21 CFR Parts 106 and 107... Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... on information collection regarding the manufacture of infant formula, including infant formula...

  13. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and Drug... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107...

  14. Nutrient-enriched formula versus standard term formula for preterm infants following hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Young, Lauren; Morgan, Jessie; McCormick, Felicia M; McGuire, William

    2012-03-14

    Preterm infants are often growth-restricted at hospital discharge. Feeding infants after hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula rather than standard term formula might facilitate "catch-up" growth and improve development. To determine the effect of feeding nutrient-enriched formula compared with standard term formula on growth and development for preterm infants following hospital discharge. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, 2011, Issue 4), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (to September 2011), conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared the effect of feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula (post-discharge formula or preterm formula) compared with standard term formula. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. We found 15 eligible trials in which a total of 1128 preterm infants participated. The trials were of variable methodological quality with lack of allocation concealment and incomplete follow-up in some trials being the major potential sources of bias. The trials (N = 10) that compared feeding infants with "post-discharge formula" (energy density about 74 kcal/100 ml) versus standard term formula (about 67 kcal/100 ml) did not find consistent evidence of effects on growth parameters up to 12 to 18 months corrected age. The trials (N = 5) that compared feeding with "preterm formula" (about 80 kcal/100 ml) versus term formula found some evidence of higher rates of growth through infancy: weighted mean differences at 12 to 18 months corrected age about 500 g in weight, 5 to10 mm in length, and 5 mm in head circumference. Few trials assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes and these did not

  15. Sex Hormones, Gonadotropins, and Sex Hormone-binding Globulin in Infants Fed Breast Milk, Cow Milk Formula, or Soy Formula.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin; Wang, Lei; Wu, Chunhua; Shi, Huijing; Zhou, Zhijun; Montgomery, Scott; Cao, Yang

    2017-06-28

    Measurement of endogenous hormones in early life is important to investigate the effects of hormonally active environmental compounds. To assess the possible hormonal effects of different feeding regimens in different sample matrices of infants, 166 infants were enrolled from two U.S hospitals between 2006 and 2009. The children were classified into exclusive soy formula, cow milk formula or breast milk regimens. Urine, saliva and blood samples were collected over the first 12 months of life. Estradiol, estrone, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured in the three matrices. Lower estradiol and LH levels were found in urine and saliva samples of soy formula-fed boys compared to cow formula-fed boys. Higher LH level was found in urine samples of soy formula-fed girls compared to cow formula-fed girls. However, we found neither a neonatal testosterone rise in the boys nor a gender-specific difference in testosterone levels, which suggests that urinary testosterone levels may not accurately reflect blood levels during mini-puberty. Nevertheless, our study shows that blood, urine and saliva samples are readily collectible and suitable for multi-hormone analyses in children and allow examination of hypotheses concerning endocrine effects from dietary compounds.

  16. The U.S. infant formula industry: is direct-to-consumer advertising unethical or inevitable?

    PubMed

    Cutler, Bob D; Wright, Robert F

    2002-01-01

    Throughout their history, U.S. based infant formula companies have promoted their products as though they required a prescription. This form of marketing is called "ethical" promotion, which focuses on gaining a physician to parent recommendation for a brand of infant formula. Until Nestle's entry into the U.S. infant formula market in 1988, there was little direct-to-consumer promotion of infant formula. This article provides a background on the history of infant formula practices in the United States and then focuses on a descriptive model to explain how mothers' make their infant formula selection. Finally, we offer suggestions for the "ethical" marketers of infant formula.

  17. Dilute versus full strength formula in exclusively formula-fed preterm or low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Basuki, Fauziah; Hadiati, Diah R; Turner, Tari; McDonald, Steve; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2013-11-05

    Preterm infants have fewer nutrient reserves at birth than full term infants and often receive artificial formula feeds in the absence of expressed breast milk. Although it is generally agreed that feeding must be initiated slowly and advanced with much greater deliberation than in a healthy, full term infant, the way in which feeds are introduced and advanced in preterm infants varies widely. This review focuses on whether dilute or full strength formula is the preferable mode of introducing feeds in preterm infants. To assess the effects of dilute versus full strength formula on the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis, feeding intolerance, weight gain, length of stay and time to achieve full calorie intake in exclusively formula-fed preterm or low birth weight infants. A secondary objective was to assess the effects of different dilution strategies. We used the standard search methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1946 to February 2013) and EMBASE (1974 to February 2013). Randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing strengths of formula milk in exclusively formula-fed preterm or low birth weight infants. Studies were excluded if infants received formula as a supplement to breast milk. We independently assessed studies for inclusion. We collected data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, with independent assessment of risk of bias and data extraction. We synthesised mean differences using a fixed-effect meta-analysis model. Three studies involving 102 preterm or low birth weight infants were included in the review. The studies compared dilute (double volume, half strength) formula with full strength (20 kcal/oz) formula. We assessed all three studies as being at unclear risk of bias due to the likely absence of blinding of study personnel and the potential for selection bias in the largest trial

  18. Comparison of evoked arousability in breast and formula fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Horne, R; Parslow, P; Ferens, D; Watts, A; Adamson, T

    2004-01-01

    Background: Currently, there is no consistent evidence that breast feeding reduces the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Arousal from sleep is believed to be an important survival mechanism that may be impaired in victims of SIDS. Previously it has been shown that arousability is impaired by the major risk factors for SIDS such as prone sleeping and maternal smoking. Aims: To establish whether arousability was altered by method of feeding, and whether breast fed infants would have lower arousal thresholds. Methods: Forty three healthy term infants were studied using daytime polysomnography on three occasions: 2–4 weeks post-term, 2–3 months post-term, and 5–6 months post-term. Multiple measurements of arousal threshold (cm H2O) in response to nasal air jet stimulation applied alternately to the nares were made in both active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS) while infants slept supine. Arousal thresholds and sleep period lengths were compared between formula fed and breast fed infants at each age. Results: Arousal thresholds were not different between breast fed and formula fed infants in QS. However, in AS breast fed infants were significantly more arousable than formula fed infants at 2–3 months of age. There was no difference between groups of infants when sleep period length was compared at any study. Conclusions: Breast fed infants are more easily aroused from AS at 2–3 months of age than formula fed infants. This age coincides with the peak incidence of SIDS. PMID:14709496

  19. Phospholipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulas: Benefits and Needs for Correct Infant Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Cilla, Antonio; Diego Quintaes, Késia; Barberá, Reyes; Alegría, Amparo

    2016-08-17

    The composition of human milk has served as a basis for the development of infant formulas, which are used when breastfeeding is not possible. Among the human milk nutrients, 50% of the total energetic value corresponds to fat, with a high level of fatty acids and 0.2-2.0% present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). The PL contents and fatty acid distribution in PL species have been investigated as bioactive elements for the production of infant formulas, since they offer potential benefits for the optimum growth and health of the newborn infant. The differences in the amount of PLs and in fatty acid distribution in PL species between human milk and infant formulas can imply biologically significant differences for newborn infants fed with infant formulas versus human milk-mainly due to the greater proportion of sphingomyelin with respect to phosphatidylcholine in infant formulas. The limited information referred to the characterization of fatty acid distribution in PL species in infant formulas or in ingredients used to enrich them merits further research in order to obtain products with benefits similar to those of human milk in terms of infant growth, visual acuity, and neurological development. The present review establishes the scientific basis for helping to adjust formulations to the requirements of infant nutrition.

  20. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high.

    PubMed

    Chuchu, Nancy; Patel, Bhavini; Sebastian, Blaise; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30% w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 μg/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 μg/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 μg per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 μg per day. All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium.

  1. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Methods Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30% w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Results Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 μg/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 μg/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 μg per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 μg per day. Conclusions All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium. PMID:24103160

  2. Dietary fluoride intake from infant and toddler formulas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Opydo-Szymaczek, Justyna; Opydo, Jadwiga

    2011-08-01

    Risk of enamel fluorosis associated with excessive fluoride intake during infancy and early childhood has been widely reported in literature. Results of several studies indicate that infant formula consumption, especially in the form of powdered concentrate, may appreciably increase children's fluoride exposure in optimally fluoridated communities. The aim of the study was to measure fluoride content of infant and toddler formulas available in Poland and to discuss implications of the results. Twenty nine brands of powdered formulas were evaluated. Analyzes were performed with the use of ionselective fluoride electrode (09-37 type) and a RAE 111 chloride-silver reference electrode (MARAT). Results revealed that concentration of fluoride in all products was low (mean 29.0 μg/100 g), and that the formula itself is not a significant source of fluoride exposure. However, when reconstituted with water containing more than 0.5 ppm of fluoride, starting formulas and follow-on formulas may provide a daily fluoride intake of above the suggested threshold for fluorosis. Thus, fully formula-fed infants consuming mother milk substitutes prepared with optimally fluoridated water may be at increased risk of dental fluorosis.

  3. Powder infant formula milk contaminated with Enterobacter sakazakii.

    PubMed

    Oonaka, Kenji; Furuhata, Katsunori; Hara, Motonobu; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2010-03-01

    To clarify the route and source of Enterobacter sakazakii infection in a basic study, we analyzed powder infant formula milk (PIF), which may be an important source of infantile infection, regarding contamination with Enterobacteriaceae including this type of bacteria, and conducted drug sensitivity tests with various antimicrobial agents. Enterobacteriaceae was isolated 36 (24.2%) of 149 PIF samples. These comprised of 12 (19.7%) of 61 domestically produced samples and 24 (27.3%) of 88 imported samples. E. sakazakii was isolated in 9 (6.6%) of the 149 PIF samples. These comprised 4 (6.6%) of 61 domestically produced samples and 5 (5.7%) of 88 imported samples. In 8 of the 9 samples in which E. sakazakii was isolated, the bacterial levels were estimated to be 0.36 MPN/100 g. However, one imported sample showed a bacterial level of 0.91 MPN/100 g. In the drug sensitivity tests of E. sakazakii isolated from PIF, we compared the MIC(90) values. E. sakazakii was highly sensitive to 9 agents: cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, cefpirome, cefozopran, gentamicin, meropenem, and ciprofloxacin, and moderately sensitive to 5 agents: piperacillin, erythromycin, minocycline, chloramphenicol, and rifampicin. However, it was resistant to 2 agents, ampicillin and lincomycin.

  4. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii of dehydrated infant formula by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Jang-Ho; Woon, Jae-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2007-11-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii has been implicated as a causal organism in a severe form of neonatal meningitis, with reported mortality rates of 20%. The population at greatest risk is immunocompromised infants of any age. Dried infant formula has been identified as a potential source of the organism in both outbreaks and sporadic cases. The objective of this study was to investigate theirradiation effect of the inactivation on E. sakazakii (ATCC 29544) of a dehydrated infant formula. The D10-values were 0.22-0.27 and 0.76 kGy for broth and dehydrated infant formula, respectively. The irradiation at 5.0 kGy was able to completely eliminate the E. sakazakii inoculated at 8.0 to 9.0 log CFU g -1 onto a dehydrated infant formula. There was no regrowth for all samples during the time they were stored at 10 °C for 6 h after rehydration. The present results indicated that a gamma-irradiation could potentially be used to inactivate E. sakazakii in a dehydrated powdered infant formula.

  5. GI Symptoms in Infants Are a Potential Target for Fermented Infant Milk Formulae: A Review

    PubMed Central

    van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Berton, Amelie; Bouritius, Hetty; Goulet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Besides pre- and pro-biotic-containing infant formulae, fermented infant formulae are commonly used to relieve or prevent symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort in young infants. During the fermentation process in cow’s milk-based formulae, the beneficial bacteria modulate the product by forming several beneficial compounds, which contribute to the alleviation of the symptoms observed. This review summarizes the clinical evidence on the impact of fermented infant formulae on common pediatric GI-symptoms. The potential mechanisms involved are discussed: i.e., the lactose and protein (in-) digestibility, effects on gastric emptying and gut transit and modulation of the colonic microbiota. Although initial evidence indicates a beneficial effect of fermented formulae on GI discomfort in newborns, validation and confirmation of the clinical proof obtained so far is warranted, as well as further research to (more fully) understand the mode of action. PMID:25255831

  6. Quantitative determination of complex carbohydrates in bovine milk and in milk-based infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Neeser, J R; Golliard, M; Del Vedovo, S

    1991-09-01

    Quantitative determination of all structural families of complex carbohydrate micronutrients was performed on bovine milk samples, milk-based infant formulas, and whey-based manufacturing raw materials. Differences found between formulas depended mainly on their whey: casein ratios. A solvent separation procedure was required for quantitative estimation of the gangliosides and neutral glycolipids within the fat fraction. All infant formulas except one contained slightly more gangliosides than bovine milk. Complex carbohydrates were consistently higher in the nonfat fraction. By gel permeation chromatography, an oligosaccharide subfraction was separated from a glycopeptide one. Oligosaccharide content of infant formulas increased as a function of the whey:casein ratio, and glycopeptides were found only in formulas made with whey components. Neuraminic acids from infant formulas were associated primarily with the glycoprotein fraction, except in hydrolysate-based preparations in which "precipitable" glycoproteins were converted into "soluble" glycopeptides by trypsin treatment. Because whey-based raw materials are very rich in all bovine milk glycoconjugates and oligosaccharides their increased use will result in high contents of these micronutrients in modern formulas.

  7. An Opinion on "Staging" of Infant Formula: A Developmental Perspective on Infant Feeding.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Hernell, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk is a dynamic fluid with compositional changes occurring throughout the period of lactation. Some of these changes in nutrient concentrations reflect the successively slowing growth rate and developmental changes in metabolic requirements that infants undergo during the first year of life. Infant formula, in contrast, has a static composition, intended to meet the nutritional requirements of infants from birth to 6 or 12 months of age. To better fit the metabolic needs of infants and to avoid nutrient limitations or excesses, we suggest that infant formulas should change in composition with the age of the infant, that is, different formulas are created/used for different ages during the first year of life. We propose that specific formulas for 0 to 3 months (stage 1), 3 to 6 months (stage 2), and 6 to 12 months (stage 3) of age may be nutritionally and physiologically advantageous to infants. Although this initially may impose some difficult practical/conceptual issues, we believe that this staging concept would improve nutrition of formula-fed infants and, ultimately, improve outcomes and make their performance more similar to that of breast-fed infants.

  8. Arsenic concentration and speciation in infant formulas and first foods.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Brian P; Taylor, Vivien F; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic exposure to humans is pervasive, and, increasingly, studies are revealing adverse health effects at ever lower doses. Drinking water is the main route of exposure for many individuals; however, food can be a significant source of arsenic to an individual, especially if their diet is rice-based. Infants are particularly susceptible to dietary exposure, since many first foods contain rice and they have a low body mass. Here we report on arsenic concentration and speciation in infant formulas and first foods. Speciation is essential for food analysis because of the much greater toxicity of inorganic arsenic species and the possibility that arsenic in food (unlike water) may be present in either inorganic or organic forms. Infant milk formulas were low in total arsenic (2.2-12.6 ng g(-1), n=15). Non-dairy formulas were significantly higher in arsenic than dairy-based formulas. Arsenic in formula was almost exclusively inorganic and predominantly arsenic(V). Arsenic concentration in purees (n=41) and stage 3 foods (n=18) ranged from 0.3-22 ng g(-1). Rice-fortified foods had significantly higher total arsenic concentrations than non rice-based foods. Again arsenic speciation was predominantly inorganic; arsenic(III) was the main species with lower concentrations of DMA and arsenic(V) also present. These data confirm that infants are exposed to arsenic via diet, and suggest that careful attention to diet choices may limit this.

  9. Extensively and partially hydrolysed infant formulas for allergy prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Oldaeus, G; Anjou, K; Bjorksten, B; Moran, J; Kjellman, N

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 17 March 1997
 The allergy preventive effect of extensively (N) and partially (PH) hydrolysed cows' milk formulas compared with a regular formula (RM) was assessed in 155 infants with a family history of allergy. No cows' milk was given during the first nine months of life and no egg and fish up to 12 months of age. Breast feeding mothers avoided the same foods. At weaning the infants were randomised to one of the formula groups. The cumulative incidence of atopic symptoms at 18 months was 51, 64, and 84% in the N, PH, and RM groups, respectively. From 6 to 18 months there were significantly less cumulative atopic symptoms in the N group compared with the RM group, and significantly less than the PH group up to 6 (N= 25%; PH = 46%) and 9 months (N = 34%, PH = 58%). At 9 months significantly fewer infants in the N group (10%) than in the PH group (33%) had a positive skin prick test to eggs. The findings support an allergy preventive effect of an extensively hydrolysed formula, but not of a partially hydrolysed formula, during the first 18 months of life of high risk infants.

 PMID:9279143

  10. Defective Infant Formulas and Expressive Language Problems: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Clara S.

    1990-01-01

    Children who used chloride-deficient soy-based infant formulas (Neo-Mull-Soy and Cho-Free) have been found to exhibit expressive language disorders. Medical studies of such children are reviewed, and a case study compares the language development deficits of an eight-year-old boy who used the formula with that of his fraternal twin who did not.…

  11. Reference Materials: Critical Importance to the Infant Formula Industry.

    PubMed

    Wargo, Wayne F

    2017-09-01

    Infant formula is one of the most regulated foods in the world. It has advanced in complexity over the years as a result of numerous research innovations. To ensure product safety and quality, analytical technologies have also had to advance to keep pace. Given the rigorous performance demands expected of these methods and the ever-growing array of complex matrixes, there is the potential for gaps to exist in current Official MethodsSM and other recognized international methods for infant formula and adult nutritionals. Food safety concerns, particularly for infants, drive the need for extensive testing by manufacturers and regulators. The net effect is the potential for an increase in time- and resource-consuming regulatory disputes. In an effort to mitigate such costly activities, AOAC INTERNATIONAL, under the direction of the Infant Formula Council of America-a trade association of manufacturers and marketers of formulated nutritional products-agreed to establish voluntary consensus Standard Method Performance Requirements, and, ultimately, to identify and publish globally recognized, fit-for-purpose standard methods. To accomplish this task, nutritional reference materials (RMs), representing all major commercially available nutritional formulations, were (and continue to be) a critical necessity. In this paper, various types of RMs will be defined, followed by review and discussion of their importance to the infant formula industry.

  12. Determination of perchlorate in infant formula by isotope dilution ion chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Lau, B.P.-Y.; Tague, B.; Sparling, M.; Forsyth, D.

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive and selective isotope dilution ion chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ID IC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of perchlorate in infant formula. The perchlorate was extracted from infant formula by using 20 ml of methanol and 5 ml of 1% acetic acid. All samples were spiked with 18O4 isotope-labelled perchlorate internal standard prior to extraction. After purification on a graphitised carbon solid-phase extraction column, the extracts were injected into an ion chromatography system equipped with an Ionpac AS20 column for separation of perchlorate from other anions. The presence of perchlorate in samples was quantified by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Analysis of both perchlorate and its isotope-labelled internal standard was carried out on a Waters Quattro Ultima triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) negative ionisation mode. The method was validated for linearity and range, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and matrix effects. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.4 μg 1−1 for liquid infant formula and 0.95 μg kg−1 for powdered infant formula. The recovery ranged from 94% to 110% with an average of 98%. This method was used to analyse 39 infant formula, and perchlorate concentrations ranging from

  13. Growth and development during the first year of life of infants fed breast-milk, milk formula or soy formula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The adequacy of soy infant formulas to support growth and development is still under debate. The concerns center on the phytochemicals such as isoflavones which are associated with the soy proteins, the sole source of protein in soy infant formulas. To assess growth and development of infants fed br...

  14. Palm olein in infant formula: absorption of fat and minerals by normal infants.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S E; Rogers, R R; Frantz, J A; Ziegler, E E

    1996-09-01

    Palm olein, a low-melting fraction of palm oil, and soy oil can be combined to obtain fat blends with proportions of palmitic and oleic acids similar to those of human milk. We compared the absorption of fat and calcium by infants fed a formula containing a blend of palm olein (53%) and soy oil (47%) (Formula PO/S) with that by infants fed a formula containing a blend of soy oil (60%) and coconut oil (40%) (Formula S/C). In a randomized crossover design, one study was performed with each formula in each of 11 normal infants ranging in age from 27 to 161 d. Six of the infants were admitted for 72-h metabolic balance studies. In the other five infants, feces (with some admixture of urine) were collected at home for 96 h by using acid-washed cloth diapers. Mean (+/- SD) absorption of fat was 90.6 +/- 1.6% of intake when Formula PO/S was fed and 95.2 +/- 1.1% of intake when Formula S/C was fed; the difference was significant (P < 0.001). The difference in excretion of fat by infants fed the two formulas was explained by the difference in excretion of palmitic acid. Absorption of calcium averaged 39.0 +/- 8.3% of intake with Formula PO/S and 48.4 +/- 10.3% with Formula S/C; the difference was significant (P < 0.01). We conclude that fat is less well absorbed from a mixture of 53% palm olein and 47% soy oil than from a mixture of 60% soy oil and 40% coconut oil, and that absorption of calcium is less from a formula containing palm olein, presumably because of the formation of insoluble calcium soaps of unabsorbed palmitic acid.

  15. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from powdered infant formula milk and infant rice cereal in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Meng, Jianghong; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Yanming; Yang, Baowei; Xi, Meili; Xia, Xiaodong

    2012-02-01

    Dry infant foods are not sterile and could be contaminated with various bacteria including certain pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in infant foods and to characterize these strains. A total of 367 infant food samples, including 143 samples of powdered infant formula milk (PIF) and 224 samples of infant rice cereal (IRC), were collected in the Shaanxi Province of China during the period of July to August 2010 and screened for S. aureus. All S. aureus isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and detection of genes encoding enterotoxins, exfoliative toxins, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Among all the samples examined, sixteen of 143 PIF samples (11.2%) and 14 of 224 IRC samples (6.3%) were positive for S. aureus. From these positive samples, 29 S. aureus strains were isolated from PIF and 25 from IRC. Of these S. aureus isolates, 83.3% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, 35.2% to three or more antimicrobials. Resistance was most frequently observed to erythromycin (75.9%), followed by ciprofloxacin (51.9%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27.8%), while significantly fewer isolates were resistant to gentamicin (22.2%), tetracycline (18.5%), or cefoxitin (3.7%). In addition, 63.0% of isolates were positive for one or more toxin genes tested. The three most predominant toxin genes were pvl (40.7%), seg (38.9%), and sec (18.5%), followed by sea (7.4%), seb (7.4%), sed (5.6%), and see (5.6%). The ets, tsst-1, seh, sei, and sej genes were not detected. A total of 39 PFGE patterns were generated among 51 selected food isolates. Our findings indicate that PIF and IRC in the Shaanxi province were contaminated with S. aureus, and many S. aureus isolates harbored multiple toxin genes and exhibited multiple antimicrobial resistance. In addition, these S. aureus isolates were genetically diverse. The

  16. Effect of high β-palmitate content in infant formula on the intestinal microbiota of term infants.

    PubMed

    Yaron, Sima; Shachar, Dina; Abramas, Lee; Riskin, Arik; Bader, David; Litmanovitz, Ita; Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Cohen, Tzafra; Levi, Liora; Lifshitz, Yael; Shamir, Raanan; Shaoul, Ron

    2013-04-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) constitutes 17% to 25% of the human milk fatty acids, and ~70% is esterified in the sn-2 position of triglycerides (β-palmitate). In the sn-2 position, PA is not hydrolyzed and thus is efficiently absorbed. The PA in palm oils, commonly used in infant formulas, is esterified in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions. In these positions, PA is hydrolyzed and forms poorly absorbed calcium complexes. The present study assessed whether high β-palmitate in infant formulas affects the intestinal flora. Thirty-six term infants were enrolled: 14 breast-fed (BF group) and 22 formula-fed infants who were randomly assigned to receive formula containing high β-palmitate (HBP group, n=14), or low β-palmitate (LBP group, n=8), where 44% and 14% of the PA was β-palmitate, respectively. The total amount of PA in the formulas was 19% and 22% in the LBP and HBP groups, respectively. Neither formula contained pre- or probiotics. Stool samples were collected at enrollment and at 6 weeks for the quantification of bacteria. At 6 weeks, the HBP and BF groups had higher Lactobacillus and bifidobacteria counts than the LBP group (P<0.01). The Lactobacillus counts at 6 weeks were not significantly different between the HBP and BF groups. Lactobacillus counts were 1.2×10¹⁰, 1.2×10¹¹, and 5.6×10¹⁰ CFU/g for LBP, HBP, and BF groups, respectively. Bifidobacteria counts were 5.1×10⁹, 1.2×10¹¹, and 3.9×10¹⁰ CFU/g for LBP, HBP, and BF groups, respectively. HBP formula beneficially affected infant gut microbiota by increasing the Lactobacillus and bifidobacteria counts in fecal stools.

  17. Association between infant formula feeding and dental fluorosis and caries in Australian children.

    PubMed

    Do, Loc G; Levy, Steven M; Spencer, A John

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between patterns of infant formula feeding and dental fluorosis and caries in a representative sample of Australian children. A population-based study gathered information on fluoride exposure in early childhood. Information on infant formula feeding and fluoridation status was used to group children: three groups in nonfluoridated areas (formula nonuser, user for ≤6 months, and user for 6+ months) and four groups in fluoridated areas (nonuser, user with nonfluoridated water, user with fluoridated water for ≤6 months, and user with fluoridated water for 6+ months). Children aged 8-13 years were examined for fluorosis using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF) Index. Primary tooth caries experience recorded at age 8-9 years was extracted from clinical records. Fluorosis cases were defined as having TF 1+ on maxillary incisors. Fluorosis prevalence and primary caries experience were compared across formula user groups in multivariable regression models adjusting for other factors. Total sample was 588 children. Children in fluoridated areas had higher prevalence of very mild to mild fluorosis, but lower caries experience than those in nonfluoridated areas. Among children in nonfluoridated areas, formula users for 6+ months had significantly higher prevalence of fluorosis compared with nonusers. There was no significant difference in fluorosis prevalence among the formula users in fluoridated areas. Among children in fluoridated areas, formula users with nontap water had higher caries experience. Infant formula use was associated with higher prevalence of fluorosis in nonfluoridated areas but not in fluoridated areas. Type of water used for reconstituting infant formula in fluoridated areas was associated with caries experience. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  18. Nutrient-enriched formula versus standard formula for preterm infants following hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Young, Lauren; Embleton, Nicholas D; McGuire, William

    2016-12-13

    Preterm infants are often growth-restricted at hospital discharge. Feeding nutrient-enriched formula rather than standard formula to infants after hospital discharge might facilitate 'catch-up' growth and might improve development. To compare the effects of nutrient-enriched formula versus standard formula on growth and development of preterm infants after hospital discharge. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2016, Issue 8) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; to 8 September 2016), as well as conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared the effects of feeding nutrient-enriched formula (postdischarge formula or preterm formula) versus standard term formula to preterm infants after hospital discharge . Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and extracted data independently. We analysed treatment effects as described in the individual trials and reported risk ratios and risk differences for dichotomous data, and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data, with respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used a fixed-effect model in meta-analyses and explored potential causes of heterogeneity by performing sensitivity analyses. We assessed quality of evidence at the outcome level using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. We included 16 eligible trials with a total of 1251 infant participants. Trials were of variable methodological quality, with lack of allocation concealment and incomplete follow-up identified as major potential sources of bias. Trials (N = 11) that compared feeding infants with 'postdischarge formula' (energy density about 74 kcal/100 mL) versus standard term formula (about 67 kcal/100 mL) did not find consistent

  19. Certification of nutrients in Standard Reference Material 1846: infant formula.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, K E; Schiller, S B; Margolis, S A; Thomas, J B; Iyengar, G V; Colbert, J C; Gills, T E; Wise, S A; Tanner, J T; Wolf, W R

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) released Standard Reference Material 1846 (Infant Formula), which can be used as a control material for assigning values to in-house control materials and for validating analytical methods for measurement of proximates, vitamins, and minerals in infant formula and similar matrixes. The SRM was manufactured by preparing a spray-dried formula base containing fat, protein, carbohydrates, and minerals and then combining that formula base with a dry-blend vitamin premix that supplied the vitamins. The Certificate of Analysis for SRM 1846 provides assigned values for concentrations of proximates (fat, protein, etc.), vitamins, and minerals for which product labeling is required by the Infant Formula Act of 1980 and by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990. These assigned values were based on agreement of measurements by NIST and/or collaborating laboratories. Certified values are provided for vitamins A (trans), E, C, B2, and B6 and niacin. Noncertified values are provided for solids, ash, fat, nitrogen, protein, carbohydrate, calories, vitamin D, delta-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, vitamin B1, vitamin B12, folic acid, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, inositol, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, sodium, potassium, and chloride. Information values are provided for iodine, manganese, selenium, and vitamin K.

  20. Readability and Content Characteristics of Powdered Infant Formula Instructions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Lorraine S; Rosenstein, Patricia Fine; Gal, Noga

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to assess readability characteristics and layout features, including reading grade level, text point size, dimensions (length and width), diagrams, key directions (warnings, proper hygiene, preparation and use, and storage), and compliance to International Code provisions of English-language instructions affixed to a representative sample of brand-name and generic powdered, infant formula containers currently available for purchase in the US. During June 2014, comprehensive Internet searches were conducted to identify brand-name powdered infant formulas currently available for purchase in the US (n = 10). The English-language instruction section affixed to each formula container was evaluated for readability characteristics and layout features, including reading grade level, text point size, dimensions (length and width), diagrams, key directions (warnings, proper hygiene, preparation and use, and storage), and compliance to International Code. Overall, containers were similar in circumference (50.8 ± 7.3 cm) and height (14.0 ± 0.0 cm) and held an average of 656.0 ± 12.3 g (range 629-663 g) of powdered infant formula. Both Directions for Preparation and Use and Storage Instructions sections had average reading difficulty scores at the college level. Step-by-Step Preparation Directions and Warnings and Safe Handling sections had reading difficulty between the 8th and 9th grade level. All container labels contained three diagrams depicting step-by-step preparation instructions and a feeding chart. Overall, infant formula containers reviewed in our study adhered to compliance to International Code provisions. As negative health outcomes are associated with inappropriately prepared infant formula feedings, healthcare providers should routinely query infant caregivers regarding their formula preparation and administration practices.

  1. Ion chromatographic determination of inositol in infant formulae and clinical products for enteral feeding.

    PubMed

    Tagliaferri, E G; Bonetti, G; Blake, C J

    2000-05-26

    An ion chromatographic method is described for the determination of inositol in infant formula and products for enteral feeding. A two-step procedure for hydrolysis and extraction of total inositol has been developed, involving alkaline hydrolysis with 3 M potassium hydroxide and enzymatic dephosphorylation. Substances having a long chromatographic retention time were removed with an ion-exchange resin. Inositol was separated on a high-resolution ion-exchange column and detected by pulsed amperometric detection. Phytic acid interferes only slightly in the analysis. This method can be used for determination of total inositol in infant formulae, and enteral feeding products. The analytical method gave an average recovery of 94% from infant formula samples spiked with inositol and a recovery of 86+/-3% from products spiked with lecithin.

  2. No Difference in Urinary Iodine Concentrations Between Boston-Area Breastfed and Formula-Fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Joshua H.; Hale, Andrea R.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.; He, Xuemei; Belfort, Mandy B.; Nelson, Sara M.; Brown, Rosalind S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormone is essential for normal mental and physical development in infancy and childhood and is dependent on adequate iodine intake. During the first few months of life, infants are reliant on breastmilk and/or infant formula as their sole sources of dietary iodine. The iodine status of U.S. infants has not been well studied. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 95 breastfed and/or formula-fed infants less than 3 months of age in the Boston area. We measured iodine content from infants' single spot urine samples and assessed associations with infant feeding type as well as maternal demographic data, salt and multivitamin use, smoking status, and diet. Results: The median infant urine iodine concentration was 197.5 μg/L (range 40–897.5 μg/L). Median infant urine iodine concentrations were similar between infants who were exclusively breastfed (n=39, 203.5 μg/L; range 61.5–395.5 μg/L), formula-fed (n=44, 182.5 μg/L; range 40–897.5 μg/L), and mixed (n=10, 197.8 μg/L; range 123–592.5) (p=0.88). There were no significant correlations of infant urinary iodine with maternal salt or multivitamin use (regularly or in the past 24 hours), active or secondhand cigarette smoke exposures, infant weight, infant length, or recent maternal ingestion of common iodine-containing foods, although the correlations with iodine-containing foods are difficult to accurately determine due to the small sample sizes of these variables. Conclusions: Both breastfed and formula-fed infants less than 3 months of age in the Boston area were generally iodine sufficient. Larger studies are needed to confirm these observations among infants nationwide and elucidate other factors that may contribute to infant iodine nutrition. PMID:24801116

  3. Centralized infant formula preparation room in the neonatal intensive care unit reduces incidence of microbial contamination.

    PubMed

    Steele, Caroline; Short, Robert

    2008-10-01

    Increasing concern regarding potential pathogens in infant formulas led to this evaluation of the influence of procedural and environmental factors on infant formula contamination. In two phases of study, a total of 526 formula samples were analyzed for contamination. In Phase 1, conducted from October 2001 through May 2002, nursing staff prepared formulas in the neonatal intensive care unit at bedside; in Phase 2, conducted from February 2006 through June 2006, dietetic technicians prepared formulas in a centralized feeding preparation room. Two types of formula, ready-to-feed and powder, were sampled. Each sample was divided into two portions; the first was cultured immediately, and the second after 8 hours at room temperature. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were tested to identify the major factors contributing to contamination. Results showed formulas prepared at bedside were 24 times more likely to show contamination than those prepared in a central location (P<0.001) and that powdered formulas were 14 times more likely to be contaminated than ready-to-feed formulas (P<0.001). In addition, samples that had been warmed (P<0.050) and those that were either milk-based or casein hydrolysate (P<0.001) were more likely to be contaminated. This study suggests that centralized feeding preparation results in a significant decrease in prevalence of microbial growth. Because contamination risk increases significantly with the use of powdered formulas, sterile liquid formulas should be considered when possible to minimize risk of microbial exposure in the neonatal intensive care unit population.

  4. Caco-2 accumulation of lutein is greater from human milk than from infant formula despite similar bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Banavara, Dattatreya; Shah, Bhavini; Morrow, Ardythe L; McMahon, Robert J; Jouni, Zeina E; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2014-10-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that the bioavailability of lutein is lower from infant formula than from human milk. The purpose of this study was to assess characteristics of human milk and lutein-fortified infant formula that may impact carotenoid delivery. Carotenoid bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption were modeled by in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2 human intestinal cell culture. Twelve human milk samples were assessed from 1-6 months postpartum, and 10 lutein-fortified infant formula samples from three lutein sources in both ready-to-use and reconstituted powder forms. The relative bioaccessibility of lutein was not different (p > 0.05) between human milk (29 ± 2%) and infant formula (36 ± 4%). However, lutein delivery was 4.5 times greater from human milk than infant formula when including Caco-2 accumulation efficiency. Caco-2 accumulation of lutein was increasingly efficient with decreasing concentration of lutein from milk. Carotenoid bioaccessibility and Caco-2 accumulation were not affected by lactation stage, total lipid content, lutein source, or form of infant formula (powder vs. liquid). These data suggest that the bioavailability of carotenoids is greater from human milk than infant formula primarily due to intestinal absorptive processes, and that absorption of lutein is potentiated by factors from human milk especially at low lutein concentration. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. 76 FR 32976 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Infant Formula Recall Regulations--21 CFR 107.230, 107... Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula Recall Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... on requirements related to the recall of infant formula. DATES: Submit either electronic or written...

  6. Amino acid profile of milk-based infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Viadel, B; Alegriá, A; Farré, R; Abellán, P; Romero, F

    2000-09-01

    The protein content and amino acid profile of three milk-based infant formulas, two of which were powdered (adapted and follow-on) and the third liquid, were determined to check their compliance with the EU directive and to evaluate whether or not they fulfil an infant's nutritional needs. To obtain the amino acid profile proteins were subjected to acid hydrolysis, prior to which the sulfur-containing amino acids were oxidized with performic acid. The amino acids were derivatized with phenylisothiocyanate (PITC) and then determined by ion-pair reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) In the case of tryptophan a basic hydrolysis was applied and there was no need of derivatization. The protein contents of the analysed formulas were in the ranges established by the EU directive for these products and the amino acid contents were in the ranges reported by other authors for these types of formulas. In all cases the tryptophan content determined the value of the chemical score, which was always lower than 80% of the reference protein but in the ranges reported by other authors. The analysed adapted infant formula provides amino acids in amounts higher than the established nutritional requirements.

  7. Effect of processing on polyamine content and bioactive peptides released after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gallego, C; Recio, I; Gómez-Gómez, V; Ortuño, I; Bernal, M J; Ros, G; Periago, M J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the influence of processing on polyamines and peptide release after the digestion of a commercial infant formula designed for children during the first months of life. Polyamine oxidase activity was not suppressed during the manufacturing process, which implicates that polyamine concentrations were reduced over time and during infant formula self-life. In gel electrophoresis, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of samples with reduced amount of enzymes and time of digestion shows an increase in protein digestibility, reflected in the increase in nonprotein nitrogen after digestion and the disappearance of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin bands in gel electrophoresis. Depending on the sample, between 22 and 87 peptides were identified after gastrointestinal digestion. A peptide from β-casein f(98-105) with the sequence VKEAMAPK and antioxidant activity appeared in all of the samples. Other peptides with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial activities were frequently found, which could have an effect on infant health. The present study confirms that the infant formula manufacturing process determines the polyamine content and peptidic profile after digestion of the infant formula. Because compositional dissimilarity between human milk and infant formula in polyamines and proteins could be responsible for some of the differences in health reported between breast-fed and formula-fed children, these changes must be taken into consideration because they may have a great effect on infant nutrition and development.

  8. The relationship between stool hardness and stool composition in breast- and formula-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, P T; Lockton, S; Irwin, J; Lucas, A L

    1995-01-01

    "Constipation" and "hard stools" are associated with formula feeding of both term and preterm infants and, in the latter, can lead to life-threatening complications. This study tested the hypothesis that stool hardness is related to excretion of fatty acid (FA) soaps in term infants, and in the extreme to milk bolus obstruction in premature infants. Stools (n = 44) were collected from 20 formula-fed and 10 breast-fed infants aged 6 weeks and were classified using visual charts for stool hardness on a 5-point scale (1, watery; 5, hard). Stools were analysed for nitrogen, minerals, and lipid, the latter divided between the soap and nonsoap fractions. We explored the relationship between stool hardness or solids content and stool constituents, relative to both wet and dry weight. Calcium and FA soaps were the dominant factors significantly related to stool solids and hardness score across the breast- and formula-fed groups. An 8% increase in stool dry weight FA soap content corresponded to a 1-point change in stool hardness score. Stools from formula-fed infants had a higher solids content and were classified as significantly harder than those from breast-fed infants (hardness scores, 4.0 +/- 0.5 versus 2.6 +/- 0.7, mean +/- SD) and on both a wet- and dry-weight basis contained severalfold higher levels of minerals and lipid and considerably less carbohydrate. Differences in lipids between formula- and breast-fed infants' stools were due almost entirely to FAs (mainly C16:0 and C18:0) excreted as soaps (27.7 +/- 7.5% compared to 3.1 +/- 4.1% of dry weight), suggesting the groups differed markedly in their handling of saturated FAs. An inspissated stool sample from a premature infant requiring surgical disempaction of an obstructed small intestine was found to be enriched in FA and calcium relative to the preterm formula. FA soaps, predominantly saturated, accounted for one third of the stool dry weight. These data support the hypothesis that calcium FA soaps are

  9. Melamine milk powder and infant formula sold in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Schoder, Dagmar

    2010-09-01

    This is the first study proving the existence of melamine in milk powder and infant formula exported to the African market. A total of 49 milk powder batches were collected in Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania, East Africa), the center of international trade in East Africa, which serves as a commercial bottleneck and shipment hub for sub-Saharan, Central, and East Africa. Two categories of samples were collected between October and December 2008, immediately after the melamine contamination of Chinese products became public: (i) market brands of all international companies supplying the East African market and (ii) illegally sold products from informal channels. Melamine concentration was determined with the AgraQuant Melamine Sensitive Assay. Despite the national import prohibition of Chinese milk products and unlabeled milk powder in Tanzania, 11% (22 of 200) of inspected microretailers sold milk powder on the local black market. Manufacturers could be identified for only 55% (27) of the 49 investigated batches. Six percent (3 of 49) of all samples and 11% (3 of 27) of all international brand name products tested revealed melamine concentrations up to 5.5 mg/kg of milk powder. This amount represents about twice the tolerable daily intake as suggested by the U.S Food and Drug Administration. Based on our study, we can assume that the number of affected children in Africa is substantial.

  10. Liquid infant formulas: technological tools for limiting heat damage.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Stefano; Masotti, Fabio; Pellegrino, Luisa

    2009-11-25

    In a study considering 15 commercial samples of liquid milk-based infant formulas (MBF) from different manufacturers, the levels of selected molecules, that is, furosine (FUR), galactosyl-beta-pyranone (GAP), lactulose (LCT), and lysinoalanine (LAL), have been measured to provide estimation of the heat damage in these products. The ranges of the studied markers were as follows: FUR=153-600 mg 100 g(-1) of protein, GAP=0.5-4.3 mg L(-1), LCT=226-1511 mg L(-1), and LAL=1.0-16.1 mg 100 g(-1) of protein. The highest levels were found in MBF intended for the youngest babies. Experimental samples were produced in an industrial plant to evaluate the relative contribution of individual technological aspects to the final heat damage. About 90% of both GAP and LCT contents was due to the ultrahigh-temperature sterilization process itself. This effect was more than halved when the pH of the ingredient mixture was adjusted from 7.2 to 6.9 before sterilization or when the product recirculated in the plant was discarded. Up to 60 and 20%, respectively, of the FUR and LAL levels in the finished product were already present in protein ingredients (whey powder, whey protein concentrate). Accurate optimization of processing conditions and scrupulous selection of raw materials proved to be effective means to minimize heat damage in such special food products.

  11. [Growth and tolerance in infants fed an infant formula based on hydrolyzed rice proteins].

    PubMed

    Girardet, J-P; Rivero, M; Orbegozo, J; David, T; Boulanger, S; Moisson de Vaux, A; Johnston, S; Marin, V

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy in terms of growth and tolerance of an infant formula based on hydrolyzed rice proteins. Healthy infants, born at term, less than 1 month old, and exclusively fed an infant formula based on hydrolyzed rice proteins until their diet was diversified, were included in this open-label, multicenter study. The main outcome measure was daily weight gain during the study period. The infant's weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and the data concerning tolerance (digestive disorders, allergy manifestations) were collected at inclusion in the study, at 2 and 4 months, and before diversifying the infant's diet between 4 and 6 months. The growth parameters were compared to the WHO standards by calculating the Z-score. Seventy-eight infants were included. The mean daily weight gain over 5 months was 23.2 ± 4.3 g/day, identical to the WHO standards (22.2 ± 1.8 g/day, P = 0.09). During the study period, the Z-scores for weight, height, and BMI varied between +1.1 and -0.5 SD according to the WHO standards. Formula acceptance and tolerance were both good. The infant formula studied, based on hydrolyzed rice proteins, was well tolerated and led to normal growth over the first few months of life, comparable to the WHO standards. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Polybrominated biphenyl ethers in breast milk and infant formula from Shanghai, China: temporal trends, daily intake, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Kaiqiong; Yang, Dan; Ma, Li; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhou, Jing; Fang, Xiangming; Yu, Yingxin

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the temporal trend of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk and assess the risks to breast- and formula-fed infants, breast milk and infant formula samples were collected from Shanghai, China. The PBDE concentrations decreased from 14.8 to 4.85 pmol/g lipid weight during 2006-2012, with a rate of decrease by half approximately every four years. Although there were no significant correlations between the total PBDEs in breast milk and age, parity, and pre-pregnant BMI of mothers, there were significant differences between primiparous and multiparous mothers for tri- to hepta-BDEs. PBDEs in breast milk were much higher than those in infant formula (equivalent to 91.9 vs. 5.25 pg/mL). Among the different brand infant formulas, there were no significant differences in their PBDE concentrations. The estimated daily intake of PBDEs by breast- and formula-fed infants suggested that breast-fed infants are exposed to much more PBDEs than formula-fed ones (12.9 vs. 0.72 ng/kg-bw/day). However, the hazard quotient values were much smaller than one, indicating that the ingested PBDEs did not exert obvious adverse effects on both breast- and formula-fed infants considering non-carcinogenic effect endpoint. This is the first report on temporal trend of PBDEs in breast milk from China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypochloremic alkalosis in infants associated with soy protein formula.

    PubMed

    Linshaw, M A; Harrison, H L; Gruskin, A B; Prebis, J; Harris, J; Stein, R; Jayaram, M R; Preston, D; DiLiberti, J; Baluarte, H J; Elzouki, A; Carroll, N

    1980-04-01

    Thirteen infants, 2 to 10 months of age, developed hypochloremic alkalosis (serum chloride 59 to 92 mEq/l) while taking Neo-Mull-Soy (Syntex), a soy-based formula low in chloride (measured to be 0 to 2 mEq/l) but with considerable potassium citrate. Range of symptoms included lethargy, anorexia, mild spitting up, diarrhea, hematuria, and growth failure. Urine chloride excretion was less than 3 mEq/l. Plasma renin activity or aldosterone, measured in six infants, was elevated. All responded promptly to supplemental salt. One infant receiving Neo-Mull-Soy redeveloped alkalosis when supplemental salt was discontinued. Two of nine apparently normal infants receiving Neo-Mull-Soy also had hypochloremia (85, 86 mEq/l). Three of four receiving Prosobee (Mead Johnson; Cl content 7 mEq/l) had urine chloride concentration less than 20 mEq/l. The chloride content of some infant formulas is insufficient to offset salt losses following mild stress.

  14. Production of ethanol from infant food formulas by common yeasts.

    PubMed

    Bivin, W S; Heinen, B N

    1985-04-01

    Four common yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Torulopsis glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were combined with five infant food formulas and/or supplements (Isomil, Nutramigen, 5% glucose, Coca Cola and Similac) and incubated at 37 degrees C. Gas chromatography was used to measure ethanol production after 24 and 48 h incubation. The quantities of ethanol produced suggest a possible explanation for patients exhibiting the 'Auto-Brewery Syndrome' and raises interest in the role auto-produced ethanol could have in explaining the etiology of Sudden Infant Death.

  15. Occurrence of 3-monochloropropanediol esters and glycidyl esters in commercial infant formulas in the United States.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Jessica; MacMahon, Shaun

    2017-03-01

    This work presents occurrence data for fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol in 98 infant formula samples purchased in the United States. These contaminants are considered potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in refined oils and foods a potential health risk. Recently, attention has focused on methodology to quantify MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula for risk-assessment purposes. Occurrence data for 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters were produced using a procedure for extracting fat from infant formula and an LC-MS/MS method for analysing fat extracts for intact esters. Infant formulas were produced by seven manufacturers, five of which use palm oil and/or palm olein in their formulations. In formulas containing palm/palm olein, concentrations for bound 3-MCPD and glycidol ranged from 0.021 to 0.92 mg kg(-)(1) (ppm) and from < LOQ to 0.40 mg kg(-)(1) (ppm), respectively. Formulas not containing palm/palm olein, bound 3-MCPD and glycidol concentrations ranged from 0.072 to 0.16 mg kg(-)(1) (ppm) and from 0.005 to 0.15 mg kg(-)(1) (ppm), respectively. Although formulas from manufacturers A and G did not contain palm/palm olein, formulas from manufacturer E (containing palm olein) had the lowest concentrations of bound 3-MCPD and glycidol, demonstrating the effectiveness of industrial mitigation strategies.

  16. Effect of electron beam on chemical changes of nutrients in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Tesfai, Adiam; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2014-04-15

    Infant milk formula has recently been implicated as a transmission vehicle for an emerging foodborne pathogen, Enterobacter sakazakii, resulting in high mortality rates. Electron beam (e-beam) efficiently and non-thermally inactivates foodborne pathogens, including E. sakazakii, in infant milk formula. However, the effects of e-beam on chemical changes of nutrients in infant formula have not been determined. Therefore, the objective of this study was to fulfill this gap. Dehydrated infant milk formula was processed with e-beam at 0 (control) to 25 kGy. Amino acid, fatty acid, and mineral profiles (AAP, FAP, and MP, respectively), as well as protein degradation and lipid oxidation, were determined. There were no differences (P>0.05) in FAP, AAP, and MP. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis qualitatively detected three major protein bands in all samples up to 25 kGy. Densitometry analysis of SDS-PAGE gels confirmed no size degradation (P>0.05) as a function of increased e-beam dose. Totol-volatile-basic-nitrogen (TVBN) excluded (P>0.05) protein degradation due to microbial activity. There was no increase (P>0.05) in lipid oxidation, as assessed with thiobarbituric-reactive-substances (TBARS), except in samples processed at 25 kGy. Dehydrated formula has low water activity, which likely protected nutrients from e-beam-induced chemical changes. This study demonstrates that proteins, lipids, and minerals in infant milk formula are stable when processed with e-beam up to 25 kGy at low temperature and under anaerobic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative analysis of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula using varied milk delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Jimi; Rogers, Kristy; Brewer, Paul; Dickton, Darby; Pardini, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Background The expression of human milk for later use is on the rise. Bottle systems are used to deliver the expressed milk. Research has shown that storage of both human milk and artificial baby milk, or infant formula, leads to a loss of ascorbic acid (commonly called Vitamin C). As milk is removed from the bottle during feeding and replaced by ambient air, it is unknown if loss of ascorbic acid occurs during the course of a feeding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the milk delivery system on levels of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula. The objectives are to 1) determine changes in ascorbic acid concentration during a 20 minute "feed," 2) determine if there is a difference in ascorbic acid concentration between delivery systems, and 3) evaluate if any differences are of clinical importance. Methods Commonly available bottles were used for comparison of bottle delivery systems. Mature human milk was standardized to 42 mg/L of ascorbic acid. Infant formula with iron and infant formula with docosahexanoic acid were used for the formula samples. Each sample was analyzed for ascorbic acid concentration at baseline (0), 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes. Each collection of samples was completed in triplicate. Samples were analyzed for ascorbic acid using normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results Ascorbic acid concentration declined in all bottle systems during testing, Differences between the bottle systems were noted. Ascorbic acid concentrations declined to less than 40% of recommended daily intake for infants in 4 of the bottles systems at the 20 minute sampling. Conclusion The bottle systems used in this study had measurable decreases in the mean concentration of ascorbic acid. More research is needed to determine if the observed decreases are related to lower plasma ascorbic acid concentration in infants exclusively bottle fed. The decrease of ascorbic acid concentration observed in both human milk and infant

  18. Prevalence of infant formula advertisements in parenting magazines over a 5-year span.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Shaffer, Ellen J; Hammond, Rodney; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-01-01

    Marketing of infant formula contributes to a decreased likelihood to breastfeed. This study established the prevalence of infant formula advertisements in two popular US parenting magazines and explored trends in infant formula advertisement prevalence from 2007 to 2012. Advertisements were analyzed using a comprehensive coding schematic. We established a high proportion of 0.43 advertisements per page of content in both magazines and observed a significant increase in infant formula advertisement prevalence beginning in 2009. Infant formula companies use aggressive marketing in parenting magazines. Nurses who are well-trained in breastfeeding best practices can offer new mothers evidence-based information on the benefits of breastfeeding. © 2013.

  19. [Use of probiotics and prebiotics in infant formulas].

    PubMed

    Martínez Suárez, Venancio

    2015-02-07

    Currently there are insufficient data to recommend routine supplementation of infant formula with probiotics and/or prebiotics. However, administration of either food components in isolation or in combination early or follow-on or toddler infant formulas has been associated with clinical benefit beyond the first months of life. Thus, among them, a reduced risk of gastrointestinal infections and their treatment, control of atopy manifestations, decreased antibiotic use and a lower frequency of colic or irritability can be included. Furthermore, different studies have shown no harmful consequences of its consumption. From a review of the most relevant studies, this paper aims to provide a quick overview of the main clinical issues this topic brings up today.

  20. Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mugambi, Mary N; Musekiwa, Alfred; Lombard, Martani; Young, Taryn; Blaauw, Reneé

    2012-10-04

    Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011) on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Three synbiotic studies (N = 475), 10 probiotics studies (N = 933) and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563) were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal microflora. The quality of evidence was

  1. Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011) on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Results Three synbiotic studies (N = 475), 10 probiotics studies (N = 933) and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563) were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal microflora. The

  2. Historic records on the commercial production of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Industrialized food production first appeared in 1856, pioneered by Borden in the USA, Liebig in Germany, Nestlé in Switzerland, and Mellin in the UK. Their products differed remarkably and deviated from human and cow's milk, and physicians discussed the importance of minute variations in protein, fat and carbohydrates. Proprietary formulas were free of bacteria, and the companies prospered with mass production, international marketing and aggressive advertising. From 1932 on, medical societies restricted advertising to the laity. In 1939 Williams in Singapore and in 1970 Jelliffe in Jamaica suspected that commercial formula may be increasing infant mortality in the Third World. Breastfeeding continued to decline during the early 20th century, falling in 1970 below 10% in the USA. The Swiss 'Third World Group' and the US 'Infant Formula Action Coalition' linked infant mortality and industry marketing in the Third World. The controversy of 1970-1984 led to the WHO Code, which regulated the advertising and marketing of baby food. This was one of several public health statements contributing to the resurgence of breastfeeding.

  3. Improved AOAC First Action 2011.08 for the Analysis of Vitamin B₁₂ in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Formulas: First Action 2014.02.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Esther Campos

    2014-01-01

    This report documents improvement and single-laboratory validation performed on AOAC First Action Method 2011.08 for vitamin B12 in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. The original validation study included a range of fortified products, from infant formulas to breakfast cereals or beverages. Extended validation data, including additional infant formulas and adult/pediatric nutritionals, has now been produced. In addition, the method has been modified to use ultra-HPLC and the calibration range extended in a multilevel calibration curve. Detection and quantification limits were also improved by increasing the sample weight used for analysis and the reconstitution rate adapted to the requirements. The Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals Test Material Kit, designed to represent a large range of products within the category (infant formula and adult nutritionals made from any combination of milk, soy, rice, whey, hydrolyzed protein, starch, and amino acids, with and without intact protein), was used to determine performance characteristics of the method. The modifications included allow now full compliance with standard method performance requirements established for vitamin B12 (SMPR 2011.005). LOQ was ≤0.01 μg/100 g, working range between 0.01 and 5.0 μg/100 g, repeatability ≤7%, and recovery in the range 90-110%. The method was granted AOAC First Action status 2014.02.

  4. Infant formula crisis in china: a cohort study in sichuan province.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2015-03-01

    China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers' opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers' opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China.

  5. Infant Formula Crisis in China: A Cohort Study in Sichuan Province

    PubMed Central

    Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers’ opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers’ opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China. PMID:25995728

  6. Is bottled water really unsafe for making up infant formula?

    PubMed

    Osborn, Keith; Lyons, Mary

    2010-03-01

    The NHS advises parents not to use bottled water to make up infant formula feed, so parents face a dilemma when this is all that is available. Unfortunately, when they turn to their local healthcare professional, many are not given the correct advice. When mains water supplies are disrupted or there is a problem with water quality, water utilities make limited quantities of safe drinking water available, and one increasingly popular option is to distribute bottled water to affected households. Healthcare professionals regularly caution parents against using this for infant formula preparation because of its perceived unsuitability. This advice is usually given without recommending appropriate alternatives, leading to confusion and anxiety. Under these circumstances, there is a serious risk that parents will turn to unsuitable or unsafe forms of infant feeding. A review of the chemical quality of bottled waters readily available in supermarket chains established that healthcare professionals' concerns are not justified. There appears to be a serious deficit in the information provided by the NHS, and in the education and training of healthcare professionals. In order to protect the lives of infants, it is important that this is rectified quickly.

  7. Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

  8. Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

  9. Chromium content in different kinds of Spanish infant formulae and estimation of dietary intake by infants fed on reconstituted powder formulae.

    PubMed

    Sola-Larrañaga, Cristina; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo

    2006-11-01

    Chromium is well documented as an essential element for humans. Trivalent chromium, the main chemical form found in foods, is essential for maintaining normal glucose metabolism. Owing to analytical difficulties, several literature reports of chromium content of foods, especially for the lower levels, show large variability and should be interpreted with caution. Zeeman background correction, transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the chromium content of 104 different infant formulae (cow's milk and soy protein based) marketed in Spain following an acid-digestion sample preparation procedure in a closed, pressurized and microwave digestion unit. The mean and range of chromium values, regarding types and main protein-based infant formulae are presented. Additionally, the influence of the type of container used, the impact of industrial process from different manufacturers and the physical state (powder and liquid formulae) on chromium levels is also discussed. In general, the infant formulae contain a higher chromium concentration than that found in human milk (reference range: 0.20-8.18 microg l-1), particularly in the case of hypoallergenic (18.16 +/- 7.89 microg l-1), lactose-free (11.37 +/- 3.07 microg l-1), pre-term (11.48 +/- 3.15 microg l-1) and soya (10.43 +/- 4.05 microg l-1) formulae. The maximum theoretical estimated intake of infants fed on the studied formulae was lower than the upper limit safety for trivalent chromium of 1 mg kg-1 (14 microg kg-1 b.w. day-1) recommended by the experts of Council for Responsible Nutrition (Hathcock 2004; available at: http://crnusa.org/safety.html), amounting to about 10, 15-18 and 26% of the standard (adapted and follow-up) and toddler, soya, lactose-free and pre-term, and hypoallergenic formulae, respectively. Therefore, manufacturers are called upon to make continued efforts to routinely monitor chromium levels, particularly for specialised and pre-term formulae

  10. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-10-28

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%-53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk-fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  11. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%–53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk–fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation. PMID:27801820

  12. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in powdered infant formula using IS900 quantitative PCR and liquid culture media.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Kamal R; Dhand, Navneet K; Whittington, Richard J; Plain, Karren M

    2017-09-18

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has been implicated in Crohn's disease in humans resulting in public concern over the presence of MAP in powdered infant formula, which could contribute towards early human exposure to MAP or MAP components. Testing of representative powdered infant formula samples using effective tests is required to provide information on contamination of infant formula with MAP, so that consumers can make informed decisions. This study aimed to test representative powdered infant formula samples for the presence of MAP using a quantitative PCR and liquid culture method. For this purpose, an efficient DNA extraction method was developed and an optimum decontamination protocol for culture method was identified. A total of 122 powdered infant formula samples were tested, comprising 72 brands produced by 12 manufacturers from 9 countries. Powdered infant formula samples were reconstituted and centrifuged to separate the casein pellet, cream layer and whey fraction. A sensitive qPCR test was performed on DNA extracted from the casein pellet. In addition, the cream layer and casein pellet were cultured in liquid media, following decontamination with the optimum protocol. Of the 122 samples tested, 6 were positive for MAP DNA but none were positive for growth in culture at 12 and 20 weeks. The limit of detection of the quantitative PCR was less than 5 MAP organisms per 1.5g milk powder. The methods developed in the study could be used for quality assurance testing for infant formula and calf milk replacers. The low contamination level of MAP and absence of viable forms in our study suggests a relatively low risk of exposure of infants to MAP components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Specific prebiotics in a formula for infants with Phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Anita; Cochrane, Barbara; Wopereis, Harm; Loveridge, Nik

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the influence of adding a patented, specific mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS [9:1 ratio], Danone Research) to a protein substitute suitable for infants with Phenylketonuria (PKU); PKU Anamix Infant (Nutricia). This was an 8-week open-label, single-arm, pilot intervention study in 9 infants (8-week median age) diagnosed with PKU. On study entry, infants were prescribed PKU Anamix Infant to replace an infant phenylalanine-free protein substitute without prebiotics (IPS). Blood phenylalanine concentrations were monitored and stool samples analyzed for pH/bacterial groups. PKU Anamix infant was well tolerated and accepted with no adverse events reported. Overall, plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations were maintained within target ranges throughout the study (120-360 μmol/l phenylalanine, 30-100 μmol/l tyrosine). All infants exhibited microbiota dominated by bifidobacteria (median 58.97% at Week 8), although no statistically significant change from baseline was observed at study endpoint. No infants showed abnormally high levels of Clostridium histolyticum/lituseburense or potentially pathogenic enterobacteriaceae at any point during the study. A significant reduction in median stool pH versus baseline was observed at Week 4 (pH reduced from 6.79 to 5.83), but this significance was not present at Week 8 (pH = 6.61). PKU Anamix Infant maintains phenylalanine control in line with established IPS without prebiotics and maintains levels of bifidobacteria and lowers stool pH. In exclusively breast-fed infants the latter two factors have been associated with a reduced risk of infection and may be of particular importance in infants with PKU. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants

    DOE PAGES

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T.; ...

    2015-09-22

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow’s milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceaemore » (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. As a result, our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut.« less

  15. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants

    PubMed Central

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A; Gilbert, Jack A; Nagler, Cathryn R

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. Our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut. PMID:26394008

  16. Isoflavones in urine, saliva, and blood of infants: data from a pilot study on the estrogenic activity of soy formula.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Calafat, Antonia M; Doerge, Daniel R; Umbach, David M; Bernbaum, Judy C; Twaddle, Nathan C; Ye, Xiaoyun; Rogan, Walter J

    2009-02-01

    In the United States, about 25% of infant formula sold is based on soy protein, which is an important source of estrogenic isoflavones in the human food supply. Nevertheless, few studies report isoflavone levels in infants. We did a partly cross-sectional and partly longitudinal pilot study to examine children's exposure to isoflavones from different feeding methods. A total of 166 full-term infants between birth and 1 year of age were recruited into soy formula, cow milk formula, or breast milk regimens according to their feeding histories. A total of 381 urine, 361 saliva, and 88 blood samples were collected at 382 visits. We used automated online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for measuring three isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and equol) in urine, and used similar LC/MS/MS techniques for saliva and blood spots. Concentrations of daidzein and genistein were undetectable in most blood or saliva samples from children fed breast milk or cow milk formula. The proportion of non-detectable values was somewhat lower in urine than in the other matrices. Concentrations of equol were detectable only in a few urine samples. For both daidzein and genistein, urine contained the highest median concentrations, followed by blood and then saliva. Urinary concentrations of genistein and daidzein were about 500 times higher in the soy formula-fed infants than in the cow milk formula-fed infants. The correlations between matrices for either analyte were strikingly lower than the correlation between the two analytes in any single matrix. We did not find significant correlations between isoflavone concentrations and the levels of certain hormones in children fed soy formula. Our results, based on much larger numbers of infants, strongly confirm previous reports, but whether phytoestrogens in soy formula are biologically active in infants is still an open question. We plan further longitudinal studies

  17. Mechanical Milk: An Essay on the Social History of Infant Formula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Michael G.

    1996-01-01

    Describes how infant formula became an "icon of modernity" separating mothers from babies and causing health and social problems. Gives a 300-year social history of the rise in popularity of infant formula, covering aspects including the body as machine, rise of science and industrialization, formula and public health, the clean milk…

  18. Mechanical Milk: An Essay on the Social History of Infant Formula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Michael G.

    1996-01-01

    Describes how infant formula became an "icon of modernity" separating mothers from babies and causing health and social problems. Gives a 300-year social history of the rise in popularity of infant formula, covering aspects including the body as machine, rise of science and industrialization, formula and public health, the clean milk…

  19. Phospholipid Species in Newborn and 4 Month Old Infants after Consumption of Different Formulas or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Olaf; Fleddermann, Manja; Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for neuronal and cognitive development and are ingredients of infant formulae that are recommended but there is no evidence based minimal supplementation level available. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the effect of supplemented AA and DHA on phospholipid metabolism. Methods Plasma samples of a randomized, double-blind infant feeding trial were used for the analyses of phospholipid species by flow-injection mass spectrometry. Healthy term infants consumed isoenergetic formulae (intervention formula with equal amounts of AA and DHA—IF, control formula without additional AA and DHA—CF) from the first month of life until the age of 120 days. A group of breast milk (BM) -fed infants was followed as a reference. Results The plasma profile detected in newborns was different from 4 month old infants, irrespective of study group. Most relevant changes were seen in higher level of LPC16:1, LPC20:4, PC32:1, PC34:1 and PC36:4 and lower level of LPC18:0, LPC18:2, PC32:2, PC36:2 and several ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in newborns. The sum of all AA and DHA species at 4 month old infants in the CF group showed level of 40% (AA) and 51% (DHA) of newborns. The supplemented amount of DHA resulted in phospholipid level comparable to BM infants, but AA phospholipids were lower than in BM infants. Interestingly, relative contribution of DHA was higher in ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in CF fed infants, but IF and BM fed infants showed higher overall ether-linked phosphatidylcholines levels. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that infant plasma phospholipid profile changes remarkably from newborn over time and is dependent on the dietary fatty acid composition. A supplementation of an infant formula with AA and DHA resulted in increased related phospholipid species. PMID:27571269

  20. Phospholipid Species in Newborn and 4 Month Old Infants after Consumption of Different Formulas or Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Olaf; Fleddermann, Manja; Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for neuronal and cognitive development and are ingredients of infant formulae that are recommended but there is no evidence based minimal supplementation level available. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the effect of supplemented AA and DHA on phospholipid metabolism. Plasma samples of a randomized, double-blind infant feeding trial were used for the analyses of phospholipid species by flow-injection mass spectrometry. Healthy term infants consumed isoenergetic formulae (intervention formula with equal amounts of AA and DHA-IF, control formula without additional AA and DHA-CF) from the first month of life until the age of 120 days. A group of breast milk (BM) -fed infants was followed as a reference. The plasma profile detected in newborns was different from 4 month old infants, irrespective of study group. Most relevant changes were seen in higher level of LPC16:1, LPC20:4, PC32:1, PC34:1 and PC36:4 and lower level of LPC18:0, LPC18:2, PC32:2, PC36:2 and several ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in newborns. The sum of all AA and DHA species at 4 month old infants in the CF group showed level of 40% (AA) and 51% (DHA) of newborns. The supplemented amount of DHA resulted in phospholipid level comparable to BM infants, but AA phospholipids were lower than in BM infants. Interestingly, relative contribution of DHA was higher in ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in CF fed infants, but IF and BM fed infants showed higher overall ether-linked phosphatidylcholines levels. In conclusion, we have shown that infant plasma phospholipid profile changes remarkably from newborn over time and is dependent on the dietary fatty acid composition. A supplementation of an infant formula with AA and DHA resulted in increased related phospholipid species.

  1. Impact of dietary cereal on nutrient absorption and fecal nitrogen loss in formula-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Shulman, R J; Boutton, T W; Klein, P D

    1991-01-01

    To determine the capacity of infants to digest and absorb rice cereal and to determine the effect of cereal feeding on total energy and nitrogen absorption. Subject's residences and the Texas Children's Hospital Clinical Research Center, Houston. Eight healthy 1-month-old bottle-fed infants. Infants were fed their usual formula for 3 days. For the subsequent 6 days, they received 4 gm of rice cereal, labeled with carbon 13, per 30 ml of the formula. Fecal balance studies were performed for a 72-hour period while the infants received only formula and again during the last 3 days of cereal feeding. Breath samples for hydrogen measurement were collected before and after the cereal feeding. Nutrient intake was measured and stools were analyzed for 13C abundance, energy, nitrogen, fiber content, and bacterial mass. Cereal absorption was 88 +/- 9% (mean +/- SD). Despite a significant increase in energy and nitrogen intake from cereal feeding, the coefficient of absorption fell (energy: 97% to 90%, p = 0.048; nitrogen: 94% to 74%, p = 0.009). Fecal dry weight increased after the cereal feeding (p = 0.004), primarily as a result of a sevenfold increase in fecal bacterial mass (p = 0.002). Fecal nitrogen increased primarily because of incorporation of nitrogen into bacteria. No differences were detected in breath hydrogen as a consequence of formula feeding versus formula-cereal feeding. Although cereal was relatively well-absorbed in this group of infants and increased their intakes of energy and nitrogen, it did not increase the coefficients of energy and nitrogen absorption. Cereal feeding increased fecal bacterial mass and bacterial nitrogen.

  2. Enterobacteriaceae in dehydrated powdered infant formula manufactured in Indonesia and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Estuningsih, Sri; Kress, Claudia; Hassan, Abdulwahed A; Akineden, Omer; Schneider, Elisabeth; Usleber, Ewald

    2006-12-01

    To determine the occurrence of Salmonella and Shigella in infant formula from Southeast Asia, 74 packages of dehydrated powdered infant follow-on formula (recommended age, > 4 months) from five different manufacturers, four from Indonesia and one from Malaysia, were analyzed. None of the 25-g test portions yielded Salmonella or Shigella. However, further identification of colonies growing on selective media used for Salmonella and Shigella detection revealed the frequent occurrence of several other Enterobacteriaceae species. A total of 35 samples (47%) were positive for Enterobacteriaceae. Ten samples (13.5%) from two Indonesian manufacturers yielded Enterobacter sakazakii. Other Enterobacteriaceae isolated included Pantoea spp. (n = 12), Escherichia hermanii (n = 10), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 8), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (n = 3), Citrobacter spp. (n = 2), Serratia spp. (n = 2), and Escherichia coli (n = 2). To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the contamination of dehydrated powdered infant formula from Indonesia with E. sakazakii and several other Enterobacteriaceae that could be opportunistic pathogens. Improper preparation and conservation of these products could result in a health risk for infants in Indonesia.

  3. Oral Microbiota in Infants Fed a Formula Supplemented with Bovine Milk Fat Globule Membranes - A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Timby, Niklas; Domellöf, Magnus; Holgerson, Pernilla Lif; West, Christina E.; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2017-01-01

    Background In a recent study, supplementation of infant formula with milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) decreased the incidence of otitis media in infants <6 months of age. Objectives The aim of the present study was to characterize the oral microbiota in infants fed MFGM-supplemented formula and compare it to that of infants fed standard formula or breast milk. Methods In a prospective double-blinded randomized controlled trial, exclusively formula-fed infants <2 months of age were randomized to be fed experimental formula (EF, n = 80) with reduced energy and protein and supplemented with a bovine MFGM concentrate, or standard formula (SF, n = 80) until 6 months of age. A breast-fed reference (BFR, n = 80) group was also recruited. The oral microbiota was analyzed at 4 (n = 124) and 12 (n = 166) months of age using Illumina MiSeq multiplex sequencing and taxonomic resolution against the HOMD 16S rDNA database of oral bacteria. Results Species richness in the oral samples did not differ between the EF and SF groups, but partial least square modeling identified a few taxa that were significantly associated with being in either group, e.g. lower level of Moraxella catarrhalis in the EF group. Infants in the BFR group had significantly lower species richness at 4 months of age and their microbiota pattern differed markedly from the formula-fed groups. Conclusions Supplementation of infant formula with MFGM yielded moderate effects on the oral microbiome. Moraxella catarrhalis was less prevalent in infants fed EF than in those fed SF and may be associated with the decrease in otitis media seen in the same group. PMID:28099499

  4. Oral Microbiota in Infants Fed a Formula Supplemented with Bovine Milk Fat Globule Membranes - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Timby, Niklas; Domellöf, Magnus; Holgerson, Pernilla Lif; West, Christina E; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2017-01-01

    In a recent study, supplementation of infant formula with milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) decreased the incidence of otitis media in infants <6 months of age. The aim of the present study was to characterize the oral microbiota in infants fed MFGM-supplemented formula and compare it to that of infants fed standard formula or breast milk. In a prospective double-blinded randomized controlled trial, exclusively formula-fed infants <2 months of age were randomized to be fed experimental formula (EF, n = 80) with reduced energy and protein and supplemented with a bovine MFGM concentrate, or standard formula (SF, n = 80) until 6 months of age. A breast-fed reference (BFR, n = 80) group was also recruited. The oral microbiota was analyzed at 4 (n = 124) and 12 (n = 166) months of age using Illumina MiSeq multiplex sequencing and taxonomic resolution against the HOMD 16S rDNA database of oral bacteria. Species richness in the oral samples did not differ between the EF and SF groups, but partial least square modeling identified a few taxa that were significantly associated with being in either group, e.g. lower level of Moraxella catarrhalis in the EF group. Infants in the BFR group had significantly lower species richness at 4 months of age and their microbiota pattern differed markedly from the formula-fed groups. Supplementation of infant formula with MFGM yielded moderate effects on the oral microbiome. Moraxella catarrhalis was less prevalent in infants fed EF than in those fed SF and may be associated with the decrease in otitis media seen in the same group.

  5. The History of Infant Formula: Quality, Safety, and Standard Methods.

    PubMed

    Wargo, Wayne F

    2016-01-01

    Food-related laws and regulations have existed since ancient times. Egyptian scrolls prescribed the labeling needed for certain foods. In ancient Athens, beer and wines were inspected for purity and soundness, and the Romans had a well-organized state food control system to protect consumers from fraud or bad produce. In Europe during the Middle Ages, individual countries passed laws concerning the quality and safety of eggs, sausages, cheese, beer, wine, and bread; some of these laws still exist today. But more modern dietary guidelines and food regulations have their origins in the latter half of the 19th century when the first general food laws were adopted and basic food control systems were implemented to monitor compliance. Around this time, science and food chemistry began to provide the tools to determine "purity" of food based primarily on chemical composition and to determine whether it had been adulterated in any way. Since the key chemical components of mammalian milk were first understood, infant formulas have steadily advanced in complexity as manufacturers attempt to close the compositional gap with human breast milk. To verify these compositional innovations and ensure product quality and safety, infant formula has become one of the most regulated foods in the world. The present paper examines the historical development of nutritional alternatives to breastfeeding, focusing on efforts undertaken to ensure the quality and safety from antiquity to present day. The impact of commercial infant formulas on global regulations is addressed, along with the resulting need for harmonized, fit-for-purpose, voluntary consensus standard methods.

  6. Fermentation pattern of infant formulas containing different prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoof, Jon; Ferguson, Paul; Pauley-Hunter, Rosemary; Prestridge, Laurel

    2015-05-01

    Prebiotics play a role in the development of intestinal flora. When exposed to unabsorbed food, such as prebiotic carbohydrates, intestinal bacteria produce hydrogen. Increases in hydrogen may signify a slower rate of fermentation or digestion. In this blinded, crossover study, infants (n = 13) consumed formula containing either 4 g/L galactooligosaccharide (GOS) or 4 g/L polydextrose (PDX) + GOS, and breath hydrogen was measured. Breath hydrogen was higher in the PDX/GOS group versus GOS alone (mean ± standard error, 25.35 ± 2.87 ppm vs 13.69 ± 2.87 ppm, P = 0.0001). These results indicate that the formula with PDX/GOS may have undergone slower digestion.

  7. Qualitative evaluation of maternal milk and commercial infant formulas via LIBS.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Z; Al Sharnoubi, J; Harith, M A

    2013-10-15

    This study focuses on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the evaluation of the nutrients in maternal milk and some commercially available infant formulas. The results of such evaluation are vital for adequate and healthy feeding for babies during lactation period. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy offers special advantages in comparison to the other conventional analytical techniques. Specifically, LIBS is a straightforward technique that can be used in situ to provide qualitative analytical information in few minutes for the samples under investigation without preparation processes. The samples studied in the current work were maternal milk samples collected during the first 3 months of lactation (not colostrum milk) and samples from six different types of commercially available infant formulas. The samples' elemental composition has been compared with respect to the relative abundance of the elements of nutrition importance, namely Mg, Ca, Na, and Fe using their spectral emission lines in the relevant LIBS spectra. In addition, CN and C2 molecular emission bands in the same spectra have been studied as indicators of proteins content in the samples. The obtained analytical results demonstrate the higher elemental contents of the maternal milk compared with the commercial formulas samples. Similar results have been obtained as for the proteins content. It has been also shown that calcium and proteins have similar relative concentration trends in the studied samples. This work demonstrates the feasibility of adopting LIBS as a fast, safe, less costly technique evaluating qualitatively the nutrients content of both maternal and commercial milk samples.

  8. Lead, cadmium and aluminum in Canadian infant formulae, oral electrolytes and glucose solutions

    PubMed Central

    Dabeka, Robert; Fouquet, Andre; Belisle, Stephane; Turcotte, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) were determined in 437 individual samples of infant formulae, oral electrolytes and 5% glucose solutions available in Canada. In the electrolytes, Cd and Pb concentrations were all below 0.01 and 0.041 ng g−1, respectively. In the 5% glucose solutions, Pb and Cd levels averaged 0.01 and 0.09 ng g−1, respectively. Reported on an as-consumed basis, Pb levels in milk- and soya-based formulae averaged 0.90 and 1.45 ng g−1, respectively, while Cd levels averaged 0.23 and 1.18 ng g−1, respectively Average Al levels on an as-consumed basis were 440 ng g−1 (range 10–3400 ng g−1) in milk-based formulae and 730 ng g−1 (range 230–1100 ng g−1) in soy-based formulae. Al concentrations increased in the following order: plain formula < low-iron formula < iron-supplemented formula < casein hydrolysate formula ≈ premature formula ≤ soy formula. For example, in the powdered formulae, average Al concentrations were 18 ng g−1 for plain milk-based, 37 ng g−1 for low-iron, 128 ng g−1 for iron supplemented, 462 ng g−1 for lactose-free, 518 ng g−1 for hypoallergenic and 619 ng g−1 for soy-based formula. Al concentrations, as-consumed, increased with decreasing levels of concentration: powder < concentrated liquid < ready-to-use. Formulae stored in glass bottles contained between 100 and 300 ng g−1 more Al than the same formulae stored in cans. The source of the increased Al did not appear to be the glass itself, because most electrolytes and glucose solutions, also stored in glass, contained less than 8 ng g−1 Al. Corresponding differences in Pb and Cd levels were not observed. Al concentrations varied substantially among manufacturers; however, all manufacturers were able to produce plain milk-based formulae containing less than 50 ng g−1 Al, i.e. within the range of Al concentrations found in human milk. Next to soya-based and hypoallergenic formulae, premature formulae contained among the highest

  9. Lead, cadmium and aluminum in Canadian infant formulae, oral electrolytes and glucose solutions.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, Robert; Fouquet, Andre; Belisle, Stephane; Turcotte, Stephane

    2011-06-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) were determined in 437 individual samples of infant formulae, oral electrolytes and 5% glucose solutions available in Canada. In the electrolytes, Cd and Pb concentrations were all below 0.01 and 0.041 ng g(-1), respectively. In the 5% glucose solutions, Pb and Cd levels averaged 0.01 and 0.09 ng g(-1), respectively. Reported on an as-consumed basis, Pb levels in milk- and soya-based formulae averaged 0.90 and 1.45 ng g(-1), respectively, while Cd levels averaged 0.23 and 1.18 ng g(-1), respectively Average Al levels on an as-consumed basis were 440 ng g(-1) (range 10-3400 ng g(-1)) in milk-based formulae and 730 ng g(-1) (range 230-1100 ng g(-1)) in soy-based formulae. Al concentrations increased in the following order: plain formula < low-iron formula < iron-supplemented formula < casein hydrolysate formula ≈ premature formula ≤ soy formula. For example, in the powdered formulae, average Al concentrations were 18 ng g(-1) for plain milk-based, 37 ng g(-1) for low-iron, 128 ng g(-1) for iron supplemented, 462 ng g(-1) for lactose-free, 518 ng g(-1) for hypoallergenic and 619 ng g(-1) for soy-based formula. Al concentrations, as-consumed, increased with decreasing levels of concentration: powder < concentrated liquid < ready-to-use. Formulae stored in glass bottles contained between 100 and 300 ng g(-1) more Al than the same formulae stored in cans. The source of the increased Al did not appear to be the glass itself, because most electrolytes and glucose solutions, also stored in glass, contained less than 8 ng g(-1) Al. Corresponding differences in Pb and Cd levels were not observed. Al concentrations varied substantially among manufacturers; however, all manufacturers were able to produce plain milk-based formulae containing less than 50 ng g(-1) Al, i.e. within the range of Al concentrations found in human milk. Next to soya-based and hypoallergenic formulae, premature formulae contained among the highest

  10. Implications of changing the amount of thickener in thickened infant formula for infants with dysphagia.

    PubMed

    September, Cindy; Nicholson, Timothy M; Cichero, Julie A Y

    2014-08-01

    When a dysphagic infant is prescribed thickened infant formula (TIF) as a treatment method, some clinicians determine their own addition rates of thickener to meet the specific needs of the infant rather than relying on the directions on the tin. In this study the rheological behaviour of a TIF at different addition levels of thickener was measured to determine whether there was a difference in full rheological response and in viscosity. In addition, the time taken for the TIF to reach a near-stable viscosity was also measured. One hundred grams of Karicare® infant formula was made up according to the manufacturer’s instructions and Karicare® feed thickener was added at levels of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 g, respectively. A strain-controlled rheometer (ARES) with Couette geometry was used to rheologically characterise the TIF at the different levels of thickener addition. There was a significant difference in viscosity between the low levels and the higher levels of addition thickener (p < 0.05). Also, the low levels of thickener addition showed Newtonian-like behaviour, whereas the higher levels of addition were shear-thinning. The time taken for the thickener to reach a near-stable viscosity was found to be 10 min. Guidelines for thickened infant formula need to take into account the different levels of thickener addition rates.

  11. Safety of soya-based infant formulas in children.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Castrellon, Pedro Gutierrez; Rivas, Rodolfo; Gutiérrez, Carlos Jimenez; Garcia, Luisa Diaz; Jimenez, Juliana Estevez; Anzo, Anahi; Hegar, Badriul; Alarcon, Pedro

    2014-04-28

    Soya-based infant formulas (SIF) containing soya flour were introduced almost 100 years ago. Modern soya formulas are used in allergy/intolerance to cows' milk-based formulas (CMF), post-infectious diarrhoea, lactose intolerance and galactosaemia, as a vegan human milk (HM) substitute, etc. The safety of SIF is still debated. In the present study, we reviewed the safety of SIF in relation to anthropometric growth, bone health (bone mineral content), immunity, cognition, and reproductive and endocrine functions. The present review includes cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies or clinical trials that were carried out in children fed SIF compared with those fed other types of infant formulas and that measured safety. The databases that were searched included PubMed (1909 to July 2013), Embase (1988 to May 2013), LILACS (1990 to May 2011), ARTEMISA (13th edition, December 2012), Cochrane controlled trials register, Bandolier and DARE using the Cochrane methodology. Wherever possible, a meta-analysis was carried out. We found that the anthropometric patterns of children fed SIF were similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. Despite the high levels of phytates and aluminium in SIF, Hb, serum protein, Zn and Ca concentrations and bone mineral content were found to be similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. We also found the levels of genistein and daidzein to be higher in children fed SIF; however, we did not find strong evidence of a negative effect on reproductive and endocrine functions. Immune measurements and neurocognitive parameters were similar in all the feeding groups. In conclusion, modern SIF are evidence-based safety options to feed children requiring them. The patterns of growth, bone health and metabolic, reproductive, endocrine, immune and neurological functions are similar to those observed in children fed CMF or HM.

  12. Oligosaccharides in infant formula: more evidence to validate the role of prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Zakharova, Irina; Dmitrieva, Yulia

    2015-05-14

    The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota differs between breast-fed and classic infant formula-fed infants. Breast milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides (OS) and may also contain some probiotics, but scientific societies do not recommend the addition of prebiotic OS or probiotics to standard infant formula. Nevertheless, many infant formula companies often add one or the other or both. Different types of prebiotic OS are used in infant formula, including galacto-oligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose and mixtures of these OS, but none adds human milk OS. There is evidence that the addition of prebiotics to infant formula brings the GI microbiota of formula-fed infants closer to that of breast-fed infants. Prebiotics change gut metabolic activity (by decreasing stool pH and increasing SCFA), have a bifidogenic effect and bring stool consistency and defecation frequency closer to those of breast-fed infants. Although there is only limited evidence that these changes in GI microbiota induce a significant clinical benefit for the immune system, interesting positive trends have been observed in some markers. Additionally, adverse effects are extremely seldom. Prebiotics are added to infant formula because breast milk contains human milk OS. Because most studies suggest a trend of beneficial effects and because these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to the golden standard of breast milk.

  13. Soy protein infant formulae and follow-on formulae: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Axelsson, Irene; Goulet, Olivier; Koletzko, Berthold; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischerm; Puntis, John; Rieu, Daniel; Rigo, Jacques; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique

    2006-04-01

    This comment by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition summarizes available information on the composition and use of soy protein formulae as substitutes for breastfeeding and cows' milk protein formulae as well as on their suitability and safety for supporting adequate growth and development in infants. Soy is a source of protein that is inferior to cows' milk, with a lower digestibility and bioavailability as well as a lower methionine content. For soy protein infant formulae, only protein isolates can be used, and minimum protein content required in the current European Union legislation is higher than that of cows' milk protein infant formulae (2.25 g/100 kcal vs. 1.8 g/100kcal). Soy protein formulae can be used for feeding term infants, but they have no nutritional advantage over cows' milk protein formulae and contain high concentrations of phytate, aluminum, and phytoestrogens (isoflavones), which might have untoward effects. There are no data to support the use of soy protein formulae in preterm infants. Indications for soy protein formulae include severe persistent lactose intolerance, galactosemia, and ethical considerations (e.g., vegan concepts). Soy protein formulae have no role in the prevention of allergic diseases and should not be used in infants with food allergy during the first 6 months of life. If soy protein formulae are considered for therapeutic use in food allergy after the age of 6 months because of their lower cost and better acceptance, tolerance to soy protein should first be established byclinical challenge. There is no evidence supporting the use of soy protein formulae for the prevention or management of infantile colic, regurgitation, or prolonged crying.

  14. Isoflavones and soyasaponins in soy infant formulas in Brazil: profile and estimated consumption.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Nívea D; Villar, Marcos Paulo Melo; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; Perrone, Daniel

    2014-01-15

    In the present study we determine the contents of isoflavones and soyasaponins in seven soy-based infant formulas available in the Brazilian market to estimate the intake of these bioactive compounds by infants. The mean contents of isoflavones and soyasaponins were 65.9mg/kg and 55.0mg/100g, respectively. β-Glycosylated isoflavones and soyasaponin B-I were the most abundant components in the analysed samples. The mean estimated intake of isoflavones by infants fed soy-based formulas was 0.8mg/day/kg of body weight, which is twice that of Japanese adults. For soyasaponins, the mean estimated intake was 9.2mg/day/kg of body weight, which is up to 6 times higher than the daily intake of saponins from beans by vegetarians. Considering the estimated intake of these bioactive compounds from soy-based formulas and the paucity of data regarding their bioavailability, the potential biological effects of isoflavones and soyasaponins in infants should not be overlooked and merits further investigation.

  15. Comparative study on the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in breast milk and infant formula and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Santonicola, Serena; De Felice, Alessandra; Cobellis, Luigi; Passariello, Nicola; Peluso, Angela; Murru, Nicoletta; Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Mercogliano, Raffaelina

    2017-05-01

    The study compared the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) profile of human milk collected from Italian mothers and different brands of infant formula available on Italian market. Levels of 14 PAHs most frequently occurred in food, PAH markers listed by Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006, and carcinogenic PAHs classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. The average concentrations of total PAHs were 114.93 in breast milk and 53.68 μg kg(-1) in infant formula. Furthermore, Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and the sum of ∑PAH4 markers (BaP, Chrysene, Benzo(a,h)anthracene and Benzo(b)fluoranthene) were higher than the permissible limit of 1 μg kg(-1) in 43% and 86% for breast milk and in 10% and 76% for infant formula samples, respectively. Breast milk showed higher levels (P < 0.05) of carcinogenic, and possible carcinogenic hydrocarbons than infant formula samples. Both in human and commercial milk, data showed the occurrence of low and high molecular weight PAHs, respectively from petrogenic and pyrolytic environmental sources, characterizing the infant and mother exposure. Particularly, waste incineration could have represented an important exposure source for infants during breastfeeding, through exposition of mothers resident in some areas of Southern Italy. High PAH levels detected in infant formula enriched with LC-PUFA might be related to the contamination of the vegetable oils added as ingredients. Results showed a high percentage of samples of both breast milk and infant formulas with margin of exposure (MOE) value indicating a potential concern for consumer health.

  16. Erythrocyte fatty acids of term infants fed either breast milk, standard formula, or formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturates.

    PubMed

    Makrides, M; Neumann, M A; Simmer, K; Gibson, R A

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess whether a supplement of fish oil (FO) and evening primrose oil (EPO) for formula-fed infants was capable of avoiding reductions in erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) associated with standard formula feeding. Healthy, term infants, whose mothers chose to formula feed, were randomized to either a placebo or supplemented formula for their first 30 wk of life. A reference group of beast-fed infants also was enrolled. Erythrocyte fatty acids were measured by capillary gas chromatography on day 5 and in weeks 6, 16, and 30. Supplementation of formula with 0.36% of total fatty acids as DHA resulted in erythrocyte DHA being maintained at or above breast-fed levels for the entire 30-wk study period, and breast feeding (0.21% DHA) resulted in a modest fall in erythrocyte DHA relative to baseline (day 5) values. The level of erythrocyte DHA in placebo formula-fed infants was halved by week 16. AA levels decreased in all infants in the first six weeks, but the levels in breast- and placebo formula-fed infants increased with age and returned to approximate baseline (day 5) values by 16 and 30 wk of age, respectively. Erythrocyte AA in FO+EPO-supplemented infants remained low and below breast- and placebo formula-fed levels. Our data suggest that dietary supplementation with DHA at 0.36% total fatty acids results in erythrocyte DHA levels above those found in breast-fed infants. EPO supplementation was not effective at maintaining erythrocyte AA when given with FO.

  17. Vitamin D in infant formula and enteral products by liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Sliva, M G; Sanders, J K

    1996-01-01

    Results from a collaborative study of a new liquid chromatographic (LC) method for determination of vitamin D in infant formulas and enteral products are presented. Each of 15 laboratories was provided with 11 blind duplicate samples covering a range of approximately 200-500 International Units/quart (normal dilution), a system suitability sample, and the U.S. Pharmacopeia ergo- and cholecalciferol standards. Product types included liquid and powder forms of milk (whey and casein), soy, and hydrolyzed protein-based infant formulas and enteral products. The method includes a single liquid-liquid extraction following saponification, solid-phase extraction, and then concentration by evaporation. An isocratic, nonaqueous, chromatographic system with reversed-phase, zero endcapped C18 column, and UV detector set at 265 nm are used. Statistical evaluation of data from participating laboratories show the average reproducibility and repeatability of the method across all samples to be excellent, with RSDR and RSDr values of 13.48 and 9.44, respectively, after elimination of outliers. The LC method for determination of vitamin D in infant formulas and enteral products has been adopted by AOAC INTERNATIONAL.

  18. Formula-fed full term infants have lower fractional but greater total calcium absorption than human milk-fed infants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: The fatty acid (FA) profile of infant formula resembles the FA profile of human milk (HM), but the % of palmitic acid in the sn-2 or beta position of the triglyceride in infant formula is lower than that of HM, and this may limit calcium (Ca) absorption. This is important to consider in ...

  19. Biotin deficiency in an infant fed with amino acid formula.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Wataru; Inaoki, Makoto; Fukui, Toru; Inoue, Yoshito; Kuhara, Tomiko

    2005-04-01

    Biotin deficiency is rarely encountered in an infant on weaning from breast and formula feeding. It is characterized by alopecia and scaly, erythematous dermatitis distributed around the body orifices. We report a 5-month-old Japanese infant with typical skin lesions who had been diagnosed as a neonate with dyspepsia and fed only an amino acid formula. Serum and urine levels of biotin were below the normal range, but zinc and biotinidase were within normal range. Urinary excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine, 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid, and methylcitric acid was significantly elevated. Daily oral supplementation with 1 mg of biotin resulted in dramatic improvement of the periorificial dermatitis and hair growth together with a complete disappearance of the organic aciduria. Our case shows that the characteristic skin manifestations are the most important clue to the diagnosis of biotin deficiency and demonstrated that urinary excretion of biotin and organic aciduria, rather than the serum concentration of biotin, are the sensitive indicators for evaluating the patient's status of biotin deficiency.

  20. Evaluation of an Amino Acid-Based Formula in Infants Not Responding to Extensively Hydrolyzed Protein Formula.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoof, Jon; Moore, Nancy; de Boissieu, Delphine

    2016-11-01

    Nearly 2% to 3% of infants and children younger than 3 years have confirmed cow's milk protein allergy with multiple clinical presentations including atopic dermatitis (AD), diarrhea, and vomiting/spitting up. Although most infants with cow's milk protein allergy experience clinical improvement with the use of an extensively hydrolyzed (EH) formula, highly sensitive infants may require an amino acid-based formula. In this observational, prospective study, 30 infants (1-12 months of age) with a history of weight loss and persistent allergic manifestations while on an EH formula were provided an amino acid-based formula for 12 weeks. Mean weight gain (z score change) improved +0.43 ± 0.28 (mean ± standard deviation) after the 12-week feeding period. Improvement was observed for many allergic symptoms including significant decreases in AD severity (P = 0.02). These results indicate the new amino acid-based infant formula supported healthy weight gain and improvement in allergic manifestations in infants not responding to EH formulas.

  1. Evaluation of an Amino Acid−Based Formula in Infants Not Responding to Extensively Hydrolyzed Protein Formula

    PubMed Central

    Vanderhoof, Jon; Moore, Nancy; de Boissieu, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nearly 2% to 3% of infants and children younger than 3 years have confirmed cow's milk protein allergy with multiple clinical presentations including atopic dermatitis (AD), diarrhea, and vomiting/spitting up. Although most infants with cow's milk protein allergy experience clinical improvement with the use of an extensively hydrolyzed (EH) formula, highly sensitive infants may require an amino acid−based formula. In this observational, prospective study, 30 infants (1–12 months of age) with a history of weight loss and persistent allergic manifestations while on an EH formula were provided an amino acid−based formula for 12 weeks. Mean weight gain (z score change) improved +0.43 ± 0.28 (mean ± standard deviation) after the 12-week feeding period. Improvement was observed for many allergic symptoms including significant decreases in AD severity (P = 0.02). These results indicate the new amino acid–based infant formula supported healthy weight gain and improvement in allergic manifestations in infants not responding to EH formulas. PMID:27526059

  2. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula by trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Hoagland, Thomas A; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2009-02-15

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging pathogen which causes a life-threatening form of meningitis, necrotizing colitis and meningoencephalitis in neonates and children. Epidemiological studies implicate dried infant formula as the principal source of the pathogen. Trans-cinnamaldehyde is a major component of bark extract of cinnamon. It is classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and is approved for use in food (21 CFR 182.60). The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde on E. sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula. A 5-strain mixture of E. sakazakii was inoculated into 10 ml samples of reconstituted infant formula (at 6.0 log CFU/ml) containing 0%, 0.15%, 0.3% or 0.5% trans-cinnamaldehyde. The samples were incubated at 37, 23, 8 or 4 degrees C for 0, 6, 10 and 24 h, and the surviving populations of E. sakazakii at each sampling time were enumerated. In addition, potential cytotoxicity of trans-cinnamaldehyde, if any, was determined on human embryonic intestinal cells (INT-407). The treatments containing trans-cinnamaldehyde significantly reduced (P<0.05) the population of E. sakazakii, compared to the controls. Trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.5%) reduced the pathogen to undetectable levels by 4 h of incubation at 37 or 23 degrees C and 10 h of incubation at 8 or 4 degrees C, respectively. Trans-cinnamaldehyde produced no cytotoxic effects on human embryonic intestinal cells at the tested concentrations. Results indicate that trans-cinnamaldehyde could potentially be used to kill E. sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula, however sensory studies are warranted before recommending its use.

  3. Determination of bovine lactoferrin in infant formula by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Ding, Xiaojing; Chen, Yongyan; Song, Baohua; Zhao, Shan; Wang, Zhi

    2012-06-29

    A new and simple method for the quantitative determination of bovine lactoferrin (Lf) in infant formula by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet (CE-UV) detection was established. Effective sample pre-treatment and the addition of buffer additive to the running buffer played key roles in the accurate assay of the Lf in infant formula. In the method, the infant formula samples were pretreated with 50 mmol/L acetic acid without pH adjustment, which is beneficial for high sample throughput. The separation was carried out in an uncoated capillary with 50 μm i.d. and total length of 27 cm (20 cm to the detector). The running buffer consisted of 40 mmol/L NaH₂PO₄, 40 mmol/L H₃PO₄ and 5 mmol/L polyethylene glycol dodecylether (Brij 35). The addition of the non-ionic surfactant Brij 35 to the running buffer served to suppress the Lf adsorption to the capillary wall, and also allowed for high-efficiency separation of Lf from adjacent unknown proteins. The intra- and inter-day precision of the method were 2.4% and 4.6% (n=7), respectively. The corrected peak area (A(c)) and the concentration of Lf showed a strong linear relationship within the range of 10-400 mg/L with a linear correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 3mg/L (S/N=3) and 10mg/L (S/N=10), respectively. The method was successfully used to quantitate the Lf in infant formula with satisfactory results.

  4. Similar calcium status is present in infants fed formula with and without prebiotics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides can increase calcium absorption in adolescents and adults. Whether they affect calcium absorption in infants has not been assessed. Few data are available to compare the calcium status of infants fed modern infant formulas to that of breast fed infants. To evaluate calcium...

  5. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sookyoung; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Emily E.; Kuchan, Matthew J.; Pereira, Suzette L.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Erdman, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group). All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions. PMID:28075370

  6. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sookyoung; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Emily E; Kuchan, Matthew J; Pereira, Suzette L; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Erdman, John W

    2017-01-10

    Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group). All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions.

  7. Total and "free" lipids in commercial infant formulas: fatty acid composition and their stability to oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zunin, Paola; Boggia, Raffaella; Turrini, Federica; Leardi, Riccardo

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this paper was to study the fatty acid composition of total and "free" lipids in powdered infant milks and to evaluate the fatty acid oxidation after package opening. In its first step the application of Principal Component Analysis and Design of Experiments has allowed to take a comprehensive picture of powdered infant formulas on sale in Italy on the basis of their labelled composition and to select a limited number of representative samples. Both total and "non encapsulated" or "free" lipids were considered and analysed and no significant differences were found between their fatty acids contents. The possible modification of the fatty acid composition in the "free" lipids caused by oxidation was also studied, simulating the domestic habits after opening. No significant changes were observed up to 30 days even when formulas had an high content of unsaturated fatty acids and valuable Long Chain Polyunsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of a partially hydrolyzed infant formula with two extensively hydrolyzed formulas for allergy prevention: a prospective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Halken, S; Hansen, K S; Jacobsen, H P; Estmann, A; Faelling, A E; Hansen, L G; Kier, S R; Lassen, K; Lintrup, M; Mortensen, S; Ibsen, K K; Osterballe, O; Høst, A

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the allergy-preventive effect of a partially hydrolyzed formula with two extensively hydrolyzed formulas, in infants with a high risk for development of allergic disease. High-risk infants from four Danish centres were included in the period from June 1994 to July 1995. Five-hundred and ninety-five high-risk infants were identified. High-risk infants were defined as having biparental atopy, or a single atopic first-degree relative combined with cord blood immunoglobulin E (IgE)> or =0.3 kU/l. At birth all infants were randomized to one of three different blinded formulas. All mothers had unrestricted diets during pregnancy and lactation and were encouraged to breast-feed exclusively. If breast-feeding was insufficient, one of the three formulas, according to randomization, was given during the first 4 months. It was recommended not to introduce cow's milk, cow's milk products. and solid foods until the age of 4 months. After the age of 4 months a normal unrestricted diet and conventional cow's milk-based formula were given when needed. All infants were followed-up prospectively with interview and physical examination at the age of 6, 12, and 18 months, and if any possible atopic symptoms were reported. If food allergy was suspected, controlled elimination/challenge procedures were performed in a hospital setting. Of 550 infants included in the study, 514 were seen at all visits and 36 were excluded owing to noncompliance. Of 478 infants who completed the study, 232 were exclusively breast-fed, 79 received an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (Nutramigen), 82 an extensively hydrolyzed whey formula (Profylac), and 85 a partially hydrolyzed whey formula (Nan HA), during the first 4 months of life. These four groups were identical in regard to atopic predisposition, cord blood IgE, birthplace, and gender. Exclusively breast-fed children were exposed less to tobacco smoke and pets at home and belonged to higher social classes

  9. [Alpha-Lactalbumin as an ingredient of infant formula].

    PubMed

    Peso Echarri, P; González Bermúdez, C A; Vasallo Morillas, M I; Santaella Pascual, M; Ros Berruezo, G; Frontela Saseta, C; Martínez Graciá, C

    2012-03-01

    Alpha-Lactalbumin is the main whey protein in human milk rising 2,44 g/L in mature milk. It has a key function in the synthesis of lactose from glucose and galactose in the mammary gland although this compound has also other beneficial effects on the infant health due to the high proportion of essential aminoacids (tryptophan and cysteine). It seems also to increase iron absorption in the digestive track, and in in vitro experiments, linked to oleic acid (HAMLET complex), has shown anticarcinogenic effects against cellular tumor such as human papilloma. In addition, this complex has been reported to exhibit antimicrobial properties against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella thypimurium. However, the in vivo synthesis of HAMLET complex during milk digestion has not been proved yet. Infant formula have been improved considerably during the last decades not only adapting nutrient concentrations to infants requirements but also by the addition of new bioactive ingredients such as alpha-lactalbumin, to have the same functional effect as in breast fed babies.

  10. A Critical Review of the Marketing Claims of Infant Formula Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Belamarich, Peter F; Bochner, Risa E; Racine, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    A highly competitive infant formula market has resulted in direct-to-consumer marketing intended to promote the sale of modified formulas that claim to ameliorate common infant feeding problems. The claims associated with these marketing campaigns are not evaluated with reference to clinical evidence by the Food and Drug Administration. We aimed to describe the language of claims made on formula labels and compare it with the evidence in systematic reviews. Of the 22 product labels we identified, 13 product labels included claims about colic and gastrointestinal symptoms. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that removing or reducing lactose, using hydrolyzed or soy protein or adding pre-/probiotics to formula benefits infants with fussiness, gas, or colic yet claims like "soy for fussiness and gas" encourage parents who perceive their infants to be fussy to purchase modified formula. Increased regulation of infant formula claims is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Biotin and carnitine deficiency due to hypoallergenic formula nutrition in infants with milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hisako; Tokuriki, Shuko; Okuno, Takashi; Shigematsu, Yosuke; Yasushi, Akiba; Matsuyama, Go; Sawada, Ken; Ohshima, Yusei

    2014-04-01

    Amino acid formulas and hydrolyzed formulas given to infants in Japan with milk allergies theoretically contain little, if any, biotin and carnitine. We assessed biotin and carnitine insufficiency in six infants with milk allergy who were fed amino acid formulas and/or hydrolyzed formulas, by measuring urine 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIA) and serum free carnitine (C0), respectively. All patients presented with elevated urine 3-HIA and lowered serum C0 compared with post-menstrual age-matched infants who were fed breast milk or standard infant formulas. Supplementation with biotin and L-carnitine immediately improved the insufficiency. Care should be taken to avoid biotin and carnitine deficiency in allergic infants fed amino acid or hydrolyzed formulas.

  12. Regulating fatty acids in infant formula: critical assessment of U.S. policies and practices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatty acids in breast-milk such as docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, commonly known as DHA and ARA, contribute to the healthy development of children in various ways. However, the manufactured versions that are added to infant formula might not have the same health benefits as those in breast-milk. There is evidence that the manufactured additives might cause harm to infants’ health, and they might lead to unwarranted increases in the cost of infant formula. The addition of such fatty acids to infant formula needs to be regulated. In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration has primary responsibility for regulating the composition of infant formula. The central purpose of this study is to assess the FDA’s efforts with regard to the regulation of fatty acids in infant formula. Methods This study is based on critical analysis of policies and practices described in publicly available documents of the FDA, the manufacturers of fatty acids, and other relevant organizations. The broad framework for this work was set out by the author in his book on Regulating Infant Formula, published in 2011. Results The FDA does not assess the safety or the health impacts of fatty acid additives to infant formula before they are marketed, and there is no systematic assessment after marketing is underway. Rather than making its own independent assessments, the FDA accepts the manufacturers’ claims regarding their products’ safety and effectiveness. Conclusions The FDA is not adequately regulating the use of fatty acid additives to infant formula. This results in exposure of infants to potential risks. Adverse reactions are already on record. Also, the additives have led to increasing costs of infant formula despite the lack of proven benefits to normal, full term infants. There is a need for more effective regulation of DHA and ARA additives to infant formula. PMID:24433303

  13. Determination of total fat in milk- and soy-based infant formula powder by supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    LaCroix, Denis E; Wolf, Wayne R

    2003-01-01

    Commercially available simple benchtop systems using CO2 supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) eliminate expensive organic solvent disposal problems and offer potential to meet a demand for rapid, accurate high-volume gravimetric determinations of total fat content of infant formula powders. A Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) approach was used to evaluate the performance characteristics of instrumental SFE extraction for determination of total gravimetric fat in infant formula. The established DQOs included the following: ACCURACY: Correct values were obtained for a suitable reference material, SRM 1846 Infant Formula [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD]. RUGGEDNESS: Variables were defined as (1) extraction time (35 min optimum); (2) ratio of sample size to diatomaceous earth support material (1 g sample/2 g support); (3) ratio of distilled water to alcohol (50% isopropanol optimum for both milk- and soy-based infant formula samples); (4) extraction flow rate was 3-3.5 mL/min optimum. PRECISION: Relative standard deviations of multiple determinations fell within the Horwitz limits of acceptability of < or = 2.8% at the level of analyte determined (0.34-2.5% obtained). SCOPE OF APPLICABILITY: Includes milk- and soy-based infant formula powders. Research data were obtained by use of a commercially available fat analyzer. Samples of the SRM, 2 commercial milk-based and 3 commercial soy-based infant formula products were distributed to 2 additional collaborating laboratories. Very good agreement was obtained among the submitting and collaborating laboratories for these samples. The use of clearly defined DQOs to establish method performance characteristics, along with the commercially available reference material, provided the mechanism for verification and validation of analytical methodology.

  14. Impact of breast-feeding and high- and low-protein formula on the metabolism and growth of infants from overweight and obese mothers.

    PubMed

    Martin, François-Pierre J; Moco, Sofia; Montoliu, Ivan; Collino, Sebastiano; Da Silva, Laeticia; Rezzi, Serge; Prieto, Ruth; Kussmann, Martin; Inostroza, Jaime; Steenhout, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    The combination of maternal obesity in early pregnancy and high protein intake in infant formula feeding might predispose to obesity risk in later life. This study assesses the impact of breast- or formula-feeding (differing in protein content by 1.65 or 2.7 g/100 kcal) on the metabolism of term infants from overweight and obese mothers. From birth to 3 mo of age, infants received exclusively either breast- or starter formula-feeding and until 6 mo, exclusively either a formula designed for this study or breast-feeding. From 6 to 12 mo, infants received complementary weaning food. Metabonomics was conducted on the infants' urine and stool samples collected at the age of 3, 6, and 12 mo. Infant formula-feeding resulted in higher protein-derived short-chain fatty acids and amino acids in stools. Urine metabonomics revealed a relationship between bacterial processing of dietary proteins and host protein metabolism stimulated with increasing protein content in the formula. Moreover, formula-fed infants were metabolically different from breast-fed infants, at the level of lipid and energy metabolism (carnitines, ketone bodies, and Krebs cycle). Noninvasive urine and stool metabolic monitoring of responses to early nutrition provides relevant readouts to assess nutritional requirements for infants' growth.

  15. Soy Formula and Epigenetic Modifications: Analysis of Vaginal Epithelial Cells from Infant Girls in the IFED Study.

    PubMed

    Harlid, Sophia; Adgent, Margaret; Jefferson, Wendy N; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Umbach, David M; Xu, Zongli; Stallings, Virginia A; Williams, Carmen J; Rogan, Walter J; Taylor, Jack A

    2017-03-01

    Early-life exposure to estrogenic compounds affects the development of the reproductive system in rodent models and humans. Soy products, which contain phytoestrogens such as genistein, are one source of exposure in infants fed soy formula, and they result in high serum concentrations. Our goal was to determine whether soy exposure is associated with differential DNA methylation in vaginal cells from soy-fed infant girls. Using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, we evaluated epigenome-wide DNA methylation in vaginal cells from four soy formula-fed and six cow formula-fed girls from the Infant Feeding and Early Development (IFED) study. Using pyrosequencing we followed up the two most differentially methylated sites in 214 vaginal cell samples serially collected between birth and 9 months of age from 50 girls (28 soy formula-fed and 22 cow formula-fed). With a mouse model, we examined the effect of neonatal exposure to genistein on gene specific mRNA levels in vaginal tissue. The epigenome-wide scan suggested differences in methylation between soy formula-fed and cow formula-fed infants at three CpGs in the gene proline rich 5 like (PRR5L) (p < 10(4)). Pyrosequencing of the two feeding groups found that methylation levels progressively diverged with age, with pointwise differences becoming statistically significant after 126 days. Genistein-exposed mice showed a 50% decrease in vaginal Prr5l mRNA levels compared to controls. Girls fed soy formula have altered DNA methylation in vaginal cell DNA which may be associated with decreased expression of an estrogen-responsive gene. Citation: Harlid S, Adgent M, Jefferson WN, Panduri V, Umbach DM, Xu Z, Stallings VA, Williams CJ, Rogan WJ, Taylor JA. 2017. Soy formula and epigenetic modifications: analysis of vaginal epithelial cells from infant girls in the IFED study. Environ Health Perspect 125:447-452; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP428.

  16. Prebiotic effect of an infant formula supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides: randomized multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Marcello; Verduci, Elvira; Gregori, Dario; Ballali, Simonetta; Soldi, Sara; Ghisleni, Diana; Riva, Enrica

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of a galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)-supplemented formula on the intestinal microbiota in healthy term infants, with a specific consideration for gastrointestinal symptoms as colic, stool frequency and consistency, regurgitation. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial performed simultaneously by 6 centers in Italy. Three groups were considered: breastfed, formula-fed, and GOS-supplemented formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants were randomized to receive either the control or the study formula and consume the assigned formula exclusively until the introduction of complementary feeding. The nutritional composition of the 2 formulas were identical, apart from the supplemented GOS (0.4 g/100 mL) in the study formula. Four different types of bacteria were evaluated in order to assess the efficacy of GOS-supplemented formula on infants: Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium, Escherichia coli. A total of 199 breastfed infants and 163 formula-fed infants were recruited. When considering stool frequency and consistency, GOS-supplemented formula presented normal and soft stools in the majority of episodes (89%). In the supplemented group the incidence of colic was lower with respect to the control group. A significantly lower count of Clostridium and a higher count of Bifidobacterium were found when comparing study formula and control formula in infants with colic. In children with colic the ratio between Clostridium count and Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus count was in favor of the latter two when considering the GOS-supplemented formula group with respect to the control one. The prebiotic-supplemented formula mimicked the effect of human milk in promoting Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus growth and in inhibiting Clostridium growth, resulting in a significantly lower presence of colic.

  17. Folate contents in human milk and casein-based and soya-based formulas, and folate status in Korean infants.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Hee; Yon, Miyong; Han, Heon-Seok; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Tamura, Tsunenobu; Hyun, Taisun H

    2009-06-01

    We assessed folate nutritional status from birth to 12 months in fifty-one infants who were fed human milk (HM; n 20), casein-based formula (CBF; n 12) or soya-based formula (SBF; n 19). Folate contents in ninety-five HM samples obtained from twenty mothers for the first 6-month period and twelve CBF and nineteen SBF samples were measured by bioassay after trienzyme extraction. Folate intake was estimated by weighing infants before and after feeding in the HM group and by collecting formula intake records in the formula-fed groups. After solid foods were introduced, all foods consumed were included to estimate folate intake. Serum folate and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations were determined at 5 and 12 months of age, and infant growth was monitored for the first 12 months. Mean HM folate contents ranged from 201 to 365 nmol/l with an overall mean of 291 nmol/l, and the contents peaked at 2 months postpartum. HM folate contents were higher than those reported in North America. Folate contents in CBF and SBF were markedly higher than those in HM and those claimed on the product labels. The overall folate intakes in formula-fed infants were significantly higher than those in HM-fed infants, and this was associated with significantly higher folate and lower tHcy in formula-fed infants than HM-fed infants at 5 months. At 12 months, serum folate was significantly higher in the SBF group than the other groups, whereas serum tHcy and overall growth were similar among all groups.

  18. Determination of folate in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: First Action 2013.13.

    PubMed

    Meisser-Redeuil, Karine; Bénet, Sylvie; Gimenez, Catherine; Campos-Giménez, Esther; Maria, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    A UHPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of folate (vitamin B9) in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula was assessed for compliance with standard method performance requirements set forth by the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Stakeholder Panel for Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN). A single-laboratory validation (SLV) study was conducted as the first step in the process to validate the method. In the study, 12 matrixes, representing the range of infant and adult nutritional products, were evaluated for folate [the sum of supplemental folic acid plus 5-methyl tetrahydrofolic acid (5-Me THF)]. Method response was linear in the range of 1.0-900 ng/mL, corresponding to 0.33-300 microg/l100 g in reconstituted sample. LOD for folic acid and 5-Me THF, expressed in reconstituted product, were 0.10 microg/100 g and 0.05 microg/100 g, respectively, and LOQ were 0.33 microg/100 g and 0.10 microg/100 g, respectively. Repeatability was <5.3% and intermediate precision was <5.5%. Recovery rates of spiking at 50 and 100% of target values in nonfortified products were within 90-110%. Evaluation of trueness was performed on Certified Reference Material (SRM 1849 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula) and gave 96.4% of theoretical value. Based on the results of the SLV, the method meets the SPIFAN requirements for AOAC First Action status for the determination of folates in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula.

  19. Comparing Growth Rates after Hospital Discharge of Preterm Infants Fed with Either Post-Discharge Formula or High-Protein, Medium-Chain Triglyceride Containing Formula.

    PubMed

    Ekcharoen, Chanikarn; Tantibhaedhyangkul, Ruangvith

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate whether a high energy, high-protein, MCT-containing formula (HPMCT) is as appropriate as a post-discharge formula (PDF) for feeding preterm infants after hospital discharge by comparing growth, adverse effects, and cost per gram of bodyweight gain. The present study was a randomized controlled trial. The calculated sample size was 20 infants for each intervention group. After the consent procedure, preterm infants who had postconceptional age (PCA) 35⁺¹ to 36⁺⁰ weeks and weight between 1,800 and 3,000 g at hospital discharge were randomly enrolled to receive either PDF or HPMCT starting from the discharge day. Intervention period lasted at least 28 days and until the infant's weight was at least 3,000 g or PCA was at least 40⁺⁰ weeks. Body weight, length, and head circumference were measured on days 0, 14, 28, 56, and 84 after hospital discharge. Formula intakes and adverse symptoms (abdominal distension, diarrhea, and constipation) were recorded by parents before each visit in diaries provided by the study group. Cost was calculated from estimated actual formula intakes. There were six and five infants enrolled into PDF and HPMCT group, respectively. Demographic data were not different between the two groups. There were no significant differences of growth rates in both groups at days 28, 56, and 84 after hospital discharge. Adverse effects and costs were not different either. PDF and HPMCT might be comparably appropriate for feeding catching-up preterm infants after hospital discharge, as noted from growth rates, adverse effects, and costs. However, further studies involving biochemical and neurodevelopmental evaluation, with long-term follow-up in larger populations are needed to clearly compare both formulas.

  20. Characterisation of aged infant formulas and physicochemical changes.

    PubMed

    Tham, Tammie Wei Yi; Yeoh, Andrew Ti Heong; Zhou, Weibiao

    2017-03-15

    Three different infant formulas (P1, P2 and P3) were characterised, and changes in their physicochemical properties under three different ageing conditions (i.e. 25°C, 45°C and 60°C) were established. At 60°C, all of the three powders exhibited increased moisture content, which was consistent with an increase in water activity. The GAB sorption model fitted for P1 while P2 and P3 did not follow the same sorption isotherm pattern. The glass transition temperature (Tg) for all of the powders significantly decreased at 45°C and 60°C. Confocal analysis revealed that all three powders had different concentrations of surface fat, and fat globules migrated from within the powders to the powder surface during storage under the conditions described. XRD analysis of the aged powders showed no occurrence of lactose crystallisation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mothers Who Formula Feed: Their Practices, Support Needs and Factors Influencing Their Infant Feeding Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrant, Roslyn C.; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret; McCarthy, Roberta A.; Younger, Katherine M.; Kearney, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to six months postpartum,…

  2. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 107.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an... chapter for transmittal to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-605), for action....

  3. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 107.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an... chapter for transmittal to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-605), for action....

  4. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 107.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an... chapter for transmittal to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-605), for action....

  5. High protein pre-term infant formula: effect on nutrient balance, metabolic status and growth.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard; Embleton, Nick; Rigo, Jacques; Carrie, Annelise; Haschke, Ferdinand; Ziegler, Ekhard

    2006-02-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that formula with protein content of 3.0 g/100 kcal does not fully meet the protein needs of very-low-birth weight infants. Our purpose was to compare nitrogen balance, metabolic status and growth in infants fed a standard (3.0 g/100 kcal; RegPro) and high (3.6 g/100 kcal; HiPro) protein infant formula. Infants were fed both formulas, each formula for one week in balanced cross-over design. Metabolic status was monitored throughout. Nutrient balance and plasma amino acids were determined at the end of each week. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model. Eighteen infants were studied. Nine infants received the RegPro and nine received HiPro formula first. Nitrogen intake, absorption and retention were greater with the HiPro formula. None of the infants developed uremia or metabolic acidosis but retinol-binding-protein and weight gain were greater with the HiPro formula. Increased protein accretion paralleled by better weight gain without evidence of metabolic stress indicates that a formula with a protein content of 3.6 g/100 kcal better meets protein needs in these rapidly-growing infants. Further studies are needed to determine whether these short-term outcomes will be translated into long-term benefits.

  6. Infant formula feeding alters the proliferative status of neonatal mammary glands independent of estrogen signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soy infant formula contains many phytochemicals, including phytoestrogens, which are structurally similar to estradiol (E2). The mammary gland is particularly sensitive to estrogens, and there are concerns that use of soy-based infant formulas may potentially have adverse effects on mammary tissue ...

  7. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... authorized food rebate invoices, under competitive bidding, provide a reasonable estimate or an actual count... select bids for infant formula rebates on behalf of State agencies with retail food delivery systems... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment...

  8. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... authorized food rebate invoices, under competitive bidding, provide a reasonable estimate or an actual count... select bids for infant formula rebates on behalf of State agencies with retail food delivery systems... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment...

  9. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  10. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  11. Effects of soy infant formula on growth and development in the first year of life

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The exposure of infants to potential estrogenic isoflavones has made the use of soy formula somewhat controversial. Thus, it is important to determine the long-term health consequences of feeding soy formula to infants. The Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center is conducting a nonrandomized, longitud...

  12. Mothers Who Formula Feed: Their Practices, Support Needs and Factors Influencing Their Infant Feeding Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrant, Roslyn C.; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret; McCarthy, Roberta A.; Younger, Katherine M.; Kearney, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to six months postpartum,…

  13. Estimated exposure to arsenic in breastfed and formula-fed infants in a United States cohort.

    PubMed

    Carignan, Courtney C; Cottingham, Kathryn L; Jackson, Brian P; Farzan, Shohreh F; Gandolfi, A Jay; Punshon, Tracy; Folt, Carol L; Karagas, Margaret R

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies indicate that concentrations of arsenic in breast milk are relatively low even in areas with high drinking-water arsenic. However, it is uncertain whether breastfeeding leads to reduced infant exposure to arsenic in regions with lower arsenic concentrations. We estimated the relative contributions of breast milk and formula to arsenic exposure during early infancy in a U.S. We measured arsenic in home tap water (n = 874), urine from 6-week-old infants (n = 72), and breast milk from mothers (n = 9) enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using data from a 3-day food diary, we compared urinary arsenic across infant feeding types and developed predictive exposure models to estimate daily arsenic intake from breast milk and formula. Urinary arsenic concentrations were generally low (median, 0.17 μg/L; maximum, 2.9 μg/L) [corrected] but 7.5 times higher for infants fed exclusively with formula than for infants fed exclusively with breast milk (β = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.83; p < 0.0001, adjusted for specific gravity). Similarly, the median estimated daily arsenic intake by NHBCS infants was 5.5 times higher for formula-fed infants (0.22 μg/kg/day) than for breastfed infants (0.04 μg/kg/day). Given median arsenic concentrations measured in NHBCS tap water and previously published for formula powder, formula powder was estimated to account for ~ 70% of median exposure among formula-fed NHBCS infants. Our findings suggest that breastfed infants have lower arsenic exposure than formula-fed infants, and that both formula powder and drinking water can be sources of exposure for U.S. infants.

  14. Novel Approaches to Improve the Intrinsic Microbiological Safety of Powdered Infant Milk Formula

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Robert M.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is recognised as the best form of nutrition for infants. However; in instances where breast-feeding is not possible, unsuitable or inadequate, infant milk formulae are used as breast milk substitutes. These formulae are designed to provide infants with optimum nutrition for normal growth and development and are available in either powdered or liquid forms. Powdered infant formula is widely used for convenience and economic reasons. However; current manufacturing processes are not capable of producing a sterile powdered infant formula. Due to their immature immune systems and permeable gastro-intestinal tracts, infants can be more susceptible to infection via foodborne pathogenic bacteria than other age-groups. Consumption of powdered infant formula contaminated by pathogenic microbes can be a cause of serious illness. In this review paper, we discuss the current manufacturing practices present in the infant formula industry, the pathogens of greatest concern, Cronobacter and Salmonella and methods of improving the intrinsic safety of powdered infant formula via the addition of antimicrobials such as: bioactive peptides; organic acids; probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:25685987

  15. Novel approaches to improve the intrinsic microbiological safety of powdered infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Kent, Robert M; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2015-02-12

    Human milk is recognised as the best form of nutrition for infants. However; in instances where breast-feeding is not possible, unsuitable or inadequate, infant milk formulae are used as breast milk substitutes. These formulae are designed to provide infants with optimum nutrition for normal growth and development and are available in either powdered or liquid forms. Powdered infant formula is widely used for convenience and economic reasons. However; current manufacturing processes are not capable of producing a sterile powdered infant formula. Due to their immature immune systems and permeable gastro-intestinal tracts, infants can be more susceptible to infection via foodborne pathogenic bacteria than other age-groups. Consumption of powdered infant formula contaminated by pathogenic microbes can be a cause of serious illness. In this review paper, we discuss the current manufacturing practices present in the infant formula industry, the pathogens of greatest concern, Cronobacter and Salmonella and methods of improving the intrinsic safety of powdered infant formula via the addition of antimicrobials such as: bioactive peptides; organic acids; probiotics and prebiotics.

  16. Choline in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional Formula by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography/ Tandem mass spectrometry: AOAC First Action 2012.18.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frederic; Gimenez, Catherine; Fontannaz, Patric; Kilinc, Tamara; Campos-Giménez, Esther; Dowell, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The method described below is for the determination of choline in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The single-laboratory validation data were submitted to the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Expert Review Panel (ERP) for review at the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Annual Meeting held September 30 to October 3, 2012 in Las Vegas, NV. The ERP determined that the data reviewed met the standard method performance requirements set by SPIFAN, and the method was approved as AOAC Official First Action. The analytical range was found to be between 0.16 and 3.2 microg/mL. The recovery rates were within 80-120% at 50 and 100% of native levels for all samples. Repeatability precision (RSDr) was < 3%, with intermediate reproducibility (RSDir) no higher than 4%.

  17. Survey of total mercury in infant formulae and oral electrolytes sold in Canada.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, Robert W; McKenzie, Arthur D

    2012-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg) was measured in 150 infant formula products (as sold) and oral electrolyte solutions purchased in Canada in 2003. Results less than the limit of detection (LOD) were reported as the numeric value of the LOD. Electrolytes contained the lowest concentrations, averaging 0.026 ng/g. Average levels in milk-based ready-to-use, concentrated liquid and powdered concentrate were 0.028, 0.069 and 0.212 ng/g, respectively. In soy-based formulae, the respective mean concentrations were 0.049, 0.101 and 0.237 ng/g. These concentrations cannot be considered on an absolute basis because 76% of sample concentrations fell below the limit of detection. Despite the inability to measure many of the actual background concentrations, the method was sufficiently sensitive to identify clear cases of low-level Hg contamination (up to 1.5 ng/g) of individual lots of powdered formula. Also, all the different lots of one brand of concentrated liquid infant formulae had significantly higher concentrations of Hg than those of all other concentrated liquid products. After dilution with preparation water, the Hg concentrations in all products would be lower than the Canadian Drinking Water Guideline for Hg of 1 ng/mL and too low to impact on health.

  18. Principal component analysis of molecularly based signals from infant formula contaminations using LC-MS and NMR in foodomics.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Koichi; Tanada, Chihiro; Hosoya, Takahiro; Yoshida, Shuhei; Akiba, Takashi; Min, Jun Zhe; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Yamano, Yutaka; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2016-08-01

    The challenge in developing analytical assessment of unexpected excess contaminations in infant formula has been the most significant project to address the widespread issue of food safety and security. Foodomics based on metabolomics techniques provides powerful tools for the detection of tampering cases with intentional contaminations. However, the safety and risk assessments of infant formula to reveal not only the targeted presence of toxic chemicals, but also molecular changes involving unexpected contaminations, have not been reported. In this study, a huge amount of raw molecularly based signals from infant formula was analysed using reversed phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatography with time-of-flight MS (LC-MS) and (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and then processed by a principal component analysis (PCA). PCA plots visualised signature trends in the complex signal-data batches from each excess contamination of detectable chemicals by LC-MS and NMR. These trends in the different batches from a portion of excess chemical contaminations such as pesticides, melamine and heavy metals and out-of-date products can be visualised from spectrally discriminated infant formula samples. PCA plots provide possible attempts to maximise the covariance between the stable lot-to-lot uniformity and excess exogenous contaminations and/or degradation to discriminate against the molecularly based signals from infant formulas. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Determination of vitamin A (retinol) in infant and medical nutritional formulas with AOAC method 992.06 using a modified extraction procedure: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Linda B; Schimpf, Karen J; Stiner, Lisa A; Schmitz, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of AOAC Official Method 992.06, vitamin A (retinol) in milk-based infant formula can be extended to specialty infant formulas, and medical and adult nutritional products with a few minor modifications to the sample preparation procedure. Currently, AOAC Official Method 992.06 is only applicable to milk-based infant formulas containing >500 IU vitamin A per reconstituted quart. When this method is used as written to test specialty infant formulas, vitamin A recoveries are low compared to results generated with alternate validated vitamin A methods. AOAC Method 992.06 vitamin A recoveries can be improved significantly in specialty infant formulas if the amount of potassium hydroxide used during the saponification step is doubled. With this one minor modification to the sample preparation procedure, AOAC Method 992.06 demonstrates acceptable precision and accuracy for the quantitation of vitamin A (retinol) in specialty infant formulas, milk- and soy-based infant formulas, and adult and medical nutritionals. Because increasing the amount of potassium hydroxide can cause emulsions to form, 2-4 mL aliquots of reagent alcohol may need to be added to some samples to separate the organic and aqueous layers during the extraction step. A single-laboratory validation of these modifications was completed. During validation, 15 different product matrixes were analyzed. The intermediate precision averaged 2.70% RSD, and spike recovery data averaged 96.3%.

  20. Comparative analysis of human milk and infant formula derived peptides following in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Su, M-Y; Broadhurst, M; Liu, C-P; Gathercole, J; Cheng, W-L; Qi, X-Y; Clerens, S; Dyer, J M; Day, L; Haigh, B

    2017-04-15

    It has long been recognised that there are differences between human milk and infant formulas which lead to differences in health and nutrition for the neonate. In this study we examine and compare the peptide profile of human milk and an exemplar infant formula. The study identifies both similarities and differences in the endogenous and postdigestion peptide profiles of human milk and infant formula. This includes differences in the protein source of these peptides but also with the region within the protein producing the dominant proteins. Clustering of similar peptides around regions of high sequence identity and known bioactivity was also observed. Together the data may explain some of the functional differences between human milk and infant formula, while identifying some aspects of conserved function between bovine and human milks which contribute to the effectiveness of modern infant formula as a substitute for human milk.

  1. Nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas for term infants: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shao J; Sullivan, Thomas; Gibson, Robert A; Lönnerdal, Bo; Prosser, Colin G; Lowry, Dianne J; Makrides, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The safety and nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas have been questioned. The primary aim of the present study was to compare the growth and nutritional status of infants fed a goat milk infant formula with those of infants fed a typical whey-based cow milk infant formula. The secondary aim was to examine a range of health- and allergy-related outcomes. A double-blind, randomised controlled trial with 200 formula-fed term infants randomly assigned to receive either goat or cow milk formula from 2 weeks to at least 4 months of age was conducted. A cohort of 101 breast-fed infants was included for comparison. Weight, length and head circumference were measured at 2 weeks and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Nutritional status was assessed from serum albumin, urea, creatinine, Hb, ferritin, and folate and plasma amino acid concentrations at 4 months. Z-scores for weight, length, head circumference and weight for length were not different between the two formula-fed groups. There were differences in the values of some amino acids and blood biomarkers between the formula-fed groups, but the mean values for biomarkers were within the normal reference range. There were no differences in the occurrence of serious adverse events, general health, and incidence of dermatitis or medically diagnosed food allergy. The incidence of parentally reported blood-stained stools was higher in the goat milk formula-fed group, although this was a secondary outcome and its importance is unclear. Goat milk formula provided growth and nutritional outcomes in infants that did not differ from those provided by a standard whey-based cow milk formula.

  2. Aflatoxin M1 Levels in Raw Milk, Pasteurised Milk and Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    Omar, Sharaf S

    2016-06-03

    The incidence of contamination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples collected from the Jordanian market was investigated by using the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. A total of 175 samples were collected during 2014-2015. All tested samples were contaminated with various levels of AFM1 ranging from 9.71 to 288.68 ng/kg. The concentration of AFM1 in 66% of fresh milk samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union (50 ng/kg) and 23% higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the US (500 ng/kg). Percentages of contaminated raw cow, sheep, goat and camel milk exceeding the European tolerance limit were 60, 85, 75 and 0%, respectively. Of AFM1 contaminated pasteurised cow milk samples, 12% exceeded the European tolerance limit with a range of contamination between 14.60 and 216.78 ng/kg. For infant formula samples, the average concentration of AFM1 was 120.26 ng/kg (range from 16.55 to 288.68 ng/kg), the concentration of AFM1 in 85% of infant formula samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the US (25 ng/kg).

  3. Aflatoxin M1 Levels in Raw Milk, Pasteurised Milk and Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Sharaf S.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of contamination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples collected from the Jordanian market was investigated by using the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. A total of 175 samples were collected during 2014-2015. All tested samples were contaminated with various levels of AFM1 ranging from 9.71 to 288.68 ng/kg. The concentration of AFM1 in 66% of fresh milk samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union (50 ng/kg) and 23% higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the US (500 ng/kg). Percentages of contaminated raw cow, sheep, goat and camel milk exceeding the European tolerance limit were 60, 85, 75 and 0%, respectively. Of AFM1 contaminated pasteurised cow milk samples, 12% exceeded the European tolerance limit with a range of contamination between 14.60 and 216.78 ng/kg. For infant formula samples, the average concentration of AFM1 was 120.26 ng/kg (range from 16.55 to 288.68 ng/kg), the concentration of AFM1 in 85% of infant formula samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the US (25 ng/kg). PMID:27853711

  4. Gas chromatographic analysis of infant formulas for total fatty acids, including trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Satchithanandam, Subramaniam; Fritsche, Jan; Rader, Jeanne I

    2002-01-01

    Twelve powdered and 13 liquid infant formulas were analyzed by using an extension of AOAC Official Method 996.01 for fat analysis in cereal products. Samples were hydrolyzed with 8 N HCl and extracted with ethyl and petroleum ethers. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared by refluxing the mixed ether extracts with methanolic sodium hydroxide in the presence of 14% boron trifluoride in methanol. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. In powdered formulas, saturated fatty acid (SFA) content (mean +/- SD; n = 12) was 41.05 +/- 3.94%, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content was 36.97 +/- 3.38%, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content was 20.07 +/- 3.08%, and total trans fatty acid content was 1.30 +/- 1.27%. In liquid formulas, SFA content (mean +/- SD; n = 13) was 42.29 +/- 2.98%, MUFA content was 36.05 +/- 2.47%, PUFA content was 20.65 +/- 2.40%, and total trans fatty acid content was 0.88 +/- 0.54%. Total fat content in powdered formulas ranged from 4.4 to 5.5 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 868 to 1166 mg/100 kcal. In liquid formulas, total fat content ranged from 4.1 to 5.1 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 820 to 1100 mg/100 kcal. There were no significant differences between powdered and liquid infant formulas in concentrations of total fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or trans fatty acids.

  5. Pantoea gaviniae sp. nov. and Pantoea calida sp. nov., isolated from infant formula and an infant formula production environment.

    PubMed

    Popp, Alexandra; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Iversen, Carol; De Vos, Paul; Stephan, Roger

    2010-12-01

    Five Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming, coccoid rod-shaped bacterial isolates were obtained from infant formula and an infant formula production environment and were investigated by use of a polyphasic taxonomic study. Biochemical tests and partial rpoB gene sequence analysis of the five isolates revealed that they formed two distinct groups in the family Enterobacteriaceae, closely related to several species of the genera Pantoea and Erwinia, which indicated a phylogenetic position within the genus Pantoea or the genus Erwinia. Multilocus sequence analysis of concatenated partial atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB gene sequences of two of the isolates suggested that they represented two novel species of the genus Pantoea, phylogenetically related most closely to Pantoea septica. The five isolates had general characteristics consistent with those of the genus Pantoea, and DNA-DNA hybridizations between two representatives and the type strains of their phylogenetically closest relatives based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolates represented two novel genospecies. These two genospecies could be differentiated from each other based on fermentation of galacturonate, sorbitol and potassium 5-ketogluconate. They could be differentiated from phylogenetically related Pantoea species based on their ability to ferment lactose and to utilize β-gentiobiose and raffinose, their inability to ferment or utilize d-arabitol, and their inability to produce indole. On the basis of the results obtained, the five isolates are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Pantoea, for which the names Pantoea gaviniae sp. nov. (type strain A18/07(T) =LMG 25382(T) =DSM 22758(T)) and Pantoea calida sp. nov. (type strain 1400/07(T) =LMG 25383(T) =DSM 22759(T)) are proposed.

  6. Rice protein-based infant formula: current status and future development.

    PubMed

    Koo, W W K; Lasekan, J B

    2007-02-01

    Rice is the world's leading staple cereal food and is the major source of protein for many parts of the world. Rice is among the first solid foods fed to infants in many cultures, in part because of its hypoallergenicity from lack of gluten. Nutritional quality of rice protein compares favorably with other cereal proteins including wheat, oat and barley. It is rich in methionine and cystine, although as is the case for other cereals, it is an incomplete protein source for human infants with lysine and threonine being the primary limiting amino acids. Fortification of rice proteins with these two limiting amino acids improves its protein quality. Rice protein-based infant formulas (RPF) were initially based on high protein rice flours, but more recently are based on rice protein concentrates, isolates or hydrolysates, fortified with lysine and threonine. Hypoallergenicity efficacy, particularly for hydrolyzed rice protein-based formulas, has been reported, and limited data indicated that rice protein based infant formula may provide potentially adequate alternative if standard milk- or soy protein-based formulas are not tolerated. Unlike the rice-protein based infant formula, rice beverage formulas made from rice flour are nutritionally inadequate for infants. Reports have indicated stunted growth in infants/children fed rice beverage formulas. Future development for the RPF include those based on genetically improved rice with high lysine and threonine content, supplementation with appropriate mineral and fat blend, and long-term clinical studies in infants to confirm its efficacy and safety.

  7. Bioactive peptides released by in vitro digestion of standard and hydrolyzed infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2015-11-01

    Hydrolyzed infant formulas serve as appropriate nutritional sources for infants afflicted with cow's milk allergy, and milk proteins in hydrolyzed formulas are industrially hydrolyzed extensively or partially. To investigate whether industrial hydrolysis may modulate the digestive trajectory of milk proteins, thereby releasing different profiles of bioactive peptides compared with standard formulas, both standard and hydrolyzed formulas were subjected to in vitro digestion and formation of bioactive peptides were compared. One standard, one extensively hydrolyzed, and one partially hydrolyzed infant formula were digested in vitro with pepsin and pancreatin, taking into account the higher gastric pH of infants, and the digesta were subjected to peptidomic analysis. The standard formula released a larger variety of bioactive peptides than from the hydrolyzed formulas, indicating that industrial hydrolysis of milk proteins may generally attenuate their indigenous bioactivities such as antibacterial, immuno-regulatory, and anti-oxidative activities. Conversely, industrial hydrolysis may facilitate the formation of bioactive peptides from hydrophobic proteins/regions such as β-LG and the "strategic zone" of β-CN, which encrypt bioactive peptides including a dipeptidyl dipeptidase-4-inhibitory, hypocholesterolemic, and opioid peptides. Infants fed hydrolyzed infant formulas may be influenced by milk protein-derived bioactive peptides in a manner different from those fed standard formula.

  8. A position statement on kidney disease from powdered infant formula-based melamine exposure in Chinese infants.

    PubMed

    Langman, Craig B; Alon, Uri; Ingelfinger, Julie; Englund, Märta; Saland, Jeffrey M; Somers, Michael J G; Stapleton, F Bruder; Sibú, Nelson Orta; Cochat, Pierre; Wong, William; Eke, Felicia U; Satlin, Lisa; Salusky, Isidro

    2009-07-01

    Melamine, a man-made non-nutritive substance containing nitrogen, can falsely elevate measures of protein content in foodstuffs. Several manufacturers of powdered infant formula in China apparently added melamine to raise the measured protein content and thereby exposed thousands of infants and young children to very high levels of melamine. Such exposure resulted in cases of acute kidney failure and nephrolithiasis. This Editorial from members of the world-wide Pediatric Nephrology community provides a common-sense approach to the care of infants who may have been exposed to powdered infant formula in 2007-2008.

  9. Infants fed soy formula appear to maintain steady-state isoflavone concentrations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We studied the isoflavone pharmacokinetics of 71 healthy 3-mounth old infants (40 boys) who were exclusively fed soy-based infant formula (SF) for at least 1 mounth. Each study began after a 4-hr fast. Blood was drawn once from each infant at one of five time points: prior to feeding, 0.5, 1.5, 2...

  10. Growth of healthy term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey-based infant formula: a randomized, blinded, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Borschel, Marlene W; Choe, Yong S; Kajzer, Janice A

    2014-12-01

    Partially hydrolyzed formulas (pHF) represent a significant percentage of the infant formula market. A new whey-based, palm olein oil (PO)-free pHF was developed and a masked, randomized, parallel growth study was conducted in infants fed this formula or a commercially available whey-based pHF with PO. Infants between 0 and 8 days were to be enrolled and studied to 119 days of age. Growth and tolerance of infants were evaluated. Mean weight gain from 14 to 119 days of age was similar between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in weight, length, head circumference (HC), or length or HC gains. Infants fed the new PO-free pHF had significantly softer stools than those fed the PO-containing formula except at 119 days of age. This study demonstrates that whereas growth of infants fed different formulas during the first 4 months of life may be similar, infants may tolerate individual formulas differently.

  11. Survival of Salmonella Typhi and Shigella dysenteriae in dehydrated infant formula.

    PubMed

    Day, James B; Sharma, Devang; Siddique, Nusrat; Hao, Yun-Yun D; Strain, Errol A; Blodgett, Robert J; Al-Khaldi, Sufian F

    2011-08-01

    Powdered infant formula has previously been linked to the transmission of various bacterial pathogens in infants resulting in life-threatening disease and death. Survival studies of 2 common foodborne pathogens, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Shigella dysenteriae, in powdered infant formula have not been previously studied despite the potentially devastating consequences from ingestion of these organisms, particularly by newborns, in case of a natural or deliberate contamination event. Therefore, to better predict the risk of S. Typhi and S. dysenteriae infection from consumption of infant formula, the present study was undertaken to determine survival of these microorganisms in dry infant formula under varying atmospheric conditions. A 2-strain cocktail of S. Typhi and a 3-strain cocktail of S. dysenteriae were stored for up to 12 wk in dehydrated infant formula in an ambient air or nitrogen atmosphere. Viable counts of S. Typhi at 12 wk in infant formula revealed a 2.9- and 1.69-log decrease in ambient air and nitrogen atmosphere, respectively. Viable counts of S. dysenteriae at 12 wk in infant formula revealed a 0.81- and 0.42-log decrease in ambient air and nitrogen atmosphere, respectively. These results show that S. Typhi and S. dysenteriae can remain viable for prolonged periods of time in powdered infant formula, and the presence of nitrogen enhances survival. Our goal in this work was to study the survival of S. Typhi and S. dysenteriae in dehydrated storage conditions in infant formula. This interest is partially generated by the possibility of using these 2 microorganisms to deliberately contaminate the food supply. The outcome of this study will help us to have a better idea how to respond and react to the risk of deliberate food contamination. Journal of Food Science © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  12. Oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formulas compared to human milk--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Marie-Caroline; Calzada, Catherine; Makino, Asami; Michaud, Sabine; Guichardant, Michel

    2008-12-01

    Information about lipid oxidation in fresh and stored human milk compared with infant formulas is scarce. We aimed to assess n-6 and n-3 PUFA oxidation in these milks by measuring the 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) content. Human milk samples (n = 4), obtained from volunteer mothers, were analyzed fresh and after 1 wk at 4 degrees C or 24 h at 18 degrees C. Vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by HPLC and fatty acid profile by GC. The 4-HHE and 4-HNE contents were measured by GC-MS. Infant formulas (n = 10) were tested; their fat droplet size was measured by laser light scattering and observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Human milk samples contained 31.0 +/- 6.3 g/L of lipids and 1.14 +/- 0.26 mg/L of vitamin E. Fat droplets were smaller in infant formulas than reported in human milk. The (4-HHE/n-3 PUFA) ratio was 0.19 +/- 0.01 microg/g in fresh human milk (unchanged after storage) versus 3.6 +/- 3.1 microg/g in dissolved powder formulas and 4.3 +/- 3.8 microg/g in liquid formula. (4-HNE/n-6 PUFA) was 0.004 +/- 0.000 microg/g in fresh milk (0.03 +/- 0.01 microg/g after storage) versus 1.1 +/- 1.0 microg/g in dissolved powder formulas and 0.2 +/- 0.3 microg/g in liquid formula. Infant formulas also contained more MDA than human milk. n-3 PUFA were more prone to oxidation than n-6 PUFA. Whether threshold levels of 4-HHE and 4-HNE would be of health concern should be elucidated.

  13. Short communication: investigation of aflatoxin M1 levels in infant follow-on milks and infant formulas sold in the markets of Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Er, B; Demirhan, B; Yentür, G

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins are fungal toxins known to be carcinogenic and are classified as food contaminants. This study was performed to investigate aflatoxin (AF) M1 levels in baby foods sold in Ankara (Turkey) and to evaluate the obtained results according to the Turkish Food Codex (TFC). For this purpose, a total of 84 baby food samples (50 follow-on milks and 34 infant formulas) were obtained from different markets in Ankara and the presence of AFM1 in the samples was analyzed by ELISA. In 32 (38.1%) of 84 infant food samples, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations ranging between 0.0055 and 0.0201 µg/kg. The mean level (± standard error) of AFM1 was found to be 0.0089 ± 0.0006 µg/kg in positive infant follow-on milks. Aflatoxin M1 was detected in only 1 infant formula sample (2.94%) at a concentration of 0.0061 µg/kg. The extrapolated levels of AFB1 contamination in feedstuffs were calculated based on levels of AFM1 in baby food samples. The data estimating AFB1 contamination in dairy cattle feedstuff indicate that contamination may range from 0.3410 to 1.2580 µg/kg, with the mean level (± standard error) being 0.5499 ± 0.0385 µg/kg, which is lower than the level set by the TFC and European Union regulations (5 µg/kg). According to the obtained results, the levels of AFM1 in analyzed samples were within the allowed limit (0.025 µg/kg) set in the TFC. Low levels of AFM1 in infant follow-on milks and infant formula samples obtained during the study do not pose a health risk to infants.

  14. Chicken-based formula is better tolerated than extensively hydrolyzed casein formula for the management of cow milk protein allergy in infants.

    PubMed

    Jirapinyo, Pipop; Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Kangwanpornsiri, Channagan; Wongarn, Renu

    2012-01-01

    The effective treatment of cow milk allergy in infants consists of elimination of cow milk protein and the introduction of formulas based on an extensively hydrolyzed protein formula or an amino acid-based formula. However, about 10% of these infants are still allergic to an extensively hydrolyzed protein formula and an amino acid-based formula is very expensive. We conducted a study to verify whether the new chicken-based formula will be better tolerated than an extensively hydrolyzed protein formula for the treatment of cow milk allergy in infants. One hundred infants, diagnosed with cow milk allergy by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge tests, were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study to compare a response to an extensively hydrolyzed protein formula and the chicken-based formula. Subjects were randomly given one of the two formulas for 2 weeks. There was a 2-week washout period of taking an amino acid-based formula before being switched to the other formula for another 2 weeks. If the subjects showed allergic symptoms during the 2 weeks of test formula, they would be announced as intolerance or allergic to that formula. Sixty seven of 80 confirmed subjects agreed to enroll their infants. Fifty-eight subjects completed the study. Twenty and 33 infants were tolerant whereas and 38 and 25 infants were intolerant to an extensively hydrolyzed protein formula and the chicken-based formula, respectively. The chicken-based formula showed significantly better tolerance than an extensively hydrolyzed protein formula in the management of cow milk allergy in infants.

  15. Mineral retention in three-week-old piglets fed goat and cow milk infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, S M; Darragh, A J; Hendriks, W H; Prosser, C G; Lowry, D

    2006-12-01

    Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula with respect to mineral absorption and deposition using the 3-wk-old piglet as a model for the 3-mo-old infant. Equal numbers of piglets (n = 8) were fed either the goat milk formula or the cow milk formula. The mineral composition of the prepared goat milk formula was higher than that of the prepared cow milk formula for most minerals, including calcium (75.1 vs. 56.7 mg/100 mL) but excluding iron, which was higher in the prepared cow milk formula (0.92 vs. 0.74 mg/100 mL). The amounts of calcium, phosphorus, and manganese absorbed by the piglets were significantly higher for the goat milk formula, whereas the amounts of zinc, iron, and magnesium absorbed were significantly higher for the cow milk formula. Apparent mineral absorption, relative to intake, was statistically higher in the cow milk formula for calcium and phosphorus, although the actual differences were very small (less than 1.3%). For copper, zinc, iron, and magnesium there was no significant difference between treatments in apparent mineral absorption, whereas for manganese, absorption was higher for the goat milk infant formula. The absolute mineral deposition was higher in piglets fed the goat milk formula for calcium, phosphorus, and manganese, whereas iron deposition was higher in the piglets fed cow milk formula. For all other minerals tested, there were no significant differences between treatments. The goat milk infant formula provided a pattern of mineral retention in the 3-wk-old piglet very similar to that of the adapted cow milk infant formula. The minor differences observed between the 2 appeared to be due to the different mineral contents of the 2 formulas.

  16. Health and nutrition content claims on websites advertising infant formula available in Australia: A content analysis.

    PubMed

    Berry, Nina J; Gribble, Karleen D

    2017-10-01

    The use of health and nutrition content claims in infant formula advertising is restricted by many governments in response to WHO policies and WHA resolutions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such prohibited claims could be observed in Australian websites that advertise infant formula products. A comprehensive internet search was conducted to identify websites that advertise infant formula available for purchase in Australia. Content analysis was used to identify prohibited claims. The coding frame was closely aligned with the provisions of the Australian and New Zealand Food Standard Code, which prohibits these claims. The outcome measures were the presence of health claims, nutrition content claims, or references to the nutritional content of human milk. Web pages advertising 25 unique infant formula products available for purchase in Australia were identified. Every advertisement (100%) contained at least one health claim. Eighteen (72%) also contained at least one nutrition content claim. Three web pages (12%) advertising brands associated with infant formula products referenced the nutritional content of human milk. All of these claims appear in spite of national regulations prohibiting them indicating a failure of monitoring and/or enforcement. Where countries have enacted instruments to prohibit health and other claims in infant formula advertising, the marketing of infant formula must be actively monitored to be effective. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Breast-feeding, infant formulas, and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Lars A; Korotkova, Marina; Telemo, Esbjörn

    2003-06-01

    Breast-feeding provides many advantages to the offspring, but presently there is an ongoing debate whether or not it prevents allergy any better than certain formulas. This report reviews the mechanisms involved and discusses how breast-feeding may protect against allergy. The review builds on an internet-based literature search in addition to our own data. Human milk is the food best adapted to the needs of the offspring, also because it provides efficient protection against infections and actively stimulates the development of the infant's own immune system. The major host defense system is provided via the secretory IgA antibodies produced in the mammary glands by lymphocytes, which have migrated there from the mother's gut mucosa. Therefore, these antibodies in the milk are primarily directed against the microbes in the mother's gut and her food proteins. As a result, breast-feeding starting directly after delivery will provide an excellent defense against the microbes normally meeting the neonate and needed to induce development of its immune system. The milk also contains numerous components, which seem to enhance the infant's host defense as well as capacity to develop tolerance, helping to avoiding allergic reactivity to foods, etc. Several studies show that breast-feeding prevents allergic diseases, but there are also good disagreeing studies. Supported by animal data, it seems that protection is enhanced in areas with more advantageous fat intake, inter alia lower ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. Breast-feeding seems to protect against future development of allergic diseases, but possibly less so in countries with an untoward maternal fat intake.

  18. Lead and iron status of breast and formula-fed infants

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, A.H.; Kasler, J.S.; Shrock, R.O.; Signs, S.A.

    1981-06-01

    We examined the iron and lead status of breast-fed and formula-fed infants from birth through the first year of life. Not only has the adequacy of iron intake of breast and formula-fed infants been questioned but also the contamination of breast milk with environmental pollutants such as Pb. In addition, it is believed that a state of Fe deficiency may promote the absorption of Pb. We compared the blood Pb and Fe levels of 23 breast-fed and 23 formula-fed infants whose mothers were enrolled in a longitudinal study determining the effects of maternal nutritional and environmental factors on the infants' subsequent growth and development. Serum iron, TIBC and %SAT values were obtained at 6 and 12 mo. Additional biochemical values including Pb and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentrations were obtained at birth and 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 mo. Iron status was similar at 6 mo for the breast-fed and formula-fed infants, but somewhat higher for the breast-fed infants at 12 mo (NS). Results indicate no differences in Pb or EP status between breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Biochemical values were within normal limits. We conclude that dietary intake of Pb and Fe by infants whether breast-feeding or formula-feeding reflects adequate Fe status and apparent safe Pb state.

  19. Infant Formula Feeding at Birth Is Common and Inversely Associated with Subsequent Breastfeeding Behavior in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan T; Withers, Mellissa; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-10-01

    The association between infant formula feeding at birth and subsequent feeding patterns in a low- or middle-income context is not clear. We examined the association of infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth with subsequent infant formula feeding and early breastfeeding cessation in Vietnam. In a cross-sectional survey, we interviewed 10,681 mothers with children aged 0-23 mo (mean age: 8.2 mo; 52% boys) about their feeding practices during the first 3 d after birth and on the previous day. We used stratified analysis, multiple logistic regression, propensity score-matching analysis, and structural equation modeling to minimize the limitation of the cross-sectional design and to ensure the consistency of the findings. Infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth (50%) was associated with a higher prevalence of subsequent infant formula feeding [stratified analysis: 7-28% higher (nonoverlapping 95% CIs for most comparisons); propensity score-matching analysis: 13% higher (P < 0.001); multiple logistic regression: OR: 1.47 (95% CI: 1.30, 1.67)]. This practice was also associated with a higher prevalence of early breastfeeding cessation (e.g., <24 mo) [propensity score-matching analysis: 2% (P = 0.08); OR: 1.33 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.59)]. Structural equation modeling showed that infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth was associated with a higher prevalence of subsequent infant formula feeding (β: 0.244; P < 0.001), which in turn was linked to early breastfeeding cessation (β: 0.285; P < 0.001). Infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth was associated with increased subsequent infant formula feeding and the early cessation of breastfeeding, which underscores the need to make early, exclusive breastfeeding normative and to create environments that support it.

  20. Investigation of isotope dilution mass spectrometric (ID-MS) method to determine niacin in infant formula, breakfast cereals and multivitamins.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyunju; Kim, Byungjoo; Lee, Joonhee

    2013-06-01

    An isotope dilution LC/mass spectrometric (ID-LC/MS) method was developed as a candidate reference method for the accurate determination of niacin in infant formula, breakfast cereals and multivitamin. After spiking nicotinamide-d(4) as an internal standard, infant formula and breakfast cereal samples were hydrolysed under alkaline condition. Samples were then analysed in SRM mode to detect nicotinic acid and nicotinic acid-d(4) at m/z 124→80 and 127→84, respectively. In the case of multivitamin sample that contains mainly free nicotinamide, LC/MS monitored nicotinamide and nicotinamide-d(4) at their SRM channels of m/z 123→80 and m/z 127→84, respectively, after simple extraction. The repeatability and reproducibility were tested for the validation of the developed ID/LC-MS method. Additionally, the developed analytical method was applied to determine total niacin contents in homogenised infant formula, homogenised multivitamin, and commercially available products including different types of infant formula, breakfast cereals, and multivitamin tablets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of dephytinization and follow-on formula addition on in vitro iron, calcium, and zinc availability from infant cereals.

    PubMed

    Frontela, C; Haro, J F; Ros, G; Martínez, C

    2008-05-28

    Cereals are introduced to infants between the ages of 4 and 6 months to supplement breast milk and follow-on formula. Our objectives were to examine the content and in vitro availability of Fe, Ca, and Zn from five commercially available infant cereals mixed with water or follow-on formula before and after dephytinization. We estimated the bioaccessibility by measuring the soluble or dialyzable mineral fraction resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the sample. For most infant cereals analyzed, dephytinization increased the in vitro availability of iron and zinc. This finding was especially dramatic among infant cereals mixed with follow-on formula rather than with water. However, the liquid used for reconstitution did not always show a significant (p < 0.05) interaction with phytase addition and in vitro mineral availability. The results of this study indicate that adding follow-on formula to infant cereals does not improve the bioaccessibility of iron, calcium, and zinc, despite the increase in mineral content it implies. Results obtained also showed that mineral solubility and dialyzability do not always follow parallel trends.

  2. Soy Protein-Based Infant Formulas with Supplemental Fructooligosaccharides: Gastrointestinal Tolerance and Hydration Status in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lasekan, John; Baggs, Geraldine; Acosta, Sonja; Mackey, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Unlike milk-based infant formulas, soy-based infant formulas containing supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have not been clinically evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, 28 day parallel feeding trial compared gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and hydration in healthy term newborn infants fed either a commercialized soy formula (with history of safe use) containing sucrose as 20% of total carbohydrate, no supplemental short-chain FOS (scFOS) and no mixed carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene) as a control (CF, n = 62 infants) or one of two experimental soy-based formulas, EF1 (n = 64) and EF2 (n = 62) containing scFOS (2.5 g/L) and mixed carotenoids. EF1 differed from EF2 by containing sucrose. Results indicated no significant study group differences (p > 0.05) in study completion rates (CF = 81, EF1 = 86, & EF2 = 87%), growth, mean rank stool consistency, stool frequency, formula intake, spit-up/vomit, and safety measures (urine specific gravity, USG; hydration status and adverse events). Mean USGs for study groups were normal (<1.03). The EF1 > CF group in percent yellow stools (p < 0.01 at age 14 days). In conclusion, the study suggested that term infants fed soy-based formulas supplemented with scFOS and mixed carotenoids, with or without sucrose in the 1st 35 days of infancy demonstrated good tolerance and hydration comparable to the control soy-based formula with history of safe use. PMID:25912040

  3. Soy protein-based infant formulas with supplemental fructooligosaccharides: gastrointestinal tolerance and hydration status in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Lasekan, John; Baggs, Geraldine; Acosta, Sonja; Mackey, Amy

    2015-04-22

    Unlike milk-based infant formulas, soy-based infant formulas containing supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have not been clinically evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, 28 day parallel feeding trial compared gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and hydration in healthy term newborn infants fed either a commercialized soy formula (with history of safe use) containing sucrose as 20% of total carbohydrate, no supplemental short-chain FOS (scFOS) and no mixed carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene) as a control (CF, n = 62 infants) or one of two experimental soy-based formulas, EF1 (n = 64) and EF2 (n = 62) containing scFOS (2.5 g/L) and mixed carotenoids. EF1 differed from EF2 by containing sucrose. Results indicated no significant study group differences (p > 0.05) in study completion rates (CF = 81, EF1 = 86, & EF2 = 87%), growth, mean rank stool consistency, stool frequency, formula intake, spit-up/vomit, and safety measures (urine specific gravity, USG; hydration status and adverse events). Mean USGs for study groups were normal (<1.03). The EF1 > CF group in percent yellow stools (p < 0.01 at age 14 days). In conclusion, the study suggested that term infants fed soy-based formulas supplemented with scFOS and mixed carotenoids, with or without sucrose in the 1st 35 days of infancy demonstrated good tolerance and hydration comparable to the control soy-based formula with history of safe use.

  4. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula, and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.13.

    PubMed

    Golay, Pierre-Alain; Moulin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on AOAC First Action Method 2012.13 "Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products and Infant Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography," which is based on an initial International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-International Dairy Federation (IDF) New Work Item that has been moved forward to ISO 16958:2015|IDF 231:2015 in November 2015. It was decided to merge the two activities after the agreement signed between ISO and AOAC in June 2012 to develop common standards and to avoid duplicate work. The collaborative study was performed after having provided highly satisfactory single-laboratory validation results [Golay, P.A., & Dong, Y. (2015) J. AOAC Int. 98, 1679-1696] that exceeded the performance criteria defined in AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR(®)) 2012.011 (September 29, 2012) on 12 products selected by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula (SPIFAN). After a qualification period of 1 month, 18 laboratories participated in the fatty acids analysis of 12 different samples in duplicate. Six samples were selected to meet AOAC SPIFAN requirements (i.e., infant formula and adult nutritionals in powder and liquid formats), and the other Six samples were selected to meet ISO-IDF requirements (i.e., dairy products such as milk powder, liquid milk, cream, butter, infant formula with milk, and cheese). The fatty acids were analyzed directly in all samples without preliminary fat extraction, except in one sample (cheese). Powdered samples were analyzed after dissolution (i.e., reconstitution) in water, whereas liquid samples (or extracted fat) were analyzed directly. After addition of the internal standards solution [C11:0 fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and C13:0 triacylglycerols (TAG)] to the samples, fatty acids attached to lipids were transformed into FAMEs by direct transesterification using methanolic sodium methoxide. FAMEs were separated using highly polar capillary GLC and were

  5. Determination of isoflavones in ready-to-feed soy-based infant formula.

    PubMed

    Johns, Paul; Dowlati, Lobat; Wargo, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    An alkaline hydrolysis/liquid chromatography (LC) method was developed for determination of isoflavones in ready-to-feed soy-based infant formula. The method consists of a 15 min methanol extraction, 10 min alkaline hydrolysis, HCl neutralization, gravity filtration, aqueous dilution, and 50 min LC analysis with UV detection at 262 and 250 nm to quantify 6 isoflavone analytes: daidzin, glycitin, genistin, daidzein, glycitein, and genistein. The concentration averages for 10 commercial batches (microg aglycone/g formula) were daidzein, 6.12 +/- 1.23; glycitein, 1.19 +/- 0.16; genistein, 12.8 +/- 2.35; and total, 20.1 +/- 3.61. Validation experiments demonstrated extraction completion and analyte stability to alkaline hydrolysis. Spike recoveries ranged from 97.6 to 104.1%, and a series of accuracy assessments showed that isoflavone concentration determined by the method was within 5% of the true value. The relative standard deviation values for repeatability ranged from 0.4 to 2.2% (n = 10), and from 0.3 to 2.7% (n = 4) for intermediate precision. Isoflavone peak purity was verified by comparing sample and standard peak area ratios (262/250 nm). The limits of detection and quantitation (microg/ formula) ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 and 0.08 to 0.18 microg/g, respectively. The difference between our concentrations and those reported by others in 1995-1998 is attributable to the well-established seasonal variation in soybean isoflavone levels. Although the method was applied exclusively to ready-to-feed formula in the present study, it is equally suitable for powder and concentrated liquid infant formulas.

  6. Liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamin B6 in reconstituted infant formula: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Mann, Dudley L; Ware, George M; Bonnin, Evelyn; Eitenmiller, Ronald R; Barna, Eva; Christiansen, Scott; De Borde, Jean Luc; DeVries, Jonathan; Gilliland, Pamela; Hemmer, Jane; Kalman, Andras; Konings, Erik; Levin, David; Salvati, Louis; Woollard, David

    2005-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was validated for the determination of total vitamin B6 in infant formula. Total vitamin B6 was quantified by converting the phosphorylated and free vitamers into pyridoxine. Pyridoxine was determined by ion pair reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection. The method was subjected to an AOAC collaborative study involving a factory-manufactured, milk- and soy-based infant formula. Each was spiked at 3 concentrations in the range of 0-1 microg/g and sent as blind duplicate to participant laboratories. Nine laboratories returned valid data which were statistically analyzed for outliers and precision parameters. The repeatability relative standard deviation (RSD(r)) ranges were 2.0-4.0 and 3.5-5.9% for fortified milk- and soy-based formulas, respectively. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) ranges were 8.2-8.4 and 6.7-11.2% for fortified milk- and soy-based formulas, respectively. HORRAT values ranged from 0.42 to 0.53, indicating that the precision of the method is acceptable. The mean RSD(r):RSD(R) values were 0.60 and 0.55 for milk- and soy-based formulas, respectively. As expected, RSDs for the unfortified samples were higher, but their HORRAT values (0.81 and 2.06) helped define a realistic limit of quantitation as 0.05 microg/g. Recovery data were quantitative and varied between 81.4 and 98.0% (mean = 89.8%) for each of 6 spiked materials.

  7. The Survey of Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterbacter sakazakii) in Infant and Follow-up Powdered Formula in China in 2012.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xiao Yan; Yan, Lin; Zhu, Jiang Hui; Li, Ning; Guo, Yun Chang; Fu, Ping; Jia, Hua Yun; Zhang, Xiu Li; Yang, Xiao Rong; Yang, Da Jin

    2016-02-01

    To determine Cronobacter spp. contamination in infant and follow-up powdered formula in China. All of 2282 samples were collected from the retail markets in China from January 2012 to December 2012, and analyzed for Cronobacter spp. by the Chinese National Food Safety Standard. Characterization of the isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with XbaI and SpeI restriction enzymes. Cronobacter spp. strains were isolated from 25 samples, and the positive rates in infant powdered formulas and follow-up powdered formulas were 0.90% (10/1011) and 1.18% (15/1271), respectively. Analysis of variable data regarding different purchasing store formats, seasonality, and production locations as well as comparison of infant versus follow-up formulas did not reveal statistically significant factors. During the sampling period, one of six surveillance zones did exhibit a statistically significant trend towards higher positive rate. PFGE characterization of Cronobacter spp. to elucidate genetic diversity revealed only three pairs of Cronobacter spp. out of 25 having the same PFGE patterns. The current investigation indicated a lower positive rate of Cronobacter spp. in the powdered formula in China. This evidence suggested contamination originating from multiple different sources during the manufacturing process. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. Probiotics, prebiotics infant formula use in preterm or low birth weight infants: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous reviews (2005 to 2009) on preterm infants given probiotics or prebiotics with breast milk or mixed feeds focused on prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, sepsis and diarrhea. This review assessed if probiotics, prebiotics led to improved growth and clinical outcomes in formula fed preterm infants. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared preterm formula containing probiotic(s) or prebiotic(s) to conventional preterm formula in preterm infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and a chi2 test. An I2 test assessed inconsistencies across studies. I2> 50% represented substantial heterogeneity. Results Four probiotics studies (N=212), 4 prebiotics studies (N=126) were included. Probiotics: There were no significant differences in weight gain (MD 1.96, 95% CI: -2.64 to 6.56, 2 studies, n=34) or in maximal enteral feed (MD 35.20, 95% CI: -7.61 to 78.02, 2 studies, n=34), number of stools per day increased significantly in probiotic group (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.00, 1 study, n=20). Prebiotics: Galacto-oligosaccharide / Fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS) yielded no significant difference in weight gain (MD 0.04, 95% CI: -2.65 to 2.73, 2 studies, n=50), GOS/FOS yielded no significant differences in length gain (MD 0.01, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.04, 2 studies, n=50). There were no significant differences in head growth (MD −0.01, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.00, 2 studies, n=76) or age at full enteral feed (MD −0.79, 95% CI: -2.20 to 0.61, 2 studies, n=86). Stool frequency increased significantly in prebiotic group (MD 0.80, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.1, 2 studies, n=86). GOS/FOS and FOS yielded higher bifidobacteria counts in prebiotics group (MD 2.10, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.24, n=27) and (MD 0.48, 95% CI: 0

  9. Probiotics, prebiotics infant formula use in preterm or low birth weight infants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mugambi, Mary N; Musekiwa, Alfred; Lombard, Martani; Young, Taryn; Blaauw, Reneé

    2012-08-28

    Previous reviews (2005 to 2009) on preterm infants given probiotics or prebiotics with breast milk or mixed feeds focused on prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, sepsis and diarrhea. This review assessed if probiotics, prebiotics led to improved growth and clinical outcomes in formula fed preterm infants. Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared preterm formula containing probiotic(s) or prebiotic(s) to conventional preterm formula in preterm infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and a chi² test. An I² test assessed inconsistencies across studies. I²> 50% represented substantial heterogeneity. Four probiotics studies (N=212), 4 prebiotics studies (N=126) were included. Probiotics: There were no significant differences in weight gain (MD 1.96, 95% CI: -2.64 to 6.56, 2 studies, n=34) or in maximal enteral feed (MD 35.20, 95% CI: -7.61 to 78.02, 2 studies, n=34), number of stools per day increased significantly in probiotic group (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.00, 1 study, n=20). Prebiotics: Galacto-oligosaccharide/Fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS) yielded no significant difference in weight gain (MD 0.04, 95% CI: -2.65 to 2.73, 2 studies, n=50), GOS/FOS yielded no significant differences in length gain (MD 0.01, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.04, 2 studies, n=50). There were no significant differences in head growth (MD -0.01, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.00, 2 studies, n=76) or age at full enteral feed (MD -0.79, 95% CI: -2.20 to 0.61, 2 studies, n=86). Stool frequency increased significantly in prebiotic group (MD 0.80, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.1, 2 studies, n=86). GOS/FOS and FOS yielded higher bifidobacteria counts in prebiotics group (MD 2.10, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.24, n=27) and (MD 0.48, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.68, n=56). There is not

  10. Economic value of atopic dermatitis prevention via infant formula use in high-risk Malaysian infants

    PubMed Central

    Bhanegaonkar, Abhijeet J; Horodniceanu, Erica G; Abdul Latiff, Amir Hamzah; Woodhull, Sanjay; Khoo, Phaik Choo; Detzel, Patrick; Ji, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is best for infants and the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for at least the first 6 months of life. For those who are unable to be breastfed, previous studies demonstrate that feeding high-risk infants with hydrolyzed formulas instead of cow's milk formula (CMF) may decrease the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective To estimate the economic impact of feeding high-risk, not exclusively breastfed, urban Malaysian infants with partiallyhydrolyzed whey-based formula (PHF-W) instead of CMF for the first 17 weeks of life as an AD risk reduction strategy. Methods A cohort Markov model simulated the AD incidence and burden from birth to age 6 years in the target population fed with PHF-W vs. CMF. The model integrated published clinical and epidemiologic data, local cost data, and expert opinion. Modeled outcomes included AD-risk reduction, time spent post AD diagnosis, days without AD flare, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs (direct and indirect). Outcomes were discounted at 3% per year. Costs are expressed in Malaysian Ringgit (MYR; MYR 1,000 = United States dollar [US $]316.50). Results Feeding a high-risk infant PHF-W vs. CMF resulted in a 14% point reduction in AD risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 3%-23%), a 0.69-year (95% CI, 0.25-1.10) reduction in time spent post-AD diagnosis, additional 38 (95% CI, 2-94) days without AD flare, and an undiscounted gain of 0.041 (95% CI, 0.007-0.103) QALYs. The discounted AD-related 6-year cost estimates when feeding a high-risk infant with PHF-W were MYR 1,758 (US $556) (95% CI, MYR 917-3,033) and with CMF MYR 2,871 (US $909) (95% CI, MYR 1,697-4,278), resulting in a per-child net saving of MYR 1,113 (US $352) (95% CI, MYR 317-1,884) favoring PHF-W. Conclusion Using PHF-W instead of CMF in this population is expected to result in AD-related costs savings. PMID:25938073

  11. Economic value of atopic dermatitis prevention via infant formula use in high-risk Malaysian infants.

    PubMed

    Bhanegaonkar, Abhijeet J; Horodniceanu, Erica G; Abdul Latiff, Amir Hamzah; Woodhull, Sanjay; Khoo, Phaik Choo; Detzel, Patrick; Ji, Xiang; Botteman, Marc F

    2015-04-01

    Breastfeeding is best for infants and the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for at least the first 6 months of life. For those who are unable to be breastfed, previous studies demonstrate that feeding high-risk infants with hydrolyzed formulas instead of cow's milk formula (CMF) may decrease the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). To estimate the economic impact of feeding high-risk, not exclusively breastfed, urban Malaysian infants with partiallyhydrolyzed whey-based formula (PHF-W) instead of CMF for the first 17 weeks of life as an AD risk reduction strategy. A cohort Markov model simulated the AD incidence and burden from birth to age 6 years in the target population fed with PHF-W vs. CMF. The model integrated published clinical and epidemiologic data, local cost data, and expert opinion. Modeled outcomes included AD-risk reduction, time spent post AD diagnosis, days without AD flare, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs (direct and indirect). Outcomes were discounted at 3% per year. Costs are expressed in Malaysian Ringgit (MYR; MYR 1,000 = United States dollar [US $]316.50). Feeding a high-risk infant PHF-W vs. CMF resulted in a 14% point reduction in AD risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 3%-23%), a 0.69-year (95% CI, 0.25-1.10) reduction in time spent post-AD diagnosis, additional 38 (95% CI, 2-94) days without AD flare, and an undiscounted gain of 0.041 (95% CI, 0.007-0.103) QALYs. The discounted AD-related 6-year cost estimates when feeding a high-risk infant with PHF-W were MYR 1,758 (US $556) (95% CI, MYR 917-3,033) and with CMF MYR 2,871 (US $909) (95% CI, MYR 1,697-4,278), resulting in a per-child net saving of MYR 1,113 (US $352) (95% CI, MYR 317-1,884) favoring PHF-W. Using PHF-W instead of CMF in this population is expected to result in AD-related costs savings.

  12. Tolerance, bone mineral content, and serum vitamin D concentration of term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey-based infant formula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the study was to assess the tolerance (intake, incidence of spit up/vomit, and stool patterns), bone mineral status, and vitamin D status of healthy, term infants fed one of two partially hydrolyzed bovine whey protein infant formulas from birth to 56 or 84 days of age. The control ...

  13. Soy-based formulae and infant growth and development: a review.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Michelle A; Anthony, Mary S; Arab, Lenore

    2002-08-01

    Soy-based infant formulae, initially developed for infants who were lactose intolerant or allergic to cow's milk-based formulae, now account for >25% of the infant formulae sold in the United States. Formulations have changed over the years to improve digestibility, the stability and availability of minerals, and protein quality. Recent concerns have been raised regarding the phytoestrogenic isoflavone content of soy-based formulae. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate various measures of infant health and development in clinical studies comparing modern soy-based formulae with other diets and to document areas in which further research seems warranted. Results suggest that modern soy-based formulae support normal growth and nutritional status in healthy term infants in y 1 of life. However, there are very limited data on sexual and reproductive development or outcomes such as immune function, visual acuity/cognitive development and thyroid function. Available data do not provide evidence of meaningful differences in timing of maturation, sexual development or fertility in adolescents or adults. Nonetheless, given evidence suggesting that early exposure to soy and/or isoflavones might have long-term effects, further research following infants fed soy-based formulae into adulthood is warranted.

  14. Reasons for in-hospital formula supplementation of breastfed infants from low-income families.

    PubMed

    Tender, Jennifer A F; Janakiram, Jayarsi; Arce, Elda; Mason, Rubina; Jordan, Talita; Marsh, Jennifer; Kin, Sarah; Jianping He; Moon, Rachel Y

    2009-02-01

    In-hospital formula supplementation of breastfed infants negatively impacts breastfeeding duration. Infants from low-income families have some of the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rates in the United States. The objectives of this study were to identify (1) reasons low-income breastfeeding mothers begin in-hospital formula supplementation and (2) risk factors for in-hospital formula supplementation. We surveyed 150 low-income mothers in a Washington, DC, clinic. Sixty percent had initiated breastfeeding, and 78% of these breastfed infants received formula supplementation in the hospital. There was no clear medical need for supplementation for 87% of the breastfed infants receiving supplementation. Infants of mothers who did not attend a prenatal breastfeeding class were almost 5 times more likely to receive in-hospital formula supplementation than those infants whose mothers had attended a class (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.05-21.14). Improved knowledge about breastfeeding among nursing and medical providers is important to minimize unnecessary formula supplementation for breastfed infants.

  15. Trends of US hospitals distributing infant formula packs to breastfeeding mothers, 2007 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jennifer M; Li, Ruowei; Perrine, Cria G

    2015-06-01

    To examine trends in the prevalence of hospitals and birth centers (hereafter, hospitals) distributing infant formula discharge packs to breastfeeding mothers in the United States from 2007 to 2013. The Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care survey is administered every 2 years to all hospitals with registered maternity beds in the United States. A Web- or paper-based questionnaire was distributed and completed by the people most knowledgeable about breastfeeding-related hospital practices. We examined the distribution of infant formula discharge packs to breastfeeding mothers from 2007 to 2013 by state and hospital characteristics. The percentage of hospitals distributing infant formula discharge packs to breastfeeding mothers was 72.6% in 2007 and 31.6% in 2013, a decrease of 41 percentage points. In 2007, there was only 1 state (Rhode Island) in which <25% of hospitals distributed infant formula discharge packs to breastfeeding mothers, whereas in 2013 there were 24 such states and territories. Distribution declined across all hospital characteristics examined, including facility type, teaching versus nonteaching, and size (annual number of births). The distribution of infant formula discharge packs to breastfeeding mothers declined markedly from 2007 to 2013. Discontinuing the practice of distributing infant formula discharge packs is a part of optimal, evidence-based maternity care to support mothers who want to breastfeed. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Trends of US Hospitals Distributing Infant Formula Packs to Breastfeeding Mothers, 2007 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jennifer M.; Li, Ruowei; Perrine, Cria G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine trends in the prevalence of hospitals and birth centers (hereafter, hospitals) distributing infant formula discharge packs to breastfeeding mothers in the United States from 2007 to 2013. Methods The Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) survey is administered every 2 years to all hospitals with registered maternity beds in the United States. Either a web- or paper-based questionnaire was distributed and completed by the person(s) most knowledgeable about breastfeeding-related hospital practices. We examined the distribution of infant formula discharge packs to breastfeeding mothers from 2007 to 2013 by state and hospital characteristics. Results The percentage of hospitals distributing infant formula discharge packs to breastfeeding mothers was 72.6% in 2007 and 31.6% in 2013, a decrease of 41 percentage points. In 2007, there was only 1 state (Rhode Island) in which <25% of hospitals distributed infant formula discharge packs to breastfeeding mothers, whereas, in 2013, there were 24 such states and territories. Distribution declined across all hospital characteristics examined, including facility type, teaching vs. non-teaching, and size (annual number of births). Conclusions The distribution of infant formula discharge packs to breastfeeding mothers declined markedly from 2007 to 2013. Discontinuing the practice of distributing infant formula discharge packs is a part of optimal, evidence-based maternity care to support mothers who want to breastfeed. PMID:26009631

  17. Forms and Amounts of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formula: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Greibe, Eva; Nexo, Ebba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Infant formula is based on cow’s milk and designed to mimic breast milk for substitution. Vitamin B12 (B12) is bound to proteins in both breast milk and cow’s milk, and in milk from both species the vitamin occurs mainly in its natural form such as hydroxo-B12 with little or no synthetic B12 (cyano-B12). Here we test commercially available infant formulas. Methods Eleven commercially available infant formulas were measured for content of B12 and analyzed for the presence of B12-binding proteins and forms of B12 using size exclusion chromatography and HPLC. Results All infant formulas contained B12 by and large in accord with the informations given on the package inserts. None of the formulas contained protein-bound B12, and cyano-B12 accounted for 19–78% of the total amount of B12 present, while hydroxo-B12 constituted more or less the rest. Conclusions This pilot study shows that infant formula differs from breast milk in providing the infant with free B12, rather than protein-bound B12, and by a relative high content of cyano-B12. The consequence of supplying the infant with synthetic cyano-B12 remains to be elucidated. PMID:27851744

  18. Estimated Exposure to Arsenic in Breastfed and Formula-Fed Infants in a United States Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Carignan, Courtney C.; Jackson, Brian P.; Farzan, Shohreh F.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Punshon, Tracy; Folt, Carol L.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that concentrations of arsenic in breast milk are relatively low even in areas with high drinking-water arsenic. However, it is uncertain whether breastfeeding leads to reduced infant exposure to arsenic in regions with lower arsenic concentrations. Objective: We estimated the relative contributions of breast milk and formula to arsenic exposure during early infancy in a U.S. population. Methods: We measured arsenic in home tap water (n = 874), urine from 6-week-old infants (n = 72), and breast milk from mothers (n = 9) enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using data from a 3-day food diary, we compared urinary arsenic across infant feeding types and developed predictive exposure models to estimate daily arsenic intake from breast milk and formula. Results: Urinary arsenic concentrations were generally low (median, 0.17 μg/L; maximum, 2.9 μg/L) but 7.5 times higher for infants fed exclusively with formula than for infants fed exclusively with breast milk (β = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.83; p < 0.0001, adjusted for specific gravity). Similarly, the median estimated daily arsenic intake by NHBCS infants was 5.5 times higher for formula-fed infants (0.22 μg/kg/day) than for breastfed infants (0.04 μg/kg/day). Given median arsenic concentrations measured in NHBCS tap water and previously published for formula powder, formula powder was estimated to account for ~ 70% of median exposure among formula-fed NHBCS infants. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that breastfed infants have lower arsenic exposure than formula-fed infants, and that both formula powder and drinking water can be sources of exposure for U.S. infants. Citation: Carignan CC, Cottingham KL, Jackson BP, Farzan SF, Gandolfi AJ, Punshon T, Folt CL, Karagas MR. 2015. Estimated exposure to arsenic in breastfed and formula-fed infants in a United States cohort. Environ Health Perspect 123:500–506;

  19. WITHDRAWN: Infant formulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergic disease and food allergy.

    PubMed

    Osborn, David A; Sinn, John Kh; Jones, Lisa J

    2017-05-25

    Allergy is common and may be associated with foods, including cow's milk formula (CMF). Formulas containing hydrolysed proteins have been used to treat infants with allergy. However, it is unclear whether hydrolysed formulas can be advocated for prevention of allergy in infants. To compare effects on allergy and food allergy when infants are fed a hydrolysed formula versus CMF or human breast milk. If hydrolysed formulas are effective, to determine what type of hydrolysed formula is most effective, including extensively or partially hydrolysed formula (EHF/PHF). To determine which infants at low or high risk of allergy and which infants receiving early, short-term or prolonged formula feeding may benefit from hydrolysed formulas. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group supplemented by cross referencing of previous reviews and publications (updated August 2016). We searched for randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared use of a hydrolysed formula versus human milk or CMF. Trials with ≥ 80% follow-up of participants were eligible for inclusion. We independently assessed eligibility of studies for inclusion, methodological quality and data extraction. Primary outcomes included clinical allergy, specific allergy and food allergy. We conducted meta-analysis using a fixed-effect (FE) model. Two studies assessed the effect of three to four days' infant supplementation with an EHF whilst in hospital after birth versus pasteurised human milk feed. Results showed no difference in infant allergy or childhood cow's milk allergy (CMA). No eligible trials compared prolonged hydrolysed formula versus human milk feeding.Two studies assessed the effect of three to four days infant supplementation with an EHF versus a CMF. One large quasi-random study reported a reduction in infant CMA of borderline significance among low-risk infants (risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 1.00).Prolonged infant feeding with a

  20. Infant formulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergic disease and food allergy.

    PubMed

    Osborn, David A; Sinn, John Kh; Jones, Lisa J

    2017-03-15

    Allergy is common and may be associated with foods, including cow's milk formula (CMF). Formulas containing hydrolysed proteins have been used to treat infants with allergy. However, it is unclear whether hydrolysed formulas can be advocated for prevention of allergy in infants. To compare effects on allergy and food allergy when infants are fed a hydrolysed formula versus CMF or human breast milk. If hydrolysed formulas are effective, to determine what type of hydrolysed formula is most effective, including extensively or partially hydrolysed formula (EHF/PHF). To determine which infants at low or high risk of allergy and which infants receiving early, short-term or prolonged formula feeding may benefit from hydrolysed formulas. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group supplemented by cross referencing of previous reviews and publications (updated August 2016). We searched for randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared use of a hydrolysed formula versus human milk or CMF. Trials with ≥ 80% follow-up of participants were eligible for inclusion. We independently assessed eligibility of studies for inclusion, methodological quality and data extraction. Primary outcomes included clinical allergy, specific allergy and food allergy. We conducted meta-analysis using a fixed-effect (FE) model. Two studies assessed the effect of three to four days' infant supplementation with an EHF whilst in hospital after birth versus pasteurised human milk feed. Results showed no difference in infant allergy or childhood cow's milk allergy (CMA). No eligible trials compared prolonged hydrolysed formula versus human milk feeding.Two studies assessed the effect of three to four days' infant supplementation with an EHF versus a CMF. One large quasi-random study reported a reduction in infant CMA of borderline significance among low-risk infants (risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 1.00).Prolonged infant feeding with a

  1. Determination of vitamin A (retinol) in infant formula and adult nutritionals by liquid chromatography: First Action 2011.15.

    PubMed

    DeVries, Jonathan W; Silvera, Karlene R; McSherry, Elliot; Dowell, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    During the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting," held on June 29, 2011, an Expert Review Panel (ERP) reviewed the method for the "Determination of Vitamins A (Retinol) and E (alpha-Tocopherol) in Foods by Liquid Chromatography: Collaborative Study," published by Jonathan W. DeVries and Karlene R. Silvera in J. AOAC Int. in 2002. After evaluation of the original validation data, an ERP agreed in June 2011 that the method meets standard method performance requirements (SMPRs) for vitamin A, as articulated by the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals. The ERP granted the method First Action status, applicable to determining vitamin A in ready-to-eat infant and adult nutritional formula. In an effort to achieve Final Action status, it was recommended that additional information be generated for different types of infant and adult nutritional formula matrixes at varied concentration levels as indicated in the vitamin A (retinol) SMPR. Existing AOAC LC methods are suited for specific vitamin A analytical applications. The original method differs from existing methods in that it can be used to assay samples in all nine sectors of the food matrix. One sector of the food matrix was powdered infant formula and gave support for the First Action approval for vitamin A in infant and adult nutritional formula. In this method, standards and test samples are saponified in basic ethanol-water solution, neutralized, and diluted, converting fats to fatty acids and retinol esters to retinol. Retinol is quantitated by an LC method, using UV detection at 313 or 328 nm for retinol. Vitamin concentration is calculated by comparison of the peak heights or peak areas of retinol in test samples with those of standards.

  2. Preterm formula use in the preterm very low birth weight infant.

    PubMed

    Hay, William W; Hendrickson, Kendra C

    2017-02-01

    Whereas human milk is the recommended diet for all infants, preterm formulas are indicated for enteral feeding of preterm very low birth weight infants when sufficient maternal breast milk and donor human milk are not available. Feeding with preterm formulas helps to ensure consistent delivery of nutrients. The balance of risks and benefits of feeding preterm formulas versus supplemented maternal and donor breast milk for preterm infants, however, is uncertain. Numerous studies and extensive practice have shown improved growth with preterm formulas, but there is concern for increased risks of necrotizing enterocolitis, possibly from cow milk antigen in the formulas or from different gut microbiomes, increased duration of total parenteral nutrition, and increased rates of sepsis in infants receiving preterm formulas. Furthermore, whereas preterm formulas improve neurodevelopmental outcomes compared to term formulas and unfortified donor milk, they do not produce neurodevelopmental outcomes better than fortified human milk, again indicating that maternal milk has unique properties that formulas need to mimic as closely as possible.

  3. Webinar Presentation: Effects of Formula Supplementation on the Composition of the Infant Microbiome

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Effects of Formula Supplementation on the Composition of the Infant Microbiome, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Food and Children's Health held on Dec. 9, 2015.

  4. Disinfection methods used in decontamination of bottles used for feeding powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Elizabeth; Griffith, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Infant susceptibility and the risks posed by infections associated with bottle-fed powdered infant formula (PIF) have received increased attention in recent years. Intrinsic contamination of PIF with pathogens has been reported and extrinsic contamination can be introduced from the handler or the environment during reconstitution. Recommended disinfection advice and bottle decontamination have changed in recent years and the aim of this study was to validate the efficacy of four current disinfection methods using bottles that had contained reconstituted PIF spiked with either a representative mixed bacterial culture or specific pathogens. Initially, bottles (n = 6) of reconstituted formula were spiked with 10(5) cfu/ml representative mixed culture. For subsequent experiments, reconstituted formula was spiked with either 10(2) and 10(4) cfu/ml of Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter), Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Before disinfection, bottles were cleaned according to recommended guidelines. Disinfection procedures tested included a hypochlorite-based chemical solution and three heat-based methods. Bottles were sampled in four sites. Before cleaning and disinfection, the inner screw cap and inner-teat were the most heavily contaminated sites with 1.6-7.4 x 10(3) cfu/per-area-sampled; the bottle interior was more contaminated overall with 1.2 x 10(4) cfu/per-area-sampled. After disinfection, adherence to recommended procedures (combined with good hygiene) enabled effective decontamination to be achieved using all methods. Small differences in disinfection ability were not significant (p > 0.05). Cumulatively, 800 sites were sampled and no B. cereus or E. sakazakii were isolated. S. aureus was isolated from 0.1% of sites with one site exceeding 1 cfu/ml. Findings indicate the potential for bottle contamination and that strict adherence to four currently used methods allowed effective decontamination. This highlights the importance of effective consumer

  5. Effects of cow milk versus extensive protein hydrolysate formulas on infant cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.; Trabulsi, Jillian C.; Papas, Mia A.

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on infant developmental effects, other than growth, of formulas that differ substantially in the form of protein. To examine development of infants fed formulas differing in free amino acid content, we randomized 0.5-month-old infants (n=79) to either a control group who fed only cow milk formula (CMF) during the first 8 months (CMF8), or to one of two experimental groups: one experimental group fed extensively protein hydrolyzed formula (EHF) for 1–3 months during first 4.5 months (EHF1-3) of life, and the other fed EHF for 8 months (EHF8). The Mullen Scales of Early Learning were administered monthly from 1.5 to 8.5 months to assess fine (FM) and gross (GM) motor control, receptive (RL) and expressive (EL) language, visual reception (VR), and an early learning composite (ELC). Across the 5.5–8.5 month time period, when compared to CMF8 infants, GM scores in EHF1-3 infants averaged 1.5 points higher (95% CI: 0.1, 3.0) and in EHF8 infants 2.2 points higher (95% CI: 0.3, 4.0). Similarly, VR scores averaged 1.9 points higher (95% CI: 0.1, 3.8) in EHF1-3 infants and 2.2 points higher (95% CI: −0.2, 4.5) in EHF8 infants. EHF8 infants RL scores averaged 1.8 points lower (95% CI: 0.1, 3.6) than CMF8 infants. These data suggest that the form of protein in infant formula may impact cognitive development and that the higher free amino acid content in breast milk may be a contributing factor to the differential cognitive development between breastfed and CMF-fed infants. Clinical Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov NCT00994747. PMID:26497857

  6. Global infant formula: monitoring and regulating the impacts to protect human health.

    PubMed

    Kent, George

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide promotion of infant formula and other commercial baby foods is leading to increased use of these products, raising concerns about their impact on the health of infants. These products are made and marketed through a global system that extends beyond the control of separate nations. As the industry is increasingly globalized, there is a growing need for guidance, monitoring, and regulation. This study suggests a path toward achieving better control of infant formula and other baby foods to ensure that infants and young children everywhere are well nourished. The negotiation of a new Optional Protocol on Children's Nutrition, to be linked to the most relevant human rights treaty, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, would bring the major issues relating to infant formula and other baby foods to the attention of the global community and all national governments.

  7. [Determination of nucleotides in infant formula milk powder by ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ye, Mingli; Pan, Guangwen; Hu, Zhongyang; Wang, Qiong

    2010-09-01

    A method was developed for the determination of nucleotides in infant formula milk powder by ion chromatography (IC). The separation was performed on an IonPac AS16 column with KOH solution as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and 25 degrees C. The detection wavelength was set at 260 nm and the sample injection volume was 25 microL. There were good linear relationships between the mass concentrations and the peak areas of cytidine monophosphate (CMP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), uridine monophosphate (UMP), inosine monophosphate (IMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP) in the ranges of 0.09-50, 0.06-50, 0.06-50, 0.09-50, 0.06-50 mg/L, respectively. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) of CMP, AMP, UMP, IMP and GMP were 0.03, 0.02, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.02 mg/L, respectively. The method has been applied for the determination of the five nucleotides in infant formula milk powder with the recoveries of 92.5%-102.4%. This method is rapid, simple and suitable for the determination of real samples.

  8. Influence of partial replacement of butter fat with peanut oil (in infant formula) on erythrocyte fatty acids in infants.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, K; Rao, S V

    1997-09-01

    Erythrocyte fatty acid composition was studied in infants fed with three different formulae: formula I containing 20% butter fat; formula II containing 10% butter fat and 10% peanut oil; and formula III containing 10% butter fat and 5% peanut oil with a fat content itself reduced to 15%. The linoleic acid levels were 2.5, 18 and 13% in formula I-III, respectively. Analysis of fatty acids at the time of birth, and 3 and 6 months thereafter, indicated that linoleic acid levels could be improved by supplementation with peanut oil. Arachidonic acid levels (20:4, n-6) did not show a proportional relationship with respect to linoleic acid intake. The other ratio such as triene/tetraene, oleic/linoleic, linoleic/arachidonic and arachidonic/linoleic were all within the normal range, indicating normal desaturase and elongase activity. Thus, our present study suggests that peanut oils could be used for enhancing the linoleic acid levels in infants.

  9. Comparison of the Compositions of the Stool Microbiotas of Infants Fed Goat Milk Formula, Cow Milk-Based Formula, or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Gowri Pathmanathan, Siva; Zhou, Shao J.; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A.; Sullivan, Thomas; Prosser, Colin G.; Lowry, Dianne; Hodgkinson, Alison J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milk-fed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained. PMID:23455335

  10. Growth of Enterobacter sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula as affected by composition and temperature.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Beuchat, Larry R

    2007-09-01

    The ability of Enterobacter sakazakii to cause infections in infants, coupled with its documented presence in some lots of commercially manufactured powdered infant formula, raises a concern about the potential for its growth in reconstituted formula, with consequent increased safety risk. A study was done to determine these characteristics in four commercial milk-based powdered infant formulas and two soy-based formulas reconstituted with water and inoculated with a 10-strain mixture of E. sakazakii at populations of 0.02 and 0.53 CFU/ml (ca. 13 CFU/100 g and ca. 409 CFU/100 g of powdered formula, respectively). Reconstituted formulas were stored at 4, 12, 21, and 30 degrees C, and populations were monitored up to 72 h. E. sakazakii did not grow in formulas stored at 4 degrees C, although it was detected by enrichment of all formulas 72 h after reconstitution. Initially at a population of 0.02 CFU/ml, E. sakazakii grew to populations > or = 1 log CFU/ml of reconstituted formulas held at 12, 21, and 30 degrees C for 48, 12, and 8 h, respectively. At an initial population of 0.53 CFU/ml, the pathogen grew to populations > or = 1 log CFU/ml in reconstituted infant formula held at 12 and 21 degrees C for 24 and 8 h, respectively, and to populations 2.55 to 3.14 log CFU/ml when held at 30 degrees C for 8 h. Populations initially at 0.02 and 0.53 CFU/ml of reconstituted formula increased to < or = 0.25 and 0.4 log CFU/ml, respectively, when formulas were held at 30 degrees C for 4 h. Growth was not greatly influenced by the composition of formulas. Results show that the hang time for reconstituted infant formula held at temperatures in neonatal intensive care units should be no longer than 4 h. Portions of reconstituted infant formula not fed to infants should be stored at < or = 4 degrees C, a temperature at which E. sakazakii will not grow.

  11. Modernization of AOAC Nutrient Methods by Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Darryl

    2016-01-01

    Infant formula is one of the most highly regulated products in the world. To comply with global regulations and to ensure the products are manufactured within product specifications, accurate analytical testing is required. Most of the AOAC INTERNATIONAL legacy test methods for infant formula were developed and validated in the 1980s and 1990s. Although these methods performed very well for many years, infant formulas have been updated, and today's products contain many new and novel ingredients. There were a number of cases in which the legacy AOAC methods began to result in problems with the analysis of modern infant formulas, and the use of these methods caused some disputes with regulatory agencies. In 2010, AOAC reached an agreement with the International Formula Council, which has changed its name to the Infant Nutrition Council of America, regarding a project to modernize these AOAC infant-formula test methods. This agreement led to the development of Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs(®)) for 28 nutrients. After SMPR approval, methods were collected, evaluated, validated, and approved through the AOAC Official Methods(SM) process. Forty-seven methods have been approved as AOAC First Action Methods, and eight have been approved as Final Action.

  12. Soy- and rice-based formula and infant allergic to cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Tzifi, Flora; Grammeniatis, Vasilis; Papadopoulos, Marios

    2014-03-01

    Soy milk formula has limited medical indications for infants feeding, although in several parts of the world it has been used as a source of nutrition in a large number of children. It used to be the main alternative feeding for infants allergic to cow's milk who did not breastfeed before the introduction of extensively hydrolyzed formulas. Although there is a debate, the fact that some children are allergic to soy or some children with cow's milk allergy can present with concomitant soy allergy, restricted the use of soy formulas for treatment of infants allergic to cow's milk. Other grain-based formulas like the rice-based ones are promising in infants with cow's milk allergy. Grain-based formulas could be an alternative and cheaper way of nutrition for infants allergic to cow's milk than extensively hydrolyzed formulas. Further large scale longitudinal clinical studies are required to clarify the safety of soy and other grain-based formulas for treatment of cow's milk allergy.

  13. A metabolic balance study in term infants fed lactose-containing or lactose-free formula.

    PubMed

    Moya, M; Lifschitz, C; Ameen, V; Euler, A R

    1999-11-01

    Lactose-free (L-) formulas are recommended for infants with conditions affecting lactose digestion. Cows' milk protein-based formulas containing other carbohydrate sources are most often used for such infants. This study compared fat absorption and absorption and retention of nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium in term infants fed either a L- or standard lactose-containing (L+) bovine milk protein-based formula. Data from three single-centre, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group metabolic balance studies were combined. After a 4-7-d equilibration period on either L- or L+ formula, a 72-h balance study was performed. Twenty infants received L- and 21 received L+ formula. Besides the L- group having a higher percentage of males (65%) and the L+ group a higher percentage of females (52.4%), other baseline measurements were similar. The majority of nutrient balance data was similar between the two groups. Exceptions were relative nitrogen absorption, calcium intake and calcium retention, magnesium retention, and faecal phosphorus excretion, all of which were significantly higher in the L- group. Vitamin D supplementation did not significantly affect either calcium or phosphorus data. This new L- formula provided similar nutrients and is a suitable alternative to a L+ formula in term infants requiring L- feedings.

  14. Real-time PCR detection of Listeria monocytogenes in infant formula and lettuce following macrophage-based isolation and enrichment.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Basavanna, U

    2015-01-01

    To develop a rapid detection procedure for Listeria monocytogenes in infant formula and lettuce using a macrophage-based enrichment protocol and real-time PCR. A macrophage cell culture system was employed for the isolation and enrichment of L. monocytogenes from infant formula and lettuce for subsequent identification using real-time PCR. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to infant formula and lettuce contaminated with a serial dilution series of L. monocytogenes. As few as approx. 10 CFU ml(-1) or g(-1) of L. monocytogenes were detected in infant formula and lettuce after 16 h postinfection by real-time PCR. Internal positive PCR controls were utilized to eliminate the possibility of false-negative results. Co-inoculation with Listeria innocua did not reduce the L. monocytogenes detection sensitivity. Intracellular L. monocytogenes could also be isolated on Listeria selective media from infected macrophage lysates for subsequent confirmation. The detection method is highly sensitive and specific for L. monocytogenes in infant formula and lettuce and establishes a rapid identification time of 20 and 48 h for presumptive and confirmatory identification, respectively. The method is a promising alternative to many currently used q-PCR detection methods which employ traditional selective media for enrichment of contaminated food samples. Macrophage enrichment of L. monocytogenes eliminates PCR inhibitory food elements and contaminating food microflora which produce cleaner samples that increase the rapidity and sensitivity of detection. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. [Expert consensus on the nutritional aspects of initial and follow-on infant formulas].

    PubMed

    Barrio, J; Díaz-Martín, J J; Manrique, I; Martín Martínez, B; Ortega, E

    2015-12-01

    Infant feeding in the first months/years of life affects the health in the short and long term. Breastfeeding is the perfect food due to its many benefits. However, when breastfeeding is not possible, infant formulas are the best alternative. The aim of this study is to define the role of the supplemented formulas in infant nutrition using the opinion of a panel of experts in infant gastroenterology and nutrition. A survey, using 62 items, stratified into 5 blocks, was performed by 48 panelists using the Delphi method to achieve a professional criteria consensus on nutritional aspects of infant formulas. A consensus was reached in 64.6% of the items, with a non-unified agreement being established as regards the nutritional aspects of infant formulas, and their influence in body and brain development and immune maturity. According to the experts surveyed, there is consensus as regards the suitable composition of lipids, lactose, calcium, vitamin D, and prebiotics in infant formulas, for a correct cerebral, immune and somatic development. There was no consensus on the not yet well-defined subjects, such as nutritional quality of proteins, use of thickeners, taurine supplementation, probiotic, and symbiotic aspects. More studies are necessary to confirm these subjects. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The aetiology of diarrhoea, pneumonia and respiratory colonization of HIV-exposed infants randomized to breast- or formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    Zash, Rebecca M; Shapiro, Roger L; Leidner, Jean; Wester, Carolyn; McAdam, Alexander J; Hodinka, Richard L; Thior, Ibou; Moffat, Claire; Makhema, Joseph; McIntosh, Kenneth; Essex, Max; Lockman, Shahin

    2016-08-01

    Diarrhoea and pneumonia are common causes of childhood death in sub-Saharan Africa but there are few studies describing specific pathogens. The study aimed to describe the pathogens associated with diarrhoea, pneumonia and oropharyngeal colonization in children born to HIV-infected women (HIV-exposed infants). The Mashi Study randomized 1200 HIV-infected women and their infants to breastfeed for 6 months with ZDV prophylaxis or formula-feed with 4 weeks of ZDV. Children were tested for HIV by PCR at 1, 4, 7, 9 and 12 months and by ELISA at 18 months. Pre-defined subsets of children were sampled during episodes of diarrhoea (n = 300) and pneumonia (n = 85). Stool was tested for bacterial pathogens, rotavirus and parasites. Children with pneumonia underwent bacterial blood culture, and testing of nasopharyngeal aspirates for viral pathogens by PCR. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from a consecutive subset of 561 infants at the routine 3-month visit for bacterial culture. The median age (range) at sampling was 181 days for diarrhoea (0-730) and 140 days for pneumonia (2-551). Pathogens were identified in 55 (18%) children with diarrhoea and 32 (38%) with pneumonia. No differences in pathogens by child HIV status (HIV-infected vs HIV-uninfected) or feeding strategy were identified. Campylobacter was the most common diarrhoeal pathogen (7%). Adenovirus (22%) and other viruses (19%) were the primary pathogens isolated during pneumonias. More formula-fed infants had oropharyngeal colonization by pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria (16.8% vs 6.2%, P = 0.003), which was associated with a non-significant increased risk of pneumonia (OR 2.2, 95% CI 0.8-5.7). A trend toward oropharyngeal bacterial colonization was observed in formula-fed infants. Although viruses were most commonly detected during pneumonia, respiratory colonization by Gram-negative bacteria may have contributed to pneumonia in formula-fed infants.

  17. Decreasing retinol and α-tocopherol concentrations in human milk and infant formula using varied bottle systems.

    PubMed

    Francis, Jimi; Rogers, Kristy; Dickton, Darby; Twedt, Roxanna; Pardini, Ron

    2012-04-01

    Expressing human milk has become a more common alternative for mothers, as the average work demand has increased. As more mothers must work, bottle feeding trends are increasingly common. The handling and storage of human milk introduce the risk of degradation to expressed human milk and infant formula. In following a 20-minute simulated feeding, Vitamin C has been found to degrade. Vitamin C acts as an anti-oxidant and is responsible for shielding other nutrients from oxidation, such as retinol and alpha-tocopherol. By analyzing a 20-minute simulated feeding, retinol and alpha-tocopherol each displayed decreases over time significantly different than that of the Control, which was milk not exposed to bottle feeding. In human milk, retinol showed as high as a 9.5% decrease compared to the Control. Similar trends were seen with the infant formula samples. The correlation between degradation and bottle feeding systems was dependent upon the formation of bubbles in the milk as the milk was removed from the bottle. The analysis indicated a decrease of up to 12%, as seen in retinol, and 35%, as seen in alpha-tocopherol. These decreases in retinol and alpha-tocopherol should be considered when using a bottle feeding system to deliver either human milk or formula to an infant. More research is necessary to determine the effect of this decrease on the nutritional status of infants, particularly premature infants, who are at higher risk for nutrient deficiencies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Randomized trial of exclusive human milk versus preterm formula diets in extremely premature infants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to compare the duration of parenteral nutrition, growth, and morbidity in extremely premature infants fed exclusive diets of either bovine milk-based preterm formula (BOV) or donor human milk and human milk-based human milk fortifier (HUM), in a randomized trial of formula vs human...

  19. NTP-CERHR expert panel report on the developmental toxicity of soy infant formula.

    PubMed

    McCarver, Gail; Bhatia, Jatinder; Chambers, Christina; Clarke, Robert; Etzel, Ruth; Foster, Warren; Hoyer, Patricia; Leeder, J Steven; Peters, Jeffrey M; Rissman, Emilie; Rybak, Michael; Sherman, Claire; Toppari, Jorma; Turner, Katie

    2011-10-01

    Soy infant formula contains soy protein isolates and is fed to infants as a supplement to or replacement for human milk or cow milk. Soy protein isolates contains estrogenic isoflavones (phytoestrogens) that occur naturally in some legumes, especially soybeans. Phytoestrogens are nonsteroidal, estrogenic compounds. In plants, nearly all phytoestrogens are bound to sugar molecules and these phytoestrogen-sugar complexes are not generally considered hormonally active. Phytoestrogens are found in many food products in addition to soy infant formula, especially soy-based foods such as tofu, soy milk, and in some over-the-counter dietary supplements. Soy infant formula was selected for National Toxicology Program (NTP) evaluation because of (1) the availability of large number of developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals exposed to the isoflavones found in soy infant formula (namely, genistein) or other soy products, as well as few studies on human infants fed soy infant formula, (2) the availability of information on exposures in infants fed soy infant formula, and (3) public concern for effects on infant or child development. On October 2, 2008 (73 FR 57360), the NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) announced its intention to conduct an updated review of soy infant formula to complete a previous evaluation that was initiated in 2005. Both the current and previous evaluations relied on expert panels to assist the NTP in developing its conclusions on the potential developmental effects associated with the use of soy infant formula, presented in the NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula. The initial expert panel met on March 15 to 17, 2006, to reach conclusions on the potential developmental and reproductive toxicities of soy infant formula and its predominant isoflavone constituent genistein. The expert panel reports were released for public comment on May 5, 2006 (71 FR 28368). On November 8, 2006 (71 FR 65537), CERHR staff released

  20. Copper and zinc status of infants fed either cow's milk or milk based formula

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, D.; Anderson, K.; Acosta, P.B.

    1986-03-01

    Infant formula is recommended for the first year for those infants not receiving breast milk. Except for effects on iron, biochemical consequences of feeding cow's milk or infant formula to older infants are unknown. This study compared copper and zinc status in healthy infants between 11 and 13 months of age, who had received either milk based infant formula (n = 17) or cow's milk (n = 13) as their primary beverage for a minimum of 3 months. Diet diaries were requested. Blood was drawn by venipuncture into trace mineral free heparinized tubes and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Mean plasma zinc levels were similar in both feeding groups: 117 +/- 22 ..mu..g/dl for formula fed infants (FFI) and 119 +/- 39 ..mu..g/dl for cow's milk fed infants (CMI). Intakes for zinc were also similar; 6.0 +/- 2.0 mg/day (FFI) and 5.7 +/- 1.5 mg/day (CMI). Mean plasma copper levels were higher in FFI compared to CMI; 118 +/- 30 ..mu..g/dl and 97 +/- 33 ..mu..g/dl respectively; however, the difference was not statistically was not significant. Intakes for copper did not differ; 0.8 +/- 0.3 mg/day for FFI and 0.7 +/- 0.1 mg/day for CMI. Total energy intakes did not differ.

  1. Growth kinetics and model comparison of cronobacter sakazakii in reconstituted powdered infant formula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a life-threatening bacterium, primarily implicated in illnesses associated with the consumption of powdered infant formula (PIF). It can cause rare but invasive infections, leading to sepsis, meningitis, or necrotizing enterocolitis in infants fed with contaminated PIF. Th...

  2. Randomized outcome trial of nutrient-enriched formula and neurodevelopment outcome in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Giannì, Maria Lorella; Roggero, Paola; Amato, Orsola; Picciolini, Odoardo; Piemontese, Pasqua; Liotto, Nadia; Taroni, Francesca; Mosca, Fabio

    2014-03-19

    Preterm infants are at risk for adverse neurodevelopment. Furthermore, nutrition may play a key role in supporting neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a nutrient-enriched formula fed to preterm infants after hospital discharge could improve their neurodevelopment at 24 months (term-corrected age). We conducted an observer-blinded, single-center, randomized controlled trial in infants admitted to the Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Italy between 2009 and 2011. Inclusion criteria were gestational age < 32 weeks and/or birth weight < 1500 g, and being fed human milk for < 20% of the total milk intake. Exclusion criteria were congenital malformations or conditions that could interfere with growth or body composition. Included infants were randomized to receive a standard full-term formula or a nutrient-enriched formula up until 6 months of corrected age, using two computer-generated randomization lists; one appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and one for small for gestational age (SGA) infants. We assessed neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale and related subscales (locomotor, personal-social, hearing and speech, hand and eye coordination, and performance). Of the 207 randomized infants, 181 completed the study. 52 AGA and 35 SGA infants were fed a nutrient-enriched formula, whereas 56 AGA and 38 SGA infants were fed a standard full-term formula. The general quotient at 24 months of corrected age was not significantly different between infants randomized to receive a nutrient-enriched formula compared with a standard term formula up until 6 months of corrected age (AGA infants: 93.8 ± 12.6 vs. 92.4 ± 10.4, respectively; SGA infants: 96.1 ± 9.9 vs. 98.2 ± 9, respectively). The scores of related subscales were also similar among groups. This study found that feeding preterm infants a nutrient-enriched formula after discharge does not

  3. Survival and growth of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant rice cereal reconstituted with water, milk, liquid infant formula, or apple juice.

    PubMed

    Richards, G M; Gurtler, J B; Beuchat, L R

    2005-01-01

    To determine survival and growth characteristics of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant rice cereal as affected by type of liquid used for reconstitution and storage temperature after reconstitution. A commercially manufactured dry infant rice cereal was reconstituted with water, apple juice, milk, or liquid infant formula, inoculated with a 10-strain mixture of E. sakazakii at populations of 0.27, 0.93, and 9.3 CFU ml(-1), and incubated at 4, 12, 21 or 30 degrees C for up to 72 h. Growth did not occur in cereal reconstituted with apple juice, regardless of storage temperature, or in cereal reconstituted with water, milk, or formula and stored at 4 degrees C. The lag time for growth in cereal reconstituted with water, milk, or formula was decreased as the incubation temperature (12, 21 and 30 degrees C) was increased. Upon reaching maximum populations of 7-8 log10 CFU ml(-1), in some instances populations decreased to nondetectable levels during subsequent storage which was concurrent with decreases in pH. Enterobacter sakazakii initially at very low populations can rapidly grow in infant rice cereal reconstituted with water, milk, or infant formula. Reconstituted infant rice cereal can support luxuriant growth of E. sakazakii. Reconstituted cereal that is not immediately consumed should be discarded or stored at a temperature at which E. sakazakii and other food-borne pathogens cannot grow.

  4. Body fat and bone mineral content of infants fed breast-milk, cow's-milk formula, or soy formula during the first year of life

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to characterize growth, fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), and bone mineral content (BMC) longitudinally in breast-fed (BF), cow's milk formula-fed (CMF), or soy formula-fed (SF) healthy infants during the first year of life. Infants were assessed at ages 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo. Growt...

  5. Body composition of infants fed breast-milk, milk-based formula or soy-based formula during the first 6 months of life

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Literature on the impact of infant feeding on body composition is sparse and inconclusive. We assessed body composition in infants exclusively fed breast-milk (BF), milk-based formula (MF) or soy-based formula (SF) for at least the first 4 months of life. Participants are part of the on-going prosp...

  6. Comparison Among Commonly Available Infant Formula Milks in the Iraqi Market

    PubMed Central

    Mikhael, Ehab Mudher

    2015-01-01

    Breast-feeding is the best method of feeding infants. In some cases, formula milk can be a suitable alternative, so this study aimed to compare the safety and nutritional adequacy of commonly available formula milks in the Iraqi market. An observational study for the commonly available formula milks was conducted in the largest supermarkets of Baghdad, Iraq, during January-March 2015. The macronutrient and micronutrient contents as presented in the label of each type of formula milk was compared with the standard requirement of formula milk according to the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) guidelines. Dielac formula milk is the commonest formula milk in the Iraqi market, with the lowest price when compared with other formula milks. All infant formula milks (Similac, Guigoz, and S-26 Gold) except Dielac have the mandatory contents within the specified ranges, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. Dielac lacks more than 1 of the major mandatory contents besides lacking all optional contents in its formula. Guigoz formula milk lacks the optional ingredients arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and nucleotides. Similac milk was supplemented with a higher-than-specified level of nucleotides, and its l-carnitine contents were not declared. Only S26 Gold formula milk contained all mandatory and optional ingredients within the specified range, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. In conclusion, no formula milk can resemble breast milk; however, S26 Gold formula milk is the most acceptable formula, and Dielac formula milk is the worst. Therefore, it is recommended that Dielac be withdrawn from the Iraqi market. PMID:27335982

  7. Effects of Fructans from Mexican Agave in Newborns Fed with Infant Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Parra-Ortiz, Minerva; Mora, Ignacio De la Mora-De la; García-Torres, Itzhel; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Alcántara-Ortigoza, Miguel Angel; Angel, Ariadna González-Del; Velázquez-Aragón, José; Ortiz-Hernández, Rosario; Cruz-Rubio, José Manuel; Villa-Barragán, Pablo; Jiménez-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro

    2015-10-29

    The importance of prebiotics consumption is increasing all over the world due to their beneficial effects on health. Production of better prebiotics from endemic plants raises possibilities to enhance nutritional effects in vulnerable population groups. Fructans derived from Agave Plant have demonstrated their safety and efficacy as prebiotics in animal models. Recently, the safety in humans of two fructans obtained from Agave tequilana (Metlin(®) and Metlos(®)) was demonstrated. This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy as prebiotics of Metlin(®) and Metlos(®) in newborns of a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with a pilot study design. Biological samples were taken at 20 ± 7 days, and three months of age from healthy babies. Outcomes of efficacy include impact on immune response, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, bone metabolism, and gut bacteria changes. There were differences statistically significant for the groups of infants fed only with infant formula and with formula enriched with Metlin(®) and Metlos(®). Our results support the efficacy of Metlin(®) and Metlos(®) as prebiotics in humans, and stand the bases to recommend their consumption. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 01251783.

  8. Effects of Fructans from Mexican Agave in Newborns Fed with Infant Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Parra-Ortiz, Minerva; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; García-Torres, Itzhel; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Alcántara-Ortigoza, Miguel Angel; González-del Angel, Ariadna; Velázquez-Aragón, José; Ortiz-Hernández, Rosario; Cruz-Rubio, José Manuel; Villa-Barragán, Pablo; Jiménez-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background: The importance of prebiotics consumption is increasing all over the world due to their beneficial effects on health. Production of better prebiotics from endemic plants raises possibilities to enhance nutritional effects in vulnerable population groups. Fructans derived from Agave Plant have demonstrated their safety and efficacy as prebiotics in animal models. Recently, the safety in humans of two fructans obtained from Agave tequilana (Metlin® and Metlos®) was demonstrated. Methods: This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy as prebiotics of Metlin® and Metlos® in newborns of a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with a pilot study design. Biological samples were taken at 20 ± 7 days, and three months of age from healthy babies. Outcomes of efficacy include impact on immune response, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, bone metabolism, and gut bacteria changes. Results: There were differences statistically significant for the groups of infants fed only with infant formula and with formula enriched with Metlin® and Metlos®. Conclusions: Our results support the efficacy of Metlin® and Metlos® as prebiotics in humans, and stand the bases to recommend their consumption. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 01251783. PMID:26529006

  9. HPLC and UPLC methods for the determination of zearalenone in noodles, cereal snacks and infant formula.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyun Ee; Choi, Sung-Wook; Kim, Meehye; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2014-11-15

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) were compared to validate a method for determination of zearalenone (ZON) in noodles, cereal snacks, and infant formulas. The limits of detection and quantification in HPLC and UPLC were found to be 4.0 and 13.0 μg kg(-1) and 2.5 and 8.3 μg kg(-1), respectively. The average recoveries of ZON by HPLC and UPLC ranged from 79.1% to 105.3% and from 85.1% to 114.5%, respectively. The measurement uncertainties of the two methods for ZON determination were within the maximum standard uncertainty. The two methods showed that the levels of ZON in 163 naturally contaminated samples ranged from 4.3 to 8.3 μg kg(-1) by HPLC and 3.1 to 17.6 μg kg(-1) by UPLC. These findings indicate that either method is suitable for the determination of ZON in noodles, cereal snacks, and infant formulas, but UPLC gives faster results with better sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Determination of lutein in infant formula milk powder using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Huang, Junrong; Zhang, Li; Feng, Feng; Ling, Yun; Chu, Xiaogang; Li, Hongliang

    2013-12-01

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (U-HPLC) method for the determination of lutein in the infant formula milk powder was developed. The sample was extracted with acetone and defatted using freezing centrifugation method. The U-HPLC separation was achieved using a YMC Carotenoid C30 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 3 microm) with the mixture of methanol/methyl tert-butyl ether (70: 30, v/v) as the mobile phase under isocratic elution. The flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and the column oven temperature was 25 degrees C. The injection volume was 5 microL. It was detected on a photodiode array detector at a wavelength of 445 nm. The results showed that the linear range was 20-500 microg/L (r = 0.9999), and the limit of quantification was 20 microg/L. The mean recoveries of lutein varied from 97.9% to 104.4% spiked at 50, 250 and 2,000 microg/kg. The established method is simple, accurate and sensitive for the rapid determination of lutein in infant formula milk powder.

  11. Marketing infant formula through hospitals: the impact of commercial hospital discharge packs on breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Kenneth D; Eastham, Carissa A; Kasehagen, Laurin J; Sandoval, Alfredo P

    2008-02-01

    Commercial hospital discharge packs are commonly given to new mothers at the time of newborn hospital discharge. We evaluated the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and the receipt of commercial hospital discharge packs in a population-based sample of Oregon women who initiated breastfeeding before newborn hospital discharge. We analyzed data from the 2000 and 2001 Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), a population-based survey of postpartum women (n=3895; unweighted response rate=71.6%). Among women who had initiated breastfeeding, 66.8% reported having received commercial hospital discharge packs. We found that women who received these packs were more likely to exclusively breastfeed for fewer than 10 weeks than were women who had not received the packs (multivariate adjusted odds ratio=1.39; 95% confidence interval=1.05, 1.84). Commercial hospital discharge packs are one of several factors that influence breastfeeding duration and exclusivity. The distribution of these packs to new mothers at hospitals is part of a longstanding marketing campaign by infant formula manufacturers and implies hospital and staff endorsement of infant formula. Commercial hospital discharge pack distribution should be reconsidered in light of its negative impact on exclusive breastfeeding.

  12. A new formula for premature infants: effects on growth and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Marseglia, Lucia; Pagano, Giuseppina; Arco, Alessandro; Barberi, Ignazio; Biasucci, Giacomo; Riboni, Sara; Mondello, Isabella; Fiamingo, Chiara; Moro, Guido

    2015-08-01

    Nutritional management influences immediate survival as well as subsequent growth and development of low birth weight and very low birth weight infants. Preterm infant formula (PTF) is used when there is an inadequate supply of mother's milk or when the mother is unable to breastfeed and donor breast milk is unavailable. The purpose of this prospective multicenter study was to evaluate short-term effects on nutritional status (auxological and biochemical parameters) in a population of premature infants who received a preterm infant formula. Ninety-seven preterm infants with a birth weight between 500 g and 2000 g and a gestational age of 25-34 weeks postmenstrual age were randomly assigned to received a new preterm infant formula (Nutribèn Pre), and their nutritional status were compared to 75 fortified human milk (FHM) fed infants. No significant differences were observed between FHM and Nutribèn Pre fed infants in terms of growth, feeding tolerance and biochemical profiles. Nutribèn Pre is a valid, effective and safe alternative for the nutrition of preterm infants.

  13. Introduction of solids and formula to breastfed infants: a longitudinal prospective study in Uppsala, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hörnell, A; Hofvander, Y; Kylberg, E

    2001-05-01

    The introduction of solids and formula was studied among 506 breastfed infants in Uppsala, Sweden, based on daily recordings during the first year. The mothers had previously breastfed at least 1 infant for at least 4 mo. Thirty-four per cent of the infants were introduced to solids before the age of 4 mo (4-6 mo is recommended in Sweden). Accustoming the infants to solids was a lengthy process. Life-table analyses showed a median duration of 28 d from the first introduction of solids to consumption of >10 ml daily, and 46 d before the infants ate > or = 100 ml of solids in 1 d for the first time. These durations were longer the younger the infant was at the introduction of solids. Thirty-two per cent of infants given formula consumed > or = 100 ml the first time it was given, and 49% did so within I wk, regardless of infant age. Parents and healthcare personnel need to be aware that accustoming breastfed infants to solid food is a lengthy process, and that there is a strong age effect on this duration. It is also important to consider what consequences the (usually) more abrupt introduction of formula might have on breastfeeding.

  14. Detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in Dried Infant Milk Formula by Cationic-Magnetic-Bead Capture

    PubMed Central

    Mullane, N. R.; Murray, J.; Drudy, D.; Prentice, N.; Whyte, P.; Wall, P. G.; Parton, A.; Fanning, S.

    2006-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii has been associated with life-threatening infections in premature low-birth-weight infants. Contaminated infant milk formula (IMF) has been implicated in cases of E. sakazakii meningitis. Quick and sensitive methods to detect low-level contamination sporadically present in IMF preparations would positively contribute towards risk reduction across the infant formula food chain. Here we report on the development of a simple method, combining charged separation and growth on selective agar, to detect E. sakazakii in IMF. This protocol can reliably detect 1 to 5 CFU of E. sakazakii in 500 g of IMF in less than 24 h. PMID:16957259

  15. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide do not affect iron absorption from formula in healthy term infants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Iron absorption from infant formula is relatively low. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide have been suggested to enhance mineral absorption. We therefore assessed the effect of alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide on iron absorption from infant formula in healthy term infants. ...

  16. Determination of total choline by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shishan; Tao, Baohua; Lai, Shiyun; Zhang, Jingshun; Yiping, Ren

    2012-01-01

    Choline is a water-soluble nutrient important for infants' brain and neural development. In infant formulas, choline is one of the important fortified nutrients. A single-laboratory validation study conducted an LC-electrospray ionization-MS/MS to determine total choline in infant formulas. Sample preparation was adopted from AOAC Official Method 999.14, and instrumental running conditions were optimized. The LOQ was 0.2 microg/100 g, which is significant for measuring total choline in infant formulas. Average recoveries for milk-, rice-, soybean-, and hydrolyzed protein-based samples ranged from 86.45 +/- 6.04% to 108.98 +/- 3.68%, with RSD less than 7%. The repeatability RSD (RSD(r)) range was 0.24-3.59% in within-day evaluation and 1.16-3.24% in day-to-day evaluation. Matrix effect was also investigated, and can be effectively eliminated by using an internal standard. Therefore, this method has high credibility, and could be used as a routine method of quality control, or for clinical studies and other research areas.

  17. Fermented Infant Formula Increases Ileal Protein Digestibility and Reduces Ileal Proteolytic Activity Compared with Standard and Hydrolyzed Infant Formulas in Piglets.

    PubMed

    Abrahamse, Evan; Huybers, Sylvie; Alles, Martine S; Renes, Ingrid B; Knol, Jan; Bouritius, Hetty; Ludwig, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    An infant formula that contained milk fermented by the bacteria Bifidobacterium breve and Streptococcus thermophilus (Lactofidus) was reported to alleviate functional digestive symptoms in infants. It was hypothesized that improved protein digestibility of the fermented infant formula could contribute to this effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein digestibility of a specific fermented (FF), a standard (SF), and an extensively hydrolyzed protein (HF) formula. Four-week-old piglets (n = 7) were fitted with a T-cannula at the terminal ileum and received each formula in a Latin square design. FF, SF, and HF contained 11.7%, 9.3%, and 11.9% (w/w) crude protein; 1.5%, 5.4%, and 5.6% (w/w) fiber; and had a casein/whey ratio of 60:40, 50:50, and 0:100 per kilogram of powder, respectively. Ileal digesta were collected and analyzed for amino acids and proteolytic activity. FF had a significantly higher apparent ileal crude protein digestibility (92.1% ± 1.0%) than SF and HF (84.4% ± 1.0% and 83.9% ± 0.9%, respectively). FF also had a significantly higher dry matter digestibility than SF and HF. The ileal crude protein flow of FF was significantly lower than that of SF and HF. The ileal flow of FF total proteolytic activity was significantly lower than that of SF but not significantly different from that of HF (412 ± 163 kU/8 h vs. 1530 ± 163 and 703 ± 156 kU/8 h, respectively). The FF in piglets had a significantly higher apparent ileal crude protein digestibility than the SF and HF and displayed lower ileal proteolytic activity than the SF. Both effects may contribute to the alleviation of functional gastrointestinal symptoms reported in infants fed fermented infant milk formula. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Vitamin C in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.22.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Esther Campos; Martin, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    To determine the repeatability and reproducibility values of the AOAC INTERNATIONAL First Action Method 2012.22, Vitamin C in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection, a collaborative study was organized. The study was divided into two parts: method setup and qualification of participants (part 1) and collaborative study participation (part 2). During part 1, each laboratory was asked to analyze two practice samples using the aforementioned method. Laboratories that provided results within a range of expected levels were qualified for part 2, where they analyzed 10 samples in blind duplicates. Two of the samples were suspected of spoilage during the test and new cans of the same type of product were analyzed by a subset of laboratories in part 3. The results were compared with Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR®) 2012.012 established for vitamin C. The precision results were within the requirements stated in the SMPR: 1.4-7.3% and 3.2-11.4% respectively, for repeatability and reproducibility. Finally, Horwitz ratio values were all <2 (0.5-1.7). The Expert Review Panel for Stakeholder Panel for Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals Nutrient Methods determined that the data presented met the SMPR and therefore recommended the method be granted Final Action status.

  19. Effects of carob-bean gum thickened formulas on infants' reflux and tolerance indices.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Miglena; Manios, Yannis; Rasheva, Niya; Pancheva, Ruzha; Dimitrova, Elena; Schaafsma, Anne

    2016-02-08

    To examine the effect of carob-bean gum (CBG) thickened-formulas on reflux and tolerance indices in infants with gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). Fifty-six eligible infants (1-6 mo old) were randomly allocated to receive for two weeks a formula with either 0.33 g/100 mL (Formula A) or 0.45 g/100 mL (Formula B) of cold soluble CBG galactomannans respectively, or a formula with 0.45 g/100 mL of hot soluble CBG galactomannans (Formula C). No control group receiving standard formula was included in the study. Data on the following indices were obtained both at baseline and follow-up from all study participants: 24 h esophageal pH monitoring indices, anthropometrical indices (i.e., body weight and length) and tolerance indices (i.e., frequency of colics; type and frequency of defecations). From the eligible infants, forty seven were included in an intention-to-treat analysis to examine the effects of the two-week trial on esophageal 24 h pH monitoring, growth and tolerance indices. Repeated Measures ANOVA was used to examine the research hypothesis. Regarding changes in 24 h pH monitoring indices, significant decreases from baseline to follow-up were observed in the "Boix Ochoa Score" (i.e., an index of esophageal acid exposure), in the total number of visible refluxes and in all symptoms related indices due to acid reflux only for infants provided with Formula A, while no significant changes were observed for infants provided with Formulas B and C. In addition, the significant decreases observed in two symptoms related pH monitoring indices (i.e., "Symptom index for reflux" and "Percentage of all reflux") for infants provided with Formula A were also found to differentiate significantly compared to the changes observed in the other two groups (P = 0.048 and P = 0.014 respectively). Concerning changes in anthropometric indices, body weight significantly increased among infants provided with Formulas A and C, but not for infants provided with Formula B. As far as

  20. The economic burden of infant formula on families with young children in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Howard L; Iellamo, Alessandro D; Raya, Rene R; Padilla, Alexander A; Sta Ana, Filomeno S; Nyunt-U, Soe

    2012-05-01

    Infant formula usage places children at risk for illness and death. Studies in the United States demonstrated high economic burden, health care costs, and absenteeism of caregivers associated with formula usage. Despite high formula usage in developing countries, no economic studies were found. This study examines the financial burden of purchasing infant formula and increased health care expenditure in the Philippines, a developing country with a per capita income of $3930. The average exchange rate of the peso to the US dollar for 2003 was $1 to P52, according to Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP). This is a secondary analysis of the 2003 Family Income and Expenditure Survey, a national cross-sectional multistage cluster survey of 42 094 households. Almost half of Philippine families with a young child and one-third of families living on less than $2 per day purchase formula. Nationally, $260 million was spent on infant formula in 2003. Formula-buying families with young children had spent an aggregate of $143.9 million on medical care compared to $56.6 million by non-formula-buying families. After adjusting for income and nonmilk family expenditures, the average formula-purchasing Philippine family spent an additional $0.30 (95% CI: 0.24 - 0.36; r(2) = 0.08) on medical expenditure for every $1 spent on formula. The economic burden from infant formula purchase and out-of-pocket medical expenditure exceeded $400 million in 2003. This cost was aside from other costs, such as absenteeism and the risk of childhood death and illness. These expenses caused an unnecessary burden on Filipino families and could instead have been invested in education and other social services.

  1. Quantification of trace metals in infant formula premixes using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cama-Moncunill, Raquel; Casado-Gavalda, Maria P.; Cama-Moncunill, Xavier; Markiewicz-Keszycka, Maria; Dixit, Yash; Cullen, Patrick J.; Sullivan, Carl

    2017-09-01

    Infant formula is a human milk substitute generally based upon fortified cow milk components. In order to mimic the composition of breast milk, trace elements such as copper, iron and zinc are usually added in a single operation using a premix. The correct addition of premixes must be verified to ensure that the target levels in infant formulae are achieved. In this study, a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was assessed as a fast validation tool for trace element premixes. LIBS is a promising emission spectroscopic technique for elemental analysis, which offers real-time analyses, little to no sample preparation and ease of use. LIBS was employed for copper and iron determinations of premix samples ranging approximately from 0 to 120 mg/kg Cu/1640 mg/kg Fe. LIBS spectra are affected by several parameters, hindering subsequent quantitative analyses. This work aimed at testing three matrix-matched calibration approaches (simple-linear regression, multi-linear regression and partial least squares regression (PLS)) as means for precision and accuracy enhancement of LIBS quantitative analysis. All calibration models were first developed using a training set and then validated with an independent test set. PLS yielded the best results. For instance, the PLS model for copper provided a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.995 and a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 14 mg/kg. Furthermore, LIBS was employed to penetrate through the samples by repetitively measuring the same spot. Consequently, LIBS spectra can be obtained as a function of sample layers. This information was used to explore whether measuring deeper into the sample could reduce possible surface-contaminant effects and provide better quantifications.

  2. Similar to Those Who Are Breastfed, Infants Fed a Formula Containing 2'-Fucosyllactose Have Lower Inflammatory Cytokines in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Goehring, Karen C; Marriage, Barbara J; Oliver, Jeffery S; Wilder, Julie A; Barrett, Edward G; Buck, Rachael H

    2016-12-01

    Evidence suggests that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provide multiple benefits to infants, including prebiotic effects, gut maturation, antimicrobial activities, and immune modulation. Clinical intervention studies with HMOs are required to confirm these benefits in infants. Our objective was to investigate the effects of feeding formulas supplemented with the HMO 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) on biomarkers of immune function in healthy term infants. We performed a substudy nested within a randomized, double-blind, controlled growth and tolerance study in healthy singleton infants (birth weight ≥2490 g) who were enrolled by 5 d of life and exclusively formula-fed (n = 317) or breastfed (n = 107) from enrollment to 4 mo of age. Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 formulas, all containing 2.4 g total oligosaccharides/L [control: galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) only; experimental formulas: GOS + 0.2 or 1.0 g 2'-FL/L], and compared with a breastfed reference group. For this substudy, blood samples were drawn from infants at 6 wk of age (n = 31-42/group). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for cellular phenotyping and stimulated ex vivo with phytohemagglutinin for proliferation and cell cycle progression or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Cytokine concentrations were measured in plasma and in ex vivo-stimulated culture supernatants. Breastfed infants and infants fed either of the experimental formulas with 2'-FL were not different but had 29-83% lower concentrations of plasma inflammatory cytokines than did infants fed the control formula [interleukin (IL) receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)] (P ≤ 0.05). In ex vivo RSV-stimulated PBMC cultures, breastfed infants were not different than either of the groups fed formula with 2'-FL, but they had lower concentrations of TNF-α (31%) and interferon γ (IFN-γ 54%) (P ≤ 0.05) and tended to have lower IL-1ra (25%) and

  3. SN2-Palmitate Reduces Fatty Acid Excretion in Chinese Formula-fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Lifshitz, Yael; Cohen, Tzafra; Malard, Patrice; Xu, Chungdi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Palmitic acid (PA) comprises 17% to 25% of human milk fatty acids, of which 70% to 75% are esterified to the SN2 position of the triglyceride (SN2-palmitate). In vegetable oils, which are commonly used in infant formulas, palmitate is primarily esterified to other positions, resulting in reduced calcium and fat absorption and hard stools. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of SN2-palmitate on nutrient excretion. Methods: In total, 171 Chinese infants were included (within 14 days of birth) in this multicenter study. Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either SN2-palmitate formula (INFAT, n = 57) or control formula (n = 57). The formulas (Biostime, China) differed only in their SN2 PA proportions. Stool was collected at 6 postnatal weeks. Results: The stool dry weight and fat content of the SN2-palmitate group were lower compared with the control group (dry weight 4.25 g vs 7.28 g, P < 0.05; fat 0.8 g vs 1.2 g, P < 0.05). The lipid component was also significantly lower for the SN2-palmitate group (0.79 g vs 1.19 g, P < 0.05). PA, representing ∼50% of the saponified fatty acids, was significantly lower in the SN2-palmitate group compared with the control group (0.3 g vs 0.7 g, P < 0.01). Breast-fed infants had a significantly lower stool dry weight, fat content, and saponified fat excretion compared with formula-fed infants (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Similar to breast milk, the SN2-palmitate infant formula primarily reduced calcium-saponified fat excretion. The results of this study further emphasize the nutritional importance of SN2-palmitate structured fat for infants. PMID:26334255

  4. Formula and breast feeding in infant food allergy: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Alice J; Koplin, Jennifer J; Lowe, Adrian J; Tang, Mimi Lk; Matheson, Melanie C; Robinson, Marnie; Peters, Rachel; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Allen, Katrina J

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether infant-feeding practices, including duration of exclusive breastfeeding and use of partially hydrolysed formula, modify the risk of developing infant food allergy. In an observational population-based study, 1 year olds were recruited from community immunisation clinics in Melbourne, Australia. Parent-reported data on infant-feeding practices and potential confounders were collected prior to infant skin prick testing for four food allergens. Sensitised infants attended hospital-based oral food challenges to establish food allergy status. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate associations between breastfeeding and formula-feeding and infant food allergy adjusting for possible confounding variables. A total of 5276 (74% response) infants participated. Of the 4537 for whom food allergy status was determined, 515 (11.3%) were food allergic (challenge-proven in the context of skin prick testing positive (≥2 mm)). After adjusting for confounding variables, there was no association between duration of exclusive breastfeeding and food allergy. Use of partially hydrolysed formula did not reduce the risk of food allergy compared with cow's milk formula in the general population (adjusted odds ratios 1.03 (confidence interval 0.67-1.50)). Duration of exclusive breastfeeding and use of partially hydrolysed formula were not associated with food allergy at 1 year of age in this large population-based study. These findings have implications for population-based infant-feeding guidelines and do not support the use of partially hydrolysed formula for food allergy prevention. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Perchlorate exposure from infant formula and comparisons with the perchlorate reference dose.

    PubMed

    Schier, Joshua G; Wolkin, Amy F; Valentin-Blasini, Lisa; Belson, Martin G; Kieszak, Stephanie M; Rubin, Carol S; Blount, Benjamin C

    2010-05-01

    Perchlorate exposure may be higher in infants compared with older persons, due to diet (infant formula) and body weight versus intake considerations. Our primary objective was to quantitatively assess perchlorate concentrations in commercially available powdered infant formulas (PIFs). Secondary objectives were: (1) to estimate exposure in infants under different dosing scenarios and compare them with the perchlorate reference dose (RfD); (2) estimate the perchlorate concentration in water used for preparing PIFs that would result in a dose exceeding the RfD; and (3) estimate iodine intakes from PIFs. We quantified perchlorate levels in three samples (different lot numbers) of reconstituted PIF (using perchlorate-free water) from commercial brands of PIF in each of the following categories: bovine milk-based with lactose, soy-based, bovine milk-based but lactose-free, and elemental (typically consisting of synthetic amino acids). Exposure modeling was conducted to determine whether the RfD might be exceeded in 48 dosing scenarios that were dependent on age, centile energy intake per unit of body weight, body weight percentile, and PIF perchlorate concentration. We obtained three different samples in each of the five brands of bovine- and soy-based PIF, three different samples in each of the three brands of lactose-free PIF, and three different samples in two brands of elemental PIF. The results were as follows: bovine milk-based with lactose (1.72 microg/l, range: 0.68-5.05); soy-based (0.21 microg/l, range: 0.10-0.44); lactose-free (0.27 microg/l, range: 0.03-0.93); and elemental (0.18 microg/l, range: 0.08-0.4). Bovine milk-based PIFs with lactose had a significantly higher concentration of perchlorate (P<0.05) compared with all. Perchlorate was a contaminant of all commercially available PIFs tested. Bovine milk-based PIFs with lactose had a significantly higher perchlorate concentration perchlorate than soy, lactose-free, and elemental PIFs. The perchlorate Rf

  6. [Tolerance and adequacy of a 100% lactose infant formula. A controlled randomized double-blind study].

    PubMed

    Girardet, J-P; Fournier, V; Bakhache, P; Beck, L; Kempf, C; Lachambre, E

    2012-07-01

    Lactose has beneficial nutritional effects in infancy, particularly on calcium retention and on Bifidobacterium colon microflora development. The objective of this controlled, prospective, randomized double-blind study was to assess the adequacy and safety of an infant formula containing only lactose as carbohydrate, as compared to a usual formula. Healthy non-breast-fed infants aged under 7 days were randomized to be fed exclusively with a conventional formula containing lactose (9.6 g/100 kcal) and maltodextrin (1.6 g/100 kcal) or the isocaloric-isoprotein study formula containing 100% lactose (11.2 g/100 kcal) for 120 days. Primary outcome was daily weight gain at D0 and D120. Weight, length, body mass index, formula consumption, tolerance, and safety were assessed monthly. The non-inferiority of the study formula was rejected if the difference in weight gain was higher than 2.5 g/day in the control group. One hundred and seventy-eight infants were enrolled. Mean daily weight gain in the study group differed by 0.71 g/day (95% CI: -2.23; 0.82) indicating the non-inferiority of the study formula. Growth was normal and similar in the two groups, but formula intake was decreased in the study group, leading to a decrease in energy and protein intakes. Tolerance was good and adverse events did not differ between the two groups. The 100% lactose study infant formula was safe and non-inferior to a conventional formula in ensuring normal growth during the first 4 months of life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. A randomized formula controlled trial of Bifidobacterium lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in infants.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Naflesia B O; Péret Filho, Luciano A; Penna, Francisco J; Lima, Fátima M L S; Nicoli, Jacques R

    2005-01-01

    This clinical trial was carried out to determine whether oral treatment with a commercial probiotic formula containing Bifidobacterium lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus would reduce the frequency of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in infants. In this double-bind formula controlled study, 80 infants, 6 to 36 months of age, were randomly assigned to receive a commercial formula containing 10 viable cells of B. lactis and 10 viable cells of S. thermophilus at the initiation of antibiotics for a duration of 15 days. The infants were assessed daily for formula intake, stool frequency, and stool consistency for a total duration of 30 days. Seventy-seven infants received nonsupplemented formula for the entire duration. There was a significant difference in the incidence of AAD in the children receiving probiotic-supplemented formula (16%) than nonsupplemented formula (31%). The present study shows that prevention against AAD in infants was obtained by oral treatment with daily dose of B. lactis and S. thermophilus.

  8. A new sample preparation and separation combination for precise, accurate, rapid, and simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, and B9 in infant formula and related nutritionals by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cellar, Nicholas A; McClure, Sean C; Salvati, Louis M; Reddy, Todime M

    2016-08-31

    An improved method was developed for simultaneous determination of the fortified forms of thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), and folic acid (B9) in infant formulas and related nutritionals. The method employed a simple, effective, and rapid sample preparation followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It improved upon previous methodologies by offering facile and rugged sample preparation with improved chromatographic conditions, which culminated in a highly accurate and precise method for water-soluble vitamin determination in a wide range of formulas. The method was validated over six days in ten unique matrices with two analysts and on instruments in two different labs. Intermediate precision averaged 3.4 ± 2.6% relative standard deviation and over-spike recovery averaged 100.2 ± 2.4% (n = 160). Due to refinements in sample preparation, the method had high sample throughput capacity.

  9. Determination of nucleotides in infant formula by ion-exchange liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Koichi; Obara, Rutsuko; Akiba, Takashi; Hino, Tomoaki; Oka, Hisao

    2008-08-27

    Nucleotide-supplemented infant formula has been shown to positively modify the composition of intestinal microflora, emulating the attribute of human milk. Quantification of nucleotides in infant formula is of interest because of its applicability in quality and safety assessments. There is no standard method for the analysis of nucleotides in infant formula. In the present study, ion-exchange liquid chromatography (IELC)- and centrifugal ultrafiltration (CUF)-based protocols were developed for routine determination of additive nucleotides in infant formula. Five target nucleotides, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP), cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP), and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) were measured by IELC with a mobile phase of 50 mM diammonium hydrogen phosphate buffer, pH 4.0, with UV detection at 254 nm. The calibration was linear over the range 0.5-50 microg/mL; R(2) = 0.999. The calculated LOD and LOQ were 0.01-0.05 microg/mL and 0.05-0.5 microg/mL, respectively. Recovery values (spiked concentration levels: 0.5, 5, and 10 microg/mL) ranged from 85.0 +/- 1.4% to 92.3 +/- 2.1% using only CUF preparation. This was applied to measure the concentration of five nucleotides in common infant formulas.

  10. Soy-based infant formula supplemented with DHA and ARA supports growth and increases circulating levels of these fatty acids in infants.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Dennis; Ziegler, Ekhard; Mitmesser, Susan H; Harris, Cheryl L; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    Healthy term infants (n = 244) were randomized to receive: (1) control, soy-based formula without supplementation or (2) docosahexaenoic acid-arachidonic acid (DHA + ARA), soy-based formula supplemented with at least 17 mg DHA/100 kcal (from algal oil) and 34 mg ARA/100 kcal (from fungal oil) in a double-blind, parallel group trial to evaluate safety, benefits, and growth from 14 to 120 days of age. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age and 24-h dietary and tolerance recall were recorded at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Adverse events were recorded throughout the study. Blood samples were drawn from subsets of 25 infants in each group. Capillary column gas chromatography was used to analyze the percentages of fatty acids in red blood cell (RBC) lipids and plasma phospholipids. Compared with the control group, percentages of fatty acids such as DHA and ARA in total RBC and plasma phospholipids were significantly higher in infants in the DHA + ARA group at 120 days of age (P < 0.001). Growth rates did not differ significantly between feeding groups at any assessed time point. Supplementation did not affect the tolerance of formula or the incidence of adverse events. Feeding healthy term infants soy-based formula supplemented with DHA and ARA from single cell oil sources at concentrations similar to human milk significantly increased circulating levels of DHA and ARA when compared with the control group. Both formulas supported normal growth and were well tolerated.

  11. Vitamin D intake of Dutch infants from the combination of (fortified) foods, infant formula, and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Beukers, Marja H; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; Ocké, Marga C

    2017-03-01

    Due to changes in the Dutch fortification policy for vitamin D and the vitamin D supplementation advice for infants (10-μg/d for 0-4 year olds), a partially virtual scenario study was conducted to evaluate the risk of excessive vitamin D intake assigning all infants to a 100 % adherence to the supplementation advice and considering the current fortification practice. Food consumption data from the Nutrition Intake Study (2002; N = 941, 7-19 months) were combined with Dutch food composition data from 2011 to estimate vitamin D intake from (fortified) foods. For infants 0-6 months of age, the consumption volume infant formula was estimated from energy requirement and body weight. All subjects were assigned to take a daily 10 µg vitamin D supplement, according the Dutch supplementation advice for infants. Habitual vitamin D intake was estimated using the Statistical Program to Assess Dietary Exposure and compared with the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) set by the European Food Safety Authority. The median habitual total vitamin D intake was 16-22 µg/day for infants aged 0-6 months (increasing with age) and 13-21 µg/day for infants aged 7-19 months (decreasing with age). About 4-12 % of infants aged 7-11 months exceeded the UL. At the 99th percentile, the intake was 2-4 µg above the UL, depending on age. Infants aged 0-6 and 12-19 months did not exceed the UL. In case of combined intake from infant formula, (fortified) foods, and supplements, vitamin D intakes above the UL are possible among some infants during a limited time period.

  12. A randomised multicentre study of human milk versus formula and later development in preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, A; Morley, R; Cole, T J; Gore, S M

    1994-01-01

    Whether breast milk influences later neurodevelopment has been explored in non-randomised studies, potentially confounded by social and demographic differences between feed groups. Here in a strictly randomised prospective multicentre trial, Bayley psychomotor and mental development indices (PDI and MDI) were assessed at 18 months postterm in survivors of 502 preterm infants assigned to receive, during their early weeks, mature donor breast milk or a preterm formula. These diets were compared as sole enteral feeds or as supplements to the mother's expressed breast milk. No differences in outcome at 18 months were seen between the two diet groups despite the low nutrient content of donor milk in relation to the preterm formula and to the estimated needs of preterm infants. These results contrast with those reported from our parallel two centre study that compared infants randomly assigned a standard term formula or the preterm formula during their early weeks; those fed standard formula, now regarded as nutritionally insufficient for preterm infants, were substantially disadvantaged in PDI and MDI at 18 months post-term. It is shown here that infants from that study fed solely on standard formula had significantly lower developmental scores at 18 months than those fed on donor breast milk in the present study; yet the standard formula had a higher nutrient content than the donor milk. Thus, donor milk feeding was associated with advantages for later development that may have offset any potentially deleterious effects of its low nutrient content for preterm infants. As these outcome advantages were not confounded by the social and educational biases usually associated with mothers' choice to breast feed, our data add significant support to the view that breast milk promotes neurodevelopment. PMID:8154907

  13. Randomized trial of exclusive human milk versus preterm formula diets in extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Cristofalo, Elizabeth A; Schanler, Richard J; Blanco, Cynthia L; Sullivan, Sandra; Trawoeger, Rudolf; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Dudell, Golde; Rechtman, David J; Lee, Martin L; Lucas, Alan; Abrams, Steven

    2013-12-01

    To compare the duration of parenteral nutrition, growth, and morbidity in extremely premature infants fed exclusive diets of either bovine milk-based preterm formula (BOV) or donor human milk and human milk-based human milk fortifier (HUM), in a randomized trial of formula vs human milk. Multicenter randomized controlled trial. The authors studied extremely preterm infants whose mothers did not provide their milk. Infants were fed either BOV or an exclusive human milk diet of pasteurized donor human milk and HUM. The major outcome was duration of parenteral nutrition. Secondary outcomes were growth, respiratory support, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Birth weight (983 vs 996 g) and gestational age (27.5 vs 27.7 wk), in BOV and HUM, respectively, were similar. There was a significant difference in median parenteral nutrition days: 36 vs 27, in BOV vs HUM, respectively (P = .04). The incidence of NEC in BOV was 21% (5 cases) vs 3% in HUM (1 case), P = .08; surgical NEC was significantly higher in BOV (4 cases) than HUM (0 cases), P = .04. In extremely preterm infants given exclusive diets of preterm formula vs human milk, there was a significantly greater duration of parenteral nutrition and higher rate of surgical NEC in infants receiving preterm formula. This trial supports the use of an exclusive human milk diet to nourish extremely preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Two cases of hemorrhagic diarrhea caused by Cronobacter sakazakii in hospitalized nursing infants associated with the consumption of powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Flores, J Parra; Medrano, S Arvizu; Sánchez, J Silva; Fernández-Escartín, E

    2011-12-01

    Two cases of acute gastroenteritis occurred in 5-month-old infants hospitalized in a mother-and-child hospital in Queretaro, Mexico, on 24 January 2010. C. sakazakii was recovered from the powdered infant formula (PIF), rehydrated PIF (R-PIF) fed to infants, and their fecal samples. The microorganism was present at levels of 0.33 most probable number (MPN)/g and 24 MPN/ml in PIF and R-PIF, respectively. The total ingested dose for the day before the onset of the diarrheic syndrome ranged between 2,160 and 3,600 MPN/ml. All strains of C. sakazakii recovered from the three sources (R-PIF, PIF, and fecal matter) showed identical biotypes, adhesion and invasiveness factors, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. No deaths were observed. Salmonella, Shigella, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli were not found in food or fecal samples.

  15. [Clinical investigation of formula feeding in extremely low birth weight infants].

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Yingchun; Chen, Shangqin; Huang, Yumei; Lin, Zhenlang

    2014-01-01

    To explore the relationship between gastric retention and full enteral feeding during the course of feeding in extremely low birth weight (ELBW, birth weight <1 000 g) infants. A total of 43 ELBW infants were fed with formula according to the strategy for premature infants feeding of Canadian Society of Neonatology. The information such as gastric retention, the time they finish full enteral feeding and sucking spontaneously and complication were recorded. These infants had transition to full enteral feeding step by step since initiating formula feeding on the second day of life. The volume of gastric retention and the duration of gastric retention was analyzed with the time of attaining full enteral feeding and sucking spontaneously by linear regression. Forty-one infants finished the course, the remaining 2 infants got necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and were rescued by surgery. The incidence was 4.6%. In 18 infants full enteral feeding could not be initiated successfully on the second day of life, the incidence was 43.9%. The peak duration of gastric retention was the first week of feeding. The average time of attaining enteral feeding was (26.71 ± 12.24) days. The proportion of different residual contents was simlar, the major content was milky content after 3 weeks of feeding. The gastric retention time had a significant effect of on the time of attaining full enteral feeding (β = 1.045, P = 0.001) and sucking well (β = 0.787, P = 0.034) . The course of formula feeding ELBW infants to attaining full enteral feeding was a long period, in the early stage of formula feeding the occurrence of gastric retention was high; the amount of formula during the first week of feeding should be slowly increased as compared to the second week; the present strategy and aggressive strategy should be done 2 weeks later. The time of attaining full enteral feeding can be predicted by the duration of gastric retention.

  16. Copper absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas using a suckling rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Loennerdal, B.B.; Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Since copper deficiency is known to occur during infancy, it becomes important to assess copper uptake from various infant diets. The authors have investigated the uptake of copper from human milk, cow's milk, cow's milk formulas, cereal/milk formula and soy formula, compensating for the decay of /sup 64/Cu and using the suckling rat as a model. Radiocopper was added to the diet in trace amounts. Ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, and gel filtration were used to show that the added /sup 64/Cu bound to milk fractions and individual binding compounds in a manner analogous to the distribution of native copper, thus validating the use of extrinsically labeled diets. Labeled diets were intubated into 14-day-old suckling rats. Animals were killed after 6 h and tissues removed and counted. Liver copper uptake was 25% from human milk, 23% from cow's milk formula, 18% from cow's milk, 17% from premature (cow's milk based) infant formula, 17% from cereal/milk formula and 10% from soy formula. These results show that the rat pup model may provide a rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive method to assay bioavailability of copper from infant foods.

  17. Determination of the phospholipid content of human milk, cow's milk and various infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Kynast, G; Schmitz, C

    1988-12-01

    The phospholipid (PL) content of human milk, cow's milk, and various infant formulas was determined by recently developed high performance liquid chromatography (6). As the examinations promised, the content of phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and sphingomyelin (SP) was not changed by homogenization and pasteurization of cow's milk. Levels of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) were below the detection limit. Furthermore it has been proved that human milk and cow's milk are more or less identical in PL content. Some of the PL in human milk varies during the course of pregnancy and postpartum. PI, PC, and SP content in the prepartum mammarial secretion lies above the average content of mature human milk after delivery. Before the contractions start, all the PL examined show a more or less considerable decrease. PC drops to 30% of the value at the beginning of the examination six weeks before delivery. PG contents are very low throughout the whole period. Contrary to the others, PC content recovers three weeks after delivery, which may be the result of the endogenous surfactant replacement system. To compare PL content with human milk and cow's milk, 13 different infant formulas have been examined. There are considerable differences to be found in and among adapted milk, partially adapted milk, and special formulas. None of the PL examined could be found in all the infant formulas, where PG content was usually low, except in some Milupa formulas. PE and PI were not to be found in some special formulas. Most of the formulas contain high amounts of SP, in some cases higher than the amount of PC. To a certain extent infant formulas contain a considerably greater amount of other PL concentrations than human milk and cow's milk. In most of the formulas examined the PL content is generally so high, that it can be used as a source of PL for the newborn.

  18. [Phytic phosphorus and phytase activity in cereal-based infant formulas].

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Alvaro; Villavicencio, Iraidis; Linares, Zoraida

    2012-12-01

    Phytic acid is an organic acid present in cereal grains. The phosphorus inside its molecule (PPhy) is not available because of its low solubility, though the bioavailability could be increased by the activity of phytase enzymes (PhyA). With the purpose of quantifying the PPhy and PhyA in supplements manufactured from cereals and intended for lactating infants, five formulas of wide distribution in local markets were selected and identified depending on the main vegetable ingredients as A (rice), T (wheat), ATS (rice, wheat and soy isolate), ATM (rice, wheat and maize) and ATMS (rice, wheat, maize and soy isolate). Five samples were taken from each formula, each one corresponded to a commercial brand (400 to 500 g), coming from different batches and before their expiration date. The crude protein ranged from 7.2 to 16.8%, with de highest value for ATS and the lowest for T and ATM (P < 0.01). Ether extract varied from 0.31 to 0.75%, while the calcium: phosphorus ratio from 1.6 for ATM, to 1.1 for the rest. The PPhy was 61.5% of the total phosphorus in T, with differences (P < 0.01) compared to the other formulas (39.9 +/- 6.8%). PhyA was only detected in ATS, T and ATM (152, 300 and 570 U/kg, respectively). The chemical composition complied with the manufacturer report, with a high content of PPhy and PhyA associated to the wheat presence in the formula.

  19. Meta-analysis of LCPUFA Supplementation of Infant Formula and Visual Acuity

    PubMed Central

    Qawasmi, Ahmad; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are hypothesized to affect visual acuity development in infants. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted to assess whether supplementation of LCPUFAs of infant formulas affects infant visual acuity. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate whether LCPUFA supplementation of infant formulas improves infants’ visual acuity. METHODS: PubMed and PsycInfo were searched for RCTs assessing the efficacy of LCPUFA supplementation of infant formulas on infant visual acuity. RCTs assessing the effects of LCPUFA supplementation on visual acuity (by using either visual evoked potential or behavioral methods) in the first year of life were included in this meta-analysis. Our primary outcome was the mean difference in visual resolution acuity (measured in logarithm of minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]) between supplemented and unsupplemented infants. We also conducted secondary subgroup analyses and meta-regression examining the effects of LCPUFA dose and timing, preterm versus term birth status, and trial methodologic quality. RESULTS: Nineteen studies involving 1949 infants were included. We demonstrated a significant benefit of LCPUFA supplementation on infants’ visual acuity at 2, 4, and 12 months of age when visual acuity was assessed by using visual evoked potential and at 2 months of age by using behavioral methods. There was significant heterogeneity between trials but no evidence of publication bias. Secondary analysis failed to show any moderating effects on the association between LCPUFA supplementation and visual acuity. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggests that LCPUFA supplementation of infant formulas improves infants’ visual acuity up to 12 months of age. PMID:23248232

  20. Rapid determination of thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and niacinamide in infant formulas by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Woollard, David C; Indyk, Harvey E

    2002-01-01

    A simplified, simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in supplemented infant formulas was developed from a single deproteinized sample extract, with analysis by reversed-phase, ion-pair chromatography with an acidified methanol-water mobile phase. The dioctylsulfosuccinate counter-ion facilitates unique retention of the pyridine-based vitamins (niacinamide and pyridoxine) and allows for concurrent measurement of both the pyridoxal and riboflavin 5'-phosphate endogenous components of milk. Other naturally occurring undetected vitamin congeners have minimal analytical significance. UV detection is used for niacinamide, and programmed fluorescence detection is used for riboflavin and the B6 vitamins. Thiamine is routinely determined sequentially under modified elution conditions.

  1. Determination of biotin and folate in infant formula and milk by optical biosensor-based immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Indyk, H E; Evans, E A; Bostrom Caselunghe, M C; Persson, B S; Finglas, P M; Woollard, D C; Filonzi, E L

    2000-01-01

    Biomolecular interaction analysis was evaluated for the automated analysis of biotin- and folate-supplemented infant formulas and milk powders. The technique was configured as a biosensor-based, nonlabeled inhibition immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies raised against analyte-conjugate. Sample extraction conditions were optimized and antibodies were evaluated for cross-reactivity. Performance parameters included a quantitation range of 2-70 ng/mL, recoveries of 86-102%, agreement against assigned reference values for National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1846, between-laboratory reproducibility relative standard deviation of 9.1% for biotin and 8.1% for folate, respectively, and equivalence against reference microbiological assay methods for both analytes.

  2. Determination of vitamin B12 in infant formula and adult nutritionals by HPLC: First Action 2011.10.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, Karen; Spiegel, Renee; Thompson, Linda; Dowell, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    During the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting" held on June 29, 2011, an Expert Review Panel (ERP) reviewed the method "Determination of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals by HPLC." Under the new pathway to Official Methods, the ERP adopted the method as Official First Action. The method is applicable to the determination of vitamin B12 in infant formula and adult nutritionals. Data showed an average overall intermediate precision of 6.64% RSD, an estimated quantitation limit of 0.8 microg/kg, and a detection limit of 0.2 microg/kg in prepared samples. The standard range of the method is 2 to 200 microg/L, which corresponds to an analytical range of 0.8 to 500 microg/kg.

  3. Human Breast Milk and Infant Formulas Differentially Modify the Intestinal Microbiota in Human Infants and Host Physiology in Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenmin; Roy, Nicole C; Guo, Yanhong; Jia, Hongxin; Ryan, Leigh; Samuelsson, Linda; Thomas, Ancy; Plowman, Jeff; Clerens, Stefan; Day, Li; Young, Wayne

    2016-02-01

    In the absence of human breast milk, infant and follow-on formulas can still promote efficient growth and development. However, infant formulas can differ in their nutritional value. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of human milk (HM) and infant formulas in human infants and a weanling rat model. In a 3 wk clinical randomized controlled trial, babies (7- to 90-d-old, male-to-female ratio 1:1) were exclusively breastfed (BF), exclusively fed Synlait Pure Canterbury Stage 1 infant formula (SPCF), or fed assorted standard formulas (SFs) purchased by their parents. We also compared feeding HM or SPCF in weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats for 28 d. We examined the effects of HM and infant formulas on fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and bacterial composition in human infants, and intestinal SCFAs, the microbiota, and host physiology in weanling rats. Fecal Bifidobacterium concentrations (mean log copy number ± SEM) were higher (P = 0.003) in BF (8.17 ± 0.3) and SPCF-fed infants (8.29 ± 0.3) compared with those fed the SFs (6.94 ± 0.3). Fecal acetic acid (mean ± SEM) was also higher (P = 0.007) in the BF (5.5 ± 0.2 mg/g) and SPCF (5.3 ± 2.4 mg/g) groups compared with SF-fed babies (4.3 ± 0.2 mg/g). Colonic SCFAs did not differ between HM- and SPCF-fed rats. However, cecal acetic acid concentrations were higher (P = 0.001) in rats fed HM (42.6 ± 2.6 mg/g) than in those fed SPCF (30.6 ± 0.8 mg/g). Cecal transcriptome, proteome, and plasma metabolite analyses indicated that the growth and maturation of intestinal tissue was more highly promoted by HM than SPCF. Fecal bacterial composition and SCFA concentrations were similar in babies fed SPCF or HM. However, results from the rat study showed substantial differences in host physiology between rats fed HM and SPCF. This trial was registered at Shanghai Jiào tong University School of Medicine as XHEC-C-2012-024. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Determination of dicyandiamide in infant formula by stable isotope dilution hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Koichi; Sakamoto, Tasuku; Min, Jun Zhe; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2014-08-01

    Dicyandiamide is a compound for reducing the negative effects of greenhouse gas emissions and nitrate leaching into waterways. In this study, the trace contamination of dicyandiamide in infant formula was analysed by stable isotope dilution hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). Dicyandiamide and a stable isotope internal standard were monitored by multiple reaction-monitoring with mass transitions: m/z 85→68/43 and m/z 89→71/45 in the electrospray positive ion mode. For sample preparation of the infant formula, a diluted/filtered procedure was developed for this assay. The calculated LOD and LOQ values were 0.01 or 0.05ng/mL for the standard solution, respectively. The averaged recovery and precision were 110.8% and 7.4%, respectively. This assay was applied to monitor 23 infant formulas, and the dicyandiamide contamination in one sample was detected and quantified at 79.1±1.2ng/g (ppb) powder. We suggest that it is necessary to cautiously monitor the DCD in common products from international countries.

  5. Quantitative determination of bovine caseinoglycomacropeptide in infant formulas by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingshun; Ren, Yiping; Ma, Zhenyi; Huang, Baifen; Cai, Zengxuan; Li, Duo

    2011-10-01

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry method has been developed for determining caseinoglycomacropeptide (CGMP) in infant formulas by selected ion reaction and area monitoring modes. The present study focused on the optimization of sample pretreatment, chromatographic resolution and mass spectrometry parameters. After a simple sample pretreatment, the two genetic variants of caseinoglycomacropeptide, CGMP(A) and CGMP(B), were separated using a BEH300 C(18) column by gradient elution. The established method was extensively validated by determining the linearity (R(2)>0.999), average recovery (95.8-118.4%), inter-day precision (relative standard deviation ≤7.81%) and intra-day precision (relative standard deviation ≤6.99%) based on two scan modes. To further verify the applicability of the method, 21 brands of commercial available infant formulas were analyzed. The results showed that the present method is selective, sensitive and reliable for separating and quantifying two genetic variants (CGMP(A) and CGMP(B)) of caseinoglycomacropeptide in infant formulas with complex matrix.

  6. Preterm infants fed nutrient-enriched formula until 6 months show improved growth and development.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ga Won; Jung, Yu Jin; Koh, Sun Young; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Kyung Ah; Shin, Son Moon; Kim, Sung Shin; Shim, Jae Won; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of feeding nutrient-enriched preterm formula to preterm infants until 6 months' corrected age (CA) on growth and development in the first 18 months of life. Very low-birthweight preterm infants were fed preterm formula until term (40 weeks CA). Infants were then assigned to one of three groups and were fed term formula until 6 months' CA (group 1, n= 29); preterm formula to 3 months' CA and then term formula to 6 months' CA (group 2, n= 30); or preterm formula until 6 months' CA (group 3, n= 31). Anthropometry was performed at term, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and at s18 months' CA. Mental and psychomotor development were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II at 18 months' CA. Although body weight, length, head circumference and z score for CA at term in group 3 were significantly lower than those of groups 1 and 2, growth rates of these parameters were significantly higher in group 3 up to 18 months CA', as compared to groups 1 and 2. The mental developmental index and psychomotor developmental index of the Bayley test were not significantly different between the three groups. Very low-birthweight preterm infants fed nutrient-enriched preterm formula until 6 months' CA demonstrated significantly improved growth rates for bodyweight, length and head circumference, and comparable mental and psychomotor development throughout the first 18 months of life. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Policy on infant formula industry funding, support or sponsorship of articles submitted for publication

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Annette; Amir, Lisa H

    2007-01-01

    Despite current scientific evidence that artificial feeding is a harmful practice, unquestioned acceptance of breastfeeding as the normal or "default" method of infant feeding remains elusive in the industrialised world. Throughout the developing world the profound consequences of the aggressive marketing strategies of the infant formula industry since the end of the Second World War is well known. A key objective of the International Breastfeeding Journal is to promote breastfeeding through addressing issues that encourage breastfeeding initiation, duration and effective management. Informing this aim is the recognition of artificial feeding as a harmful practice that places infant health at risk. From this perspective it would be unethical for this journal to accept for publication any manuscript that has received funding, sponsorship or any other means of support from infant formula manufacturers. This stance is consistent with the journal's aim of supporting, protecting and promoting breastfeeding. It will also contribute to the promotion of a breastfeeding culture. PMID:17341315

  8. Lead intoxication from lead-contaminated water used to reconstitute infant formula

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, M.; Graef, J.W. )

    1989-08-01

    The lead found in drinking water can be a source of lead poisoning to young children, particularly those who consume large amounts of water. The authors describe a 13-month-old infant who was discovered to have plumbism during routine evaluation. The lead source was ultimately traced to the daily administration of powdered formula which was prepared with home tap water having a first-draw lead content of 130 parts per billion. This case suggests that whenever infants are fed powdered formula, consideration should be given to analysis of the home tap water for lead content.

  9. Nonthermal Inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii in Infant Formula Milk: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pina-Pérez, M C; Rodrigo, D; Martínez, A

    2016-07-26

    Up-to-date, nonthermal technologies and combinations of them, in accordance with the "hurdle technology" concept, are being applied by different research groups in response to calls by the International Food and Human Health Organizations (ESPGHAN, 2004; FAO/WHO, 2006, 2008) for alternatives to thermal control of Cronobacter sakazakii in reconstituted powdered infant formula milk. This review highlights (i) current knowledge on the application of nonthermal technologies to control C. sakazakii in infant formula milk and (ii) the importance of the application of nonthermal technologies for the control of C. sakazakii as part of the development of strategies in the context of improving food safety and quality of this product.

  10. The structure of infant formulas impacts their lipolysis, proteolysis and disintegration during in vitro gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Bourlieu, Claire; Ménard, Olivia; De La Chevasnerie, Alix; Sams, Laura; Rousseau, Florence; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Robert, Benoît; Deglaire, Amélie; Pezennec, Stéphane; Bouhallab, Saïd; Carrière, Frédéric; Dupont, Didier

    2015-09-01

    Milk lipids supply most of the calories necessary for newborn growth in maternal milk or infant formulas. The chemical composition of infant formulas has been optimized but not the structure of the emulsion. There is still a major difference between the native emulsions of milk fat globules and processed submicronic emulsions in infant formulas. This difference may modify the kinetics of digestion of emulsions in newborns and influence lipid metabolism. To check this, semi-dynamic gastric in vitro digestions were conducted on three matrices: a standardized milk emulsion containing native milk fat globules referred to as minimally-processed emulsion and two processed model infant formulas (homogenized or homogenized/pasteurized). Gastric conditions mimicked those reported in newborns. The minimally-processed emulsion was lipolyzed and proteolyzed slower than processed formulas. The difference in initial structure persisted during digestion. The surface of the droplets was the key parameter to control gastric lipolysis kinetics, the pattern of released fatty acids and proteolysis by faster hydrolysis of adsorbed proteins.

  11. Vitamin C in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula by HPLC with UV detection: First Action 2012.21.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, Karen; Thompson, Linda; Baugh, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This method for the determination of vitamin C by HPLC allows for the separation and quantitation of L-ascorbic acid in infant, pediatric, and adult nutritional products. Liquids, semisolids, and powders ranging from 2 to 1000 mg/kg in their consumable forms were analyzed during the method validation. The method met the standard method performance requirements and was approved by an AOAC Expert Review Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals on October 2, 2012. During validation, the overall intermediate precision was 2.1% RSD (triplicate determinations on 7-10 days); the within-day precision, or repeatability, was 1.54% RSD (triplicate determinations). Accuracy, as spike recovery, ranged from 97.0 to 100.9%. The method detection and quantitation limits were determined experimentally to be 0.02 and 0.06 mg/L, respectively, in prepared samples.

  12. Amino acid rating method for evaluating protein adequacy of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, G; Botting, H G; Peace, R W

    1989-01-01

    Amino acid profiles and/or protein digestibility (by the rat balance method) were determined for various forms (powder, ready-to-use, liquid concentrate, etc.) of cow's milk- and soy-based infant formulas obtained from 4 manufacturers. The essential amino acid data of the formulas were compared with that of human milk for the calculation of amino acid scores (based on the single most limiting amino acid). The product of amino acid score and total protein (g/100 kcal) was then termed "amino acid rating." Amino acid scores for the milk- and soy-based formulas ranged from 59 to 90 and from 59 to 81%, respectively, due to deficiencies in sulfur amino acids and/or tryptophan. Because of significantly higher total protein contents (g/100 kcal) of soy- (2.65-3.68) and milk-based (2.20-2.95) infant formulas compared to human milk (1.5), the relative amino acid ratings (human milk = 100) for all infant formulas except 2 liquid concentrates (having values of 87%) were above 100%. Values for true digestibility of protein in milk- and soy-based formulas ranged from 87 to 97 and from 92 to 95%, respectively. When corrected for protein digestibility, the relative amino acid ratings for all the milk-based liquid concentrates were below 100% (77-98%).

  13. Potential of selected infant food formulas for production of Bacillus cereus emetic toxin, cereulide.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Ranad; Andersson, Maria A; Apetroaie, Camelia; Schulz, Anja; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Ollilainen, Veli-Matti; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2006-04-01

    Cereulide producing Bacillus cereus was isolated from randomly chosen commercial infant foods. The cereulide production in infant food formulas was investigated. When the reconstituted foods were inoculated with >10(5) cfu ml(-1) of cereulide producing B. cereus, 2 to 200 microg of cereulide per 100 ml of food accumulated during 24 h of non-refrigerated storage. The amount of cereulide measured in the foods by the accurate chemical assay (LC-MS) matched with that found by sperm micro assay, proving the cereulide was the sole heat stable toxin in the foods and present in its toxic form. The infant formulas containing both cereal and dairy ingredients were the most supportive for cereulide production. Cereulide accumulation was affected by the infant food composition as well as by the handling of the food. Diluting the reconstituted food with water resulted in increased toxin production expressed as mug per volume. More cereulide was accumulated when the food was incubated stationary compared with moderate shaking. The amount of cereulide accumulated within 24 h at room temperature per 100 ml of cereal and dairy or in rice-nondairy reconstituted infant formulas, inoculated with >or=10(5) cfu ml(-1) of B. cereus strain F4810/72, was higher or similar to the amounts reported for foods implicated in emetic type of food poisonings. Thus mishandling and temperature abuse of infant foods may cause food poisoning when emetic B. cereus is present.

  14. Infant digestion physiology and the relevance of in vitro biochemical models to test infant formula lipid digestion.

    PubMed

    Poquet, Laure; Wooster, Tim J

    2016-08-01

    Lipids play an important role in the diet of preterm and term infants providing a key energy source and essential lipid components for development. While a lot is known about adult lipid digestion, our understanding of infant digestion physiology is still incomplete, the greatest gap being on the biochemistry of the small intestine, particularly the activity and relative importance of the various lipases active in the intestine. The literature has been reviewed to identify the characteristics of lipid digestion of preterm and term infants, but also to better understand the physiology of the infant gastrointestinal tract compared to adults that impacts the absorption of lipids. The main differences are a higher gastric pH, submicellar bile salt concentration, a far more important role of gastric lipases as well as differences at the level of the intestinal barrier. Importantly, the consequences of improper in vitro replication of gastric digestions conditions (pH and lipase specificity) are demonstrated using examples from the most recent of studies. It is true that some animal models could be adapted to study infant lipid digestion physiology, however the ethical relevance of such models is questionable, hence the development of accurate in vitro models is a must. In vitro models that combine up to date knowledge of digestion biochemistry with intestinal cells in culture are the best choice to replicate digestion and absorption in infant population, this would allow the adaptation of infant formula for a better digestion and absorption of dietary lipids by preterm and term infants.

  15. Total calcium absorption is similar from infant formulas with and without prebiotics and exceeds that in human milk-fed infants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our goal was to evaluate calcium absorption in infants fed a formula containing prebiotics (PF) and one without prebiotics (CF), and to compare calcium absorption from these formulas with a group of human milk-fed (HM) infants. A dual tracer stable isotope method was used to assess calcium absorptio...

  16. Formula-fed full term infants have lower fractional absorption but greater total calcium absorption than human milk-fed infants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The fatty acid (FA) profile of infant formula resembles the FA profile of human milk (HM), but the % of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of the triglyceride in infant formula is lower than that of HM, and this may limit calcium (Ca) absorption. Objective: We sought to evaluate the effe...

  17. Should Partial Hydrolysates Be Used as Starter Infant Formula? A Working Group Consensus.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Alarcon, Pedro; Fleischer, David; Hernell, Olle; Kolacek, Sanja; Laignelet, Hugo; Lönnerdal, Bo; Raman, Rita; Rigo, Jacques; Salvatore, Silvia; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria; Szajewska, Hania; Van Goudoever, Hans J; von Berg, Andrea; Lee, Way S

    2016-01-01

    Partially hydrolyzed formulas (pHFs) are increasingly used worldwide, both in the prevention of atopic disease in at-risk infants and in the therapeutic management of infants with functional gastrointestinal manifestations. Because prevention is always preferable to treatment, we reviewed the literature aiming to find an answer for the question whether pHF may be recommended for feeding all infants if breast-feeding is not possible. PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched up to December 2014. In addition, to search for data that remained undetected by the searches, we approached authors of relevant articles and major producers of pHFs asking for unpublished data. Because few data were found, nonrandomized, controlled trials and trials in preterm infants were included as well. Overall, only limited data could be found on the efficacy and safety of pHF in healthy term infants. Available data do not indicate that pHFs are potentially harmful for healthy, term infants. With respect to long-term outcomes, particularly referring to immune, metabolic and hormonal effects, data are, however, nonexistent. From a regulatory point of view, pHFs meet the nutrient requirements to be considered as standard formula for term healthy infants. Cost, which is different from country to country, should be considered in the decision-making process. Based on limited available data, the use of pHF in healthy infants is safe with regard to growth. The lack of data, in particular for metabolic consequences and long-term outcomes, is, however, the basis for our recommendation that health authorities should develop and support long-term follow-up studies. Efficacy and long-term safety data are required before a recommendation of this type of formula for all infants can be made.

  18. Compared with feeding infants breast milk or cow-milk formula, soy formula feeding does not affect subsequent reproductive organ size at 5 years of age

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Abstract Background: Literature reports suggest that phytochemicals, such as isoflavones found in soybeans, impair reproductive function in animals and raise the possibility that consuming soy infant formula could alter hormonally sensitive organ development in children. Objective: This study compar...

  19. Breastfeeding, Mixed, or Formula Feeding at 9 Months of Age and the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Two Cohorts of Infants in China.

    PubMed

    Clark, Katy M; Li, Ming; Zhu, Bingquan; Liang, Furong; Shao, Jie; Zhang, Yueyang; Ji, Chai; Zhao, Zhengyan; Kaciroti, Niko; Lozoff, Betsy

    2017-02-01

    To assess associations between breastfeeding and iron status at 9 months of age in 2 samples of Chinese infants. Associations between feeding at 9 months of age (breastfed as sole milk source, mixed fed, or formula fed) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA), iron deficiency, and iron sufficiency were determined in infants from Zhejiang (n = 142) and Hebei (n= 813) provinces. Iron deficiency was defined as body iron < 0 mg/kg, and IDA as iron deficiency + hemoglobin < 110 g/L. Multiple logistic regression assessed associations between feeding pattern and iron status. Breastfeeding was associated with iron status (P < .001). In Zhejiang, 27.5% of breastfed infants had IDA compared with 0% of formula-fed infants. The odds of iron deficiency/IDA were increased in breastfed and mixed-fed infants compared with formula-fed infants: breastfed vs formula-fed OR, 28.8 (95% CI, 3.7-226.4) and mixed-fed vs formula-fed OR, 11.0 (95% CI, 1.2-103.2). In Hebei, 44.0% of breastfed infants had IDA compared with 2.8% of formula-fed infants. With covariable adjustment, odds of IDA were increased in breastfed and mixed-fed groups: breastfed vs formula-fed OR, 78.8 (95% CI, 27.2-228.1) and mixed-fed vs formula-fed OR, 21.0 (95% CI, 7.3-60.9). In both cohorts, the odds of iron deficiency/IDA at 9 months of age were increased in breastfed and mixed-fed infants, and iron deficiency/IDA was common. Although the benefits of breastfeeding are indisputable, these findings add to the evidence that breastfeeding in later infancy identifies infants at risk for iron deficiency/IDA in many settings. Protocols for detecting and preventing iron deficiency/IDA in breastfed infants are needed. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00642863 and NCT00613717. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidative stability of structured lipid-based infant formula emulsion: effect of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Zou, Long; Akoh, Casimir C

    2015-07-01

    The effect of permitted antioxidants, including α-tocopherol, β-carotene, ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and their combinations, on the lipid oxidation of structured lipid (SL)-based infant formula (IF) was evaluated. The 3.5% oil-in-water IF emulsion was formulated with a human milk fat analogue enriched with docosahexaenoic acid and stearidonic acid, and the antioxidants were added at 0.005% and 0.02% of the oil. The peroxide value, anisidine value, and hexanal concentration of emulsion samples were measured over a 28-day period. The results showed that whether a compound exhibited antioxidant behavior depended on its mechanism of action, polarity, concentration, and environmental conditions. The most effective antioxidant was ascorbyl palmitate at 0.005%, and a synergistic antioxidant effect was found between α-tocopherol and β-carotene. A high correlation was observed between anisidine value and hexanal content. Our findings have important implications for the successful incorporation of SL into IF products for infant nutrition and health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cognitive and neurodevelopmental benefits of extended formula-feeding in infants: re: Deoni et al. 2013.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ariana; Burggren, Alison

    2014-10-15

    The recent Deoni et al. (2013) manuscript proposed that breastfeeding was associated with increased cognitive ability and white-matter in older children (over 26 months), using ms-DESPOT MRI imaging to indirectly measure white matter in children who were either breastfed, formula fed, or combined breast+formula fed. In this response, we identify limitations in drawing causal inference among white matter, cognitive ability, and breastfeeding. We propose that the observed cognitive and neurodevelopmental differences between breastfed and formula-fed infants might actually be caused by the premature introduction of cow's milk in the second year of life, among other contributing factors. The implication of a causal relationship between intelligence and white matter metrics, especially in a developmentally young population, is premature given the recency of this field. The original analyses did not control for important covariates; when comparing both white matter and test scores, mothers were not controlled for age and socio-economic status (SES) and their children were not controlled for gender. Raw test scores, instead of age-adjusted test scores, were used even though the children were of different ages. Mothers were not controlled for reason(s) not to breastfeed, even though many prenatal factors are known to predict this such as stress, parity, obesity, and smoking habits. The observed cognitive ability and white matter benefits identified primarily within the long-term breastfed children are at least partially attributable to other factors such as age, gender, and SES. We suggest methodological approaches to removing such ambiguity, and ways to dissociate cause from effect. The formula and breastfeeding groups didn't show differences until the "formula fed" children likely had been fed cow's milk for longer than they had been fed formula, at 2.2 years. The greatest cognitive differences however were observed within the high SES breastfed infants depending on

  2. Severe acquired cytomegalovirus infection in a full-term, formula-fed infant: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cases of cytomegalovirus colitis are exceptionally reported in immuno-competent infant. The pathogenesis is uncertain but breast-feeding is considered as a main source of postnatal infection. Case Presentation Here we report a full-term, formula-fed infant who developed a severe cytomegalovirus anaemia and colitis when aged 2 months. Conclusion Even if the molecular identity between the cytomegalovirus-isolate of the infant and the maternal virus could not be demonstrated, we confirmed through laboratory investigation that cytomegalovirus infection was acquired postnatally. However, the source of cytomegalovirus infection remained unclear. Alternative modes of cytomegalovirus transmission are discussed. PMID:21645352

  3. Intestinal absorption of the antiepileptic drug substance vigabatrin is altered by infant formula in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Nøhr, Martha Kampp; Thale, Zia I; Brodin, Birger; Hansen, Steen H; Holm, René; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

    2014-01-01

    Vigabatrin is an antiepileptic drug substance mainly used in pediatric treatment of infantile spasms. The main source of nutrition for infants is breast milk and/or infant formula. Our hypothesis was that infant formula may affect the intestinal absorption of vigabatrin. The aim was therefore to investigate the potential effect of coadministration of infant formula with vigabatrin on the oral absorption in vitro and in vivo. The effect of vigabatrin given with an infant formula on the oral uptake and transepithelial transport was investigated in vitro in Caco-2 cells. In vivo effects of infant formula and selected amino acids on the pharmacokinetic profile of vigabatrin was investigated after oral coadministration to male Sprague–Dawley rats using acetaminophen as a marker for gastric emptying. The presence of infant formula significantly reduced the uptake rate and permeability of vigabatrin in Caco-2 cells. Oral coadministration of vigabatrin and infant formula significantly reduced Cmax and prolonged tmax of vigabatrin absorption. Ligands for the proton-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1, sarcosine, and proline/l-tryptophan had similar effects on the pharmacokinetic profile of vigabatrin. The infant formula decreased the rate of gastric emptying. Here we provide experimental evidence for an in vivo role of PAT1 in the intestinal absorption of vigabatrin. The effect of infant formula on the oral absorption of vigabatrin was found to be due to delayed gastric emptying, however, it seems reasonable that infant formula may also directly affect the intestinal absorption rate of vigabatrin possibly via PAT1. PMID:25505585

  4. Male testicular development is affected by estrogens but not altered in neonatal piglets receiving soy infant formula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soy infant formula contains many phytochemicals, including phytoestrogens, which are structurally similar to estradiol (E2). As a result of their potentially estrogenic properties, soy infant formulas have been the subject of concern with regards to reproductive toxicity. To address these concerns...

  5. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency.

  6. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-01-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency. PMID:7820714

  7. Growth and Tolerance Assessment of a Lutein-fortified Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Igor Ya.; Gmoshinskaya, Maria V.; Safronova, Adilya I.; Alarcon, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate safety, gastrointestinal tolerance, and growth of a new experimental starter formula (NESF) fortified with lutein, prebiotics, probiotics, nucleotides and beta-carotene, fed to infants within the first months of life. Methods This was a non-randomized, open, uncontrolled study conducted from December 2010 to May 2011. Twenty-three healthy infants aged 10 days to 2 months old were enrolled. Outcomes included gastrointestinal tolerance, physical growth and safety. Prior to the initiation of the trial, the Scientific Research Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences confirmed that the NESF met all safety and nutritional parameters. Results NESF was well tolerated. The majority of infants fed this formula passed semi-liquid, yellow or yellow-brown. The mean stool frequency/day was 2.5±0.4 on study-day 14 and 1.8±0.5 on study-day 28. The mean daily weight gain was 30.9±3.8 grams and the mean length gain during the 28 days of follow up was 3.1±0.8 cm, corresponding to the average physical growth normally seen in the first months of life in Russian infants. Six children left the study: one refused to drink the formula, one left the study as parents changed residence; and one child's parents have recalled their informed consent due to adverse event unrelated to the product. Three infants presented adverse events possibly related to the product (rash; colic and abdominal pain; constipation). Seventeen infants completed the trial. Conclusion This study demonstrated that lutein-fortified formula is safe, well-tolerated and supported physical growth of evaluated infants. PMID:25061586

  8. Soy infant formula and seizures in children with autism: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Westmark, Cara J

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are a common phenotype in many neurodevelopmental disorders including fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome and autism. We hypothesized that phytoestrogens in soy-based infant formula were contributing to lower seizure threshold in these disorders. Herein, we evaluated the dependence of seizure incidence on infant formula in a population of autistic children. Medical record data were obtained on 1,949 autistic children from the SFARI Simplex Collection. An autism diagnosis was determined by scores on the ADI-R and ADOS exams. The database included data on infant formula use, seizure incidence, the specific type of seizure exhibited and IQ. Soy-based formula was utilized in 17.5% of the study population. Females comprised 13.4% of the subjects. There was a 2.6-fold higher rate of febrile seizures [4.2% versus 1.6%, OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3-5.3], a 2.1-fold higher rate of epilepsy comorbidity [3.6% versus 1.7%, OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1-4.7] and a 4-fold higher rate of simple partial seizures [1.2% versus 0.3%, OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.0-23] in the autistic children fed soy-based formula. No statistically significant associations were found with other outcomes including: IQ, age of seizure onset, infantile spasms and atonic, generalized tonic clonic, absence and complex partial seizures. Limitations of the study included: infant formula and seizure data were based on parental recall, there were significantly less female subjects, and there was lack of data regarding critical confounders such as the reasons the subjects used soy formula, age at which soy formula was initiated and the length of time on soy formula. Despite these limitations, our results suggest that the use of soy-based infant formula may be associated with febrile seizures in both genders and with a diagnosis of epilepsy in males in autistic children. Given the lack of data on critical confounders and the retrospective nature of the study, a prospective study is required to confirm

  9. Growth of healthy term infants fed ready-to-feed and powdered forms of an extensively hydrolyzed casein-based infant formula: a randomized, blinded, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Borschel, Marlene W; Baggs, Geraldine E; Barrett-Reis, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    Extensively hydrolyzed formulas present a complex matrix subject to adverse conditions during manufacture that could influence growth and tolerance of infants fed these formulas. A masked, randomized, parallel growth study was conducted in infants fed a ready-to-feed (RTF) or powdered (PWD) form of an extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula. Infants were enrolled between 0 and 9 days and studied to 112 days of age. Growth, formula intake, and stool patterns were assessed. There were no significant differences between groups in weight, length, head circumference, or their respective gains. Tolerance was similar between groups except that the RTF group had greater formula intakes and passed more stools/day compared to the PWD group. This study demonstrates that the PWD formulation of this RTF formula supports similar growth and tolerance in infants during the first 4 months of life.

  10. Formula versus donor breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Maria; McGuire, William

    2014-04-22

    When sufficient maternal breast milk is not available, alternative sources of enteral nutrition for preterm or low birth weight infants are donor breast milk or artificial formula. Donor breast milk may retain some of the non-nutritive benefits of maternal breast milk for preterm or low birth weight infants. However, feeding with artificial formula may ensure more consistent delivery of optimal levels of nutrients. Uncertainty exists about the balance of risks and benefits of feeding formula versus donor breast milk for preterm or low birth weight infants. To determine the effect of feeding with formula compared with donor breast milk on growth and development in preterm or low birth weight infants. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2014, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to March 2014), EMBASE (1980 to March 2014), CINAHL (1982 to March 2014), conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing feeding with formula versus donor breast milk in preterm or low birth weight infants. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Group, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. Nine trials, in which 1070 infants participated, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four trials compared standard term formula versus donor breast milk and five compared nutrient-enriched preterm formula versus donor breast milk. Only the two most recent trials used nutrient-fortified donor breast milk. The trials contain various methodological quality weaknesses, specifically uncertainty about adequate allocation concealment methods in three trials and lack of blinding in most of the trials.Formula-fed infants had higher in hospital rates of increase in weight [mean difference (MD): 2.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.98 to 3.71) g/kg/day], length [MD 1.93 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.62) mm/week] and head circumference [MD 1.59 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.24) mm

  11. Genotyping and Source Tracking of Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus Isolates from Powdered Infant Formula and an Infant Formula Production Factory in China.

    PubMed

    Fei, Peng; Man, Chaoxin; Lou, Binbin; Forsythe, Stephen J; Chai, Yunlei; Li, Ran; Niu, Jieting; Jiang, Yujun

    2015-08-15

    Cronobacter spp. (formerly defined as Enterobacter sakazakii) are opportunistic bacterial pathogens of both infants and adults. In this study, we analyzed 70 Cronobacter isolates from powdered infant formula (PIF) and an infant formula production facility in China to determine possible contamination routes. The strains were profiled by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PCR-based O-antigen serotyping, and ompA and rpoB sequence analyses. The isolates were primarily Cronobacter sakazakii (66/70) or Cronobacter malonaticus (4/70). The strains were divided into 38 pulsotypes (PTs) using PFGE and 19 sequence types (STs) by MLST. In contrast, rpoB and ompA sequence analyses divided the strains into 10 overlapping clusters each. PCR serotyping of the 66 C. sakazakii and 4 C. malonaticus strains resulted in the identification of four C. sakazakii serotypes (O1, O2, O4, and O7) and a single C. malonaticus serotype, O2. The dominant C. sakazakii sequence types from PIF and an infant formula production factory in China were C. sakazakii clonal complex 4 (CC4) (n = 19), ST1 (n = 14), and ST64 (n = 11). C. sakazakii CC4 is a clonal lineage strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. In the process of manufacturing PIF, the spray-drying, fluidized-bed-drying, and packing areas were the main areas with Cronobacter contamination. C. sakazakii strains with the same pulsotypes (PT3 and PT2) and sequence types (ST1 and ST64) were isolated both from processing equipment and from the PIF finished product.

  12. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants

    SciTech Connect

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T.; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Nagler, Cathryn R.

    2015-09-22

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow’s milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. As a result, our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut.

  13. Certificate of Analysis, Standard Reference Material® 1849, Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Standard Reference material (SRM) 1849 is intended primarily for validation of methods for determining proximates, fatty acids, vitamins, elements and nucleotides in infant and adult nutritional formulas and similar materials. This SRM can also be used for quality assurance when assigning values to ...

  14. Determination of Total Iodine in Infant Formula and Adult/ Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS): Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.15.

    PubMed

    Zywicki, Richard S; Sullivan, Darryl M

    2015-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to determine total iodine in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula by inductively coupled plasma-MS (ICP-MS) using AOAC First Action Official Method(SM) 2012.15. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the method's intralaboratory and interlaboratory performance and submit the results to AOAC INTERNATIONAL for adoption as a Final Action Official Method for the determination of total iodine in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. Upon providing acceptable results for practice samples National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849a and a low-fat adult nutritional powder, 13 laboratories analyzed seven various infant and adult nutritional products including a blind duplicate of each. Products were chosen with varying levels of iodine and included low-fat, soy-based, and milk-based formulas and NIST SRM 1849a. Random identification numbers were assigned to each of the seven fortified test materials. Digestion of the test samples occurred using a potassium hydroxide solution in an oven or open-vessel microwave system. Iodine was stabilized with ammonium hydroxide and sodium thiosulfate after digestion. The solutions were brought to volume followed by filtration. The filtrates were then analyzed by ICP-MS after dilution. Results for all seven test samples met all the AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR(®) 2012.008) guidelines. The RSDr ranged from 0.77 to 4.78% and the RSDR from 5.42 to 11.5%. The Horwitz ratio (HorRat) for each result was excellent, ranging from 0.35 to 1.31%. The results demonstrate that the method is fit-for-purpose to determine iodine in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula.

  15. Quantitative and qualitative study of gastric lipolysis in premature infants: do MCT-enriched infant formulas improve fat digestion?

    PubMed

    Roman, Céline; Carriere, Frédéric; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Millet, Véronique; Simeoni, Umberto; Sarles, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Intragastric fat digestion was investigated by analyzing the products of lipolysis and the gastric lipase (HGL) levels of premature infants fed with a formula enriched with medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and those of infants fed with human milk. Infants were fed using a gastric tube and the gastric contents were aspirated twice a day for 5 d, before and at various times after gavage feeding. HGL levels were measured using the pHstat technique. After extraction, lipids were separated and quantified using thin-layer chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector. Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography. HGL concentration increased during digestion, reaching 77.4 +/- 43.1 microg/mL (around 75% of those recorded in adults). Mean HGL output was 115 +/- 43 microg for 3 h and the overall intragastric lipolysis was 6.1 +/- 2.6%. Although the formula was enriched with octanoic and decanoic acid, the main fatty acids released in the stomach were palmitic (C16:0, 17.03 +/- 0.23% wt/wt) and oleic (C18:1 n-9, 28.23 +/- 1.26% wt/wt) acid. Similar results were obtained with infants fed with human milk. MCT supplementation has no quantitative or qualitative effects on the intragastric lipolysis, which is not higher in premature infant than in adults.

  16. Survival and growth of Cronobacter species (Enterobacter sakazakii) in wheat-based infant follow-on formulas.

    PubMed

    Osaili, T M; Shaker, R R; Ayyash, M M; Al-Nabulsi, A A; Forsythe, S J

    2009-04-01

    To determine the survival and growth characteristics of Cronobacter species (Enterobacter sakazakii) in infant wheat-based formulas reconstituted with water, milk, grape juice or apple juice during storage. Infant wheat-based formulas were reconstituted with water, ultra high temperature milk, pasteurized grape or apple juices. The reconstituted formulas were inoculated with Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter muytjensii and stored at 4, 25 or 37 degrees C for up to 24 h. At 25 and 37 degrees C, Cronobacter grew more (>5 log(10)) in formulas reconstituted with water or milk than those prepared with grape or apple juices (c. 2-3 log(10)). The organism persisted, but did not grow in any formulas stored at 4 degrees C. Formulas reconstituted with water and milk decreased from pH 6.0 to 4.8-5.0 after 24 h, whereas the pH of the formulas reconstituted with fruit juices remained at their initial pH values, c. pH 4.8-5.0. Cronobacter sakazakii and C. muytjensii can grow in reconstituted wheat-based formulas. If not immediately consumed, these formulas should be stored at refrigeration temperatures to reduce the risk of infant infection. The results of this study will be of use to regulatory agencies and infant formula producers to recommend storage conditions that reduce the growth of Cronobacter in infant wheat-based formulas.

  17. Effect of age on manganese uptake and retention from milk and infant formulas in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Keen, C.L.; Bell, J.G.; Loennerdal, B.

    1986-03-01

    Manganese nutrition of the neonate is poorly understood, due in part to a paucity of information on the amount and availability of manganese in infant foods. We have developed a suckling pup model to assess the uptake of manganese from fluid diets by using extrinsic labeling. Human milk, cow milk and infant formulas were fed by intubation to fasted rat pups and adults. Rats were killed after varying time periods, and tissues were removed and counted. A period of 6 h was found to be adequate to allow for stomach emptying while limiting tissue redistribution; 24 h was found to reflect pup manganese retention. From human milk, manganese retention was highest (greater than or equal to 80%) in pups less than or equal to 15 days of age; in older pups average retention decreased to 40%. Using d 14 pups to assess relative Mn uptake from diets, wholebody Mn uptake was highest from cow milk (approximately 89%); uptake from human and cow milk formula was similar (approximately 80%) whereas it was lower from soy formula (approximately 60%). These findings suggest that bioavailability of Mn from infant diets is very high during the suckling period. Since most formulas contain considerably more manganese than is found in human milk, Mn deficiency may be less of a concern than possible toxicity from formulas.

  18. FDA's health claim review: whey-protein partially hydrolyzed infant formula and atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Carolyn S; Yamini, Sedigheh; Trumbo, Paula R

    2012-08-01

    In this review, we explain how the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) used its evidence-based review system to evaluate the scientific evidence for a qualified health claim for 100% whey-protein partially hydrolyzed infant formula (W-PHF) and reduced risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). The labeling of health claims, including qualified health claims, on conventional foods and dietary supplements require premarket approval by the FDA. Health claims characterize the relationship between a substance (food or food component) and disease (eg, cancer or cardiovascular disease) or health-related condition (eg, hypertension). To determine whether sufficient evidence exists to support the qualified health claim, the FDA evaluated human intervention studies that evaluated the role of W-PHF in reducing the risk of AD. The FDA concluded there is little to very little evidence, respectively, to support a qualified health claim concerning the relationship between intake of W-PHF and a reduced risk of AD in partially breastfed and exclusively formula-fed infants throughout the first year after birth and up to 3 years of age. In addition, the FDA required a warning statement be displayed along with the health claim to indicate to consumers that partially hydrolyzed infant formulas are not hypoallergenic and should not be fed to infants who are allergic to milk or to infants with existing milk allergy symptoms.

  19. Plasma selenium levels and dietary selenium intakes of formula-fed (FF) and cow's milk-fed (CMF) infants

    SciTech Connect

    Gropper, S.; Anderson, K.; Landing, W.; Acosta, P. Florida State Univ., Tallahassee Ross Labs., Columbus, OH )

    1990-02-26

    The plasma selenium concentrations of 57 infants eight to 12 months of age ingesting either cow's milk or milk-based infant formula as their primary beverage as part of a mixed diet for at least three months was assessed using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean ({plus minus}SD) daily dietary selenium intake of 26 cow's milk-fed infants (34{plus minus} 13 ug) was significantly greater than that of 31 formula-fed infants (22{plus minus}11 ug). The mean ({plus minus}SD) plasma selenium concentration of infants fed cow's mild (39{plus minus}11 ug/L) was also significantly greater than that of infants fed formula (31{plus minus}12 ug/L). Both groups of infants ingested similar total energy intakes; however, the infants fed cow's milk received more total protein and selenium and a greater percentage of protein and selenium from their primary beverage than the infants receiving formula. Both groups of infants were consuming a mixed diet with similar sources of selenium. These data suggest that cow's milk is a richer source of selenium than infant formulas.

  20. Bone mineralization and vitamin D/calcium daily intake of infants fed breast-milk, milk-based formula or soy-based formula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A cross-sectional analysis of bone mineralization during the first year of life of infants (N=107) exclusively fed breast-milk (BF), milk-based formula (MF), or soy-based formula (SF) for at least the first 4 months of life was conducted. Participants were part of the longitudinal Beginnings study. ...

  1. Effects of Term Infant Formulas Containing High sn-2 Palmitate With and Without Oligofructose on Stool Composition, Stool Characteristics, and Bifidogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Manjiang; Lien, Eric L.; Capeding, Maria R.Z.; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Ramanujam, Kalathur; Yuhas, Rebecca; Northington, Robert; Lebumfacil, Jowena; Wang, Lin; DeRusso, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Levels of stool fatty acid soaps and beneficial bacteria differ between formula-fed and breast-fed infants; addition of specific formula ingredients may reduce these differences. This study evaluated the effects of a term infant formula containing high sn-2 palmitate term infant formula (sn-2) or an identical formula supplemented with oligofructose (OF) at 2 concentrations (sn-2+3 g/L OF, sn-2+5 g/L OF) on stool composition, stool characteristics, and fecal bifidobacteria. Methods: Healthy, term formula-fed infants 7 to 14 days old (n = 300) were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive standard formula (control), sn-2, sn-2+3 g/L OF, or sn-2+5 g/L OF for 8 weeks. Human milk (HM)–fed infants (n = 75) were studied in parallel. Stool samples were collected from all subjects at week 8 for fatty acid soaps and mineral content, and from a subset at baseline and week 8 for bifidobacteria. Stool characteristics were assessed via 3-day diary. Results: The sn-2 group had 46% less stool soap palmitate (P < 0.001) and softer stools than control (20% more mushy soft stools, P = 0.026; 50% fewer formed stools, P = 0.003). Addition of OF resulted in even fewer formed stools versus control (65% fewer for sn-2+3 g/L OF, 79% fewer for sn-2+5 g/L OF), with 5 g/L OF more closely resembling that of HM-fed infants. Both sn-2 (P < 0.05) and sn-2 with OF groups (P < 0.01) had significantly higher fecal bifidobacteria concentrations than control at week 8, not differing from HM-fed infants. Conclusions: High sn-2-palmitate formulas led to reduced stool soaps, softer stools, and increased bifidobacteria, whereas addition of OF further improved stool consistency. Those modifications brought outcomes in formula-fed infants closer to that in HM-fed infants. PMID:24840511

  2. Determination of biotin by high-performance liquid chromatography in infant formula, medical nutritional products, and vitamin premixes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Linda B; Schmitz, Daniel J; Pan, Shang-Jing

    2006-01-01

    A solid-phase extraction sample preparation procedure was developed for use with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for biotin analysis. The HPLC method used a reversed-phase C18 column; chromatography run time was 8.5 min. After eluting from the column, biotin went through postcolumn reaction to form a conjugate with streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate, which was then detected by a fluorescence detector. This method was tested with infant formula, medical nutritional products, and vitamin premix samples.

  3. Cortical Responses to Speech Sounds in 3- and 6-Month-Old Infants Fed Breast Milk, Milk Formula, or Soy Formula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The influence of the three most common infant diets (breast milk, milk-based and soy-based formulas) on growth, behavioral development, and cortical responses (ERPs) to the consonant-vowel syllable /pa/, was examined in 130 healthy infants from an ongoing longitudinal study of 600 from birth through...

  4. Short communication: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex isolated from infant milk formula and utensils in a nursery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, B C; Moraes, M S; Costa, L E O; Nascimento, J S

    2015-04-01

    Infant milk formulas are not sterile products, and pathogenic bacteria can survive and multiply in these products. This study was performed, initially, to detect the presence of Salmonella spp. in reconstituted infant milk formula and on utensils previously sanitized used in their preparation or distribution in a nursery of a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. None of the samples tested carried Salmonellaspp. However, further identification of colonies growing on the selective media revealed the presence of several other gram-negative bacteria. Seventeen isolates were identified as belonging to Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex. Fourteen isolates presented a multidrug-resistance profile, by disc diffusion assays, and one of them--JE4--was also resistant to imipenem. The detection of Acinetobacter isolates in this work demonstrates inadequate hygiene practices in the preparation or distribution of infant milk formula. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk: Health, Nutrition, and Implications for Infant Formulas.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Breast milk confers many benefits to the newborn and developing infant. There is substantial support for better long-term outcomes, such as less obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants. More short-term outcomes, such as incidence and duration of illness, nutrient status, and cognitive development during the first year of life also demonstrate benefits of breastfeeding. Several proteins in breast milk, including lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, milk fat globule membrane proteins, and osteopontin, have been shown to have bioactivities that range from involvement in the protection against infection to the acquisition of nutrients from breast milk. In some cases, bovine counterparts of these proteins exert similar bioactivities. It is possible by dairy technology to add protein fractions highly enriched in these proteins to infant formula.

  6. Determination of melamine, ammeline, ammelide and cyanuric acid in infant formula purchased in Canada by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Braekevelt, E.; Lau, B.P.-Y.; Feng, S.; Ménard, C.; Tittlemier, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based isotope dilution method was developed for the analysis of the triazine compounds melamine (MEL), ammeline (AMN), ammelide (AMD) and cyanuric acid (CYA) in infant formula samples purchased in Canada in 2008 for the purpose of a combined exposure and risk assessment. Infant formula samples were extracted with 1:1 acetonitrile–water, cleaned up on disposable ion-exchange solid-phase extraction cartridges, and analysed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. MEL and CYA were detected in almost all infant formula products: the highest concentrations observed were 0.32 mg kg−1 MEL and 0.45 mg kg−1 CYA. Samples that were relatively high in MEL in this survey tended to be low in CYA, and vice versa. Concentrations of AMN and AMD were very low in all samples. The total of MEL-related compounds (sum of all four analytes) in all samples was below the interim standard of 0.5 mg kg−1 for infant formula products established by Health Canada. PMID:21623492

  7. Immunological detection of Cronobacter and Salmonella in powdered infant formula by plasmonic label-free assay.

    PubMed

    Morlay, A; Piat, F; Mercey, T; Roupioz, Y

    2016-06-01

    Cronobacter is an emerging food pathogen, especially in infants and neonates, often associated with the ingestion of contaminated Powdered Infant Formula (PIF). Therefore, regulations require the control of the absence of Cronobacter and of Salmonella, another important food pathogen, in these food products. So far, reference and alternative methods take up to several days, and no validated method exists for the simultaneous detection of these two pathogens. In this work, we propose to address this issue by an innovative and easy-to-operate assay, named Plasmonic Immuno-Assay (PlasmIA), and by producing dedicated polyclonal antibodies. Our approach is based on Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging of antibody-arrays and bacterial growth during a standardized enrichment. Such a single-step assay enables the multiplex detection of both Cronobacter and Salmonella, with concentrations smaller than 30 CFU cells in 25 g PIF samples, in less than 1 day. Among bacterial pathogens involved in food contamination, Cronobacter and Salmonella are of particular interest. Nevertheless, all detection methods used so far require several days to assess food safety. In the present paper, we describe the first multiplex immuno-assay ever described for fast and specific detection of these two pathogens in food samples. Such advances were made possible by combining the advantages of protein microarrays with on-biochip culture of contaminated food samples and an easy-to-operate optical detection. By doing so, we managed to detect both viable Cronobacter and Salmonella occurring during the enrichment phase. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Different pre-term formulas for different pre-term infants.

    PubMed

    Fanaro, Silvia; Ballardini, Elisa; Vigi, Vittorio

    2010-07-01

    Optimal nutrition is one of the most important aspects in the care of pre-term infants, especially for the gestationally youngest ones. These infants should receive a supply of nutrients that can sustain growth similar to that of a third trimester normal foetus. Traditional pre-term formulas do not ensure an optimal protein supply except when fed at high volumes, with an excess of fat and carbohydrates. Formulas with a protein content of 2-2.5 g 100ml(-1) and a protein/energy (P:E) ratio of less than 3g 100 kcal(-1) are not the best choice for the very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. We have tested a new formulation designed for the nutrition of the VLBW infants that is characterised by a protein content of 2.9 g 100ml(-1) and a P:E ratio of 3.5 g 100 kcal(-1). The milk formula was well tolerated and associated with better weight gain compared with fortified breast milk (18.1 vs. 15.2 g kg(-1)day(-1); p=0.0015). These results were obtained with a noticeably lower fluid supply (157 vs. 177 ml kg day(-1); p<0.0001) and lower energy intake (130 vs. 151 kcal kg(-1)day(-1); p<0.0001). Infant length and head circumference did not differ significantly between groups. Currently, the use of a formula with a P:E ratio of 3.5 g 100 kcal(-1) appears to be safe and to represent the best choice available for the gestationally youngest infants. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 enhances intestinal antibody response in formula-fed infants: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Holscher, Hannah D; Czerkies, Laura A; Cekola, Pamela; Litov, Richard; Benbow, Marshall; Santema, Sheryl; Alexander, Dominik D; Perez, Vanessa; Sun, Shumei; Saavedra, José M; Tappenden, Kelly A

    2012-01-01

    Addition of probiotics to infant formula may positively affect immune function in nonexclusively breastfed infants. This study aimed to investigate the effect of infant starter formula containing the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis (Bb12) on intestinal immunity and inflammation. Six-week-old healthy, full-term infants (n = 172) were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial with 2 groups studied in parallel to a breastfed comparison group. Formula-fed (FF) infants were randomized to partially hydrolyzed whey formula (CON) or the same formula containing 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) Bb12/g (PRO) for 6 weeks. Fecal secretory IgA (sIgA), calprotectin, lactate, and stool pH were assessed at baseline, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks. Anti-poliovirus-specific IgA and anti-rotavirus-specific IgA were assessed at 2 and 6 weeks. Among vaginally delivered FF infants, PRO consumption increased (P < .05) fecal sIgA compared to CON. Anti-poliovirus-specific IgA concentration increased (P < .05) in all infants consuming PRO, whereas anti-rotavirus-specific IgA tended to increase (P = .056) with PRO consumption in cesarean-delivered infants. Anthropometrics and tolerance did not differ significantly between FF infants. Infants consuming formula with Bb12 produced feces with detectable presence of Bb12 and augmented sIgA concentration. Furthermore, cesarean-delivered infants consuming Bb12 had heightened immune response, as evidenced by increased anti-rotavirus- and anti-poliovirus-specific IgA following immunization. These results demonstrate that negative immune-related effects of not breastfeeding and cesarean delivery can be mitigated by including Bb12 in infant formula, thereby providing infants a safe, dietary, immune-modulating bacterial introduction.

  10. Randomized double-blind study of the nutritional efficacy and bifidogenicity of a new infant formula containing partially hydrolyzed protein, a high beta-palmitic acid level, and nondigestible oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Schmelzle, Hansjörg; Wirth, Stefan; Skopnik, Heino; Radke, Michael; Knol, Jan; Böckler, Heinz-Michael; Brönstrup, Anja; Wells, John; Fusch, Christoph

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional efficacy and bifidogenic characteristics of a new infant formula containing partially hydrolyzed whey protein, modified vegetable oil with a high beta-palmitic acid content, prebiotic oligosaccharides, and starch. In a double-blind study, healthy formula-fed term infants aged younger than 2 weeks were randomized to receive either the new infant formula (NF) or a standard formula (SF) until the age of 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements were taken at enrollment, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. In a subsample of infants, blood samples were taken at 6 weeks and stool samples were taken at enrollment and 6 weeks. Blood samples were analyzed for biochemical measures of protein status and amino acids, and stools were analyzed for total bacteria and bifidobacteria. Mothers completed a feeding diary and questionnaire at 6 and 10 weeks. One hundred fifty-four infants were enrolled in the study; 102 completed the trial. The growth of infants in both formula groups was in line with published growth curves. During the first 6 weeks, NF girls gained more weight and head circumference than the SF girls. These velocity differences were not maintained throughout the 12-week study period. The NF stools had a higher proportion of bifidobacteria at 6 weeks compared with the SF stools, and they were softer. There were no clinically significant differences in the blood biochemical and amino acid values between groups. Both formulas were well tolerated by the infants. When compared with a standard infant formula, the new formula supported satisfactory growth, led to higher counts of bifidobacteria in the feces, produced blood bio-chemical values typical of formula-fed infants, and was well tolerated.

  11. Specific probiotics in enhancing maturation of IgA responses in formula-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Rautava, Samuli; Arvilommi, Heikki; Isolauri, Erika

    2006-08-01

    The first months of life represent a critical period for the maturation of the infant's immune system and, thus, a window of opportunity for measures to reduce the risk of disease. We hypothesized that specific probiotics might promote mucosal immunologic maturation in formula-fed infants. The numbers of cow's milk-specific and total IgA-secreting cells were measured at 3, 7, and 12 mo of age in a double-blind placebo-controlled study of 72 infants with early artificial feeding. The infants consumed infant formula supplemented with specific probiotics (Lactobacillus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12) or placebo during the first year of life. Further analyses of the serum concentrations of the IgA-inducing cytokine TGF-beta2 and the soluble innate microbial receptor sCD14 were conducted. The numbers of cow's milk-specific IgA secreting cells were significantly higher in infants receiving probiotics compared with those receiving placebo (p = 0.045, ANOVA for repeated measures). At 12 mo of age, the serum concentrations of sCD14 were 1479 pg/mL [95% confidence interval (CI) 1373-1592] in infants receiving probiotics and 1291 pg/mL (95% CI 1152-1445) in infants receiving placebo (p = 0.046). Administration of the probiotics Lactobacillus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 at the time of introduction of cow's milk in the infant's diet results in cow's milk-specific IgA antibody responsiveness that may be the result of increased production of sCD14.

  12. Determination of Chloride in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Potentiometric Titration: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.07.

    PubMed

    Bolong, Wu; Fengxia, Zhang; Xiaoning, Ma; Fengjuan, Zhou; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2016-01-01

    A potentiometric method for determination of chloride was validated against AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR(®)) 2014.015. Ten AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) matrixes, including National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849a, were tested in duplicate on 6 independent days. The repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 0.43 to 1.34%, and the intermediate reproducibility (RSDiR) ranged from 0.80 to 3.04%. All results for NIST SRM 1849a were within the range of the certified concentration (701 ± 17 mg/100 g). Recovery was demonstrated with two overspike levels, 50 and 100%, in the 10 SPIFAN matrixes. Samples were tested in duplicate on 3 different days, and all results were within the SMPR requirement of 95 to 105%. The LOQs of the method for powdered products and ready-to-feed or reconstituted products were 20 mg/100 g and 2.2 mg/100 mL, respectively. A wide analytical range from the LOQ to 99.5% chlorine content can be reached with an appropriate dilution factor, but in practice, the upper analytical value observed in routine matrix testing was approximately 1080 mg/100 g in skim milk powder. This is a rapid, simple, and reliable chlorine-testing method applicable to infant formula, adult nutritionals, and ingredients used in these dairy-based products, such as skim milk powder, desalted whey powder, whey protein powder, and whole milk powder.

  13. Effects of Infant Formula With Human Milk Oligosaccharides on Growth and Morbidity: A Randomized Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Puccio, Giuseppe; Alliet, Philippe; Cajozzo, Cinzia; Janssens, Elke; Corsello, Giovanni; Sprenger, Norbert; Wernimont, Susan; Egli, Delphine; Gosoniu, Laura; Steenhout, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of infant formula supplemented with 2 human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) on infant growth, tolerance, and morbidity. Methods: Healthy infants, 0 to 14 days old, were randomized to an intact-protein, cow's milk–based infant formula (control, n = 87) or the same formula with 1.0 g/L 2′fucosyllactose (2′FL) and 0.5 g/L lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) (test, n = 88) from enrollment to 6 months; all infants received standard follow-up formula without HMOs from 6 to 12 months. Primary endpoint was weight gain through 4 months. Secondary endpoints included additional anthropometric measures, gastrointestinal tolerance, behavioral patterns, and morbidity through age 12 months. Results: Weight gain was similar in both groups (mean difference [95% confidence interval] test vs control: −0.30 [−1.94, 1.34] g/day; lower bound of 95% confidence interval was above noninferiority margin [−3 g/day]). Digestive symptoms and behavioral patterns were similar between groups; exceptions included softer stool (P = 0.021) and fewer nighttime wake-ups (P = 0.036) in the test group at 2 months. Infants receiving test (vs control) had significantly fewer parental reports (P = 0.004–0.047) of bronchitis through 4 (2.3% vs 12.6%), 6 (6.8% vs 21.8%), and 12 months (10.2% vs 27.6%); lower respiratory tract infection (adverse event cluster) through 12 months (19.3% vs 34.5%); antipyretics use through 4 months (15.9% vs 29.9%); and antibiotics use through 6 (34.1% vs 49.4%) and 12 months (42.0% vs 60.9%). Conclusions: Infant formula with 2′FL and LNnT is safe, well-tolerated, and supports age-appropriate growth. Secondary outcome findings showing associations between consuming HMO-supplemented formula and lower parent-reported morbidity (particularly bronchitis) and medication use (antipyretics and antibiotics) warrant confirmation in future studies. PMID:28107288

  14. Effects of Infant Formula With Human Milk Oligosaccharides on Growth and Morbidity: A Randomized Multicenter Trial.

    PubMed

    Puccio, Giuseppe; Alliet, Philippe; Cajozzo, Cinzia; Janssens, Elke; Corsello, Giovanni; Sprenger, Norbert; Wernimont, Susan; Egli, Delphine; Gosoniu, Laura; Steenhout, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of infant formula supplemented with 2 human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) on infant growth, tolerance, and morbidity. Healthy infants, 0 to 14 days old, were randomized to an intact-protein, cow's milk-based infant formula (control, n = 87) or the same formula with 1.0 g/L 2'fucosyllactose (2'FL) and 0.5 g/L lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) (test, n = 88) from enrollment to 6 months; all infants received standard follow-up formula without HMOs from 6 to 12 months. Primary endpoint was weight gain through 4 months. Secondary endpoints included additional anthropometric measures, gastrointestinal tolerance, behavioral patterns, and morbidity through age 12 months. Weight gain was similar in both groups (mean difference [95% confidence interval] test vs control: -0.30 [-1.94, 1.34] g/day; lower bound of 95% confidence interval was above noninferiority margin [-3 g/day]). Digestive symptoms and behavioral patterns were similar between groups; exceptions included softer stool (P = 0.021) and fewer nighttime wake-ups (P = 0.036) in the test group at 2 months. Infants receiving test (vs control) had significantly fewer parental reports (P = 0.004-0.047) of bronchitis through 4 (2.3% vs 12.6%), 6 (6.8% vs 21.8%), and 12 months (10.2% vs 27.6%); lower respiratory tract infection (adverse event cluster) through 12 months (19.3% vs 34.5%); antipyretics use through 4 months (15.9% vs 29.9%); and antibiotics use through 6 (34.1% vs 49.4%) and 12 months (42.0% vs 60.9%). Infant formula with 2'FL and LNnT is safe, well-tolerated, and supports age-appropriate growth. Secondary outcome findings showing associations between consuming HMO-supplemented formula and lower parent-reported morbidity (particularly bronchitis) and medication use (antipyretics and antibiotics) warrant confirmation in future studies.

  15. [Nutritional composition of infant milk formulas. Level of compliance in their manufacture and adequacy of nutritional needs].

    PubMed

    Jardí Piñana, C; Aranda Pons, N; Bedmar Carretero, C; Arija Val, V

    2015-12-01

    A high percentage of infants are fed with infant formulas. The aim of this study was to assess compliance with the Technical and Safety Regulations in the manufacture of Spanish infant formulas, analyse their adequacy to the recommendations of nutritional composition and the Dietary References Intakes for infants. A total of 31 infant formulas were analysed, of which 18 were infant formulas, 10 follow-on formulas, and 3 growing-up milks. The European Technical and Safety Regulations, the Spanish Dietary Reference Intakes and the Institute of Medicine of the United States and Canada, were used for the assessment of compliance and adequacy. The energy and macronutrient content of analysed infant formulas is placed in the middle of the range indicated in the Technical and Safety Regulations, and meets the recommended amounts. However, most micronutrients such as phosphorus, calcium, retinol, vitamin D, E, C, B6, B12, thiamin, riboflavin, and folate are at the lower limit of the Technical and Safety Regulations. However, the recommended consumption of infant formulas exceeded the Dietary References Intakes for vitamin E, C, retinol, vitamin B and folate, and vitamin B12 for follow-on formulas. Infant formulas are within the reference values of the European Technical and Safety Regulations in energy and macronutrients, but we believe that the level of micronutrients should be reviewed, based on current scientific data on infant requirements and possible adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Severe hypoglycemic encephalopathy due to hypoallergenic formula in an infant.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Erika; Ishige, Mika; Takahashi, Yuno; Kodama, Hiroko; Fuchigami, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Shori

    2016-08-01

    A 7-month-old girl was brought to hospital due to vomiting. Upon admission, she was in a convulsive state and stupor with extremely low blood glucose. Head computed tomography showed brain edema, and comprehensive treatment for acute encephalopathy was initiated immediately. Severe hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, elevation of ammonia and serum transaminases and creatine kinase suggested metabolic decompensation. Infusion of a high-glucose solution containing vitamins, biotin, and l-carnitine resolved the metabolic crisis quickly, but brain damage was irreversible. She was found to have been fed exclusively on a hypoallergenic formula (HF) for 7 months, although she was found later to be non-allergic. Evidence of inborn metabolic diseases was absent, therefore biotin deficiency and carnitine deficiency were concluded to be a consequence of reliance on a HF for a prolonged period. Health-care professionals should warn parents of the consequences of using HF. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Formula and scale for body surface area estimation in high-risk infants.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Youngmee

    2010-12-01

    Advances in medical technology and the health sciences have lead to a rapid increase in the prevalence and morbidity of high-risk infants with chronic or permanent sequels such as the birth of early preterm infants. A suitable formula is therefore needed for body surface area (BSA) estimation for high-risk infants to more accurately devise therapeutic regimes in clinical practice. A cohort study involving 5014 high-risk infants was conducted to develop a suitable formula for estimating BSA using four of the existing formulas in the literature. BSA of high-risk infants was calculated using the four BSA equations (Boyd-BSA, Dubois-BSA, Meban-BSA, Mosteller-BSA), from which a new calculation, Mean-BSA, was arithmetically derived as a reference BSA measure. Multiple-regression was performed using nonlinear least squares curve fitting corresponding to the trend line and the new equation, Neo-BSA, developed using Excel and SPSS 17.0. The Neo-BSA equation was constructed as follows: Neo-BSA = 5.520 x W(0.5526) x L(0.300). With the assumption of the least square root relation between weight and length, a BSA scale using only weight was fabricated specifically for clinical applications where weight is more available in high-risk infant populations than is length. The validity of Neo-BSA was evaluated against Meban-BSA, the best of the four equations for high-risk infants, as there is a similarity of subjects in the two studies. The other formulas revealed substantial variances in BSA compared to Neo-BSA. This study developed a new surface area equation, Neo-BSA, as the most suitable formula for BSA measurement of high-risk infants in modern-day societies, where an emerging population of newborns with shorten gestational ages are becoming more prevalent as a result of new advances in the health sciences and new development of reproductive technologies. In particular, a scale for 400-7000 g body weight babies derived from the Neo-BSA equation has the clinical advantage of

  18. Impact of α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin ratio on the heat stability of model infant milk formula protein systems.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Shane V; Dowling, Aisling P; Caldeo, Veronica; Kelly, Alan L; O'Mahony, James A

    2016-03-01

    Model infant milk formula systems (5.5% protein) were formulated to contain α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin ratios of 0.1, 0.5, 1.3, 2.1 or 4.6 and assessed for heat stability and heat-induced changes. 'Humanising' the model formulas by increasing α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin enhanced heat stability at 140°C in the pH range 6.6-6.9. The model formulas were analysed after lab-scale high-temperature short-time heating at pH 6.8. Gel electrophoresis indicated that increased heat stability in high α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin samples was due to decreased covalent interactions between proteins. In low α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin formulas, protein-protein interactions caused marked increases in protein particle size and viscosity of the heated systems; conversely, covalent interactions between proteins were minimal in high α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin formulas. Reduced protein-protein interactions with increasing α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin has important implications for subsequent processing; for example, lower viscosity post-heating may affect bulk density in spray-dried products or physical stability in ready-to-feed products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Perspective on the risk to infants in the Netherlands associated with Cronobacter spp. occurring in powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Reij, M W; Jongenburger, I; Gkogka, E; Gorris, L G M; Zwietering, M H

    2009-12-31

    Cronobacter spp. has been responsible for severe infections in infants. Relative risks associated with this organism in powdered infant formula (PIF) have been described in several studies. To set priorities and decide on risk management options, it is important for risk managers to have a quantitative perspective on the absolute level of risk of this pathogen within the totality of the burden of illnesses in the population. This study set-out to establish such a perspective for The Netherlands. It addresses the impact of heterogeneity in the distribution of the micro-organism in PIF on risk levels. Based on the assumptions in this study, 60% of formula-fed infants are estimated not to be exposed to Cronobacter spp. during their neonatal period. The mean exposure was calculated to be about 1cfu per infant over the total neonatal period. Even after thorough mixing, artificially contaminated powder shows counts which are more variable than expected from a normal, homogeneous distribution. Therefore, mean exposure levels may not represent a good basis for calculating risks. The burden of disease of Cronobacter infections to the Dutch population was estimated to be 19-24 Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) per year, of which 95% are due to meningitis. As compared to other illnesses Cronobacter infections represent 0.5-2.4% of the total estimated burden of foodborne infections and intoxications. The organism is estimated to be responsible for 0.5-0.7% of the meningitis burden to the entire population of The Netherlands.

  20. Influence of formulas with borage oil or borage oil plus fish oil on the arachidonic acid status in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Demmelmair, H; Feldl, F; Horváth, I; Niederland, T; Ruszinkó, V; Raederstorff, D; De Min, C; Muggli, R; Koletzko, B

    2001-06-01

    Several studies have reported that feeding gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) has resulted in no increase in arachidonic acid (AA) in newborns. This result was ascribed to the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich fish oil used in these formulas. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) sources with only minor amounts of EPA are now available, thus the addition of GLA to infant formulas might be considered an alternative to AA supplementation. Sixty-six premature infants were randomized to feeding one of four formulas [ST: no GLA, no long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; BO: 0.6% GLA (borage oil); BO + FOLOW: 0.6% GLA, 0.3% DHA, 0.06% EPA; BO + FOHIGH: 0.6% GLA, 0.3% DHA, 0.2% EPA] or human milk (HM, nonrandomized) for 4 wk. Anthropometric measures and blood samples were obtained at study entry and after 14 and 28 d. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric measures, tocopherol, and retinol status at any of the studied time points. The AA content of plasma phospholipids was similar between groups at study start and decreased significantly until day 28 in all formulafed groups, but not in the breast-fed infants [ST: 6.6 +/- 0.2%, BO: 6.9 +/- 0.3%, BO + FOLOW: 6.9 +/- 0.4%, BO + FOHIGH: 6.7 +/- 0.2%, HM: 8.6 +/- 0.5%, where values are reported as mean +/- standard error; all formulas significantly different (P< 0.05) from HM]. There was no significant influence of GLA or fish oil addition to the diet. GLA had only a very limited effect on AA status which was too small to obtain satisfactory concentrations (concentrations similar to breast-fed babies) under the circumstances tested. The effect of GLA on AA is independent of the EPA and DHA content in the diet within the dose ranges studied.

  1. Randomised controlled trial of a synthetic triglyceride milk formula for preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, A; Quinlan, P; Abrams, S; Ryan, S; Meah, S; Lucas, P

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To test whether use of infant formula containing synthetic structured triglycerides results in: (i) increased palmitate absorption; (ii) increased total fat absorption; (iii) reduction in calcium soap formation in the gut; and hence (iv) increased calcium absorption.
METHODS—A randomised study was made of 24 infants comparing three formulas, one containing the synthetic fat Betapol with 74% of palmitate in the 2-position, which was substantially higher than in the two comparison diets (8.4% and 28%). The hypothesised outcomes were tested using balance studies, detailed chemical analysis of stool specimens and dual calcium isotope tracers (44calcium orally and 46calcium intravenously). 
RESULTS—Three of the four hypotheses were confirmed: use of a formula rich in 2-position palmitate (i) improved palmitate (16:0) and also (18:0) absorption; (ii) reduced the formation of insoluble calcium soaps in the stool; and (iii) improved calcium absorption, determined by the dual tracer technique from 42 (SE 3)% to 57 (7)%.
CONCLUSION—Synthetic triglycerides that mimic the stereoisometric structure of those in breast milk may have a valuable role in the design of formulas used for preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units.

 PMID:9462186

  2. Infants Fed a Lower Calorie Formula With 2′FL Show Growth and 2′FL Uptake Like Breast-Fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Marriage, Barbara J.; Buck, Rachael H.; Goehring, Karen C.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Williams, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the present study was to examine the growth and tolerance of infants fed infant formulas with a caloric density closer to human milk (HM) supplemented with human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and to study uptake of the HMOs. Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled, growth and tolerance study was conducted in healthy, singleton infants (birth weight ≥2490 g), who were enrolled by day of life (DOL) 5. Formula-fed infants were randomized to 1 of 3 formulas with a caloric density of 64.3 kcal/dL. Each formula contained galactooligosaccharides, and the 2 experimental formulas contained varying levels (0.2 and 1.0 g/L) of the HMO 2′-fucosyllactose (2′FL). The 3 formula groups were compared with an HM-fed reference group. Infants were exclusively fed either formula (n = 189) or HM (n = 65) from enrollment to 119 DOL. 2′FL was measured in the blood and urine collected from a subset of infants at DOL 42 and 119, and in HM collected from breast-feeding mothers at DOL 42. Results: There were no significant differences among any groups for weight, length, or head circumference growth during the 4-month study period. All of the formulas were well tolerated and comparable for average stool consistency, number of stools per day, and percent of feedings associated with spitting up or vomit. 2′FL was present in the plasma and urine of infants fed 2′FL, and there were no significant differences in 2′FL uptake relative to the concentration fed. Conclusions: This is the first report of infants fed 2′FL-fortified formulas with a caloric density similar to HM. Growth and 2′FL uptake were similar to those of HM-fed infants. PMID:26154029

  3. Global standard for the composition of infant formula: recommendations of an ESPGHAN coordinated international expert group.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Baker, Susan; Cleghorn, Geoff; Neto, Ulysses Fagundes; Gopalan, Sarath; Hernell, Olle; Hock, Quak Seng; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Lonnerdal, Bo; Pencharz, Paul; Pzyrembel, Hildegard; Ramirez-Mayans, Jaime; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Zong-Yi, Ding

    2005-11-01

    The Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) develops food standards, guidelines and related texts for protecting consumer health and ensuring fair trade practices globally. The major part of the world's population lives in more than 160 countries that are members of the Codex Alimentarius. The Codex Standard on Infant Formula was adopted in 1981 based on scientific knowledge available in the 1970s and is currently being revised. As part of this process, the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses asked the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition to initiate a consultation process with the international scientific community to provide a proposal on nutrient levels in infant formulae, based on scientific analysis and taking into account existing scientific reports on the subject. ESPGHAN accepted the request and, in collaboration with its sister societies in the Federation of International Societies on Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, invited highly qualified experts in the area of infant nutrition to form an International Expert Group (IEG) to review the issues raised. The group arrived at recommendations on the compositional requirements for a global infant formula standard which are reported here.

  4. Acute lung injury after instillation of human breast milk or infant formula into rabbits' lungs.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, B; Lerman, J; Endo, J; Cutz, E

    1996-06-01

    Recent interest in shortening the fasting interval after ingestion of milk products demonstrated large volumes of breast milk in the stomach 2 h after breastfeeding. Although aspiration is a rare event, if it were to occur with human breast milk, it is important to understand the extent of the lung injury that might occur. Therefore, the response to instillation of acidified breast milk and infant formula in the lungs of adult rabbits was studied. In 18 anesthetized adult rabbits, 1 of 3 fluids (in a volume of 0.8 ml.kg-1 and pH level of 1.8, acidified with hydrochloric acid); saline, breast milk, or infant formula (SMA, Wyeth, Windsor, Ontario), was instilled into the lungs via a tracheotomy. The lungs were ventilated for 4 h after instillation. Alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradient and dynamic compliance were measured before and at hourly intervals after instillation. After 4 h, the rabbits were killed and the lungs were excised. Neutrophil infiltration was quantitated by a pathologist blinded to the instilled fluid. A histologic control group of four rabbits was ventilated under study conditions without any intratracheal fluid instillation. Alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradient increased and dynamic compliance decreased significantly during the 4 h after instillation of both breast milk and infant formula compared with baseline measurements and with saline controls (P < 0.05). The neutrophil counts in the lungs from the saline, breast milk, and formula rabbits were significantly greater than those in the control group. Instillation of acidified breast milk or infant formula (in a volume of 0.8 ml.kg-1 and pH level of 1.8) into rabbits' lungs induces acute lung injury of similar intensity that lasts at least 4 h.

  5. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations and metabolism in breast milk, infant formula, and parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jesica A; Ninnis, Janet R; Hopper, Andrew O; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-09-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P < .01). Nitrate concentrations averaged 13.6 ± 3.7 μM and 12.7 ± 4.9 μM, respectively. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations in infant formulas varied from undetectable to many-fold more than breast milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ~64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite.

  6. Neutral oligosaccharides in feces of breastfed and formula-fed infants at different ages.

    PubMed

    Dotz, Viktoria; Adam, Rüdiger; Lochnit, Günter; Schroten, Horst; Kunz, Clemens

    2016-12-01

    Beneficial effects have been proposed for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), as deduced from in vitro and animal studies. To date, in vivo evidence of the link between certain oligosaccharide structures in milk and their consumption by infant gut microbiota is still missing, although likely. Whereas many studies have described HMO patterns in human milk from larger cohorts, data on the excretion of HMO and possible metabolites produced in the infant gut are still very limited. From smaller-scale studies, an age-dependency according to infant gut maturation and microbiota adaptation has previously been hypothesized. To further investigate this, we profiled neutral fecal oligosaccharides from term-born infants who were exclusively breastfed, formula-fed or mixed-fed at the age of 2 months, and from a follow-up of a subgroup at 7 months of age (INFABIO study). Data on maternal antibiotic exposure was also included. Automated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of HMO and metabolites in the feces of most, but not all breastfed infants at 2 months, with highly varying patterns that appeared not to differ with maternal antibiotics exposure. Formula-fed infants at 2 months and most of the breastfed infants at 7 months did not excrete HMO-like structures in their feces, the latter corresponding to the hypothesis of age-dependency. Together with our previous results that were partly contradictory to what has been proposed by others, here, we suggest alternative explanations for the described association of oligosaccharide excretion with age and feeding type in infants below 7 months of age.

  7. Hydrolyzed infant formula and early β-cell autoimmunity: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Knip, Mikael; Åkerblom, Hans K; Becker, Dorothy; Dosch, Hans-Michael; Dupre, John; Fraser, William; Howard, Neville; Ilonen, Jorma; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Kordonouri, Olga; Lawson, Margaret L; Palmer, Jerry P; Savilahti, Erkki; Vaarala, Outi; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2014-06-11

    The disease process leading to clinical type 1 diabetes often starts during the first years of life. Early exposure to complex dietary proteins may increase the risk of β-cell autoimmunity in children at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Extensively hydrolyzed formulas do not contain intact proteins. To test the hypothesis that weaning to an extensively hydrolyzed formula decreases the cumulative incidence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies in young children. A double-blind randomized clinical trial of 2159 infants with HLA-conferred disease susceptibility and a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes recruited from May 2002 to January 2007 in 78 study centers in 15 countries; 1078 were randomized to be weaned to the extensively hydrolyzed casein formula and 1081 were randomized to be weaned to a conventional cows' milk-based formula. The participants were observed to April 16, 2013. The participants received either a casein hydrolysate or a conventional cows' milk formula supplemented with 20% of the casein hydrolysate. AND MEASURES: Primary outcome was positivity for at least 2 diabetes-associated autoantibodies out of 4 analyzed. Autoantibodies to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and the insulinoma-associated-2 (IA-2) molecule were analyzed using radiobinding assays and islet cell antibodies with immunofluorescence during a median observation period of 7.0 years (mean, 6.3 years). The absolute risk of positivity for 2 or more islet autoantibodies was 13.4% among those randomized to the casein hydrolysate formula (n = 139) vs 11.4% among those randomized to the conventional formula (n = 117). The unadjusted hazard ratio for positivity for 2 or more autoantibodies among those randomized to be weaned to the casein hydrolysate was 1.21 (95% CI, 0.94-1.54), compared with those randomized to the conventional formula, while the hazard ratio adjusted for HLA risk, duration of breastfeeding, vitamin D use, study formula duration and consumption, and region

  8. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: First Action 2012.13.

    PubMed

    2015-06-24

    The method described below is intended for the quantification of all fatty acids, including commercially important groups of fatty acids used for labeling reasons (i.e., TFA, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, omega-3, omega-6, omega-9) and/or individual fatty acids (i.e., LA, ALA, ARA, EPA, DHA) in milk products, infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. These products often contain milk fat and/or vegetable oils, and are supplemented or not supplemented with oils rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The determination is performed by direct transesterification of ready-to-feed liquid concentrate or powder products, without prior fat extraction. The single laboratory validation (SLV) data was submitted to the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Expert Review Panel (ERP) for review at the AOAC INTERNATIONAL annual meeting held September 30 to October 3, 2012 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The ERP determined that the data reviewed met the Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR 2012.11) set by SPIFAN and was approved as an AOAC Official First Action. The analytical range for SPIFAN samples was between 0.001-7.94 g/100 g reconstituted product, or ready-to-feed liquid. The quantitation limit was estimated as 0.001 g/100 g, while repeatability and intermediate precision were both less than 1.8 % RSD above 0.05 g/100 g, and <3.5% RSD at 0.00 5g/100 g, respectively. Recovery values based on spiking experiments at two different levels of linoleic and linolenic acids ranged from 100.0% to 102.9% for 3 different SPIFAN products. All the parameters evaluated during the SLV were well within the values defined in SMPR 2012.011 (September 2012).

  9. Variation in Formula Supplementation of Breastfed Newborn Infants in New York Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang; Dennison, Barbara A; Fan, Wei; Xu, Changning; Birkhead, Guthrie S

    2017-07-01

    We examined the variation between 126 New York hospitals in formula supplementation among breastfed infants after adjusting for socioeconomic, maternal, and infant factors and stratifying by level of perinatal care. We used 2014 birth certificate data for 160 911 breastfed infants to calculate hospital-specific formula supplementation percentages by using multivariable hierarchical logistic regression models. Formula supplementation percentages varied widely among hospitals, from 2.3% to 98.3%, and was lower among level 1 hospitals (18.2%) than higher-level hospitals (50.6%-57.0%). Significant disparities in supplementation were noted for race and ethnicity (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] were 1.54-2.05 for African Americans, 1.85-2.74 for Asian Americans, and 1.25-2.16 for Hispanics, compared with whites), maternal education (aORs were 2.01-2.95 for ≤12th grade, 1.74-1.85 for high school or general education development, and 1.18-1.28 for some college or a college degree, compared with a Master's degree), and insurance coverage (aOR was 1.27-1.60 for Medicaid insurance versus other). Formula supplementation was higher among mothers who smoked, had a cesarean delivery, or diabetes. At all 4 levels of perinatal care, there were exemplar hospitals that met the HealthyPeople 2020 supplementation goal of ≤14.2%. After adjusting for individual risk factors, the hospital-specific, risk-adjusted supplemental formula percentages still revealed a wide variation. A better understanding of the exemplar hospitals could inform future efforts to improve maternity care practices and breastfeeding support to reduce unnecessary formula supplementation, reduce disparities, increase exclusive breastfeeding and breastfeeding duration, and improve maternal and child health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. The potential mechanistic link between allergy and obesity development and infant formula feeding

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a new view of the cellular mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the links between infant formula feeding and the development of atopy and obesity. Epidemiological evidence points to an allergy- and obesity-preventive effect of breastfeeding. Both allergy and obesity development have been traced back to accelerated growth early in life. The nutrient-sensitive kinase mTORC1 is the master regulator of cell growth, which is predominantly activated by amino acids. In contrast to breastfeeding, artificial infant formula feeding bears the risk of uncontrolled excessive protein intake overactivating the infant’s mTORC1 signalling pathways. Overactivated mTORC1 enhances S6K1-mediated adipocyte differentiation, but negatively regulates growth and differentiation of FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs), which are deficient in atopic individuals. Thus, the “early protein hypothesis” not only explains increased mTORC1-mediated infant growth but also the development of mTORC1-driven diseases such as allergy and obesity due to a postnatal deviation from the appropriate axis of mTORC1-driven metabolic and immunologic programming. Remarkably, intake of fresh unpasteurized cow’s milk exhibits an allergy-preventive effect in farm children associated with increased FoxP3+ Treg numbers. In contrast to unprocessed cow’s milk, formula lacks bioactive immune-regulatory microRNAs, such as microRNA-155, which plays a major role in FoxP3 expression. Uncontrolled excessive protein supply by formula feeding associated with the absence of bioactive microRNAs and bifidobacteria in formula apparently in a synergistic way result in insufficient Treg maturation. Treg deficiency allows Th2-cell differentiation promoting the development of allergic diseases. Formula-induced mTORC1 overactivation is thus the critical mechanism that explains accelerated postnatal growth, allergy and obesity development on one aberrant pathway. PMID:25071855

  11. Infant Formula Feeding at Birth Is Common and Inversely Associated with Subsequent Breastfeeding Behavior in Vietnam123

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuan T; Withers, Mellissa; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association between infant formula feeding at birth and subsequent feeding patterns in a low- or middle-income context is not clear. Objective: We examined the association of infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth with subsequent infant formula feeding and early breastfeeding cessation in Vietnam. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, we interviewed 10,681 mothers with children aged 0−23 mo (mean age: 8.2 mo; 52% boys) about their feeding practices during the first 3 d after birth and on the previous day. We used stratified analysis, multiple logistic regression, propensity score-matching analysis, and structural equation modeling to minimize the limitation of the cross-sectional design and to ensure the consistency of the findings. Results: Infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth (50%) was associated with a higher prevalence of subsequent infant formula feeding [stratified analysis: 7−28% higher (nonoverlapping 95% CIs for most comparisons); propensity score-matching analysis: 13% higher (P < 0.001); multiple logistic regression: OR: 1.47 (95% CI: 1.30, 1.67)]. This practice was also associated with a higher prevalence of early breastfeeding cessation (e.g., <24 mo) [propensity score-matching analysis: 2% (P = 0.08); OR: 1.33 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.59)]. Structural equation modeling showed that infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth was associated with a higher prevalence of subsequent infant formula feeding (β: 0.244; P < 0.001), which in turn was linked to early breastfeeding cessation (β: 0.285; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth was associated with increased subsequent infant formula feeding and the early cessation of breastfeeding, which underscores the need to make early, exclusive breastfeeding normative and to create environments that support it. PMID:27605404

  12. High Beta-palmitate formula and bone strength in term infants: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Litmanovitz, Ita; Davidson, Keren; Eliakim, Alon; Regev, Rivka H; Dolfin, Tzipora; Arnon, Shmuel; Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Goren, Amit; Lifshitz, Yael; Nemet, Dan

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to compare the effect of 12-week feeding of commercially available infant formulas with different percentages of palmitic acid at sn-2 (beta-palmitate) on anthropometric measures and bone strength of term infants. It was hypothesized that feeding infants with high beta-palmitate (HBP) formula will enhance their bone speed of sound (SOS). Eighty-three infants appropriate for gestational age participated in the study; of these, 58 were formula-fed and 25 breast-fed infants, serving as a reference group. The formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive HBP formula (43 % of the palmitic acid is esterified to the middle position of the glycerol backbone, study group; n = 30) or regular formula with low-beta palmitate (LBP, 14 % of the palmitic acid is esterified to the middle position of the glycerol backbone, n = 28). Sixty-six infants completed the 12-week study. Anthropometric and quantitative ultrasound measurements of bone SOS for assessment of bone strength were performed at randomization and at 6 and 12 weeks postnatal age. At randomization, gestational age, birth weight, and bone SOS were comparable between the three groups. At 12 weeks postnatal age, the mean bone SOS of the HBP group was significantly higher than that of the LBP group (2,896 ± 133 vs. 2,825 ± 79 m/s respectively, P = 0.049) and comparable with that of the breast-fed group (2,875 ± 85 m/s). We concluded that infants consuming HBP formula had changes in bone SOS that were comparable to those of infants consuming breast milk and favorable compared to infants consuming LBP formula.

  13. Rapid Determination of L-carnitine in Infant and Toddler Formulas by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Kwak, Byung-Man; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Na-Kyeoung; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and simple analytical method for L-carnitine was developed for infant and toddler formulas by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A 0.3 g of infant formula and toddler formula sample was mixed in a 50 mL conical tube with 9 mL water and 1 mL 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) to chemical extraction. Then, chloroform was used for removing a lipid fraction. After centrifuged, L-carnitine was separated and quantified using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. The precursor ion for L-carnitine was m/z 162, and product ions were m/z 103 (quantitative) and m/z 85 (qualitative), respectively. The results for spiked recovery test were in the range of 93.18-95.64% and the result for certified reference material (SRM 1849a) was within the range of the certificated values. This method could be implemented in many laboratories that require time and labor saving.

  14. Determination of vitamin A in infant formula and adult nutritionals by UPLC-UV: First Action 2011.07.

    PubMed

    Trisconi, Marie-José; Campos-Gimenez, Esther; Jaudzems, Greg; Dowell, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A, a fat-soluble vitamin, is essential for health and plays an important part in vision, bone growth, reproduction, regulating the immune system, cell function, and skin health. Due to the advances in technology and the expansion of its uses, LC technologies are being studied for effectiveness in detecting and quantifying vitamin A in an effort to help determine the amount of vitamin A in various types of samples. For this reason, an Expert Review Panel agreed on June 29, 2011, at the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting," to approve "Determination of Vitamin A in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals by UPLC-UV" as AOAC Official Method 2011.07. To move from First to Final Action status, it was recommended that additional information be generated for all types of infant formulas and adult nutritional formula matrixes at varied concentration levels, as indicated in the standard method performance requirements. International units or retinol equivalents typically represent the concentration of vitamin A in food and supplements. However, for the purpose of this method, the concentration represented is presented in microg/100 g.

  15. Rapid Determination of L-carnitine in Infant and Toddler Formulas by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Kwak, Byung-Man

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and simple analytical method for L-carnitine was developed for infant and toddler formulas by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A 0.3 g of infant formula and toddler formula sample was mixed in a 50 mL conical tube with 9 mL water and 1 mL 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) to chemical extraction. Then, chloroform was used for removing a lipid fraction. After centrifuged, L-carnitine was separated and quantified using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. The precursor ion for L-carnitine was m/z 162, and product ions were m/z 103 (quantitative) and m/z 85 (qualitative), respectively. The results for spiked recovery test were in the range of 93.18-95.64% and the result for certified reference material (SRM 1849a) was within the range of the certificated values. This method could be implemented in many laboratories that require time and labor saving. PMID:26761670

  16. Estrogens in the daily diet: in vitro analysis indicates that estrogenic activity is omnipresent in foodstuff and infant formula.

    PubMed

    Behr, Maximilian; Oehlmann, Jörg; Wagner, Martin

    2011-10-01

    Food is a main source of exposure to endocrine active compounds, many of which have been linked to adverse health effects. Phytoestrogens, especially from soy, are the major dietary source of estrogenicity. However, foodstuff contains a variety of estrogen-like compounds that might not be detected analytically. To assess the total estrogenic activity of foodstuff, we employed the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES). We analyzed 18 food samples and five milk-based infant formulas. Soy-based products contained potent estrogenicity of 100-1500ng estradiol equivalents per kilogram (EEQ/kg). The estrogenicity in soy-free products was far lower (10-40ng EEQ/kg). We also detected significant estrogenic activity in three infant formulas (14-22ng EEQ/kg). Furthermore, we found soy lecithin to be strongly estrogenic. It might, therefore, be a major contributor to total estrogenicity. We conclude that dietary estrogens are omnipresent and not limited to soy-based food. In an exposure assessment we calculated a total dietary intake of 27.5 and 34.0ng EEQ/d for adults and 1.46ng EEQ/d for infants. While the dietary exposure to estrogenic activity is lower than previously estimated, our results demonstrate that many food types are a source of unidentified estrogen-like compounds still awaiting toxicological evaluation.

  17. Availability of zinc from infant formula by in vitro methods (solubility and dialyzability) and size-exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Beatriz Gomez; Perez-Corona, M Teresa; Madrid, Yolanda

    2016-12-01

    Zinc bioaccessibility from infant formula was estimated by in vitro methods (solubility and dialyzability) and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Infant formula samples were first characterized in terms of Zn bound to lipids and proteins and Zn distribution in the aqueous soluble protein fraction. We found that Zn is not incorporated into the lipid fraction of the samples, being mainly associated with the protein fraction (around 100%). Fractionation of Zn-containing proteins in the soluble protein fraction was achieved by SEC-ICP-MS after performing protein extraction with a solution of 100mM (pH 6.8) Tris-HCl. The percentages of zinc in the soluble protein fraction in the soy-based and lactose-free infant formula were very low, around 7 and 24%, respectively, whereas the content of Zn in the soluble protein fraction of milk-based formula was around 90%. By SEC-ICP-MS, we found that Zn is associated with low-molecular weight compounds (around 10kDa) in all the infant formulas tested. The percentages of Zn estimated in the in vitro gastrointestinal digests of the infant formula ranged from 30 to 70% and from 1 to 10% for solubility and dialyzability assays, respectively. The dialyzability test resulted in lower than expected scores, as SEC-ICP-MS analysis of the gastrointestinal extracts revealed that Zn is bound to biomolecules with a molecular weight ranging from 1 to 7kDa, which suggests that dialysis data should be interpreted with caution. Speciation studies are a valuable tool for establishing availability of nutrients and for validating data from dialyzable in vitro methods. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of a hospital policy of not accepting free infant formula on in-hospital formula supplementation rates and breast-feeding duration.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Marie; Lok, Kris Yw; Fong, Daniel Yt; Lee, Irene Ly; Sham, Alice; Lam, Christine; Wu, Kendra M; Bai, Dorothy L; Wong, Ka Lun; Wong, Emmy My; Chan, Noel Pt; Dodgson, Joan E

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of public hospitals in Hong Kong not accepting free infant formula from manufacturers on in-hospital formula supplementation rates and breast-feeding duration. Prospective cohort study. In-patient postnatal units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong. Two cohorts of breast-feeding mother-infant pairs (n 2560). Cohort 1 (n 1320) was recruited before implementation of the policy to stop accepting free infant formula and cohort 2 (n 1240) was recruited after policy implementation. Participants were followed prospectively for 12 months or until they stopped breast-feeding. The mean number of formula supplements given to infants in the first 24 h was 2·70 (sd 3·11) in cohort 1 and 1·17 (sd 1·94) in cohort 2 (P<0·001). The proportion of infants who were exclusively breast-fed during the hospital stay increased from 17·7 % in cohort 1 to 41·3 % in cohort 2 (P<0·001) and the risk of breast-feeding cessation was significantly lower in cohort 2 (hazard ratio=0·81; 95 % CI 0·73, 0·90). Participants who non-exclusively breast-fed during the hospital stay had a significantly higher risk of stopping any or exclusive breast-feeding. Higher levels of formula supplementation also increased the risk of breast-feeding cessation in a dose-response pattern. After implementation of a hospital policy to pay market price for infant formula, rates of in-hospital formula supplementation were reduced and the rates of in-hospital exclusive breast-feeding and breast-feeding duration increased.

  19. Meta-analysis of a partially hydrolysed 100%-whey infant formula vs. extensively hydrolysed infant formulas in the prevention of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Iskedjian, Michael; Szajewska, Hania; Spieldenner, Jörg; Farah, Bechara; Berbari, Jade

    2010-11-01

    This study presents previously unpublished point and cumulative incidence rates and relative risks (RRs) for comparing a partially hydrolysed 100% whey-based infant formula, NAN-HA * (PHF-W) to extensively hydrolysed whey- (EHF-Whey) or casein-based (EHF-Casein) infant formulas in the prevention of atopic dermatitis (AD) in infants who cannot be breastfed exclusively. It also outlines methods to convert the above-mentioned data as well as data comparing PHF-W to cows' milk formula (SF) into inputs to be applied to a pharmacoeconomic model. * NAN-HA is a registered trade name of Nestlé SA, Switzerland. The incidence rates and RRs were obtained from a meta-analysis which analysed efficacy for PHF-W vs. EHF but did not present those. It took into consideration any relevant randomized controlled trial which compared the use of PHF-W with SF or EHF for the prevention of allergies. The primary outcomes of interest were the incidence, cumulative incidence and period prevalence of allergic manifestations and of AD in particular. Fifteen studies had been included for analysis of which six studies explored PHF-W vs. EHF. These results and PHF-W vs. SF data were adapted for inputs into a pharmacoeconomic model which used a spreadsheet decision-analytic economic model based on 3-month cycles to explore the cost-effectiveness of PHF-W vs. SF and EHF. Weights were applied to the incidence rates and RRs for each reported time period which were then adapted into 3-month indicators. This meta-analysis for PHF-W (557 patients) vs. EHF-Whey (559 patients) yielded RR of 0.75 (0.54, 1.05) and 0.80 (0.63, 1.02) at 0-12 months and at 0-36 months, respectively. Corresponding RRs for PHF-W vs. EHF-Casein (580 patients) were 1.06 (0.74, 1.53) at 0-12 months and 1.13 (0.87, 1.47) at 0-36 months. It appears that the efficacy of PHF-W falls within the range of that of both EHF formulas (whey and casein) and allows the application of these results in a pharmacoeconomic model.

  20. Accuracy of 11 formulae to guide umbilical arterial catheter tip placement in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Lean, Wei Ling; Dawson, Jennifer A; Davis, Peter G; Theda, Christiane; Thio, Marta

    2017-08-17

    Umbilical arterial catheter (UAC) insertion is a common procedure in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Correct placement of the tip of the UAC at first attempt minimises handling of the infant and reduces the risk of infection and complications. We aimed to determine the accuracy of 11 published formulae to guide UAC placement. This was a one-year prospective observational study in a tertiary NICU. Clinicians used their preferred formula for UAC insertion, with X-rays performed immediately post-procedure to check the tip position. Birth weight and measurements included in the 11 formulae were recorded within 48 hours. The gold standard insertion distance was defined as the distance from the abdominal wall to the mid-descending aorta, at T8 level on X-ray (range T6-T10). Insertion length using the 11 formulae was calculated and compared with this gold standard distance. One hundred and three infants were included, with median (IQR) gestational age and weight of 28 (26-33.5) weeks and 980 (780-2045) g, respectively. The predicted value of the 11 formulae to place the UAC in correct position ranged from 51.0% to 73.8%. Formulae that involved direct body part measurements showed the highest predicted success rates, smallest mean difference from T8 and narrowest limits of agreement using the Bland-Altman method. Success rates for accurate UAC placement are highest when formulae that involve body measurements are used. However, even the most accurate method would result in more than 25% of UACs needing manipulation to achieve an optimal position. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Nutritional and technological evaluation of an enzymatically methionine-enriched soy protein for infant enteral formulas.

    PubMed

    de Regil, Luz María; de la Barca, Ana María Calderón

    2004-03-01

    Enzymatically modified soy proteins have the amino acid profile and functional properties required for dietary support. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and technological properties of an enzymatically modified soy protein ultrafiltered fraction with bound methionine (F(1-10)E) to be used as a protein ingredient for infant enteral formulas. F(1-10)E was chemically characterized and biologically evaluated. Thirty-six weaning Wistar rats were fed during 3 weeks with a 4% casein-containing diet. Rats were divided into three groups and recovered for 3 weeks with 18% protein-containing diets based on: (1) F(1-10)E, (2) casein or (3) soy isolate+methionine. Nutritional indicators were weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, plasma proteins, apparent digestibility and protein in the carcass. Additionally, F(1-10)E was added as a protein ingredient of an enteral formula, and its sensory and rheological properties were compared with a hydrolyzed-whey protein commercial formula. F(1-10)E contained 68% protein and 5% sulphur amino acids, with 60% of peptides 0.05) in weight gain (108 g and 118 g, respectively), protein efficiency ratio (2.7), apparent digestibility (93% and 95%), plasma proteins (5.7 mg/100 ml) and carcass protein (61%), and better than soy isolate-based+methionine diet (P<0.05). Viscosity of the commercial formula and our formula was similar during a 24-h period. Sensory acceptability was 8 for our formula and 3.5 for the commercial one, on a scale of 1-10 (P<0.05). Due to its nutritional, sensorial and rheological properties, F(1-10)E could be used as a protein source in infant enteral formulas.

  2. Multi-dimension microchip-capillary electrophoresis device for determination of functional proteins in infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruige; Wang, Zhiping; Zhao, Wenfeng; Yeung, William Shu-Biu; Fung, Ying Sing

    2013-08-23

    To improve resolution of important minor proteins and eliminate time-consuming precipitation of major protein with associated analyte co-precipitation risk, a multi-dimension strategy is adopted in the 2D microchip-CE device to isolate major proteins on-chip, enrich minor proteins in capillary before their separation in CE for UV quantitation. A standard fluorescent protein mixture containing FITC-BSA, myoglobin and cytochrome as specific pI markers has prepared to demonstrate capability of the device to fractionate minor proteins by IEF. The results using a standard protein mixture with profile resembling infant milk formula show a complete isolation of high abundance proteins by a 2-min 1D IEF run. The subsequent t-ITP/CZE run by on-chip high voltage switching delivers a high stacking ratio, realizing 60 folds enrichment of isolated protein fractions. All five important functional proteins (LF, IgG, α-LA, β-LgA and β-LgB) known to fortify infant milk formula are isolated and determined using two consecutive t-ITP-CZE runs within a 18-min total assay time, a significant saving compared to several hours conventional pretreatment. For a 100g infant milk formula sample, working ranges of 20-8000mg, repeatability 3.8-5.3% and detection limits 2.3-10mg have been achieved to meet government regulations. Method reliability is established by 100% recoveries and agreeable results within expected ranges and labeled values. The capability of the device for field operation, rapid assay with quick results, label-free universal detection, simple operation by aqueous dissolution before injection, and the demanding matching in 2D separation based on isolated fractions at specified pI ranges, closely matched migration time and baseline-resolved peak shape makes the device a general tool to detect unknown proteins and determine known minor proteins in protein-rich samples with interfering constituents.

  3. Exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate and bisphenol A through infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Teresa; Latini, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Maria Antonietta; Dipaola, Lucia; Fasano, Evelina; Esposito, Francesco; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Francesco, Fabio Di; Cobellis, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous contaminants identified as endocrine disruptors. Phthalates are worldwide used as plasticizers, in particular to improve the mechanical properties of polymers such as polyvinyl chloride. Because they are not chemically bound to the polymer, they tend to leach out with time and use. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the two most common phthalates. BPA is an estrogenic compound used to manufacture polycarbonate containers for food and drink, including baby bottles. It can migrate from container into foods, especially at elevated temperatures. Diet is a predominant source of exposure for phthalates and BPA, especially for infants. The aim of this study was to test the presence of DEHP, DnBP, and BPA in infant formulas. DEHP, DnBP, and BPA concentrations were measured in 22 liquid and 28 powder milks by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, respectively. DEHP concentrations in our samples were between 0.005 and 5.088 μg/g (median 0.906 μg/g), DnBP concentrations were between 0.008 and 1.297 μg/g (median 0.053 μg/g), and BPA concentrations were between 0.003 and 0.375 μg/g (median 0.015 μg/g). Concentrations of the investigated contaminants in liquid and powder milks were not significantly different, even though samples were packed in different types of containers. These data point out potential hazards for infants fed with baby formulas. Contamination seems more related to the production of formulas than to a release from containers.

  4. Formula fed twin infants with recurrent hypocalcemic seizures with vitamin D deficient rickets and hyperphosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Byung Wook; Shim, Ye Jee; Choi, Jin Hyeok; Kim, Jun Sik; Lee, Hee Joung

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficient rickets is generally known to occur in breast fed infants. And excessive phosphate ingestion is a main cause of late onset hypocalcemia in formula fed infants. Here we introduce 45-day-old formula fed hypocalcemic twins with recurrent seizure attacks. They were diagnosed as having both of vitamin D deficient rickets and hyperphosphatemia. Radiologic findings indicated mild rickets and the twins were treated with calcium and alfacalcidol. After 3-5 months of oral supplementation, medication was discontinued in both twins. They showed normal growth and calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D levels during the 6-month follow-up period. Twins can be at risk for hypocalcemia because of their high risk of vitamin D deficiency, low birth weight, and premature birth. Therefore twin pregnant women need ingestion of sufficient vitamin D and calcium. PMID:26191515

  5. Effect of an α-lactalbumin-enriched infant formula with lower protein on growth

    PubMed Central

    Trabulsi, J; Capeding, R; Lebumfacil, J; Ramanujam, K; Feng, P; McSweeney, S; Harris, B; DeRusso, P

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Protein concentration is lower in human milk (HM) than in infant formula. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an α-lactalbumin-enriched formula with a lower protein concentration on infant growth, protein markers and biochemistries. Subjects/Methods: Healthy term formula-fed (FF) infants 5–14 days old were randomized in this controlled, double-blind trial to standard formula (SF: 14.1 g/l protein, 662 kcal/l) group (n=112) or experimental formula (EF: 12.8 g/l protein, 662 kcal/l) group (n=112) for 120 days; a HM reference group (n=112) was included. Primary outcome was weight gain (g/day) from D0 to D120. Secondary outcomes included serum albumin, plasma amino acids insulin and incidence of study events. Anthropometric measures were expressed as Z-scores using 2006 World Health Organization growth standards. Results: A total of 321 of the 336 infants (96%) who enrolled, completed the study. Mean age was 9.6 (±2.9) days; 50% were girls. Mean weight gain (g/day) did not significantly differ between SF vs EF (P=0.67) nor between EF vs HM (P=0.11); however weight gain (g/day) was significantly greater in the SF vs HM group (P=0.04). At day 120, mean weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) and weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) did not significantly differ between SF vs EF nor EF vs HM; however the WAZ was significantly greater in SF vs HM (P=0.025). Secondary outcomes were within normal ranges for all groups. Incidence of study events did not differ among groups. Conclusions: α-Lactalbumin-enriched formula containing12.8 g/l protein was safe and supported age-appropriate growth; weight gain with EF was intermediate between SF and HM groups and resulted in growth similar to HM-fed infants in terms of weight gain, WAZ and WLZ. PMID:21063429

  6. A randomized controlled trial of feeding a concentrated formula to infants born to women infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Harland S.; Oleske, James M.; Hughes, Michael D.; McKinney, Ross E.; Elgie, Carol; Powell, Christine; Purdue, Lynette; Puga, Ana M.; Jimenez, Eleanor; Scott, Gwendolyn B.; Cruz, Maria Leticia Santos; Moye, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective We tested the hypothesis that concentrated formula begun within the first two weeks of life increases growth in infants born to HIV-infected mothers. Study Design HIV-exposed infants from the U.S., Bahamas, and Brazil were randomized in a double-blind controlled trial to receive either a concentrated 87 kcal/100 ml (26 kcal/oz) formula (CF) or standard 67 kcal/100 ml (20 kcal/oz) formula (SF) for 8 weeks. This paper presents results for infants who were not determined to be HIV-infected based on testing at 4 weeks. Primary outcomes were safety, tolerability, and growth in weight and length. Results 2,097 infants were enrolled, of whom 1998 were uninfected and had study formula dispensed. At weeks 4 and 8, uninfected infants receiving CF showed higher energy intake compared with uninfected infants receiving SF (P<0.001). By week 8, uninfected infants assigned to CF weighed more than infants on SF. There were no consistent differences in measures of tolerability, and rates of discontinuation or perceived formula intolerance were similar between treatment groups. Conclusions A concentrated formula is well tolerated and results in increased weight gain compared with SF. Until the HIV-status of an infant is reliably determined, early introduction of a concentrated formula in HIV-exposed children may have beneficial effects on growth. The role of early nutritional intervention remains to be determined for individuals living in countries with endemic malnutrition for whom formula feeding is a viable option. PMID:19543114

  7. Breastfeeding, infant formula supplementation, and Autistic Disorder: the results of a parent survey

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Stephen T; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S; Wingard, Deborah L; Akshoomoff, Natacha A; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming; Bacher, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background Although Autistic Disorder is associated with several congenital conditions, the cause for most cases is unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine whether breastfeeding or the use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid is associated with Autistic Disorder. The hypothesis is that breastfeeding and use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid are protective for Autistic Disorder. Methods This is a case-control study using data from the Autism Internet Research Survey, an online parental survey conducted from February to April 2005 with results for 861 children with Autistic Disorder and 123 control children. The analyses were performed using logistic regression. Results Absence of breastfeeding when compared to breastfeeding for more than six months was significantly associated with an increase in the odds of having autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.42, 4.35) and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01, 3.78). Use of infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid supplementation versus exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a significant increase in the odds of autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 4.41, 95% CI 1.24, 15.7) and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 12.96, 95% CI 1.27, 132). Conclusion The results of this preliminary study indicate that children who were not breastfed or were fed infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid supplementation were significantly more likely to have autistic disorder. PMID:16978397

  8. GFAAS determination of selenium in infant formulas using a microwave digestion method.

    PubMed

    Alegria, A; Barbera, R; Farré, R; Moreno, A

    1994-01-01

    A method for determining the selenium content of infant formulas is proposed. It includes wet digestion with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in medium pressure teflon bombs in a microwave oven and determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The absence of interferences is checked. Values obtained for the limit of detection (19.4 ng/g), precision (RSD = 2.2%) and accuracy by analysis of a reference material show that the method is reliable.

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus Strains Obtained from Powdered Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Laurenda; Chase, Hannah R.; Choi, Hyerim; Jun, SoYoung; Park, JiHyeon; Jeong, Seungeun; Kim, MiJeong; Han, KyuYoung; Lee, ChaeYoon; Jeong, HyeJin; Finkelstein, Samantha; Negrete, Flavia; Cinar, Hediye N.; Tall, Ben D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We introduce the draft genome sequences of five enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus strains: Bc 12, Bc 67, Bc 111, Bc 112, and Bc 113, which were obtained from powdered infant formula. The genome sizes of the strains ranged from 5.5 to 5.8 Mb, and the G+C contents were ~35.2%. PMID:28232440

  10. Determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Lin, Zhengfeng; Zhou, Xiujin; Wang, Chengjun; Zhu, Zhenou

    2014-02-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula samples. Following ultrasonic extraction with methanol/water (1:1, vol/vol), and clean-up on an HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge (Waters Corp., Milford, MA), samples were separated on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 column (150 × 2.1-mm i.d., 5-μm film thickness; Waters Corp.), with 0.1% formic acid solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Quantification of the target was performed by the internal standard approach, using isotopically labeled compounds for each chemical group, to correct matrix effects. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode, monitoring 2 multiple reaction monitoring transitions to ensure an accurate identification of target compounds in the samples. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus of the linear ion trap. The novel liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application.

  11. New European Food Safety Authority recommendation for infant formulae contradicts the physiology of human milk and infant development.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Michael A; Wang, Yiqun; Forsyth, Stewart; Brenna, J Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has concluded from a limited review of the literature that although docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was required for infant formula, arachidonic acid was not 'even in the presence of DHA'. The EFSA report mistakes a nutrient ubiquitous in the diets of infants, and with wide-ranging effects, for an optional drug targeted to a particular outcome that is properly excluded when no benefit is found for that particular outcome. The EFSA's conclusion is not evidence-based. Its conclusions are grounded in trials which tested functionality of DHA, not arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid has very different biological functions, for instance, in the vasculature and in specific aspects of immunity. None of the trials cited tested any property specific to arachidonic acid. The test of time through natural selection and human evolution has resulted in milk composition in which arachidonic acid and its long-chain polyenoic family members are conserved and occupy a prominent position. As DHA suppresses arachidonic acid, an infant formula with DHA and no arachidonic acid runs the risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular morbidity through suppression of the favourable eicosanoid derivatives of arachidonic acid and cell structural integrity. The EFSA recommendation should be rejected forthwith as unsafe and risking lifelong disability. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Growth Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii in Experimentally Contaminated Powdered Infant Formula by Kefir Supernatant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Hong-Seok; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Kefir is a type of fermented milk containing lactic and acetic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). In a spot-on-lawn test, the growth of 20 C. sakazakii strains, including 10 clinical and 10 food isolates, was completely inhibited in the presence of kefir supernatant. Significant differences in the diameters of inhibition zones were observed upon treatment with kefir compared with the results for Lactobacillus kefiri and Candida kefyr culture supernatants or solutions of lactic and acetic acid and ethyl alcohol in the agar well diffusion test (P < 0.05). The addition of 100 μl of kefir supernatant to 1 ml of nutrient broth completely inhibited the growth of C. sakazakii, as evaluated by spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant in experimentally contaminated PIF was also tested; we found no viable C. sakazakii cells remaining in PIF rehydrated with 30% kefir supernatant solution for 1 h, demonstrating that the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against C. sakazakii could be applied in real food samples.

  13. Interregional foodborne salmonellosis outbreak due to powdered infant formula contaminated with lactose-fermenting Salmonella virchow.

    PubMed

    Usera, M A; Echeita, A; Aladueña, A; Blanco, M C; Reymundo, R; Prieto, M I; Tello, O; Cano, R; Herrera, D; Martinez-Navarro, F

    1996-08-01

    Spain's Salmonella surveillance system backed by regionally-based epidemiologists around the country made it possible to detect and halt the spread of a foodborne salmonellosis outbreak due to powdered infant formula contaminated with a lactose-fermenting strain of Salmonella virchow. Forty-eight cases involving children, mostly under 7 months old, were detected in 14 out of Spain's 17 Regions. The outbreak started in January and ended in June 1994. All cases were microbiologically confirmed. The implicated strain had a 3.6 kb plasmid, was susceptible to all antimicrobials tested except nitrofurantoin and was phagetype 4a. Isolates from 8 of 24 Brand "A" milk samples tested had the same characteristics as case isolates. All affected/suspect batches of Brand "A" milk were destroyed and the product withdrawn from sale, which led to the end of the outbreak. This incident underscores the importance of maintaining surveillance systems able to detect and prevent foodborne outbreaks and alert to the possibility of isolating unusual lactose-fermenting Salmonella serotypes in especially sensitive food products.

  14. In vivo digestomics of milk proteins in human milk and infant formula using a suckling rat pup model.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Phinney, Brett S; Weber, Darren; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-02-01

    Human milk is the optimal mode of infant feeding for the first several months of life, and infant formulas serve as an alternative when breast-feeding is not possible. Milk proteins have a balanced amino acid composition and some of them provide beneficial bioactivities in their intact forms. They also encrypt a variety of bioactive peptides, possibly contributing to infant health and growth. However, there is limited knowledge of how milk proteins are digested in the gastrointestinal tract and bioactive peptides are released in infants. A peptidomic analysis was conducted to identify peptides released from milk proteins in human milk and infant formula, using a suckling rat pup model. Among the major milk proteins targeted, α-lactalbumin and β-casein in human milk, and β-lactoglobulin and β-casein in infant formula were the main sources of peptides, and these peptides covered large parts of the parental proteins' sequences. Release of peptides was concentrated to specific regions, such as residues 70-92 of β-casein in human milk, residues 39-55 of β-lactoglobulin in infant formula, and residues 57-96 and 145-161 of β-CN in infant formula, where resistance to gastrointestinal digestion was suggested. In the context of bioactive peptides, release of fragments containing known bioactive peptides was confirmed, such as β-CN-derived opioid and antihypertensive peptides. It is therefore likely that these fragments are of biological significance in neonatal health and development.

  15. Tolerance and Safety Evaluation in a Large Cohort of Healthy Infants Fed an Innovative Prebiotic Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Piemontese, Pasqua; Giannì, Maria L.; Braegger, Christian P.; Chirico, Gaetano; Grüber, Christoph; Riedler, Josef; Arslanoglu, Sertac; van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Boehm, Günther; Jelinek, Jürgen; Roggero, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Background the addition of oligosaccharides to infant formula has been shown to mimic some of the beneficial effects of human milk. The aim of the study was to assess the tolerance and safety of a formula containing an innovative mixture of oligosaccharides in early infancy. Methodology/Principal Findings this study was performed as a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial including healthy term infants. Infants were recruited before the age of 8 weeks, either having started with formula feeding or being fully breast-fed (breastfeeding group). Formula-fed infants were randomized to feeding with a regular formula containing a mixture of neutral oligosaccharides and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (prebiotic formula group) or regular formula without oligosaccharides (control formula group). Growth, tolerance and adverse events were assessed at 8, 16, 24 and 52 weeks of age. The prebiotic and control groups showed similar mean weight, length and head circumference, skin fold thicknesses, arm circumference gains and stool frequency at each study point. As far as the anthropometric parameters are concerned, the prebiotic group and the control group did not attain the values shown by the breastfeeding group at any study point. The skin fold thicknesses assessed in the breastfeeding group at 8 weeks were strikingly larger than those in formula fed infants, whereas at 52 weeks were strikingly smaller. The stool consistency in the prebiotic group was softer than in the control group at 8, 16 and 24 weeks (p<0.001) and closer to that of the breastfeeding group. There was no difference in the incidence of adverse events between the two formula groups. Conclusions our findings demonstrate the tolerability and the long term safety of a formula containing an innovative mixture of oligosaccharides in a large cohort of healthy infants. Trial Registration: drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de DRKS 00000201 PMID:22140499

  16. Free formula milk for infants of HIV-infected women: blessing or curse?

    PubMed

    Coutsoudis, A; Goga, A E; Rollins, N; Coovadia, H M

    2002-06-01

    There is vigorous controversy around whether HIV-infected women in developing countries should choose formula or breastfeeding for their infants. Formula eliminates HIV transmission but incurs risk of increased mortality, whereas breastfeeding has multiple benefits but entails risk of HIV transmission. International guidelines are available but need to be strengthened. This commentary summarizes data on the scale and rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV through breastfeeding, and the hazards and benefits of breast- and formula-feeding. The case against providing free or subsidized formula to HIV-infected mothers is based on the following: it exacerbates disadvantages of formula feeding; compromises free choice; targets beneficiaries erroneously; creates a false perception of endorsement by health workers; compromises breastfeeding; results in disclosure of HIV status; ignores hidden costs of preparation of formula; increases mixed breastfeeding, which is an unsatisfactory method for all women; requires organization and management of programmes that are complicated and costly; and finally increases the 'spill-over' effect into the normal breastfeeding population. Recommendations to minimize these drawbacks include use of affordable antiretrovirals to reduce MTCT; investments in high-quality, widely available HIV counselling; support for choice of feeding; and exclusive breastfeeding for those who choose to breastfeed.

  17. Human milk vs. cow's milk and the evolution of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Hernell, Olle

    2011-01-01

    Until the early 20th century, a wet nurse was the only safe alternative to breastfeeding, one reason being that each species has a unique composition of its milk. When techniques for chemical analyses of milks and assessment of the energy requirements of infants became available during the 19th century, reasonably safe breast milk substitutes started to be developed. Successively, these were developed into modern infant formulas during the 20th century using human milk composition as reference and cow's milk as protein source. Even with a composition similar to human milk there are differences in performance between formula-fed and breastfed infants. Novel ingredients and new techniques within the dairy industry will contribute to minimize these differences and so might techniques in molecular biology allowing large scale production of recombinant human milk proteins. This technique may be used for production of bioactive substances present in low concentrations in human milk but absent from bovine milk with proven effect on nutrient utilization or other health benefits. For formulas containing novel ingredients with potent biological activities produced with new techniques it will be extremely important that their safety and efficacy are rigorously evaluated because 'functional effects' are not necessarily the same as health benefits.

  18. Generation of furosine and color in infant/enteral formula-resembling systems.

    PubMed

    Rufián-Henares, José Angel; García-Villanova, Belén; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo

    2004-08-25

    The extent of the Maillard reaction was studied by measuring furosine and color formation in infant and enteral formula-resembling model systems prepared by mixing calcium caseinate, laboratory-obtained or commercial whey protein with lactose or dextrinomaltose (ingredients similar to those used in infant and enteral formula manufacture) and heating the mixture at 100, 120, or 140 degrees C for 0-30 min. The furosine determination was performed by HPLC and the color determination by measuring colorimetric parameters L, a, and b in a reflection photometer. The first steps of the Maillard reaction could be followed by furosine determination when initial ingredients had low thermal damage. Hence, furosine may be an indicator of low thermal damage in ingredients with <100 mg/100 g of protein. At the concentrations used in these model systems, similar to those in infant and enteral formulas, furosine values (indirect measure of lysine losses) were higher in lactose than in dextrinomaltose systems, in which only glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose among all of the sugars present showed reactivity with casein. Finally, the advanced steps could be followed by color determination when the initial ingredients had high thermal damage or the model systems were heated at high temperature or for a long time. Among the parameters assayed, b was the most sensitive.

  19. Nutritional value of a rice-hydrolysate formula in infants with cows' milk protein allergy: a randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    D'Auria, E; Sala, M; Lodi, F; Radaelli, G; Riva, E; Giovannini, M

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to assess whether a rice-hydrolysate formula allows normal growth and adequate metabolic balance in infants with cows' milk protein allergy. Infants (seven females, nine males; aged 6-14 months) were randomly assigned to receive a rice-hydrolysate formula (n = 8) or a soy formula (control group, n = 8). Standardized growth indices (Z scores) and biochemical parameters were evaluated during a 6-month treatment period. Infants in both groups showed normal growth patterns during the study, and no adverse reactions were seen. Mean plasma biochemical parameters were within the normal ranges, and did not differ between groups. In conclusion, rice-hydrolysate formula may be a nutritionally suitable alternative for infants with cows' milk protein allergy. Larger studies, with satisfactory power, should be undertaken to confirm these findings.

  20. Infant formula and neurocognitive outcomes: impact of study end-point selection.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Como, P G; Downey, L C; Murphy, D; Ariagno, R L; Rodriguez, W

    2015-10-01

    Assessing validity and reliability of end points used in docosahexanoic and arachidonic acids (DHA and ARA) infant formula supplementation trials as an example for addressing the impact of end-point selection and critical need for well-defined, reliable and validated clinical outcome assessments for neurocognitive assessment in neonates and infants. We searched eight electronic databases and reviewed all randomized, controlled human trials using DHA/ARA supplements with neurodevelopment clinical outcomes. We systematically evaluated the validity and reliability of end-point measures based on the criteria for studying nutritional additives recommended by the Institute of Medicine, criteria described in the Food and Drug Administration guidance for clinical outcome assessment, development and literature review. We identified 29 articles that met the selection criteria. The end points that were used for neurodevelopment measures in 23 out of 29 original short-term studies included the Bayley Scale of Infant Development (BSID)-I and -II (n=12), Brunet-Lezine test (n=2), videotape infant's movements (n=1), record time to milestones including sitting, crawling, standing and walking (n=1), problem-solving test (n=2), brainstem auditory-evoked potential (n=1), Touwen examination (n=1), Fagan test of infant intelligence (n=2) and visual habituation protocol (n=1). None of these end points have a long-term predictive property for neurocognitive assessment. Compared with standard infant formula, the beneficial effects of DHA/ARA supplementation on neurodevelopment were reported in 2 out of 12 studies using BSID vs 8 out of 11 studies using other end-point measures. In addition, 6 out of 29 long-term follow-up studies used the end points including Stanford-Binet IQ test (n=1), Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (n=4) and Bracken Basic Concept Scale (n=1), which are generally scales of intellectual ability and typically do not change substantively in the short

  1. Creatine and guanidinoacetate content of human milk and infant formulas: implications for creatine deficiency syndromes and amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Edison, Erica E; Brosnan, Margaret E; Aziz, Khalid; Brosnan, John T

    2013-09-28

    Creatine is essential for normal neural development; children with inborn errors of creatine synthesis or transport exhibit neurological symptoms such as mental retardation, speech delay and epilepsy. Creatine accretion may occur through dietary intake or de novo creatine synthesis. The objective of the present study was to determine how much creatine an infant must synthesise de novo. We have calculated how much creatine an infant needs to account for urinary creatinine excretion (creatine's breakdown product) and new muscle lay-down. To measure an infant's dietary creatine intake, we measured creatine in mother's milk and in various commercially available infant formulas. Knowing the amount of milk/formula ingested, we calculated the amount of creatine ingested. We have found that a breast-fed infant receives about 9 % of the creatine needed in the diet and that infants fed cows' milk-based formula receive up to 36 % of the creatine needed. However, infants fed a soya-based infant formula receive negligible dietary creatine and must rely solely on de novo creatine synthesis. This is the first time that it has been shown that neonatal creatine accretion is largely due to de novo synthesis and not through dietary intake of creatine. This has important implications both for infants suffering from creatine deficiency syndromes and for neonatal amino acid metabolism.

  2. [Estimation of potentially available protein in infant starting formulas for term and preterm neonates].

    PubMed

    Binaghi, María J; Baroni, Andrea; Greco, Carola; Ronayne de Ferrer, Patricia A; Valencia, Mirta

    2002-03-01

    Sixteen milk-based starting formulas were analyzed with the aim of calculating their "true protein" content and assessing "in vitro" protein digestibility, in order to estimate levels of potentially available protein. Ten of them were designed for term infants: 7 had a casein:whey protein ratio 40:60 (adapted formulas) and 3 a ratio 80:20 (non-adapted); the 6 remaining formulas (all adapted) were for preterm infants. Nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldahl method. True protein was calculated as (total N--non-protein N) x 6.25. NPN was determined in the soluble fraction, after protein precipitation with 24% trichloroacetic acid and centrifugation. Digestibility was assessed by digestion with pepsin and pancreatin, and defined as the increase in non-protein N after enzymatic digestion. Values for true protein were from 1.3 to 2.3 g/dL and for non protein N, from 4.5 to 13.7%. Digestibility values varied between 59.0 and 92.5%; an inverse trend was observed between protein digestibility and protein content. Considering both the "true protein" levels and their digested proportions, all preterm and 60% of the term formulas would present potentially available amounts below those recommended. These observations constitute an alert, even though this method of assessing "in vitro" protein digestibility represents only an approximation to physiological processes; however, it could be useful in order to evaluate the intensity of the heat treatments to which these formulas were subjected. On the other hand, since NPN allows the estimation of the true protein provided by the formulas, either its percentage or the true protein content could be included on the label.

  3. Effect of simulated gastrointestinal digestion on sialic acid and gangliosides present in human milk and infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Lacomba, Ramón; Salcedo, Jaime; Alegría, Amparo; Barberá, Reyes; Hueso, Pablo; Matencio, Esther; Lagarda, M Jesús

    2011-05-25

    The effects of simulated gastrointestinal digestion upon sialic acid and gangliosides in infant and follow-on formulas and human milk, as well as their bioaccessibility, have been evaluated. The gastric stage is the step that causes a greater decrease in sialic acid and ganglioside contents. The intestinal stage only decreases the total and individual contents of gangliosides. After gastrointestinal digestion, neither sialic acid nor gangliosides were found in the nonbioaccessible fraction. The highest bioaccessibility (100 × content in soluble fraction after gastrointestinal digestion/total content) of sialic acid is found in human milk (87%), followed by infant formula (77%) and follow-on formula (16%). In the case of gangliosides, the highest bioaccessibility is present in the follow-on formula (51%), followed by human milk (29%) and infant formula (5%).

  4. Unexpected widespread hypophosphatemia and bone disease associated with elemental formula use in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Ballesteros, Luisa F; Ma, Nina S; Gordon, Rebecca J; Ward, Leanne; Backeljauw, Philippe; Wasserman, Halley; Weber, David R; DiMeglio, Linda A; Gagne, Julie; Stein, Robert; Cody, Declan; Simmons, Kimber; Zimakas, Paul; Topor, Lisa Swartz; Agrawal, Sungeeta; Calabria, Andrew; Tebben, Peter; Faircloth, Ruth; Imel, Erik A; Casey, Linda; Carpenter, Thomas O

    2017-04-01

    Hypophosphatemia occurs with inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, increased renal excretion, or shifts between intracellular and extracellular compartments. We noticed the common finding of amino-acid based elemental formula [EF] use in an unexpected number of cases of idiopathic hypophosphatemia occurring in infants and children evaluated for skeletal disease. We aimed to fully characterize the clinical profiles in these cases. A retrospective chart review of children with unexplained hypophosphatemia was performed as cases accumulated from various centres in North America and Ireland. Data were analyzed to explore any relationships between feeding and biochemical or clinical features, effects of treatment, and to identify a potential mechanism. Fifty-one children were identified at 17 institutions with EF-associated hypophosphatemia. Most children had complex illnesses and had been solely fed Neocate® formula products for variable periods of time prior to presentation. Feeding methods varied. Hypophosphatemia was detected during evaluation of fractures or rickets. Increased alkaline phosphatase activity and appropriate renal conservation of phosphate were documented in nearly all cases. Skeletal radiographs demonstrated fractures, undermineralization, or rickets in 94% of the cases. Although the skeletal disease had often been attributed to underlying disease, most all improved with addition of supplemental phosphate or change to a different formula product. The observed biochemical profiles indicated a deficient dietary supply or severe malabsorption of phosphate, despite adequate formula composition. When transition to an alternate formula was possible, biochemical status improved shortly after introduction to the alternate formula, with eventual improvement of skeletal abnormalities. These observations strongly implicate that bioavailability of formula phosphorus may be impaired in certain clinical settings. The widespread nature of the findings lead us

  5. A comparative study of triacylglycerol composition in Chinese human milk within different lactation stages and imported infant formula by SFC coupled with Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Tu, Anqi; Ma, Qiang; Bai, Hua; Du, Zhenxia

    2017-04-15

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) as the major component of milk fat are significant factors to ensure the healthy growth of infants. An efficient method for identifying TAGs in human milk (HM) and infant formula (IF) was established using supercritical fluid chromatograph (SFC) coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS). The results indicated the feasibility of this method with satisfactory recoveries (>80%) and correlation coefficients (r(2)⩾0.993). More than 60 TAGs in HM and 50 TAGs in IF were identified. The profiling results demonstrated that TAGs in HM were greatly affected by lactation stage. Significant differences were found between HM and IF, such as much higher medium chain TAGs and saturated TAGs in IF, indicating that the formulas developed by foreign manufacturers were not suitable for Chinese babies. This high-throughput method exhibits a huge potential for analysis of milk samples and the result may serve as an important guide for Chinese infants diet.

  6. Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Detection of 3-Monochloropropanediol Esters and Glycidyl Esters in Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Jessica K; MacMahon, Shaun

    2016-12-14

    A method was developed for the extraction of fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol from infant formula, followed by quantitative analysis of the extracts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These process-induced chemical contaminants are found in refined vegetable oils, and studies have shown that they are potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in edible oils (and processed foods containing these oils) a potential health risk. The extraction procedure involves a liquid-liquid extraction, where powdered infant formula is dissolved in water and extracted with ethyl acetate. Following shaking, centrifugation, and drying of the organic phase, the resulting fat extract is cleaned-up using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Method performance was confirmed by verifying the percent recovery of each 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester in a homemade powdered infant formula reference material. Average ester recoveries in the reference material ranged from 84.9 to 109.0% (0.6-9.5% RSD). The method was also validated by fortifying three varieties of commercial infant formulas with a 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester solution. Average recoveries of the esters across all concentrations and varieties of infant formula ranged from 88.7 to 107.5% (1.0-9.5% RSD). Based on the validation results, this method is suitable for producing 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester occurrence data in all commercially available varieties of infant formula.

  7. Concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols in human breast milk during the first months of lactation and in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Martysiak-Żurowska, Dorota; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zagierski, Maciej

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols in human breast milk samples from different periods of lactation and to compare them with tocopherol content in commercially available formulas for infants at corresponding ages. The study included 93 breast milk samples obtained on the 2nd (colostrum, n = 17), 14th (n = 30), 30th (n = 27) and 90th day of lactation (n = 19), along with 90 samples of commercially available initial and follow-on infant formulas. Concentrations of tocopherols were determined using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Depending on the stage of lactation, human breast milk contained 2.07-9.99 mg L⁻¹ of alpha-tocopherol and 0.22-0.60 mg L⁻¹ of gamma-tocopherol. Breast milk concentrations of alpha-tocopherol decreased with the time of lactation, while significant differences in gamma-tocopherol concentration were observed only between the 14th and 30th day of lactation. There was no significant correlation between the dietary intake of vitamin E and its estimated breast milk concentration, also in women who declared vitamin supplementation. Compared with colostrum, infant formulas were characterised by significantly lower concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and vitamin E. This finding indicates the need of additional vitamin E supplementation of bottle-fed infants during the initial 2-3 days of life.

  8. Supplementation of infant formula with probiotics and/or prebiotics: a systematic review and comment by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition.

    PubMed

    Braegger, Christian; Chmielewska, Anna; Decsi, Tamas; Kolacek, Sanja; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis; Pieścik, Małgorzata; Puntis, John; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2011-02-01

    Infant formulae are increasingly supplemented with probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics despite uncertainties regarding their efficacy. The present article, developed by the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, systematically reviews published evidence related to the safety and health effects of the administration of formulae supplemented with probiotics and/or prebiotics compared with unsupplemented formulae. Studies in which probiotics/prebiotics were not administered during the manufacturing process, but thereafter, for example in capsules, the contents of which were supplemented to infant formula or feeds, were excluded.On the basis of this review, available scientific data suggest that the administration of currently evaluated probiotic- and/or prebiotic-supplemented formula to healthy infants does not raise safety concerns with regard to growth and adverse effects. The safety and clinical effects of 1 product should not be extrapolated to other products. At present, there is insufficient data to recommend the routine use of probiotic- and/or prebiotic-supplemented formulae. The Committee considers that the supplementation of formula with probiotics and/or prebiotics is an important field of research. There is a need in this field for well-designed and carefully conducted randomised controlled trials, with relevant inclusion/exclusion criteria and adequate sample sizes. These studies should use validated clinical outcome measures to assess the effects of probiotic and/or prebiotic supplementation of formulae. Such trials should also define the optimal doses and intake durations, as well as provide more information about the long-term safety of probiotics and/or prebiotics. Because most of the trials were company funded, independent trials, preferentially financed jointly by national/governmental/European Union bodies and other international organisations, would be desirable.

  9. Differences in vitamin E and C profile between infant formula and human milk and relative susceptibility to lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Elisia, Ingrid; Kitts, David D

    2013-01-01

    The vitamin E isoforms and vitamin (vit) C content of infant formulas were compared to human milk and related to relative susceptibilities to lipid peroxidation. We report that a highly distinct vitamin E and C profile exists between formula and human milk. Whileα-tocopherol (α-Toc) is the dominant vit E isoform in human milk, formula contains a substantial amount of α-Toc and δ-Toc that was greater than the level found in human milk (12- and 32-fold, respectively). Vitamin C was also two- fold higher in infant formula compared to human milk. Despite the higher vitamin E and C content, we also observed higher rates of lipid oxidation in the formula when compared to human milk. Storing human milk for one day at refrigeration temperatures did not produce hexanal in human milk, but this storage resulted in an increase in hexanal in formulas. We conclude that the higher concentrations of γ-Toc and δ-Toc in infant formulas did not provide similar protection from lipid oxidation as human milk. We also observed that vit C content was reduced during storage in both infant formula and human milk, which did not occur with the Toc isoforms.

  10. Soy Formula and Epigenetic Modifications: Analysis of Vaginal Epithelial Cells from Infant Girls in the IFED Study

    PubMed Central

    Harlid, Sophia; Adgent, Margaret; Jefferson, Wendy N.; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Umbach, David M.; Xu, Zongli; Stallings, Virginia A.; Williams, Carmen J.; Rogan, Walter J.; Taylor, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early-life exposure to estrogenic compounds affects the development of the reproductive system in rodent models and humans. Soy products, which contain phytoestrogens such as genistein, are one source of exposure in infants fed soy formula, and they result in high serum concentrations. Objectives: Our goal was to determine whether soy exposure is associated with differential DNA methylation in vaginal cells from soy-fed infant girls. Methods: Using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, we evaluated epigenome-wide DNA methylation in vaginal cells from four soy formula–fed and six cow formula–fed girls from the Infant Feeding and Early Development (IFED) study. Using pyrosequencing we followed up the two most differentially methylated sites in 214 vaginal cell samples serially collected between birth and 9 months of age from 50 girls (28 soy formula–fed and 22 cow formula–fed). With a mouse model, we examined the effect of neonatal exposure to genistein on gene specific mRNA levels in vaginal tissue. Results: The epigenome-wide scan suggested differences in methylation between soy formula–fed and cow formula–fed infants at three CpGs in the gene proline rich 5 like (PRR5L) (p < 104). Pyrosequencing of the two feeding groups found that methylation levels progressively diverged with age, with pointwise differences becoming statistically significant after 126 days. Genistein-exposed mice showed a 50% decrease in vaginal Prr5l mRNA levels compared to controls. Conclusions: Girls fed soy formula have altered DNA methylation in vaginal cell DNA which may be associated with decreased expression of an estrogen-responsive gene. Citation: Harlid S, Adgent M, Jefferson WN, Panduri V, Umbach DM, Xu Z, Stallings VA, Williams CJ, Rogan WJ, Taylor JA. 2017. Soy formula and epigenetic modifications: analysis of vaginal epithelial cells from infant girls in the IFED study. Environ Health Perspect 125:447–452; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP428 PMID

  11. Novel insights into human lactation as a driver of infant formula development.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Progress in research on human lactation and breast milk has advanced our knowledge about the significance of breast milk for the recipient infant and the effects of various components on long-term outcomes. Recent findings have expanded our knowledge in this area. Several growth factors and cytokines are present in breast milk and their capacity to persist in the infant gut and exert their activities is likely to affect maturation of immune function, possibly affecting the development of oral tolerance. A proper balance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3/n-6 ratio) may also be of significance for allergy prevention in children, emphasizing the need for the mother to achieve a balance of these fatty acids in her diet. The recent findings that specific strains of bacteria are present in breast milk and act as probiotics in the early colonization of the infant gut and that human milk oligosaccharides are specific substrates for these probiotic strains may not only affect the defense against pathogens, but also affect energy utilization and development of obesity. Previously neglected milk fat globule membranes contain several components involved in protection against infection and may be an additional arm in the multifaceted shield that breastfed infants have developed against bacterial and viral antagonists. All these findings have implications for development of improved infant formulae.

  12. Final report on CCQM-K125: elements in infant formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrick, J.; Saxby, D.; Dutra, E. S.; Sena, R. C.; Araújo, T. O.; Almeida, M. D.; Yang, L.; Pihillagawa, I. G.; Mester, Z.; Sandoval, S.; Wei, C.; Castillo, M. E. D.; Oster, C.; Fisicaro, P.; Rienitz, O.; Pape, C.; Schulz, U.; Jährling, R.; Görlitz, V.; Lampi, E.; Kakoulides, E.; Sin, D. W. M.; Yip, Y. C.; Tsoi, Y. T.; Zhu, Y.; Okumu, T. O.; Yim, Y. H.; Heo, S. W.; Han, M.; Lim, Y.; Osuna, M. A.; Regalado, L.; Uribe, C.; Buzoianu, M. M.; Duta, S.; Konopelko, L.; Krylov, A.; Shin, R.; Linsky, M.; Botha, A.; Magnusson, B.; Haraldsson, C.; Thiengmanee, U.; Klich, H.; Can, S. Z.; Coskun, F. G.; Tunc, M.; Entwisle, J.; O'Reilly, J.; Hill, S.; Goenaga-Infante, H.; Winchester, M.; Rabb, S. A.; Pérez, R.

    2017-01-01

    CCQM-K125 was organized by the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of CCQM to assess and document the capabilities of the national metrology institutes (NMIs) or the designated institutes (DIs) to measure the mass fractions of trace elements (K, Cu and I) in infant formula. Government Laboratory, Hong Kong SAR (GLHK) acted as the coordinating laboratory. In CCQM-K125, 25 institutes submitted the results for potassium, 24 institutes submitted the results for copper and 8 institutes submitted the results for iodine. For examination of potassium and copper, most of the participants used microwave-assisted acid digestion methods for sample dissolution. A variety of instrumental techniques including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), flame atomic emission spectrometry (FAES) and microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES) were employed by the participants for determination. For analysis of iodine, most of the participants used alkaline extraction methods for sample preparation. ICP-MS and ID-ICP-MS were used by the participants for the determination. Generally, the participants' results of CCQM-K125 were found consistent for all measurands according to their equivalence statements. Except with some extreme values, most of the participants obtained the values of di/U(di) within +/- 1 for the measurands. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Determination of Chloride in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Automated Potentiometry: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.08.

    PubMed

    Jaudzems, Gregory G

    2015-01-01

    A direct potentiometric method involving titration against a standard volumetric silver nitrate solution using a silver electrode to detect the end p