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Sample records for infant incubator system

  1. [Development of Monitoring System for Infant Incubator Based on IOT Technology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenfeng; Peng, Dunlu; Gu, Nan

    2017-05-30

    IOT(Internet of things) is a relatively new technology, more and more integrated into our lives. In this paper we use infant incubator for example, introduce the application of IOT technology to reduce the risk of the use of medical devices, and through the dynamic management to improve the management level and efficiency. Put forward a method of medical equipment linked. Combined with the point of IOT technology and sensor technology, we find out the actual needs of the management and use of infant incubator. For the dynamic management of medical equipment, we use sensors to control risk points. The system meets the needs of the hospital and patients in many areas.

  2. Active noise control for infant incubators.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xun; Gujjula, Shruthi; Kuo, Sen M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an active noise control system for infant incubators. Experimental results show that global noise reduction can be achieved for infant incubator ANC systems. An audio-integration algorithm is presented to introduce a healthy audio (intrauterine) sound with the ANC system to mask the residual noise and soothe the infant. Carbon nanotube based transparent thin film speaker is also introduced in this paper as the actuator for the ANC system to generate the destructive secondary sound, which can significantly save the congested incubator space and without blocking the view of doctors and nurses.

  3. Incubator temperature control: effects on the very low birthweight infant.

    PubMed Central

    Ducker, D A; Lyon, A J; Ross Russell, R; Bass, C A; McIntosh, N

    1985-01-01

    We studied temperature stability in 22 infants of birthweight less than 1500 g in the first four days of life. Infants were nursed in incubators using either air mode control or skin temperature servo control. Data were collected continuously using a computer linked monitoring system. Skin temperature control resulted in a less stable thermal environment than air mode control. Increased thermal stability in the incubator on air mode control may well be beneficial, particularly to sick, very low birthweight infants. PMID:4062342

  4. Toward a fuzzy logic control of the infant incubator.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Narender P; Mathur, Garima; Hariharan, S I

    2009-10-01

    Premature birth is a world wide problem. Thermo regulation is a major problem in premature infants. Premature infants are often kept in infant incubators providing convective heating. Currently either the incubator air temperature is sensed and used to control the heat flow, or infant's skin temperature is sensed and used in the close loop control. Skin control often leads to large fluctuations in the incubator air temperature. Air control also leads to skin temperature fluctuations. The question remains if both the infant's skin temperature and the incubator air temperature can be simultaneously used in the control. The purpose of the present study was to address this question by developing a fuzzy logic control which incorporates both incubator air temperature and infant's skin temperature to control the heating. The control was evaluated using a lumped parameter mathematical model of infant-incubator system (Simon, B. N., N. P. Reddy, and A. Kantak, J. Biomech. Eng. 116:263-266, 1994). Simulation results confirmed previous experimental results that the on-off skin control could lead to fluctuations in the incubator air temperature, and the air control could lead to too slow rise time in the core temperature. The fuzzy logic provides a smooth control with the desired rise time.

  5. A prototype infant incubator for heliox therapy.

    PubMed

    Singhaus, Clifford J; Touch, Suzanne M; Greenspan, Jay S; Wolfson, Marla R; Shaffer, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    Heliox (Hx) gas has been shown to improve pulmonary function in infants, but methods for its delivery are invasive and problematic. To this end, we modified an Isolette (Hill-Rom Air-Shields) infant incubator (Hxl) to deliver Hx respiratory gas mixtures noninvasively while providing thermal stability for neonatal care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). In vitro tests and in vivo animal studies were performed to compare the original design specifications and established baseline performance criteria for the Hxl design. The experimental environments at 50% and 80% relative humidity (RH) consisted of helium (He) with 21% and 50% O2 and control (C) of 21% and 50% O2 with the balance nitrogen (N). Elapsed times to steady state (SS) and recovery time back to SS (OCDss) due to opening and closing the door were recorded for each variable. All rabbits survived and appeared comfortable during all experimental conditions. These data show that the newly designed Isolette provides similar thermal, O2, CO2, and RH responses as the control incubator. Based on these positive safety/efficacy studies, study of the therapeutic impact of Hxl care on neonatal growth and development is in progress.

  6. The incubator and the medical discovery of the premature infant.

    PubMed

    Baker, J P

    2000-01-01

    The invention of the incubator in 1880 ignited a dramatic outpouring of popular and professional excitement over the prospect of reducing premature infant mortality. Yet the technology itself progressed slowly and fitfully over the next 50 years. The story is worth examining not so much from the standpoint of technological progress, but from the perspective of how responsibility for the newborn shifted from mothers to obstetricians and eventually pediatricians. It also illustrates how the history of technology involves more than invention. The invention of the incubator itself was less significant than the development of a system to support the device.

  7. Hazard report. Infants may fall through insecure ports on incubators.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    If the iris ports or access ports on infant incubators are not sufficiently secure, infants may work their way through the ports and fall. To reduce this risk, users should make sure that the ports are closed securely following each use. When possible, users should pass tubing through the incubator hood's grommets instead of through the larger and potentially less secure iris ports.

  8. Air temperature recordings in infant incubators.

    PubMed Central

    Aynsley-Green, A; Roberton, N R; Rolfe, P

    1975-01-01

    Air temperatures were continuously recorded inside four incubators with proportional heating control and six incubators with on/off heating cycles, during routine use. The air temperatures in the former were constant throughout, with a gradient between the roof and above-mattress air temperature not exceeding 1 degree C. In contrast, the recordings from the latter models showed a regular cyclical oscillation, the duration of the cycle varying from 14 to 44 minutes. Each incubator had a characteristic profile. The roof air temperature could vary by as much as 7-1 degrees C and the above-mattress air temperature by as much as 2-6 degrees C during the cycle. The oscillation persisted in the air temperatures recorded inside an open-ended hemicylindrical heat shield when used inside these incubators, but was markedly reduced inside a closed-ended heat shield, Carbon dioxide concentration did not increase significantly inside the latter. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:1147654

  9. Changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging patterns for preterm infants after introduction of a magnetic resonance-compatible incubator coil system: 5-year experience at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Hae; Kim, In-One; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Choi, Young Hun; Lee, So Mi; Kim, Woo Sun

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the changes in using patterns of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preterm infants after introduction of a MR-compatible incubator coil system. Brain MRIs for preterm infants with the MR-compatible incubator coil from March 2010 to July 2014 (n=154, group A) were compared with MRIs prior to the introduction of the incubator coil, from March 2005 to February 2010 (n=65, group B). Clinical data, MRI findings, acquisition time, and incidence of adverse events during the study were retrospectively reviewed. For the qualitative analysis of the examinations, the presence of motion artefact, spatial resolution, and overall image quality were assessed. Signal uniformity of each sequence was evaluated for a quantitative comparison. Comparing with group B, Group A was significantly younger (36+3 vs. 38+3 weeks, p<0.001), had a significantly lower body weight (2006.6 and 2390.3g respectively; p<0.001) at the time of MRI, and had shorter time interval (54.3±2.6 vs. 70.5±4.4days, p=0.002) between birth and examination. Abnormal findings were noted more frequently in group A (n=100, 65%) than in B (n=24, 37%. p=0.001) with a significantly higher incidence of diffusion restriction (n=21, 13.6% vs. n=4, 6.2%, p=0.034). Mean image acquisition time was significantly shorter in group A (21.4±4.5 vs. 25.4±5.5min, p<0.001) with significant lower adverse events during MRI (n=26, 40 vs. n=6, 3.9%, p<0.001). Group A exhibited significantly less motion artefact, better spatial resolution, and better overall image quality with decreased signal variation than group B (all p<0.001). Application of the MR-compatible incubator for preterm brain MRI evaluation is safer and provides more timely evaluation of preterm infants with better image quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Testing of mechanical ventilators and infant incubators in healthcare institutions.

    PubMed

    Badnjevic, Almir; Gurbeta, Lejla; Jimenez, Elvira Ruiz; Iadanza, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    The medical device industry has grown rapidly and incessantly over the past century. The sophistication and complexity of the designed instrumentation is nowadays rising and, with it, has also increased the need to develop some better, more effective and efficient maintenance processes, as part of the safety and performance requirements. This paper presents the results of performance tests conducted on 50 mechanical ventilators and 50 infant incubators used in various public healthcare institutions. Testing was conducted in accordance to safety and performance requirements stated in relevant international standards, directives and legal metrology policies. Testing of output parameters for mechanical ventilators was performed in 4 measuring points while testing of output parameters for infant incubators was performed in 7 measuring points for each infant incubator. As performance criteria, relative error of output parameters for mechanical ventilators and absolute error of output parameters for infant incubators was calculated. The ranges of permissible error, for both groups of devices, are regulated by the Rules on Metrological and Technical Requirements published in the Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina No. 75/14, which are defined based on international recommendations, standards and guidelines. All ventilators and incubators were tested by etalons calibrated in an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory, which provides compliance to international standards for all measured parameters.The results show that 30% of the tested medical devices are not operating properly and should be serviced, recalibrated and/or removed from daily application.

  11. Childhood leukemia and magnetic fields in infant incubators.

    PubMed

    Söderberg, Karin C; Naumburg, Estelle; Anger, Gert; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders; Feychting, Maria

    2002-01-01

    In studies of magnetic field exposure and childhood leukemia, power lines and other electrical installations close to the children's homes constitute the most extensively studied source of exposure. We conducted a study to assess whether exposure to magnetic fields in infant incubators is associated with an increased leukemia risk. We identified all children with leukemia born in Sweden between 1973 and 1989 from the national Cancer Registry and selected at random one control per case, individually matched by sex and time of birth, from the study base. We retrieved information about treatment in infant incubators from medical records. We made measurements of the magnetic fields inside the incubators for each incubator model kept by the hospitals. Exposure assessment was based on measurements of the magnetic field level inside the incubator, as well as on the length of treatment. For acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the risk estimates were close to unity for all exposure definitions. For acute myeloid leukemia, we found a slightly elevated risk, but with wide confidence intervals and with no indication of dose response. Overall, our results give little evidence that exposure to magnetic fields inside infant incubators is associated with an increased risk of childhood leukemia.

  12. Study of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in infant incubators.

    PubMed

    Cermáková, Eleonora

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work was to present the results of measurements of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF), namely the magnetic flux density, inside infant incubators, and to compare these results with the data published by other authors who point out to a possible association between leukemia or other diseases observed in newborns kept in incubators after the birth and the ELF EMF exposure in the incubator. The measured magnetic flux densities were compared with the reference values for this frequency range indicated in the European Union (EU) recommendations. The repeated measurements in incubators were made with a calibrated magnetometer EFA 300 in the frequency range of 5-30 kHz. Effective values of magnetic flux densities of ELF EMF were determined taking account of the reference values. The results of many repeated measurements showing the values of magnetic flux density in modern incubators with plastic supporting frame, were compared with those obtained in old type incubators with iron skeleton. A power frequency of 50 Hz was detected in the incubator and the ELF EMF values were by over two orders lower than the EU reference values. The paper emphasizes the need to take a special care of newborns kept in incubators even if only the sub-reference values are detected. The EU reference values are intended for the adult human population. A baby in an incubator has much smaller dimensions, higher electric conductivity and maybe trigger another mechanism of response to ELF EMF than that indicated in this paper.

  13. Preterm infant thermal care: differing thermal environments produced by air versus skin servo-control incubators.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K A; Burr, R

    1999-06-01

    Incubator thermal environments produced by skin versus air servo-control were compared. Infant abdominal skin and incubator air temperatures were recorded from 18 infants in skin servo-control and 14 infants in air servo-control (26- to 29-week gestational age, 14 +/- 2 days postnatal age) for 24 hours. Differences in incubator and infant temperature, neutral thermal environment (NTE) maintenance, and infant and incubator circadian rhythm were examined using analysis of variance and scatterplots. Skin servo-control resulted in more variable air temperature, yet more stable infant temperature, and more time within the NTE. Circadian rhythm of both infant and incubator temperature differed by control mode and the relationship between incubator and infant temperature rhythms was a function of control mode. The differences between incubator control modes extend beyond temperature stability and maintenance of NTE. Circadian rhythm of incubator and infant temperatures is influenced by incubator control.

  14. Cot-nursing versus incubator care for preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter H; Flenady, Vicki

    2011-08-10

    Preterm infants are usually nursed in incubators, but cot-nursing may provide an alternative. While there may be benefits of nursing preterm infants in open cots, there may be potential risks such as nosocomial infection caused by more handling due to easier access. To assess effects of cot-nursing versus incubator care on temperature control and weight gain in preterm infants. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library), Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE, as well as previous reviews including cross references through November 2009. All trials using random or quasi-random patient allocation in which infants receiving care in standard newborn cots were compared to infants managed in a conventional air heated incubator. The authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data for the primary outcomes of temperature control and weight gain. Meta-analysis was conducted using a fixed-effect model. Eleven potential studies were identified of which five, involving 247 infants, were included in this review. When compared to incubator care, cot-nursing resulted in no significant difference in mean body temperature (MD 0.02 degrees C; 95% CI -0.02 to 0.07, four trials), though the one trial that reported on episodes of hyperthermia found this to be statistically more common in the cot-nursing group (RR 1.48; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09). There were no statistically significant differences in weight gain. In the cot-nursing group, fewer infants were breast fed on discharge (typical RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.14, three trials, 150 infants) and fewer infants died prior to hospital discharge (typical RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.25, four trials, 235 infants) but these results failed to reach statistical significance. The comparison of cot-nursing using a heated water-filled mattress

  15. [Simulation and Design of Infant Incubator Assembly Line].

    PubMed

    Ke, Huqi; Hu, Xiaoyong; Ge, Xia; Hu, Yanhai; Chen, Zaihong

    2015-11-01

    According to current assembly situation of infant incubator in company A, basic industrial engineering means such as time study was used to analyze the actual products assembly production and an assembly line was designed. The assembly line was modeled and simulated with software Flexsim. The problem of the assembly line was found by comparing simulation result and actual data, then through optimization to obtain high efficiency assembly line.

  16. Designing a Low-Cost Multifunctional Infant Incubator.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kevin; Gibson, Aaron; Wong, Don; Tilahun, Dagmawi; Selock, Nicholas; Good, Theresa; Ram, Geetha; Tolosa, Leah; Tolosa, Michael; Kostov, Yordan; Woo, Hyung Chul; Frizzell, Michael; Fulda, Victor; Gopinath, Ramya; Prasad, J Shashidhara; Sudarshan, Hanumappa; Venkatesan, Arunkumar; Kumar, V Sashi; Shylaja, N; Rao, Govind

    2014-06-01

    Every year, an unacceptably large number of infant deaths occur in developing nations, with premature birth and asphyxia being two of the leading causes. A well-regulated thermal environment is critical for neonatal survival. Advanced incubators currently exist, but they are far too expensive to meet the needs of developing nations. We are developing a thermodynamically advanced low-cost incubator suitable for operation in a low-resource environment. Our design features three innovations: (1) a disposable baby chamber to reduce infant mortality due to nosocomial infections, (2) a passive cooling mechanism using low-cost heat pipes and evaporative cooling from locally found clay pots, and (3) insulated panels and a thermal bank consisting of water that effectively preserve and store heat. We developed a prototype incubator and visited and presented our design to our partnership hospital site in Mysore, India. After obtaining feedback, we have determined realistic, nontrivial design requirements and constraints in order to develop a new prototype incubator for clinical trials in hospitals in India. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  17. Sound Environments Surrounding Preterm Infants Within an Occupied Closed Incubator.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Aya; Matsuo, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants often exhibit functional disorders due to the stressful environment in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The sound pressure level (SPL) in the NICU is often much higher than the levels recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Our study aims to describe the SPL and sound frequency levels surrounding preterm infants within closed incubators that utilize high frequency oscillation (HFO) or nasal directional positive airway pressure (nasal-DPAP) respiratory settings. This is a descriptive research study of eight preterm infants (corrected age<33 weeks) exposed to the equipment when placed in an incubator. The actual noise levels were observed and the results were compared to the recommendations made by neonatal experts. Increased noise levels, which have reported to affect neonates' ability to self-regulate, could increase the risk of developing attention deficit disorder, and may result in tachycardia, bradycardia, increased intracranial pressure, and hypoxia. The care provider should closely assess for adverse effects of higher sound levels generated by different modes of respiratory support and take measures to ensure that preterm infants are protected from exposure to noise exceeding the optimal safe levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Web-based remote monitoring of infant incubators in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Shin, D I; Huh, S J; Lee, T S; Kim, I Y

    2003-09-01

    A web-based real-time operating, management, and monitoring system for checking temperature and humidity within infant incubators using the Intranet has been developed and installed in the infant Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We have created a pilot system which has a temperature and humidity sensor and a measuring module in each incubator, which is connected to a web-server board via an RS485 port. The system transmits signals using standard web-based TCP/IP so that users can access the system from any Internet-connected personal computer in the hospital. Using this method, the system gathers temperature and humidity data transmitted from the measuring modules via the RS485 port on the web-server board and creates a web document containing these data. The system manager can maintain centralized supervisory monitoring of the situations in all incubators while sitting within the infant ICU at a work space equipped with a personal computer. The system can be set to monitor unusual circumstances and to emit an alarm signal expressed as a sound or a light on a measuring module connected to the related incubator. If the system is configured with a large number of incubators connected to a centralized supervisory monitoring station, it will improve convenience and assure meaningful improvement in response to incidents that require intervention.

  19. Incubator weaning in preterm infants and associated practice variation.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, R; Kirkby, S; Turenne, W; Greenspan, J

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship of weight of preterm infants when first placed into an open crib with days to full oral feedings, growth velocity and length of stay (LOS), and to identify unwarranted variation in incubator weaning after adjusting for severity indices. A retrospective study using the ParadigmHealth neonatal database from 2003 to 2006 reviewed incubator weaning to an open crib in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants from 22 to weeks gestation. Primary outcome measurements included days to full oral (PO) feeding, weight gain from open crib to discharge and length of stay. Models were severity adjusted. To understand hospital practice variation, we also used a regression model to estimate the weight at open crib for the top 10 volume hospitals. In all 2908 infants met the inclusion criteria for the study. Their mean weight at open crib was 1850 g. On average every additional 100 g an infant weighed at the open crib was associated with increased time to full PO feeding by 0.8 days, decreased weight gained per day by 1 gram and increased LOS by 0.9 days. For the top 10 volume hospitals, severity variables alone accounted for 9% of the variation in weight at open crib, whereas the hospital in which the baby was treated accounted for an additional 19% of the variation. Even after controlling for severity, significant practice variation exists in weaning to an open crib, leading to potential delays in achieving full-volume oral feeds, decreased growth velocity and prolonged LOS.

  20. Design of an Incubator for Premature Infant Based on LabVIEW.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lina; Zhou, Runjing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the system structure, hardware circuits, control algorithms, and software program of the incubator for premature infant based on LabVIEW. The main advantages of this device are that preheating is less time than others, the capability of meeting of emergency is provided, control track of temperature and humidity are visible, operation is easy to clinical practice, and maintainability is possessed.

  1. Neonatal incubators: a toxic sound environment for the preterm infant?*.

    PubMed

    Marik, Paul E; Fuller, Christopher; Levitov, Alexander; Moll, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    High sound pressure levels may be harmful to the maturing newborn. Current guidelines suggest that the sound pressure levels within a neonatal intensive care unit should not exceed 45 dB(A). It is likely that environmental noise as well as the noise generated by the incubator fan and respiratory equipment may contribute to the total sound pressure levels. Knowledge of the contribution of each component and source is important to develop effective strategies to reduce noise within the incubator. The objectives of this study were to determine the sound levels, sound spectra, and major sources of sound within a modern neonatal incubator (Giraffe Omnibed; GE Healthcare, Helsinki, Finland) using a sound simulation study to replicate the conditions of a preterm infant undergoing high-frequency jet ventilation (Life Pulse, Bunnell, UT). Using advanced sound data acquisition and signal processing equipment, we measured and analyzed the sound level at a dummy infant's ear and at the head level outside the enclosure. The sound data time histories were digitally acquired and processed using a digital Fast Fourier Transform algorithm to provide spectra of the sound and cumulative sound pressure levels (dBA). The simulation was done with the incubator cooling fan and ventilator switched on or off. In addition, tests were carried out with the enclosure sides closed and hood down and then with the enclosure sides open and the hood up to determine the importance of interior incubator reverberance on the interior sound levels With all the equipment off and the hood down, the sound pressure levels were 53 dB(A) inside the incubator. The sound pressure levels increased to 68 dB(A) with all equipment switched on (approximately 10 times louder than recommended). The sound intensity was 6.0 × 10(-8) watts/m(2); this sound level is roughly comparable with that generated by a kitchen exhaust fan on high. Turning the ventilator off reduced the overall sound pressure levels to 64 dB(A) and

  2. Preterm infant thermal responses to caregiving differ by incubator control mode.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A

    2003-12-01

    To determine the influence of caregiving on preterm infant and incubator temperature and to investigate incubator control mode in thermal responses to caregiving. The intensive within-subject design involved continuous recording of infant and incubator temperature and videotaping throughout a 24-hour period in 40 hospitalized preterm infants. Temperature at care onset was compared with care offset, and 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes following care offset using ANOVA-RM. Following caregiving, infant and incubator temperature differed significantly over time by incubator control mode. In air servo-control, infant temperature tended to decrease after caregiving, while in skin servo-control infant temperature remained relatively stable. With caregiving, incubator temperature remained consistent in air servo-control and increased in skin servo-control. The temperature effects of caregiving should be considered relative to maintenance of thermoneutrality and unintentional thermal stimulation.

  3. Very preterm infants can detect small variations in light levels in incubators.

    PubMed

    Zores, Claire; Dufour, André; Pebayle, Thierry; Langlet, Claire; Astruc, Dominique; Kuhn, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    This prospective observational study was designed to improve our understanding of the responses of very preterm infants to light level variations in incubators and to evaluate what determined those reactions. The physiological responses of 27 very preterm infants were analysed following variations in the light level environments of their incubators over 10 hours. Heart and respiratory rates, systemic oxygen saturation and regional cerebral oxygen saturations were recorded using near-infrared spectroscopy, and the variation of each parameter was analysed. We analysed 332 light level changes. Heart rate increased by 3.8 beats per minute (range -2.6 to 12.6), respiratory rate by six cycles per minute (-1.5 to 26) and regional cerebral oxygen saturation by 1.1% (-0.5% to 3.9%) (p < 0.05 each) when delta lux was over 50. Only respiratory rate decreased significantly, by -8.4 cycles per minute (-28 to -0.4), when delta lux was 50 or lower (p < 0.05). The initial level of illumination altered the very preterm infants' responses, with higher reactivity for higher ambient light levels. Very preterm infants reacted to moderate variations in illumination in their incubator, within recommended ranges of light levels, suggesting that they may detect even small light level variations. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Double wall versus single wall incubator for reducing heat loss in very low birth weight infants in incubators.

    PubMed

    Laroia, N; Phelps, D L; Roy, J

    2007-04-18

    Studies have shown improved survival of newborn infants maintained in the thermoneutral range. The concept of an incubator with additional insulation, a double plexiglass wall, is appealing for very low birth weight infants as it may help to provide a thermoneutral environment. To assess the effects of double walled incubator versus a single wall incubator on insensible water loss, rate of oxygen consumption, episodes of hypothermia, time to regain birth weight, duration of hospitalization and infant mortality in premature infants. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of electronic databases: Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2006), MEDLINE (1966 - 2006), EMBASE, previous reviews including cross references, abstracts, conference and symposia proceedings, expert informants in all published languages, and CINAHL (1982 - 2006). Only studies using random or quasi-random methods of allocation were considered for this review. Eligible studies assessed at least one of the outcome variables identified as important to this topic. Independent data extraction and quality assessment of included trials was conducted by the review authors. Data were analyzed using generic inverse variance methodology and weighted mean difference (WMD). Results are presented with 95% confidence intervals. Meta-analysis was undertaken using a fixed effect model. Three studies met the criteria. Four other studies were excluded, as they did not compare double versus single wall incubators (details of the studies are given in the included and excluded studies section). Double wall incubators have the advantage of decreasing heat loss, decreasing heat production and decreasing radiant heat loss when compared to single wall incubators. There is also the advantage of reduced oxygen consumption. A minimal increase in conductive heat loss was noted when

  5. Early weaning from incubator and early discharge of preterm infants: randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Zecca, Enrico; Corsello, Mirta; Priolo, Francesca; Tiberi, Eloisa; Barone, Giovanni; Romagnoli, Costantino

    2010-09-01

    The goal was to assess the feasibility of earlier weaning from the incubator for preterm infants. This was a prospective, randomized study with preterm infants with birth weights of <1600 g who were admitted to a neonatal subintensive ward. Findings for 47 infants who were transferred from an incubator to an open crib at >1600 g (early transition group) were compared with those for 47 infants who were transferred from an incubator to an open crib at >1800 g (standard transition [ST] group). The primary outcome of the study was length of stay. Secondary outcomes were the number of infants returned to an incubator, the growth velocity in an open crib and during the first week at home, the proportions of breastfeeding at discharge and during the first week at home, and the hospital readmission rate. The length of stay was significantly shorter in the early transition group than in the standard transition group (23.5 vs 33 days; P=.0002). No infants required transfer back to the incubator. Only 1 infant in the standard transition group was readmitted to the hospital during the first week after discharge. Growth velocities and individual amounts of breastfeeding were similar between the 2 groups. In this study, weaning of moderately preterm infants from incubators to open cribs at 1600 g was safe and resulted in earlier discharge.

  6. Arduino Based Infant Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhanah Mohamad Ishak, Daing Noor; Jamil, Muhammad Mahadi Abdul; Ambar, Radzi

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a system for monitoring infant in an incubator and records the relevant data into a computer. The data recorded by the system can be further referred by the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) personnel for diagnostic or research purposes. The study focuses on designing the monitoring system that consists of an incubator equipped with humidity sensor to measure the humidity level, and a pulse sensor that can be attached on an infant placed inside the incubator to monitor infant’s heart pulse. The measurement results which are the pulse rate and humidity level are sent to the PC via Arduino microcontroller. The advantage of this system will be that in the future, it may also enable doctors to closely monitor the infant condition through local area network and internet. This work is aimed as an example of an application that contributes towards remote tele-health monitoring system.

  7. The use of beeswax as heating element in non-electric infant incubator.

    PubMed

    Fadhillah Nugraha, Putri; Putra, Nandy; Ariantara, Bambang; Amin, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Non-electric infant incubators are needed in remote areas that have no access to electricity to reduce infant mortality nationwide. In previous studies, non-electric infant incubators have been developed using phase change material of beeswax as the heating element. This study aims to improve the performance of beeswax non-electric infant incubator to obtain a more reliable and practical one. The design of the original beeswax cartridge in the form of copper boxes was modified into tubes of stainless steel. The geometry and location of the air holes were also modified. Wood that was previously used as the body material was replaced with polyurethane to reduce the weight of the incubator. The beeswax cartridges were heated using boiling water until the beeswax melted. For temperature measurement, five 0.5 mm k-type thermocouples were placed inside of the incubator according to the National Industrial Standard of SNI 16-4221. The beeswax cartridge arrangement was varied to obtain the best performance. The results showed that polyurethane provides infant incubator lighter and more practical to use. The new design of non-electric infant incubator was capable of providing a temperature of 32-36 °C for 2 h.

  8. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2976] Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants... Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint...

  9. Weight monitoring system for newborn incubator application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widianto, Arif; Nurfitri, Intan; Mahatidana, Pradipta; Abuzairi, Tomy; Poespawati, N. R.; Purnamaningsih., Retno W.

    2018-02-01

    We proposed weight monitoring system using load cell sensor for newborn incubator application. The weight sensing system consists of a load cell, conditioning signal circuit, and microcontroller Arduino Uno R3. The performance of the sensor was investigated by using the various weight from 0 up to 3000 g. Experiment results showed that this system has a small error of 4.313% and 12.5 g of threshold and resolution value. Compared to the typical baby scale available in local market, the proposed system has a lower error value and hysteresis.

  10. The "cradle of glass": incubators for infants in late nineteenth-century France.

    PubMed

    Greene, Gina

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the development of the incubator for premature infants in fin-de-siècle France. During a period of widespread anxiety in France regarding infant mortality and its implications for population growth, physicians in Paris developed and widely promoted the lifesaving technology. This article explores the ways in which the incubator reflected new scientific and symbolic approaches to creating hygienic spaces as well as how it reflected new scientific and symbolic approaches to the traditionally feminine project of infant care. By creating such an isolating and protective milieu around premature infants—an entirely new population of patients—the incubator, I argue, heralded a renegotiation of the boundary between motherhood and medical authority.

  11. Admission temperatures following radiant warmer or incubator transport for preterm infants <28 weeks: a randomised study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michael P; Bold, Geoff T

    2007-07-01

    Sixty two infants <28 weeks were occlusively wrapped and randomised to radiant warmer or incubator transport to the neonatal unit. Median axillary temperature on arrival was 36.8 degrees C in both groups. Target temperatures (36.5-37.5 degrees C) were achieved in 60% of the incubator group compared to 75% in the warmer group (not statistically significant). While powered to detect a 35% difference between warming devices, a more modest difference is not excluded.

  12. The infant incubator in the neonatal intensive care unit: unresolved issues and future developments.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Roberto; Porcella, Annalisa; Fanos, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    Since the 19th century, devices termed incubators were developed to maintain thermal stability in low birth weight (LBW) and sick newborns, thus improving their chances of survival. Remarkable progress has been made in the production of infant incubators, which are currently highly technological devices. However, they still need to be improved in many aspects. Regarding the temperature and humidity control, future incubators should minimize heat loss from the neonate and eddies around him/her. An unresolved issue is exposure to high noise levels in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Strategies aimed at modifying the behavior of NICU personnel, along with structural improvements in incubator design, are required to reduce noise exposure. Light environment should be taken into consideration in designing new models of incubators. In fact, ambient NICU illumination may cause visual pathway sequelae or possibly retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), while premature exposure to continuous lighting may adversely affect the rest-activity patterns of the newborn. Accordingly, both the use of incubator covers and circadian lighting in the NICU might attenuate these effects. The impact of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on infant health is still unclear. However, future incubators should be designed to minimize the EMF exposure of the newborn.

  13. Weight at weaning of preterm infants from incubator to bassinet: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Berger, Irit; Marom, Ronella; Mimouni, Francis; Kopelovich, Rosalia; Dollberg, Shaul

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate thermal responses, weight gain, and resting energy expenditure (REE) in preterm infants weaned from an infant incubator to a warming bassinet after reaching a body weight of either 1,500 or 1,600 g, respectively. Preterm infants weighing ≤ 1,500 g were randomly allocated for weaning from a convective incubator after reaching 1,500 g body weight (study group) or 1,600 g (controls). Postweaning body temperature was recorded at short intervals. REE was measured before and after weaning, while the weight gain was calculated daily. All 21 enrolled infants were weaned successfully to a bassinet (room temperature). REE inside the incubator and in the warming bassinette was similar between infants weaned at 1,500 g and at 1,600 g (2.9 ± 6.8 vs. 1.1 ± 4.8 kcal/kg/d, respectively (p = 0.7). REE increased slightly after weaning in both groups. Weight gain and days from randomization to discharge did not differ between groups. Weaning very low birth weight infants from an incubator to a warming bassinet at a body weight of 1,500 g is feasible and has no significant deleterious effects on weight gain and REE. The many benefits provided by such greater accessibility to premature infants are discussed. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. A combined study of heat and mass transfer in an infant incubator with an overhead screen.

    PubMed

    Ginalski, Maciej K; Nowak, Andrzej J; Wrobel, Luiz C

    2007-06-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the major physical processes taking place inside an infant incubator, before and after modifications have been made to its interior chamber. The modification involves the addition of an overhead screen to decrease radiation heat losses from the infant placed inside the incubator. The present study investigates the effect of these modifications on the convective heat flux from the infant's body to the surrounding environment inside the incubator. A combined analysis of airflow and heat transfer due to conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation has been performed, in order to calculate the temperature and velocity fields inside the incubator before and after the design modification. Due to the geometrical complexity of the model, computer-aided design (CAD) applications were used to generate a computer-based model. All numerical calculations have been performed using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT, together with in-house routines used for managing purposes and user-defined functions (UDFs) which extend the basic solver capabilities. Numerical calculations have been performed for three different air inlet temperatures: 32, 34 and 36 degrees C. The study shows a decrease of the radiative and convective heat losses when the overhead screen is present. The results obtained were numerically verified as well as compared with results available in the literature from investigations of dry heat losses from infant manikins.

  15. Differences in Temperature Changes in Premature Infants During Invasive Procedures in Incubators and Radiant Warmers.

    PubMed

    Handhayanti, Ludwy; Rustina, Yeni; Budiati, Tri

    Premature infants tend to lose heat quickly. This loss can be aggravated when they have received an invasive procedure involving a venous puncture. This research uses crossover design by conducting 2 intervention tests to compare 2 different treatments on the same sample. This research involved 2 groups with 18 premature infants in each. The process of data analysis used a statistical independent t test. Interventions conducted in an open incubator showed a p value of .001 which statistically related to heat loss in premature infants. In contrast, the radiant warmer p value of .001 statistically referred to a different range of heat gain before and after the venous puncture was given. The radiant warmer saved the premature infant from hypothermia during the invasive procedure. However, it is inadvisable for routine care of newborn infants since it can increase insensible water loss.

  16. Feasibility of transferring intensive cared preterm infants from incubator to open crib at 1600 grams.

    PubMed

    Barone, Giovanni; Corsello, Mirta; Papacci, Patrizia; Priolo, Francesca; Romagnoli, Costantino; Zecca, Enrico

    2014-05-03

    Ability to maintain a normal body temperature in an open crib is an important physiologic competency generally requested to discharge preterm infants from the hospital. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of an early weaning protocol from incubator in preterm newborns in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. 101 infants with birth weight < 1600 g were included in this feasibility study. We compared 80 newborns successfully transferred from an incubator to open crib at 1600 g with 21 infants transferred at weight ≥ 1700 g. The primary outcome was to evaluate feasibility of the protocol and the reasons for the eventual delay. Secondary outcomes were the identification of factors that would increase the likelihood of early weaning, the impact of an earlier weaning on discharge timing, and the incidence of adverse outcomes. Newborns in the study period were then compared with an historical control group with similar characteristics. Early weaning was achieved in 79.2% of infants without significant adverse effects on temperature stability or weight gain. Delayed weaning was mainly due to the need of respiratory support. Gestational age affected the likelihood of early weaning (OR 1.7282 95% CI: 1.3071 - 2.2850). In the multivariate linear regression, early weaning reduced length of stay (LOS) by 25.8 days (p < 0.0001). Preterm infants can be weaned successfully from an incubator to an open crib at weight as low as 1600 grams without significant adverse effect. Early weaning significantly reduces LOS in preterm newborns.

  17. Transfer of preterm infants from incubator to open cot at lower versus higher body weight.

    PubMed

    New, K; Flenady, V; Davies, M W

    2004-01-01

    The use of incubators in helping to maintain a thermoneutral environment for preterm infants has become routine practice in neonatal nurseries. As one of the key criteria for discharging preterm infants from nurseries is their ability to maintain temperature, the infant will need to make the transition from incubator to open cot at some time before discharge. The timing of this transition is important because when an infant is challenged by cold, the infant attempts to increase its heat production to maintain body temperature. The increase in energy expenditure may affect weight gain. The practice of transferring infants from incubators to open cots usually occurs once a weight of around 1700-1800 g has been reached; however, this practice varies widely between neonatal units. This preferred weight mark appears to be largely based on tradition or the personal experience of clinicians, with little consideration of the infant's weight or gestational age at birth. The main objective was to assess the effects on weight gain and temperature control of a policy of transferring preterm infants from incubator to open cot at lower versus higher body weight. Searches were undertaken of MEDLINE from June 2003 back to 1966, CINAHL from June 2003 back to 1987 and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2003). The title and abstract of each retrieved study were examined to assess eligibility. If there was uncertainty, the full paper was examined. Trials in which preterm infants were randomly allocated to a policy of transfer from incubators to open cots at a lower body weight versus at a higher body weight. Quality assessments and data extraction for included trials were conducted independently by the reviewers. Data for individual trial results were analysed using relative risk (RR) and mean difference (MD). Results are presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Due to insufficient data, meta-analysis could not be

  18. A Handy Preterm Infant Incubator for Providing Intensive Care: Simulation, 3D Printed Prototype, and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zaylaa, Amira J; Rashid, Mohamad; Shaib, Mounir; El Majzoub, Imad

    2018-01-01

    Preterm infants encounter an abrupt delivery before their complete maturity during the third trimester of pregnancy. Polls anticipate an increase in the rates of preterm infants for 2025, especially in middle- and low-income countries. Despite the abundance of intensive care methods for preterm infants, such as, but not limited to, commercial, transport, embrace warmer, radiant warmer, and Kangaroo Mother Care methods, they are either expensive, lack the most essential requirements or specifications, or lack the maternal-preterm bond. This drove us to carry this original research and innovative idea of developing a new 3D printed prototype of a Handy preterm infant incubator. We aim to provide the most indispensable intensive care with the lowest cost, to bestow low-income countries with the Handy incubator's care, preserve the maternal -preterm's bond, and diminish the rate of mortality. Biomedical features, electronics, and biocompatible materials were utilized. The design was simulated, the prototype was 3D printed, and the outcomes were tested and evaluated. Simulation results showed the best fit for the Handy incubator's components. Experimental results showed the 3D-printed prototype and the time elapsed to obtain it. Evaluation results revealed that the overall performance of Kangaroo Mother Care and the embrace warmer was 75 ± 1.4% and 66.7 ± 1.5%, respectively, while the overall performance of our Handy incubator was 91.7 ± 1.6%, thereby our cost-effective Handy incubator surpassed existing intensive care methods. The future step is associating the Handy incubator with more specifications and advancements.

  19. Transfer of preterm infants from incubator to open cot at lower versus higher body weight.

    PubMed

    New, K; Flenady, V; Davies, M W

    2008-01-23

    The use of incubators in helping to maintain a thermoneutral environment for preterm infants has become routine practice in neonatal nurseries. As one of the key criteria for discharging preterm infants from nurseries is their ability to maintain temperature; the infant will need to make the transition from incubator to open cot at some time before discharge. The timing of this transition is important because, when an infant is challenged by cold, the infant attempts to increase its heat production to maintain body temperature. The increase in energy expenditure may affect weight gain. The practice of transferring infants from incubators to open cots usually occurs once a weight of around 1700 - 1800 g has been reached; however, this practice varies widely among neonatal units. This target weight appears to be largely based on tradition or the personal experience of clinicians, with little consideration of the infant's weight or gestational age at birth. The main objective was to assess the effects on weight gain and temperature control of a policy of transferring preterm infants from incubator to open cot at lower versus higher body weight. Searches were undertaken of MEDLINE from April 2007 back to 1950, CINAHL from April 2007 back to 1982 and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2007). The title and abstract of each retrieved study were examined to assess eligibility. If there was uncertainty, the full paper was examined. Trials in which preterm infants were allocated to a policy of transfer from incubators to open cots at a lower body weight versus at a higher body weight. Quality assessments and data extraction for included trials were conducted independently by the reviewers. Data for individual trial results were analysed using relative risk (RR) and mean difference (MD). Results are presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Due to insufficient data, meta-analysis could not be undertaken. Five

  20. Transfer of preterm infants from incubator to open cot at lower versus higher body weight.

    PubMed

    New, Karen; Flenady, Vicki; Davies, Mark W

    2011-09-07

    A key criterion for discharging preterm infants home from nurseries is their ability to maintain temperature once transferred from incubators to open cots. The timing of transfer is important given the preterm infant's immature thermoregulatory mechanisms. To determine the effects of body weight in transferring preterm infants from incubators to unheated open cots. Electronic databases, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, clinical trials registers and the abstracts of the Society for Pediatric Research were searched. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing transfer of preterm infants from incubators to unheated open cots at lower and higher body weights. Data collection and analysis was performed in accordance with the methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Four eligible studies were identified. Two of the identified trials were assessed as having good methodological quality. Two studies reported daily weight gain (calculated as growth velocity); the lower body weight group had a significantly greater daily weight gain [pooled mean difference (MD) 2.66 (95% confidence interval (CI)1.37 to 3.95). One study reported a larger proportion of infants transferred at the higher body weight had an episode of low temperature in the first 72 hours; while no difference between the two groups was found in the proportion of infants experiencing cold stress post-transfer to discharge. Two studies report no difference between the two groups in requiring an overhead heater for temperature maintenance [pooled RR 1.43 (95% CI 0.35 to 1.18). No statistically significant difference was shown for proportion of infants returning to an incubator [three studies (N = 336) [pooled RR 1.78 (95% CI 0.77 to 4.08].Two studies report there was no statistically significant difference in time spent in an open cot post transfer to discharge; while one study found infants transferred at lower weights had a significantly reduced length of stay [MD -9.00 (95

  1. A portable freshwater closed-system fish egg incubation system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutherland, Jenny L.; Manny, Bruce A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Roseman, Edward F.; Allen, Jeffrey D.; Black, M. Glen

    2014-01-01

    To identify fish eggs collected in the field to species, a portable closed-system fish egg incubation system was designed and used to incubate and hatch the eggs in the laboratory. The system is portable, small in scale (2.54 × 1.52 × 2.03 m), and affordable, with the approximate cost of the system being US$8,300 (2012). The main tank is 678 L and holds a battery of up to 21 (egg) incubation jars. The system includes three independent water pumping systems to (1) provide aerated water to hatching jars, (2) filter and sterilize incubation water, and (3) provide temperature-controlled water in the main tank bath and the incubation jars. The system was successfully used to incubate freshwater fish eggs to raise resulting larvae to the post-yolk-sac stage for three seasons (spring 2012, spring 2013, and fall 2013) over two consecutive years, at two different locations, enabling us to identify fish eggs to species by providing identifiable fish larvae from incubated fish eggs.

  2. Dynamics and complexity of body temperature in preterm infants nursed in incubators

    PubMed Central

    Jost, Kerstin; Pramana, Isabelle; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Kumar, Nitin; Datta, Alexandre N.; Frey, Urs; Schulzke, Sven M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Poor control of body temperature is associated with mortality and major morbidity in preterm infants. We aimed to quantify its dynamics and complexity to evaluate whether indices from fluctuation analyses of temperature time series obtained within the first five days of life are associated with gestational age (GA) and body size at birth, and presence and severity of typical comorbidities of preterm birth. Methods We recorded 3h-time series of body temperature using a skin electrode in incubator-nursed preterm infants. We calculated mean and coefficient of variation of body temperature, scaling exponent alpha (Talpha) derived from detrended fluctuation analysis, and sample entropy (TSampEn) of temperature fluctuations. Data were analysed by multilevel multivariable linear regression. Results Data of satisfactory technical quality were obtained from 285/357 measurements (80%) in 73/90 infants (81%) with a mean (range) GA of 30.1 (24.0–34.0) weeks. We found a positive association of Talpha with increasing levels of respiratory support after adjusting for GA and birth weight z-score (p<0.001; R2 = 0.38). Conclusion Dynamics and complexity of body temperature in incubator-nursed preterm infants show considerable associations with GA and respiratory morbidity. Talpha may be a useful marker of autonomic maturity and severity of disease in preterm infants. PMID:28448569

  3. Dynamics and complexity of body temperature in preterm infants nursed in incubators.

    PubMed

    Jost, Kerstin; Pramana, Isabelle; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Kumar, Nitin; Datta, Alexandre N; Frey, Urs; Schulzke, Sven M

    2017-01-01

    Poor control of body temperature is associated with mortality and major morbidity in preterm infants. We aimed to quantify its dynamics and complexity to evaluate whether indices from fluctuation analyses of temperature time series obtained within the first five days of life are associated with gestational age (GA) and body size at birth, and presence and severity of typical comorbidities of preterm birth. We recorded 3h-time series of body temperature using a skin electrode in incubator-nursed preterm infants. We calculated mean and coefficient of variation of body temperature, scaling exponent alpha (Talpha) derived from detrended fluctuation analysis, and sample entropy (TSampEn) of temperature fluctuations. Data were analysed by multilevel multivariable linear regression. Data of satisfactory technical quality were obtained from 285/357 measurements (80%) in 73/90 infants (81%) with a mean (range) GA of 30.1 (24.0-34.0) weeks. We found a positive association of Talpha with increasing levels of respiratory support after adjusting for GA and birth weight z-score (p<0.001; R2 = 0.38). Dynamics and complexity of body temperature in incubator-nursed preterm infants show considerable associations with GA and respiratory morbidity. Talpha may be a useful marker of autonomic maturity and severity of disease in preterm infants.

  4. Optimizing care of ventilated infants by improving weighing accuracy on incubator scales.

    PubMed

    El-Kafrawy, Ula; Taylor, R J

    2016-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of weighing ventilated infants on incubator scales and whether the accuracy can be improved by the addition of a ventilator tube compensator (VTC) device to counterbalance the force exerted by the ventilator tubing. Body weights on integral incubator scales were compared in ventilated infants (with and without a VTC), with body weights on standalone electronic scales (true weight). Individual and series of trend weights were obtained on the infants. The method of Bland and Altman was used to assess the introduced bias. The study included 60 ventilated infants; 66% of them weighed <1000 g. A total of 102 paired-weight datasets for 30 infants undergoing conventional ventilation and 30 undergoing high frequency oscillator ventilation (HFOV) supported by a SensorMedics oscillator, (with and without a VTC) were obtained. The mean differences and (95% CI for the bias) between the integral and true scale weighing methods was 60.8 g (49.1 g to 72.5 g) without and -2.8 g (-8.9 g to 3.3 g) with a VTC in HFOV infants; 41.0 g (32.1 g to 50.0 g) without and -5.1 g (-9.3 g to -0.8 g) with a VTC for conventionally ventilated infants. Differences of greater than 2% were considered clinically relevant and occurred in 93.8% without and 20.8% with a VTC in HFOV infants and 81.5% without and 27.8% with VTC in conventionally ventilated infants. The use of the VTC device represents a substantial improvement on the current practice for weighing ventilated infants, particularly in the extreme preterm infants where an over- or underestimated weight can have important clinical implications for treatment. A large-scale clinical trial to validate these findings is needed.

  5. Mathematical modelling of thermoregulation processes for premature infants in closed convectively heated incubators.

    PubMed

    Fraguela, Andrés; Matlalcuatzi, Francisca D; Ramos, Ángel M

    2015-02-01

    The low-weight newborns and especially the premature infants have difficulty in maintaining their temperature in the range considered to be normal. Several studies revealed the importance of thermal environment and moisture to increase the survival rate of newborns. This work models the process of heat exchange and energy balance in premature newborns during the first hours of life in a closed incubator. In addition, a control problem was proposed and solved in order to maintain thermal stability of premature newborns to increase their rate of survival and weight. For this purpose, we propose an algorithm to control the temperature inside the incubator. It takes into account the measurements of the body temperature of a premature newborn which are recorded continuously. We show that using this model the temperature of a premature newborn inside the incubator can be kept in a thermal stability range. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Determining the need for improvement of infant incubator design with quality function deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarigan, U.; Ginting, R.; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    A Newborns need particular attention because it takes time to adapt to the outside world. In accordance with the standard post-neonatal procedures, newborns should be incorporated into the incubator within a specified period of time according to the infant’s health level. Infant incubator as a medical device used to care for newborns, often get complaints from doctors and child nurses. The complaint indicates consumer dissatisfaction with incubator products in the hospital. Broadly speaking, objection against infant incubators lie in inappropriate designs. To overcome these complaints the researchers apply the method of Quality Function Deployment to determine the characteristics of priority techniques in accordance with the wishes of consumers with it. The primary focus of QFD is to engage customers in the product development process as early as possible, which their needs and desires serve as the starting point of the QFD process. Therefore, QFD is called the voice of customer. The underlying philosophy is that customers are not always satisfied with a product even though the product has been perfectly produced. The results show that the category used as a priority improvement is the additional function of the oxygen cylinder and the size of the door hole. QFD phase one produces technical characteristics of Ergonomy, Features and Cost as critical part determinants.

  7. Improved care and growth outcomes by using hybrid humidified incubators in very preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Mi; Lee, Edward Y; Chen, Jie; Ringer, Steven Alan

    2010-01-01

    To identify changes in temperature, fluid and electrolyte management, growth, and short-term outcome in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants nursed in humidified hybrid incubators (HI group) compared with a cohort of patients cared for in nonhumidified conventional incubators (CI group). Body temperature (BT), fluid and electrolyte balance, and growth velocity (GV) were collected retrospectively on 182 ELBW infants. The CI group included ELBW infants cared for with radiant warmers followed by an incubator without humidity. The HI group included ELBW infants cared for in the radiant warmer mode in a Giraffe OmniBed, followed by the incubator mode using high humidity. The CI group included more multiple births (50.6%) than the HI group (35.8%; P < .05), but there was no difference in demographic characteristics. BT was similar during the first week. The HI group had less fluid intake, urine output, and insensible water loss, less maximum weight loss, and a lower incidence of hypernatremia during the first week than did the CI group (P < .05). The HI group also had a lower frequency of electrolyte sampling and packed red cell transfusion (P < .05), a higher incidence of hyponatremia on postnatal day 1 than the CI group (P < .05), and a higher GV than the CI group (15.2 +/- 5.0 vs 13.5 +/- 4.8 g/kg per day), especially among those with a birth weight of incubator improved care for ELBW infants by making it possible to decrease fluid intake, improve electrolyte balance, and enhance GV without a disturbance of BT compared with conventional care. By adjusting fluid

  8. The mood variation in mothers of preterm infants in Kangaroo mother care and conventional incubator care.

    PubMed

    de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá

    2007-10-01

    Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care.

  9. Transferring preterm infants from incubators to open cots at 1600 g: a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    New, K; Flint, A; Bogossian, F; East, C; Davies, M W

    2012-03-01

    To determine the effects on weight gain and temperature control of transferring preterm infants from incubators to open cots at a weight of 1600 g versus a weight of 1800 g. Randomised controlled trial. One tertiary and two regional neonatal units in public hospitals in Queensland, Australia. 182 preterm infants born with a birth weight less than 1600 g, who were at least 48 h old; had not required ventilation or continuous positive airways pressure within the last 48 h; were medically stable with no oxygen requirement, or significant apnoea or bradycardia; did not require phototherapy; and were enterally fed with an intake (breast milk/formula) of at least 60 ml/kg/day. Transfer into an open cot at 1600 or 1800 g. The primary outcomes were temperature stability and average daily weight gain over the first 14 days following transfer to an open cot. 90 infants in the 1600 g group and 92 infants in the 1800 g group were included in the analysis. Over the first 72 h, more infants in the 1800 g group had temperatures <36.4°C than the 1600 g group (p=0.03). From post-transfer to discharge, the 1600 g group had more temperatures >37.1°C (p=0.02). Average daily weight gain in the 1600 g group was 17.07 (SD±4.5) g/kg/day and in the 1800 g group, 13.97 (SD±4.7) g/kg/day (p=<0.001). Medically stable, preterm infants can be transferred to open cots at a birth weight of 1600 g without any significant adverse effects on temperature stability or weight gain. ACTRN12606000518561 (http://www.anzctr.org.au).

  10. Comparative clinical evaluation of a prototype non-electric transport incubator and an electrical infant incubator in a neonatal unit.

    PubMed

    Khodadadeh, Y; Nili, F; Nayeri, F; Wickramasinghe, Y

    2001-09-01

    A new non-electric transport incubator has been developed for transferring babies between health facilities in developing countries. The temperature performance of this prototype was compared with a commercial electric incubator. The warm-up time for the prototype was 51.8 min, compared with 48.1 min for the electric incubator. Forty-five non-distressed premature babies, aged 24-72 h, with a gestational age of less than 37 weeks, were continuously evaluated for a 2 h period. Twenty-five babies, with a mean weight of 2073 g (range 1500-2500 g), were studied in the prototype, and 20 babies, with a mean weight of 2076g (range 1550-2500 g), were studied in the electrical incubator. The rectal and abdominal skin temperature, heart rate, oxygen saturation and respiratory rate of the babies were recorded. The temperature, oxygen and humidity level of the canopy and the room temperature were also measured. The SaO2, heart rate and respiratory rate were within the normal range (in the prototype: 96.5%, 130.5 beats min(-1) and 43 breaths min(-1), respectively; and, in the electric incubator: 96.5%, 128.5 beats min(-1) and 40 breaths min(-1), respectively). No evidence of carbon dioxide narcosis, hypoxia, acidosis or adverse thermoregulatory behaviour were observed in the two groups. The mean rectal temperature for both groups was within the range 36.5 degrees C-37.5 degrees C. There was no significant difference between the measurements of the two groups. The level of oxygen inside the canopy was 21%, and no decrease was observed. The new nonelectric transport incubator confirmed its safety and efficiency in providing a warm environment for non-distressed premature babies over a 2 h period.

  11. Changes in energy expenditure in preterm infants during weaning: a randomized comparison of two weaning methods from an incubator.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Valentin; Mimouni, Francis B; Dollberg, Shaul

    2007-03-01

    We aimed to compare resting energy expenditure (REE) of infants exposed to either one of two weaning methods and to confirm the increase in REE during weaning from incubator. The study was a prospective randomized clinical trial of weaning preterm infants using either of two methods. REE was measured at baseline and 6, 23, 30, and 47 h, using indirect calorimetry. At measurement, infants were clinically and thermally stable, asleep, 2 h after feeding. Forty-two patients were randomized to "open incubator" (n = 23) or "warming bassinet" (n = 19). The groups did not differ in baseline clinical characteristics. REE increased significantly in both groups within 23 h, and remained stable at 30 and 47 h. At 6 and 23 h, the incubator group had significantly higher increase in REE than the warming bassinet group. By 30 h and at 47 h post-weaning, the REE of both groups became similar. In conclusion, REE increases significantly at weaning from incubator. The warming bassinet delays the increase in REE observed when infants are weaned using a turned off incubator. Whether one method is superior to the other in terms of thermic stress cannot be determined from this study.

  12. Practice variation in the transfer of premature infants from incubators to open cots in Australian and New Zealand neonatal nurseries: results of an electronic survey.

    PubMed

    New, Karen; Bogossian, Fiona; East, Christine; Davies, Mark William

    2010-06-01

    The incubator environment is essential for optimal physiological functioning and development of the premature infant but the infant is ultimately required to make a successful transfer from incubator to open cot in order to be discharged from hospital. Criteria for transfer lack a systematic approach because no clear, specific guideline predominates in clinical practice. Practice variation exists between continents, regions and nurseries in the same countries, but there is no recent review of current practices utilised for transferring premature infants from incubators to open cots. To document current practice for transferring premature infants to open cots in neonatal nurseries. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey. Twenty-two neonatal intensive care units and fifty-six high dependency special care baby units located in public hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. A sample of 78 key clinical nursing leaders (nurse unit managers, clinical nurse consultants or clinical nurse specialists) within neonatal nurseries identified through email or telephone contact. Data were collected using a web-based survey on practice, decision-making and strategies utilised for transferring premature infants from incubators to open cots. Descriptive statistics (frequencies and crosstabs) were used to analyse data. Comparisons between groups were tested for statistical significance using Chi-squared or Fisher's exact test. Significant practice variation between countries was found for only one variable, nursing infants clothed (p=0.011). Processes and practices undertaken similarly in both countries include use of incubator air control mode, current weight criterion, thermal challenging, single-walled incubators and heated mattress systems. Practice variation was significant between neonatal intensive care units and special care baby units for weight range (p=0.005), evidence-based practice (p=0.004), historical nursery practice (p=0.029) and incubator air control mode (p=0

  13. A System for Incubations at High Gas Partial Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Patrick; Glombitza, Clemens; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed 1 MPa at in situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well. We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120°C, and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. To keep costs low, the system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow-through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g., fluid–gas–rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration. As an application of the system we extracted organic compounds from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O–CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C) and pressure (5 MPa). Subsamples were taken at different time points during the incubation and analyzed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could

  14. No change in developmental outcome with incubator covers and nesting for very preterm infants in a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Maguire, C M; Walther, F J; van Zwieten, P H T; Le Cessie, S; Wit, J M; Veen, S

    2009-03-01

    To investigate in a randomised controlled trial the effect of basic elements of developmental care (incubator covers and positioning aids) on growth and neurodevelopment in infants born at < 32 weeks. Infants were randomised within 48 h of birth to a developmental care (DC) or standard care (C) group. Outcome measures at 1 and 2 years corrected age were growth, standardised neurological examinations, and mental (MDI) and psychomotor (PDI) development (Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II). 192 infants were recruited (DC = 98; C = 94). Thirteen infants (DC = 7, C = 6) were excluded because they were admitted for <5 days or died within the first 5 days. In total, 179 infants met the inclusion criteria. In-hospital mortality was 12/91 (13.2%) in the DC group and 8/88 (9.1%) in the C group. Assessments were carried out on 147 children (DC = 74, C = 73) at 1 year and 142 children (DC = 72, C = 70) at 2 years. No significant difference in growth, neurological outcomes or MDI was found. A positive trend in PDI at 1 year (p = 0.05) did not continue once the children reached 2 years. There was no difference found when neurological and developmental scores were combined. Basic developmental care has no positive effect on neurological and mental development or growth at 1 and 2 years of age in infants born at <32 weeks. A positive effect on psychomotor development at 1 year did not continue at 2 years of age.

  15. Early skin-to-skin contact or incubator for very preterm infants: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Laila; Støen, Ragnhild; Rygh, Hilde; Sognnæs, Margunn; Follestad, Turid; Mohn, Hilde S; Nissen, Ingrid; Bergseng, Håkon

    2016-12-12

    Skin-to-skin care immediately following delivery is a common practice for term infants and has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory stability, facilitate early bonding, and promote breastfeeding. Since 2007, the use of skin-to-skin care has been practiced for preterm infants from 32 weeks of gestation in the delivery room at St. Olav's University Hospital. In the present study we aim to investigate whether skin-to-skin care following delivery is safe, and how it affects early and late outcomes compared to standard care for very preterm infants. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of skin-to-skin care in the delivery room for very preterm infants born at gestational age 28 0 -31 6 weeks with birth weight >1000 grams. Infants with severe congenital malformations or need of intubation in the delivery room are excluded. A detailed checklist and a flowchart were prepared for the study, and all involved professionals (neonatologists, neonatal nurses, obstetricians, anesthesiologists, midwives) participated in medical simulation training prior to study start on February 1, 2014. A consultant in neonatology and a neonatal nurse are present at all deliveries. Infants with birth weight <1500 grams receive an intravenous line with glucose, amino acids, and caffeine citrate in the delivery room. Infants with gestational age <30 weeks are routinely put on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). After initial stabilization, infants are randomized to skin-to-skin care or are transferred to the nursery in an incubator. Primary outcome is cognitive development at 2 years measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition. Secondary outcomes are safety defined as hypothermia, respiratory failure, and/or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, physiological stability after birth and motor, language and cognitive development at 1 year for the child, and mental health measured with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at discharge, and at 3 months and 2

  16. NREL Advances Wells Fargo Innovation Incubator Projects | Energy Systems

    Science.gov Websites

    Integration Facility | NREL NREL Advances Wells Fargo Innovation Incubator Projects NREL Advances Wells Fargo Innovation Incubator Projects NREL has provided technical support and validation testing at the ESIF to help advance Wells Fargo Innovation Incubator (IN2) projects. The IN2 program helps

  17. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fully automated short-term incubation cycle... Diagnostic Devices § 866.1645 Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system. (a) Identification. A fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system...

  18. Wearable sensor systems for infants.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Li, Guangyi; Li, Tong; Inoue, Yoshio

    2015-02-05

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant's body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future.

  19. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Li, Guangyi; Li, Tong; Inoue, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant's body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future. PMID:25664432

  20. Additional double-wall roof in single-wall, closed, convective incubators: Impact on body heat loss from premature infants and optimal adjustment of the incubator air temperature.

    PubMed

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Radiant heat loss is high in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Double-wall or single-wall incubators with an additional double-wall roof panel that can be removed during phototherapy are used to reduce Radiant heat loss. There are no data on how the incubators should be used when this second roof panel is removed. The aim of the study was to assess the heat exchanges in LBW neonates in a single-wall incubator with and without an additional roof panel. To determine the optimal thermoneutral incubator air temperature. Influence of the additional double-wall roof was assessed by using a thermal mannequin simulating a LBW neonate. Then, we calculated the optimal incubator air temperature from a cohort of human LBW neonate in the absence of the additional roof panel. Twenty-three LBW neonates (birth weight: 750-1800g; gestational age: 28-32 weeks) were included. With the additional roof panel, R was lower but convective and evaporative skin heat losses were greater. This difference can be overcome by increasing the incubator air temperature by 0.15-0.20°C. The benefit of an additional roof panel was cancelled out by greater body heat losses through other routes. Understanding the heat transfers between the neonate and the environment is essential for optimizing incubators. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Does maternal intrapartum antibiotic treatment prolong the incubation time required for blood cultures to become positive for infants with early-onset sepsis?

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Siddhartha Sean; Bhagat, Indira; Bhatt-Mehta, Varsha; Sarkar, Subrata

    2015-03-01

    We hypothesized that maternal intrapartum antibiotic treatment delays the growth of the organism in the blood culture obtained during the work-up for infants with suspected early-onset sepsis (EOS). Single center, retrospective review of infants with blood culture-proven EOS over 13.5 years period. EOS was defined by isolation of a pathogen from blood culture obtained within 72 hours of birth and antibiotic treatment for  ≥ 5 days. Among 81 infants with positive blood cultures, 38 were deemed to have EOS and 43 were deemed contaminants. The organisms grown were as follows: Escherichia coli in 17 infants, Group B streptococcus in 10 infants, and others in 11 infants. Overall, 17 infants with EOS did not receive intrapartum antibiotics and had blood cultures drawn for being symptomatic after birth. The other 21 infants who received intrapartum antibiotics had blood culture drawn primarily for maternal chorioamnionitis. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) incubation time to blood culture positivity was not different in infants who received intrapartum antibiotics compared with infants who did not (19.6 hours, IQR 16-28 hours vs. 19.5 hours, IQR 17.2-21.6 hours, p = 0.7489). Maternal intrapartum antibiotic treatment did not delay the time to blood culture positivity in infants with EOS. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Moderate acoustic changes can disrupt the sleep of very preterm infants in their incubators.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Pierre; Zores, Claire; Langlet, Claire; Escande, Benoît; Astruc, Dominique; Dufour, André

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of moderate noise on the sleep of very early preterm infants (VPI). Observational study of 26 VPI of 26-31 weeks' gestation, with prospective measurements of sound pressure level and concomitant video records. Sound peaks were identified and classified according to their signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) above background noise. Prechtl's arousal states during sound peaks were assessed by two observers blinded to the purpose of the study. Changes in sleep/arousal states following sound peaks were compared with spontaneous changes during randomly selected periods without sound peaks. We identified 598 isolated sound peaks (5 ≤ SNR < 10 decibel slow response A (dBA), n = 518; 10 ≤ SNR < 15 dBA, n = 80) during sleep. Awakenings were observed during 33.8% (95% CI, 24-43.7%) of exposures to sound peaks of 5-10 dBA SNR and 39.7% (95% CI, 26-53.3%) of exposures to sound peaks of SNR 10-15 dBA, but only 11.7% (95% CI, 6.2-17.1%) of control periods. The proportions of awakenings following sound peaks were higher than the proportions of arousals during control periods (p < 0.005). Moderate acoustic changes can disrupt the sleep of VPI, and efficient sound abatement measures are needed. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Controllable light filters using an all-solid-state switchable mirror with a Mg-Ir thin film for preterm infant incubators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Kazuki; Shimoike, Mika; Li, Heng; Inagaki, Masumi; Izumi, Hitomi; Akiyama, Misaki; Matsushima, Yukiko; Ohta, Hidenobu

    2013-04-01

    We have fabricated a controllable light filter using an all-solid-state switchable mirror incorporating a Mg-Ir thin film for use in preterm infant incubators. The solid-state switchable mirror device was fabricated by depositing a multilayer on a glass substrate. The mixed hydride of MgH2 and Mg6Ir2H11 created from the Mg-Ir thin film is red in the transparent state. The optical switching speeds between the reflective and transparent red states depended on applied voltage. The device showed three states, namely, reflective, black, and transparent red, due to the properties of the switchable mirror material. These results suggest that the material could be used as a controllable light filter for preterm infant incubators, since it eliminates the light wavelength that disturbs regular sleep-wake cycles of preterm infants.

  4. Automatic Incubator-type Temperature Control System for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    An automatic air-cooling incubator is proposed to replace the manual water-cooling blanket to control the brain tissue temperature for brain hypothermia treatment. Its feasibility is theoretically discussed as follows: First, an adult patient with the cooling incubator is modeled as a linear dynamical patient-incubator biothermal system. The patient is represented by an 18-compartment structure and described by its state equations. The air-cooling incubator provides almost same cooling effect as the water-cooling blanket, if a light breeze of speed around 3 m/s is circulated in the incubator. Then, in order to control the brain temperature automatically, an adaptive-optimal control algorithm is adopted, while the patient-blanket therapeutic system is considered as a reference model. Finally, the brain temperature of the patient-incubator biothermal system is controlled to follow up the given reference temperature course, in which an adaptive algorithm is confirmed useful for unknown environmental change and/or metabolic rate change of the patient in the incubating system. Thus, the present work ensures the development of the automatic air-cooling incubator for a better temperature regulation of the brain hypothermia treatment in ICU.

  5. Digitally recycled incubators: better economic alternatives to modern systems in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Amadi, H O; Mokuolu, O A; Adimora, G N; Pam, S D; Etawo, U S; Ohadugha, C O; Adesiyun, O O

    2007-09-01

    The need to maintain a neutral thermal environment is critical to newborn care. To investigate reasons for the insufficiency of functional incubators and develop a cost-effective technique for using electronic digital components to recycle obsolete incubators in Nigeria. Following interview of 84 clinicians and administrators in Nigerian hospitals, it was identified that inadequate funding was the main reason for lack of functional incubators. Two groups of incubator units were then created and their performance compared. Sixteen units of modern (group A) and 19 units of obsolete (group B) incubators were obtained from six hospitals. An assembly design applying independent generic components for recycling systems was specified and produced. These were sourced through the internet at competitive cost and fitted into the reconstructed panels of the obsolete systems. The functional performance of each recycled system was rigorously monitored for 6 months and graded using ten performance indices. The same indices were used to quantify group A systems. The performance of the recycled incubators (group B) was found to be similar to those of modern incubators. Group B's cost index was found to be 25% of that of group A's. Appropriate incubator recycling is a cost-effective method of re-equipping hospitals in low-income countries.

  6. Humidification of incubators.

    PubMed Central

    Harpin, V A; Rutter, N

    1985-01-01

    The effect of increasing the humidity in incubators was examined in 62 infants of less than 30 weeks' gestation. Thirty three infants nursed in high humidity for two weeks were compared retrospectively with 29 infants from an earlier study who were nursed under plastic bubble blankets or with topical paraffin but without raised humidity. Humidification reduced skin water loss and improved maintenance of body temperature from birth, but did not delay the normal postnatal maturation of the skin. Infants nursed without humidity frequently became hypothermic in spite of a high incubator air temperature. These advantages must be weighed against the finding that overheating was more common and Pseudomonas was more commonly isolated from the infants. It is recommended that incubator humidity is raised for babies under 30 weeks' gestation in the first days of life but meticulous attention should be paid to fluid balance, avoiding overheating, and cleansing of the humidifier reservoir. PMID:3985653

  7. The design of multi temperature and humidity monitoring system for incubator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Junyu; Xu, Peng; Peng, Zitao; Qiang, Haonan; Shen, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is only one monitor of the temperature and humidity in an incubator, which may cause inaccurate or unreliable data, and even endanger the life safety of the baby. In order to solve this problem,we designed a multi-point temperature and humidity monitoring system for incubators. The system uses the STC12C5A60S2 microcontrollers as the sender core chip which is connected to four AM2321 temperature and humidity sensors. We select STM32F103ZET6 core development board as the receiving end,cooperating with Zigbee wireless transmitting and receiving module to realize data acquisition and transmission. This design can realize remote real-time observation data on the computer by communicating with PC via Ethernet. Prototype tests show that the system can effectively collect and display the information of temperature and humidity of multiple incubators at the same time and there are four monitors in each incubator.

  8. A comparison of kangaroo mother care and conventional incubator care for thermal regulation of infants < 2000 g in Nigeria using continuous ambulatory temperature monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ibe, O E; Austin, T; Sullivan, K; Fabanwo, O; Disu, E; Costello, A M de L

    2004-09-01

    Although skin-to-skin contact (or kangaroo mother care, KMC) for preterm infants is a practical alternative to incubator care, no studies have compared these methods using continuous ambulatory temperature monitoring. To compare thermal regulation in low birthweight infants (< 2000 g) managed by KMC alternating with conventional care (CC) and to determine the acceptability to mothers of KMC, an experimental study with a crossover design with observational and qualitative data collected on temperature patterns and mothers attitudes to skin-to-skin care was conducted in the neonatal wards of three hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria. Thirteen eligible infants were nursed by their mothers or surrogates in 38 4-hour sessions of KMC and the results compared with 38 sessions of incubator care. The risk of hypothermia was reduced by > 90% when nursed by KMC rather than conventional care, relative risk (RR) 0.09 (0.03-0.25). More cases of hyperthermia (> 37.5 degrees C) occurred with KMC, and coreperiphery temperature differences were widened, but the risk of hyperthermia > 37.9 degrees C (RR 1.3, 0.9-1.7) was not significant. Micro-ambient temperatures were higher during KMC, although the average room temperatures during both procedures did not differ significantly. Mothers felt that KMC was safe, and preferred the method to CC because it did not separate them from their infants, although some had problems adjusting to this method of care. Where equipment for thermal regulation is lacking or unreliable, KMC is a preferable method for managing stable low birthweight infants. Copyright 2004 Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine

  9. Design and Fabrication of an MRI-Compatible, Autonomous Incubation System.

    PubMed

    Khalilzad-Sharghi, Vahid; Xu, Huihui

    2015-10-01

    Tissue engineers have long sought access to an autonomous, imaging-compatible tissue incubation system that, with minimum operator handling, can provide real-time visualization and quantification of cells, tissue constructs, and organs. This type of screening system, capable of operating noninvasively to validate tissue, can overcome current limitations like temperature shock, unsustainable cellular environments, sample contamination, and handling/stress. However, this type of system has been a major challenge, until now. Here, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of an innovative, autonomous incubation system that is compatible with a 9.4 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Termed the e-incubator (patent pending; application number: 13/953,984), this microcontroller-based system is integrated into an MRI scanner and noninvasively screens cells and tissue cultures in an environment where temperature, pH, and media/gas handling are regulated. The 4-week study discussed herein details the continuous operation of the e-incubator for a tissue-engineered osteogenic construct, validated by LIVE/DEAD(®) cell assays and histology. The evolving MR quantitative parameters of the osteogenic construct were used as biomarkers for bone tissue engineering and to further validate the quality of the product noninvasively before harvesting. Importantly, the e-incubator reliably facilitates culturing cells and tissue constructs to create engineered tissues and/or investigate disease therapies.

  10. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  11. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system. 866.1645 Section 866.1645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES...

  12. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system. 866.1645 Section 866.1645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES...

  13. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system. 866.1645 Section 866.1645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES...

  14. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system. 866.1645 Section 866.1645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES...

  15. Kangaroo transport instead of incubator transport.

    PubMed

    Sontheimer, Dieter; Fischer, Christine B; Buch, Kerstin E

    2004-04-01

    Compared with in utero transport, incubator transport for preterm infants has several disadvantages including instability during transport with increased mortality and morbidity, lack of adequate systems for securing the infant in the event of an accident, and separation of mother and infant. As a new kind of postnatal transportation that bears some analogy to in utero transport and may be safer than incubator transport, we investigated kangaroo transport, transporting the infant on the mother's or other caregiver's chest. This article presents a description and preliminary data for kangaroo transport. We conducted kangaroo transports of 31 stable preterm and term infants in different settings and recorded data regarding transport conditions and cardiorespiratory stability. Eighteen transports were back transfers, and 13 were transfers in. Twenty-seven transports were conducted by the mother, 1 by the father, 2 by nurses, and 1 by a doctor. Transport distance was 2 to 400 km. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and rectal temperature remained stable during all kangaroo transports lasting 10 to 300 minutes. Weight at transport was 1220 to 3720 g. Parents felt very comfortable and safe and appreciated this method of transport. Kangaroo transport promotes mother-infant closeness and might ameliorate several of the risks associated with incubator transport.

  16. Time-lapse systems for embryo incubation and assessment in assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Sarah; Bhide, Priya; Jordan, Vanessa; Pacey, Allan; Farquhar, Cindy

    2018-05-25

    Embryo incubation and assessment is a vital step in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Traditionally, embryo assessment has been achieved by removing embryos from a conventional incubator daily for quality assessment by an embryologist, under a light microscope. Over recent years time-lapse systems have been developed which can take digital images of embryos at frequent time intervals. This allows embryologists, with or without the assistance of embryo selection software, to assess the quality of the embryos without physically removing them from the incubator.The potential advantages of a time-lapse system (TLS) include the ability to maintain a stable culture environment, therefore limiting the exposure of embryos to changes in gas composition, temperature and movement. A TLS has the potential advantage of improving embryo selection for ART treatment by utilising additional information gained through continuously monitoring embryo development. Use of a TLS often adds significant extra cost onto an in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycle. To determine the effect of a TLS compared to conventional embryo incubation and assessment on clinical outcomes in couples undergoing ART. We used standard methodology recommended by Cochrane. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility (CGF) Group trials register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and two trials registers on 2 August 2017. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the following comparisons: comparing a TLS, with or without embryo selection software, versus conventional incubation with morphological assessment; and TLS with embryo selection software versus TLS without embryo selection software among couples undergoing ART. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. The primary review outcomes were live birth, miscarriage and stillbirth. Secondary outcomes were clinical pregnancy and cumulative clinical pregnancy. We reported quality of the evidence for important outcomes

  17. Laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity through the incubator wall.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Mangat R; Vinekar, Anand; Viswanathan, Kavitha; Sangtam, Tiakumzuk; Das, Pranab; Gupta, Amod; Dutta, Sourab

    2008-01-01

    In this era of early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity, sick infants who develop aggressive diseases or remain oxygen and temperature dependent may be treated while they are inside the incubator itself, thus avoiding unnecessary delays. This article describes the treatment of eight infants with retinopathy of prematurity who were dependent on an incubator by using a laser indirect ophthalmoscope delivery system through the slanting transparent wall of the incubator. In this series, which is the largest to date, the relative advantages and disadvantages of the procedure are discussed.

  18. High-Throughput Incubation and Quantification of Agglutination Assays in a Microfluidic System.

    PubMed

    Castro, David; Conchouso, David; Kodzius, Rimantas; Arevalo, Arpys; Foulds, Ian G

    2018-06-04

    In this paper, we present a two-phase microfluidic system capable of incubating and quantifying microbead-based agglutination assays. The microfluidic system is based on a simple fabrication solution, which requires only laboratory tubing filled with carrier oil, driven by negative pressure using a syringe pump. We provide a user-friendly interface, in which a pipette is used to insert single droplets of a 1.25-µL volume into a system that is continuously running and therefore works entirely on demand without the need for stopping, resetting or washing the system. These assays are incubated by highly efficient passive mixing with a sample-to-answer time of 2.5 min, a 5⁻10-fold improvement over traditional agglutination assays. We study system parameters such as channel length, incubation time and flow speed to select optimal assay conditions, using the streptavidin-biotin interaction as a model analyte quantified using optical image processing. We then investigate the effect of changing the concentration of both analyte and microbead concentrations, with a minimum detection limit of 100 ng/mL. The system can be both low- and high-throughput, depending on the rate at which assays are inserted. In our experiments, we were able to easily produce throughputs of 360 assays per hour by simple manual pipetting, which could be increased even further by automation and parallelization. Agglutination assays are a versatile tool, capable of detecting an ever-growing catalog of infectious diseases, proteins and metabolites. A system such as this one is a step towards being able to produce high-throughput microfluidic diagnostic solutions with widespread adoption. The development of analytical techniques in the microfluidic format, such as the one presented in this work, is an important step in being able to continuously monitor the performance and microfluidic outputs of organ-on-chip devices.

  19. Buying time-the immune system determinants of the incubation period to respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Hermesh, Tamar; Moltedo, Bruno; López, Carolina B; Moran, Thomas M

    2010-11-01

    Respiratory viruses cause disease in humans characterized by an abrupt onset of symptoms. Studies in humans and animal models have shown that symptoms are not immediate and appear days or even weeks after infection. Since the initial symptoms are a manifestation of virus recognition by elements of the innate immune response, early virus replication must go largely undetected. The interval between infection and the emergence of symptoms is called the incubation period and is widely used as a clinical score. While incubation periods have been described for many virus infections the underlying mechanism for this asymptomatic phase has not been comprehensively documented. Here we review studies of the interaction between human pathogenic respiratory RNA viruses and the host with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms used by viruses to inhibit immunity. We discuss the concept of the "stealth phase", defined as the time between infection and the earliest detectable inflammatory response. We propose that the "stealth phase" phenomenon is primarily responsible for the suppression of symptoms during the incubation period and results from viral antagonism that inhibits major pathways of the innate immune system allowing an extended time of unhindered virus replication.

  20. Forced Incubation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Donald H.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 98 college professors regarding their creative writing habits and productivity found that creative productivity was significantly correlated with the use of forced incubation (deliberate time delay to allow naturally unenhanced incubation of ideas to occur). Professors who intentionally set aside manuscripts for a period of time to…

  1. Time-lapse systems for embryo incubation and assessment in assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Sarah; Arroll, Nicola; Cree, Lynsey M; Jordan, Vanessa; Farquhar, Cindy

    2015-02-27

    Embryo incubation and assessment is a vital step in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Traditionally, embryo assessment has been achieved by removing embryos from a conventional incubator daily for assessment of quality by an embryologist, under a light microscope. Over recent years time-lapse systems (TLSs) have been developed which can take digital images of embryos at frequent time intervals. This allows embryologists, with or without the assistance of computer algorithms, to assess the quality of the embryos without physically removing them from the incubator.The potential advantages of a TLS include the ability to maintain a stable culture environment, therefore limiting the exposure of embryos to changes in gas composition, temperature and movement. Additionally a TLS has the potential advantage of improving embryo selection for ART treatment by utilising additional information gained through monitoring embryo development. To determine the effect of a TLS compared to conventional embryo incubation and assessment on clinical outcomes in couples undergoing ART. A comprehensive search of all the major electronic databases, including grey literature, was undertaken in co-ordination with the Trials Search Co-ordinator of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group in July 2014 and repeated in November 2014 to confirm that the review is up to date. Two authors (SA and NA) independently scanned the titles and abstracts of the articles retrieved by the search. Full texts of potentially eligible randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were obtained and examined independently by the authors for their suitability according to the review inclusion criteria. In the case of doubt between the two authors, a third author (LC) was consulted to gain consensus. The selection process is documented with a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flow chart. Data were obtained and extracted by two authors. Disagreement was resolved

  2. Monitoring System and Temperature Controlling on PID Based Poultry Hatching Incubator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiudin, S.; Kholis, N.

    2018-04-01

    Poultry hatching cultivation is essential to be observed in terms of temperature stability by using artificial penetration incubator which applies On/Off control. The On/Off control produces relatively long response time to reach steady-state conditions. Moreover, how the system works makes the component worn out because the lamp is on-off periodically. Besides, the cultivation in the market is less suitable to be used in an environment which has fluctuating temperature because it may influence plant’s temperature stability. The study aims to design automatic poultry hatching cultivation that can repair the temperature’s response of plant incubator to keep stable and in line with the intended set-point temperature value by using PID controller. The method used in PID controlling is designed to identify plant using ARX (Auto Regressive eXogenous) MATLAB which is dynamic/non-linear to obtain mathematical model and PID constants value that is appropriate to system. The hardware design for PID-based egg incubator uses Arduino Uno R3, as the main controller that includes PID source, and PWM, to keep plant temperature stability, which is integrated with incandescent light actuators and sensors where DHTI 1 sensor as the reader as temperature condition and plant humidity. The result of the study showed that PID constants value of each plant is different. For parallel 15 Watt plant, Kp = 3.9956, Ki = 0.361, Kd = 0, while for parallel 25 Watt plant, the value of Kp = 5.714, Ki = 0.351, Kd = 0. The PID constants value were capable to produce stable system response which is based on set-point with steady state error’s value is around 5%, that is 2.7%. With hatching percentage of 70-80%, the hatching process is successful in air-conditioned environment (changeable).

  3. Humidity control of an incubator using the microcontroller-based active humidifier system employing an ultrasonic nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Güler, I; Burunkaya, M

    2002-01-01

    Relative humidity levels of an incubator were measured and controlled. An ultrasonic nebulizer system as an active humidifier was used to humidify the incubator environment. An integrated circuit-type humidity sensor was used to measure the humidity level of the incubator environment. Measurement and control processes were achieved by a PIC microcontroller. The high-performance and high-speed PIC provided the flexibility of the system. The developed system can be used effectively for the intensive care of newborns and/or premature babies. Since the humidifier generates an aerosol in ambient conditions, it is possible to provide the high relative humidity level for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes in medicine.

  4. Infants born very preterm react to variations of the acoustic environment in their incubator from a minimum signal-to-noise ratio threshold of 5 to 10 dBA.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Pierre; Zores, Claire; Pebayle, Thierry; Hoeft, Alain; Langlet, Claire; Escande, Benoît; Astruc, Dominique; Dufour, André

    2012-04-01

    Very early preterm infants (VPIs) are exposed to unpredictable noise in neonatal intensive care units. Their ability to perceive moderate acoustic environmental changes has not been fully investigated. Physiological values of the 598 isolated sound peaks (SPs) that were 5-10 and 10-15 dB slow-response A (dBA) above background noise levels and that occurred during infants' sleep varied significantly, indicating that VPIs detect them. Exposure to 10-15 dBA SPs during active sleep significantly increased mean heart rate and decreased mean respiratory rate and mean systemic and cerebral oxygen saturations relative to baseline. VPIs are sensitive to changes in their nosocomial acoustic environment, with a minimal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) threshold of 5-10 dBA. These acoustic changes can alter their well-being. In this observational study, we evaluated their differential auditory sensitivity to sound-pressure level (SPL) increments below 70-75 dBA equivalent continuous level in their incubators. Environmental (SPL and audio recording), physiological, cerebral, and behavioral data were prospectively collected over 10 h in 26 VPIs (GA 28 (26-31) wk). SPs emerging from background noise levels were identified and newborns' arousal states at the time of SPs were determined. Changes in parameters were compared over 5-s periods between baseline and the 40 s following the SPs depending on their SNR thresholds above background noise.

  5. Healthful environments for hospitalized infants.

    PubMed

    Marshall-Baker, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Medical and technological advances dominate the design of infant incubators because of their essential role in the survival of critically ill neonates. Yet other important design considerations, such as caregiver interaction, discomfort at bedside, and harmful materials, often are overlooked. The purpose of this paper is to consider the effects of existing incubator designs and to suggest criteria for the next generation of infant incubators. Incubators of the mid-1940s established an industry standard that exists to this day: portholes in an infant chamber positioned over a mechanical system, resting on top of storage cabinets or drawers. This design is unresponsive to many of the infants' needs and significantly influences parent/infant interaction. The physical effects and social barriers that the incubator presents to the health and well-being of infants are compounded by the use of unhealthful substances and materials such as formaldehyde. Collectively, these conditions call for an incubator that not only ameliorates physical and social obstacles, but also uses benign materials. Simple alterations to existing incubator design, such as introducing color and pattern, providing arm rests, and freeing space beneath the infant chamber to accommodate seated caregivers, would encourage more prolonged periods of contact with the infant occupants, thereby improving their behavioral organization and recovery. Replacing harmful materials with alternatives such as formaldehyde-free substrates in the cabinetry also will improve the developmental outcomes of the infant occupants. These types of recommended changes embrace the intent of the incubator to provide a controlled, secure environment while acknowledging that incubators are not merely medical equipment, but the living spaces of their infant occupants.

  6. Some Incubated Thoughts on Incubation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilford, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The author reviews research and theory about the role of incubation (a period in which there is no apparent activity toward problem solving but some progress toward a solution occurs) in creative thinking. Note: For related information, see EC 120 233-238. (CL)

  7. An MR-compatible neonatal incubator.

    PubMed

    Paley, M N J; Hart, A R; Lait, M; Griffiths, P D

    2012-07-01

    To develop a neonatal MR-compatible incubator for transporting babies between a neonatal intensive care unit and an MRI unit that is within the same hospital but geographically separate. The system was strapped to a standard MR-compatible patient trolley, which provides space for resuscitation outside the incubator. A constant-temperature exothermic heat pad was used to maintain temperature together with a logging fluoro-optic temperature monitor and alarm system. The system has been designed to accommodate standard knee-sized coils from the major MR manufacturers. The original incubator was constructed from carbon fibre, but this required modification to prevent radiofrequency shading artefacts due to the conducting properties of the carbon fibre. A high-tensile polyester material was used, which combined light weight with high impact strength. The system could be moved onto the patient bed with the coils and infant in place by one technologist. Studies in eight neonatal patients produced high quality 1.5 T MR images with low motion artefacts. The incubator should also be compatible with imaging in 3 T MR systems, although further work is required to establish this. Images were acquired using both rapid and high-resolution sequences, including three-dimensional volumes, proton spectra and diffusion weighting. The incubator provides a safe, quiet environment for neonates during transport and imaging, at low cost.

  8. An MR-compatible neonatal incubator

    PubMed Central

    Paley, M N J; Hart, A R; Lait, M; Griffiths, P D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To develop a neonatal MR-compatible incubator for transporting babies between a neonatal intensive care unit and an MRI unit that is within the same hospital but geographically separate. Methods The system was strapped to a standard MR-compatible patient trolley, which provides space for resuscitation outside the incubator. A constant-temperature exothermic heat pad was used to maintain temperature together with a logging fluoro-optic temperature monitor and alarm system. The system has been designed to accommodate standard knee-sized coils from the major MR manufacturers. The original incubator was constructed from carbon fibre, but this required modification to prevent radiofrequency shading artefacts due to the conducting properties of the carbon fibre. A high-tensile polyester material was used, which combined light weight with high impact strength. The system could be moved onto the patient bed with the coils and infant in place by one technologist. Results Studies in eight neonatal patients produced high quality 1.5 T MR images with low motion artefacts. The incubator should also be compatible with imaging in 3 T MR systems, although further work is required to establish this. Images were acquired using both rapid and high-resolution sequences, including three-dimensional volumes, proton spectra and diffusion weighting. Conclusion The incubator provides a safe, quiet environment for neonates during transport and imaging, at low cost. PMID:22167517

  9. Randomized controlled trial comparing embryo culture in two incubator systems: G185 K-System versus EmbryoScope.

    PubMed

    Barberet, Julie; Chammas, Jérémy; Bruno, Céline; Valot, Elodie; Vuillemin, Clarisse; Jonval, Lysiane; Choux, Cécile; Sagot, Paul; Soudry, Agnès; Fauque, Patricia

    2018-02-01

    To study whether the closed culture system, as compared with a benchtop incubator with similar culture conditions, has a positive impact on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. Randomized controlled trial. University hospital. A total of 386 patients undergoing ICSI cycles with at least six mature oocytes were randomized. Of these patients, 195 were assigned to the group with culture in a time-lapse imaging (TLI) system (EmbryoScope) and 191 to the group with culture in the G185 K-System (G185). Rate of implantation (primary endpoint) and embryo morphology grade. No significant differences were found in the implantation rates. The proportion of high-grade embryos on day 2 was significantly higher in the TLI group compared with the G185 group (40.4% vs. 35.2%). The impact of the incubator on embryo morphology remained significant in multivariate analysis, which took into account the woman's age, the rank of attempt, and the smoking status (TLI vs. G185: odds ratio = 1.27; 95% confidence interval, [1.04-1.55]). No difference was found in the mean number of frozen embryos, even though the total proportion of frozen embryos was significantly higher in the TLI group than in the G185 group (29.5% vs. 24.8%). No difference in implantation rate was found between the two incubators for fresh cycles. It remains to be determined whether the observed differences in embryo morphology and the total number of embryos cryopreserved would translate into higher cumulative outcomes with subsequent frozen embryo transfers. NCT02722252. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Infant Developmental Outcomes: A Family Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfitt, Ylva; Pike, Alison; Ayers, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether parental mental health, parent-infant relationship, infant characteristics and couple's relationship factors were associated with the infant's development. Forty-two families took part at three time points. The first, at 3?months postpartum, involved a video recorded observation (CARE-index) of…

  11. Early screening of an infant's visual system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Jorge, Jorge M.

    1999-06-01

    It is of utmost importance to the development of the child's visual system that she perceives clear focused retinal images. Furthermore if the refractive problems are not corrected in due time amblyopia may occur--myopia and hyperopia can only cause important problems in the future when they are significantly large, however for the astigmatism (rather frequent in infants) and anisometropia the problems tend to be more stringent. The early evaluation of the visual status of human infants is thus of critical importance. Photorefraction is a convenient technique for this kind of subjects. Essentially a light beam is delivered into the eyes. It is refracted by the ocular media, strikes the retina, focusing or not, reflects off and is collected by a camera. The photorefraction setup we established using new technological breakthroughs on the fields of imaging devices, digital image processing and fiber optics, allows a fast noninvasive evaluation of children visual status (refractive errors, accommodation, strabismus, ...). Results of the visual screening of a group of risk' child descents of blinds or amblyopes will be presented.

  12. The Bactec FX Blood Culture System Detects Brucella melitensis Bacteremia in Adult Patients within the Routine 1-Week Incubation Period.

    PubMed

    Sagi, Moshe; Nesher, Lior; Yagupsky, Pablo

    2017-03-01

    The performance of the Bactec FX blood culture system for detecting Brucella bacteremia within the routine 1-week incubation period was assessed in a prospective study conducted in an area in southern Israel in which Brucella melitensis is endemic. Aerobic vials (BD Bactec Plus Aerobic/F medium) inoculated with blood specimens obtained from adult patients with positive Rose-Bengal screening test results were monitored for 4 consecutive weeks, and blind subcultures of negative vials were performed on solid media on days 7 and 28. During a 16-month period, a total of 31 (35.2%) of 88 cultures, obtained from 19 (38.0%) of 50 patients, were positive for Brucella melitensis The blood culture instrument identified 30 (96.8%) of 31 positive vials within 7 days of incubation; the single positive vial that was missed by the automated readings was detected only by the blind subculture performed on day 28. It is concluded that the Bactec FX system is able to detect the vast majority of episodes of Brucella bacteremia within the 1-week incubation protocol instituted in most clinical microbiology laboratories and without the need to perform blind subcultures of negative vials, enabling early diagnosis and saving labor and incubation time and space. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. [Development of an incubation system for an inverted microscopy for long-term observation of cell cultures using chamber slides].

    PubMed

    Feicht, W; Buchner, A; Riesenberg, R

    2001-05-01

    Trifunctional bispecific antibodies open up new immunological possibilities in tumour treatment. Prior to clinical application, comprehensive investigations using animal models and in vitro examinations need to be done. To investigate long-term interactions between various immunologically active blood cells and individual tumour cells in the presence of antibodies, we developed an incubation system for experimental cell cultures on an inverted microscope. The system consists of a perspex box with a central moisture chamber with integrated water reservoir, external air circulation heating, and a CO2 supply. The sterile cell cultures are located in the wells of a slide positioned within a depression in the water reservoir. The newly developed incubation system enables continuous observation over the long term of experiments under optimal cell cultures conditions in combination with modern video techniques.

  14. In vitro penetration of swine oocytes by homologous spermatozoa: Distinct systems for gamete's co-incubation and oocyte's cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Macedo, M C; Lucia, T; Rambo, G; Ferreira Filho, E B; Rosa, A P; Fabiane, C; Cabral, M; Deschamps, J C

    2010-02-01

    In vitro penetration (IVP) of swine oocytes by homologous spermatozoa was evaluated in two experiments using four boars as semen donors. In experiment 1, the IVP rate and the number of penetrating spermatozoa (PSP) were compared using three co-incubation systems for vitrified oocytes and fresh sperm: (1) 35mL petri dishes in a CO(2) incubator, (2) 35mL petri dishes in bags (submarine system) and (3) glass flasks partially submerged in water bath with the same gas mixture used for the bag system. Mean PSP was 8.2+/-10.1 and the IVP rate was 90.5%. The PSP differed across all systems (P=0.0006): 15.5+/-0.5 for flasks, 6.3+/-0.4 for CO(2), and 3.9+/-0.4 for bags. The IVP rate for flasks (95.0%) was greater (P=0.01) than for CO(2) and bags (90.8% and 85.0%, respectively), but it did not differ between flasks and CO(2) for three boars (P>0.05). In experiment 2, co-incubation was done as described for glass flasks in experiment 1. The IVP rate and PSP were compared for cryopreserved oocytes: either vitrified in open pulled straws (OPS), or frozen in cryotubes. Mean PSP was 5.4+/-6.5 and IVP rate was 89.6%. Both PSP and IVP rate were greater (P<0.0001) for oocytes frozen in cryotubes (7.0+/-0.3% and 95.8%, respectively) than those frozen in OPS (3.7+/-0.3% and 83.4%, respectively), with no differences found for three boars (P>0.05). In summary, successful IVP of swine oocytes by homologous spermatozoa can be achieved using gametes incubated in glass flasks and oocytes frozen in cryotubes.

  15. The Immune System of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants.

    PubMed

    Abu-Raya, Bahaa; Kollmann, Tobias R; Marchant, Arnaud; MacGillivray, Duncan M

    2016-01-01

    Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation. And although prevaccination vaccine-specific antibody levels are often lower in HEU than HU, most HEU infants mount adequate humoral immune response following primary vaccination with diphtheria toxoid, haemophilus influenzae type b, whole cell pertussis, measles, hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, HEU infants are often found to have lower absolute neutrophil counts as compared to HU infants. On the other hand, an increase of innate immune cytokine production and expression of co-stimulatory markers has been noted in HEU infants, but this increase appears to be restricted to the first few weeks of life. The immune system of HEU children beyond infancy remains largely unexplored.

  16. Remote control of microcontroller-based infant stimulating system.

    PubMed

    Burunkaya, M; Güler, I

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, a remote-controlled and microcontroller-based cradle is designed and constructed. This system is also called Remote Control of Microcontroller-Based Infant Stimulation System or the RECOMBIS System. Cradle is an infant stimulating system that provides relaxation and sleeping for the baby. RECOMBIS system is designed for healthy full-term newborns to provide safe infant care and provide relaxation and sleeping for the baby. A microcontroller-based electronic circuit was designed and implemented for RECOMBIS system. Electromagnets were controlled by 8-bit PIC16F84 microcontroller, which is programmed using MPASM package. The system works by entering preset values from the keyboard, or pulse code modulated radio frequency remote control system. The control of the system and the motion range were tested. The test results showed that the system provided a good performance.

  17. Novel classification system of rib fractures observed in infants.

    PubMed

    Love, Jennifer C; Derrick, Sharon M; Wiersema, Jason M; Pinto, Deborrah C; Greeley, Christopher; Donaruma-Kwoh, Marcella; Bista, Bibek

    2013-03-01

    Rib fractures are considered highly suspicious for nonaccidental injury in the pediatric clinical literature; however, a rib fracture classification system has not been developed. As an aid and impetus for rib fracture research, we developed a concise schema for classifying rib fracture types and fracture location that is applicable to infants. The system defined four fracture types (sternal end, buckle, transverse, and oblique) and four regions of the rib (posterior, posterolateral, anterolateral, and anterior). It was applied to all rib fractures observed during 85 consecutive infant autopsies. Rib fractures were found in 24 (28%) of the cases. A total of 158 rib fractures were identified. The proposed schema was adequate to classify 153 (97%) of the observed fractures. The results indicate that the classification system is sufficiently robust to classify rib fractures typically observed in infants and should be used by researchers investigating infant rib fractures. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. DBP formation in hot and cold water across a simulated distribution system: effect of incubation time, heating time, pH, chlorine dose, and incubation temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boning; Reckhow, David A

    2013-10-15

    This paper demonstrates that disinfection byproducts (DBP) concentration profiles in heated water were quite different from the DBP concentrations in the cold tap water. Chloroform concentrations in the heated water remained constant or even decreased slightly with increasing distribution system water age. The amount of dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) was much higher in the heated water than in the cold water; however, the maximum levels in heated water with different distribution system water ages did not differ substantially. The levels of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in the heated water were similar to the TCAA levels in the tap water, and a slight reduction was observed after the tap water was heated for 24 h. Regardless of water age, significant reductions of nonregulated DBPs were observed after the tap water was heated for 24 h. For tap water with lower water ages, there were significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), chloropicrin (CP), and 1,1-dichloropropane (1,1-DCP) after a short period of heating. Heating of the tap water with low pH led to a more significant increase of chloroform and a more significant short-term increase of DCAN. High pH accelerated the loss of the nonregulated DBPs in the heated water. The results indicated that as the chlorine doses increased, levels of chloroform and DCAA in the heated water increased significantly. However, for TCAA, the thermally induced increase in concentration was only notable for the chlorinated water with very high chlorine dose. Finally, heating may lead to higher DBP concentrations in chlorinated water with lower distribution system temperatures.

  19. Clopidogrel in infants with systemic-to-pulmonary-artery shunts.

    PubMed

    Wessel, David L; Berger, Felix; Li, Jennifer S; Dähnert, Ingo; Rakhit, Amit; Fontecave, Sylvie; Newburger, Jane W

    2013-06-20

    Infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease palliated with placement of a systemic-to-pulmonary-artery shunt are at risk for shunt thrombosis and death. We investigated whether the addition of clopidogrel to conventional therapy reduces mortality from any cause and morbidity related to the shunt. In a multicenter, double-blind, event-driven trial, we randomly assigned infants 92 days of age or younger with cyanotic congenital heart disease and a systemic-to-pulmonary-artery shunt to receive clopidogrel at a dose of 0.2 mg per kilogram of body weight per day (467 infants) or placebo (439 infants), in addition to conventional therapy (including aspirin in 87.9% of infants). The primary efficacy end point was a composite of death or heart transplantation, shunt thrombosis, or performance of a cardiac procedure due to an event considered to be thrombotic in nature before 120 days of age. The rate of the composite primary end point did not differ significantly between the clopidogrel group (19.1%) and the placebo group (20.5%) (absolute risk difference, 1.4 percentage points; relative risk reduction with clopidogrel, 11.1%; 95% confidence interval, -19.2 to 33.6; P=0.43), nor did the rates of the three components of the composite primary end point. There was no significant benefit of clopidogrel treatment in any subgroup, including subgroups defined by shunt type. Clopidogrel recipients and placebo recipients had similar rates of overall bleeding (18.8% and 20.2%, respectively) and severe bleeding (4.1% and 3.4%, respectively). Clopidogrel therapy in infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease palliated with a systemic-to-pulmonary-artery shunt, most of whom received concomitant aspirin therapy, did not reduce either mortality from any cause or shunt-related morbidity. (Funded by Sanofi-Aventis and Bristol-Myers Squibb; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00396877.).

  20. Infant fMRI: A Model System for Cognitive Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Cameron T; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2018-05-01

    Our understanding of the typical human brain has benefitted greatly from studying different kinds of brains and their associated behavioral repertoires, including animal models and neuropsychological patients. This same comparative perspective can be applied to early development - the environment, behavior, and brains of infants provide a model system for understanding how the mature brain works. This approach requires noninvasive methods for measuring brain function in awake, behaving infants. fMRI is becoming increasingly viable for this purpose, with the unique ability to precisely measure the entire brain, including both cortical and subcortical structures. Here we discuss potential lessons from infant fMRI for several domains of adult cognition and consider the challenges of conducting such research and how they might be mitigated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation of prenatal maternal sounds in NICU incubators: a pilot safety and feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Panagiotidis, John; Lahav, Amir

    2010-10-01

    This pilot study evaluated the safety and feasibility of an innovative audio system for transmitting maternal sounds to NICU incubators. A sample of biological sounds, consisting of voice and heartbeat, were recorded from a mother of a premature infant admitted to our unit. The maternal sounds were then played back inside an unoccupied incubator via a specialized audio system originated and compiled in our lab. We performed a series of evaluations to determine the safety and feasibility of using this system in NICU incubators. The proposed audio system was found to be safe and feasible, meeting criteria for humidity and temperature resistance, as well as for safe noise levels. Simulation of maternal sounds using this system seems achievable and applicable and received local support from medical staff. Further research and technology developments are needed to optimize the design of the NICU incubators to preserve the acoustic environment of the womb.

  2. Use of Novel Whole Core Incubations to Measure the Fate of Fertilizer N in a Flooded Agricultural System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penton, C. R.; Bruland, G. L.; Popp, B. N.; Engstrom, P.; Tiedje, J.; Brown, G. A.; Deenik, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    We developed a new whole-core perfusion technique for tracking the fate of 15NH4+ added to intact vegetated cores. Taro plants (Colocasia esculenta) were field-grown in (20 cm diameter) cores for three months, which allowed exchange with natural porewater, then harvested. Following core extraction, surface and porewater were removed and 15NH4+ labeled porewater was slowly re-introduced to the core through a perfusion cap in the laboratory. Mini porewater equilibrators were placed in 1 cm increments through the sediment profile for porewater extraction during incubation. We also independently tested the ability of taro roots to oxygenate the subsurface by growing plants in nutrient agar and measuring O2 flux with a microelectrode. In the agar experiment, diurnal O2 transport was monitored and the application of wind across the taro leaves was found necessary to develop an oxygenated zone at the root tips. Using this information, the harvested taro were incubated in growth chambers after perfusion using three treatments: Vegetated without wind, vegetated with wind, and a non-vegetated control. Porewater was analyzed for 29+30N2, 15NH4+, 15NO3-, and unlabeled nitrate and ammonium species. Plant uptake of 15NH4+ was also determined. Quantitative PCR was performed on the sediment profiles of functional genes involved in nitrogen cycling for correlation to N transformations. The major pathway of N loss was root-mediated nitrification/denitrification followed by a flow of 29+30N2 through the aerenchyma. The vegetated wind treatment exhibited the highest concentrations of labeled N2 in the subsurface during all time periods. In contrast, the vegetated no wind treatment had much higher aerenchyma 29+30N2 concentration, accounting for ~100% of the subsurface N2 accumulation by day three of the incubation. Surface water N2 concentrations were also highest in the no wind treatment. After nine days the 29+30N2 concentrations dropped by ~70%, with little difference remaining

  3. The infant mirror neuron system studied with high density EEG.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Pär

    2008-01-01

    The mirror neuron system has been suggested to play a role in many social capabilities such as action understanding, imitation, language and empathy. These are all capabilities that develop during infancy and childhood, but the human mirror neuron system has been poorly studied using neurophysiological measures. This study measured the brain activity of 6-month-old infants and adults using a high-density EEG net with the aim of identifying mirror neuron activity. The subjects viewed both goal-directed movements and non-goal-directed movements. An independent component analysis was used to extract the sources of cognitive processes. The desynchronization of the mu rhythm in adults has been shown to be a marker for activation of the mirror neuron system and was used as a criterion to categorize independent components between subjects. The results showed significant mu desynchronization in the adult group and significantly higher ERP activation in both adults and 6-month-olds for the goal-directed action observation condition. This study demonstrate that infants as young as 6 months display mirror neuron activity and is the first to present a direct ERP measure of the mirror neuron system in infants.

  4. Rural Incubator Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.

    This profile summarizes the responses of 20 managers of rural business incubators, reporting on their operations, entry and exit policies, facility promotion, service arrangements and economic development outcomes. Incubators assist small businesses in the early stages of growth by providing them with rental space, shared services, management and…

  5. Incubation of cocaine cue reactivity associates with neuroadaptations in the cortical serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) system.

    PubMed

    Swinford-Jackson, S E; Anastasio, N C; Fox, R G; Stutz, S J; Cunningham, K A

    2016-06-02

    Intensification of craving elicited by drug-associated cues during abstinence occurs over time in human cocaine users while elevation of cue reactivity ("incubation") is observed in rats exposed to extended forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration. Incubation in rodents has been linked to time-dependent neuronal plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We tested the hypothesis that incubation of cue reactivity during abstinence from cocaine self-administration is accompanied by lower potency and/or efficacy of the selective serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C​ receptor (5-HT2CR) agonist WAY163909 to suppress cue reactivity and a shift in the subcellular localization profile of the mPFC 5-HT2CR protein. We observed incubation of cue reactivity (measured as lever presses reinforced by the discrete cue complex) between Day 1 and Day 30 of forced abstinence from cocaine relative to sucrose self-administration. Pharmacological and biochemical analyses revealed that the potency of the selective 5-HT2CR agonist WAY163909 to suppress cue reactivity, the expression of synaptosomal 5-HT2CR protein in the mPFC, and the membrane to cytoplasmic expression of the 5-HT2CR in mPFC were lower on Day 30 vs. Day 1 of forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration. Incubation of cue reactivity assessed during forced abstinence from sucrose self-administration did not associate with 5-HT2CR protein expression in the mPFC. Collectively, these outcomes are the first indication that neuroadaptations in the 5-HT2CR system may contribute to incubation of cocaine cue reactivity. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Infrared Images of an Infant Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    ESO Telescopes Detect a Strange-Looking Object Summary Using the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope and the Very Large Telescope (VLT) , a team of astronomers [1] have discovered a dusty and opaque disk surrounding a young solar-type star in the outskirts of a dark cloud in the Milky Way. It was found by chance during an unrelated research programme and provides a striking portrait of what our Solar System must have looked like when it was in its early infancy. Because of its striking appearance, the astronomers have nicknamed it the "Flying Saucer" . The new object appears to be a perfect example of a very young star with a disk in which planets are forming or will soon form, and located far away from the usual perils of an active star-forming environment . Most other young stars, especially those that are born in dense regions, run a serious risk of having their natal dusty disks destroyed by the blazing radiation of their more massive and hotter siblings in these clusters. The star at the centre of the "Flying Saucer", seems destined to live a long and quiet life at the centre of a planetary system , very much like our own Sun. This contributes to making it a most interesting object for further studies with the VLT and other telescopes. The mass of the observed disk of gas and dust is at least twice that of the planet Jupiter and its radius measures about 45 billion km, or 5 times the size of the orbit of Neptune. PR Photo 12a/02 : The "Flying Saucer" object photographed with NTT/SOFI. PR Photo 12b/02 : VLT/ISAAC image of this object. PR Photo 12c/02 : Enlargement of VLT/ISAAC image . Circumstellar Disks and Planets Planets form in dust disks around young stars. This is a complex process of which not all stages are yet fully understood but it begins when small dust particles collide and stick to each other. For this reason, observations of such dust disks, in particular those that appear as extended structures (are "resolved"), are very important for our

  7. Investigating parameters participating in the infant respiratory control system attractor.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M; Dakin, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically, any participating parameter in a non-linear system represents the dynamics of the whole system. Taken's time delay embedding theory provides the fundamental basis for allowing non-linear analysis to be performed on physiological, time-series data. In practice, only one measurable parameter is required to be measured to convey an accurate representation of the system dynamics. In this paper, the infant respiratory control system is represented using three variables-a digitally sampled respiratory inductive plethysmography waveform, and the derived parameters tidal volume and inter-breath interval time series data. For 14 healthy infants, these data streams were analysed using recurrence plot analysis across one night of sleep. The measured attractor size of these variables followed the same qualitative trends across the nights study. Results suggest that the attractor size measures of the derived IBI and tidal volume are representative surrogates for the raw respiratory waveform. The extent to which the relative attractor sizes of IBI and tidal volume remain constant through changing sleep state could potentially be used to quantify pathology, or maturation of breathing control.

  8. Incubation of cocaine cue reactivity associates with neuroadaptations in the cortical serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) system

    PubMed Central

    Swinford-Jackson, Sarah E.; Anastasio, Noelle C.; Fox, Robert G.; Stutz, Sonja J.; Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    Intensification of craving elicited by drug-associated cues during abstinence occurs over time in human cocaine users while elevation of cue reactivity (“incubation”) is observed in rats exposed to extended forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration. Incubation in rodents has been linked to time-dependent neuronal plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We tested the hypothesis that incubation of cue reactivity during abstinence from cocaine self-administration is accompanied by lower potency and/or efficacy of the selective 5-HT2CR agonist WAY163909 to suppress cue reactivity and a shift in the subcellular localization profile of the mPFC 5-HT2CR protein. We observed incubation of cue reactivity (measured as lever presses reinforced by the discrete cue complex) between Day 1 and Day 30 of forced abstinence from cocaine relative to sucrose self-administration. Pharmacological and biochemical analyses revealed that the potency of the selective 5-HT2CR agonist WAY163909 to suppress cue reactivity, the expression of synaptosomal 5-HT2CR protein in the mPFC, and the membrane to cytoplasmic expression of the 5-HT2CR in mPFC were lower on Day 30 vs. Day 1 of forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration. Incubation of cue reactivity assessed during forced abstinence from sucrose self-administration did not associate with 5-HT2CR protein expression in the mPFC. Collectively, these outcomes are the first indication that neuroadaptations in the 5-HT2CR system may contribute to incubation of cocaine cue reactivity. PMID:26926963

  9. Incubation Temperature, But Not Pequi Oil Supplementation, Affects Methane Production, and the Ruminal Microbiota in a Rumen Simulation Technique (Rusitec) System.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Andrea C; Holman, Devin B; Alexander, Trevor W; Kiri, Kerstin; Breves, Gerhard; Chaves, Alexandre V

    2017-01-01

    Lipid supplementation is a promising strategy for methane mitigation in cattle and has been evaluated using several different lipid sources. However, limited studies have assessed the effect of temperature on methane emissions from cattle and changes in incubation temperature have also not been extensively evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of pequi oil (high in unsaturated fatty acids) and incubation temperature on fermentation characteristics and microbial communities using the rumen simulation technique. A completely randomized experiment was conducted over a 28-day period using a Rusitec system. The experiment was divided into four periods of 7 days each, the first of which was a 7-day adaptation period followed by three experimental periods. The two treatments consisted of a control diet (no pequi oil inclusion) and a diet supplemented with pequi oil (1.5 mL/day) which increased the dietary fat content to 6% (dry matter, DM-basis). Three fermenter vessels (i.e., replicates) were allocated to each treatment. In the first experimental period, the incubation temperature was maintained at 39°C, decreased to 35°C in the second experimental period and then increased again to 39°C in the third. Pequi oil was continuously supplemented during the experiment. Microbial communities were assessed using high-throughput sequencing of the archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Methane production was reduced by 57% following a 4°C decrease in incubation temperature. Supplementation with pequi oil increased the dietary fat content to 6% (DM-basis) but did not affect methane production. Analysis of the microbiota revealed that decreasing incubation temperature to 35°C affected the archaeal and bacterial diversity and richness of liquid-associated microbes, but lipid supplementation did not change microbial diversity.

  10. Incubator Baby Shows: A Medical and Social Frontier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Hannah

    2001-01-01

    America's first hospitals for premature infants were built at the turn of the twentieth century at fairs, amusement parks, and expositions. These hospitals represented both a medical and a social frontier. They had a great impact on American medicine because they demonstrated the success of caring for premature infants using incubators. The…

  11. Evolution of Incubation Models: Evidence from the Italian Incubation Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandi, Alessandro; Grimaldi, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of incubators in supporting new venture creation. A mapping of four different types of incubator is proposed: corporate private incubators (CPIs), independent private incubators (IPIs), business innovation centres (BICs) and university business incubators (UBIs). This mapping is exemplified through case studies of one…

  12. Mother, Father, and Infant as an Interactive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Frank A.

    This study investigates three types of reciprocal interactions among members of the family unit (father, mother and infant): father-infant interaction affecting child's development, father-infant interaction affecting mother's behavior, and husband-wife interaction affecting mother's behavior. Data from a sample of 39 healthy first-born infants…

  13. Examining antecedents of infant attachment security with mothers and fathers: An ecological systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Lickenbrock, Diane M; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M

    2015-05-01

    Taking an ecological systems perspective, early parent-child relationships can be affected by interactions between systems where some are more proximally linked to the child than others. Socioeconomic status, a distal factor, is associated with social functioning during childhood, but research on its association with functioning during infancy, particularly attachment, is scant and inconsistent. Moreover, it is not clear how distal factors affect infant functioning. Other systems such as marital adjustment and parenting may moderate or mediate relations between distal factors and infant attachment. The current longitudinal study (n=135) examined the role of various systems - parental resources, marital functioning, parental sensitivity and involvement - in early infancy (3-, 5-, 7-months) on infant-mother (12-months) and infant-father (14-months) attachment security. Findings supported moderating processes but in different ways for infant-mother versus infant-father dyads. Implications for future studies and interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Implementation of infants risk detection sensing system using IoT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Youseok; Lee, Taeo; Lee, Yechan; Choi, Jaehyeon; Park, Eunju; Lim, Hankyu

    2017-06-01

    Infants are vulnerable to surrounding environment and they receive large influence from even a small change. As their body composition is not complete yet, infants receive huge impact from small pressure. Small change can cause disease or even death of infants. This paper designed and implemented a risk-detection system for infants. In addition to the fundamental function of safety management system, the risk-detection system implemented in this paper in corporate child-caring function by using a variety of sensors.

  15. Training Programmes as Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erikson, Truls; Gjellan, Are

    2003-01-01

    A European technological university conducts quarterly incubator programs in which teams develop ideas into viable business plans. Analysis indicates that 57 of 102 ideas resulted in successful technology-based businesses and more than 400 students received hands-on experience in business start-up. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  16. Infant Vocal-Motor Coordination: Precursor to the Gesture-Speech System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Jana M.; Fagan, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to provide a general picture of infant vocal-motor coordination and test predictions generated by Iverson and Thelen's (1999) model of the development of the gesture-speech system. Forty-seven 6- to 9-month-old infants were videotaped with a primary caregiver during rattle and toy play. Results indicated an age-related…

  17. The Effects of the Newborn Behavioral Observations (NBO) System on Sensitivity in Mother-Infant Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, J. Kevin; Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Von Ende, Adam; Valim, Clarissa

    2017-01-01

    The Newborn Behavioral Observations (NBO) system is a neurobehavioral observation tool designed to sensitize parents to infants' capacities and individuality and to enhance the parent-infant relationship by strengthening parents' confidence and practical skills in caring for their children. The NBO's focus on relationship building is intended for…

  18. A Systems View of Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Beatrice; Messinger, Daniel; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Margolis, Amy; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian

    2016-01-01

    Principles of a dynamic, dyadic systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication, which considers self- and interactive processes in relation to one another, were tested. The process of interaction across time in a large low-risk community sample at infant age 4 months was examined. Split-screen videotape was coded on a 1-s time base for…

  19. National Security Technology Incubator Evaluation Process

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    This report describes the process by which the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) will be evaluated. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the components, steps, and measures of the proposed evaluation process. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages ofmore » early development. An effective evaluation process of the NSTI is an important step as it can provide qualitative and quantitative information on incubator performance over a given period. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The mission of the NSTI is to identify, incubate, and accelerate technologies with national security applications at various stages of development by providing hands-on mentoring and business assistance to small businesses and emerging or growing companies. To achieve success for both incubator businesses and the NSTI program, an evaluation process is essential to effectively measure results and implement corrective processes in the incubation design if needed. The evaluation process design will collect and analyze qualitative and quantitative data through performance evaluation system.« less

  20. Design and implementation of a Bluetooth-based infant monitoring/saver (BIMS) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonmez, Ahmet E.; Nalcaci, Murat T.; Pazarbasi, Mehmet A.; Toker, Onur; Fidanboylu, Kemal

    2007-04-01

    In this work, we discuss the design and implementation of a Bluetooth technology based infant monitoring system, which will enable the mother to monitor her baby's health condition remotely in real-time. The system will measure the heart rate, and temperature of the infant, and stream this data to the mother's Bluetooth based mobile unit, e.g. cell phone, PDA, etc. Existing infant monitors either require so many cables, or transmit only voice and/or video information, which is not enough for monitoring the health condition of an infant. With the proposed system, the mother will be warned against any abnormalities, which may be an indication of a disease, which in turn may result a sudden infant death. High temperature is a common symptom for several diseases, and heart rate is an essential sign of life, low or high heart rates are also essentials symptoms. Because of these reasons, the proposed system continously measures these two critical values. A 12 bits digital temperature sensor is used to measure infant's body temperature, and a piezo film sensor is used measure infant's heartbeat rate. These sensors, some simple analog circuitry, and a ToothPick unit are the main components of our embedded system. ToothPick unit is basically a Microchip 18LF6720 microcontroller, plus an RF circuitry with Bluetooth stack.

  1. WHEN INFANTS GROW UP IN MULTIPERSON RELATIONSHIP SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    McHale, James P.

    2010-01-01

    Despite prompts from the field of family therapy since its inception, contemporary infant mental health theory and practice remain firmly rooted in and guided by dyadic-based models. Over the past 10 years, a groundswell of new empirical studies of triadic and family group dynamics during infancy have substantiated that which family theory has contended for decades: looking beyond mother-infant or father-infant dyads reveals a myriad of critically important socialization influences and dynamics that are missed altogether when relying on informant reports or dyad-based interactions. Such family-level dynamics emerge within months after infants are born, show coherence through time, and influence the social and emotional adjustment of children as early as the toddler and preschool years. This report summarizes key findings from the past decade of empirical family studies, highlights several areas in need of further conceptual development and empirical study by those who work with infants and their families, and outlines important implications of this body of work for all practicing infant mental health professionals. PMID:21512615

  2. A Marker-less Monitoring System for Movement Analysis of Infants Using Video Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Keisuke; Osawa, Yuko; Bu, Nan; Tsuji, Tokuo; Tsuji, Toshio; Ishii, Idaku; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Orito, Kensuke; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Noda, Shunichi

    This paper proposes a marker-less motion measurement and analysis system for infants. This system calculates eight types of evaluation indices related to the movement of an infant such as “amount of body motion” and “activity of body” from binary images that are extracted from video images using the background difference and frame difference. Thus, medical doctors can intuitively understand the movements of infants without long-term observations, and this may be helpful in supporting their diagnoses and detecting disabilities and diseases in the early stages. The distinctive feature of this system is that the movements of infants can be measured without using any markers for motion capture and thus it is expected that the natural and inherent tendencies of infants can be analyzed and evaluated. In this paper, the evaluation indices and features of movements between full-term infants (FTIs) and low birth weight infants (LBWIs) are compared using the developed prototype. We found that the amount of body motion and symmetry of upper and lower body movements of LBWIs became lower than those of FTIs. The difference between the movements of FTIs and LBWIs can be evaluated using the proposed system.

  3. Neonatal response to control of noise inside the incubator.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A N

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of acoustical foam on the level of noise inside the incubator and examine neonatal response behaviors to changes in environmental noise. The study used a repeated measure, within subject, comparative design. Data on 65 premature neonates were collected over a 14-month period at a large teaching hospital in Delaware. Sound levels, oxygen saturation, and infant states were measured and recorded during three study conditions: pre-study neonate in incubator, neonate in incubator with 5 x 5 x 1 inch acoustical foam pieces placed in each of four corners, and post-study recovery of neonate in incubator with foam removed. All state assessments were measured with oxygen saturation and sound level measurements every 2 minutes of the study for a total 40 minutes. The findings demonstrate a significant treatment effect of acoustical foam on decreasing environmental noise measurements inside the incubator (p = 0.006). Findings also demonstrate significantly changed neonatal state response behaviors with decreasing environmental noise measurements inside the incubator (p = 0.00). The results of this study support the use of acoustical foam as one method of environmental noise management in the intensive care nursery. Because there was a significant correlation between higher noise levels and oxygen support therapy, the findings suggest that special nursing considerations should be taken when caring for ventilator-dependent infants. Noise control protocols should focus on essential environmental interventions for care of these infants.

  4. Using Novel Laboratory Incubations and Field Experiments to Identify the Source and Fate of Reactive Organic Carbon in an Arsenic-contaminated Aquifer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, M.; Tarek, M. H.; Badruzzaman, B.; Harvey, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) within aquifer systems is key to our understanding of both the broader global carbon cycle as well as the quality of our groundwater resources. The linkage between the subsurface carbon cycle and groundwater quality is perhaps nowhere more apparent than in the aquifer systems of South and Southeast Asia, where the contamination of groundwater with geogenic arsenic (As) is widespread and threatens the health of millions of individuals. OM fuels the biogeochemical processes driving As mobilization within these aquifers, however the source (i.e., modern surface-derived or aged sedimentary OM) of the reactive OM is widely debated. To characterize the sources of OM driving aquifer redox processes we tracked DIC and DOC concentrations and isotopes (stable and radiocarbon) along groundwater flow-paths and beneath an instrumented study pond at a field site in Bangladesh. We also conducted a set of novel groundwater incubation experiments, where we carbon-dated the DOC at the start and end of a experiment in order to determine the age of the OM that was mineralized. Our carbon/isotope balance reveals that aquifer recharge introduces a large quantity of young (i.e. near modern) OM that is efficiently mineralized within the upper few meters of the aquifer, effectively limiting this pool of reactive surface-sourced OM from being transported deeper into the aquifer where significant As mobilization takes place. The OM mineralized past the upper few meters is an aged, sedimentary source. Consistent with our field data, our incubation experiments show that past the upper few meters of the aquifer the reactive DOC is significantly older than the bulk DOC and has an age consistent with sedimentary OM. Combining our novel set of incubation experiments and a carbon/isotope balance along groundwater flow-paths and beneath our study pond we have identified the sources of reactive OM across different aquifer depths in a

  5. Geometric Lie algebra in matter, arts and mathematics with incubation of the periodic systems of the elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trell, Erik; Edeagu, Samuel; Animalu, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    From a brief recapitulation of the foundational works of Marius Sophus Lie and Herrmann Günther Grassmann, and including missing African links, a rhapsodic survey is made of the straight line of extension and existence that runs as the very fibre of generation and creation throughout Nature's all utterances, which must therefore ultimately be the web of Reality itself of which the Arts and Sciences are interpreters on equal explorer terms. Assuming their direct approach, the straight line and its archaic and algebraic and artistic bearings and convolutions have been followed towards their inner reaches, which earlier resulted in a retrieval of the baryon and meson elementary particles and now equally straightforward the electron geodesics and the organic build of the periodic system of the elements.

  6. A Modular and Affordable Time-Lapse Imaging and Incubation System Based on 3D-Printed Parts, a Smartphone, and Off-The-Shelf Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Schwan, Emil; Fatsis-Kavalopoulos, Nikos; Kreuger, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a powerful tool for studying cellular dynamics and cell behavior over long periods of time to acquire detailed functional information. However, commercially available time-lapse imaging systems are expensive and this has limited a broader implementation of this technique in low-resource environments. Further, the availability of time-lapse imaging systems often present workflow bottlenecks in well-funded institutions. To address these limitations we have designed a modular and affordable time-lapse imaging and incubation system (ATLIS). The ATLIS enables the transformation of simple inverted microscopes into live cell imaging systems using custom-designed 3D-printed parts, a smartphone, and off-the-shelf electronic components. We demonstrate that the ATLIS provides stable environmental conditions to support normal cell behavior during live imaging experiments in both traditional and evaporation-sensitive microfluidic cell culture systems. Thus, the system presented here has the potential to increase the accessibility of time-lapse microscopy of living cells for the wider research community. PMID:28002463

  7. A Modular and Affordable Time-Lapse Imaging and Incubation System Based on 3D-Printed Parts, a Smartphone, and Off-The-Shelf Electronics.

    PubMed

    Hernández Vera, Rodrigo; Schwan, Emil; Fatsis-Kavalopoulos, Nikos; Kreuger, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a powerful tool for studying cellular dynamics and cell behavior over long periods of time to acquire detailed functional information. However, commercially available time-lapse imaging systems are expensive and this has limited a broader implementation of this technique in low-resource environments. Further, the availability of time-lapse imaging systems often present workflow bottlenecks in well-funded institutions. To address these limitations we have designed a modular and affordable time-lapse imaging and incubation system (ATLIS). The ATLIS enables the transformation of simple inverted microscopes into live cell imaging systems using custom-designed 3D-printed parts, a smartphone, and off-the-shelf electronic components. We demonstrate that the ATLIS provides stable environmental conditions to support normal cell behavior during live imaging experiments in both traditional and evaporation-sensitive microfluidic cell culture systems. Thus, the system presented here has the potential to increase the accessibility of time-lapse microscopy of living cells for the wider research community.

  8. Modeling the incubation period of inhalational anthrax.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, Dean A

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the pioneering work of Philip Sartwell, the incubation period distribution for infectious diseases is most often modeled using a lognormal distribution. Theoretical models based on underlying disease mechanisms in the host are less well developed. This article modifies a theoretical model originally developed by Brookmeyer and others for the inhalational anthrax incubation period distribution in humans by using a more accurate distribution to represent the in vivo bacterial growth phase and by extending the model to represent the time from exposure to death, thereby allowing the model to be fit to nonhuman primate time-to-death data. The resulting incubation period distribution and the dose dependence of the median incubation period are in good agreement with human data from the 1979 accidental atmospheric anthrax release in Sverdlovsk, Russia, and limited nonhuman primate data. The median incubation period for the Sverdlovsk victims is 9.05 (95% confidence interval = 8.0-10.3) days, shorter than previous estimates, and it is predicted to drop to less than 2.5 days at doses above 10(6) spores. The incubation period distribution is important because the left tail determines the time at which clinical diagnosis or syndromic surveillance systems might first detect an anthrax outbreak based on early symptomatic cases, the entire distribution determines the efficacy of medical intervention-which is determined by the speed of the prophylaxis campaign relative to the incubation period-and the right tail of the distribution influences the recommended duration for antibiotic treatment.

  9. Developmental origins of infant stress reactivity profiles: A multi-system approach.

    PubMed

    Rash, Joshua A; Thomas, Jenna C; Campbell, Tavis S; Letourneau, Nicole; Granger, Douglas A; Giesbrecht, Gerald F

    2016-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that maternal physiological and psychological variables during pregnancy discriminate between theoretically informed infant stress reactivity profiles. The sample comprised 254 women and their infants. Maternal mood, salivary cortisol, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and salivary α-amylase (sAA) were assessed at 15 and 32 weeks gestational age. Infant salivary cortisol, RSA, and sAA reactivity were assessed in response to a structured laboratory frustration task at 6 months of age. Infant responses were used to classify them into stress reactivity profiles using three different classification schemes: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, autonomic, and multi-system. Discriminant function analyses evaluated the prenatal variables that best discriminated infant reactivity profiles within each classification scheme. Maternal stress biomarkers, along with self-reported psychological distress during pregnancy, discriminated between infant stress reactivity profiles. These results suggest that maternal psychological and physiological states during pregnancy have broad effects on the development of the infant stress response systems. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 578-599, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Management of infants born to women infected with hepatitis B in the military healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Sainato, Rebecca J; Simmons, Elizabeth G; Muench, Dawn F; Burnett, Mark W; Braun, LoRanée

    2013-08-28

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic worldwide. Given significant rates of infectivity, all infants born to Hepatitis B surface antigen positive mothers need to receive treatment at birth, immunization and post-vaccination serologic testing. However, not all infants complete these requirements. We performed a retrospective review of the management of infants born to Hepatitis B infected mothers at two large military hospitals in the United States that use a global electronic medical record to track patient results. We then compared these results to those recently published by the National Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (PHBPP), which does not include hospitals in the United States Military Healthcare System. Our results show that although all infants were managed appropriately at birth and immunization rates were very high, post vaccination follow-up testing rates were much lower than those seen in centers participating in the PHBPP. The rates of post vaccination serological testing were significantly higher for infants born to Hepatitis B e antigen positive mothers and those referred to a pediatric infectious disease specialist. Despite use of a global electronic medical record in the United States Military Healthcare System, management of HBV-exposed infants does not always follow recommended guidelines. These infants could benefit from a more systematic method of follow-up, similar to the PHBPP, to ensure HBV serologic testing is obtained after the vaccination series is complete.

  11. A new system for quantitative evaluation of infant gaze capabilities in a wide visual field.

    PubMed

    Pratesi, Andrea; Cecchi, Francesca; Beani, Elena; Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Cioni, Giovanni; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo

    2015-09-07

    The visual assessment of infants poses specific challenges: many techniques that are used on adults are based on the patient's response, and are not suitable for infants. Significant advances in the eye-tracking have made this assessment of infant visual capabilities easier, however, eye-tracking still requires the subject's collaboration, in most cases and thus limiting the application in infant research. Moreover, there is a lack of transferability to clinical practice, and thus it emerges the need for a new tool to measure the paradigms and explore the most common visual competences in a wide visual field. This work presents the design, development and preliminary testing of a new system for measuring infant's gaze in the wide visual field called CareToy C: CareToy for Clinics. The system is based on a commercial eye tracker (SmartEye) with six cameras running at 60 Hz, suitable for measuring an infant's gaze. In order to stimulate the infant visually and audibly, a mechanical structure has been designed to support five speakers and five screens at a specific distance (60 cm) and angle: one in the centre, two on the right-hand side and two on the left (at 30° and 60° respectively). Different tasks have been designed in order to evaluate the system capability to assess the infant's gaze movements during different conditions (such as gap, overlap or audio-visual paradigms). Nine healthy infants aged 4-10 months were assessed as they performed the visual tasks at random. We developed a system able to measure infant's gaze in a wide visual field covering a total visual range of ±60° from the centre with an intermediate evaluation at ±30°. Moreover, the same system, thanks to different integrated software, was able to provide different visual paradigms (as gap, overlap and audio-visual) assessing and comparing different visual and multisensory sub-competencies. The proposed system endowed the integration of a commercial eye-tracker into a purposive setup in

  12. [Breast feeding and systemic blood pressure in infants].

    PubMed

    Hernández-González, Martha A; Díaz-De-León, Luz V; Guízar-Mendoza, Juan M; Amador-Licona, Norma; Cipriano-González, Marisol; Díaz-Pérez, Raúl; Murillo-Ortiz, Blanca O; De-la-Roca-Chiapas, José María; Solorio-Meza, Sergio Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Blood pressure levels in childhood influence these levels in adulthood, and breastfeeding has been considered such as a cardioprotective. We evaluated the association between blood pressure levels and feeding type in a group of infants. We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study in term infants with appropriate weight at birth, to compare blood pressure levels in those children with exclusively breastfeeding, mixed-feeding and formula feeding. The comparison of groups was performed using ANOVA and multiple regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with mean arterial blood pressure levels. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. We included 20 men and 24 women per group. Infant Formula Feeding had higher current weight and weight gain compared with the other two groups (p < 0.05). Systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure levels, as well as respiratory and heart rate were higher in the groups of exclusively formula feeding and mixed-feeding than in those with exclusively breastfeeding (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis identified that variables associated with mean blood pressure levels were current body mass index, weight gain and formula feeding. Infants in breastfeeding show lower blood pressure, BMI and weight gain.

  13. Evidence for the essentiality of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid in the postnatal maternal and infant diet for the development of the infant's immune system early in life.

    PubMed

    Richard, Caroline; Lewis, Erin D; Field, Catherine J

    2016-05-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially the balance between arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are known to have important immunomodulatory roles during the postnatal period when the immune system is rapidly developing. AA and DHA are required in infant formula in many countries but are optional in North America. The rationale for adding these LCPUFA to full-term formula is based on their presence in breast milk and randomized controlled studies that suggest improved cognitive function in preterm infants, but results are more variable in full-term infants. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority has proposed, based on a lack of functional evidence, that AA is not required in infant formula for full-term infants during the first year of life but DHA should remain mandatory. The purpose of this review is to review the evidence from epidemiological and intervention studies regarding the essentiality of AA and DHA in the postnatal infant and maternal diet (breast-feeding) for the immune system development early in life. Although studies support the essentiality of DHA for the immune system development, more research is needed to rule out the essentiality of AA. Nevertheless, intervention studies have demonstrated improvement in many markers of immune function in infants fed formula supplemented with AA and DHA compared with unsupplemented formula, which appears to consistently result in beneficial health outcomes including reduction in the risk of developing allergic and atopic disease early in life.

  14. Dosimetry for infant exposures to electronic article surveillance system: posture, physical dimension and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Li, Congsheng; Wu, Tongning

    2015-04-01

    The use of electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems has become popular in many public sites. As a consequence, concern has risen about infant exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) from this kind of device. To evaluate infant exposure to MFs of an EAS system (operating at 125 kHz and 13.56 MHz), we numerically compared dosimetric results among adult, child and infant models. Results revealed that postures insignificantly influenced dosimetric results if there was a similar cross-sectional area under exposure. Although safety limits are unlikely to be exceeded, the infant has higher SAR values for brain and central nervous system tissues compared with adult (1.5x at 125 kHz and 112x at 13.56 MHz), which deserve further investigation. Infant's specific anatomy (e.g., non-proportionally large head and high fat content) did not induce higher SAR values. The numerical models developed in the study (stroller and postured infant models) could be freely used for nonprofit academic research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Medusa-Isosampler: A modular, network-based observatory system for combined physical, chemical and microbiological monitoring, sampling and incubation of hydrothermal and cold seep fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, A.; Flynn, M.; Taylor, P.

    2004-12-01

    The study of life in extreme environments provides an important context from which we can undertake the search for extraterrestrial life, and through which we can better understand biogeochemical feedback in terrestrial hydrothermal and cold seep systems. The Medusa-Isosampler project is aimed at fundamental research into understanding the potential for, and limits to, chemolithoautotrophic life, i.e. primary production without photosynthesis. One environment that might foster such life is associated with the high thermal and chemical gradient environment of hydrothermal vent structures. Another is associated with the lower thermal and chemical gradient environment of continental margin cold seeps. Under NERC, NASA and industrial support, we have designed a flexible instrumentation system, operating as networked, autonomous modules on a local area network, that will make possible simultaneous physical and chemical sampling and monitoring of hydrothermal and cold seep fluids, and the in situ and laboratory incubation of chemosynthetic microbes under high pressure, isobaric conditions. The system has been designed with long-term observatory operations in mind, and may be reconfigured dynamically as the requirements of the observatory installation change. The modular design will also accommodate new in situ chemical and biosensor technologies, provided by third parties. The system may be configured for seafloor use, and can be adapted to use in IODP boreholes. Our overall project goals are provide an instrumentation system capable of probing both high and low-gradient water-rock systems for chemolithoautotrophic biospheres, to identify the physical and chemical conditions that define these microhabitats and explore the details of the biogeochemical feedback loops that mediate these microhabitats, and to attempt to culture and identify chemolithoautotrophic microbial communities that might exist there. The Medusa-Isosampler system has been produced and is now

  16. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    Forsum, Elisabet; Olhager, Elisabeth; Törnqvist, Caroline

    2016-04-22

    (1) BACKGROUND: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2) METHODS: In 14 infants in an age range of 3-7 days, born after 32-35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software), and total body water (isotope dilution) were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3) RESULTS: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05) different from reference estimates. Body fat (%), assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL); (4) CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area.

  17. Neural systems and hormones mediating attraction to infant and child faces.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lizhu; Ma, Xiaole; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Weihua; Xu, Lei; Becker, Benjamin; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-01-01

    We find infant faces highly attractive as a result of specific features which Konrad Lorenz termed "Kindchenschema" or "baby schema," and this is considered to be an important adaptive trait for promoting protective and caregiving behaviors in adults, thereby increasing the chances of infant survival. This review first examines the behavioral support for this effect and physical and behavioral factors which can influence it. It then provides details of the increasing number of neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies investigating the neural circuitry underlying this baby schema effect in parents and non-parents of both sexes. Next it considers potential hormonal contributions to the baby schema effect in both sexes and the neural effects associated with reduced responses to infant cues in post-partum depression, anxiety and drug taking. Overall the findings reviewed reveal a very extensive neural circuitry involved in our perception of cuteness in infant faces, with enhanced activation compared to adult faces being found in brain regions involved in face perception, attention, emotion, empathy, memory, reward and attachment, theory of mind and also control of motor responses. Both mothers and fathers also show evidence for enhanced responses in these same neural systems when viewing their own as opposed to another child. Furthermore, responses to infant cues in many of these neural systems are reduced in mothers with post-partum depression or anxiety or have taken addictive drugs throughout pregnancy. In general reproductively active women tend to rate infant faces as cuter than men, which may reflect both heightened attention to relevant cues and a stronger activation in their brain reward circuitry. Perception of infant cuteness may also be influenced by reproductive hormones with the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin being most strongly associated to date with increased attention and attraction to infant cues in both sexes.

  18. Neural systems and hormones mediating attraction to infant and child faces

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lizhu; Ma, Xiaole; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Weihua; Xu, Lei; Becker, Benjamin; Kendrick, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    We find infant faces highly attractive as a result of specific features which Konrad Lorenz termed “Kindchenschema” or “baby schema,” and this is considered to be an important adaptive trait for promoting protective and caregiving behaviors in adults, thereby increasing the chances of infant survival. This review first examines the behavioral support for this effect and physical and behavioral factors which can influence it. It then provides details of the increasing number of neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies investigating the neural circuitry underlying this baby schema effect in parents and non-parents of both sexes. Next it considers potential hormonal contributions to the baby schema effect in both sexes and the neural effects associated with reduced responses to infant cues in post-partum depression, anxiety and drug taking. Overall the findings reviewed reveal a very extensive neural circuitry involved in our perception of cuteness in infant faces, with enhanced activation compared to adult faces being found in brain regions involved in face perception, attention, emotion, empathy, memory, reward and attachment, theory of mind and also control of motor responses. Both mothers and fathers also show evidence for enhanced responses in these same neural systems when viewing their own as opposed to another child. Furthermore, responses to infant cues in many of these neural systems are reduced in mothers with post-partum depression or anxiety or have taken addictive drugs throughout pregnancy. In general reproductively active women tend to rate infant faces as cuter than men, which may reflect both heightened attention to relevant cues and a stronger activation in their brain reward circuitry. Perception of infant cuteness may also be influenced by reproductive hormones with the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin being most strongly associated to date with increased attention and attraction to infant cues in both sexes. PMID:26236256

  19. Changes in Soil Carbon Turnover after Five Years of Bioenergy Cropping Systems from a Long-Term Incubation Experiment and Radiocarbon Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, L. M.; Sanford, G. R.; Heckman, K. A.; Jackson, R. D.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2016-12-01

    In the face of climate change, the global production of bioenergy crops has increased in response to policies calling for non-fossil energy sources as a means to mitigate rising atmospheric carbon (C) concentrations. To provide overall C sequestration benefits, identifying biomass crops that can maintain or enhance soil resources is desirable for sustainable bioenergy production. The objective of our study was to compare the effects of four bioenergy cropping systems on SOM dynamics in two agricultural soils: Mollisols at the University of Wisconsin Agricultural Research Station in Arlington, Wisconsin and Alfisols at Kellogg Biological Station in Hickory Corners, Michigan, USA. We used fresh soils collected in 2013 and archived soils collected in 2008 to measure differences among biofuel crops after 5 years of management. Using a 365-day laboratory soil incubation and radiocarbon measurements of bulk soil and respired C, we separated soils into three SOM pools and determined their corresponding turnover times. Total soil C respired from surface soils increased in the order: mixed species perennials > monoculture perennials > monoculture annuals. More C was associated with the active fraction in the sandy loam Alfisol and with the slow-cycling fraction in the silt loam Mollisol. Radiocarbon content of respired CO2 did not differ between corn and switchgrass, but did differ between 2008 and 2013. The respiration of more radiocarbon-depleted C after 5 years of cultivation may be due to an initial flux of young C following tillage in 2008 or to depletion of labile plant inputs with continued harvest. All bioenergy cropping systems lost soil C after 5 years. Monoculture perennial switchgrass systems did not provide significant C sequestration benefits, as expected, compared to monoculture annual corn systems. Bioenergy crop land-use change affects soil C dynamics, with implications for assessing C costs associated with biofuel production.

  20. Small Business Incubator Resource Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC.

    This kit consists of a set of resources to assist those interested in the start-up and management (incubation) of a new business. A guide to starting and managing a small business incubator (SBI) is provided. Included in the guide are the following: a discussion of the role and characteristics of the SBI concept; guidelines for carrying out the…

  1. Managing a Small Business Incubator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Charles, Ed.

    An increasingly popular economic development tool to improve the success rate of new firms is the small business incubator. These are buildings in which a number of new or growing businesses can locate and operate at a much lower overhead cost than in conventional space where market rates prevail. Incubator facilities are characterized by access…

  2. Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Wayne P.; King, Joseph B.; Jankura, Richard E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done to operate the Lewis Incubator for Technology for the period October 2000 through September 2004. The Lewis Incubator helped the startup and growth of technology based businesses with the potential to incorporate technology from the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  3. Evaluation of the WinROP system for identifying retinopathy of prematurity in Czech preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Timkovic, Juraj; Pokryvkova, Martina; Janurova, Katerina; Barinova, Denisa; Polackova, Renata; Masek, Petr

    2017-03-01

    Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is a potentially serious condition that can afflict preterm infants. Timely and correct identification of individuals at risk of developing a serious form of ROP is therefore of paramount importance. WinROP is an online system for predicting ROP based on birth weight and weight increments. However, the results vary significantly for various populations. It has not been evaluated in the Czech population. This study evaluates the test characteristics (specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values) of the WinROP system in Czech preterm infants. Data on 445 prematurely born infants included in the ROP screening program at the University Hospital Ostrava, Czech Republic, were retrospectively entered into the WinROP system and the outcomes of the WinROP and regular screening were compared. All 24 infants who developed high-risk (Type 1 or Type 2) ROP were correctly identified by the system. The sensitivity and negative predictive values for this group were 100%. However, the specificity and positive predictive values were substantially lower, resulting in a large number of false positives. Extending the analysis to low risk ROP, the system did not provide such reliable results. The system is a valuable tool for identifying infants who are not likely to develop high-risk ROP and this could help to substantially reduce the number of preterm infants in need of regular ROP screening. It is not suitable for predicting the development of less serious forms of ROP which is however in accordance with the declared aims of the WinROP system.

  4. What is the incubation period for listeriosis?

    PubMed

    Goulet, Véronique; King, Lisa A; Vaillant, Véronique; de Valk, Henriette

    2013-01-10

    Listeriosis is a foodborne infection with a low incidence but a high case fatality rate. Unlike common foodborne diseases, the incubation period can be long. The first incubation periods were documented during a large listeriosis outbreak published in 1987 by Linnan and al. in the New England Journal of Medicine (range: 3 days to 70 days). Data on the incubation period of listeriosis are scarce. Our study aim was to estimate precisely the incubation period of listeriosis using available data since 1987. We estimated the incubation period of listeriosis using available published data and data from outbreak investigations carried out by the French National Institute for Public Health Surveillance. We selected cases with an incubation period calculated when a patient had a single exposure to a confirmed food source contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes. We identified 37 cases of invasive listeriosis (10 cases with central nervous system involvement (CNS cases), 15 bacteraemia cases and 12 pregnancy-associated cases) and 9 outbreaks with gastroenteritis. The overall median incubation period of invasive listeriosis was 8 days (range: 1-67 days) and differed significantly by clinical form of the disease (p<0.0001). A longer incubation period was observed for pregnancy-associated cases (median: 27.5 days; range: 17-67 days) than for CNS cases (median: 9 days; range: 1-14 days) and for bacteraemia cases (median: 2 days; range: 1-12 days). For gastroenteritis cases, the median incubation period was 24 hours with variation from 6 to 240 hours. This information has implications for the investigation of food borne listeriosis outbreaks as the incubation period is used to determine the time period for which a food history is collected. We believe that, for listeriosis outbreaks, adapting the exposure window for documenting patients' food histories in accordance with the clinical form of infection will facilitate the identification of food products as the source of

  5. What is the incubation period for listeriosis?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Listeriosis is a foodborne infection with a low incidence but a high case fatality rate. Unlike common foodborne diseases, the incubation period can be long. The first incubation periods were documented during a large listeriosis outbreak published in 1987 by Linnan and al. in the New England Journal of Medicine (range: 3 days to 70 days). Data on the incubation period of listeriosis are scarce. Our study aim was to estimate precisely the incubation period of listeriosis using available data since 1987. Methods We estimated the incubation period of listeriosis using available published data and data from outbreak investigations carried out by the French National Institute for Public Health Surveillance. We selected cases with an incubation period calculated when a patient had a single exposure to a confirmed food source contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes. Results We identified 37 cases of invasive listeriosis (10 cases with central nervous system involvement (CNS cases), 15 bacteraemia cases and 12 pregnancy-associated cases) and 9 outbreaks with gastroenteritis. The overall median incubation period of invasive listeriosis was 8 days (range: 1–67 days) and differed significantly by clinical form of the disease (p<0.0001). A longer incubation period was observed for pregnancy-associated cases (median: 27.5 days; range: 17–67 days) than for CNS cases (median: 9 days; range: 1–14 days) and for bacteraemia cases (median: 2 days; range: 1–12 days). For gastroenteritis cases, the median incubation period was 24 hours with variation from 6 to 240 hours. Conclusions This information has implications for the investigation of food borne listeriosis outbreaks as the incubation period is used to determine the time period for which a food history is collected. We believe that, for listeriosis outbreaks, adapting the exposure window for documenting patients’ food histories in accordance with the clinical form of infection will facilitate the

  6. New Project Incubator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-04-30

    quality assurance, parts, materials, processes, and domain-specific considerations such as radiation effects in space missions which are all part of MA...Bulletin, 138(2), p.211. Katz, R. and Allen, T.J. (1982). Investigating the Not Invented Here (NIH) syndrome : A look at the performance, tenure, and...actual modularity of a cyber-physical system is particularly acute . As Lee [2008] points out, cyber-physical systems have always been held to a higher

  7. Multiple Memory Systems Are Unnecessary to Account for Infant Memory Development: An Ecological Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovee-Collier, Carolyn; Cuevas, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    How the memory of adults evolves from the memory abilities of infants is a central problem in cognitive development. The popular solution holds that the multiple memory systems of adults mature at different rates during infancy. The "early-maturing system" (implicit or nondeclarative memory) functions automatically from birth, whereas the…

  8. Vaccines and the infant's immune system--what nurses need to know.

    PubMed

    Heurter, Helen; Langman, Eileen

    2005-01-01

    Vaccines prevent serious infections by stimulating the immune system to identify and destroy invading organisms rapidly before they have a chance to cause disease. Armed with the scientific facts to refute current misconceptions surrounding vaccines and the infant's immune system, nurses can provide parents with the answers they need.

  9. Neural Signatures of Number Processing in Human Infants: Evidence for Two Core Systems Underlying Numerical Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Daniel C.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral research suggests that two cognitive systems are at the foundations of numerical thinking: one for representing 1-3 objects in parallel and one for representing and comparing large, approximate numerical magnitudes. We tested for dissociable neural signatures of these systems in preverbal infants by recording event-related potentials…

  10. Assembly, Tuning, and Transfer of Action Systems in Infants and Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthouze, Luc; Goldfield, Eugene C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to foster a discussion on whether experiments with robots can inform theory in infant motor development and specifically (1) how the interactions among the parts of a system, including the nervous and musculoskeletal systems and the forces acting on the body, induce organizational changes in the whole, and (2) how exploratory…

  11. Reliability of the identification of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in critically ill infants and children.

    PubMed

    Juskewitch, Justin E; Prasad, Swati; Salas, Carlos F Santillan; Huskins, W Charles

    2012-01-01

    To assess interobserver reliability of the identification of episodes of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in critically ill hospitalized infants and children. Retrospective, cross-sectional study of the application of the 2005 consensus definition of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in infants and children by two independent, trained reviewers using information in the electronic medical record. Eighteen-bed pediatric multidisciplinary medical/surgical pediatric intensive care unit. A randomly selected sample of children admitted consecutively to the pediatric intensive care unit between May 1 and September 30, 2009. None. Sixty infants and children were selected from a total of 343 admitted patients. Their median age was 3.9 yrs (interquartile range, 1.5-12.7), 57% were female, and 68% were Caucasian. Nineteen (32%) children were identified by both reviewers as having an episode of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (88% agreement, 95% confidence interval 78-94; κ = 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.59-0.92). Among these 19 children, agreement between the reviewers for individual systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria was: temperature (84%, 95% confidence interval 60-97); white blood cell count (89%, 95% confidence interval 67-99); respiratory rate (84%, 95% confidence interval 60-97); and heart rate (68%, 95% confidence interval 33-87). Episodes of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in critically ill infants and children can be identified reproducibly using the consensus definition.

  12. A New Classification System for Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Infants to assist Presurgical Infant Orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Daigavane, P S; Hazarey, P V; Niranjane, P; Vasudevan, S D; Thombare, B R; Daigavane, S

    2015-01-01

    The proposed advantages of pre-surgical naso-alveolar moulding (PNAM) are easy primary lip repair which heals under minimum tension reducing the scar formation and improving the aesthetic results in addition to reshaping of alar cartilage and improvement of nasal symmetry.However, the anatomy and alveolar morphology varies for each cleft child; the procedure for PNAM differs accordingly. In an attempt to categorize unilateral cleft lip and palate cases as per anatomical variations, a new classification system has been proposed. This classification aims to give an insight in unilateral cleft morphology based on which modification in PNAM procedure could be done.

  13. Inequities in Infancy: Addressing the Overrepresentation of African American Infants in the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Brenda Jones

    2008-01-01

    African American infants have higher rates of child welfare system involvement than any other demographic group. They are overrepresented at every point on the child welfare continuum, from reporting, to substantiation, to foster care placement, to adoption. Racial disparities have also been noted in the services these children receive. This…

  14. Mother-Infant Dyadic State Behaviour: Dynamic Systems in the Context of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Shayna S.; Crnic, Keith A.; Ross, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic systems methods offer invaluable insight into the nuances of the early parent-child relationship. This prospective study aimed to highlight the characteristics of mother-infant dyadic behavior at 12?weeks post-partum using state space grid analysis (total n?=?322). We also examined whether maternal prenatal depressive symptoms and…

  15. Diagnoses and Presenting Symptoms in an Infant Psychiatry Clinic: Comparison of Two Diagnostic Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Karen A.; Boyum, Lisa A.; Harmon, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To present data from a general infant psychiatry clinic, including range and frequency of presenting symptoms, relationship between symptoms and diagnoses, and comparison of two diagnostic systems, DSM-IV and Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC: 0-3). Method: A…

  16. Reliability of the echoMRI infant system for water and fat measurements in newborns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The precision and accuracy of a quantitative magnetic resonance (EchoMRI Infants) system in newborns were determined. Canola oil and drinking water phantoms (increments of 10 g to 1.9 kg) were scanned four times. Instrument reproducibility was assessed from three scans (within 10 minutes) in 42 heal...

  17. Development and application of a perioral force measurement system for infants with cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixian; Zheng, Yaqi; Rong, Qiong; Wu, Guofeng

    2017-11-01

    Muscles converge or intertweave around the perioral area, and this can be treated with sequential therapy in infants with cleft lip and palate (CLP). The force of perioral muscles has a great influence on maxillary development and morphology. Perioral force in infants with CLP has not been well studied, and accurate and reliable measurement of perioral force in infants remains a challenge. This study aimed to investigate a new way to accurately and reliably measure perioral force in infants with unilateral CLP (UCLP) and explore the change before and after cheiloplasty. A perioral force measurement system was developed and applied to measure perioral force at labial frenum area and the commissures on both the normal and the cleft sides of four infants with UCLP before and after cheiloplasty. The results were analyzed using the SPSS 19.0 software. The perioral force measurement system appears to produce valid results in infants with UCLP. Before cheiloplasty, the perioral force of labial frenum area was 1.79 ± 0.94 g/cm 2 and that of commissure on the normal and cleft sides was 5.41 ± 1.01 g/cm 2 and 3.12 ± 1.55 g/cm 2 , respectively (P < 0.05). After cheiloplasty, perioral force of labial frenum area was 12.73 ± 3.51 g/cm 2 and that of commissure on the normal and cleft sides was 7.64 ± 1.64 g/cm 2 and 7.27 ± 1.89 g/cm 2 , respectively (P > 0.05). Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional vision and cognition in infants with congenital disorders of the peripheral visual system.

    PubMed

    Dale, Naomi; Sakkalou, Elena; O'Reilly, Michelle; Springall, Clare; De Haan, Michelle; Salt, Alison

    2017-07-01

    To investigate how vision relates to early development by studying vision and cognition in a national cohort of 1-year-old infants with congenital disorders of the peripheral visual system and visual impairment. This was a cross-sectional observational investigation of a nationally recruited cohort of infants with 'simple' and 'complex' congenital disorders of the peripheral visual system. Entry age was 8 to 16 months. Vision level (Near Detection Scale) and non-verbal cognition (sensorimotor understanding, Reynell Zinkin Scales) were assessed. Parents completed demographic questionnaires. Of 90 infants (49 males, 41 females; mean 13mo, standard deviation [SD] 2.5mo; range 7-17mo); 25 (28%) had profound visual impairment (light perception at best) and 65 (72%) had severe visual impairment (basic 'form' vision). The Near Detection Scale correlated significantly with sensorimotor understanding developmental quotients in the 'total', 'simple', and 'complex' groups (all p<0.001). Age and vision accounted for 48% of sensorimotor understanding variance. Infants with profound visual impairment, especially in the 'complex' group with congenital disorders of the peripheral visual system with known brain involvement, showed the greatest cognitive delay. Lack of vision is associated with delayed early-object manipulative abilities and concepts; 'form' vision appeared to support early developmental advance. This paper provides baseline characteristics for cross-sectional and longitudinal follow-up investigations in progress. A methodological strength of the study was the representativeness of the cohort according to national epidemiological and population census data. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  19. Incubator Display Software Cost Reduction Toolset Software Requirements Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Susanne; Jeffords, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The Incubator Display Software Requirements Specification was initially developed by Intrinsyx Technologies Corporation (Intrinsyx) under subcontract to Lockheed Martin, Contract Number NAS2-02090, for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (ARC) Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP). The Incubator Display is a User Payload Application (UPA) used to control an Incubator subrack payload for the SSBRP. The Incubator Display functions on-orbit as part of the subrack payload laptop, on the ground as part of the Communication and Data System (CDS) ground control system, and also as part of the crew training environment.

  20. Small Technology Business Incubation Needs

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This report contains a summary of typical business incubation needs of small technology companies. This document will serve as a guide in the design and implementation of services offered by the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), an incubator program being designed and developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the methodology used to perform the needs assessment and services proposed to meet the needs of client companies. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologiesmore » through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland.« less

  1. Examining antecedents of infant attachment security with mothers and fathers: An ecological systems perspective☆

    PubMed Central

    Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    Taking an ecological systems perspective, early parent–child relationships can be affected by interactions between systems where some are more proximally linked to the child than others. Socioeconomic status, a distal factor, is associated with social functioning during childhood, but research on its association with functioning during infancy, particularly attachment, is scant and inconsistent. Moreover, it is not clear how distal factors affect infant functioning. Other systems such as marital adjustment and parenting may moderate or mediate relations between distal factors and infant attachment. The current longitudinal study (n = 135) examined the role of various systems – parental resources, marital functioning, parental sensitivity and involvement – in early infancy (3-, 5-, 7-months) on infant–mother (12-months) and infant–father (14-months) attachment security. Findings supported moderating processes but in different ways for infant–mother versus infant–father dyads. Implications for future studies and interventions are discussed. PMID:25890261

  2. Transient adrenocortical insufficiency of prematurity and systemic hypotension in very low birthweight infants

    PubMed Central

    Ng, P; Lee, C; Lam, C; Ma, K; Fok, T; Chan, I; Wong, E

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: A proportion of preterm, very low birthweight (VLBW, < 1500 g) infants may show inadequate adrenal response to stress in the immediate postnatal period. The human corticotrophin releasing hormone (hCRH) stimulation test was used to: (a) determine the relation between pituitary-adrenal response and systemic blood pressure in these infants; (b) characterise the endocrinological features of transient adrenocortical insufficiency of prematurity (TAP). Study design: A total of 226 hCRH tests were performed on 137 VLBW infants on day 7 and 14 of life in a tertiary neonatal centre. Results: Basal, peak, and incremental rise in serum cortisol (ΔCort0–30) on day 7 were associated significantly with the lowest systolic, mean, and diastolic blood pressures recorded during the first two weeks of life (r > 0.25, p < 0.005). These cortisol concentrations also correlated significantly but negatively with the maximum and total cumulative dose of dopamine (r > -0.22, p < 0.02), dobutamine (r > -0.18, p < 0.04), and adrenaline (r > -0.26, p < 0.004), total volume of crystalloid (r > -0.22, p < 0.02), and duration of inotrope treatment (r > -0.25, p < 0.006). Multivariate regression analysis of significant factors showed that the lowest systolic, mean, and diastolic blood pressures remained independently associated with serum cortisol (basal, peak, and ΔCort0–30) on day 7. Hypotensive infants requiring inotropes (group 2) were significantly less mature and more sick than infants with normal blood pressure (group 1). The areas under the ACTH response curves were significantly greater in group 2 than in group 1, on both day 7 (p = 0.004) and day 14 (p = 0.004). In contrast, the area under the cortisol response curve was significantly greater in group 1 than in group 2 on day 7 (p = 0.001), but there was no significant difference between the two groups on day 14. In addition, serum cortisol at the 50th centile in hypotensive infants had high specificity and positive

  3. Maternal overreactive sympathetic nervous system responses to repeated infant crying predicts risk for impulsive harsh discipline of infants.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Katharina J; Mesman, Judi; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-11-01

    Physiological reactivity to repeated infant crying was examined as a predictor of risk for harsh discipline use with 12-month-olds in a longitudinal study with 48 low-income mother-infant dyads. Physiological reactivity was measured while mothers listened to three blocks of infant cry sounds in a standard cry paradigm when their infants were 3 months old. Signs of harsh discipline use were observed during two tasks during a home visit when the infants were 12 months old. Mothers showing signs of harsh discipline (n = 10) with their 12-month-olds were compared to mothers who did not (n = 38) on their sympathetic (skin conductance levels [SCL]) and parasympathetic (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) reactivity to the cry sounds. Results showed a significant interaction effect for sympathetic reactivity only. Mean SCL of harsh-risk mothers showed a significant different response pattern from baseline to crying and onward into the recovery, suggesting that mean SCL of mothers who showed signs of harsh discipline continued to rise across the repeated bouts of cry sounds while, after an initial increase, mean SCL level of the other mothers showed a steady decline. We suggest that harsh parenting is reflected in physiological overreactivity to negative infant signals and discuss our findings from a polyvagal perspective.

  4. Organic Complexation of Dissolved Copper and Iron from Shipboard Incubations in the Central California Current System: Investigating the Impacts of Light Conditions and Phytoplankton Growth on Iron- and Copper-Binding Ligand Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellett, T.; Parker, C.; Brown, M.; Coale, T.; Duckham, C.; Chappell, D.; Maldonado, M. T.; Bruland, K. W.; Buck, K. N.

    2016-02-01

    Two shipboard incubation experiments were carried out in July of 2014 to investigate potential sources and sinks of iron- and copper-binding organic ligands in the surface ocean. Seawater for the experiments was collected from the central California Current System (cCCS) and incubated under varying light conditions and in the presence and absence of natural phytoplankton communities. Incubation treatments were sampled over a period of up to 3 days for measurements of total dissolved copper and iron, and for the concentration and conditional stability constants of copper- and iron-binding organic ligands. Dissolved copper and iron were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) following preconcentration on a Nobias PA1 resin. Organic ligand characteristics for iron and copper were determined using a method of competitive ligand exchange-absorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV) with the added competing ligand salicylaldoxime. Trends in ligand concentrations and conditional stability constants across the different treatments and over the course of the incubation experiments will be presented.

  5. Development of the Digestive System-Experimental Challenges and Approaches of Infant Lipid Digestion.

    PubMed

    Abrahamse, Evan; Minekus, Mans; van Aken, George A; van de Heijning, Bert; Knol, Jan; Bartke, Nana; Oozeer, Raish; van der Beek, Eline M; Ludwig, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    At least during the first 6 months after birth, the nutrition of infants should ideally consist of human milk which provides 40-60 % of energy from lipids. Beyond energy, human milk also delivers lipids with a specific functionality, such as essential fatty acids (FA), phospholipids, and cholesterol. Healthy development, especially of the nervous and digestive systems, depends fundamentally on these. Epidemiological data suggest that human milk provides unique health benefits during early infancy that extend to long-lasting benefits. Preclinical findings show that qualitative changes in dietary lipids, i.e., lipid structure and FA composition, during early life may contribute to the reported long-term effects. Little is known in this respect about the development of digestive function and the digestion and absorption of lipids by the newborn. This review gives a detailed overview of the distinct functionalities that dietary lipids from human milk and infant formula provide and the profound differences in the physiology and biochemistry of lipid digestion between infants and adults. Fundamental mechanisms of infant lipid digestion can, however, almost exclusively be elucidated in vitro. Experimental approaches and their challenges are reviewed in depth.

  6. Prions spread via the autonomic nervous system from the gut to the central nervous system in cattle incubating bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Christine; Ziegler, Ute; Buschmann, Anne; Weber, Artur; Kupfer, Leila; Oelschlegel, Anja; Hammerschmidt, Baerbel; Groschup, Martin H

    2007-03-01

    To elucidate the still-unknown pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), an oral BSE challenge and sequential kill study was carried out on 56 calves. Relevant tissues belonging to the peripheral and central nervous system, as well as to the lymphoreticular tract, from necropsied animals were analysed by highly sensitive immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting techniques to reveal the presence of BSE-associated pathological prion protein (PrPSc) depositions. Our results demonstrate two routes involving the autonomic nervous system through which BSE prions spread by anterograde pathways from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to the central nervous system (CNS): (i) via the coeliac and mesenteric ganglion complex, splanchnic nerves and the lumbal/caudal thoracic spinal cord (representing the sympathetic GIT innervation); and (ii) via the Nervus vagus (parasympathetic GIT innervation). The dorsal root ganglia seem to be subsequently affected, so it is likely that BSE prion invasion of the non-autonomic peripheral nervous system (e.g. sciatic nerve) is a secondary retrograde event following prion replication in the CNS. Moreover, BSE-associated PrPSc was already detected in the brainstem of an animal 24 months post-infection, which is 8 months earlier than reported previously. These findings are important for the understanding of BSE pathogenesis and for the development of new diagnostic strategies for this infectious disease.

  7. A global survey of adverse event following immunization surveillance systems for pregnant women and their infants.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Christine; MacDonald, Noni E; Steenbeek, Audrey; Ortiz, Justin R; Zuber, Patrick L F; Top, Karina A

    2016-08-02

    Strengthening antenatal care as a platform for maternal immunization is a priority of the World Health Organization (WHO). Systematic surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in pregnancy is needed to identify vaccine safety events. We sought to identify active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants. Representatives from all National Pharmacovigilance Centers and a convenience sample of vaccine safety experts were invited to complete a 14-item online survey in English, French or Spanish. The survey captured maternal immunization policies, and active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants in respondents' countries. The analysis was descriptive. We received responses from 51/185 (28%) invited persons from 47/148 (32%) countries representing all WHO regions, and low, middle and high-income countries. Thirty countries had national immunization policies targeting pregnant women. Eleven countries had active surveillance systems to detect serious AEFI in pregnant women and/or their infants, including six low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Thirty-nine countries had passive surveillance systems, including 23 LMIC. These active and passive surveillance programs cover approximately 8% and 56% of the worldwide annual birth cohort, respectively. Data from one active and four passive systems have been published. We identified 50 active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants, but few have published their findings. AEFI surveillance appears to be feasible in low and high resource settings. Further expansion of AEFI surveillance for pregnant women and sharing of vaccine safety information will provide additional evidence in support of maternal immunization policies.

  8. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-896] Certain Thermal Support Devices For... to 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on August 29, 2013...

  9. If you text them, they will come: using the HIV infant tracking system to improve early infant diagnosis quality and retention in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Gautney, Brad J; Khamadi, Samoel; Okoth, Vincent; Goggin, Kathy; Spinler, Jennifer K; Mwangi, Anne; Kimanga, Davies; Clark, Kristine F; Olungae, Helen D; Preidis, Geoffrey A

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of the HIV Infant Tracking System (HITSystem) for quality improvement of early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV services. This observational pilot study compared 12 months of historical preintervention EID outcomes at one urban and one peri-urban government hospital in Kenya to 12 months of intervention data to assess retention and time throughout the EID cascade of care. Mother-infant pairs enrolled in EID at participating hospitals before (n = 320) and during (n = 523) the HITSystem pilot were eligible to participate. The HITSystem utilizes Internet-based coordination of the multistep PCR cycle, automated alerts to trigger prompt action from providers and laboratory technicians, and text messaging to notify mothers when results are ready or additional action is needed. The main outcome measures were retention throughout EID services, meeting time-sensitive targets and improving results turn-around time, and increasing early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among HIV-infected infants. The HITSystem was associated with an increase in the proportion of HIV-exposed infants retained in EID care at 9 months postnatal (45.1-93.0% urban; 43.2-94.1% peri-urban), a decrease in turn-around times between sample collection, PCR results and notification of mothers in both settings, and a significant increase in the proportion of HIV-infected infants started on antiretroviral therapy at each hospital(14 vs. 100% urban; 64 vs. 100% peri-urban). The HITSystem maximizes the use of easily accessible technology to improve the quality and efficiency of EID services in resource-limited settings.

  10. Multiple Memory Systems Are Unnecessary to Account for Infant Memory Development: An Ecological Model

    PubMed Central

    Rovee-Collier, Carolyn; Cuevas, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    How the memory of adults evolves from the memory abilities of infants is a central problem in cognitive development. The popular solution holds that the multiple memory systems of adults mature at different rates during infancy. The early-maturing system (implicit or nondeclarative memory) functions automatically from birth, whereas the late-maturing system (explicit or declarative memory) functions intentionally, with awareness, from late in the first year. Data are presented from research on deferred imitation, sensory preconditioning, potentiation, and context for which this solution cannot account and present an alternative model that eschews the need for multiple memory systems. The ecological model of infant memory development (N. E. Spear, 1984) holds that members of all species are perfectly adapted to their niche at each point in ontogeny and exhibit effective, evolutionarily selected solutions to whatever challenges each new niche poses. Because adults and infants occupy different niches, what they perceive, learn, and remember about the same event differs, but their raw capacity to learn and remember does not. PMID:19209999

  11. A systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Beatrice; Messinger, Daniel; Bahrick, Lorraine E; Margolis, Amy; Buck, Karen A; Chen, Henian

    2016-04-01

    Principles of a dynamic, dyadic systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication, which considers self- and interactive processes in relation to one another, were tested. The process of interaction across time in a large low-risk community sample at infant age 4 months was examined. Split-screen videotape was coded on a 1-s time base for communication modalities of attention, affect, orientation, touch, and composite facial-visual engagement. Time-series approaches generated self- and interactive contingency estimates in each modality. Evidence supporting the following principles was obtained: (a) Significant moment-to-moment predictability within each partner (self-contingency) and between the partners (interactive contingency) characterizes mother-infant communication. (b) Interactive contingency is organized by a bidirectional, but asymmetrical, process: Maternal contingent coordination with infant is higher than infant contingent coordination with mother. (c) Self-contingency organizes communication to a far greater extent than interactive contingency. (d) Self- and interactive contingency processes are not separate; each affects the other in communication modalities of facial affect, facial-visual engagement, and orientation. Each person's self-organization exists in a dynamic, homoeostatic (negative feedback) balance with the degree to which the person coordinates with the partner. For example, those individuals who are less facially stable are likely to coordinate more strongly with the partner's facial affect and vice versa. Our findings support the concept that the dyad is a fundamental unit of analysis in the investigation of early interaction. Moreover, an individual's self-contingency is influenced by the way the individual coordinates with the partner. Our results imply that it is not appropriate to conceptualize interactive processes without simultaneously accounting for dynamically interrelated self-organizing processes. (c) 2016 APA, all

  12. A Systems View of Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Beatrice; Messinger, Daniel; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Margolis, Amy; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian

    2016-01-01

    Principles of a dynamic, dyadic systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication, which considers self- and interactive processes in relation to one another, were tested. We examined the process of interaction across time in a large, low-risk community sample, at infant age 4 months. Split-screen videotape was coded on a 1-s time base for communication modalities of attention, affect, orientation, touch and composite facial-visual engagement. Time-series approaches generated self- and interactive contingency estimates in each modality. Evidence supporting the following principles was obtained: (1) Significant moment-to-moment predictability within each partner (self-contingency) and between the partners (interactive contingency) characterizes mother-infant communication. (2) Interactive contingency is organized by a bi-directional, but asymmetrical, process: maternal contingent coordination with infant is higher than infant contingent coordination with mother. (3) Self-contingency organizes communication to a far greater extent than interactive contingency. (4) Self-and interactive contingency processes are not separate; each affects the other, in communication modalities of facial affect, facial-visual engagement, and orientation. Each person’s self-organization exists in a dynamic, homoeostatic (negative feedback) balance with the degree to which the person coordinates with the partner. For example, those individuals who are less facially stable are likely to coordinate more strongly with the partner’s facial affect; and vice-versa. Our findings support the concept that the dyad is a fundamental unit of analysis in the investigation of early interaction. Moreover, an individual’s self-contingency is influenced by the way the individual coordinates with the partner. Our results imply that it is not appropriate to conceptualize interactive processes without simultaneously accounting for dynamically inter-related self-organizing processes. PMID

  13. Diminished Reactivity of Postmature Human Infants to Sucrose Compared with Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of healthy 39-week-old infants, so-called term infants, and chronically stressed 42-week-old infants, so-called postmature infants, showed that sucrose was extremely effective in calming term infants but less effective in calming postmature infants. Results supported the hypothesis that sucrose engages an opioid system in infants. (BG)

  14. Classification System for the Sudden Unexpected Infant Death Case Registry and its Application

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K.; Camperlengo, Lena; Ludvigsen, Rebecca; Cottengim, Carri; Anderson, Robert N.; Andrew, Thomas; Covington, Theresa; Hauck, Fern R.; Kemp, James; MacDorman, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUID) accounted for 1 in 3 postneonatal deaths in 2010. Sudden infant death syndrome and accidental sleep-related suffocation are among the most frequently reported types of SUID. The causes of these SUID usually are not obvious before a medico-legal investigation and may remain unexplained even after investigation. Lack of consistent investigation practices and an autopsy marker make it difficult to distinguish sudden infant death syndrome from other SUID. Standardized categories might assist in differentiating SUID subtypes and allow for more accurate monitoring of the magnitude of SUID, as well as an enhanced ability to characterize the highest risk groups. To capture information about the extent to which cases are thoroughly investigated and how factors like unsafe sleep may contribute to deaths, CDC created a multistate SUID Case Registry in 2009. As part of the registry, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed a classification system that recognizes the uncertainty about how suffocation or asphyxiation may contribute to death and that accounts for unknown and incomplete information about the death scene and autopsy. This report describes the classification system, including its definitions and decision-making algorithm, and applies the system to 436 US SUID cases that occurred in 2011 and were reported to the registry. These categories, although not replacing official cause-of-death determinations, allow local and state programs to track SUID subtypes, creating a valuable tool to identify gaps in investigation and inform SUID reduction strategies. PMID:24913798

  15. Evolutionary dynamics of incubation periods

    PubMed Central

    Ottino-Loffler, Bertrand; Scott, Jacob G

    2017-01-01

    The incubation period for typhoid, polio, measles, leukemia and many other diseases follows a right-skewed, approximately lognormal distribution. Although this pattern was discovered more than sixty years ago, it remains an open question to explain its ubiquity. Here, we propose an explanation based on evolutionary dynamics on graphs. For simple models of a mutant or pathogen invading a network-structured population of healthy cells, we show that skewed distributions of incubation periods emerge for a wide range of assumptions about invader fitness, competition dynamics, and network structure. The skewness stems from stochastic mechanisms associated with two classic problems in probability theory: the coupon collector and the random walk. Unlike previous explanations that rely crucially on heterogeneity, our results hold even for homogeneous populations. Thus, we predict that two equally healthy individuals subjected to equal doses of equally pathogenic agents may, by chance alone, show remarkably different time courses of disease. PMID:29266000

  16. Evolutionary dynamics of incubation periods.

    PubMed

    Ottino-Loffler, Bertrand; Scott, Jacob G; Strogatz, Steven H

    2017-12-21

    The incubation period for typhoid, polio, measles, leukemia and many other diseases follows a right-skewed, approximately lognormal distribution. Although this pattern was discovered more than sixty years ago, it remains an open question to explain its ubiquity. Here, we propose an explanation based on evolutionary dynamics on graphs. For simple models of a mutant or pathogen invading a network-structured population of healthy cells, we show that skewed distributions of incubation periods emerge for a wide range of assumptions about invader fitness, competition dynamics, and network structure. The skewness stems from stochastic mechanisms associated with two classic problems in probability theory: the coupon collector and the random walk. Unlike previous explanations that rely crucially on heterogeneity, our results hold even for homogeneous populations. Thus, we predict that two equally healthy individuals subjected to equal doses of equally pathogenic agents may, by chance alone, show remarkably different time courses of disease.

  17. Incubation Effects in Problem Solving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-14

    to other matters The incubation period is over when a sudden illumination occurs or when the problem solver resumes conscious problem solving and then...atheoretical -- as it must be if we are to establish the ’Briefly, Best-First search involves evaluating each idea that has been generated so far and...choosing the most promising one for further exploration, After a certain amount of exploration, the evaluation process is repeated. A certain idea may look

  18. Artemis 123: development of a whole-head infant and young child MEG system

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Timothy P. L.; Paulson, Douglas N.; Hirschkoff, Eugene; Pratt, Kevin; Mascarenas, Anthony; Miller, Paul; Han, Mengali; Caffrey, Jason; Kincade, Chuck; Power, Bill; Murray, Rebecca; Chow, Vivian; Fisk, Charlie; Ku, Matthew; Chudnovskaya, Darina; Dell, John; Golembski, Rachel; Lam, Peter; Blaskey, Lisa; Kuschner, Emily; Bloy, Luke; Gaetz, William; Edgar, J. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background: A major motivation in designing the new infant and child magnetoencephalography (MEG) system described in this manuscript is the premise that electrophysiological signatures (resting activity and evoked responses) may serve as biomarkers of neurodevelopmental disorders, with neuronal abnormalities in conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) potentially detectable early in development. Whole-head MEG systems are generally optimized/sized for adults. Since magnetic field produced by neuronal currents decreases as a function of distance2 and infants and young children have smaller head sizes (and thus increased brain-to-sensor distance), whole-head adult MEG systems do not provide optimal signal-to-noise in younger individuals. This spurred development of a whole-head infant and young child MEG system – Artemis 123. Methods:In addition to describing the design of the Artemis 123, the focus of this manuscript is the use of Artemis 123 to obtain auditory evoked neuromagnetic recordings and resting-state data in young children. Data were collected from a 14-month-old female, an 18-month-old female, and a 48-month-old male. Phantom data are also provided to show localization accuracy. Results:Examination of Artemis 123 auditory data showed generalizability and reproducibility, with auditory responses observed in all participants. The auditory MEG measures were also found to be manipulable, exhibiting sensitivity to tone frequency. Furthermore, there appeared to be a predictable sensitivity of evoked components to development, with latencies decreasing with age. Examination of resting-state data showed characteristic oscillatory activity. Finally, phantom data showed that dipole sources could be localized with an error less than 0.5 cm. Conclusions:Artemis 123 allows efficient recording of high-quality whole-head MEG in infants four years and younger. Future work will involve examining the feasibility of obtaining somatosensory and visual recordings

  19. Space Station Biological Research Project Habitat: Incubator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, G. J.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Scheller, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    Developed as part of the suite of Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) hardware to support research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Incubator is a temperature-controlled chamber, for conducting life science research with small animal, plant and microbial specimens. The Incubator is designed for use only on the ISS and is transported to/from the ISS, unpowered and without specimens, in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) of the Shuttle. The Incubator interfaces with the three SSBRP Host Systems; the Habitat Holding Racks (HHR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (CR), providing investigators with the ability to conduct research in microgravity and at variable gravity levels of up to 2-g. The temperature within the Specimen Chamber can be controlled between 4 and 45 C. Cabin air is recirculated within the Specimen Chamber and can be exchanged with the ISS cabin at a rate of approximately equal 50 cc/min. The humidity of the Specimen Chamber is monitored. The Specimen Chamber has a usable volume of approximately equal 19 liters and contains two (2) connectors at 28v dc, (60W) for science equipment; 5 dedicated thermometers for science; ports to support analog and digital signals from experiment unique sensors or other equipment; an Ethernet port; and a video port. It is currently manifested for UF-3 and will be launched integrated within the first SSBRP Habitat Holding Rack.

  20. Original XPCTM Effect on Salmonella Typhimurium and Cecal Microbiota from Three Different Ages of Broiler Chickens When Incubated in an Anaerobic In Vitro Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si Hong; Kim, Sun Ae; Lee, Sang In; Rubinelli, Peter M.; Roto, Stephanie M.; Pavlidis, Hilary O.; McIntyre, Donald R.; Ricke, Steven C.

    2017-01-01

    Feed supplements are utilized in the poultry industry as a means for improving growth performance and reducing pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Diamond V Original XPCTM (XPC, a fermented product generated from yeast cultures) on Salmonella Typhimurium ST 97 along with its potential for modulation of the cecal microbiota by using an anaerobic in vitro mixed culture assay. Cecal slurries obtained from three broiler chickens at each of three sampling ages (14, 28, and 42 days) were generated and exposed to a 24 h pre-incubation period with the various treatments: XPC (1% XPC, ceca, and feeds), CO (ceca only), and NC (negative control) group consisting of ceca and feeds. The XPC, CO, and NC were each challenged with S. Typhimurium and subsequently plated on selective media at 0, 24, and 48 h. Plating results indicated that the XPC treatment significantly reduced the survival of S. Typhimurium at the 24 h plating time point for both the 28 and 42 days bird sampling ages, while S. Typhimurium reduction in the NC appeared to eventually reach the same population survival level at the 48 h plating time point. For microbiome analysis, Trial 1 revealed that XPC, CO, and NC groups exhibited a similar pattern of taxa summary. However, more Bacteroidetes were observed in the CO group at 24 and 48 h. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in alpha diversity among samples based on day, hour and treatment. For beta diversity analysis, a pattern shift was observed when samples clustered according to sampling hour. In Trial 2, both XPC and NC groups exhibited the highest Firmicutes level at 0 h but the Bacteroidetes group became dominant at 6 h. Complexity of alpha diversity was increased in the initial contents from older birds and became less complex after 6 h of incubation. Beta diversity analysis was clustered as a function of treatment NC and XPC groups and by individual hours including 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. Overall, addition of XPC

  1. Control systems engineering for optimizing a prenatal weight gain intervention to regulate infant birth weight.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jennifer S; Downs, Danielle Symons; Dong, Yuwen; Rivera, Daniel E

    2014-07-01

    We used dynamical systems modeling to describe how a prenatal behavioral intervention that adapts to the needs of each pregnant woman may help manage gestational weight gain and alter the obesogenic intrauterine environment to regulate infant birth weight. This approach relies on integrating mechanistic energy balance, theory of planned behavior, and self-regulation models to describe how internal processes can be impacted by intervention dosages, and reinforce positive outcomes (e.g., healthy eating and physical activity) to moderate gestational weight gain and affect birth weight. A simulated hypothetical case study from MATLAB with Simulink showed how, in response to our adaptive intervention, self-regulation helps adjust perceived behavioral control. This, in turn, changes the woman's intention and behavior with respect to healthy eating and physical activity during pregnancy, affecting gestational weight gain and infant birth weight. This article demonstrates the potential for real-world applications of an adaptive intervention to manage gestational weight gain and moderate infant birth weight. This model could be expanded to examine the long-term sustainable impacts of an intervention that varies according to the participant's needs on maternal postpartum weight retention and child postnatal eating behavior.

  2. Household-level predictors of maternal mental health and systemic inflammation among infants in Mwanza, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Jason A; Manyama, Mange; Wilson, Warren

    2016-07-01

    Household conditions and culturally/socially variable childcare practices influence priming of the inflammatory response during infancy. Maternal mental health may partially mediate that effect. Among mother-infant dyads in Mwanza, Tanzania, we hypothesized that poorer maternal mental health would be associated with adverse household ecology, lower social capital, and greater inflammation among infants under the age of one; and that mental health would mediate any effects of household ecology/social capital on inflammation. We collected dried blood spots from mother-infant dyads (N = 88) at health centers near Mwanza, Tanzania. To assess household ecology and social capital, we conducted interviews with mothers using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, the MacArthur Subjective Social Status Scale, and a household wealth inventory. We employed the Hopkins Symptom Checklist to assess maternal mental health. A high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) assay was used to quantify inflammation. Severe food insecurity (OR: 5.16), lower subjective social status (r = -0.32), and lower household wealth (r = -0.26) were associated with high symptoms of maternal depression. Lower household wealth (r = -0.21) and severe food insecurity (OR: 2.52) were associated with high anxiety. High depression symptoms (OR: 2.56) and severe food insecurity (OR: 2.77) each were associated with greater-than-median infant CRP. However, mediation was not supported. Maternal mental health should be considered alongside nutritional status, pathogen exposure, and education as a potential driver of very early innate immune system development. Proximal mechanisms warrant further investigation. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:461-470, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Same-Day Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacteria in Positive Blood Culture Broths Using Short-Term Incubation on Solid Medium with the MicroFlex LT, Vitek-MS, and Vitek2 Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jihye; Han, Geum Hee; Kim, Myungsook; Lee, Kyungwon

    2018-01-01

    Background Early and appropriate antibiotic treatment improves the clinical outcome of patients with septicemia; therefore, reducing the turn-around time for identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) results is essential. We established a method for rapid ID and AST using short-term incubation of positive blood culture broth samples on solid media, and evaluated its performance relative to that of the conventional method using two rapid ID systems and a rapid AST method. Methods A total of 254 mono-microbial samples were included. Positive blood culture samples were incubated on blood agar plates for six hours and identified by the MicroFlex LT (Bruker Daltonics) and Vitek-MS (bioMeriéux) systems, followed by AST using the Vitek2 System (bioMeriéux). Results The correct species-level ID rates were 82.3% (209/254) and 78.3% (199/254) for the MicroFlex LT and Vitek-MS platforms, respectively. For the 1,174 microorganism/antimicrobial agent combinations tested, the rapid AST method showed total concordance of 97.8% (1,148/1,174) with the conventional method, with a very major error rate of 0.5%, major error rate of 0.7%, and minor error rate of 1.0%. Conclusions Routine implementation of this short-term incubation method could provide ID results on the day of blood culture-positivity detection and one day earlier than the conventional AST method. This simple method will be very useful for rapid ID and AST of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles in routine clinical practice. PMID:29401558

  4. Same-Day Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacteria in Positive Blood Culture Broths Using Short-Term Incubation on Solid Medium with the MicroFlex LT, Vitek-MS, and Vitek2 Systems.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jihye; Hong, Sung Kuk; Han, Geum Hee; Kim, Myungsook; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon

    2018-05-01

    Early and appropriate antibiotic treatment improves the clinical outcome of patients with septicemia; therefore, reducing the turn-around time for identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) results is essential. We established a method for rapid ID and AST using short-term incubation of positive blood culture broth samples on solid media, and evaluated its performance relative to that of the conventional method using two rapid ID systems and a rapid AST method. A total of 254 mono-microbial samples were included. Positive blood culture samples were incubated on blood agar plates for six hours and identified by the MicroFlex LT (Bruker Daltonics) and Vitek-MS (bioMeriéux) systems, followed by AST using the Vitek2 System (bioMeriéux). The correct species-level ID rates were 82.3% (209/254) and 78.3% (199/254) for the MicroFlex LT and Vitek-MS platforms, respectively. For the 1,174 microorganism/antimicrobial agent combinations tested, the rapid AST method showed total concordance of 97.8% (1,148/1,174) with the conventional method, with a very major error rate of 0.5%, major error rate of 0.7%, and minor error rate of 1.0%. Routine implementation of this short-term incubation method could provide ID results on the day of blood culture-positivity detection and one day earlier than the conventional AST method. This simple method will be very useful for rapid ID and AST of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles in routine clinical practice. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine

  5. Three-dimensional facial anthropometry of unilateral cleft lip infants with a structured light scanning system.

    PubMed

    Li, Guanghui; Wei, Jianhua; Wang, Xi; Wu, Guofeng; Ma, Dandan; Wang, Bo; Liu, Yanpu; Feng, Xinghua

    2013-08-01

    Cleft lip in the presence or absence of a cleft palate is a major public health problem. However, few studies have been published concerning the soft-tissue morphology of cleft lip infants. Currently, obtaining reliable three-dimensional (3D) surface models of infants remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate a new way of capturing 3D images of cleft lip infants using a structured light scanning system. In addition, the accuracy and precision of the acquired facial 3D data were validated and compared with direct measurements. Ten unilateral cleft lip patients were enrolled in the study. Briefly, 3D facial images of the patients were acquired using a 3D scanner device before and after the surgery. Fourteen items were measured by direct anthropometry and 3D image software. The accuracy and precision of the 3D system were assessed by comparative analysis. The anthropometric data obtained using the 3D method were in agreement with the direct anthropometry measurements. All data calculated by the software were 'highly reliable' or 'reliable', as defined in the literature. The localisation of four landmarks was not consistent in repeated experiments of inter-observer reliability in preoperative images (P<0.05), while the intra-observer reliability in both pre- and postoperative images was good (P>0.05). The structured light scanning system is proven to be a non-invasive, accurate and precise method in cleft lip anthropometry. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds in neonatal incubators.

    PubMed

    Prazad, P; Cortes, D R; Puppala, B L; Donovan, R; Kumar, S; Gulati, A

    2008-08-01

    To identify and quantify airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inside neonatal incubators during various modes of operation within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment. Air samples were taken from 10 unoccupied incubators in four operational settings along with ambient air samples using air sampling canisters. The samples were analyzed following EPA TO-15 using a Tekmar AutoCan interfaced to Agilent 6890 Gas Chromatograph with a 5973 Mass Spectrometer calibrated for 60 EPA TO-15 method target compounds. Non-target compounds were tentatively identified using mass spectral interpretation and with a mass spectral library created by National Institute for Standards and Technology. Two non-target compounds, 2-heptanone and n-butyl acetate, were found at elevated concentrations inside the incubators compared with ambient room air samples. Increase in temperature and addition of humidity produced further increased concentrations of these compounds. Their identities were verified by mass spectra and relative retention times using authentic standards. They were quantified using vinyl acetate and 2-hexanone as surrogate standards. The emission pattern of these two compounds and background measurements indicate that they originate inside the incubator. There is evidence that exposure to some VOCs may adversely impact the fetal and developing infants' health. Currently, as there is no definitive information available on the effects of acute or chronic low-level exposure to these compounds in neonates, future studies evaluating the health effects of neonatal exposure to these VOCs are needed.

  7. Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative (SRCEII)

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Michael

    The Austin Technology Incubator’s (ATI’s) Clean Energy Incubator at the University of Texas at Austin (ATI-CEI) utilized the National Incubator Initiative for Clean Energy (NIICE) funding to establish the Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative, composed of clean energy incubators from The University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin), The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), and Texas A&M University (TAMU).

  8. Dew-point hygrometry system for measurement of evaporative water loss in infants.

    PubMed

    Ariagno, R L; Glotzbach, S F; Baldwin, R B; Rector, D M; Bowley, S M; Moffat, R J

    1997-03-01

    Evaporation of water from the skin is an important mechanism in thermal homeostasis. Resistance hygrometry, in which the water vapor pressure gradient above the skin surface is calculated, has been the measurement method of choice in the majority of pediatric investigations. However, resistance hygrometry is influenced by changes in ambient conditions such as relative humidity, surface temperature, and convection currents. We have developed a ventilated capsule method that minimized these potential sources of measurement error and that allowed second-by-second, long-term, continuous measurements of evaporative water loss in sleeping infants. Air with a controlled reference humidity (dew-point temperature = 0 degree C) is delivered to a small, lightweight skin capsule and mixed with the vapor on the surface of the skin. The dew point of the resulting mixture is measured by using a chilled mirror dew-point hygrometer. The system indicates leaks, is mobile, and is accurate within 2%, as determined by gravimetric calibration. Examples from a recording of a 13-wk-old full-term infant obtained by using the system give evaporative water loss rates of approximately 0.02 mgH2O.cm-2.min-1 for normothermic baseline conditions and values up to 0.4 mgH2O.cm-2. min-1 when the subject was being warmed. The system is effective for clinical investigations that require dynamic measurements of water loss.

  9. Benefits of Incubation on Divergent Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Noelle C.; Chen, Meng-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Studies on whether fixation cues provided in the first episode of divergent thinking tasks influence creative outcomes after incubation, as they do for convergent problem-solving tasks, remain limited. This research examined the beneficial effects of incubation using the delayed- and immediate-incubation paradigms. Participants in Experiment 1…

  10. 21 CFR 880.5400 - Neonatal incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neonatal incubator. 880.5400 Section 880.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... § 880.5400 Neonatal incubator. (a) Identification. A neonatal incubator is a device consisting of a...

  11. Comparison of different incubation conditions for microbiological environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Oliver; Berchtold, Manfred; Staerk, Alexandra; Roesti, David

    2014-01-01

    Environmental monitoring represents an integral part of the microbiological quality control system of a pharmaceutical manufacturing operation. However, guidance documents differ regarding recommendation of a procedure, particularly regarding incubation time, incubation temperature, or nutrient media. Because of these discrepancies, many manufacturers decide for a particular environmental monitoring sample incubation strategy and support this decision with validation data. Such validations are typically laboratory-based in vitro studies, meaning that these are based on comparing incubation conditions and nutrient media through use of cultured microorganisms. An informal survey of the results of these in vitro studies performed at Novartis or European manufacturing sites of different pharmaceutical companies highlighted that no consensus regarding the optimal incubation conditions for microbial recovery existed. To address this question differently, we collected a significant amount of samples directly from air, inanimate surfaces, and personnel in pharmaceutical production and packaging rooms during manufacturing operation (in situ study). Samples were incubated under different conditions suggested in regulatory guidelines, and recovery of total aerobic microorganisms as well as moulds was assessed. We found the highest recovery of total aerobic count from areas with personnel flow using a general microbiological growth medium incubated at 30-35 °C. The highest recovery of moulds was obtained with mycological medium incubated at 20-25 °C. Single-plate strategies (two-temperature incubation or an intermediate incubation temperature of 25-30 °C) also yielded reasonable recovery of total aerobic count and moulds. However, recovery of moulds was found to be highly inefficient at 30-35 °C compared to lower incubation temperatures. This deficiency could not be rectified by subsequent incubation at 20-25 °C. A laboratory-based in vitro study performed in parallel was

  12. Laboratory Evaluation of the Alere q Point-of-Care System for Early Infant HIV Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Nei-yuan; Dunning, Lorna; Kroon, Max; Myer, Landon

    2016-01-01

    Early infant diagnosis (EID) and prompt linkage to care are critical to minimise the high morbidity and mortality associated with infant HIV infection. Attrition in the "EID cascade" is common; however, point-of-care (POC) EID assays with same-day result could facilitate prompt linkage of HIV-infected infant to treatment. Despite a number of POC EID assays in development, few have been independently evaluated and data on new technologies are urgently needed to inform policy. We compared Alere q 1/2 Detect POC system laboratory test characteristics with the local standard of care (SOC), Roche CAP/CTM HIV-1 qualitative PCR in an independent laboratory-based evaluation in Cape Town, South Africa. Routinely EID samples collected between November 2013 and September 2014 were each tested by both SOC and POC systems. Repeat testing was done to troubleshoot any discrepancy between POC and SOC results. Overall, 1098 children with a median age of 47 days (IQR, 42-117) were included. Birth PCR (age <7 days) comprised of 8% (n = 92) tests while 56% (n = 620) of children tested as part of routine EID (ages 6-14 weeks). In the overall direct comparison, Alere q Detect achieved sensitivity of 95.5% (95% CI, 91.7-97.9%) and a specificity of 99.8% (95% CI, 99.1-100%). Following repeat testing of discordant samples and exclusion of any inconclusive results, the POC assay sensitivity and specificity were 96.9% (95% CI 93.4-98.9%) and 100% (lower 95% CI 98%) respectively. Among birth PCR tests the POC assay had slightly lower sensitivity (93.3% vs 96.5% in routine EID) and higher assay error rate (10% vs 5% in samples of older children, p = 0.04). Our results indicate this POC assay performs well for EID in the laboratory. The high specificity and thus high positive predictive value would suggest a positive POC result may be adequate for immediate infant ART initiation. While POC testing for EID may have particular utility for birth testing at delivery facilities, the lower

  13. Noise level in neonatal incubators: A comparative study of three models.

    PubMed

    Fernández Zacarías, F; Beira Jiménez, J L; Bustillo Velázquez-Gaztelu, P J; Hernández Molina, R; Lubián López, Simón

    2018-04-01

    Preterm infants usually have to spend a long time in an incubator, excessive noise in which can have adverse physiological and psychological effects on neonates. In fact, incubator noise levels typically range from 45 to 70 dB but differences in this respect depend largely on the noise measuring method used. The primary aim of this work was to assess the extent to which noise in an incubator comes from its own fan and how efficiently the incubator can isolate external noise. Three different incubator models were characterized for acoustic performance by measuring their internal noise levels in an anechoic chamber, and also for noise isolation efficiency by using a pink noise source in combination with an internal and an external microphone that were connected to an SVAN958 noise analyzer. The incubators studied produced continuous equivalent noise levels of 53.5-58 dB and reduced external noise by 5.2-10.4 dB. A preterm infant in an incubator is exposed to noise levels clearly exceeding international recommendations even though such levels usually comply with the limit set in the standard IEC60601-2-19: 2009 (60 dBA) under normal conditions of use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Proteolytic Systems in Milk: Perspectives on the Evolutionary Function within the Mammary Gland and the Infant

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, David C.; Murray, Niamh M.; Gan, Junai

    2015-01-01

    Milk contains elements of numerous proteolytic systems (zymogens, active proteases, protease inhibitors and protease activators) produced in part from blood, in part by mammary epithelial cells and in part by immune cell secretion. Researchers have examined milk proteases for decades, as they can cause major defects in milk quality and cheese production. Most previous research has examined these proteases with the aim to eliminate or control their actions. However, our recent peptidomics research demonstrates that these milk proteases produce specific peptides in healthy milk and continue to function within the infant’s gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggest that milk proteases have an evolutionary function in aiding the infant’s digestion or releasing functional peptides. In other words, the mother provides the infant with not only dietary proteins but also the means to digest them. However, proteolysis in the milk is controlled by a balance of protease inhibitors and protease activators so that only a small portion of milk proteins are digested within the mammary gland. This regulation presents a question: If proteolysis is beneficial to the infant, what benefits are gained by preventing complete proteolysis through the presence of protease inhibitors? In addition to summarizing what is known about milk proteolytic systems, we explore possible evolutionary explanations for this proteolytic balance. PMID:26179272

  15. Breast-fed and bottle-fed infant rhesus macaques develop distinct gut microbiotas and immune systems

    PubMed Central

    Ardeshir, Amir; Narayan, Nicole R.; Méndez-Lagares, Gema; Lu, Ding; Rauch, Marcus; Huang, Yong; Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; Lynch, Susan V.; Hartigan-O'Connor, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    Diet has a strong influence on the intestinal microbiota in both humans and animal models. It is well established that microbial colonization is required for normal development of the immune system and that specific microbial constituents prompt the differentiation or expansion of certain immune cell subsets. Nonetheless, it has been unclear how profoundly diet might shape the primate immune system or how durable the influence might be. We show that breast-fed and bottle-fed infant rhesus macaques develop markedly different immune systems, which remain different 6 months after weaning when the animals begin receiving identical diets. In particular, breast-fed infants develop robust populations of memory T cells as well as T helper 17 (TH17) cells within the memory pool, whereas bottle-fed infants do not. These findings may partly explain the variation in human susceptibility to conditions with an immune basis, as well as the variable protection against certain infectious diseases. PMID:25186175

  16. Immediate systemic allergic reaction in an infant to fish allergen ingested through breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Arima, Takayasu; Campos-Alberto, Eduardo; Funakoshi, Hiraku; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Tomiita, Minako; Kohno, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    This is a rare case report of systemic allergic reaction to fish allergen ingested through breast milk. Mother ate raw fish more than 3 times a week. Her consumption of fish was associated with urticaria and wheeze in an infant via breast-feeding. Fish-specific IgE antibodies were detected by skin prick test but not by in vitro IgE test. This case demonstrates that fish protein ingested by mother can cause an immediate systemic allergic reaction in offspring through breast-feeding. Although fish intake is generally recommended for prevention of allergy, one should be aware that frequent intake of fish by a lactating mother may sensitize the baby and induce an allergic reaction through breast-feeding. PMID:27803887

  17. Incubation and Intuition in Creative Problem Solving.

    PubMed

    Gilhooly, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work) which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights) when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered. Some recent studies of divergent thinking, using the Alternative Uses task, carried out in my laboratory regarding Immediate vs. Delayed Incubation and the effects of resource competition from interpolated activities are discussed. These studies supported a role for Unconscious Work as against Intermittent Conscious work or Beneficial Forgetting in incubation.

  18. Incubation and Intuition in Creative Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    Gilhooly, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work) which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights) when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered. Some recent studies of divergent thinking, using the Alternative Uses task, carried out in my laboratory regarding Immediate vs. Delayed Incubation and the effects of resource competition from interpolated activities are discussed. These studies supported a role for Unconscious Work as against Intermittent Conscious work or Beneficial Forgetting in incubation. PMID:27499745

  19. A model study of periodic breathing, stability of the neonatal respiratory system, and causes of sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, F T

    1997-09-01

    A mathematical model of the neonatal respiratory system has been modified and used to examine the system under various physiological conditions at different stages of maturity. The respiratory responses in hypoxia, periodic breathing and following a sign have been analyzed. The effects of different respiratory parameters on the stability of the system for normal and premature infants have been investigated. The causes of periodic breathing, apnea spells and sudden infant death syndrome for full-term and premature infants have been studied, and the results compared with the available experimental findings. The response of the infant respiratory system has been found to be highly sensitive to several parameters of the system, as indicated by the results of this study. These significant parameters are sensitivity factor of central receptors to carbon dioxide, sensitivity factor of arterial receptors to carbon dioxide, sensitivity factor of arterial receptors to oxygen, functional residual capacity of the lungs, the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference and the lungs shunt ratio. It has been shown that different parts of the respiratory controller have antagonistic effects on hypoxic periodic breathing and apnea of infancy.

  20. Low-temperature incubation using a water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, K.; Quimby, M.C.

    1967-01-01

    Cell and tissue culture has been concerned primarily with homiothermic vertebrate cells which require incubation at about 37 C, and there is a great variety of incubators designed to maintain temperatures which are usually above ambient. The culture of poikilothermic vertebrate cells--and invertebrate, plant, and some microbial cells--can often be carried out at ambient temperatures, but for some work cooler conditions must be provided. Variety among the so-called low-temperature incubators is somewhat restricted; there are no small units, and all require a power source to maintain temperatures below ambient. We have used a gravity-fed water supply for 5 years to provide trouble-free, constant, low-temperature incubation of stock cultures of fish and amphibian cells. Though it is but a small part of our low-temperature incubator capacity, it has no power requirements and it provides maximal protection against temperature rises which could be lethal to some of the cell lines. Though the system has limitations, there is a considerable likelihood that the domestic water supply in other laboratories can also be used to provide low-temperature incubation.

  1. Randomized controlled trial of skin-to-skin contact from birth versus conventional incubator for physiological stabilization in 1200- to 2199-gram newborns.

    PubMed

    Bergman, N J; Linley, L L; Fawcus, S R

    2004-06-01

    Conventional care of prematurely born infants involves extended maternal-infant separation and incubator care. Recent research has shown that separation causes adverse effects. Maternal-infant skin-to-skin contact (SSC) provides an alternative habitat to the incubator, with proven benefits for stable prematures; this has not been established for unstable or newborn low-birthweight infants. SSC from birth was therefore compared to incubator care for infants between 1200 and 2199 g at birth. This was a prospective, unblinded, randomized controlled clinical trial; potential subjects were identified before delivery and randomized by computerized minimization technique at 5 min if eligible. Standardized care and observations were maintained for 6 h. Stability was measured in terms of a set of pre-determined physiological parameters, and a composite cardio-respiratory stabilization score (SCRIP). 34 infants were analysed in comparable groups: 3/18 SSC compared to 12/13 incubator babies exceeded the pre-determined parameters (p < 0.001). Stabilization scores were 77.11 for SSC versus 74.23 for incubator (maximum 78), mean difference 2.88 (95% CI: 0.3-5.46, p = 0.031). All 18 SSC subjects were stable in the sixth hour, compared to 6/13 incubator infants. Eight out of 13 incubator subjects experienced hypothermia. Newborn care provided by skin-to-skin contact on the mother's chest results in better physiological outcomes and stability than the same care provided in closed servo-controlled incubators. The cardio-respiratory instability seen in separated infants in the first 6 h is consistent with mammalian "protest-despair" biology, and with "hyper-arousal and dissociation" response patterns described in human infants: newborns should not be separated from their mothers.

  2. A Context-Aware Indoor Air Quality System for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Prevention

    PubMed Central

    De Paz, Juan F.; Barriuso, Alberto L.

    2018-01-01

    Context-aware monitoring systems designed for e-Health solutions and ambient assisted living (AAL) play an important role in today’s personalized health-care services. The majority of these systems are intended for the monitoring of patients’ vital signs by means of bio-sensors. At present, there are very few systems that monitor environmental conditions and air quality in the homes of users. A home’s environmental conditions can have a significant influence on the state of the health of its residents. Monitoring the environment is the key to preventing possible diseases caused by conditions that do not favor health. This paper presents a context-aware system that monitors air quality to prevent a specific health problem at home. The aim of this system is to reduce the incidence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, which is triggered mainly by environmental factors. In the conducted case study, the system monitored the state of the neonate and the quality of air while it was asleep. The designed proposal is characterized by its low cost and non-intrusive nature. The results are promising. PMID:29498653

  3. A Context-Aware Indoor Air Quality System for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Prevention.

    PubMed

    De La Iglesia, Daniel H; De Paz, Juan F; Villarrubia González, Gabriel; Barriuso, Alberto L; Bajo, Javier

    2018-03-02

    Context-aware monitoring systems designed for e-Health solutions and ambient assisted living (AAL) play an important role in today's personalized health-care services. The majority of these systems are intended for the monitoring of patients' vital signs by means of bio-sensors. At present, there are very few systems that monitor environmental conditions and air quality in the homes of users. A home's environmental conditions can have a significant influence on the state of the health of its residents. Monitoring the environment is the key to preventing possible diseases caused by conditions that do not favor health. This paper presents a context-aware system that monitors air quality to prevent a specific health problem at home. The aim of this system is to reduce the incidence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, which is triggered mainly by environmental factors. In the conducted case study, the system monitored the state of the neonate and the quality of air while it was asleep. The designed proposal is characterized by its low cost and non-intrusive nature. The results are promising.

  4. A comparison of the light-reduction capacity of commonly used incubator covers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Malakooti, Nima; Lotas, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    The use of incubator covers to enhance preterm infants' rest and recovery is common in the NICU. However, the kinds of covers used vary extensively among and within nurseries. Few data exist on the effectiveness of different types of covers in reducing light levels to the infant. This study compared several types of commonly used incubator covers as to efficacy of light reduction. A descriptive, comparative design was used in this study. Twenty-three incubator covers were tested, including professional, receiving blanket, hand-crocheted, three-layer quilt, and flannel. The percentage of light level reduction of different incubator covers under various ambient light level settings. The amount of light reduction provided by incubator covers varies depending on type of fabric as well as percentage of incubator surface shielded by the cover. Dark-colored covers provided greater light reduction than bright/light-colored covers when covers identical in fabric type were compared. The light-reduction efficiency of the covers varied depending on the level of ambient light. Covers provided less light reduction in higher ambient light levels.

  5. [Sensory system development and the physical environment of infants born very preterm].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, P; Zores, C; Astruc, D; Dufour, A; Casper, Ch

    2011-07-01

    The sensory systems develop in several sequences, with a process specific to each system and with a transnatal continuum. This development is based partly on interactions between the fetus and the newborn and their physical and human environments. These interactions are key drivers of the child development. The adaptation of the newborn's environment is crucial for his survival, his well-being and his development, especially if he is born prematurely. The physical environment of the hospital where immature infants are immersed differs greatly from the uterine environment from which they were extracted prematurely. There are discrepancies between their sensory expectations originating in the antenatal period and the atypical stimuli that newborns encounter in their postnatal nosocomial environment. These assertions are valid for all sensory modalities. Many studies have proven that very preterm infants are highly sensitive to this environment which can affect their physiological and behavioural well being. Moreover, it can alter their perception of important human sensory signals, particularly the ones coming from their mother. The long term impacts of this environment are more difficult to identify due to the multi-sensory nature of these stimuli and the multifactorial origin of the neurological disorders that these children may develop. However, the adaptation of their physical environment is one of the corner stones of specific developmental care programs, like the NIDCAP program that has been shown to be successful to improve their short and medium term outcomes. The architectural design, technical equipment and used health-care products, and the strategies and organizations of care are the main determinants of the physical environment of these children. Recommendations for the hospital environment, integrating a newborn's developmental perspective, have been made available. They should be applied more widely and should be completed. Technological equipment

  6. A Call for Integrating a Mental Health Perspective into Systems of Care for Abused and Neglected Infants and Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2011-01-01

    A system of care for abused and neglected infants and young children should adopt a comprehensive perspective, with mental health considerations systematically incorporated into policies and decisions affecting children and their families. Children age birth to 5 years have disproportionately high rates of maltreatment, with long-term consequences…

  7. Classification of Newborn Ear Malformations and their Treatment with the EarWell Infant Ear Correction System.

    PubMed

    Daniali, Lily N; Rezzadeh, Kameron; Shell, Cheryl; Trovato, Matthew; Ha, Richard; Byrd, H Steve

    2017-03-01

    A single practice's treatment protocol and outcomes following molding therapy on newborn ear deformations and malformations with the EarWell Infant Ear Correction System were reviewed. A classification system for grading the severity of constricted ear malformations was created on the basis of anatomical findings. A retrospective chart/photograph review of a consecutive series of infants treated with the EarWell System from 2011 to 2014 was undertaken. The infants were placed in either deformation or malformation groups. Three classes of malformation were identified. Data regarding treatment induction, duration of treatment, and quality of outcome were collected for all study patients. One hundred seventy-five infant ear malformations and 303 infant ear deformities were treated with the EarWell System. The average age at initiation of treatment was 12 days; the mean duration of treatment was 37 days. An average of six office visits was required. Treated malformations included constricted ears [172 ears (98 percent)] and cryptotia [three ears (2 percent)]. Cup ear (34 ears) was considered a constricted malformation, in contrast to the prominent ear deformity. Constricted ears were assigned to one of three classes, with each subsequent class indicating increasing severity: class I, 77 ears (45 percent); class II, 81 ears (47 percent); and class III, 14 ears (8 percent). Molding therapy with the EarWell System reduced the severity by an average of 1.2 points (p < 0.01). Complications included minor superficial excoriations and abrasions. The EarWell System was shown to be effective in eliminating or reducing the need for surgery in all but the most severe malformations. Therapeutic, IV.

  8. Incubation of Chile's 1960 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, B. F.; Cisternas, M.; Salgado, I.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Shishikura, M.

    2003-12-01

    Infrequent occurrence of giant events may help explain how the 1960 Chile earthquake attained M 9.5. Although old documents imply that this earthquake followed great earthquakes of 1575, 1737 and 1837, only three earthquakes of the past 1000 years produced geologic records like those for 1960. These earlier earthquakes include the 1575 event but not 1737 or 1837. Because the 1960 earthquake had nearly twice the seismic slip expected from plate convergence since 1837, much of the strain released in 1960 may have been accumulating since 1575. Geologic evidence for such incubation comes from new paleoseismic findings at the R¡o Maullin estuary, which indents the Pacific coast at 41.5§ S midway along the 1960 rupture. The 1960 earthquake lowered the area by 1.5 m, and the ensuing tsunami spread sand across lowland soils. The subsidence killed forests and changed pastures into sandy tidal flats. Guided by these 1960 analogs, we inferred tsunami and earthquake history from sand sheets, tree rings, and old maps. At Chuyaquen, 10 km upriver from the sea, we studied sand sheets in 31 backhoe pits on a geologic transect 1 km long. Each sheet overlies the buried soil of a former marsh or meadow. The sand sheet from 1960 extends the entire length of the transect. Three earlier sheets can be correlated at least half that far. The oldest one, probably a tsunami deposit, surrounds herbaceous plants that date to AD 990-1160. Next comes a sandy tidal-flat deposit dated by stratigraphic position to about 1000-1500. The penultimate sheet is a tsunami deposit younger than twigs from 1410-1630. It probably represents the 1575 earthquake, whose accounts of shaking, tsunami, and landslides rival those of 1960. In that case, the record excludes the 1737 and 1837 events. The 1737 and 1837 events also appear missing in tree-ring evidence from islands of Misquihue, 30 km upriver from the sea. Here the subsidence in 1960 admitted brackish tidal water that defoliated tens of thousands of

  9. ROLE OF VIRAL PATHOGENS IN INFANTS WITH SYSTEMIC INFECTION AT THE NEWBORN INTENSIVE CARE UNITS IN GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Kochlamazashvili, M; Khatiashvili, Kh; Butsashvili, M; Chubinishvili, O; Khetsuriani, Sh; Kamkamidze, G

    2016-09-01

    In Georgia, causative agents among infants with systemic infections are generally not identified and "neonatal sepsis" is usually diagnosed and treated without determining the etiology. The objective of this study was to estimate the role of viral pathogens (Herpesviridae and Enteroviruses) among neonates with generalized infections. A cross-sectional study was performed among neonates younger than <8 weeks admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the two largest pediatric hospitals in Tbilisi, Georgia. Laboratory tests were performed by consensus and then by type-specific PCR methods. A total of 187 infants were recruited from the NICUs; most participants (74.9%) were of normal birth weight at admission to the NICU and half (51.3%) were younger than 7 days of age. Almost all babies (91.4%) were treated with a broad-spectrum antibiotic despite a lack of microbe identification. While the overall mortality rate of infants with a systemic infection was 21.9 %, neonatal outcomes were more favorable when the infection was due to enteroviruses (2.9% mortality rate) compared to a herpesvirus infection (16.1% mortality rate). Multivariate analyses identified independent predictors associated with neonatal mortality. These included etiology of infection, APGAR score and the type of delivery. Our investigation suggests that viral pathogens play a substantial role in systemic infections among NICU infants. Utilizing molecular-based testing in these cases could improve both the clinical management and outcomes of neonates with generalized infections.

  10. The role of breast-feeding in infant immune system: a systems perspective on the intestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Paurush; Jordan, Ferenc; Priami, Corrado; Morine, Melissa J

    2015-09-24

    The human intestinal microbiota changes from being sparsely populated and variable to possessing a mature, adult-like stable microbiome during the first 2 years of life. This assembly process of the microbiota can lead to either negative or positive effects on health, depending on the colonization sequence and diet. An integrative study on the diet, the microbiota, and genomic activity at the transcriptomic level may give an insight into the role of diet in shaping the human/microbiome relationship. This study aims at better understanding the effects of microbial community and feeding mode (breast-fed and formula-fed) on the immune system, by comparing intestinal metagenomic and transcriptomic data from breast-fed and formula-fed babies. We re-analyzed a published metagenomics and host gene expression dataset from a systems biology perspective. Our results show that breast-fed samples co-express genes associated with immunological, metabolic, and biosynthetic activities. The diversity of the microbiota is higher in formula-fed than breast-fed infants, potentially reflecting the weaker dependence of infants on maternal microbiome. We mapped the microbial composition and the expression patterns for host systems and studied their relationship from a systems biology perspective, focusing on the differences. Our findings revealed that there is co-expression of more genes in breast-fed samples but lower microbial diversity compared to formula-fed. Applying network-based systems biology approach via enrichment of microbial species with host genes revealed the novel key relationships of the microbiota with immune and metabolic activity. This was supported statistically by data and literature.

  11. Estimated Incubation Period for Zika Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth R; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Staples, J Erin

    2017-05-01

    Information about the Zika virus disease incubation period can help identify risk periods and local virus transmission. In 2015-2016, data from 197 symptomatic travelers with recent Zika virus infection indicated an estimated incubation period of 3-14 days. For symptomatic persons with symptoms >2 weeks after travel, transmission might be not travel associated.

  12. Micro-incubator for bacterial biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clasen, Estine; Land, Kevin; Joubert, Trudi-Heleen

    2016-02-01

    The presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli ) is a commonly used indicator micro-organism to determine whether water is safe for human consumption.1 This paper discusses the design of a micro-incubator that can be applied to concentrate bacteria prior to environmental water quality screening tests. High sensitivity and rapid test time is essential and there is a great need for these tests to be implemented on-site without the use of a laboratory infrastructure. In the light of these requirements, a mobile micro-incubator was designed, manufactured and characterised. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) receptacle has been designed to house the 1-5 ml cell culture sample.2 A nano-silver printed electronics micro-heater has been designed to incubate the bacterial sample, with an array of temperature sensors implemented to accurately measure the sample temperature at various locations in the cell culture well. The micro-incubator limits the incubation temperature range to 37+/-3 °C in order to ensure near optimal growth of the bacteria at all times.3 The incubation time is adjustable between 30 minutes and 9 hours with a maximum rise time of 15 minutes to reach the set-point temperature. The surface area of the printed nano silver heating element is 500 mm2. Electrical and COMSOL Multiphysics simulations are included in order to give insight on micro-incubator temperature control. The design and characterization of this micro-incubator allows for further research in biosensing applications.

  13. Business Incubator Development in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark

    One viable economic development option for rural areas is the creation of business incubators--facilities that aid in the early stages of growth of an enterprise by providing rental space, services, and business assistance. Business incubators promote community development by diversifying the economic base, enhancing the community's image as a…

  14. Multiple Contact Dates and SARS Incubation Periods

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Many severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients have multiple possible incubation periods due to multiple contact dates. Multiple contact dates cannot be used in standard statistical analytic techniques, however. I present a simple spreadsheet-based method that uses multiple contact dates to calculate the possible incubation periods of SARS. PMID:15030684

  15. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome and prolonged hypoperfusion lesions in an infant with respiratory syncytial virus encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kenji; Fujisawa, Masahide; Hozumi, Hajime; Tsuboi, Tatsuo; Kuwashima, Shigeko; Hirao, Jun-ichi; Sugita, Kenichi; Arisaka, Osamu

    2013-10-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a cause of neurological complications in infants. We report a rare case of RSV encephalopathy in an infant who presented with poor sucking and hypothermia at 17 days of age after suffering from rhinorrhea and a cough for several days. After hospitalization, the patient presented with stupor and hypotonia lasting for at least 24 h, and was intubated, sedated, and ventilated for treatment of pneumonia. These symptoms led to diagnosis of pediatric systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) caused by RSV infection. High-dose steroid therapy was combined with artificial ventilation because the initial ventilation therapy was ineffective. Interleukin (IL)-6 levels in spinal fluid were markedly increased upon admission, and serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels showed even greater elevation. The patient was diagnosed with RSV encephalopathy. On day 5, high signal intensity in the bilateral hippocampus was observed on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On day 14, the patient presented with delayed partial seizure and an electroencephalogram showed occasional unilateral spikes in the parietal area, but the hippocampal abnormality had improved to normal on MRI. (99m)Tc-labeled ethylcysteinate dimer single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on day 18 showed hypoperfusion of the bilateral frontal and parietal regions and the unilateral temporal region. SPECT at 3 months after onset still showed hypoperfusion of the bilateral frontal region and unilateral temporal region, but hypoperfusion of the bilateral parietal region had improved. The patient has no neurological deficit at 6 months. These findings suggest that RSV encephalopathy with cytokine storm induces several symptoms and complications, including SIRS and prolonged brain hypoperfusion on SPECT.

  16. Potential benefits of mindfulness during pregnancy on maternal autonomic nervous system function and infant development.

    PubMed

    Braeken, Marijke A K A; Jones, Alexander; Otte, Renée A; Nyklíček, Ivan; Van den Bergh, Bea R H

    2017-02-01

    Mindfulness is known to decrease psychological distress. Possible benefits in pregnancy have rarely been explored. Our aim was to examine the prospective association of mindfulness with autonomic nervous system function during pregnancy and with later infant social-emotional development. Pregnant women (N = 156) completed self-report mindfulness and emotional distress questionnaires, and had their autonomic function assessed in their first and third trimesters, including heart rate (HR), indices of heart rate variability (HRV), preejection period (PEP), and systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The social-emotional development of 109 infants was assessed at 4 months of age. More mindful pregnant women had less prenatal and postnatal emotional distress (p < .001) and higher cardiac parasympathetic activity: root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD: p = .03) and high-frequency (HF) HRV (p = .02). Between the first and third trimesters, women's overall HR increased (p < .001), and HRV (RMSSD, HF HRV, and low-frequency (LF) HRV: p < .001) and PEP decreased (p < .001). In more mindful mothers, parasympathetic activity decreased less (RMSSD: p = .01; HF HRV: p = .03) and sympathetic activity (inversely related to PEP) increased less (PEP: p = .02) between trimesters. Their offspring displayed less negative social-emotional behavior (p = .03) compared to offspring of less mindful mothers. Mindfulness in pregnancy was associated with ANS changes likely to be adaptive and with better social-emotional offspring development. Interventions to increase mindfulness during pregnancy might improve maternal and offspring health, but randomized trials are needed to demonstrate this. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Maternal HIV-1 Env Vaccination for Systemic and Breast Milk Immunity To Prevent Oral SHIV Acquisition in Infant Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Eudailey, Joshua A.; Dennis, Maria L.; Parker, Morgan E.; Phillips, Bonnie L.; Huffman, Tori N.; Bay, Camden P.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Pollara, Justin J.; Fouda, Genevieve G.; Ferrari, Guido; Pickup, David J.; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; De Paris, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contributes to an estimated 150,000 new infections annually. Maternal vaccination has proven safe and effective at mitigating the impact of other neonatal pathogens and is one avenue toward generating the potentially protective immune responses necessary to inhibit HIV-1 infection of infants through breastfeeding. In the present study, we tested the efficacy of a maternal vaccine regimen consisting of a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) 1086.C gp120 prime-combined intramuscular-intranasal gp120 boost administered during pregnancy and postpartum to confer passive protection on infant rhesus macaques against weekly oral exposure to subtype C simian-human immunodeficiency virus 1157ipd3N4 (SHIV1157ipd3N4) starting 6 weeks after birth. Despite eliciting a robust systemic envelope (Env)-specific IgG response, as well as durable milk IgA responses, the maternal vaccine did not have a discernible impact on infant oral SHIV acquisition. This study revealed considerable variation in vaccine-elicited IgG placental transfer and a swift decline of both Env-specific antibodies (Abs) and functional Ab responses in the infants prior to the first challenge, illustrating the importance of pregnancy immunization timing to elicit optimal systemic Ab levels at birth. Interestingly, the strongest correlation to the number of challenges required to infect the infants was the percentage of activated CD4+ T cells in the infant peripheral blood at the time of the first challenge. These findings suggest that, in addition to maternal immunization, interventions that limit the activation of target cells that contribute to susceptibility to oral HIV-1 acquisition independently of vaccination may be required to reduce infant HIV-1 acquisition via breastfeeding. IMPORTANCE Without novel strategies to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission, more than 5% of HIV-1-exposed infants will continue to

  18. Efficient Swath Mapping Laser Altimetry Demonstration Instrument Incubator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A,; Harding, David J.; Abshire, James B.; Sun, Xiaoli; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss our eighteen-month progress of a three-year Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) on swath mapping laser altimetry system. This paper will discuss the system approach, enabling technologies and instrument concept for the swath mapping laser altimetry.

  19. An Education System for High-Risk Infants: A Preventive Approach to Developmental and Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, John H.; And Others

    This paper reviews recent literature in the field of infant education, presents a rationale for developing a systematic program of infant education, and suggests how this might be accomplished. Developmental research has shown that experiential deprivation, whether environmentally or neurologically caused, is the major factor in mental retardation…

  20. From Dyads to Family Systems: A Bold New Direction for Infant Mental Health Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, James P.; Phares, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    This issue on fathers was conceived as a rallying cry for all professionals to examine their practices of including fathers in their services. For too long, infant mental health professionals have either ignored fathers' important influences on infants and toddlers or have given lip-service to their importance while allowing the status quo of not…

  1. [Infant mortality according to color or race based on the 2010 Population Census and national health information systems in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Caldas, Aline Diniz Rodrigues; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Borges, Gabriel Mendes; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Marinho, Gerson Luiz

    2017-08-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate infant mortality data according to color or race in Brazil with a focus on indigenous individuals, based on data from the 2010 Population Census and the Brazilian Mortality Information System (SIM) and Brazilian Information System on Live Births (SINASC). In both sources, the infant mortality rate (IMR) for indigenous individuals was the highest of all the various population segments. Although the census data indicate inequalities by color or race, the infant mortality rates for indigenous and black individuals were lower than those based on data from SIM/SINASC. Methodological specificities in the data collection in the two sources should be considered. The reduction in IMR in Brazil in recent decades is largely attributed to the priority of infant health on the policy agenda. The study's findings indicate that the impact of public policies failed to reach indigenous peoples on the same scale as in the rest of the population. New sources of nationwide data on deaths in households, as in the case of the 2010 Census, can contribute to a better understanding of inequalities by color or race in Brazil.

  2. Infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Infant botulism is a rare disease that affects infant less than 12 months of age. The illness results from absorption of botulinum toxin produced in situ by neurotoxigenic clostridia that can temporarily colonize the intestinal tract of infants. To date, all inhabited continents except Africa have reported cases of infant botulism. Recognition of cases seem directly related to physician awareness and clinical suspicion. This review summarizes microbiological, clinical and epidemiological features of infant botulism.

  3. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-09-16

    To objective of this study was to better understand the biological functions of breast milk proteins in relation to the growth and development of infants over the first six months of life. Breast milk samples from four individual women collected at seven time points in the first six months after delivery were analyzed by filter aided sample preparation and dimethyl labeling combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 247 and 200 milk serum proteins were identified and quantified, respectively. The milk serum proteome showed a high similarity (80% overlap) on the qualitative level between women and over lactation. The quantitative changes in milk serum proteins were mainly caused by three groups of proteins, enzymes, and transport and immunity proteins. Of these 21 significantly changed proteins, 30% were transport proteins, such as serum albumin and fatty acid binding protein, which are both involved in transporting nutrients to the infant. The decrease of the enzyme bile salt-activated lipase as well as the immunity proteins immunoglobulins and lactoferrin coincide with the gradual maturation of the digestive and immune system of infants. The human milk serum proteome didn't differ qualitatively but it did quantitatively, both between mothers and as lactation advanced. The changes of the breast milk serum proteome over lactation corresponded with the development of the digestive and immune system of infants. Breast milk proteins provide nutrition, but also contribute to healthy development of infants. Despite the previously reported large number of identified breast milk proteins and their changes over lactation, less is known on the changes of these proteins in individual mothers. This study is the first to determine the qualitative and quantitative changes of milk proteome over lactation between individual mothers. The results indicate that the differences in the milk proteome between individual mothers are more related to the

  4. Drug exposed infants in the social welfare system and juvenile court.

    PubMed

    Sagatun-Edwards, I J; Saylor, C; Shifflett, B

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study how drug exposed infants were processed, following a positive toxicology screen, through the Social Services and Juvenile Court system and to construct a demographic profile of these cases. Using data (N = 284) from Social Services and Juvenile Court files in one large county this paper describes the socioeconomic profile of cases in the Social Services and Court system over an 18-month period and tracks the progress of these cases through their reviews and hearings. The data show an overrepresentation of African American and Hispanic cases compared to the relevant county population and an underrepresentation of Caucasian and Asian cases. A petition to Juvenile Court was filed in almost half of the initial cases. Among the children who were made dependents of the court, about 80% were removed from the mother and placed in reunification services. Of these one third were later returned to the family while the rest went to permanency placements outside the home.

  5. High-Dose Micafungin for Preterm Neonates and Infants with Invasive and Central Nervous System Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Auriti, Cinzia; Falcone, Marco; Ronchetti, Maria Paola; Goffredo, Bianca Maria; Cairoli, Sara; Crisafulli, Rosamaria; Piersigilli, Fiammetta; Corsetti, Tiziana; Dotta, Andrea; Pai, Manjunath P

    2016-12-01

    High doses of micafungin are advocated in neonates with systemic candidiasis, but limited pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety data are available to support their use. Eighteen preterm neonates and infants with systemic candidiasis, three of whom had meningitis, were treated for at least 14 days with 8 to 15 mg/kg of body weight/day of intravenous micafungin. Plasma micafungin concentrations (four measurements for each patient) were determined after the third dose, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) micafungin concentrations in three patients were also obtained. Population PK analyses were used to identify the optimal model, and the model was further validated using external data (n = 5). The safety of micafungin was assessed by measurement of the levels of liver and kidney function biomarkers. The mean age and weight at the initiation of treatment were 2.33 months (standard deviation [SD], 1.98 months) and 3.24 kg (SD, 1.61 kg), respectively. The optimal PK model was one that scaled plasma clearance to weight and the transaminase concentration ratio. The CSF of three patients was sampled, and the observed concentrations were between 0.80 and 1.80 mg/liter. The model-predicted mean micafungin area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h was 336 mg · h/liter (SD, 165 mg · h/liter) with the 10-mg/kg/day dosage. Eighteen of the 23 subjects (78.2%) had clinical resolution of their infection, but 5 had neurologic impairments. Among the transaminases, alkaline phosphatase measurements were significantly higher posttreatment, with a geometric mean ratio of 1.17 (90% confidence interval, 1.01, 1.37). Furthermore, marked elevations in the gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level were observed in three patients treated with 10- to 15-mg/kg/day doses, and improvement of the GGT level was noted after a dose reduction. Higher weight-based doses of micafungin were generally well tolerated in neonates and infants and achieved pharmacokinetic profiles predictive of an effect

  6. Response of Preterm Infants to 2 Noninvasive Ventilatory Support Systems: Nasal CPAP and Nasal Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Carmen Salum Thomé; Leonardi, Kamila Maia; Melo, Ana Paula Carvalho Freire; Zaia, José Eduardo; Brunherotti, Marisa Afonso Andrade

    2015-12-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in preterm infants is currently applied using intermittent positive pressure (2 positive-pressure levels) or in a conventional manner (one pressure level). However, there are no studies in the literature comparing the chances of failure of these NIV methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of failure of 2 noninvasive ventilatory support systems in preterm neonates over a period of 48 h. A randomized, prospective, clinical study was conducted on 80 newborns (gestational age < 37 weeks, birthweight < 2,500 g). The infants were randomized into 2 groups: 40 infants were treated with nasal CPAP and 40 infants with nasal intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV). The occurrence of apnea, progression of respiratory distress, nose bleeding, and agitation was defined as ventilation failure. The need for intubation and re-intubation after failure was also observed. There were no significant differences in birth characteristics between groups. Ventilatory support failure was observed in 25 (62.5%) newborns treated with nasal CPAP and in 12 (30%) newborns treated with NIPPV, indicating an association between NIV failure and the absence of intermittent positive pressure (odds ratio [OR] 1.22, P < .05). Apnea (32.5%) was the main reason for nasal CPAP failure. After failure, 25% (OR 0.33) of the newborns receiving nasal CPAP and 12.5% (OR 0.14) receiving NIPPV required invasive mechanical ventilation. Ventilatory support failure was significantly more frequent when nasal CPAP was used. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  7. Don't wait to incubate: immediate versus delayed incubation in divergent thinking.

    PubMed

    Gilhooly, Kenneth J; Georgiou, George J; Garrison, Jane; Reston, Jon D; Sirota, Miroslav

    2012-08-01

    Previous evidence for the effectiveness of immediate incubation in divergent creative tasks has been weak, because earlier studies exhibited a range of methodological problems. This issue is theoretically important, as a demonstration of the effects of immediate incubation would strengthen the case for the involvement of unconscious work in incubation effects. For the present experiment, we used a creative divergent-thinking task (alternative uses) in which separate experimental groups had incubation periods that were either delayed or immediate and that consisted of either spatial or verbal tasks. Control groups were tested without incubation periods, and we carried out checks for intermittent conscious work on the target task during the incubation periods. The results showed significant incubation effects that were stronger for immediate than for delayed incubation. Performance was not different between the verbal and spatial incubation conditions, and we found no evidence for intermittent conscious working during the incubation periods. These results support a role for unconscious work in creative divergent thinking, particularly in the case of immediate incubation.

  8. Evaluation of incubation time for dermatophytes cultures.

    PubMed

    Rezusta, Antonio; de la Fuente, Sonia; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Vidal-García, Matxalen; Alcalá, Leticia; López-Calleja, Ana; Ruiz, Maria Angeles; Revillo, Maria José

    2016-07-01

    In general, it is recommended to incubate dermatophytes cultures for a minimum of 4 weeks. Several aspects of routine fungal cultures should be evaluated in order to implement appropriate and necessary changes. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum incubation time for routine dermatophytes cultures, analysing the time to find first fungal growth by visual observation. We recorded the time when the initial growth was detected for all dermatophyte isolates during a 4-year period. A total of 5459 dermatophyte cultures were submitted to our laboratory. From the total cultures, only 16 (1.42%) isolates were recovered over/after 17 days of incubation and only three dermatophyte species were recovered over 17 days. Fourteen isolates belong to Trichophyton rubrum, one isolate to Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex and one isolate to Epidermophyton floccosum. We concluded that an incubation period of 17 days is enough to establish a microbiological diagnosis of dermatophytosis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. A call for integrating a mental health perspective into systems of care for abused and neglected infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Osofsky, Joy D; Lieberman, Alicia F

    2011-01-01

    A system of care for abused and neglected infants and young children should adopt a comprehensive perspective, with mental health considerations systematically incorporated into policies and decisions affecting children and their families. Children age birth to 5 years have disproportionately high rates of maltreatment, with long-term consequences for their mental and physical health. Research on normal development and developmental psychopathology has shown that early development unfolds in an ecology of transactional influences among biological, interpersonal, and environmental domains. Psychologists should collaborate with other early intervention disciplines to create systems of care based on an ecological-transactional model of development that includes early mental health principles in order to serve the needs of these young children. Didactic courses, practicums, and internships in infant and early childhood mental health should become integral components of undergraduate and graduate curricula in psychology in order to build capacity to achieve this goal. Recommendations are offered for systemic change by integrating infant and early childhood mental health principles into existing systems of care for young children and their families. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Design of a sustainable prepolarizing magnetic resonance imaging system for infant hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Obungoloch, Johnes; Harper, Joshua R; Consevage, Steven; Savukov, Igor M; Neuberger, Thomas; Tadigadapa, Srinivas; Schiff, Steven J

    2018-04-11

    The need for affordable and appropriate medical technologies for developing countries continues to rise as challenges such as inadequate energy supply, limited technical expertise, and poor infrastructure persist. Low-field magnetic resonance imaging (LF MRI) is a technology that can be tailored to meet specific imaging needs within such countries. Its low power requirements and the possibility of operating in minimally shielded or unshielded environments make it especially attractive. Although the technology has been widely demonstrated over several decades, it is yet to be shown that it can be diagnostic and improve patient outcomes in clinical applications. We here demonstrate the robustness of prepolarizing MRI (PMRI) technology for assembly and deployment in developing countries for the specific application to infant hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus treatment planning and management requires only modest spatial resolution, such that the brain can be distinguished from fluid-tissue contrast detail within the brain parenchyma is not essential. We constructed an internally shielded PMRI system based on the Lee-Whiting coil system with a 22-cm diameter of spherical volume. In an unshielded room, projection phantom images were acquired at 113 kHz with in-plane resolution of 3 mm × 3 mm, by introducing gradient fields of sufficient magnitude to dominate the 5000 ppm inhomogeneity of the readout field. The low cost, straightforward assembly, deployment potential, and maintenance requirements demonstrate the suitability of our PMRI system for developing countries. Further improvement in image spatial resolution and contrast of LF MRI will broaden its potential clinical utility beyond hydrocephalus.

  11. National Security Technology Incubation Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    This strategic plan contains information on the vision, mission, business and technology environment, goals, objectives, and incubation process of the National Security Technology Incubation Program (NSTI) at Arrowhead Center. The development of the NSTI is a key goal of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP). Objectives to achieve this goal include developing incubator plans (strategic, business, action, and operations), creating an incubator environment, creating a support and mentor network for companies in the incubator program, attracting security technology businesses to the region, encouraging existing business to expand, initiating business start-ups, evaluating products and processes of the incubator program, and achievingmore » sustainability of the incubator program. With the events of 9/11, the global community faces ever increasing and emerging threats from hostile groups determined to rule by terror. According to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Plan, the United States must be able to quickly respond and adapt to unanticipated situations as they relate to protection of our homeland and national security. Technology plays a key role in a strong national security position, and the private business community, along with the national laboratories, academia, defense and homeland security organizations, provide this technology. Fostering innovative ideas, translated into relevant technologies answering the needs of NNSA, is the purpose of the NSTI. Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To develop the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet the planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability activities for the program and identify and incubate new technologies to assist the NNSA in meeting its mission and goals. Technology alone does not give a competitive advantage to the country, but the creativity and speed with which it is employed does. For a company

  12. A randomized clinical trial in preterm infants on the effects of a home-based early intervention with the 'CareToy System'

    PubMed Central

    Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Lorentzen, Jakob; Inguaggiato, Emanuela; Bartalena, Laura; Beani, Elena; Cecchi, Francesca; Dario, Paolo; Giampietri, Matteo; Greisen, Gorm; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Rossi, Giuseppe; Cioni, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    CareToy system is an innovative tele-rehabilitative tool, useful in providing intensive, individualized, home-based, family-centred Early Intervention (EI) in infants. Our aim was to evaluate, through a Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT) study, the effects of CareToy intervention on early motor and visual development in preterm infants. 41 preterm infants (range age: 3.0–5.9 months of corrected age) were enrolled and randomized into two groups, CareToy and Standard Care. 19 infants randomized in CareToy group performed a 4-week CareToy program, while 22 allocated to control group completed 4 weeks of Standard Care. Infant Motor Profile (IMP) was primary outcome measure, Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and Teller Acuity Cards were secondary ones. Assessments were carried out at baseline (T0) and at the end of CareToy training or Standard Care period (T1). T1 was the primary endpoint. After RCT phase, 17 infants from control group carried out a 4-week CareToy program, while 18 infants from the CareToy group continued with Standard Care. At the end of this phase, infants were re-assessed at T2. In RCT phase, delta IMP total score and variation and performance sub-domains were significantly higher (P<0.050) in CareToy group if compared to Standard Care group. Similar results were found for Teller Acuity Cards, while no differences between groups were found for AIMS. No differences were found in any outcome measure results (T2-T0), between infants who started CareToy training before or after one month of standard care. This RCT study confirms the results of a previous pilot study, indicating that CareToy system can provide effective home-based EI. Trial Registration: This trial has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (Identifier NCT01990183). PMID:28328946

  13. Infant formulas

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. ... than 12 months old who are not drinking breast milk . While there are some differences, infant formulas sold ...

  14. Infant botulism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and certain foods (such as honey and some corn syrups). Infant botulism occurs mostly in young infants ... spores. Clostridium spores are found in honey and corn syrup. These foods should not be fed to ...

  15. 21 CFR 880.5400 - Neonatal incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rigid boxlike enclosure in which an infant may be kept in a controlled environment for medical care. The... humidity, a control valve through which oxygen may be added, and access ports for nursing care. (b...

  16. [Infant botulism].

    PubMed

    Falk, Absalom; Afriat, Amichay; Hubary, Yechiel; Herzog, Lior; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2014-01-01

    Infant botulism is a paralytic syndrome which manifests as a result of ingesting spores of the toxin secreting bacterium Clostridium botulinum by infants. As opposed to botulism in adults, treating infant botulism with horse antiserum was not approved due to several safety issues. This restriction has led to the development of Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV; sells under BabyBIG). In this article we review infant botulism and the advantages of treating it with BIG-IV.

  17. Reliability of the EchoMRI-Infant System for Water and Fat Measurements in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Toro-Ramos, Tatiana; Paley, Charles; Wong, William W.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Yu, W.; Thornton, John; Gallagher, Dympna

    2017-01-01

    Objective The precision and accuracy of a quantitative magnetic resonance (EchoMRI-Infants™) system in newborn was determined. Methods: Canola oil and drinking water phantoms (increments of 10g to 1.9kg) were scanned four times. Instrument reproducibility was assessed from 3 scans (within 10-minutes) in 42 healthy term newborns (12–70 hours post-birth). Instrument precision was determined from the coefficient of variation (CV) of repeated scans for total water, lean, and fat measures for newborns and the mean difference between weight and measurement for phantoms. In newborns, the system accuracy for total body water (TBW) was tested against deuterium dilution (D2O). Results In phantoms, the repeatability and accuracy of fat and water measurements increased as the weight of oil and water increased. TBW was overestimated in amounts >200g. In newborns weighing 3.14kg, fat, lean and TBW were 0.52kg (16.48%), 2.28kg and 2.40kg, respectively. EchoMRI’s reproducibility (CV) was 3.27%, 1.83% and 1.34% for total body fat, lean, and TBW, respectively. EchoMRI-TBW values did not differ from D2O; mean difference − 1.95±6.76%, p=0.387; mean bias (limits of agreement) 0.046 kg (−0.30 to 0.39 kg). Conclusions EchoMRI infant system’s precision and accuracy for total body fat and lean are better than established techniques and equivalent to D2O for TBW in phantoms and newborns. PMID:28712143

  18. Premature Infants have Lower Gastric Digestion Capacity for Human Milk Proteins than Term Infants.

    PubMed

    Demers-Mathieu, Veronique; Qu, Yunyao; Underwood, Mark A; Borghese, Robyn; Dallas, David Charles

    2018-05-01

    Whether premature infants have lower gastric protein digestive capacity than term infants and the extent to which human milk proteases contribute to overall gastric digestion are unknown and were investigated in this study. Human milk and infant gastric samples were collected from 16 preterm (24-32 wk gestational age) and 6 term (38-40 wk gestational age) mother-infant pairs within a range of 5 to 42 days postnatal age. For each pair, an aliquot of human milk was adjusted to pH 4.5 and incubated for 2 hours at 37 °C to simulate the gastric conditions without pepsin (milkinc). Their gastric protein digestion capacity was measured as proteolysis (free N-terminals) and protease activities. Two-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post hoc test was applied to compare measurements between preterm and term infants as well as among human milk, milkinc, and gastric samples. Measurements of gastric protein digestion were significantly lower in preterm infants than term infants. Overall milk protease activity did not differ between human milk samples from term- and preterm-delivering mothers. As protease activity did not increase with simulated gastric incubation, milk proteases likely contributed minimally to gastric digestion. Preterm infants have lower gastric protein digestion capacity than term infants, which could impair nutrient acquisition. Human milk proteases contribute minimally to overall gastric digestion. The limited activity of milk proteases suggests that these enzymes cannot compensate for the premature infant's overall lower gastric protein digestion.

  19. National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with nationalmore » security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.« less

  20. Mist and water condensation inside incubators reduce the efficacy of phototherapy.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Manoel; Torrao, Carolina Turano; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2011-03-01

    To measure the irradiance in humidified incubator under three different overhead phototherapy devices. The effective irradiance of three phototherapy devices was assessed by taking a series of irradiance measurements in the illuminated field. Measurements were made with a fixed bandwidth broadband radiometer (380-530 nm). The distance between the light source and the radiometer was 35 cm for the daylight fluorescent lamp, 40 cm for the light emitting diode (LED) and 50 cm for the halogen phototherapy. A double-wall incubator was kept at 36°C and set at three different levels of humidity (60-70%, 80% and equal or above 90%). The irradiance under the overhead daylight fluorescent lamp phototherapy did not change with the increasing humidity. However, above 90% humidity, when water vapour inside the incubator was so saturated to the point of totally condensing in the incubator walls, the measured irradiance decreased 15% of the initial values with the blue LED phototherapy and 45% with the halogen spotlight phototherapy. Highly humidified incubators are frequently used to treat very low birthweight infants. Health professionals should be aware that mist and water condensation inside an incubator may significantly reduce the efficacy of treatment.

  1. The Incubation Periods of Dengue Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Miranda; Johansson, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue viruses are major contributors to illness and death globally. Here we analyze the extrinsic and intrinsic incubation periods (EIP and IIP), in the mosquito and human, respectively. We identified 146 EIP observations from 8 studies and 204 IIP observations from 35 studies. These data were fitted with censored Bayesian time-to-event models. The best-fitting temperature-dependent EIP model estimated that 95% of EIPs are between 5 and 33 days at 25°C, and 2 and 15 days at 30°C, with means of 15 and 6.5 days, respectively. The mean IIP estimate was 5.9 days, with 95% expected between days 3 and 10. Differences between serotypes were not identified for either incubation period. These incubation period models should be useful in clinical diagnosis, outbreak investigation, prevention and control efforts, and mathematical modeling of dengue virus transmission. PMID:23226436

  2. Acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants: the influence of central heating systems

    PubMed Central

    Stott, N. C. H.; West, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A cohort of 342 infants in a group practice population were studied during the first year of life to assess whether hot-air central heating was associated with more severe respiratory infections than radiator central heating. Infants born into council house families with ducted hot-air central heating were at no greater risk of contracting severe respiratory infections than those with radiator central heating. The risk of a respiratory infection was positively correlated with size of sibship and maternal smoking habits. PMID:7277291

  3. [Audit "Toys and incubators in neonatology"].

    PubMed

    Raginel, T; Bigoin-Dupont, M; Aguelon, V; Fines-Guyon, M; Guillemin, M G

    2009-08-01

    Owing to an increase in nosocomial septicaemias in the Neonatalogy department, we've judged it necessary to consider the role of items not linked to the nursing procedures, and nevertheless present in the incubators, as well as the hygiene techniques applied to them. In November 2007, we've made a longitudinal prospective study consisting in an observation audit during 3 successive days, observing every single incubator with a newborn baby. In each incubator, we've checked whether there were or not items that weren't required by the nursing activities, along with their characteristics and the hygiene procedures applied to them. We've inquired as well whether the parents and the nursing staff knew and applied the required hygiene procedures. In 13 among the 17 incubators under survey, at least one item not strictly required by the nursing procedures could be found. The number of toys in each incubator varied from seven to one. Among the 33 toys surveyed, 24 (73%) of them showed a score of maximum fluffiness (4 out of 4), and only 10 wore labels giving cleansing advice from the manufacturers. Without any record about the cleaning/disinfecting of the toys brought in hospital, we have observed that the parents were given varied advice about how to clean the toys at home before putting them in the incubators (only four parents had washed the toys in their washing machines at more than 30 degrees C). From the six samples under scrutiny, all the culture results were tested positive. In particular two of the soft toys sampled were found infected by a Pseudomonas oryzihabitans. These particular toys belonged to a baby who had been diagnosed with a septicaemia characterized by hemocultures positive to a P. oryzihabitans of a different strain. Our audit has been an efficient reminder that any item put in an incubator is a potential vector and reservoir of pathogen organisms. After a general feedback towards the department staff, the medical staff then prescribed to

  4. Noise levels in a neonatal transport incubator in medically configured aircraft.

    PubMed

    Sittig, Steven E; Nesbitt, Jeffrey C; Krageschmidt, Dale A; Sobczak, Steven C; Johnson, Robert V

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate exposure of neonates to noise during air medical transport as few commercially available hearing protective devices exist for premature newborns during air medical transport. Sound pressure levels in an infant incubator during actual flight conditions in four common medically configured aircraft were measured. Three noise dosimeters measured time-weighted average noise exposure during flight in each aircraft. One dosimeter was placed in the infant incubator, and the remaining dosimeters recorded noise levels in various parts of the aircraft cabin. The incubator provided a 6-dBA decrease in noise exposure from that in the crew cabin. The average noise level in the incubator in all aircraft was close to 80 dB, much higher than the proposed limits of 45 dB for neonatal intensive care unit noise exposure or 60 dB during transport. Exposure of neonates to elevated noise levels during transport may be harmful, and steps should be taken to protect the hearing of this patient population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Early (< 8 days) systemic postnatal corticosteroids for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Lex W; Cheong, Jeanie L; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Halliday, Henry L

    2017-10-24

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains a major problem in neonatal intensive care units. Persistent inflammation in the lungs is the most likely underlying pathogenesis. Corticosteroids have been used to prevent or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects. To examine the relative benefits and adverse effects of systemic postnatal corticosteroids commenced within the first seven days of life for preterm infants at risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. For the 2017 update, we used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 1); MEDLINE via PubMed (January 2013 to 21 February 2017); Embase (January 2013 to 21 February 2017); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (January 2013 to 21 February 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials. For this review, we selected RCTs examining systemic postnatal corticosteroid treatment within the first seven days of life (early) in high-risk preterm infants. Most studies evaluated the use of dexamethasone, but we also included studies that assessed hydrocortisone, even when used primarily for management of hypotension. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence.We extracted and analysed data regarding clinical outcomes that included mortality, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, failure to extubate, complications during primary hospitalisation, and long-term health outcomes. We included 32 RCTs enrolling a total of 4395 participants. The overall risk of bias of included studies was probably low, as all were RCTs, and most trials used rigorous methods. Investigators reported significant benefits for the following outcomes overall: lower rates of failure to extubate, decreased

  6. Validity and reliability of the infant breastfeeding assessment tool, the mother baby assessment tool, and the LATCH scoring system.

    PubMed

    Altuntas, Nilgun; Turkyilmaz, Canan; Yildiz, Havva; Kulali, Ferit; Hirfanoglu, Ibrahim; Onal, Esra; Ergenekon, Ebru; Koç, Esin; Atalay, Yıldız

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Infant Breastfeeding Assessment Tool (IBFAT), the Mother Baby Assessment (MBA) Tool, and the LATCH scoring system. Mothers who delivered healthy, full-term infants in the Obstetrics & Gynecology Service of Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey, between December 2013 and January 2014 and their infants were included in the study. Forty-six randomly selected breastfeeding sessions were monitored and scored simultaneously by three researchers (Raters 1, 2, and 3) using LATCH, IBFAT, and the MBA Tool. Researchers put the score sheets in an envelope in order to hide them from each other. The compatibility of the scores given by three researchers was assessed by statistical methods. We found positive and significant correlation coefficients between 0.81 to 0.88 for the total MBA score, between 0.90 to 0.95 for the total IBFAT score, and between 0.85 to 0.91 for the total LATCH score. Correlation coefficients testing these three tools ranged from 0.71 to 0.88, with the minimum value being noted for the correlation between LATCH and IBFAT scores and the maximum value being noted for the correlation between LATCH and MBA scores. We found positive and significant correlations between researchers' scores for 46 observations using the three assessment tools. This study showed that these above-mentioned tools were compatible for the assessment of the efficiency of breastfeeding.

  7. A nipple shield delivery system for oral drug delivery to breastfeeding infants: microbicide delivery to inactivate HIV.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, Stephen E; Baniecki, Mary Lynn; Sokal, David C; Morris, Mary K; Urdaneta-Hartmann, Sandra; Krebs, Fred C; Wigdahl, Brian; Abrams, Barbara F; Hanson, Carl V; Slater, Nigel K H; Edwards, Alexander D

    2012-09-15

    A new drug delivery method for infants is presented which incorporates an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-loaded insert into a nipple shield delivery system (NSDS). The API is released directly into milk during breastfeeding. This study investigates the feasibility of using the NSDS to deliver the microbicide sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the goal of preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV during breastfeeding in low-resource settings, when there is no safer alternative for the infant but to breastfeed. SDS has been previously shown to effectively inactivate HIV in human milk. An apparatus was developed to simulate milk flow through and drug release from a NSDS. Using this apparatus milk was pulsed through a prototype device containing a non-woven fiber insert impregnated with SDS and the microbicide was rapidly released. The total SDS release from inserts ranged from 70 to 100% of the average 0.07 g load within 50 ml (the volume of a typical breastfeed). Human milk spiked with H9/HIV(IIIB) cells was also passed through the same set-up. Greater than 99% reduction of cell-associated HIV infectivity was achieved in the first 10 ml of milk. This proof of concept study demonstrates efficient drug delivery to breastfeeding infants is achievable using the NSDS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A literature review of systemic to pulmonary collaterals in preterm infants to emphasise their existence and clinical importance.

    PubMed

    Goel, Dimple; Gupta, Pankaj; Cooper, Stephen; Klimek, Jan

    2018-06-05

    Cardiorespiratory physiology plays an important role in neonatal care with increasing utility of point of care ultrasound. This review is to bring to light the importance of systemic to pulmonary collaterals (SPCs) in the preterm population without congenital heart disease (CHD) and provide a useful diagnostic tool to the neonatologist performing a cardiac ultrasound. Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and the internet were searched up to November 2017 for papers in English which included SPCs in preterm infants without CHD. This comprised title, abstract and full-text screening of relevant data. A total of 10 studies which included case reports, retrospective observational studies, and one small prospective cohort study were identified and analysed in detail. The studies had varying focus such as variable incidence, clinical presentation, association with chronic lung disease, pathophysiology and clinical importance of SPCs. SPCs were overall thought to be prevalent, underdiagnosed and of clinical significance in preterm infants. SPCs are a potential left to right shunt in preterm infants and may contribute to worsening chronic lung disease (CLD) or heart failure. They should be carefully looked for when performing bedside cardiac ultrasound as the findings can mimic those seen in patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. The Neural Correlates of Infant and Adult Goal Prediction: Evidence for Semantic Processing Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Vincent M.; Hoehl, Stefanie; Grigutsch, Maren; Groendahl, Anna; Parise, Eugenio; Striano, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    The sequential nature of action ensures that an individual can anticipate the conclusion of an observed action via the use of semantic rules. The semantic processing of language and action has been linked to the N400 component of the event-related potential (ERP). The authors developed an ERP paradigm in which infants and adults observed simple…

  10. Caregiver instability and early life changes among infants reported to the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Dozier, Mary; Tueller, Stephen; Dolan, Melissa; Smith, Keith; Webb, Mary Bruce; Westbrook, T'pring; Harden, Brenda Jones

    2014-03-01

    This study describes the extent of caregiver instability (defined as a new placement for 1 week or longer in a different household and/or with a new caregiver) in a nationally representative sample of infants, followed for 5-7 years. Data were drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), a longitudinal study of 5,501 children investigated for child maltreatment. The analysis sample was restricted to 1,196 infants. Overall, 85.6% of children who were infants at the time of the index maltreatment experienced at least one caregiver instability event during their first 2 years of life. Caregiver instability was associated with the child having a chronic health condition and the caregiver being older than 40 years of age at baseline. The levels of instability reported in this study from infancy to school entry are extremely high. Children with more risk factors were significantly more likely to experience caregiver instability than children with fewer risk factors. The repeated loss of a young child's primary caregiver or unavailable, neglectful care can be experienced as traumatic. Some evidence-based programs that are designed to work with young maltreated children can make a substantial positive difference in the lives of vulnerable infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Decreasing sound and vibration during ground transport of infants with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Prehn, J; McEwen, I; Jeffries, L; Jones, M; Daniels, T; Goshorn, E; Marx, C

    2015-02-01

    To measure the effectiveness of modifications to reduce sound and vibration during interhospital ground transport of a simulated infant with very low birth weight (VLBW) and a gestational age of 30 weeks, a period of high susceptibility to germinal matrix and intraventricular hemorrhage. Researchers measured vibration and sound levels during infant transport, and compared levels after modifications to the transport incubator mattresses, addition of vibration isolators under incubator wheels, addition of mass to the incubator mattress and addition of incubator acoustic cover. Modifications did not decrease sound levels inside the transport incubator during transport. The combination of a gel mattress over an air chambered mattress was effective in decreasing vibration levels for the 1368 g simulated infant. Transport mattress effectiveness in decreasing vibration is influenced by infant weight. Modifications that decrease vibration for infants weighing 2000 g are not effective for infants with VLBW. Sound levels are not affected by incubator covers, suggesting that sound is transmitted into the incubator as a low-frequency vibration through the incubator's contact with the ambulance. Medical transportation can apply industrial methods of vibration and sound control to protect infants with VLBW from excessive physical strain of transport during vulnerable periods of development.

  12. Selective medium for aerobic incubation of Campylobacter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted on the formulation of a selective medium that could be used to isolate Campylobacter from mixed bacterial cultures using aerobic incubation. A non-selective, basal broth medium was prepared and supplemented with Bolton, Cefex, or Skirrow antibiotic mixtures. The ability of pur...

  13. Problem Variables that Promote Incubation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Catherine G.; Godsell, Annette; Scott, Annette; Balsom, Rod

    2004-01-01

    Three studies sought to determine whether incubation effects could be reliably generated in a problem-solving task. Experimental variables manipulated were the duration of the interval between two problem-solving opportunities and the activity performed by the problem solvers during the interval. A multisolution anagram task was used which…

  14. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological...

  15. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological...

  16. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological...

  17. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological...

  18. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological...

  19. Incubation Period of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Valdivieso, Francisca; Mertz, Gregory; Castillo, Constanza; Belmar, Edith; Delgado, Iris; Tapia, Mauricio; Ferrés, Marcela

    2006-01-01

    The potential incubation period from exposure to onset of symptoms was 7–39 days (median 18 days) in 20 patients with a defined period of exposure to Andes virus in a high-risk area. This period was 14–32 days (median 18 days) in 11 patients with exposure for <48 hours. PMID:16965713

  20. Pavlovian Incubation of US Signal Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Murray J.

    2013-01-01

    Four experiments with rats examined Pavlovian incubation, in which responding increases when Pavlovian conditioning is followed by a testing delay. In a within-subjects design, Experiment 1 first showed that when a single food pellet unconditioned stimulus (US) signaled the delivery of three additional pellets, responding after the single US was…

  1. Incubation temperature and hemoglobin dielectric of chicken embryos incubated under the influence of electric field.

    PubMed

    Shafey, T M; Al-Batshan, H A; Shalaby, M I; Ghannam, M M

    2006-01-01

    Eggs from a layer-type breeder flock (Baladi, King Saud University) between 61 and 63 weeks of age were used in 3 trials to study the effects of electric field (EF) during incubation on the internal temperature of incubation, and eggs and hemoglobin (Hb) dielectric of chicken embryos at 18 days of age. Dielectric relative permittivity (epsilon') and conductivity (sigma) of Hb were examined in the range of frequency from 20 to 100 kHz. The values of dielectric increment (Deltaepsilon') and the relaxation times (tau) of Hb molecules were calculated. The internal temperature of eggs was measured in empty (following the removal of egg contents) and fertilized eggs in trials 1 and 2, respectively. The level of the EF was 30 kV/m, 60 Hz. EF incubation of embryos influenced the temperature of incubation and electrical properties of Hb molecules and did not influence the temperature of incubation and internal environment of eggs when empty eggs were incubated. EF incubation of fertilized eggs significantly raised the temperature of incubation, egg air cell, and at the surface of the egg yolk by approximately 0.09, 0.60, and 0.61 degrees F, respectively and Hb epsilon', sigma, Deltaepsilon', and tau as a function of the range of frequency of 20 to 100 kHz when compared with their counterparts of the control group. It was concluded that the exposure of fertilized chicken eggs to EF of 30 kV/m, 60 Hz, during incubation altered dielectric properties of Hb and that probably affected cell to cell communication and created the right environment for enhancing the growing process and heat production of embryos consequently increasing the temperature of the internal environment of the egg, and incubation.

  2. Temperature Increases in Preterm Infants During Massage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Temperature was assessed in 72 preterm infants randomly assigned to a control or a massage therapy group. A greater increase in temperature was noted for preterm infants receiving massage therapy versus a control group, even though the incubator portholes remained open during the 15-minute massage therapy session but not for the control group over an equivalent time period. PMID:17692385

  3. Mid Columbia sturgeon incubation and rearing study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric; Blubaugh, J

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results from the second year of a three-year investigation on the effects of different thermal regimes on incubation and rearing early life stages of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. The Columbia River has been significantly altered by the construction of dams resulting in annual flows and water temperatures that differ from historical levels. White sturgeon have been demonstrated to spawn in two very distinct sections of the Columbia River in British Columbia, Canada, which are both located immediately downstream of hydropower facilities. The thermal regimes differ substantially between these two areas. The general approach of this study was to incubate and rear white sturgeon early life stages under two thermal regimes; one mimicking the current, cool water regime of the Columbia River downstream from Revelstoke Dam, and one mimicking a warmer regime similar to conditions found on the Columbia River at the international border. Second-year results suggest that thermal regimes during incubation influence rate of egg development and size at hatch. Eggs incubated under the warm thermal regime hatched sooner than those incubated under the cool thermal regime. Mean length of free embryos at hatch was significantly different between thermal regimes with free embryos from the warm thermal regime being longer at hatch. However, free embryos from the cool thermal regime had a significantly higher mean weight at hatch. This is in contrast with results obtained during 2009. The rearing trials revealed that growth of fish reared in the cool thermal regime was substantially less than growth of fish reared in the warm thermal regime. The magnitude of mortality was greatest in the warm thermal regime prior to initiation of exogenous feeding, but chronic low levels of mortality in the cool thermal regime were higher throughout the period. The starvation trials showed that the fish in the warm thermal regime exhausted their yolk reserves faster

  4. The association of birth weight and infant growth with childhood autonomic nervous system activity and its mediating effects on energy-balance-related behaviours-the ABCD study.

    PubMed

    van Deutekom, Arend W; Chinapaw, Mai Jm; Gademan, Maaike Gj; Twisk, Jos Wr; Gemke, Reinoud Jbj; Vrijkotte, Tanja Gm

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of birth weight and infant growth with childhood autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and to assess whether ANS activity mediates the associations of birth weight and infant growth with energy-balance-related behaviours, including energy intake, satiety response, physical activity and screen time. In 2089 children, we prospectively collected birth weight, infant growth defined as conditional weight and height gain between birth and 12 months and-at 5 years-indices of cardiac ANS activity and parent-reported energy-balance-related behaviours. A mediation analysis was conducted, based on MacKinnon's multivariate extension of the product-of-coefficients strategy. Birth weight and infant height gain were inversely associated with sympathetic, but not parasympathetic, activity at age 5. Infant weight gain was not associated with childhood ANS activity. Infant weight gain was predictive of increased childhood screen time and infant height gain of diminished childhood energy intake, but sympathetic activity did not mediate these associations. Low-birth-weight children have higher sympathetic activity, which is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Height gain in infancy seems to be beneficial for childhood sympathetic activity. However, sympathetic activity was no mediator of the associations of infant growth with childhood energy-balance-related behaviours. As individual differences in ANS activity predict increased risk of cardiovascular disease, these differences may offer insight into the early-life origins of chronic diseases and provide further basis for public health strategies to optimize birth weight and infant growth. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  5. The effects of noise reduction by earmuffs on the physiologic and behavioral responses in very low birth weight preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Duran, Rıdvan; Ciftdemir, Nükhet Aladağ; Ozbek, Ulfet Vatansever; Berberoğlu, Ufuk; Durankuş, Ferit; Süt, Necdet; Acunaş, Betül

    2012-10-01

    Preterm infants are exposed to loud noises during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit which can lead to physiologic and behavioral alterations and even hearing loss. The use of earmuffs can reduce sound level and these changes. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the earmuffs in preterm infants solely cared for in closed incubators. A comparative prospective study comprising 20 clinically stable preterm infants weighing less than 1500 g cared in closed incubator was conducted. Preterm infants acted as their own controls whereby they were observed without earmuffs (Group 1) for 2 days and with earmuffs (Group 2) on consecutive 2 days. The preterm infants' physiologic responses and Anderson Behavioral State Scoring System (ABSS) scores were assessed over 30s every 2h for 8h during daytime for 4 days. Out of 20 preterm infants, 6 were male and 14 female with a mean birth weight of 1220 ± 209 g, gestational age of 29.9 ± 2.1 weeks. The total number of measurements was 320. The mean ABSS scores of Group 1 and 2 were 3.07±1.1 and 1.34 ± 0.3, respectively. Statistically significant difference was noted between the means of ABSS scores (p<0.001). Preterm infants with earmuffs (87.5%) were more frequently observed in a quiet sleep state of ABSS compared with those without earmuffs (29.4%). Noise level reduction was associated with significant improvement in behavioral states of ABSS. We suggest that noise reduction in preterm infants with earmuffs is helpful by improving sleep efficiency and increasing time of quiet sleep. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment and certification of neonatal incubator sensors through an inferential neural network.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, José Medeiros; de Menezes, José Maria Pires; Moura de Albuquerque, Alberto Alexandre; da Mota Almeida, Otacílio; Ugulino de Araújo, Fábio Meneghetti

    2013-11-15

    Measurement and diagnostic systems based on electronic sensors have been increasingly essential in the standardization of hospital equipment. The technical standard IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) 60601-2-19 establishes requirements for neonatal incubators and specifies the calibration procedure and validation tests for such devices using sensors systems. This paper proposes a new procedure based on an inferential neural network to evaluate and calibrate a neonatal incubator. The proposal presents significant advantages over the standard calibration process, i.e., the number of sensors is drastically reduced, and it runs with the incubator under operation. Since the sensors used in the new calibration process are already installed in the commercial incubator, no additional hardware is necessary; and the calibration necessity can be diagnosed in real time without the presence of technical professionals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Experimental tests involving the aforementioned calibration system are carried out in a commercial incubator in order to validate the proposal.

  7. Assessment and Certification of Neonatal Incubator Sensors through an Inferential Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo Júnior, José Medeiros; de Menezes Júnior, José Maria Pires; de Albuquerque, Alberto Alexandre Moura; Almeida, Otacílio da Mota; de Araújo, Fábio Meneghetti Ugulino

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and diagnostic systems based on electronic sensors have been increasingly essential in the standardization of hospital equipment. The technical standard IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) 60601-2-19 establishes requirements for neonatal incubators and specifies the calibration procedure and validation tests for such devices using sensors systems. This paper proposes a new procedure based on an inferential neural network to evaluate and calibrate a neonatal incubator. The proposal presents significant advantages over the standard calibration process, i.e., the number of sensors is drastically reduced, and it runs with the incubator under operation. Since the sensors used in the new calibration process are already installed in the commercial incubator, no additional hardware is necessary; and the calibration necessity can be diagnosed in real time without the presence of technical professionals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Experimental tests involving the aforementioned calibration system are carried out in a commercial incubator in order to validate the proposal. PMID:24248278

  8. Incorporating a Nebulizer System Into High-Flow Nasal Cannula Improves Comfort in Infants With Bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Ramos, Juan; Mirás, Alicia; Cilla, Amacia; Ochoa, Carlos; Arnaez, Juan

    2018-07-01

    High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly used to provide respiratory support in infants with bronchiolitis. The delivery of aerosol therapy through a jet nebulizer is widely indicated despite its controversial efficacy and poor tolerability. This randomized cross-over study aimed to evaluate the comfort and satisfaction of the delivery of aerosol therapy using a nebulization system integrated into HFNC compared with the standard practice of using a jet nebulizer with a face mask. The COMFORT-Behavior (COMFORT-B) scale, a visual analog scale, and a numeric rating scale were used by health professionals and caregivers to assess subjects' levels of comfort and satisfaction. A total of 113 nebulizations (64 via nebulizer with HFNC; 49 via jet nebulizer) were delivered to the 6 subjects included in the study. Use of the nebulizer with HFNC showed increased comfort and satisfaction during nebulization compared to use of the jet nebulizer, as measured by the COMFORT-B scale, the visual analog scale, and the numeric rating scale, with the following median (interquartile range) scores: 10.7 (7-16) versus 14.5 (10-20) ( P = .006), 8.5 (6-10) versus 7 (4-9) ( P = .02), and 3.84 (3.61-4.07) versus 1.83 (1.58-2.08) ( P < .001), respectively. Correlation between the COMFORT-B scale and the visual analog scale using Spearman's rho was -0.757 ( P < .001). The intraclass correlation coefficient for the COMFORT-B scale, visual analog scale, and numeric rating scale, as measured by 2 different nurses, was between 0.75 and 0.87. The use of a nebulizer incorporated into HFNC therapy results in an increased level of comfort and satisfaction compared to the use of a conventional jet nebulizer in subjects with bronchiolitis who required HFNC therapy. Further studies are needed to determine whether aerosol therapy delivered through HFNC improves the clinical course of this pathology. Copyright © 2018 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  9. 'Green incubation': avian offspring benefit from aromatic nest herbs through improved parental incubation behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gwinner, Helga; Capilla-Lasheras, Pablo; Cooper, Caren; Helm, Barbara

    2018-06-13

    Development of avian embryos requires thermal energy, usually from parents. Parents may, however, trade off catering for embryonic requirements against their own need to forage through intermittent incubation. This dynamically adjusted behaviour can be affected by properties of the nest. Here, we experimentally show a novel mechanism by which parents, through incorporation of aromatic herbs into nests, effectively modify their incubation behaviour to the benefit of their offspring. Our study species, the European starling, includes in its nest aromatic herbs which promote offspring fitness. We provided wild starlings with artificial nests including or excluding the typically selected fresh herbs and found strong support for our prediction of facilitated incubation. Herb effects were not explained by thermal changes of the nests per se , but by modified parental behaviours. Egg temperatures and nest attendance were higher in herb than herbless nests, egg temperatures dropped less frequently below critical thresholds and parents started their active day earlier. These effects were dynamic over time and particularly strong during early incubation. Incubation period was shorter in herb nests, and nestlings were heavier one week after hatching. Aromatic herbs hence influenced incubation in beneficial ways for offspring, possibly through pharmacological effects on incubating parents. © 2018 The Author(s).

  10. The relationship of oocyte diameter and incubation temperature to incubation time in temperate freshwater fish species.

    PubMed

    Teletchea, F; Gardeur, J-N; Kamler, E; Fontaine, P

    2009-02-01

    Based on the analysis of six egg variables and incubation temperature of 65 temperate freshwater fish species, the possible relationships between oocyte diameter, incubation time and incubation temperature were reassessed and compared to the results obtained from marine fishes. Most freshwater species have eggs (mean +/-s.d. 2.19 +/- 1.52 mm) larger than marine species, that are chiefly demersal and develop stuck to various substrata, such as plants or rocks. A strong negative relationship was found between incubation time (t, days) and incubation temperature (T, degrees C): t = 186.23e(-0.197T) (r(2)= 0.87). A strong dependence of incubation time on oocyte diameter (Ø, mm) and incubation temperature was also found and was defined as: log(10)t= 3.002 + 0.599 log(10)Ø - 1.91 log(10) (T + 2), which explained 92% of the variance of the data set. Five major groups of species were defined based on the principal component analysis (PCA) of four quantitative variables. There were two distinct groups of salmonids, displaying demersal and non-adhesive eggs with a long incubation time at low temperature, the eggs of which required a high number of degree-days. There was a large group of species possessing small, mostly demersal and adhesive eggs developing at high temperature during a short period of time, and requiring a low number of degree-days. Between these two extremes, there was a fourth group displaying intermediate values and a fifth group including three species with large, adhesive and demersal eggs incubating at high temperatures during a short period of time. The burbot Lota lota displayed an unusual combination of variables compared to the remaining species in the data set.

  11. Noise at the neonatal intensive care unit and inside the incubator.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Eliana Moreira; Guinsburg, Ruth; Nabuco, Marco Antonio de Araujo; Kakehashi, Tereza Yoshiko

    2011-01-01

    The goal was to identify sound pressure level (SPL) at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and inside the incubator of a teaching hospital of a public university from São Paulo - SP, Brazil. SPL inside the NICU and the incubator were measured using four dosimeters in January/2010. SPL at the NICU varied from 52.6 dBA to 80.4 dBA and inside the incubator, from 45.4 dBA to 79.1 dBA. SPL both at the NICU and inside the incubator are above the recommended values, but levels were higher at the NICU than inside the incubator. Although there are some specific factors related to SPL inside the incubator, the NICU and incubator acoustic features present a system: an increase/decrease in SPL at the NICU usually tends to increase/decrease SPL inside the incubator. The study points to the need for simultaneous monitoring of SPL at the NICU and inside the incubator.

  12. Embryonal Central Nervous System Neoplasms Arising in Infants: A Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    McLendon, Roger E.; Adekunle, Adesina; Rajaram, Veena; Kocak, Mehmet; Blaney, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Context Medulloblastomas (MBs) and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) can be difficult to distinguish; however, histologic characterization is prognostically important. Objective To determine histologic and phenotypic markers associated with utility progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in children under 3 years of age with MBs and AT/RTs. Design We undertook a histologic and immunophenotypic study of MBs and AT/RTs arising in infants treated on a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study. The 41 girls and 55 boys (aged 2 to 36 months at enrollment) exhibited 42 MBs, 26 AT/RTs and 28 other tumors. Median follow-up was 17.2 months from diagnosis (range: 1.4–93 months). Results Infants with AT/RT exhibited shorter PFS and OS when compared to infants with MBs (P=.0003 and P=.0005, respectively). A lack of nuclear BAF47 immunohistochemical reactivity (IHC) proved reliable in identifying AT/RTs. Among MBs, our data demonstrate that anaplasia correlated with OTX2 reactivity and both OTX2 and moderate to severe anaplasia correlated with PFS but not OS. “Nodularity” may be a positive prognostic factor. Conclusion Distinguishing AT/RT from MBs is clinically important. The diagnoses of AT/RT and MB can be reliably made from H&E stains in the majority of cases. However certain rare small cell variants of AT/RT can be confused with MB. IHC for BAF47 is clinically useful in diagnosing AT/RTs, particularly certain small cell AT/RTs. Among MBs, “nodularity”, absent or mild anaplasia, and lack of OTX2 expression may be important prognostic factors for improved PFS and OS in infants. PMID:21809989

  13. Neurobiology of mother-infant interactions: experience and central nervous system plasticity across development and generations.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A S; O'Day, D H; Kraemer, G W

    1999-05-01

    The optimal coordination between the new mammalian mother and her young involves a sequence of behaviors on the part of each that ensures that the young will be adequately cared for and show healthy physical, emotional, and social development. This coordination is accomplished by each member of the relationship having the appropriate sensitivities and responses to cues that characterize the other. Among many mammalian species, new mothers are attracted to their infants' odors and some recognize them based on their odors; they also respond to their infants' vocalizations, thermal properties, and touch qualities. Together these cues ensure that the mother will nurse and protect the offspring and provide them with the appropriate physical and stimulus environment in which to develop. The young, in turn, orient to the mother and show a suckling pattern that reflects a sensitivity to the mothers odor, touch, and temperature characteristics. This article explores the sensory, endocrine, and neural mechanisms that underlie this early mother-young relationship, from the perspective of, first, the mother and, then, the young, noting the parallels between them. It emphasizes the importance of learning and plasticity in the formation and maintenance of the mother-young relationship and mediation of these experience effects by the brain and its neurochemistry. Finally, it discusses ways in which the infants' early experiences with their mothers (or the absence of these experiences) may come to influence how they respond to their own infants when they grow up, providing a psychobiological mechanism for the inter-generational transmission of parenting styles and responsiveness.

  14. Epicardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator system placed in a 4.9-kg infant.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Roosevelt; Aboutalebi, Amir; Kim, Jeffrey J; Kertesz, Naomi; Morales, David L S

    2011-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators have aided the prevention of sudden cardiac death in adults. The hope is to provide similar benefits to the pediatric population as the devices become smaller. Herein, we present the case of a 4.9-kg, 5-week-old infant boy who presented with cardiopulmonary arrest. After emergency defibrillation, conventional treatment options included long-term hospitalization for later cardioverter-defibrillator implantation, or installation of an external defibrillator with subsequent home telemetry. On the basis of the infant's body dimensions, we decided that an epicardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator was feasible and the best option. We performed a median sternotomy and placed a Vitality® implantable cardioverter-defibrillator with a 25-cm defibrillator coil and a 35-cm bipolar ventricular lead. The patient experienced no postoperative morbidity or rhythm disturbances and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 5. He was placed on β-blocker therapy and has remained well for 3 years.Although external devices can be placed in a small patient, we believe that they are too susceptible to lead damage and lead migration, and that the defibrillator thresholds are less reliable. We think that dysrhythmias even in very small children can be treated effectively and safely with use of an epicardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. To our knowledge, this 4.9-kg infant is the smallest patient to have undergone a successful implantation of this kind.

  15. Premature Infant Care in the Early 20th Century.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Stephanie; Hehman, Michelle C

    The complex early history of infant incubators provides insight into challenges faced by medical professionals as they promoted care for premature infants in the early 20th century. Despite their absence from the narrative to date, nurses played vital roles in the development of neonatal care. Working in many different settings, from incubator-baby shows to the first hospital unit designed specifically for premature infants, nurses administered quality care and promoted advanced treatment for these newborns. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Delayed methotrexate excretion in infants and young children with primary central nervous system tumors and postoperative fluid collections.

    PubMed

    Wright, Karen D; Panetta, John C; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Reddick, Wilburn E; Patay, Zoltan; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Broniscer, Alberto; Robinson, Giles; Boop, Frederick A; Klimo, Paul; Ward, Deborah; Gajjar, Amar; Stewart, Clinton F

    2015-01-01

    High-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) has been used to treat children with central nervous system tumors. Accumulation of MTX within pleural, peritoneal, or cardiac effusions has led to delayed excretion and increased risk of systemic toxicity. This retrospective study analyzed the association of intracranial post-resection fluid collections with MTX plasma disposition in infants and young children with brain tumors. Brain MRI findings were analyzed for postoperative intracranial fluid collections in 75 pediatric patients treated with HD-MTX and for whom serial MTX plasma concentrations (MTX) were collected. Delayed plasma excretion was defined as (MTX) ≥1 μM at 42 hours (h). Leucovorin was administered at 42 h and then every 6 h until (MTX) <0.1 μM. Population and individual MTX pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Fifty-eight patients had intracranial fluid collections present. Population average (inter-individual variation) MTX clearance was 96.0 ml/min/m² (41.1 CV %) and increased with age. Of the patients with intracranial fluid collections, 24 had delayed excretion; only 2 of the 17 without fluid collections (P < 0.04) had delayed excretion. Eleven patients had grade 3 or 4 toxicities attributed to HD-MTX. No significant difference was observed in intracranial fluid collection, total leucovorin dosing, or hydration fluids between those with and without toxicity. Although an intracranial fluid collection is associated with delayed MTX excretion, HD-MTX can be safely administered with monitoring of infants and young children with intracranial fluid collections. Infants younger than 1 year may need additional monitoring to avoid toxicity.

  17. Program Incubation and Commercialization Best Practices Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Shannon

    As a reminder, the primary task of the 4C Program is to increase the commercialization rate of cleantech companies in California. Commercialization, broadly defined, is the innovation continuum of developing and introducing a new product or service into the market. For measurability, the 4C Program defines commercialization as encompassing a startup’s: (a) preparation, (b) incubation, (c) commercial-scale pilot / demonstration, and (d) first customer.

  18. An Introduction to Developing an Urban Business Incubator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, James; And Others

    Designed to provide a brief overview of the considerations involved in establishing a small business incubator, this guide presents information on incubator classification, funding methods, incubator operation techniques, and two-year college involvement in the formation of a working business incubator. Part 1 describes a small business incubator…

  19. The relationship between BNP, NTproBNP and echocardiographic measurements of systemic blood flow in very preterm infants.

    PubMed

    König, K; Guy, K J; Walsh, G; Drew, S M; Watkins, A; Barfield, C P

    2014-04-01

    Preterm infants are at risk of circulatory compromise following birth. Functional neonatal echocardiography including superior vena cava (SVC) flow is increasingly used in neonatal medicine, and low SVC flow has been associated with adverse outcome. However, echocardiography is not readily available in many neonatal units and B-type natriuretic peptides (BNPs) may be useful in guiding further cardiovascular assessment. This study investigated the relationship between BNP, N-terminal pro-BNP (NTproBNP) and echocardiographic measurements of systemic blood flow in very preterm infants. This is a prospective observational study. Sixty preterm infants <32 weeks gestational age were included after the treating neonatologist had requested an echocardiogram for suspected cardiovascular compromise. BNP and NTproBNP were sampled just before the echocardiogram. Echocardiographic examination included fractional shortening (FS), SVC flow, left and right ventricular output (LVO and RVO). Statistical analysis included simple linear regression of BNP and NTproBNP with echocardiographic measures and multiple regression including potential confounding variables. Mean (s.d.) gestational age at birth was 27(5) (2(1)) weeks, median (interquartile range, IQR) birth weight was 995 (845 to 1175) grams. Neither BNP nor NTproBNP correlated with SVC flow (BNP 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.0014 to 0.013, P=0.12; NTproBNP 95% CI -0.00069 to 0.01, P=0.085); LVO (BNP 95% CI -0.00078 to 0.0072, P=0.11; NTproBNP 95% CI -0.0034 to 0.0034, P=0.99); RVO (BNP 95% CI -0.00066 to 0.0058, P=0.12; NTproBNP 95% CI -0.0012 to 0.0044, P=0.25); or FS (BNP 95% CI -0.053 to 0.051, P=0.96; NTproBNP 95% CI -0.061 to 0.019, P=0.3). Multivariate linear regression did not significantly alter results. In this cohort of very preterm infants, BNP and NTproBNP did not correlate with echocardiographic measurements of systemic blood flow within the first 72 h of life.

  20. Maternal-infant interaction and autonomic function in healthy infants and infants with transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tondi M; Ferree, Allison

    2014-12-01

    The quality of maternal-infant interaction is a critical factor in the development of infants' autonomic function and social engagement skills. In this secondary data analysis, relationships among infant and maternal affect and behavior and quality of dyadic interaction, as measured by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment, and infant autonomic function, as measured by heart rate variability, were examined during feeding at 2 weeks and 2 months of age in 16 healthy infants and in 15 infants with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Contrary to previous research, at 2 weeks infant age, mothers of infants with TGA had significantly higher scores in affect and behavior than did mothers of healthy infants. The affect and behavior and quality of dyadic interaction of infants with TGA also did not differ from that of healthy infants. Although infants' social engagement skills did not differ by health condition (TGA or healthy), these skills did differ by parasympathetic nervous system function: infants better able to suppress vagal activity with challenge had more positive and less dysregulated affect and behavior, regardless of health status. These findings suggest that maternal-infant interactions for some cardiac disease subgroups may not differ from healthy dyads. Additional research is required to identify both healthy and ill infants with delayed autonomic maturation and to develop and test interventions to enhance critical interactive functions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Importance of maternal diet in the training of the infant's immune system during gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Jeurink, P V; Knipping, K; Wiens, F; Barańska, K; Stahl, B; Garssen, J; Krolak-Olejnik, B

    2018-02-02

    Latest forecasts predict that half of the European population will be allergic within the coming 15 years, with food allergies contributing substantially to the total burden; preventive measures are urgently needed. Unfortunately, all attempted alimentary strategies for primary prevention of allergic diseases through allergen avoidance so far have failed. This also holds true for the prevention of food allergies in breastfed infants by the common practice of excluding certain foods with allergenic potential from the maternal diet. As a preventive measure, therefore, exclusion diets should be discouraged. They can exhaust nursing mothers and negatively impact both their nutritional status as well as their motivation to breastfeed. A prolonged exclusion diet may be indicated solely in cases of doctor-diagnosed food allergy following rigid medical tests (e.g. double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges). Indicated cases usually involve exclusion of only a few food items. Continued breastfeeding is generally important for many aspects of the infant's health, including the training of the infant's immune responses to foreign compounds and avoidance of overshooting inflammatory responses. Recent studies suggest that the presence of maternal dietary proteins in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and human milk might support the induction of tolerance towards solid foods in infants. These are exactly the same species of proteins or remnants thereof that, in comparatively few cases, trigger allergic responses. However, the insight that the proteins of maternal dietary origin in human milk are more likely to be cure (or, more precise, directing prevention) than curse has still largely evaded the attention of health care professionals consulted by worried breastfeeding mothers. In this paper, we summarize recent literature on the importance of exposure to dietary proteins in the establishment of immunological tolerance and hence prevention of allergic disease. Multiple

  2. Infant CPAP for low-income countries: An experimental comparison of standard bubble CPAP and the Pumani system.

    PubMed

    Falk, Markus; Donaldsson, Snorri; Drevhammar, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Access to inexpensive respiratory support to newborn infants improves survival in low-income countries. Standard bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been extensively used worldwide for more than 30 years. One project aimed at providing affordable CPAP is the Pumani system developed by Rice 360°. Compared to standard bubble CPAP the system has an unconventional design. The aim was to compare the Pumani system with two traditional bubble CPAP systems, focusing on in-vitro performance and safety. The Pumani system was compared to traditional bubble CPAP from Fisher & Paykel (Auckland, New Zealand) and Diamedica (Devon, United Kingdom). The systems were tested using static flow resistance and simulated breathing for a range of fresh gas flows and submersion levels. There were large differences between the Pumani CPAP and the conventional bubble CPAP systems. The Pumani system was not pressure stable, had high resistance and high imposed work of breathing. It was not possible to use submersion depth to adjust CPAP without accounting for fresh gas flow. The Pumani design is novel and not similar to any previously described CPAP system. The main mechanism for CPAP generation was resistance, not submersion depth. The system should therefore not be referred to as bubble CPAP. The clinical consequences of its pressure instability and high imposed work of breathing are not known and trials on outcome and safety are needed.

  3. Variations in incubator temperature and humidity management: a survey of current practice.

    PubMed

    Deguines, C; Décima, P; Pelletier, A; Dégrugilliers, L; Ghyselen, L; Tourneux, P

    2012-03-01

    To describe and assess routine procedures and practices for incubator temperature and humidity management in France in 2009. A questionnaire was sent to all the 186 neonatal care units in France. The questionnaire return rate was 86%. Seventy-five per cent of the units preferred skin servo-control to air temperature control in routine practice. Air temperature control was mainly used for infants with a gestational age of more than 28 weeks and aged over 7 days of life. In general, thermal management decisions did not depend on the infant's age but were based on a protocol applied specifically by each unit. All units humidified the incubator air, but there was a large difference between the lowest and highest reported humidity values (45% and 100% assumed to be a maximal value, respectively). More than 65% of the units used a fixed humidity value, rather than a variable, protocol-derived value. We observed large variations in incubator temperature and humidity management approaches from one neonatal care unit to another. There is a need for more evidence to better inform practice. A task force should be formed to guide clinical practice. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  4. Parathion alters incubation behavior of laughing gulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Hill, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    One member of each pair of incubating laughing gulls at 9 nests was trapped, orally dosed with either 6 mg/kg parathion in corn oil or corn oil alone, and marked about the neck with red dye. Each nest was marked with a numbered stake and the treatment was recorded. A pilot study with captive laughing gulls had determined the proper dosage of parathion that would significantly inhibit their brain AChE activity (about 50% of normal) without overt signs of poisoning. After dosing, birds were released and the nests were observed for 2 1/2 days from a blind on the nesting island. The activities of the birds at each marked nest were recorded at 10-minute intervals. Results indicated that on the day of treatment there was no difference (P greater than 0.05, Chi-square test) in the proportion of time spent on the nest between treated and control birds. However, birds dosed with 6 mg/kg parathion spent significantly less time incubating on days 2 and 3 than did birds receiving only corn oil. By noon on the third day, sharing of nest duties between pair members in the treated group had approached normal, indicating recovery from parathion intoxication. These findings suggest that sublethal exposure of nesting birds to an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, such as parathion, may result in decreased nest attentiveness, thereby making the clutch more susceptible to predation or egg failure. Behavioral changes caused by sublethal OP exposure could be especially detrimental in avian species where only one pair member incubates or where both members are exposed in species sharing nest duties.

  5. Physics Incubator at Kansas State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanders, Bret; Chakrabarti, Amitabha

    Funded by a major private endowment, the physics department at Kansas State University has recently started a physics incubator program that provides support to research projects with a high probability of commercial application. Some examples of these projects will be discussed in this talk. In a parallel effort, undergraduate physics majors and graduate students are being encouraged to work with our business school to earn an Entrepreneurship minor and a certification in Entrepreneurship. We will discuss how these efforts are promoting a ``culture change'' in the department. We will also discuss the advantages and the difficulties in running such a program in a Midwest college town.

  6. Factors related to the artificial incubation of wild bird eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.; Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Kondrad, Shannon R.

    2009-01-01

    Attempts to artificially incubate the eggs of wild birds have failed in many respects in duplicating the success of natural incubation. As part of a larger study we had the opportunity to artificially incubate the eggs of 22 species of birds (three domestic and 19 wild species). We report the successes and failures associated with artificial incubation of these eggs. Moisture loss varied widely, not only for Orders of birds but for similar species within an Order. Overall hatching success and success through to 90% of incubation varied for different Orders and for similar species. Humidity and temperature are critical elements in the artificial incubation of wild bird eggs and must be closely monitored throughout incubation to ensure the best possible chance of hatching. Even when these elements are addressed, artificial incubation still can not duplicate the success of incubation by the parent.

  7. Development of a new near-IR laser system for clinical monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in the newborn infant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; Hamza, Mohammad; Hamza, Ahmad M.

    1998-04-01

    The provision of sufficient oxygen to the brain is a major goal for neonatologists to prevent major neuro-developmental handicaps and to improve the chances for intact survival of sick newborn infants. In this paper the authors present the theory and design of a new noninvasive device for transcutaneous monitoring of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation using a differential absorption laser system. The new technique depends upon illuminating the head of the neonate with radiation from six near infrared laser diodes. The choice of the used laser wavelengths (775, 780, 810, 825, 830, 850 nanometers) follows the principles of near infrared spectroscopy for obtaining accurate measurements. Different constructions of fiber optic probes arranged around the head of the neonate along the biparietal diameter guide the transmitted and received laser signals for signal processing. The detailed description and operating characteristics of this system are presented.

  8. Health system determinants of infant, child and maternal mortality: A cross-sectional study of UN member countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Few studies have examined the link between health system strength and important public health outcomes across nations. We examined the association between health system indicators and mortality rates. Methods We used mixed effects linear regression models to investigate the strength of association between outcome and explanatory variables, while accounting for geographic clustering of countries. We modelled infant mortality rate (IMR), child mortality rate (CMR), and maternal mortality rate (MMR) using 13 explanatory variables as outlined by the World Health Organization. Results Significant protective health system determinants related to IMR included higher physician density (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] 0.81; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.71-0.91), higher sustainable access to water and sanitation (aRR 0.85; 95% CI 0.78-0.93), and having a less corrupt government (aRR 0.57; 95% CI 0.40-0.80). Out-of-pocket expenditures on health (aRR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03-1.62) were a risk factor. The same four variables were significantly related to CMR after controlling for other variables. Protective determinants of MMR included access to water and sanitation (aRR 0.88; 95% CI 0.82-0.94), having a less corrupt government (aRR 0.49; 95%; CI 0.36-0.66), and higher total expenditures on health per capita (aRR 0.84; 95% CI 0.77-0.92). Higher fertility rates (aRR 2.85; 95% CI: 2.02-4.00) were found to be a significant risk factor for MMR. Conclusion Several key measures of a health system predict mortality in infants, children, and maternal mortality rates at the national level. Improving access to water and sanitation and reducing corruption within the health sector should become priorities. PMID:22023970

  9. Infant Constipation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler ... Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Diapers & Clothing > Infant Constipation Ages & Stages Listen Español Text ...

  10. Infant reflexes

    MedlinePlus

    ... infants; Tonic neck reflex; Galant reflex; Truncal incurvation; Rooting reflex; Parachute reflex; Grasp reflex ... up if both hands are grasping your fingers. ROOTING REFLEX This reflex occurs when the baby's cheek ...

  11. CPR: Infant

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  12. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... infant is a baby born before 37 completed weeks of gestation (more than 3 weeks before the due date). ... one of the following: Premature (less than 37 weeks gestation) Full term (37 to 42 weeks gestation) ...

  13. Chronic Stress in the Mother-Infant Dyad: Maternal Hair Cortisol, Infant Salivary Cortisol and Interactional Synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; St. John, Ashley Moore; Meyer, Jerrold S.

    2017-01-01

    Stress physiology is shaped by early experience, with enduring effects on health. The relation of chronic maternal physiological stress, as indexed by hair cortisol, to infants' stress systems and to mother-infant interaction quality has not been established. We examined maternal hair and salivary cortisol, six-month-old infants' salivary cortisol, and mother-infant interaction in 121 mother-infant dyads. High maternal hair cortisol was related to higher infant average salivary cortisol concentration. Maternal hair cortisol and bedtime salivary cortisol were both uniquely related to infant bedtime salivary cortisol. Mothers with higher hair cortisol were more intrusive and had lower positive engagement synchrony with their infants. Maternal intrusiveness moderated the association of maternal hair cortisol and infant salivary cortisol, such that maternal hair and infant average salivary cortisol were related only when mothers were more intrusive. Maternal chronic physiological stress may upregulate infants' developing stress systems, particularly in the context of lower mother-infant interaction quality. PMID:28391126

  14. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in waterbird nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ± 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ± 1.6 days and 1.9 ± 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ± 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ± 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates.

  15. Protein-Linked Glycan Degradation in Infants Fed Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, David C.; Sela, David; Underwood, Mark A.; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito

    2014-01-01

    Many human milk proteins are glycosylated. Glycosylation is important in protecting bioactive proteins and peptide fragments from digestion. Protein-linked glycans have a variety of functions; however, there is a paucity of information on protein-linked glycan degradation in either the infant or the adult digestive system. Human digestive enzymes can break down dietary disaccharides and starches, but most of the digestive enzymes required for complex protein-linked glycan degradation are absent from both human digestive secretions and the external brush border membrane of the intestinal lining. Indeed, complex carbohydrates remain intact throughout their transit through the stomach and small intestine, and are undegraded by in vitro incubation with either adult pancreatic secretions or intact intestinal brush border membranes. Human gastrointestinal bacteria, however, produce a wide variety of glycosidases with regio- and anomeric specificities matching those of protein-linked glycan structures. These bacteria degrade a wide array of complex carbohydrates including various protein-linked glycans. That bacteria possess glycan degradation capabilities, whereas the human digestive system, perse, does not, suggests that most dietary protein-linked glycan breakdown will be of bacterial origin. In addition to providing a food source for specific bacteria in the colon, protein-linked glycans from human milk may act as decoys for pathogenic bacteria to prevent invasion and infection of the host. The composition of the intestinal microbiome may be particularly important in the most vulnerable humans-the elderly, the immunocompromised, and infants (particularly premature infants). PMID:24533224

  16. Special report. Update on EAS (electronic article surveillance) systems: protecting against patient wandering, infant abduction, property theft.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    Concern about wandering patients and infant abduction on the part of hospitals has sparked renewed interest in Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) systems. Such systems had their origins in department stores and libraries where they are almost universally used. They also have applications in hospitals for preventing the theft of supplies and equipment. A number of companies provide EAS products for the health care field. How do you select the system that is best for your needs? "Talk to users. Pick out a number of profit and non-profit hospitals to get their views," advises Ted Algaier, vice president, marketing and sales, Innovative Control Systems, Inc., Waukesha, WI. "Examine the history of the company or vendor to determine if it understands the health care market and find out if the product really works." In this report, we'll review a number of EAS systems currently on the market, and present information on how they work, how effective they are, and costs involved. Also included are comments from users who have installed such systems.

  17. NREL Incubator Alliance Helps Entrepreneurs Build Clean Energy Solutions

    Science.gov Websites

    Incubator Alliance Helps Entrepreneurs Build Clean Energy Solutions For more information contact alliance. "We can do that by helping companies succeed." The incubators' objective is to build

  18. Creativity: Incubation as a Special Case of Reminiscence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsel, Thomas N.

    1979-01-01

    Similarities between features of incubation in creative problem solving and reminiscence are pointed out and the author suggests that incubation may merely be a special type of reminiscence. Note: For related information, see EC 120 232-238. (CL)

  19. Infant Care and Infant Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... SIDS)? What are some ways to promote infant safety in a car? What can parents expect during their infant’s well-child visits? Why are immunizations important for my infant’s health? Other FAQs NICHD Research ...

  20. [Streptococcus group B in a maternity home with a decentralized system of newborn infant care (of the mother-child type)].

    PubMed

    Shevchuk, M S; Bochkov, I A; Semina, N A; Severov, A M; Jelinková, J; Motlová, I; Cherkasskaia, R S; Darbeeva, O S

    1991-03-01

    In a maternity hospital with the decentralized system of infant care the presence of the group B streptococcal colonization of puerperants (13.0 +/- 4.5%), newborn infants (25.0 +/- 4.4%) and medical staff (16.9 +/- 3.2%) was established. The strains isolated in this hospital belonged to 13 different serotypes and antigenic combinations with type 1 a/c dominating among them (28.7 +/- 4.8%). Group B streptococci were found to be transmitted by the vertical way in one out of two colonized mother-child pairs, in all other cases the nosocomial spread of streptococci occurred.

  1. Stellar Incubators Seen Cooking up Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-01-12

    This image composite compares visible-light and infrared views from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of the glowing Trifid Nebula, a giant star-forming cloud of gas and dust located 5,400 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. Visible-light images of the Trifid taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, Baltimore, Md. (inside left, figure 1) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., (outside left, figure 1) show a murky cloud lined with dark trails of dust. Data of this same region from the Institute for Radioastronomy millimeter telescope in Spain revealed four dense knots, or cores, of dust (outlined by yellow circles), which are "incubators" for embryonic stars. Astronomers thought these cores were not yet ripe for stars, until Spitzer spotted the warmth of rapidly growing massive embryos tucked inside. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07226

  2. Innovation Incubator: Whisker Labs Technical Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, Bethany F.; Frank, Stephen M.; Earle, Lieko

    The Wells Fargo Innovation Incubator (IN2) is a program to foster and accelerate startup companies with commercial building energy-efficiency and demand management technologies. The program is funded by the Wells Fargo Foundation and co-administered by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Whisker Labs, an Oakland, California-based company, was one of four awardees in the first IN2 cohort and was invited to participate in the program because of its novel electrical power sensing technology for circuit breakers. The stick-on Whisker meters install directly on the front face of the circuit breakers in an electrical panel using adhesive, eliminating the need tomore » open the panel and install current transducers (CTs) on the circuit wiring.« less

  3. Input from Key Stakeholders in the National Security Technology Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    None

    This report documents the input from key stakeholders of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) in developing a new technology incubator and related programs for southern New Mexico. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes identification of key stakeholders as well as a description and analysis of their input for the development of an incubator.

  4. Lessons learned from implementing the HIV infant tracking system (HITSystem): A web-based intervention to improve early infant diagnosis in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Finocchario-Kessler, S; Odera, I; Okoth, V; Bawcom, C; Gautney, B; Khamadi, S; Clark, K; Goggin, K

    2015-12-01

    Guided by the RE-AIM model, we describe preliminary data and lessons learned from multiple serial implementations of an eHealth intervention to improve early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV in Kenya. We describe the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance of the HITSystem, an eHealth intervention that links key stakeholders to improve retention and outcomes in EID. Our target community includes mother-infant pairs utilizing EID services and government health care providers and lab personnel. We also explore our own role as program and research personnel supporting the dissemination and scale up of the HITSystem in Kenya. Key findings illustrate the importance of continual adaptation of the HITSystem interface to accommodate varied stakeholders' workflows in different settings. Surprisingly, technology capacity and internet connectivity posed minimal short-term challenges. Early and sustained ownership of the HITSystem among stakeholders proved critical to reach, effectiveness and successful adoption, implementation and maintenance. Preliminary data support the ability of the HITSystem to improve EID outcomes in Kenya. Strong and sustained collaborations with stakeholders improve the quality and reach of eHealth public health interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Curriculum R&D: Incubating Change in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderman, Judith Ann

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined incubation as a strategy for curricular change. The purpose was to examine the characteristics and effectiveness of curriculum incubation from a faculty perspective. The conceptual frame for this study proposed combining a grounded theory of incubation with concepts from organizational creativity to explain…

  6. 21 CFR 880.5410 - Neonatal transport incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neonatal transport incubator. 880.5410 Section 880... Devices § 880.5410 Neonatal transport incubator. (a) Identification. A neonatal transport incubator is a... kept in a controlled environment while being transported for medical care. The device may include...

  7. 21 CFR 880.5410 - Neonatal transport incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neonatal transport incubator. 880.5410 Section 880... Devices § 880.5410 Neonatal transport incubator. (a) Identification. A neonatal transport incubator is a... kept in a controlled environment while being transported for medical care. The device may include...

  8. Effects of oil transferred from incubating gulls to their eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    No. 2 fuel oil, or water, was applied to the breast feathers of incubating laughing gulls trapped at their nest site on an island colony in Texas. Gulls were released after treatment and allowed to incubate their eggs for 5 days. Oil was transferred from the feathers of incubating adults to their eggs and resulted in 41% embryo mortality compared with 2% in controls.

  9. Compliance of the respiratory system in newborn infants pre- and postsurfactant replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Kelly, E; Bryan, H; Possmayer, F; Frndova, H; Bryan, C

    1993-04-01

    Surfactant administration causes a rapid and dramatic improvement in gas exchange, but paradoxically, studies have failed to show an improvement in the mechanical properties of the lung. We have measured dynamic and static (passive flow-volume technique) compliance before and after a single dose of bovine lipid extract surfactant in 22 premature infants with RDS. This had no effect on the measured dynamic compliance. In contrast, surfactant significantly increased static compliance from 0.41 +/- 0.02 to 0.55 +/- 0.04 mL/cm H2O/kg. This improvement was the result of a substantial recruitment of lung volume after surfactant administration. This led us to reduce ventilator pressures, which produced an increase in both dynamic and static compliance, but did not recruit additional volume. We conclude that surfactant causes a substantial increase in static compliance due to volume recruitment, which is consistent with reports of increase in the measured FRC. However, despite this improvement, the compliance is still below our normal range.

  10. [Diagnostic values of bronchoscopy and multi-slice spiral CT for congenital dysplasia of the respiratory system in infants: a comparative study].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Lu; Huang, Ying; Li, Qu-Bei; Dai, Ji-Hong

    2013-09-01

    To investigate and compare the diagnostic values of bronchoscopy and multi-slice spiral computed tomography (CT) for congenital dysplasia of the respiratory system in infants. Analysis was performed on the clinical data, bronchoscopic findings and multi-slice spiral CT findings of 319 infants (≤1 years old) who underwent bronchoscopy and/or multi-slice spiral CT and were diagnosed with congenital dysplasia of the respiratory system. A total of 476 cases of congenital dysplasia of the respiratory system were found in the 319 infants, including primary dysplasia of the respiratory system (392 cases) and compressive dysplasia of the respiratory system (84 cases). Of the 392 cases of primary dysplasia of the respiratory system, 225 (57.4%) were diagnosed by bronchoscopy versus 167 (42.6%) by multi-slice spiral CT. There were significant differences in etiological diagnosis between bronchoscopy and multi-slice spiral CT in infants with congenital dysplasia of the respiratory system (P<0.05). All 76 cases of primary dysplasia of the respiratory system caused by tracheobronchomalacia were diagnosed by bronchoscopy and all 17 cases of primary dysplasia of the respiratory system caused by lung tissue dysplasia were diagnosed by multi-slice spiral CT. Of the 84 cases of compressive dysplasia of the respiratory system, 74 cases were diagnosed by multi-slice spiral CT and only 10 cases were diagnosed by bronchoscopy. Compared with multi-slice spiral CT, bronchoscopy can detect primary dysplasia of the respiratory system more directly. Bronchoscopy is valuable in the confirmed diagnosis of tracheobronchomalacia. Multi-slice spiral CT has a higher diagnostic value for lung tissue dysplasia than bronchoscopy.

  11. Ecophysiological Changes in Microbial Mats Incubated in a Greenhouse Collaboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad; DesMarais, David J.; GarciaPichel, Ferran; Hogan, Mary; Jahnke, Linda; Keller, Richard M.; Miller, Scott R.

    2001-01-01

    Microbial mats are modern examples of the earliest microbial communities known. Among the best studied are microbial mats growing in hypersaline ponds managed for the production of salt by Exportadora de Sal, S.A. de C.V., Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. In May, 2001, we collected mats from Ponds 4 and 5 in this system and returned them to Ames Research Center, where they have been maintained for a period of over nine months. We report here on both the ecophysiological changes occurring in the mats over that period of time as well as the facility in which they were incubated. Mats (approximately 1 sq. meter total area) were incubated in a greenhouse facility modified to provide the mats with natural levels of visible and ultraviolet radiation as well as constantly flowing, temperature-controlled water. Two replicated treatments were maintained, a 'high salinity' treatment (about 120 ppt) and a 'low salinity' treatment (about 90 ppt). Rates of net biological activity (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration, trace gas production) in the mats were relatively constant over the several months, and were similar to rates of activity measured in the field. However, over the course of the incubation, mats in both treatments changed in physical appearance. The most obvious change was that mats in the higher salinity treatments developed a higher proportion of carotenoid pigments (relative to chlorophyll), resulting in a noticeably orange color in the high salinity mats. This trend is also seen in the natural salinity gradient present at the field site. Changes in the community composition of the mats, as assayed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), as well as biomarker compounds produced in the mats were also monitored. The degree to which the mats kept in the greenhouse changed from the originally collected mats, as well as differences between high and low salinity mats will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended

  12. In vitro evaluation of radio-labeled aerosol delivery via a variable-flow infant CPAP system.

    PubMed

    Farney, Kimberly D; Kuehne, Brandon T; Gibson, Laurie A; Nelin, Leif D; Shepherd, Edward G

    2014-03-01

    Nasal CPAP is widely used in neonatal ICUs. Aerosolized medications such as inhaled steroids and β agonists are commonly administered in-line through nasal CPAP, especially to infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We hypothesized that aerosol delivery to the lungs via variable-flow nasal CPAP in an in vitro model would be unreliable, and that the delivery would depend on the position of the aerosol generator within the nasal CPAP circuit. We used a system that employed a test lung placed in a plastic jar and subjected to negative pressure. Simulated inspiration effort was measured with a heated-wire anemometer. We used technetium-99m-labeled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid as our aerosol. The nebulizer was placed either close to the humidifier or close to the nasal prongs in the circuit, and patient effort was simulated with a minute ventilation of 0.4 L/min. Relative aerosol delivery to the infant test lung with the nebulizer close to the humidifier was extremely low (0.3 ± 0.4%), whereas placing the nebulizer close to the nasal prongs resulted in significantly (P < .001) improved delivery (21 ± 11%). Major areas of aerosol deposition with the nebulizer close to the humidifier versus close to the nasal prongs were: nebulizer (10 ± 4% vs 33 ± 13%, P < .001), exhalation limb (9 ± 17% vs 26 ± 30%, P = .23), and generator tubing (21 ± 11% vs 19 ± 20%, P = .86). Placing the nebulizer close to the humidifier resulted in 59 ± 8% of the aerosol being deposited in the inhalation tubing along the heater wire. Isotope delivery from an aerosol generator placed near the humidifier on variable-flow nasal CPAP was negligible in this in vitro setup; however, such delivery was significantly improved by locating the aerosol generator closer to the nasal CPAP interface.

  13. Stellar 'Incubators' Seen Cooking up Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5

    This image composite compares visible-light and infrared views from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of the glowing Trifid Nebula, a giant star-forming cloud of gas and dust located 5,400 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius.

    Visible-light images of the Trifid taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, Baltimore, Md. (inside left, figure 1) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., (outside left, figure 1) show a murky cloud lined with dark trails of dust. Data of this same region from the Institute for Radioastronomy millimeter telescope in Spain revealed four dense knots, or cores, of dust (outlined by yellow circles), which are 'incubators' for embryonic stars. Astronomers thought these cores were not yet ripe for stars, until Spitzer spotted the warmth of rapidly growing massive embryos tucked inside.

    These embryos are indicated with arrows in the false-color Spitzer picture (right, figure 1), taken by the telescope's infrared array camera. The same embryos cannot be seen in the visible-light pictures (left, figure 1). Spitzer found clusters of embryos in two of the cores and only single embryos in the other two. This is one of the first times that multiple embryos have been observed in individual cores at this early stage of stellar development.

  14. Initial stabilisation of preterm infants: a new resuscitation system with low imposed work of breathing for use with face mask or nasal prongs.

    PubMed

    Donaldsson, Snorri; Drevhammar, Thomas; Taittonen, Leena; Klemming, Stina; Jonsson, Baldvin

    2017-05-01

    T-piece resuscitation systems are pressure unstable and have high imposed work of breathing (iWOB). Pressure stable respiratory support with low iWOB might improve outcome. We have developed a new resuscitation system that can be used with nasal prongs or face mask. The aim of the study was to describe the in vitro performance of the new system and to perform a clinical feasibility trial of initial stabilisation of preterm infants. A mechanical lung model was used to determine iWOB at increasing levels of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The feasibility trial included 36 infants (27-34 weeks of gestation), who were randomised into three groups (T-piece, new system with face mask or new system with prongs). Collected data included problems with usage, safety, time to stable breathing, need for positive pressure ventilation and intubation. In the mechanical lung model, the new system reduced iWOB with 91.5% (mask) and 86.6% (medium prongs) compared with Neopuff (4 cm CPAP, p<0.001). Informed consent was obtained from 45 patients, 39 were randomised and 36 needed support. Randomisation resulted in an imbalance: The group of new system infants had lower gestational age compared with the T-piece group. Thirteen patients needed positive pressure ventilation (median 20 cm H 2 O). One infant was intubated. The study did not reveal problems with the equipment or safety. Compared with T-piece systems, the new system had a marked reduction in iWOB in bench tests. The feasibility trial did not reveal problems with usability or safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. TulaSalud: An m-health system for maternal and infant mortality reduction in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, Andrés; Lobos-Medina, Isabel; Díaz-Molina, Cesar Augusto; Chen-Cruz, Moisés Faraón; Prieto-Egido, Ignacio

    2015-07-01

    The Guatemalan NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) TulaSalud has implemented an m-health project in the Department of Alta Verapaz. This Department has 1.2 million inhabitants (78% living in rural areas and 89% from indigenous communities) and in 2012, had a maternal mortality rate of 273 for every 100,000 live births. This m-health initiative is based on the provision of a cell phone to community facilitators (CFs). The CFs are volunteers in rural communities who perform health prevention, promotion and care. Thanks to the cell phone, the CFs have become tele-CFs who able to carry out consultations when they have questions; send full epidemiological and clinical information related to the cases they attend to; receive continuous training; and perform activities for the prevention and promotion of community health through distance learning sessions in the Q'eqchí and/or Poqomchi' languages. In this study, rural populations served by tele-CFs were selected as the intervention group while the control group was composed of the rural population served by CFs without Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools. As well as the achievement of important process results (116,275 medical consultations, monitoring of 6,783 pregnant women, and coordination of 2,014 emergency transfers), the project has demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in maternal mortality (p < 0.05) and in child mortality (p = 0.054) in the intervention group compared with rates in the control group. As a result of the telemedicine initiative, the intervention areas, which were selected for their high maternal and infant mortality rates, currently show maternal and child mortality indicators that are not only lower than the indicators in the control area, but also lower than the provincial average (which includes urban areas). © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Sofas and Infant Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Rechtman, Lauren R.; Colvin, Jeffrey D.; Blair, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sleeping on sofas increases the risk of sudden infant death syndrome and other sleep-related deaths. We sought to describe factors associated with infant deaths on sofas. METHODS: We analyzed data for infant deaths on sofas from 24 states in 2004 to 2012 in the National Center for the Review and Prevention of Child Deaths Case Reporting System database. Demographic and environmental data for deaths on sofas were compared with data for sleep-related infant deaths in other locations, using bivariate and multivariable, multinomial logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 1024 deaths on sofas made up 12.9% of sleep-related infant deaths. They were more likely than deaths in other locations to be classified as accidental suffocation or strangulation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–2.3) or ill-defined cause of death (aOR 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0–1.5). Infants who died on sofas were less likely to be Hispanic (aOR 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6–0.9) compared with non-Hispanic white infants or to have objects in the environment (aOR 0.6; 95% CI, 0.5–0.7) and more likely to be sharing the surface with another person (aOR 2.4; 95% CI, 1.9–3.0), to be found on the side (aOR 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4–2.4), to be found in a new sleep location (aOR 6.5; 95% CI, 5.2–8.2), and to have had prenatal smoke exposure (aOR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2–1.6). Data on recent parental alcohol and drug consumption were not available. CONCLUSIONS: The sofa is an extremely hazardous sleep surface for infants. Deaths on sofas are associated with surface sharing, being found on the side, changing sleep location, and experiencing prenatal tobacco exposure, which are all risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome and sleep-related deaths. PMID:25311597

  17. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Baad, Michael; Reiser, Ingrid; Feinstein, Kate A; Lu, Zhengfeng

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: 1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, 2) only the support tray included and 3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient.

  18. Infant Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Projection Tool The CastCost Toolkit en Español Contraceptive Logistics Publications and Products Epidemiology Modules Multimedia Get Email ... Mortality Rates by State Map from the National Center for Health Statistics. ¹The number of infant deaths ...

  19. Infant categorization.

    PubMed

    Rakison, David H; Yermolayeva, Yevdokiya

    2010-11-01

    In this article, we review the principal findings on infant categorization from the last 30 years. The review focuses on behaviorally based experiments with visual preference, habituation, object examining, sequential touching, and inductive generalization procedures. We propose that although this research has helped to elucidate the 'what' and 'when' of infant categorization, it has failed to clarify the mechanisms that underpin this behavior and the development of concepts. We outline a number of reasons for why the field has failed in this regard, most notably because of the context-specific nature of infant categorization and a lack of ground rules in interpreting data. We conclude by suggesting that one remedy for this issue is for infant categorization researchers to adopt more of an interdisciplinary approach by incorporating imaging and computational methods into their current methodological arsenal. WIREs Cogn Sci 2010 1 894-905 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Production of ethanol from infant food formulas by common yeasts.

    PubMed

    Bivin, W S; Heinen, B N

    1985-04-01

    Four common yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Torulopsis glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were combined with five infant food formulas and/or supplements (Isomil, Nutramigen, 5% glucose, Coca Cola and Similac) and incubated at 37 degrees C. Gas chromatography was used to measure ethanol production after 24 and 48 h incubation. The quantities of ethanol produced suggest a possible explanation for patients exhibiting the 'Auto-Brewery Syndrome' and raises interest in the role auto-produced ethanol could have in explaining the etiology of Sudden Infant Death.

  1. Electromagnetic fields produced by incubators influence heart rate variability in newborns.

    PubMed

    Bellieni, C V; Acampa, M; Maffei, M; Maffei, S; Perrone, S; Pinto, I; Stacchini, N; Buonocore, G

    2008-07-01

    Incubators are largely used to preserve preterm and sick babies from postnatal stressors, but their motors produce high electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Newborns are chronically exposed to these EMFs, but no studies about their effects on the fragile developing neonatal structure exist. To verify whether the exposure to incubator motor electric power may alter autonomous nervous system activity in newborns. Heart rate variability (HRV) of 43 newborns in incubators was studied. The study group comprised 27 newborns whose HRV was studied throughout three 5-minute periods: with incubator motor on, off, and on again, respectively. Mean HRV values obtained during each period were compared. The control group comprised 16 newborns with constantly unrecordable EMF and exposed to changes in background noise, similar to those provoked by the incubator motor. Mean (SD) total power and the high-frequency (HF) component of HRV increased significantly (from 87.1 (76.2) ms2 to 183.6 (168.5) ms2) and the mean low-frequency (LF)/HF ratio decreased significantly (from 2.0 (0.5) to 1.5 (0.6)) when the incubator motor was turned off. Basal values (HF = 107.1 (118.1) ms2 and LF/HF = 1.9 (0.6)) were restored when incubators were turned on again. The LF spectral component of HRV showed a statistically significant change only in the second phase of the experiment. Changes in background noise did not provoke any significant change in HRV. EMFs produced by incubators influence newborns' HRV, showing an influence on their autonomous nervous system. More research is needed to assess possible long-term consequences, since premature newborns may be exposed to these high EMFs for months.

  2. AMPA receptor plasticity in accumbens core contributes to incubation of methamphetamine craving

    PubMed Central

    Scheyer, Andrew F.; Loweth, Jessica A.; Christian, Daniel T.; Uejima, Jamie; Rabei, Rana; Le, Tuan; Dolubizno, Hubert; Stefanik, Michael T.; Murray, Connor H.; Sakas, Courtney; Wolf, Marina E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The incubation of cue-induced drug craving in rodents provides a model of persistent vulnerability to craving and relapse in human addicts. After prolonged withdrawal, incubated cocaine craving depends on strengthening of nucleus accumbens (NAc) core synapses through incorporation of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs). Through mGlu1-mediated synaptic depression, mGlu1 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) remove CP-AMPARs from these synapses and thereby reduce cocaine craving. This study aimed to determine if similar plasticity accompanies incubation of methamphetamine craving. METHODS Rats self-administered saline or methamphetamine under extended-access conditions. Cue-induced seeking tests demonstrated incubation of methamphetamine craving. After withdrawal periods ranging from 1 to >40 days, rats underwent one of the following procedures: 1) whole-cell patch clamp recordings to characterize AMPAR transmission, 2) intra-NAc core injection of the CP-AMPAR antagonist 1-napthyl acetyl spermine (naspm) prior to a seeking test, or 3) systemic administration of an mGlu1 PAM prior to a seeking test. RESULTS Incubation of methamphetamine craving was associated with CP-AMPAR accumulation in NAc core, and both effects were maximal after ~1 week of withdrawal. Expression of incubated craving was decreased by intra-NAc naspm injection or systemic mGlu1 PAM administration. CONCLUSIONS These results are the first to demonstrate a role for the NAc in the incubation of methamphetamine craving and describe adaptations in synaptic transmission associated with this model. They establish that incubation of craving and associated CP-AMPAR plasticity occur much more rapidly during withdrawal from methamphetamine than cocaine. However, a common mGlu1-based therapeutic strategy may be helpful for recovering cocaine and methamphetamine addicts. PMID:27264310

  3. AMPA Receptor Plasticity in Accumbens Core Contributes to Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving.

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Andrew F; Loweth, Jessica A; Christian, Daniel T; Uejima, Jamie; Rabei, Rana; Le, Tuan; Dolubizno, Hubert; Stefanik, Michael T; Murray, Conor H; Sakas, Courtney; Wolf, Marina E

    2016-11-01

    The incubation of cue-induced drug craving in rodents provides a model of persistent vulnerability to craving and relapse in human addicts. After prolonged withdrawal, incubated cocaine craving depends on strengthening of nucleus accumbens (NAc) core synapses through incorporation of Ca 2+ -permeable alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (CP-AMPARs). Through metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1)-mediated synaptic depression, mGluR1 positive allosteric modulators remove CP-AMPARs from these synapses and thereby reduce cocaine craving. This study aimed to determine if similar plasticity accompanies incubation of methamphetamine craving. Rats self-administered saline or methamphetamine under extended-access conditions. Cue-induced seeking tests demonstrated incubation of methamphetamine craving. After withdrawal periods ranging from 1 to >40 days, rats underwent one of the following procedures: 1) whole-cell patch clamp recordings to characterize AMPAR transmission, 2) intra-NAc core injection of the CP-AMPAR antagonist 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine followed by a seeking test, or 3) systemic administration of a mGluR1 positive allosteric modulator followed by a seeking test. Incubation of methamphetamine craving was associated with CP-AMPAR accumulation in NAc core, and both effects were maximal after ~1 week of withdrawal. Expression of incubated craving was decreased by intra-NAc core 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine injection or systemic mGluR1 positive allosteric modulator administration. These results are the first to demonstrate a role for the NAc in the incubation of methamphetamine craving and describe adaptations in synaptic transmission associated with this model. They establish that incubation of craving and associated CP-AMPAR plasticity occur much more rapidly during withdrawal from methamphetamine compared with cocaine. However, a common mGluR1-based therapeutic strategy may be helpful for recovering cocaine and methamphetamine

  4. Magnetic bead based immuno-detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables using the Bio-Plex suspension array system.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Basavanna, U

    2015-04-01

    Listeriosis, a disease contracted via the consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic Listeria species, can produce severe symptoms and high mortality in susceptible people and animals. The development of molecular methods and immuno-based techniques for detection of pathogenic Listeria in foods has been challenging due to the presence of assay inhibiting food components. In this study, we utilize a macrophage cell culture system for the isolation and enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables for subsequent identification using the Luminex xMAP technique. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to infant formula, lettuce and celery contaminated with L. monocytogenes or L. ivanovii. Magnetic microspheres conjugated to Listeria specific antibody were used to capture Listeria from infected macrophages and then analyzed using the Bio-Plex 200 analyzer. As few as 10 CFU/mL or g of L. monocytogenes was detected in all foods tested. The detection limit for L. ivanovii was 10 CFU/mL in infant formula and 100 CFU/g in leafy greens. Microsphere bound Listeria obtained from infected macrophage lysates could also be isolated on selective media for subsequent confirmatory identification. This method presumptively identifies L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii from infant formula, lettuce and celery in less than 28 h with confirmatory identifications completed in less than 48 h. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. A new device for administration of continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants: comparison with a standard nasal CPAP continuous positive airway pressure system.

    PubMed

    Trevisanuto, Daniele; Grazzina, Nicoletta; Doglioni, Nicoletta; Ferrarese, Paola; Marzari, Francesco; Zanardo, Vincenzo

    2005-06-01

    We compared the effectiveness of a new continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device (neonatal helmet CPAP) with a conventional nasal CPAP system in preterm neonates needing continuous distending pressure. Randomized, physiological, cross-over study in a tertiary referral, neonatal intensive care unit in a university teaching hospital. Twenty very low birth weight infants with a postnatal age greater than 24 h who were receiving nasal CPAP for apnea and/or mild respiratory distress were enrolled. CPAP delivered by neonatal helmet CPAP and nasal CPAP in random order for two subsequent 90-min periods. Were continuously measured the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) score, oxygen requirements, respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation, transcutaneous PO(2) (tcPO(2)) and PCO(2) (tcPCO(2)), blood pressure, and desaturations. NIPS scores were significantly lower when the infants were on the neonatal helmet CPAP than when they were on nasal CPAP (0.26+/-0.07 vs. 0.63+/-0.12). The other studied parameters did not differ between the two CPAP modes. The number of desaturations was reduced during the neonatal helmet CPAP treatment (18 vs. 32), although this difference was not significant. In this short-term physiological study the neonatal helmet CPAP appears to be as good as the golden standard for managing preterm infants needing continuous distending pressure, with enhanced tolerability. Further evaluation in a randomized clinical trial is needed to confirm these findings.

  6. Maturation of Mechanical Impedance of the Skin-Covered Skull: Implications for Soft Band Bone-Anchored Hearing Systems Fitted in Infants and Young Children.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Allison R; Hodgetts, William E; Scott, Dylan; Small, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the maturational changes in the mechanical properties of the skull and how they might contribute to infant-adult differences in bone conduction hearing sensitivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanical impedance of the skin-covered skull for different skull positions and contact forces for groups of infants, young children, and adults. These findings provide a better understanding of how changes in mechanical impedance might contribute to developmental changes in bone conduction hearing, and might provide insight into how fitting and output verification protocols for bone-anchored hearing systems (BAHS) could be adapted for infants and young children. Seventy-seven individuals participated in the study, including 63 infants and children (ages 1 month to 7 years) and 11 adults. Mechanical impedance magnitude for the forehead and temporal bone was collected for contact forces of 2, 4, and 5.4 N using an impedance head, a BAHS transducer, and a specially designed holding device. Mechanical impedance magnitude was determined across frequency using a stepped sine sweep from 100 to 10,000 Hz, and divided into low- and high-frequency sets for analysis. Mechanical impedance magnitude was lowest for the youngest infants and increased throughout maturation in the low frequencies. For high frequencies, the youngest infants had the highest impedance, but only for a temporal bone placement. Impedance increased with increasing contact force for low frequencies for each age group and for both skull positions. The effect of placement was significant for high frequencies for each contact force and for each age group, except for the youngest infants. Our findings show that mechanical impedance properties change systematically up to 7 years old. The significant age-related differences in mechanical impedance suggest that infant-adult differences in bone conduction thresholds may be related, at least in part, to properties of the

  7. Marketing Plan for the National Security Technology Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    None

    This marketing plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University. The vision of the National Security Technology Incubator program is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The plan defines important aspects of developing the incubator, such as defining the target market, marketing goals, and creating strategies to reach the target market while meeting those goals. The three main marketing goals of the incubator are: 1) developing marketing materials for the incubatormore » program; 2) attracting businesses to become incubator participants; and 3) increasing name recognition of the incubator program on a national level.« less

  8. Evaluation of 100 brain examinations using a 3 Tesla MR-compatible incubator-safety, handling, and image quality.

    PubMed

    Sirin, Selma; Goericke, Sophia L; Huening, Britta M; Stein, Anja; Kinner, Sonja; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Schweiger, Bernd

    2013-10-01

    Several studies have revealed the importance of brain imaging in term and preterm infants. The aim of this retrospective study was to review safety, handling, and image quality of MR brain imaging using a new 3 Tesla MR-compatible incubator. Between 02/2011 and 05/2012 100 brain MRIs (84 infants, mean gestational age 32.2 ± 4.7 weeks, mean postmenstrual age at imaging 40.6 ± 3.4 weeks) were performed using a 3 Tesla MR-compatible incubator with dedicated, compatible head coil. Seventeen examinations (13 infants, mean gestational age 35.1 ± 5.4 weeks, mean postmenstrual age at imaging 47.8 ± 7.4 weeks) with a standard head coil served as a control. Image analysis was performed by a neuroradiologist and a pediatric radiologist in consensus. All but two patients with known apnea were transferred to the MR unit and scanned without problems. Handling was easier and faster with the incubator; relevant motion artifacts (5.9 vs. 10.8%) and the need for repetitive sedation (43.0 vs. 86.7%) were reduced. Considering only images not impaired by motion artifacts, image quality (4.8 ± 0.4 vs. 4.3 ± 0.8, p = 0.047) and spatial resolution (4.7 ± 0.4 vs. 4.2 ± 0.6, p = 0.011) of T2-weighted images were scored significantly higher in patients imaged with the incubator. SNR increased significantly (171.6 ± 54.5 vs. 80.5 ± 19.8, p < 0.001) with the use of the incubator. Infants can benefit from the use of a 3 Tesla MR-compatible incubator because of its safety, easier, and faster handling (compared to standard imaging) and possibility to obtain high-quality MR images even in unstable patients.

  9. Soil Organic Carbon Degradation during Incubation, Barrow, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer

    Elizabeth Herndon; Ziming Yang; Baohua Gu

    2017-01-05

    This dataset provides information about soil organic carbon decomposition in Barrow soil incubation studies. The soil cores were collected from low-center polygon (Area A) and were incubated in the laboratory at different temperatures for up to 60 days. Transformations of soil organic carbon were characterized by UV and FT-IR, and small organic acids in water-soluble carbons were quantified by ion chromatography during the incubation (Herndon et al., 2015).

  10. Short Nissl staining for incubated cryostat sections of the brain.

    PubMed

    Lindroos, O F

    1991-01-01

    Nissl stain often binds poorly to cryostat sections which have been incubated in solutions of radiolabeled ligands. Such incubation is used in receptor autoradiography of the brain when using the in vitro method. We have developed a rapid (16 min) modification of Nissl staining for sections that bind stain poorly, e.g., incubated sections. The method stains well sections which cannot be stained with other rapid Nissl staining methods.

  11. Leaching of soils during laboratory incubations does not affect soil organic carbon mineralisation but solubilisation.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Beatriz; Studer, Mirjam S; Hagedorn, Frank; Niklaus, Pascal A; Abiven, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory soil incubations provide controlled conditions to investigate carbon and nutrient dynamics; however, they are not free of artefacts. As carbon and nitrogen cycles are tightly linked, we aimed at investigating whether the incubation-induced accumulation of mineral nitrogen (Nmin) biases soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralisation. For this, we selected two soils representative of the C:N ratio values found in European temperate forests, and applied two incubation systems: 'closed' beakers and 'open' microlysimeters. The latter allowed leaching the soil samples during the incubation. By the end of the 121-day experiment, the low C:N soil significantly accumulated more Nmin in beakers (5.12 g kg-1 OC) than in microlysimeters (3.00 g kg-1 OC) but there was not a significant difference in SOC mineralisation at any point of the experiment. On the other hand, Nmin did not accumulate in the high C:N soil but, by the end of the experiment, leaching had promoted 33.9% more SOC solubilisation than beakers. Therefore, we did not find evidence that incubation experiments introduce a bias on SOC mineralisation. This outcome strengthens results from soil incubation studies.

  12. Leaching of soils during laboratory incubations does not affect soil organic carbon mineralisation but solubilisation

    PubMed Central

    Studer, Mirjam S.; Hagedorn, Frank; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Abiven, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory soil incubations provide controlled conditions to investigate carbon and nutrient dynamics; however, they are not free of artefacts. As carbon and nitrogen cycles are tightly linked, we aimed at investigating whether the incubation-induced accumulation of mineral nitrogen (Nmin) biases soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralisation. For this, we selected two soils representative of the C:N ratio values found in European temperate forests, and applied two incubation systems: ‘closed’ beakers and ‘open’ microlysimeters. The latter allowed leaching the soil samples during the incubation. By the end of the 121-day experiment, the low C:N soil significantly accumulated more Nmin in beakers (5.12 g kg-1 OC) than in microlysimeters (3.00 g kg-1 OC) but there was not a significant difference in SOC mineralisation at any point of the experiment. On the other hand, Nmin did not accumulate in the high C:N soil but, by the end of the experiment, leaching had promoted 33.9% more SOC solubilisation than beakers. Therefore, we did not find evidence that incubation experiments introduce a bias on SOC mineralisation. This outcome strengthens results from soil incubation studies. PMID:28380005

  13. 8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION TANKS. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  14. Validation of an MRI Brain Injury and Growth Scoring System in Very Preterm Infants Scanned at 29- to 35-Week Postmenstrual Age.

    PubMed

    George, J M; Fiori, S; Fripp, J; Pannek, K; Bursle, J; Moldrich, R X; Guzzetta, A; Coulthard, A; Ware, R S; Rose, S E; Colditz, P B; Boyd, R N

    2017-07-01

    The diagnostic and prognostic potential of brain MR imaging before term-equivalent age is limited until valid MR imaging scoring systems are available. This study aimed to validate an MR imaging scoring system of brain injury and impaired growth for use at 29 to 35 weeks postmenstrual age in infants born at <31 weeks gestational age. Eighty-three infants in a prospective cohort study underwent early 3T MR imaging between 29 and 35 weeks' postmenstrual age (mean, 32 +2 ± 1 +3 weeks; 49 males, born at median gestation of 28 +4 weeks; range, 23 +6 -30 +6 weeks; mean birthweight, 1068 ± 312 g). Seventy-seven infants had a second MR scan at term-equivalent age (mean, 40 +6 ± 1 +3 weeks). Structural images were scored using a modified scoring system which generated WM, cortical gray matter, deep gray matter, cerebellar, and global scores. Outcome at 12-months corrected age (mean, 12 months 4 days ± 1 +2 weeks) consisted of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd ed. (Bayley III), and the Neuro-Sensory Motor Developmental Assessment. Early MR imaging global, WM, and deep gray matter scores were negatively associated with Bayley III motor (regression coefficient for global score β = -1.31; 95% CI, -2.39 to -0.23; P = .02), cognitive (β = -1.52; 95% CI, -2.39 to -0.65; P < .01) and the Neuro-Sensory Motor Developmental Assessment outcomes (β = -1.73; 95% CI, -3.19 to -0.28; P = .02). Early MR imaging cerebellar scores were negatively associated with the Neuro-Sensory Motor Developmental Assessment (β = -5.99; 95% CI, -11.82 to -0.16; P = .04). Results were reconfirmed at term-equivalent-age MR imaging. This clinically accessible MR imaging scoring system is valid for use at 29 to 35 weeks postmenstrual age in infants born very preterm. It enables identification of infants at risk of adverse outcomes before the current standard of term-equivalent age. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  15. [Impact of screening and treatment of low systemic blood flow in the prevention of severe intraventricular haemorrhage and/or death in pre-term infants].

    PubMed

    Oulego Erroz, Ignacio; Alonso Quintela, Paula; Jiménez Gonzalez, Aquilina; Terroba Seara, Sandra; Rodríguez Blanco, Silvia; Rosón Varas, María; Castañón López, Leticia

    2018-04-02

    To assess the effect of a protocolised intervention for low systemic blood flow (SBF) in the occurrence of severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) or death in pre-term infants. A study with a quasi-experimental design with retrospective controls was conducted on pre-term infants of less than 30weeks of gestational age, born between January 2016 and July 2017, who were consecutively included in the intervention period. The control cohort included pre-term infants (born between January 2013 and December 2015) matched by gestational age, birth weight, and gender (two controls for each case). The cases of low SBF diagnosed according to functional echocardiography during the study period received dobutamine (5-10μg/kg/min) for 48hours. The study included 29 cases (intervention period) and 54 controls (pre-intervention period). Ten out of 29 (34.5%) infants received dobutamine for low SBF during the intervention period, with 3/29 (10.3%) cases of severe IVH and/or death compared to 17/54 (31.5%) in the control cohort (p=.032). There was an independent association between the intervention and a decreased occurrence of severe IVH/death after adjusting for confounding factors both in the logistic regression model [OR 0.11 (95%CI: 0.01-0.65), p=.015], as well as in the sensitivity analysis using inverse probability of treatment weighting [OR 0.23 (95%CI: 0.09-0.56); p=.001]. In this study with retrospective controls, a protocolised screening, and treatment for low SBF was associated with a decreased occurrence of severe IVH or death in preterm infants. Large, adequately powered trials, are needed in order to determine whether postnatal interventions directed at low SBF can improve neurological outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  16. Light scattering method to measure red blood cell aggregation during incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorzewski, B.; Szołna-Chodór, A.; Baryła, J.; DreŻek, D.

    2018-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation can be observed both in vivo as well as in vitro. This process is a cause of alterations of blood flow in microvascular network. Enhanced RBC aggregation makes oxygen and nutrients delivery difficult. Measurements of RBC aggregation usually give a description of the process for a sample where the state of a solution and cells is well-defined and the system reached an equilibrium. Incubation of RBCs in various solutions is frequently used to study the effects of the solutions on the RBC aggregation. The aggregation parameters are compared before and after incubation while the detailed changes of the parameters during incubation remain unknown. In this paper we have proposed a method to measure red blood cell aggregation during incubation based on the well-known technique where backscattered light is used to assess the parameters of the RBC aggregation. Couette system consisting of two cylinders is adopted in the method. The incubation is observed in the Couette system. In the proposed method following sequence of rotations is adapted. Two minutes rotation is followed by two minutes stop. In this way we have obtained a time series of back scattered intensity consisting of signals respective for disaggregation and aggregation. It is shown that the temporal changes of the intensity manifest changes of RBC aggregation during incubation. To show the ability of the method to assess the effect of incubation time on RBC aggregation the results are shown for solutions that cause an increase of RBC aggregation as well as for the case where the aggregation is decreased.

  17. The Infant Microbiome: Implications for Infant Health and Neurocognitive Development

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Irene; Corwin, Elizabeth J.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Jordan, Sheila; Murphy, Jordan R.; Dunlop, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Beginning at birth, the microbes in the gut perform essential duties related to the digestion and metabolism of food, the development and activation of the immune system, and the production of neurotransmitters that affect behavior and cognitive function. Objectives The objectives of this review are to: (a) provide a brief overview of the microbiome and the “microbiome-gut-brain axis”; (b) discuss factors known to affect the composition of the infant microbiome: mode of delivery, antibiotic exposure, and infant feeding patterns; and (c) present research priorities for nursing science, and clinical implications for infant health and neurocognitive development. Discussion The gut microbiome influences immunological, endocrine, and neural pathways and plays an important role in infant development. Several factors influence colonization of the infant gut microbiome. Different microbial colonization patterns are associated with vaginal versus surgical birth, exposure to antibiotics, and infant feeding patterns. Because of extensive physiological influence, infant microbial colonization patterns have the potential to impact physical and neurocognitive development and life course disease risk. Understanding these influences will inform newborn care and parental education. PMID:26657483

  18. Robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloureterostomy in infants with duplex systems and upper pole hydronephrosis: Variations in double-J ureteral stenting techniques.

    PubMed

    Baek, Minki; Au, Jason; Huang, Gene O; Koh, Chester J

    2017-04-01

    We describe our experience with robot-assisted laparoscopic (RAL) pyeloureterostomy in infants with duplex systems and upper pole hydronephrosis with an emphasis on the various double J (DJ) ureteral stent placement techniques. We used our RAL pyeloureterostomy technique in two female infants with duplex systems and upper pole hydronephrosis. For case 1, we introduced the DJ stent and placed it in the recipient lower pole ureter during the robotic operation in an antegrade fashion. For case 2, we inserted the DJ stent during retrograde pyelography prior to the robotic procedure in a retrograde fashion, and the proximal portion of the stent was placed across the anastomosis into the upper pole renal pelvis. Postoperatively, each of the patients were discharged on postoperative day 1 without complications. The postoperative renal ultrasound at 3 months demonstrated marked improvement of the right upper pole hydronephrosis in both patients. RAL pyeloureterostomy represents a minimally invasive option for upper tract reconstruction of duplex systems with upper pole hydronephrosis in infants. The DJ stent can be placed at the beginning or during the procedure. The stent can be placed in the lower pole ureter or across the anastomosis into the upper pole renal pelvis. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Blood anticoagulation system and urine fibrinolysis in newborn infants with suppurative-inflammatory diseases].

    PubMed

    Samsygina, G A; Vykhristiuk, O F

    1989-01-01

    The anticoagulative blood system, blood and urine fibrinolysis were studied in 95 children with pyo-inflammatory diseases (PID) and in 56 normal neonates aged 2 to 28 days. The patients afflicted with PID were distributed into 3 groups; group I included patients with uneventful localized PID, group II consisted of patients with grave PID, and group III of patients with sepsis. Hemostasis and urine fibrinolysis were compared according to 20 indicators. The intensity and involvement of certain components of the fibrinolytic and anticoagulative blood systems in PID turned out different and were dependent on the disease gravity.

  20. Reducing hypothermia in preterm infants with polyethylene wrap.

    PubMed

    Rohana, Jaafar; Khairina, Wan; Boo, Nem Yun; Shareena, Ishak

    2011-08-01

    Occlusive plastic applied immediately after birth to reduce evaporative heat loss has been proven effective in preterm infants <28 weeks' gestation. However its effectiveness on preterm infants >28 weeks' gestation has not been shown. This study aimed to determine the effect of occlusive wrap at birth on the temperature at neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission among infants of greater than or equal to 24 weeks' and less than 34 weeks' gestation. Study infants were randomly assigned to "wrap" or "control" groups. Newborns in the wrap group were wrapped with polyethylene plastic sheets within the first min after birth. Infants randomized to the control group were dried immediately after birth with warmed towels under a warmer, according to the guidelines of Neonatal Resuscitation. Infants' axillary temperatures were measured on admission to the NICU, and after having been stabilized in incubators in the NICU. A total of 110 infants were recruited into the study. The mean admission temperature was significantly higher in the wrap group (35.8 vs 34.8°C, P < 0.01). Admission hypothermia (axillary temperature <36.5°C) was present in 38 (78%) and 58 (98%) infants in the wrap and control groups, respectively. Among infants of <28 weeks' gestation, the post-stabilization temperature was significantly higher in the wrap group. Wrapping premature infants with gestational age <34 weeks in polyethylene plastics immediately after birth is associated with lower incidence of hypothermia. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. Business Incubators: A Review. Digest Number 97-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Gwyer

    A business incubator is an organization of services designed to nurture new businesses. Services that can be offered include management assistance, access to financing, business or technical support services, and shared office services. In 1997, 550 incubators served more than 13,000 clients, affiliates, and graduates. More than 80 percent of the…

  2. Guidelines for Determining the Feasibility of a Small Business Incubator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, Eric L., Ed.

    An increasingly popular economic development tool to improve the success rate of new firms is the small business incubator. These are buildings in which a number of new or growing businesses can locate and operate at a much lower overhead cost than in conventional space where market rates prevail. Incubator facilities are characterized by access…

  3. 7 CFR 58.56 - Incubation of product samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Incubation of product samples. 58.56 Section 58.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Packaging Products with Official Identification § 58.56 Incubation of product samples. (a) Samples of...

  4. 7 CFR 58.56 - Incubation of product samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Incubation of product samples. 58.56 Section 58.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Packaging Products with Official Identification § 58.56 Incubation of product samples. (a) Samples of...

  5. Goose embryonic development from oviposition through 16 hours of incubation.

    PubMed

    Lukaszewicz, E; Lason, M; Rosenberger, J; Kowalczyk, A; Bakst, M

    2017-06-01

    Normal tables provide an objective step-wise description of the morphological development of an embryo. Such tables have been described for the chicken, turkey, quail, and duck embryos, but there is no such staging table for goose embryos. As the goose has one of the longest incubation periods of all the poultry species and embryo mortality during incubation is relatively high, a normal table of goose embryo development would be useful in assessing the morpho-genetic status of the goose embryo before and during incubation. In this study, embryos were isolated from commercial White Koluda goose eggs stored no longer than four days in a cool room (18°C) prior to incubation and after 4, 8, 12, and 16 h of incubation. Embryo staging was based on the normal tables described for the chicken by Eyal-Giladi and Kochav (EGK) and Hamburger and Hamilton (HH). Goose embryos from unincubated eggs were at Stage X and XI EGK and after 16 h of incubation the majority of embryos were between Stages 2 and 4 HH. Our results suggest that while the stage of development of the embryo in the unincubated goose egg is similar to that reported for the chicken, although the diameter of goose embryo is slighter larger. Following incubation, a goose embryo advances more slowly than a chicken embryo up to 16 h of incubation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Incubation Provides Relief from Artificial Fixation in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penaloza, Alan A.; Calvillo, Dustin P.

    2012-01-01

    An incubation effect occurs when taking a break from a problem helps solvers arrive at the correct solution more often than working on it continuously. The forgetting-fixation account, a popular explanation of how incubation works, posits that a break from a problem allows the solver to forget the incorrect path to the solution and finally access…

  7. Enhancing Verbal Creativity via Brief Interventions during an Incubation Interval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Ning; Ku, Yixuan; Liu, Meigui; Hu, Yi; Grabner, Roland H.; Fink, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies revealed inconsistent findings about the effects of cognitively low or high demanding interpolated tasks during incubation period on post-incubation creative performance. To explain this contradiction, two intervention tasks were administered (Reflecting on the generated ideas [RF] and the Word puzzle task [WP]), which are…

  8. Dream Incubation: A Reconstruction of Ritual in Contemporary Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Henry

    1976-01-01

    Dream incubation is the ritual of going to sleep in a sacred place in anticipation of receiving a helpful dream from a divine benefactor. Drawing upon a variety of contemporary psychotherapeutic principles and procedures, author constructed an experimental ritual of incubation. (Editor)

  9. GENESA as an Aid to Incubation/Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruch, Catherine; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The article focuses on the applications of the GENESA model (a life sized model of the geometry of a biological cell) in the enhancement of the creative processes during the stages of incubation, illumination, and verification, with emphasis primarily on the phase of incubation/imagery through potential illumination. (SBH)

  10. Experimental Studies of Incubation: Searching for the Elusive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olton, Robert M.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the phenomenon of incubation in creative problem solving, distinguishes it from "creative worrying" and "tip of the tongue" experiences, and reviews research to indicate a lack of evidence of incubation's existence in well-controlled studies. Note: For related information, see EC 120 232-238. (CL)

  11. Does Incubation Enhance Problem Solving? A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sio, Ut Na; Ormerod, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analytic review of empirical studies that have investigated incubation effects on problem solving is reported. Although some researchers have reported increased solution rates after an incubation period (i.e., a period of time in which a problem is set aside prior to further attempts to solve), others have failed to find effects. The…

  12. 7 CFR 58.56 - Incubation of product samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Incubation of product samples. 58.56 Section 58.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Packaging Products with Official Identification § 58.56 Incubation of product samples. (a) Samples of...

  13. Avian Incubation Patterns Reflect Temporal Changes in Developing Clutches

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Incubation conditions for eggs influence offspring quality and reproductive success. One way in which parents regulate brooding conditions is by balancing the thermal requirements of embryos with time spent away from the nest for self-maintenance. Age related changes in embryo thermal tolerance would thus be expected to shape parental incubation behavior. We use data from unmanipulated Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) nests to examine the temporal dynamics of incubation, testing the prediction that increased heat flux from eggs as embryos age influences female incubation behavior and/or physiology to minimize temperature fluctuations. We found that the rate of heat loss from eggs increased with embryo age. Females responded to increased egg cooling rates by altering incubation rhythms (more frequent, shorter on- and off- bouts), but not brood patch temperature. Consequently, as embryos aged, females were able to increase mean egg temperature and decrease variation in temperature. Our findings highlight the need to view full incubation as more than a static rhythm; rather, it is a temporally dynamic and finely adjustable parental behavior. Furthermore, from a methodological perspective, intra- and inter-specific comparisons of incubation rhythms and average egg temperatures should control for the stage of incubation. PMID:23840339

  14. 7 CFR 58.56 - Incubation of product samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incubation of product samples. 58.56 Section 58.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Packaging Products with Official Identification § 58.56 Incubation of product samples. (a) Samples of...

  15. 7 CFR 58.56 - Incubation of product samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Incubation of product samples. 58.56 Section 58.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Packaging Products with Official Identification § 58.56 Incubation of product samples. (a) Samples of...

  16. The incubation period of cholera: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Azman, Andrew S; Rudolph, Kara E; Cummings, Derek A T; Lessler, Justin

    2013-05-01

    Recent large cholera outbreaks highlight the need for improved understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of cholera. The incubation period of cholera has important implications for clinical and public health decision-making, yet statements of the incubation period of cholera are often imprecise. Here we characterize the distribution of cholera's incubation period. We conducted a systematic review of the literature for statements of the incubation period of cholera and data that might aid in its estimation. We extracted individual-level data, parametrically estimated the distribution of toxigenic cholera's incubation period, and evaluated evidence for differences between strains. The incubation period did not differ by a clinically significant margin between strains (except O1 El Tor Ogawa). We estimate the median incubation period of toxigenic cholera to be 1.4 days (95% CI, 1.3-1.6). Five percent of cholera cases will develop symptoms by 0.5 days (95% CI 0.4-0.5), and 95% by 4.4 days (95% CI 3.9-5.0) after infection. We recommend that cholera investigations use a recall period of at least five days to capture relevant exposures; significantly longer than recent risk factor studies from the Haitian epidemic. This characterization of cholera's incubation period can help improve clinical and public health practice and advance epidemiologic research. Copyright © 2012 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trajectories of parasympathetic nervous system function before, during, and after feeding in infants with transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tondi M

    2011-01-01

    Compromised parasympathetic response to stressors may underlie feeding difficulties in infants with complex congenital heart defects, but little is known about the temporal pattern of parasympathetic response across phases of feeding. The aim of this study was to describe initial data exploration of trajectories of parasympathetic response to feeding in 15 infants with surgically corrected transposition of the great arteries and to explore the effects of feeding method, feeding skill, and maternal sensitivity on trajectories. In this descriptive, exploratory study, parasympathetic function was measured using high-frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV), feeding skill was measured using the Early Feeding Skills assessment, and maternal sensitivity was measured using the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment. Data were collected before, during, and after feeding at 2 weeks and 2 months of age. Trajectories of parasympathetic function and relationships with possible contributing factors were examined graphically. Marked between-infant variability in HF HRV across phases of feeding was apparent at both ages, although it was attenuated at 2 months. Four patterns of HF HRV trajectories across phases of feeding were identified and associated with feeding method, feeding skill, and maternal sensitivity. Developmental increases in HF HRV were apparent in most breast-fed, but not bottle-fed, infants. This exploratory data analysis provides critical information in preparation for a larger study in which varying trajectories and potential contributing factors can be modeled in relationship to infant outcomes. Findings support inclusion of feeding method, feeding skill, and maternal sensitivity in modeling parasympathetic function across feeding.

  18. Trajectories of Parasympathetic Nervous System Function before, during, and after Feeding in Infants with Transposition of the Great Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tondi M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Compromised parasympathetic response to stressors may underlie feeding difficulties in infants with complex congenital heart defects, but little is known about the temporal pattern of parasympathetic response across phases of feeding. Objectives To describe initial data exploration of trajectories of parasympathetic response to feeding in 15 infants with surgically corrected transposition of the great arteries and to explore effects of feeding method, feeding skill, and maternal sensitivity on trajectories. Method In this descriptive, exploratory study, parasympathetic function was measured using high frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV), feeding skill was measured using the Early Feeding Skills assessment, and maternal sensitivity was measured using the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment. Data were collected before, during, and after feeding at 2 weeks and 2 months of age. Trajectories of parasympathetic function and relationships with possible contributing factors were examined graphically. Results Marked between-infant variability in HF HRV across phases of feeding was apparent at both ages, although attenuated at 2 months. Four patterns of HF HRV trajectories across phases of feeding were identified and associated with feeding method, feeding skill, and maternal sensitivity. Developmental increases in HF HRV were apparent in most breastfed, but not bottle-fed, infants. Discussion This exploratory data analysis provided critical information in preparation for a larger study in which varying trajectories and potential contributing factors can be modeled in relationship to infant outcomes. Findings support inclusion of feeding method, feeding skill, and maternal sensitivity in modeling parasympathetic function across feeding. PMID:21543958

  19. Incubation temperature fluctuation does not affect incubation length and hatchling phenotype in the Chinese skink Plestiodon chinensis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yan-Fu; Lu, Hong-Liang; Li, Hong; Ji, Xiang

    2014-12-01

    Studies examining the effects of incubation temperature fluctuation on the phenotype of hatchling reptiles have shown species variation. To examine whether incubation temperature fluctuation has a key role in influencing the phenotype of hatchling Chinese skinks (Plestiodon chinensis), we incubated eggs produced by 20 females under five thermal regimes (treatments). Eggs in three treatments were incubated in three incubators, one set constant at 27°C and two ramp-programmed at 27 ± 3°C and 27 ± 5°C on a cycle of 12h (+) and 12h (-). The remaining eggs were incubated in two chambers: one inside a room where temperatures varied from 23.0 to 31.1°C, with a mean of 27.0°C; the other outside the room where temperatures varied from 20.2 to 35.3°C, with a mean of 26.1°C. We found that: (1) for eggs at a given embryonic stage at ovipositon, the mean rather than the variance of incubation temperatures determined the length of incubation; (2) most (egg mass, embryonic stage at oviposition, incubation length and all examined hatchling traits except tail length and locomotor performance) of the examined variables were affected by clutch; and (3) body mass was the only hatchling trait that differed among the five treatments, but the differences were tiny. These findings suggest that incubation temperature fluctuation has no direct role in influencing incubation length and hatchling phenotype in P. chinensis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Systemic infections in three infants due to a lactose-fermenting strain of Salmonella virchow.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J; Núñez, M L; Sempere, M A; Díaz, J; Gómez, J

    1995-05-01

    Three previously healthy children developed gastroenteritis which led within a few days to systemic infections, two cases of bacteremia and one of meningitis. A lactose-fermenting Salmonella virchow strain was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures. In one case, this strain was also isolated from stool cultures. All the children had been fed the same milk formula. There was no other relationship between them. The batch of dried-milk formula was confirmed as the source of the infection by isolation of an identical lactose-fermenting Salmonella virchow strain by the Centro Nacional de Alimentación.

  1. Development of Microbiota in Infants and its Role in Maturation of Gut Mucosa and Immune System.

    PubMed

    Ximenez, Cecilia; Torres, Javier

    2017-11-01

    Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been associated with increasing numbers of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, allergy, cancer and even neurologic or behavioral disorders. The other side of the coin is that a healthy microbiota leads to a healthy human development, to a mature and well trained immune system and to an efficient metabolic machinery. What we have learned in adults is in the end the result of a good start, a programmed, healthy development of the microbiota that must occur in the early years of life, probably even starting during the fetal stage. This review aims to present and discuss reports that helps us understand what we have learned of the development of microbiota during the early times of life, from pregnancy to delivery to the early years after birth. The impact of the establishment of "healthy" bacterial communities on human surfaces in the maturation of epithelia, immune system and metabolism will also be discussed. The right process of maturation of the bacterial communities that establish a symbiosis with human surfaces depends on a number of environmental, genetic and temporal factors that need to be understand in order to have tools to monitor a healthy development and eventually intervene to correct undesired courses. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of daily kangaroo care on cardiorespiratory parameters in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, A J; Yates, C; Williams, K; Hall, R W

    2013-01-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) has possible benefits for promoting physiological stability and positive developmental outcomes in preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to compare bradycardia and oxygen desaturation events in preterm infants in standard incubator care versus KC. Thirty-eight infants 27 to 30 weeks gestational age were randomly assigned to 2 hours of KC daily between days of life 5 to 10 or to standard incubator care. Infants were monitored for bradycardia (heart rate <80) or oxygen desaturation (<80%). Analysis of hourly events was based on three sets of data: standard care group 24 hours daily, KC group during incubator time 22 hours daily, and KC group during holding time 2 hours daily. The KC group had fewer bradycardia events per hour while being held compared to time spent in an incubator (p = 0.048). The KC group also had significantly fewer oxygen desaturation events while being held than while in the incubator (p = 0.017) and significantly fewer desaturation events than infants in standard care (p = 0.02). KC reduces bradycardia and oxygen desaturation events in preterm infants, providing physiological stability and possible benefits for neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  3. The effect of open and closed endotracheal tube suctioning system on respiratory parameters of infants undergoing mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Parvin; Asgari, Narges; Mohammadizadeh, Majid; Golchin, Mehri

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Mechanical ventilation is used for some infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) due to many physiological and clinical causes. Since these patients have endotracheal tubes, cleaning and keeping the airways open through suctioning should be done to increase oxygenation. This study aimed to evaluate effect of open and closed suctioning methods on respiratory parameters of infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. Materials and Methods: In this crossover clinical trial, 44 infants were selected among those undergone mechanical ventilation in NICU of Isfahan's Al-Zahra Hospital using convenience sampling method. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, open suctioning was carried out and after three hours of cleaning, closed suctioning was done. In the second group, closed suctioning was firstly done and following three hours of cleaning, open suctioning was implemented. Respiratory rate (RR) and percentage of arterial blood oxygen saturation was measured before, during and after each type of suctioning. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and independent student's t-test. Findings: There was a significant difference between mean respiratory rate and arterial blood oxygen saturation in infants before, during and after the closed and open suctioning. The percentage of arterial blood oxygen saturation had a significant reduction in open method compared to closed method during suctioning and immediately after it. RR three minutes after suctioning showed a significant reduction in both steps in open method compared to closed method. Conclusions: Close method caused fewer changes in hemodynamic status of infants. Therefore, in order to prevent respiratory complications in infants, nurses are recommended to perform the endotracheal tube suctioning by closed method. PMID:23493041

  4. The Pre-Incubator: A Longitudinal Study of 10 Years of University Pre-Incubation in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisey, Pamela; Jones, Paul; Thomas, Brychan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a longitudinal study of over 10 years of university pre-incubation in Wales, using case studies of incubated businesses to track their performance since 2001. Surviving "graduated" businesses were investigated and quantitative and qualitative data were gathered to profile the current status of these businesses and…

  5. A Study on Markerless AR-Based Infant Education System Using CBIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Seoksoo

    Block play is widely known to be effective to help a child develop emotionally and physically based on learning by a sense of sight and touch. But block play can not expect to have learning effects through a sense of hearing. Therefore, in this study, such limitations are overcome by a method that recognizes an object made up of blocks, not a marker-based method generally used for an AR environment, a matching technology enabling an object to be perceived in every direction, and a technology combining images of the real world with 2D/3D images/pictures/sounds of a similar object. Also, an education system for children aged 3~5 is designed to implement markerless AR with the CBIR method.

  6. Becoming a client of the Danish social service system increases stress in parents of disabled infants.

    PubMed

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Skov, Liselotte; Andersen, John Sahl

    2011-06-01

    Parents of a young child with severe disabilities are facing a large range of new challenges; furthermore, most of these families have extended social needs regarding information, financial support, day care facilities, disability aids, etc. Many parents with disabled children have been found to be dissatisfied with social services. This study explores parents' experiences with Danish social services during their transition to a new daily life after the birth of a severely disabled child. Repeated qualitative interviews were performed individually with 16 parents of a severely disabled young child during the first two years after the diagnosis of the child's disabilities. Data were analysed using grounded theory. We found that the encounter with the social services increased stress in the families. Parental expectations were not met, especially regarding information; parents felt clientized, and obtaining social support was very resource consuming. Parents' needs regarding practical support and empathic case-working were not met and they spent much time and effort due to lacking continuity between sectors. Parents have specific needs when becoming clients in the social service system whose organisation of social services needs improvement. Health care professionals are advised to identify problems and support cooperation between the parents and the social service system, as well as to report the health-related consequences of prolonged and inefficient case-working for the child and its parents. was received from Socialministeriet, Landsforeningen LEV, Ronald McDonalds Børnefond, Susie og Peter Robinsohns fond, Rosalie Petersens fond, PLU-fonden, Ville Heises fond, Sygesikringens forskningsfond, Helsefonden, Elsass fonden. not relevant.

  7. Effect of leaf incubation temperature profiles on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; McDonald, Karen A; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression is known to be highly dependent on incubation temperature. Compared with early studies that were conducted at constant temperature, we examined the effect of variable leaf incubation temperature on transient expression. As a model system, synthetic endoglucanase (E1) and endoxylanase (Xyn10A) genes were transiently expressed in detached whole sunflower leaves via vacuum infiltration for biofuel applications. We found that the kinetics of transient expression strongly depended on timing of the temperature change as well as leaf incubation temperature. Surprisingly, we found that high incubation temperature (27-30 °C) which is suboptimal for T-DNA transfer, significantly enhanced transient expression if the high temperature was applied during the late phase (Day 3-6) of leaf incubation whereas incubation temperature in a range of 20-25 °C for an early phase (Day 0-2) resulted in higher production. On the basis of these results, we propose that transient expression is governed by both T-DNA transfer and protein synthesis in plant cells that have different temperature dependent kinetics. Because the phases were separated in time and had different optimal temperatures, we were then able to develop a novel two phase optimization strategy for leaf incubation temperature. Applying the time-varying temperature profile, we were able to increase the protein accumulation by fivefold compared with the control at a constant temperature of 20 °C. From our knowledge, this is the first report illustrating the effect of variable temperature profiling for improved transient expression. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. Air transport of infants in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M. A.; Owers, J.; Horwood, P.

    1978-01-01

    Air transportation of 33 infants in small unpressurized aircraft over long distances is described. Twenty-six of the infants were transported more than 320 km in environmental temperatures varying from -35 to +21 degrees C. A commercially available incubator was used. Although more than half the infants had a rectal temperature within the normal range at the time of arrival at hospital, 12 infants had rectal temperatures above 37.5 degrees C as a result of efforts to diminish heat loss. Adequate oxygenation of infants at 3000 m in unpressurized aircraft can be difficult. Cold and vibration can affect equipment, and at high altitudes the readings from oxygen analysers may not be true. The use of an expanded transport team, which includes experienced nonmedical personnel, is particularly important in these cases. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 PMID:679112

  9. [Costs of maternal-infant care in an institutionalized health care system].

    PubMed

    Villarreal Ríos, E; Salinas Martínez, A M; Guzmán Padilla, J E; Garza Elizondo, M E; Tovar Castillo, N H; García Cornejo, M L

    1998-01-01

    Partial and total maternal and child health care costs were estimated. The study was developed in a Primary Care Health Clinic (PCHC) and a General Hospital (GH) of a social security health care system. Maternal and child health care services, type of activity and frequency utilization during 1995, were defined; cost examination was done separately for the PCHC and the GH. Estimation of fixed cost included departmentalization, determination of inputs, costs, basic services disbursements, and weighing. These data were related to depreciation, labor period and productivity. Estimation of variable costs required the participation of field experts; costs corresponded to those registered in billing records. The fixed cost plus the variable cost determined the unit cost, which multiplied by the of frequency of utilization generated the prenatal care, labor and delivery care, and postnatal care cost. The sum of these three equaled the maternal and child health care cost. The prenatal care cost was $1,205.33, the labor and delivery care cost was $3,313.98, and the postnatal care was $559.91. The total cost of the maternal and child health care corresponded to $5,079.22. Cost information is valuable for the health care personnel for health care planning activities.

  10. Creativity-the unconscious foundations of the incubation period.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Simone M; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2014-01-01

    Creativity is one of the most important assets we have to navigate through the fast changing world of the 21st century. Anecdotal accounts of creative individuals suggest that oftentimes, creative discoveries result from a process whereby initial conscious thought is followed by a period during which one refrains from task-related conscious thought. For example, one may spend an embarrassing amount of time thinking about a problem when the solution suddenly pops into consciousness while taking a shower. Not only creative individuals but also traditional theories of creativity have put a lot of emphasis on this incubation stage in creative thinking. The aim of the present article is twofold. First, an overview of the domain of incubation and creativity is provided by reviewing and discussing studies on incubation, mind-wandering, and sleep. Second, the causes of incubation effects are discussed. Previously, little attention has been paid to the causes of incubation effects and most findings do not really speak to whether the effects should be explained by unconscious processes or merely by consequences of a period of distraction. In the latter case, there is no need to assume active unconscious processes. The findings discussed in the current article support the idea that it is not merely the absence of conscious thought that drives incubation effects, but that during an incubation period unconscious processes contribute to creative thinking. Finally, practical implications and directions for future research will be discussed.

  11. Creativity—the unconscious foundations of the incubation period

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Simone M.; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2014-01-01

    Creativity is one of the most important assets we have to navigate through the fast changing world of the 21st century. Anecdotal accounts of creative individuals suggest that oftentimes, creative discoveries result from a process whereby initial conscious thought is followed by a period during which one refrains from task-related conscious thought. For example, one may spend an embarrassing amount of time thinking about a problem when the solution suddenly pops into consciousness while taking a shower. Not only creative individuals but also traditional theories of creativity have put a lot of emphasis on this incubation stage in creative thinking. The aim of the present article is twofold. First, an overview of the domain of incubation and creativity is provided by reviewing and discussing studies on incubation, mind-wandering, and sleep. Second, the causes of incubation effects are discussed. Previously, little attention has been paid to the causes of incubation effects and most findings do not really speak to whether the effects should be explained by unconscious processes or merely by consequences of a period of distraction. In the latter case, there is no need to assume active unconscious processes. The findings discussed in the current article support the idea that it is not merely the absence of conscious thought that drives incubation effects, but that during an incubation period unconscious processes contribute to creative thinking. Finally, practical implications and directions for future research will be discussed. PMID:24782742

  12. Correlation analysis for the incubation period of prion disease.

    PubMed

    Bae, Se-Eun; Jung, Sunghoon; Kim, Ha-Yeon; Son, Hyeon S

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that genetic quantitative trait loci (QTL), strain barriers, inoculation dose and inoculation method modulate the incubation period of prion diseases. We examined the relationship between a diverse set of physical, genetic and immunological characteristics and the incubation period of prion disease using correlation analyses. We found that incubation period was highly correlated with brain weight. In addition, mean corpuscular volume and cell size were strongly correlated with incubation period, indicating that the physical magnitude of prion-infected organs or individual cells may be important in determining the incubation period. Given the same prion inoculation dose, animals with a lower brain weight, mean corpuscular volume or cell size may experience more virulent disease, as the effective concentration of abnormal prion, which might regulate the attachment rate of prions to aggregates, is increased with smaller capacity of brains and cells. This is partly consistent with previous theoretical modeling. The strong correlations between incubation period and physical properties of the brain and cells in this study suggest that the mechanism underlying prion disease pathology may be physical, indicating that the incubation process is governed by simple chemical stoichiometry.

  13. Aligning business strategy of incubator center and tenants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyawan, Yudha; Agustiani, Elly; Jumayla, Sari

    2017-06-01

    Incubator center is developed to help a particular group of small business players to achieve the expected business growth. In this center, business players often called as tenants will get assistances in pertaining with space, professional network, marketing, investment or funding, and training to improve their business capability. There are three types of incubator center, namely universities that help their alumni or business people in their surrounded area, company that supports small business as the corporate social responsibility, and independent organizations that have specialties in the business development. Some might success in increasing the capacity of the tenants, while other can have difficulties to increase the simplest business capability, e.g., to define the production cost to measure the profit. This study was intended to propose a model to align the business strategy between incubator center and its tenants. The sales and profit growth are the main priorities for the tenants together with their business capability and sustainability. The proposed alignment model provides measurement tools that link the motivation of tenants for joining the incubation process with the mission of incubator center. The linkage covered the key performance indicators (KPI), steps to achieve the target and evaluation tools to improve the current handicaps. An experiment on 4 (four) diverse business fields of the tenants of an incubator center was performed to test the model. As a result, the increase of KPI of incubator center will simultaneously yield a higher value of the tenants' sales.

  14. Correlation analysis for the incubation period of prion disease

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Se-Eun; Jung, Sunghoon; Kim, Ha-Yeon; Son, Hyeon S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that genetic quantitative trait loci (QTL), strain barriers, inoculation dose and inoculation method modulate the incubation period of prion diseases. We examined the relationship between a diverse set of physical, genetic and immunological characteristics and the incubation period of prion disease using correlation analyses. We found that incubation period was highly correlated with brain weight. In addition, mean corpuscular volume and cell size were strongly correlated with incubation period, indicating that the physical magnitude of prion-infected organs or individual cells may be important in determining the incubation period. Given the same prion inoculation dose, animals with a lower brain weight, mean corpuscular volume or cell size may experience more virulent disease, as the effective concentration of abnormal prion, which might regulate the attachment rate of prions to aggregates, is increased with smaller capacity of brains and cells. This is partly consistent with previous theoretical modeling. The strong correlations between incubation period and physical properties of the brain and cells in this study suggest that the mechanism underlying prion disease pathology may be physical, indicating that the incubation process is governed by simple chemical stoichiometry. PMID:22561168

  15. [Impact of cocooning and maternal voice on the autonomic nervous system activity in the premature newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Alexandre, C; De Jonckheere, J; Rakza, T; Mur, S; Carette, D; Logier, R; Jeanne, M; Storme, L

    2013-09-01

    Discomfort, pain, and stress have an adverse impact on the psychomotor development in the premature newborn infant. Recent studies indicate that pain and stress are associated with a reduction of parasympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that cocooning associated with the human voice has a favorable impact on parasympathetic activity in the premature newborn infant. We compared heart rate variability (HRV) before and after standardized cocooning phases associated with the human voice and carried out: 1) by the mother and 2) by a third person. HRV was assessed and expressed as an index reflecting the parasympathetic tone. Ten children were included (median gestational age, 33 weeks (30(+4)-33(+2))). We observed a higher HRV index after the period of cocooning associated with the human voice compared with the baseline measurement (P<0.05), whether the procedure was carried out by the mother or a third person. This study shows that cocooning associated with the human voice enhances HRV in the preterm newborn infant, indicating an increase in parasympathetic activity after cocooning associated with the human voice. However, the impact is similar whether the cocooning associated with the human voice is performed by the mother or a third person. This result suggests that cocooning associated with the human voice carried out either by the mother or a third person contributes to decreasing stress and discomfort in the premature newborn infant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes for drug delivery: Efficiency related to length and incubation time.

    PubMed

    Sciortino, Niccolò; Fedeli, Stefano; Paoli, Paolo; Brandi, Alberto; Chiarugi, Paola; Severi, Mirko; Cicchi, Stefano

    2017-04-15

    Batches of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes differing in length were adopted to prepare two drug delivery systems (DDS) loaded with doxorubicin. The different internalization of the two batches, verified by atomic emission spectroscopy onto cell lysates, was also confirmed by the different toxicity of the same DDS loaded with doxorubicin. In vitro experiments evidenced, after 48h of incubation, the superior efficacy of the shortest nanotubes. However, upon prolonging the incubation time up to 72h the difference in efficiency was minimized due to the spontaneous release of doxorubicin by the non-internalized long nanotubes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. NASA Spacecraft Images One of Earth Iceberg Incubators

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-13

    Acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft, this image shows the west coast of Greenland, one of Earth premiere incubators for icebergs -- large blocks of land ice that break off from glaciers or ice shelves and float in the ocean.

  18. Influence of incubation temperature on sea turtle hatchling quality.

    PubMed

    Booth, David T

    2017-09-01

    Since the 1980s it has been known that incubation temperature influences the sex ratio of sea turtle hatchlings emerging from their nests, and there has been much speculation on how global climate change might threaten sea turtle populations by raising nest temperatures and causing highly female-biased hatchling sex ratios. More recently, studies have indicated that incubation temperature can also influence the size and locomotor performance of sea turtle hatchlings. Here I review recent studies that have explored the influence of incubation temperature on sea turtle hatchling quality in terms of hatchling morphology and locomotor performance. I also discuss the likely underlying mechanisms responsible for incubation temperature-induced differences in hatchling locomotor performance, and how an increase in nest temperature associated with global warming might affect recruitment of sea turtle hatchlings. © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Incubation period of ebola hemorrhagic virus subtype zaire.

    PubMed

    Eichner, Martin; Dowell, Scott F; Firese, Nina

    2011-06-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever has killed over 1300 people, mostly in equatorial Africa. There is still uncertainty about the natural reservoir of the virus and about some of the factors involved in disease transmission. Until now, a maximum incubation period of 21 days has been assumed. We analyzed data collected during the Ebola outbreak (subtype Zaire) in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, in 1995 using maximum likelihood inference and assuming a log-normally distributed incubation period. The mean incubation period was estimated to be 12.7 days (standard deviation 4.31 days), indicating that about 4.1% of patients may have incubation periods longer than 21 days. If the risk of new cases is to be reduced to 1% then 25 days should be used when investigating the source of an outbreak, when determining the duration of surveillance for contacts, and when declaring the end of an outbreak.

  20. Stochastic Modeling Approach to the Incubation Time of Prionic Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, A. S.; da Silva, M. A.; Cressoni, J. C.

    2003-05-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are neurodegenerative diseases for which prions are the attributed pathogenic agents. A widely accepted theory assumes that prion replication is due to a direct interaction between the pathologic (PrPSc) form and the host-encoded (PrPC) conformation, in a kind of autocatalytic process. Here we show that the overall features of the incubation time of prion diseases are readily obtained if the prion reaction is described by a simple mean-field model. An analytical expression for the incubation time distribution then follows by associating the rate constant to a stochastic variable log normally distributed. The incubation time distribution is then also shown to be log normal and fits the observed BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) data very well. Computer simulation results also yield the correct BSE incubation time distribution at low PrPC densities.

  1. Learning Incubator: an instrument to foster entrepreneurship in Nursing.

    PubMed

    Backes, Dirce Stein; Obem, Marielle Kulakowski; Pereira, Simone Barbosa; Gomes, Carine Alves; Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2015-01-01

    this study aimed to know the contributions of the Learning Incubator to the process of lifelong education in health. this is a qualitative field research whose data was collected from August to December 2014 by the focus group technique. The research had 34 employees of a Teaching Hospital in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul that participated previously in the incubation process. from the data encoded by content analysis, three themes were selected: Learning Incubator - welcoming and integrating space; An instigating instrument that enhances possibilities; Continuous and lifelong education strategy. the Learning Incubator is an important instrument to foster entrepreneurship in nursing and other health areas due to its capacity of rethinking mechanized practices, to the possibility of instigating new ways of being and acting, and to the ability of creating and developing new ideas based on individual and institutional needs.

  2. Assessment of the Incubation Period for Invasive Listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Kristina M; Jackson, Kelly A; Wong, Karen K; Hoekstra, Robert M; Jackson, Brendan R

    2016-12-01

    We characterized incubation periods among outbreak-associated listeriosis cases, using a simulation model to account for patients with multiple exposure dates. The median was 11 days; 90% of cases occurred within 28 days, and incubation periods varied by clinical manifestation. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Multicenter Study on Incubation Conditions for Environmental Monitoring and Aseptic Process Simulation.

    PubMed

    Guinet, Roland; Berthoumieu, Nicole; Dutot, Philippe; Triquet, Julien; Ratajczak, Medhi; Thibaudon, Michel; Bechaud, Philippe; Arliaud, Christophe; Miclet, Edith; Giordano, Florine; Larcon, Marjorie; Arthaud, Catherine

    Environmental monitoring and aseptic process simulations represent an integral part of the microbiological quality control system of sterile pharmaceutical products manufacturing operations. However, guidance documents and manufacturers practices differ regarding recommendations for incubation time and incubation temperature, and, consequently, the environmental monitoring and aseptic process simulation incubation strategy should be supported by validation data. To avoid any bias coming from in vitro studies or from single-site manufacturing in situ studies, we performed a collaborative study at four manufacturing sites with four samples at each location. The environmental monitoring study was performed with tryptic soy agar settle plates and contact plates, and the aseptic process simulation study was performed with tryptic soy broth and thioglycolate broth. The highest recovery rate was obtained with settle plates (97.7%) followed by contact plates (65.4%) and was less than 20% for liquid media (tryptic soy broth 19% and thioglycolate broth 17%). Gram-positive cocci and non-spore-forming Gram-positive rods were largely predominant with more than 95% of growth and recovered best at 32.5 °C. The highest recovery of molds was obtained at 22.5 °C alone or as the first incubation temperature. Strict anaerobes were not recovered. At the end of the five days of incubation no significant statistical difference was obtained between the four conditions. Based on these data a single incubation temperature at 32.5 °C could be recommended for these four manufacturing sites for both environmental monitoring and aseptic process simulation, and a second plate could be used, periodically incubated at 22.5 °C. Similar studies should be considered for all manufacturing facilities in order to determine the optimal incubation temperature regime for both viable environmental monitoring and aseptic process simulation. Microbiological environmental monitoring and aseptic process

  4. Developmental care does not alter sleep and development of premature infants.

    PubMed

    Ariagno, R L; Thoman, E B; Boeddiker, M A; Kugener, B; Constantinou, J C; Mirmiran, M; Baldwin, R B

    1997-12-01

    The Neonatal Individualized Developmental Care Program (NIDCAP) for very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants has been suggested by Als et al to improve several medical outcome variables such as time on ventilator, time to nipple feed, the duration of hospital stay, better behavioral performance on Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB), and improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. We have tested the hypothesis of whether the infants who had received NIDCAP would show advanced sleep-wake pattern, behavioral, and neurodevelopmental outcome. Thirty-five VLBW infants were randomly assigned to receive NIDCAP or routine infant care. The goals for NIDCAP intervention were to enhance comfort and stability and to reduce stress and agitation for the preterm infants by: a) altering the environment by decreasing excess light and noise in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and by using covers over the incubators and cribs; b) use of positioning aids such as boundary supports, nests, and buntings to promote a balance of flexion and extension postures; c) modification of direct hands-on caregiving to maximize preparation of infants for, tolerance of, and facilitation of recovery from interventions; d) promotion of self-regulatory behaviors such as holding on, grasping, and sucking; e) attention to the readiness for and the ability to take oral feedings; and f) involving parents in the care of their infants as much as possible. The infants' sleep was recorded at 36 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) and at 3 months corrected age (CA) using the Motility Monitoring System (MMS), an automated, nonintrusive procedure for determining sleep state from movement and respiration patterns. Behavioral and developmental outcome was assessed by the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI) at 36 weeks PCA, the APIB at 42 weeks PCA, and by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) at 4, 12, and 24 months CA. Sleep developmental measures at 3 months CA showed a

  5. Incubation environment impacts the social cognition of adult lizards.

    PubMed

    Siviter, Harry; Deeming, D Charles; van Giezen, M F T; Wilkinson, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Recent work exploring the relationship between early environmental conditions and cognition has shown that incubation environment can influence both brain anatomy and performance in simple operant tasks in young lizards. It is currently unknown how it impacts other, potentially more sophisticated, cognitive processes. Social-cognitive abilities, such as gaze following and social learning, are thought to be highly adaptive as they provide a short-cut to acquiring new information. Here, we investigated whether egg incubation temperature influenced two aspects of social cognition, gaze following and social learning in adult reptiles ( Pogona vitticeps ). Incubation temperature did not influence the gaze following ability of the bearded dragons; however, lizards incubated at colder temperatures were quicker at learning a social task and faster at completing that task. These results are the first to show that egg incubation temperature influences the social cognitive abilities of an oviparous reptile species and that it does so differentially depending on the task. Further, the results show that the effect of incubation environment was not ephemeral but lasted long into adulthood. It could thus have potential long-term effects on fitness.

  6. Incubation temperature causes skewed sex ratios in a precocial bird.

    PubMed

    DuRant, Sarah E; Hopkins, William A; Carter, Amanda W; Kirkpatrick, Laila T; Navara, Kristin J; Hawley, Dana M

    2016-07-01

    Many animals with genetic sex determination are nonetheless capable of manipulating sex ratios via behavioral and physiological means, which can sometimes result in fitness benefits to the parent. Sex ratio manipulation in birds is not widely documented, and revealing the mechanisms for altered sex ratios in vertebrates remains a compelling area of research. Incubation temperature is a key component of the developmental environment for birds, but despite its well-documented effects on offspring phenotype it has rarely been considered as a factor in avian sex ratios. Using ecologically relevant manipulations of incubation temperature within the range 35.0-37.0°C, we found greater mortality of female embryos during incubation than males regardless of incubation temperature, and evidence that more female than male embryos die at the lowest incubation temperature (35.0°C). Our findings in conjunction with previous work in brush turkeys suggest incubation temperature is an important determinant of avian secondary sex ratios that requires additional study, and should be considered when estimating the impact of climate change on avian populations. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Incubation environment impacts the social cognition of adult lizards

    PubMed Central

    van Giezen, M. F. T.

    2017-01-01

    Recent work exploring the relationship between early environmental conditions and cognition has shown that incubation environment can influence both brain anatomy and performance in simple operant tasks in young lizards. It is currently unknown how it impacts other, potentially more sophisticated, cognitive processes. Social-cognitive abilities, such as gaze following and social learning, are thought to be highly adaptive as they provide a short-cut to acquiring new information. Here, we investigated whether egg incubation temperature influenced two aspects of social cognition, gaze following and social learning in adult reptiles (Pogona vitticeps). Incubation temperature did not influence the gaze following ability of the bearded dragons; however, lizards incubated at colder temperatures were quicker at learning a social task and faster at completing that task. These results are the first to show that egg incubation temperature influences the social cognitive abilities of an oviparous reptile species and that it does so differentially depending on the task. Further, the results show that the effect of incubation environment was not ephemeral but lasted long into adulthood. It could thus have potential long-term effects on fitness. PMID:29291066

  8. [Developmental change in facial recognition by premature infants during infancy].

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yukihiko; Kusaka, Takashi; Nishida, Tomoko; Isobe, Kenichi; Itoh, Susumu

    2014-09-01

    Premature infants are thought to be at increased risk for developmental disorders. We evaluated facial recognition by premature infants during early infancy, as this ability has been reported to be impaired commonly in developmentally disabled children. In premature infants and full-term infants at the age of 4 months (4 corrected months for premature infants), visual behaviors while performing facial recognition tasks were determined and analyzed using an eye-tracking system (Tobii T60 manufactured by Tobii Technologics, Sweden). Both types of infants had a preference towards normal facial expressions; however, no preference towards the upper face was observed in premature infants. Our study suggests that facial recognition ability in premature infants may develop differently from that in full-term infants.

  9. A Malaria Transmission Model with Temperature-Dependent Incubation Period.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiunan; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-05-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites and is transmitted among humans by female Anopheles mosquitoes. Climate factors have significant impact on both mosquito life cycle and parasite development. To consider the temperature sensitivity of the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) of malaria parasites, we formulate a delay differential equations model with a periodic time delay. We derive the basic reproduction ratio [Formula: see text] and establish a threshold type result on the global dynamics in terms of [Formula: see text], that is, the unique disease-free periodic solution is globally asymptotically stable if [Formula: see text]; and the model system admits a unique positive periodic solution which is globally asymptotically stable if [Formula: see text]. Numerically, we parameterize the model with data from Maputo Province, Mozambique, and simulate the long-term behavior of solutions. The simulation result is consistent with the obtained analytic result. In addition, we find that using the time-averaged EIP may underestimate the basic reproduction ratio.

  10. The Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus) nest as an incubation chamber.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Felipe L S; Braga, Talita V; Roper, James J

    2015-01-01

    Foraging and incubation are mutually exclusive activities for parent birds. A trade-off is generated when a combination of food availability and temperature regulation force birds to choose one and neglect the other, at least temporarily. The Rufous Hornero builds large, oven-like, mud nests, the evolutionary cause of which remains unknown. We tested that temperature variation inside the nest is that which is expected if one function of the nest were for temperate regulation. If so, this would suggest that the nest works as an incubation chamber (but which now may serve more than one function). We divided nests into two natural treatments: nests that received more continuous direct sunshine (sun), and those that received less direct sunshine, due to shade from trees or buildings (shade). Thermometer data loggers were placed in the nest cavity and outside, in the shade of the nest, and temperature was measured every 10min. We predicted that temperatures would consistently be higher and less variable in nests than outside nests. Also, at higher ambient temperatures the nest would function better as an incubation chamber as a consequence of having evolved in a hotter climate. Thus, in Curitiba, where temperatures are lower than where the species (and nest) evolved, nests in greater sunshine should have thermal characteristics that support the incubation chamber hypothesis. Predictions were supported: with Repeated Measures ANOVA and t-tests, we found that temperatures were more constant and higher in nests, especially when in the sun, and as the season progressed (hotter ambient temperatures). We conclude that the large mud nest of the Rufous Hornero works as an incubation chamber that likely evolved to help resolve the incubation-foraging trade-off in the very seasonal and hot regions where the bird evolved. Thus, as an incubation chamber, the nest allows the bird to forage rather than incubate thereby resolving the foraging-incubation trade-off and potentially

  11. Failure of BACTEC™ MGIT 960™ to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex within a 42-day incubation period.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Sharana; Dlamini-Mvelase, Nomonde R; Dlamini, Moses; Mlisana, Koleka

    2017-01-01

    For the optimal recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the BACTEC™ Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube 960™ system, an incubation period of 42-56 days is recommended by the manufacturer. Due to logistical reasons, it is common practice to follow an incubation period of 42 days. We undertook a retrospective study to document positive Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube cultures beyond the 42-day incubation period. In total, 98/110 (89%) were positive for M. tuberculosis complex. This alerted us to M. tuberculosis growth detection failure at 42 days.

  12. Non-Instrumented Incubation of a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for the Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Proviral HIV-1 DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Lorraine; Lehman, Dara; Singhal, Mitra C.; Cantera, Jason; Singleton, Jered; Labarre, Paul; Toyama, Anthony; Piepenburg, Olaf; Parker, Mathew; Wood, Robert; Overbaugh, Julie; Boyle, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Sensitive diagnostic tests for infectious diseases often employ nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAATs). However, most NAAT assays, including many isothermal amplification methods, require power-dependent instrumentation for incubation. For use in low resource settings (LRS), diagnostics that do not require consistent electricity supply would be ideal. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an isothermal amplification technology that has been shown to typically work at temperatures ranging from 25–43°C, and does not require a stringent incubation temperature for optimal performance. Here we evaluate the ability to incubate an HIV-1 RPA assay, intended for use as an infant HIV diagnostic in LRS, at ambient temperatures or with a simple non-instrumented heat source. To determine the range of expected ambient temperatures in settings where an HIV-1 infant diagnostic would be of most use, a dataset of the seasonal range of daily temperatures in sub Saharan Africa was analyzed and revealed ambient temperatures as low as 10°C and rarely above 43°C. All 24 of 24 (100%) HIV-1 RPA reactions amplified when incubated for 20 minutes between 31°C and 43°C. The amplification from the HIV-1 RPA assay under investigation at temperatures was less consistent below 30°C. Thus, we developed a chemical heater to incubate HIV-1 RPA assays when ambient temperatures are between 10°C and 30°C. All 12/12 (100%) reactions amplified with chemical heat incubation from ambient temperatures of 15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C. We also observed that incubation at 30 minutes improved assay performance at lower temperatures where detection was sporadic using 20 minutes incubation. We have demonstrated that incubation of the RPA HIV-1 assay via ambient temperatures or using chemical heaters yields similar results to using electrically powered devices. We propose that this RPA HIV-1 assay may not need dedicated equipment to be a highly sensitive tool to diagnose infant HIV-1 in

  13. Non-instrumented incubation of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the rapid and sensitive detection of proviral HIV-1 DNA.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Lorraine; Lehman, Dara; Singhal, Mitra C; Cantera, Jason; Singleton, Jered; Labarre, Paul; Toyama, Anthony; Piepenburg, Olaf; Parker, Mathew; Wood, Robert; Overbaugh, Julie; Boyle, David S

    2014-01-01

    Sensitive diagnostic tests for infectious diseases often employ nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAATs). However, most NAAT assays, including many isothermal amplification methods, require power-dependent instrumentation for incubation. For use in low resource settings (LRS), diagnostics that do not require consistent electricity supply would be ideal. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an isothermal amplification technology that has been shown to typically work at temperatures ranging from 25-43°C, and does not require a stringent incubation temperature for optimal performance. Here we evaluate the ability to incubate an HIV-1 RPA assay, intended for use as an infant HIV diagnostic in LRS, at ambient temperatures or with a simple non-instrumented heat source. To determine the range of expected ambient temperatures in settings where an HIV-1 infant diagnostic would be of most use, a dataset of the seasonal range of daily temperatures in sub Saharan Africa was analyzed and revealed ambient temperatures as low as 10°C and rarely above 43°C. All 24 of 24 (100%) HIV-1 RPA reactions amplified when incubated for 20 minutes between 31°C and 43°C. The amplification from the HIV-1 RPA assay under investigation at temperatures was less consistent below 30°C. Thus, we developed a chemical heater to incubate HIV-1 RPA assays when ambient temperatures are between 10°C and 30°C. All 12/12 (100%) reactions amplified with chemical heat incubation from ambient temperatures of 15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C. We also observed that incubation at 30 minutes improved assay performance at lower temperatures where detection was sporadic using 20 minutes incubation. We have demonstrated that incubation of the RPA HIV-1 assay via ambient temperatures or using chemical heaters yields similar results to using electrically powered devices. We propose that this RPA HIV-1 assay may not need dedicated equipment to be a highly sensitive tool to diagnose infant HIV-1 in

  14. Impact of skin-to-skin contact on the autonomic nervous system in the preterm infant and his mother.

    PubMed

    Butruille, L; Blouin, A; De Jonckheere, J; Mur, S; Margez, T; Rakza, T; Storme, L

    2017-11-01

    Before, during and after mother-newborn skin-to-skin contact (SSC), parasympathetic activity was evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. SSC had a favorable impact on maternal and premature infant parasympathetic activities with a more pronounced response for neonates when the basal HRV values were lower, without modifications of EDIN scores, temperatures or oxygen saturation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Updates on the Methodological Approaches for Carrying Out an In-Depth Study of the Cardiac Conduction System and the Autonomic Nervous System of Victims of Sudden Unexplained Fetal and Infant Death.

    PubMed

    Alfonsi, Graziella; Crippa, Marina

    2016-01-01

    This article contains a set of protocols for histopathological techniques that can be used for carrying out in-depth studies of cases of sudden infant death syndrome and sudden intrauterine unexplained fetal death syndrome. In order to enable researchers to advance hypotheses regarding the causes of the unexpected death of infants and fetuses, the authors propose three innovative and accurate methodologies for studying the cardiac conduction system, the peripheral cardiac nervous system, and the central autonomic nervous system. Over the years, these protocols have been developed, modified, and improved on a vast number of cases which has enabled pathologists to carry out the microscopic analyses of the structures which regulate life, in order to highlight all the possible morphological substrates of pathophysiological mechanisms that may underlie these syndromes. In memory of our research professor Lino Rossi (1923-2004).

  16. Estimating the Delay between Host Infection and Disease (Incubation Period) and Assessing Its Significance to the Epidemiology of Plant Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Leclerc, Melen; Doré, Thierry; Gilligan, Christopher A.; Lucas, Philippe; Filipe, João A. N.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the incubation period of infectious diseases (time between host infection and expression of disease symptoms) is crucial to our epidemiological understanding and the design of appropriate prevention and control policies. Plant diseases cause substantial damage to agricultural and arboricultural systems, but there is still very little information about how the incubation period varies within host populations. In this paper, we focus on the incubation period of soilborne plant pathogens, which are difficult to detect as they spread and infect the hosts underground and above-ground symptoms occur considerably later. We conducted experiments on Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet, as an example patho-system, and used modelling approaches to estimate the incubation period distribution and demonstrate the impact of differing estimations on our epidemiological understanding of plant diseases. We present measurements of the incubation period obtained in field conditions, fit alternative probability models to the data, and show that the incubation period distribution changes with host age. By simulating spatially-explicit epidemiological models with different incubation-period distributions, we study the conditions for a significant time lag between epidemics of cryptic infection and the associated epidemics of symptomatic disease. We examine the sensitivity of this lag to differing distributional assumptions about the incubation period (i.e. exponential versus Gamma). We demonstrate that accurate information about the incubation period distribution of a pathosystem can be critical in assessing the true scale of pathogen invasion behind early disease symptoms in the field; likewise, it can be central to model-based prediction of epidemic risk and evaluation of disease management strategies. Our results highlight that reliance on observation of disease symptoms can cause significant delay in detection of soil-borne pathogen epidemics and mislead practitioners and

  17. Estimating the delay between host infection and disease (incubation period) and assessing its significance to the epidemiology of plant diseases.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Melen; Doré, Thierry; Gilligan, Christopher A; Lucas, Philippe; Filipe, João A N

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the incubation period of infectious diseases (time between host infection and expression of disease symptoms) is crucial to our epidemiological understanding and the design of appropriate prevention and control policies. Plant diseases cause substantial damage to agricultural and arboricultural systems, but there is still very little information about how the incubation period varies within host populations. In this paper, we focus on the incubation period of soilborne plant pathogens, which are difficult to detect as they spread and infect the hosts underground and above-ground symptoms occur considerably later. We conducted experiments on Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet, as an example patho-system, and used modelling approaches to estimate the incubation period distribution and demonstrate the impact of differing estimations on our epidemiological understanding of plant diseases. We present measurements of the incubation period obtained in field conditions, fit alternative probability models to the data, and show that the incubation period distribution changes with host age. By simulating spatially-explicit epidemiological models with different incubation-period distributions, we study the conditions for a significant time lag between epidemics of cryptic infection and the associated epidemics of symptomatic disease. We examine the sensitivity of this lag to differing distributional assumptions about the incubation period (i.e. exponential versus Gamma). We demonstrate that accurate information about the incubation period distribution of a pathosystem can be critical in assessing the true scale of pathogen invasion behind early disease symptoms in the field; likewise, it can be central to model-based prediction of epidemic risk and evaluation of disease management strategies. Our results highlight that reliance on observation of disease symptoms can cause significant delay in detection of soil-borne pathogen epidemics and mislead practitioners and

  18. Protein breakdown and release of β-casomorphins during in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion of sterilised model systems of liquid infant formula.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Stefano; Stuknytė, Milda; Masotti, Fabio; De Noni, Ivano

    2017-02-15

    Protein modifications occurring during sterilisation of infant formulas can affect protein digestibility and release of bioactive peptides. The effect of glycation and cross-linking on protein breakdown and release of β-casomorphins was evaluated during in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion (GID) of six sterilised model systems of infant formula. Protein degradation during in vitro GID was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and by measuring the nitrogen content of ultrafiltration (3kDa) permeates before and after in vitro GID of model IFs. Glycation strongly hindered protein breakdown, whereas cross-linking resulting from β-elimination reactions had a negligible effect. Only β-casomorphin 7 (β-CM7) was detected (0.187-0.858mgL(-1)) at the end of the intestinal digestion in all untreated IF model systems. The level of β-CM7 in the sterilised model systems prepared without addition of sugars ranged from 0.256 to 0.655mgL(-1). The release of this peptide during GID was hindered by protein glycation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Investigative Study into Perspectives and Experiences of Incubates at the Chandaria Business Innovation and Incubation Centre at the Kenyatta University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munyanyiwa, Takaruza; Mutsau, Morgen; Rudhumbu, Norman; Svotwa, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The study presents results from an investigative study undertaken at the Kenyatta University (KU) Chandaria Business Innovation and Incubation Centre. A total of 10 incubates representing 10 projects were engaged in face to face interviews. The incubates were appreciative of the value that incubation centre such as the one at KU contributed to…

  20. Incongruity between Prion Conversion and Incubation Period following Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Langenfeld, Katie A; Shikiya, Ronald A; Kincaid, Anthony E; Bartz, Jason C

    2016-06-15

    When multiple prion strains are inoculated into the same host, they can interfere with each other. Strains with long incubation periods can suppress conversion of strains with short incubation periods; however, nothing is known about the conversion of the long-incubation-period strain during strain interference. To investigate this, we inoculated hamsters in the sciatic nerve with long-incubation-period strain 139H prior to superinfection with the short-incubation-period hyper (HY) strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME). First, we found that 139H is transported along the same neuroanatomical tracks as HY TME, adding to the growing body of evidence indicating that PrP(Sc) favors retrograde transneuronal transport. In contrast to a previous report, we found that 139H interferes with HY TME infection, which is likely due to both strains targeting the same population of neurons following sciatic nerve inoculation. Under conditions where 139H blocked HY TME from causing disease, the strain-specific properties of PrP(Sc) corresponded with the strain that caused disease, consistent with our previous findings. In the groups of animals where incubation periods were not altered, we found that the animals contained a mixture of 139H and HY TME PrP(Sc) This finding expands the definition of strain interference to include conditions where PrP(Sc) formation is altered yet disease outcome is unaltered. Overall, these results contradict the premise that prion strains are static entities and instead suggest that strain mixtures are dynamic regardless of incubation period or clinical outcome of disease. Prions can exist as a mixture of strains in naturally infected animals, where they are able to interfere with the conversion of each other and to extend incubation periods. Little is known, however, about the dynamics of strain conversion under conditions where incubation periods are not affected. We found that inoculation of the same animal with two strains can result in

  1. Incubation behaviours of oviraptorosaur dinosaurs in relation to body size.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kohei; Zelenitsky, Darla K; Lü, Junchang; DeBuhr, Christopher L; Yi, Laiping; Jia, Songhai; Ding, Fang; Xia, Mengli; Liu, Di; Shen, Caizhi; Chen, Rongjun

    2018-05-01

    Most birds sit on their eggs during incubation, a behaviour that likely evolved among non-avian dinosaurs. Several 'brooding' specimens of smaller species of oviraptorosaurs and troodontids reveal these non-avian theropods sat on their eggs, although little is known of incubation behaviour in larger theropod species. Here we examine egg clutches over a large body size range of oviraptorosaurs in order to understand the potential effect of body size on incubation behaviour. Eggshell porosity indicates that the eggs of all oviraptorosaurs were exposed in the nest, similar to brooding birds. Although all oviraptorosaur clutches consist of radially arranged eggs in a ring configuration, clutch morphology varies in that the central opening is small or absent in the smallest species, becomes significantly larger in larger species, and occupies most of the nest area in giant species. Our results suggest that the smallest oviraptorosaurs probably sat directly on the eggs, whereas with increasing body size more weight was likely carried by the central opening, reducing or eliminating the load on the eggs and still potentially allowing for some contact during incubation in giant species. This adaptation, not seen in birds, appears to remove the body size constraints of incubation behaviour in giant oviraptorosaurs. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. Sex effects in mouse prion disease incubation time.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Shaheen; Wenborn, Adam; Brandner, Sebastian; Collinge, John; Lloyd, Sarah E

    2011-01-01

    Prion disease incubation time in mice is determined by many factors including PrP expression level, Prnp alleles, genetic background, prion strain and route of inoculation. Sex differences have been described in age of onset for vCJD and in disease duration for both vCJD and sporadic CJD and have also been shown in experimental models. The sex effects reported for mouse incubation times are often contradictory and detail only one strain of mice or prions, resulting in broad generalisations and a confusing picture. To clarify the effect of sex on prion disease incubation time in mice we have compared male and female transmission data from twelve different inbred lines of mice inoculated with at least two prion strains, representing both mouse-adapted scrapie and BSE. Our data show that sex can have a highly significant difference on incubation time. However, this is limited to particular mouse and prion strain combinations. No sex differences were seen in endogenous PrP(C) levels nor in the neuropathological markers of prion disease: PrP(Sc) distribution, spongiosis, neuronal loss and gliosis. These data suggest that when comparing incubation times between experimental groups, such as testing the effects of modifier genes or therapeutics, single sex groups should be used.

  3. Measles with a possible 23 day incubation period.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Tove L; Durrheim, David N; Merritt, Tony D; Birch, Christopher; Tran, Thomas

    2012-09-30

    Measles virus (MV) eradication is biologically, technically and operationally feasible. An essential feature in understanding the chain of MV transmission is its incubation period, that is, the time from infection to the onset of symptoms. This period is important for determining the likely source of infection and directing public health measures to interrupt ongoing transmission. Long measles incubation periods have rarely been documented in the literature. We report on a previously healthy 11-year-old Australian boy who was confirmed with measles genotype D9 infection following travel in the Philippines. Epidemiological evidence supported an unusually long incubation period of at least 23 days and virological evidence was consistent with this finding. Although public health control measures such as post exposure prophylaxis, isolation and surveillance of susceptible individuals should continue to be based on the more common incubation period, a longer incubation period may occasionally explain an unexpected measles case. This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Commonwealth Copyright Administration, Attorney General's Department, Robert Garran Offices, National Circuit, Barton ACT 2600 or posted at http://www.ag.gov.au/cca.

  4. Infant botulism: clinical spectrum and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J A; Glasgow, L A; Warpinski, J R; Olson, C

    1980-12-01

    Between 1977 and 1979, 12 cases of infant botulism were diagnosed in Utah, and 87 control patients (normal, nonbotulism neurologic disease, and nonbotulism systemic disease) were evaluated. Observations from these patients suggest an expanded clinical spectrum of infant botulism including asymptomatic carriers of organism; mild hypotonia and failure to thrive; typical cases with constipation, bulbar weakness, and hypotonia; and children with a picture compatible with sudden infant death syndrome. Clostridium botulinum was isolated from the stools of three normal control infants and nine control infants who had neurologic diseases that were clearly not infant botulism. These infants were termed "asymptomatic carriers" of the organism. The occurrence of the asymptomatic carrier state suggests that a diagnosis of infant botulism cannot be made on a basis of culture results alone, but must rest in historical documentation and physical confirmation of progressive bulbar and extremity weakness with ultimate complete resolution of symptoms and findings over a period of several months. A common set of environmental features characterizes the home environment of children with infant botulism and "asymptomatic carriers" and includes: nearby constructional or agricultural soil disruption, dusty and windy conditions, a high water table, and alkaline soil conditions.

  5. INTERFACING INFANT MENTAL HEALTH KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS: REFLECTIONS ON THE NARRATIVES OF LAY HOME VISITORS' EXPERIENCES OF LEARNING AND APPLYING RELATIONAL CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENT IN A SOUTH AFRICAN INTERVENTION PROGRAM.

    PubMed

    Baradon, Tessa; Bain, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    The question of interfacing research and clinically generated knowledge in the field of infant mental health (IMH) with local cultural knowledge and belief systems has provoked extended discussion in recent years. This article explores convergences and divergences between current research-based, relational IMH mental health models and "community" knowledge held by a group of South African lay home visitors from a socioeconomically deprived township. These women were trained in a psychoanalytic and attachment-informed infant mental health program that promotes a relational model of infant development. They provide an intervention that supports high risk mother-infant relationships in the same locality. A two-tiered approach was taken to the analysis of the home visitor interviews and focused on the home visitors' constructed narratives of infant development posttraining as well as the personal impact of the training and work on the home visitors themselves. The study found that psychoanalytic and attachment-informed thinking about development makes sense to those operating within the local South African cultural context, but that the accommodation of this knowledge is a complex and challenging process. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  6. The Impact of Maternal Obesity and Excessive Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Maine: Analysis of Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Results from 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Nancy; Harris, David E; Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim; Sarton, Cheryl; Lichter, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the relationships between prepregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS) data from Maine for 2000-2010 were used to determine associations between demographic, socioeconomic, and health behavioral variables and maternal and infant outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the independent variables of age, race, smoking, previous live births, marital status, education, BMI, income, rurality, alcohol use, and GWG. Dependent variables included maternal hypertension, premature birth, birth weight, infant admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and length of hospital stay of the infant. Excessive prepregnancy BMI and excessive GWG independently predicted maternal hypertension. A high prepregnancy BMI increased the risk of the infant being born prematurely, having a longer hospital stay, and having an excessive birth weight. Excessive GWG predicted a longer infant hospital stay and excessive birth weight. A low pregnancy BMI and a lower than recommended GWG were also associated with poor outcomes: prematurity, low birth weight, and an increased risk of the infant admitted to ICU. These findings support the importance of preconception care that promotes achievement of a healthy weight to enhance optimal reproductive outcomes.

  7. The Impact of Maternal Obesity and Excessive Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Maine: Analysis of Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Results from 2000 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sarton, Cheryl; Lichter, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the relationships between prepregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS) data from Maine for 2000–2010 were used to determine associations between demographic, socioeconomic, and health behavioral variables and maternal and infant outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the independent variables of age, race, smoking, previous live births, marital status, education, BMI, income, rurality, alcohol use, and GWG. Dependent variables included maternal hypertension, premature birth, birth weight, infant admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and length of hospital stay of the infant. Excessive prepregnancy BMI and excessive GWG independently predicted maternal hypertension. A high prepregnancy BMI increased the risk of the infant being born prematurely, having a longer hospital stay, and having an excessive birth weight. Excessive GWG predicted a longer infant hospital stay and excessive birth weight. A low pregnancy BMI and a lower than recommended GWG were also associated with poor outcomes: prematurity, low birth weight, and an increased risk of the infant admitted to ICU. These findings support the importance of preconception care that promotes achievement of a healthy weight to enhance optimal reproductive outcomes. PMID:27747104

  8. 21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consisting of an infrared heating element intended to be placed over an infant to maintain the infant's body temperature by means of radiant heat. The device may also contain a temperature monitoring sensor, a heat output control mechanism, and an alarm system (infant temperature, manual mode if present, and failure...

  9. 21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... consisting of an infrared heating element intended to be placed over an infant to maintain the infant's body temperature by means of radiant heat. The device may also contain a temperature monitoring sensor, a heat output control mechanism, and an alarm system (infant temperature, manual mode if present, and failure...

  10. 21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... consisting of an infrared heating element intended to be placed over an infant to maintain the infant's body temperature by means of radiant heat. The device may also contain a temperature monitoring sensor, a heat output control mechanism, and an alarm system (infant temperature, manual mode if present, and failure...

  11. 21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... consisting of an infrared heating element intended to be placed over an infant to maintain the infant's body temperature by means of radiant heat. The device may also contain a temperature monitoring sensor, a heat output control mechanism, and an alarm system (infant temperature, manual mode if present, and failure...

  12. 21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... consisting of an infrared heating element intended to be placed over an infant to maintain the infant's body temperature by means of radiant heat. The device may also contain a temperature monitoring sensor, a heat output control mechanism, and an alarm system (infant temperature, manual mode if present, and failure...

  13. Incubation times of dinosaur eggs via embryonic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Scott A

    2016-08-01

    The incubation times for the eggs of 21 dinosaurs are determined from an estimate of their embyronic metabolic rate and the mass of the hatchlings via a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. Embryos in extant birds and crocodiles are studied in order to determine the best model for embryonic metabolism and growth. These results are used to develop a theoretical model that predicts the incubation times of an egg. This model is applied to dinosaur eggs and provides a unique window into dinosaur reproduction. The dinosaurs studied come from both Saurischia and Ornithischia. The incubation times vary from about 28 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 76 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis.

  14. Incubation times of dinosaur eggs via embryonic metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2016-08-01

    The incubation times for the eggs of 21 dinosaurs are determined from an estimate of their embyronic metabolic rate and the mass of the hatchlings via a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. Embryos in extant birds and crocodiles are studied in order to determine the best model for embryonic metabolism and growth. These results are used to develop a theoretical model that predicts the incubation times of an egg. This model is applied to dinosaur eggs and provides a unique window into dinosaur reproduction. The dinosaurs studied come from both Saurischia and Ornithischia. The incubation times vary from about 28 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 76 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis.

  15. A comparison of artificial incubation and natural incubation hatching success of gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) eggs in southern Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noel, Krista M.; Qualls, Carl P.; Ennen, Joshua R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have found that Gopher Tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus, populations in southern Mississippi exhibit low recruitment, due in part to very low hatching success of their eggs. We sought to determine if the cause(s) of this low hatching success was related to egg quality (intrinsic factors), unsuitability of the nest environment (extrinsic factors), or a combination of the two. In 2003, hatching success was monitored simultaneously for eggs from the same clutches that were incubated in the laboratory and left to incubate in nests. A subset of randomly chosen eggs from each clutch was incubated in the laboratory under physical conditions that were known to be conducive to successful hatching to estimate the proportion of eggs that were capable of hatching in a controlled setting. Hatching success in the laboratory was compared with that of eggs incubated in natural nests to estimate the proportion of eggs that failed to hatch presumably from extrinsic factors. Laboratory hatching success was 58.8%, suggesting that roughly 40% of the eggs were intrinsically incapable of hatching even when incubated under controlled conditions. Hatching success in natural nests, 16.7%, was significantly lower than hatching success in the laboratory, suggesting that approximately 42.1% of eggs were capable of hatching but failed to hatch due to some extrinsic aspect(s) of the nest environment. Thus, the low hatching success of Gopher Tortoise eggs in southern Mississippi appears to be attributable to a combination of intrinsic (egg quality) and extrinsic (nest environment) factors.

  16. Thermal management in closed incubators: New software for assessing the impact of humidity on the optimal incubator air temperature.

    PubMed

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Durand, Estelle; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates are nursed in closed incubators to prevent transcutaneous water loss. The RH's impact on the optimal incubator air temperature setting has not been studied. On the basis of a clinical cohort study, we modelled all the ambient parameters influencing body heat losses and gains. The algorithm quantifies the change in RH on the air temperature, to maintain optimal thermal conditions in the incubator. Twenty-three neonates (gestational age (GA): 30.0 [28.9-31.6] weeks) were included. A 20% increase and a 20% decrease in the RH induced a change in air temperature of between -1.51 and +1.85°C for a simulated 650g neonate (GA: 26 weeks), between -1.66 and +1.87°C for a 1000g neonate (GA: 31 weeks), and between -1.77 and +1.97°C for a 2000g neonate (GA: 33 weeks) (p<0.001). According to regression analyses, the optimal incubator air temperature=a+b relative humidity +c age +d weight (p<0.001). We have developed new mathematical equations for calculating the optimal temperature for the incubator air as a function of the latter's relative humidity. The software constitutes a decision support tool for improving patient care in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimal culture incubation time in orthopedic device-associated infections: a retrospective analysis of prolonged 14-day incubation.

    PubMed

    Schwotzer, Nora; Wahl, Peter; Fracheboud, Dominique; Gautier, Emanuel; Chuard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of orthopedic device-associated infections can be challenging. Culture of tissue biopsy specimens is often considered the gold standard; however, there is currently no consensus on the ideal incubation time for specimens. The aim of our study was to assess the yield of a 14-day incubation protocol for tissue biopsy specimens from revision surgery (joint replacements and internal fixation devices) in a general orthopedic and trauma surgery setting. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively in order to identify cases of infection according to predefined diagnostic criteria. From August 2009 to March 2012, 499 tissue biopsy specimens were sampled from 117 cases. In 70 cases (59.8%), at least one sample showed microbiological growth. Among them, 58 cases (82.9%) were considered infections and 12 cases (17.1%) were classified as contaminations. The median time to positivity in the cases of infection was 1 day (range, 1 to 10 days), compared to 6 days (range, 1 to 11 days) in the cases of contamination (P < 0.001). Fifty-six (96.6%) of the infection cases were diagnosed within 7 days of incubation. In conclusion, the results of our study show that the incubation of tissue biopsy specimens beyond 7 days is not productive in a general orthopedic and trauma surgery setting. Prolonged 14-day incubation might be of interest in particular situations, however, in which the prevalence of slow-growing microorganisms and anaerobes is higher.

  18. Summary of Research Report Lewis Incubator for Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Wayne P.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done to establish and operate the Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT) for the period July 1996 through September 2000. The Lewis Incubator helps the startup and growth of technology-based businesses with the potential to incorporate technology from the NASA Glenn Research Center. During the grant period, LIFT began operation, met or exceeded all key performance measures, and continues its operation through a new cooperative agreement with NASA Glenn and also through continued funding from the State of Ohio.

  19. Imaging the neonate in the incubator: an investigation of the technical, radiological and nursing issues.

    PubMed

    Mutch, S J; Wentworth, S D P

    2007-11-01

    Modern neonatal incubators incorporate an X-ray tray device into the mattress support structure to facilitate patient examination with minimal disturbance and distress. However, the usual method of examination is to place the image plate directly underneath the baby. Users often cite radiological reasons for not using X-ray trays but modern quantitative evidence is lacking. This work looks at the technical and clinical aspects of imaging neonates in incubators and the impact that these may have in determining the imaging protocol. A number of hospitals were surveyed to determine their current method of examination and the reasons for their preference. Experimental measurements of the radiological impact of using (or not using) the X-ray tray were performed for a range of neonatal incubators. The average dose to the image plate was 5.9 microGy (range 5.4-6.4 microGy) for the "plate on mattress" method and 3.0 microGy (2.0-3.8 microGy) when using the tray--a 49% reduction owing to the mattress support materials. However, when using a computed radiography (CR) imaging system, the image quality differences were marginal. Survey results indicated that nurses preferred to use the tray but that radiographers were reluctant. We conclude that incubator manufacturers could do much to improve the radiological performance of their equipment and we offer recommendations. We also conclude that, with appropriate nurse and radiographer training and the advent of CR imaging systems, use of X-ray tray facilities may optimize imaging of the neonate in the incubator.

  20. Deciphering infant mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrut, Sylvie; Pouillard, Violette; Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is about infant mortality. In line with reliability theory, "infant" refers to the time interval following birth during which the mortality (or failure) rate decreases. This definition provides a systems science perspective in which birth constitutes a sudden transition falling within the field of application of the Transient Shock (TS) conjecture put forward in Richmond and Roehner (2016c). This conjecture provides predictions about the timing and shape of the death rate peak. It says that there will be a death rate spike whenever external conditions change abruptly and drastically and also predicts that after a steep rise there will be a much longer hyperbolic relaxation process. These predictions can be tested by considering living organisms for which the transient shock occurs several days after birth. Thus, for fish there are three stages: egg, yolk-sac and young adult phases. The TS conjecture predicts a mortality spike at the end of the yolk-sac phase and this timing is indeed confirmed by observation. Secondly, the hyperbolic nature of the relaxation process can be tested using very accurate Swiss statistics for postnatal death rates spanning the period from one hour immediately after birth through to age 10 years. It turns out that since the 19th century despite a significant and large reduction in infant mortality, the shape of the age-specific death rate has remained basically unchanged. Moreover the hyperbolic pattern observed for humans is also found for small primates as recorded in the archives of zoological gardens. Our overall objective is to identify a series of cases which start from simple systems and move step by step to more complex organisms. The cases discussed here we believe represent initial landmarks in this quest.

  1. Osteopenia - premature infants

    MedlinePlus

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... of calcium and phosphorus needed to form strong bones. While in the womb, fetal activity increases during ...

  2. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in water bird nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ?? 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ?? 1.6 days and 1.9 ?? 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ?? 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ?? 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  3. The Reliability of a Three-Dimensional Photo System- (3dMDface-) Based Evaluation of the Face in Cleft Lip Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ort, Rebecca; Metzler, Philipp; Kruse, Astrid L.; Matthews, Felix; Zemann, Wolfgang; Grätz, Klaus W.; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo

    2012-01-01

    Ample data exists about the high precision of three-dimensional (3D) scanning devices and their data acquisition of the facial surface. However, a question remains regarding which facial landmarks are reliable if identified in 3D images taken under clinical circumstances. Sources of error to be addressed could be technical, user dependent, or patient respectively anatomy related. Based on clinical 3D photos taken with the 3dMDface system, the intra observer repeatability of 27 facial landmarks in six cleft lip (CL) infants and one non-CL infant was evaluated based on a total of over 1,100 measurements. Data acquisition was sometimes challenging but successful in all patients. The mean error was 0.86 mm, with a range of 0.39 mm (Exocanthion) to 2.21 mm (soft gonion). Typically, landmarks provided a small mean error but still showed quite a high variance in measurements, for example, exocanthion from 0.04 mm to 0.93 mm. Vice versa, relatively imprecise landmarks still provide accurate data regarding specific spatial planes. One must be aware of the fact that the degree of precision is dependent on landmarks and spatial planes in question. In clinical investigations, the degree of reliability for landmarks evaluated should be taken into account. Additional reliability can be achieved via multiple measuring. PMID:22919476

  4. Designing the Online Collaboratory for the Global Social Benefit Incubator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Ramos, Pedro; Koch, James L.; Bruno, Albert; Carlson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Pedro Hernandez-Ramos, James L. Koch, Albert Bruno, and Eric Carlson describe the online collaboratory planned for the Global Social Benefit Incubator (GSBI), an international education program designed to serve social benefit entrepreneurs working in the fields of education, health, economic development, the environment, and equality around the…

  5. High turnover of fungal hyphae in incubation experiments.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Franciska T; Bååth, Erland; Kuyper, Thom W; Bloem, Jaap

    2009-03-01

    Soil biological studies are often conducted on sieved soils without the presence of plants. However, soil fungi build delicate mycelial networks, often symbiotically associated with plant roots (mycorrhizal fungi). We hypothesized that as a result of sieving and incubating without plants, the total fungal biomass decreases. To test this, we conducted three incubation experiments. We expected total and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal biomass to be higher in less fertilized soils than in fertilized soils, and thus to decrease more during incubation. Indeed, we found that fungal biomass decreased rapidly in the less fertilized soils. A shift towards thicker hyphae occurred, and the fraction of septate hyphae increased. However, analyses of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and neutral lipid fatty acids could not clarify which fungal groups were decreasing. We propose that in our soils, there was a fraction of fungal biomass that was sensitive to fertilization and disturbance (sieving, followed by incubation without plants) with a very high turnover (possibly composed of fine hyphae of AM and saprotrophic fungi), and a fraction that was much less vulnerable with a low turnover (composed of saprotrophic fungi and runner hyphae of AMF). Furthermore, PLFAs might not be as sensitive in detecting changes in fungal biomass as previously thought.

  6. Alternating Incubation Effects in the Generation of Category Exemplars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Steven M.; Gerkens, David R.; Angello, Genna

    2017-01-01

    Four experiments tested the forgetting fixation hypothesis of incubation effects, comparing continuous vs. alternating generation of exemplars from three different types of categories. In two experiments, participants who listed as many members as possible from two different categories produced more responses, and more novel responses, when they…

  7. Incubation: A Neglected Aspect of the Writing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the role of incubation in the writing process. Suggests that one secret to coming up with good ideas in writing is understanding the importance of realizing that the process entails patient revision, takes time, and often requires some time off task. (Author/VWL)

  8. Clean Energy Technology Incubator Initiative Launched in Texas

    Science.gov Websites

    , fuel cells, energy conservation, clean energy-related information technology, end-use consumer products Technology Incubator Initiative Launched in Texas For more information contact: Kerry Masson, 303 information looks like it's a good fit for the clean energy initiative, ATI will help the candidate refine its

  9. Low Incubation Temperature Induces DNA Hypomethylation in Lizard Brains.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Ursula; Radersma, Reinder; Cannell, Naomi; While, Geoffrey M; Uller, Tobias

    2016-07-01

    Developmental stress can have organizational effects on suites of physiological, morphological, and behavioral characteristics. In lizards, incubation temperature is perhaps the most significant environmental variable affecting embryonic development. Wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) recently introduced by humans from Italy to England experience stressfully cool incubation conditions, which we here show reduce growth and increase the incidence of scale malformations. Using a methylation-sensitive AFLP protocol optimized for vertebrates, we demonstrate that this low incubation temperature also causes hypomethylation of DNA in brain tissue. A consistent pattern across methylation-susceptible AFLP loci suggests that hypomethylation is a general response and not limited to certain CpG sites. The functional consequences of hypomethylation are unknown, but it could contribute to genome stability and regulation of gene expression. Further studies of the effects of incubation temperature on DNA methylation in ectotherm vertebrates may reveal mechanisms that explain why the embryonic thermal environment often has physiological and behavioral consequences for offspring. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Wells Fargo Innovation Incubator (IN²) | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Incubator (IN2) is now a $30 million program supporting innovative technologies and innovators. IN2 is buildings portfolio of Wells Fargo to help companies derisk technologies and ease their path to market companies' technologies to help them meet critical validation milestones on the path to market. Companies

  11. Mind Wandering and the Incubation Effect in Insight Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tengteng; Zou, Hong; Chen, Chuansheng; Luo, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Although many anecdotes suggest that creative insights often arise during mind wandering, empirical research is still sparse. In this study, the number reduction task (NRT) was used to assess whether insightful solutions were related to mind wandering during the incubation stage of the creative process. An experience sampling paradigm was used to…

  12. Assessment of predation risk through referential communication in incubating birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N.

    2015-05-01

    Parents of many bird species produce alarm calls when they approach and deter a nest predator in order to defend their offspring. Alarm calls have been shown to warn nestlings about predatory threats, but parents also face a similar risk of predation when incubating eggs in their nests. Here, I show that incubating female Japanese great tits, Parus minor, assess predation risk by conspecific alarm calls given outside the nest cavity. Tits produce acoustically discrete alarm calls for different nest predators: “jar” calls for snakes and “chicka” calls for other predators such as crows and martens. Playback experiments revealed that incubating females responded to “jar” calls by leaving their nest, whereas they responded to “chicka” calls by looking out of the nest entrance. Since snakes invade the nest cavity, escaping from the nest helps females avoid snake predation. In contrast, “chicka” calls are used for a variety of predator types, and therefore, looking out of the nest entrance helps females gather information about the type and location of approaching predators. These results show that incubating females derive information about predator type from different types of alarm calls, providing a novel example of functionally referential communication.

  13. Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubation Environments: A Framework of Key Success Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dajani, Haya; Dedoussis, Evangelos; Watson, Erika; Tzokas, Nikalaos

    2014-01-01

    The benchmarking framework developed in this study is specifically designed for higher education institutions to consider when developing environments to encourage entrepreneurship among their students, graduates and staff. The objective of the study was to identify key success factors of Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubator Environments (GEIEs)…

  14. Assessment of predation risk through referential communication in incubating birds.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N

    2015-05-18

    Parents of many bird species produce alarm calls when they approach and deter a nest predator in order to defend their offspring. Alarm calls have been shown to warn nestlings about predatory threats, but parents also face a similar risk of predation when incubating eggs in their nests. Here, I show that incubating female Japanese great tits, Parus minor, assess predation risk by conspecific alarm calls given outside the nest cavity. Tits produce acoustically discrete alarm calls for different nest predators: "jar" calls for snakes and "chicka" calls for other predators such as crows and martens. Playback experiments revealed that incubating females responded to "jar" calls by leaving their nest, whereas they responded to "chicka" calls by looking out of the nest entrance. Since snakes invade the nest cavity, escaping from the nest helps females avoid snake predation. In contrast, "chicka" calls are used for a variety of predator types, and therefore, looking out of the nest entrance helps females gather information about the type and location of approaching predators. These results show that incubating females derive information about predator type from different types of alarm calls, providing a novel example of functionally referential communication.

  15. Growth of Campylobacter Incubated Aerobically in Media Supplemented with Peptones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growth of Campylobacter cultures incubated aerobically in media supplemented with peptones was studied, and additional experiments were conducted to compare growth of the bacteria in media supplemented with peptones to growth in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate-minerals-vitamins (FPMV). A b...

  16. Addressing Social-Emotional Development and Infant Mental Health in Early Childhood Systems. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, Number 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Paula D.; Stafford, Brian S.; Nagle, Geoffrey A.; Rice, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The science of early development and our understanding of the impact of early experience on later social, emotional, and cognitive development has grown dramatically in the past three decades. Because the data are compelling and far-reaching, there has been increasing interest and concern about the quality of the infant's earliest experiences, and…

  17. Characteristics of antigravity spontaneous movements in preterm infants up to 3 months of corrected age.

    PubMed

    Miyagishima, Saori; Asaka, Tadayoshi; Kamatsuka, Kaori; Kozuka, Naoki; Kobayashi, Masaki; Igarashi, Risa; Hori, Tsukasa; Yoto, Yuko; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated whether spontaneous antigravity limbs movements in very low birth weight preterm infants were insufficient compared to those in term infants. The relationship between the quality of general movements (GMs) and antigravity limbs movements was also examined. Preterm infants with very low birth weight without central nervous system disorders nor severe respiration disorders, and healthy term infants were recruited. The infants were set in a supine position. The distance between both hands and between both feet, and the height of both hands and feet from the floor were recorded at 1-3 corrected months for preterm infants, and at 1-3 months for term infants by a 3D motion capture system. The measurements were adjusted for body proportions. GMs in preterm and term infants were assessed similarly. Thirteen preterm and 15 term infants completed the study. In preterm infants, the distance between both hands and between both feet were longer, and the height of both hands and feet were lower than those in term infants in all measurements. In term infants, the height of both hands and feet increased as they developed, but no change was observed in preterm infants. In preterm infants with abnormal GMs, the distance between both hands was longer, and the height of both hands and feet was lower than that in those with normal GMs. There were no such differences between preterm infants with normal GMs and term infants with normal GMs. Antigravity limbs movements in preterm infants within the first 3 month of corrected age were insufficient compared with those in term infants. Furthermore, no improvement with development was observed in preterm infants. In addition, preterm infants with abnormal GMs showed worse antigravity limbs movements than preterm and term infants with normal GMs. The preterm infants with normal GMs could behave similar to the full term infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Laparoscopic Toupet Fundoplication using an Air Seal Intelligent Flow System and Anchor Port in a 1.8-kg infant: A Technical Report.

    PubMed

    Miyano, Go; Morita, Keiichi; Kaneshiro, Masakatsu; Miyake, Hiromu; Nouso, Hiroshi; Yamoto, Masaya; Koyama, Mariko; Nakano, Reiji; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Fukumoto, Koji; Urushihara, Naoto

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of a 1.8-kg infant who had laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF) using the AirSeal Intelligent Flow System and Anchor Port (AP). Our case had severe gastroesophageal reflux in association with genetic and cardiac anomalies. Despite the patient being continuously fed, persistent vomiting caused failure to thrive, and LTF was performed at 4 months of age when he weighed 1.8 kg. The AirSeal Intelligent Flow System is a novel laparoscopic CO2 insufflation system that improves the visual field by constantly evacuating smoke and providing a more stable pneumoperitoneum. The AP is a recently developed, stretchable, elastomeric, low-profile cannula. Three 5-mm AP were inserted: one subumbilically for the scope and one in both the right and left upper abdomen for the surgeon. A 5-mm AirSeal trocar was inserted in the left lower abdomen for the assistant. The gastrosplenic ligament was dissected free, and the intra-abdominal esophagus was prepared. A posterior hiatoplasty was performed, followed by the 270° fundoplication. During the fundoplication, the esophagus was fixed to the crus and then the right and left wraps were fixed to the esophagus. Pneumoperitoneum was maintained stably throughout the LTF procedure, with optimal operative field. Total operating time for LTF was 90 min. Body temperature dropped from 37.4°C to 35.7°C during pneumoperitoneum but resolved once pneumoperitoneum was ceased. Postoperative progress was uneventful, and an upper gastrointestinal study on postoperative day 2 showed no residual gastroesophageal reflux. We believe the AirSeal Intelligent Flow System and AP contributed to the successful completion of LTF in a 1.8-kg infant. © 2015 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Associated malformations among infants with anophthalmia and microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

    2012-03-01

    Infants with anophthalmia and microphthalmia frequently have other associated congenital anomalies. The reported frequency and types of associated malformations vary among different studies. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the frequency and types of associated malformations among infants with anophthalmia and microphthalmia in a geographically well defined population from 1979 to 2004 of 346,831 consecutive births. Of the 87 infants with anophthalmia and microphthalmia born during this period (prevalence at birth, 2.5 per 10,000), 90% had associated malformations. Infants with associated malformation were divided into recognizable conditions (22 infants [25%] with chromosomal and 15 infants [17%] with nonchromosomal conditions), and nonrecognizable conditions (41 infants [47%] with multiple malformations). Trisomies 13 and 18 were the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities. Amniotic bands sequence, CHARGE syndrome, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, and VACTERL association were most often present in recognizable nonchromosomal conditions. Malformations in the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems were the most common other anomalies in infants with multiple malformations and nonrecognizable conditions. The frequency of associated malformations in infants with anophthalmia or microphthalmia emphasizes the need for a thorough investigation of these infants. Routine screening for other malformations-especially musculoskeletal, cardiac, and central nervous system anomalies-may need to be considered in infants with anophthalmia or microphthalmia, and referral of these infants for genetics evaluation and counseling seems warranted. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Infant Transport Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photo sequence illustrates the movement of an ill infant to a special care hospital by means of a new Pediatric Monitoring and Transport System, in which NASA technology and technical assistance are being applied to an urgent medical problem. Development of the system is a collaborative effort involving several organizations, principally, NASA Ames Research Center and Children's Hospital Medical Center, Oakland, California. Key to the system's efficacy is a custom-designed ambulance-to-hospital and hospital-to-hospital communications network, including two-way voice capability and space-derived biotelemetry; it allows a specialist at the destination hospital to monitor continuously the vital signs of the patient during transit.

  1. Evaluation of incubation time for Microsporum canis dermatophyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Stuntebeck, Rebecca; Moriello, Karen A; Verbrugge, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to determine how frequently Microsporum canis was isolated after 1, 2 and 3 weeks of incubation on dermatophyte culture medium either from untreated cats or cats during treatment. Methods This was an observational retrospective study. Toothbrush fungal culture results were examined from two data pools: untreated cats with suspect skin lesions and weekly fungal cultures from cats being treated for dermatophytosis. Results Results from 13,772 fungal cultures were reviewed and 2876 (20.9%) were positive for M canis. Of these, 2800 were confirmed as positive within 14 days of incubation and only 76 (2.6%) required >14 days for confirmation of M canis. In pretreatment specimens, 98.2% (1057/1076) of M canis isolates were recovered within 14 days of incubation in specimens from cats not known to have received prior antifungal treatment. For cats receiving treatment, 96.8% (1743/1800) of M canis isolates were recovered within 14 days of incubation. Of the 57 cultures that required >14 days for finalization, 21 required extra incubation time because cultures were grossly abnormal, 12 had concurrent contaminant growth delaying microscopic confirmation and 24 had no growth in the first 14 days. Of these 24, 19 had 1-2 colony-forming units (cfu)/plate and the remaining five plates had 5 to >10 cfu/plate, all with abnormal morphology. Conclusions and relevance The findings of this study show that it is not necessary to hold pretreatment or post-treatment fungal cultures for 21 days before finalizing cultures for no growth. Growth requiring >14 days had grossly abnormal morphology.

  2. Effects of environmental enrichment on the incubation of cocaine craving

    PubMed Central

    Chauvet, Claudia; Goldberg, Steven R.; Jaber, Mohamed; Solinas, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) during withdrawal periods reduces the risks of relapse to drug-seeking behavior. In this study, we investigated whether EE could prevent the development of time-dependent increases in cocaine-seeking behavior (incubation of craving). In addition, we investigated whether EE could eliminate already developed incubation and whether the effects of EE would last when enrichment is discontinued. For this, we allowed rats to self-administer cocaine for 10 daily 6h sessions and measured cocaine seeking 1, 30 and 60 days after the last self-administration session. In between these tests, rats were kept in forced abstinence and housed either in EE or standard environments (SE). Between day 30 and 60 of withdrawal, half of the rats in each group were maintained in their original environmental condition and the other half was switched to the other environmental condition. We found that exposure to EE prevents development of incubation of cocaine craving and eliminates already developed incubation. In addition, contrary to our expectations, when EE was discontinued, its positive effects on incubation of craving disappeared. These results indicate that EE can reduce cocaine seeking but only temporarily and questions the hypothesis that EE can permanently eliminate the neural consequences of exposure to drugs of abuse. Therefore, stimulating environments could have positive effects on the treatment of cocaine addiction only if they are maintained for long periods of abstinence that encompass the time-frame during which addicts are most vulnerable to relapse. PMID:22634364

  3. Impact of Premature Birth on the Development of the Infant in the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macey, Terri J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined effects of birth of premature infant on the family system , focusing on how problems associated with premature birth place family at risk. Mothers of preterm infants felt overprotective, were unwilling to leave infants with babysitters, and perceived initial negative effect on the family. Preterm infants showed less exploratory play and…

  4. Chronic stress in the mother-infant dyad: Maternal hair cortisol, infant salivary cortisol and interactional synchrony.

    PubMed

    Tarullo, Amanda R; St John, Ashley Moore; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2017-05-01

    Stress physiology is shaped by early experience, with enduring effects on health. The relation of chronic maternal physiological stress, as indexed by hair cortisol, to infants' stress systems and to mother-infant interaction quality has not been established. We examined maternal hair and salivary cortisol, six-month-old infants' salivary cortisol, and mother-infant interaction in 121 mother-infant dyads. High maternal hair cortisol was related to higher infant average salivary cortisol concentration. Maternal hair cortisol and bedtime salivary cortisol were both uniquely related to infant bedtime salivary cortisol. Mothers with higher hair cortisol were more intrusive and had lower positive engagement synchrony with their infants. Maternal intrusiveness moderated the association of maternal hair cortisol and infant salivary cortisol, such that maternal hair and infant average salivary cortisol were related only when mothers were more intrusive. Maternal chronic physiological stress may upregulate infants' developing stress systems, particularly in the context of lower mother-infant interaction quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Polyethylene wrap for thermoregulation in the preterm infant: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Cardona Torres, L M; Amador Licona, N; Garcia Campos, M L; Guizar-Mendoza, J M

    2012-02-01

    We compared the response of temperature adaptation in preterm infants using the polyethylene wrap with and without previous drying versus the sterile preheated field. Both groups of polyethylene use achieved a mean axillary temperature of 36.5C at 30 minutes compared with 75 minutes for the group of traditional care. At 120 minutes, the incubator temperature was higher in those using preheated field, compared with infants in the polyethylene wrap with or without previous drying, (35.15C, 34.20C and 34.20C respectively; P = 0.0001). No difference in axillary or incubator temperature was found between the groups using the polyethylene wrap.

  6. Determination of Total Selenium in Infant Formulas: Comparison of the Performance of FIA and MCFA Flow Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pistón, Mariela; Knochen, Moisés

    2012-01-01

    Two flow methods, based, respectively, on flow-injection analysis (FIA) and on multicommutated flow analysis (MCFA), were compared with regard to their use for the determination of total selenium in infant formulas by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The method based on multicommutation provided lower detection and quantification limits (0.08 and 0.27 μg L−1 compared to 0.59 and 1.95 μ L−1, resp.), higher sampling frequency (160 versus. 70 samples per hour), and reduced reagent consumption. Linearity, precision, and accuracy were similar for the two methods compared. It was concluded that, while both methods proved to be appropriate for the purpose, the MCFA-based method exhibited a better performance. PMID:22505923

  7. Incubating Innovation: A standard model for nurturing new businesses, the incubator gains prominence in the world of biotech.

    PubMed

    Grifantini, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Incubators, accelerators, innovation centers, launch pads. Everyone defines the idea a bit differently, but, generally, these infrastructures refer to a subsidized space where fledgling companies get support?a combination of mentorship, funding, low rent, networking opportunities, and other training?with the goal of propelling early businesses to success.

  8. Characterization of egg white antibacterial properties during the first half of incubation: A comparative study between embryonated and unfertilized eggs.

    PubMed

    Guyot, N; Réhault-Godbert, S; Slugocki, C; Harichaux, G; Labas, V; Helloin, E; Nys, Y

    2016-12-01

    Egg white is an important contributor to the protection of eggs against bacterial contaminations during the first half of incubation (day zero to 12), prior to the egg white transfer into the amniotic fluid to be orally absorbed by the embryo. This protective system relies on an arsenal of antimicrobial proteins and on intrinsic physicochemical properties that are generally unfavorable for bacterial multiplication and dissemination. Some changes in these parameters can be observed in egg white during egg storage and incubation. The aim of this work was to characterize changes in the antibacterial potential of egg white in embryonated eggs (FE) during the first half of incubation using unfertilized eggs (UF) as controls. Egg white samples were collected at day zero, 4, 8, and 12 and analyzed for pH, protein concentration, and protein profile. Antibacterial properties of egg white proteins were evaluated against Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Enteritidis. During incubation, differential variations of egg white pH and protein concentrations were observed between UF and FE. At equal protein concentrations, similar activities against L. monocytogenes and S. uberis were observed for FE and UF egg white proteins. A progressive decline in these activities, however, was observed over incubation time, regardless of the egg group (UF or FE). SDS-PAGE analysis of egg white proteins during incubation revealed discrete changes in the profile of major proteins, whereas the stability of some less abundant antimicrobial proteins seemed more affected. To conclude, the antibacterial activity of egg white proteins progressively decreased during the first half of egg incubation, possibly resulting from the alteration of specific antimicrobial proteins. This apparent decline may be partly counterbalanced in embryonated eggs by the increase in egg white protein concentration. The antibacterial potential of egg white

  9. Incubation period for outbreak-associated, non-typhoidal salmonellosis cases, Minnesota, 2000-2015.

    PubMed

    Eikmeier, D; Medus, C; Smith, K

    2018-03-01

    Incubation period for non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections is generally reported as 6-72 h despite numerous reports of foodborne NTS outbreaks with median incubation periods >3 days. We summarised 16 years of Minnesota foodborne NTS outbreaks to better estimate the expected range of incubation periods for NTS infections. Of the 1517 NTS outbreak cases, 725 had enough data to calculate a precise incubation period. The median incubation period was 45 h; 77 (11%) cases had incubations ⩽12 h and 211 (29%) cases had incubations >72 h. Incubation period length varied by outbreak vehicle type, Salmonella serotype and outbreak setting. Based on our data, a more accurate description would be that the incubation of NTS infection is usually from 12 to 96 h, that incubations in >96 to 144 h (>4 to 6-day) range are not unusual and that incubations from 7 to 9 days and occasionally longer also occur.

  10. Preliminary data on growth and enzymatic abilities of soil fungus Humicolopsis cephalosporioides at different incubation temperatures.

    PubMed

    Elíades, Lorena Alejandra; Cabello, Marta N; Pancotto, Verónica; Moretto, Alicia; Rago, María Melisa; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2015-01-01

    Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp & Endl.) Krasser, known as "lenga" is the most important timber wood species in southernmost Patagonia (Argentina). Humicolopsis cephalosporioides Cabral & Marchand is a soil fungus associated with Nothofagus pumilio forests, which has outstanding cellulolytic activity. However, there is no information about the ability of this fungus to use organic substrates other than cellulose, and its ability to produce different enzyme systems, as well as its response to temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the role of H. cephalosporioides in degradation processes in N. pumilio forests in detail by evaluating the in vitro ability of four isolates of this fungus to grow and produce different lytic enzyme systems, and their response to incubation temperature. The ability of the fungi to grow and produce enzyme systems was estimated by inoculating them on agar media with specific substrates, and the cultures were incubated at three temperatures. A differential behavior of each strain in levels of growth and enzyme activity was found according to the medium type and/or incubation temperature. A intra-specific variability was found in H. cephalosporioides. Likewise a possible link between the saprotrophic role of this fungus in N. pumilio forests and the degradation of organic matter under stress conditions, such as those from frosty environments, was also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Infant Temperament Characteristics Related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Its Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2006-01-01

    Three major components have been repeatedly implicated for the origin(s) of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): system, minor sickness and surroundings. All these factors also frame infant temperament, and therefore it seems logical to suppose that the babies who either succumb to or are at risk of SIDS may present with certain behavioral…

  12. Embryonic developmental patterns and energy expenditure are affected by incubation temperature in wood ducks (Aix sponsa).

    PubMed

    DuRant, S E; Hopkins, W A; Hepp, G R

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in birds has demonstrated that incubation temperature influences a suite of traits important for hatchling development and survival. We explored a possible mechanism for the effects on hatchling quality by determining whether incubation temperature influences embryonic energy expenditure of wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Because avian embryos are ectothermic, we hypothesized that eggs incubated at higher temperatures would have greater energy expenditure at any given day of incubation. However, because eggs incubated at lower temperatures take longer to hatch than embryos incubated at higher temperatures, we hypothesized that the former would expend more energy during incubation. We incubated eggs at three temperatures (35.0°, 35.9°, and 37.0°C) that fall within the range of temperatures of naturally incubated wood duck nests. We then measured the respiration of embryos every 3 d during incubation, immediately after ducks externally pipped, and immediately after hatching. As predicted, embryos incubated at the highest temperature had the highest metabolic rates on most days of incubation, and they exhibited faster rates of development. Yet, because of greater energy expended during the hatching process, embryos incubated at the lowest temperature expended 20%-37% more energy during incubation than did embryos incubated at the higher temperatures. Slower developmental rates and greater embryonic energy expenditure of embryos incubated at the lowest temperature could contribute to their poor physiological performance as ducklings compared with ducklings that hatch from eggs incubated at higher temperatures.

  13. Infant Vomiting

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually ...

  14. Development of a baby friendly non-contact method for measuring vital signs: First results of clinical measurements in an open incubator at a neonatal intensive care unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H.; van den Born, Marlies; van der Veen, Albert; Sikkens-van de Kraats, Janine; van den Dungen, Frank A.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2014-02-01

    For infants and neonates in an incubator vital signs, such as heart rate, breathing, skin temperature and blood oxygen saturation are measured by sensors and electrodes sticking to the skin. This can damage the vulnerable skin of neonates and cause infections. In addition, the wires interfere with the care and hinder the parents in holding and touching the baby. These problems initiated the search for baby friendly 'non-contact' measurement of vital signs. Using a sensitive color video camera and specially developed software, the heart rate was derived from subtle repetitive color changes. Potentially also respiration and oxygen saturation could be obtained. A thermal camera was used to monitor the temperature distribution of the whole body and detect small temperature variations around the nose revealing the respiration rate. After testing in the laboratory, seven babies were monitored (with parental consent) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) simultaneously with the regular monitoring equipment. From the color video recordings accurate heart rates could be derived and the thermal images provided accurate respiration rates. To correct for the movements of the baby, tracking software could be applied. At present, the image processing was performed off-line. Using narrow band light sources also non-contact blood oxygen saturation could be measured. Non-contact monitoring of vital signs has proven to be feasible and can be developed into a real time system. Besides the application on the NICU non-contact vital function monitoring has large potential for other patient groups.

  15. Thermophilic nitrate-reducing microorganisms prevent sulfate reduction in cold marine sediments incubated at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepomnyashchaya, Yana; Rezende, Julia; Hubert, Casey

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogen sulphide produced during metabolism of sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) is toxic, corrosive and causes detrimental oil reservoir souring. During secondary oil recovery, injecting oil reservoirs with seawater that is rich in sulphate and that also cools high temperature formations provides favourable growth conditions for SRM. Nitrate addition can prevent metabolism of SRM by stimulating nitrate-reducing microorganisms (NRM). The investigations of thermophilic NRM are needed to develop mechanisms to control the metabolism of SRM in high temperature oil field ecosystems. We therefore established a model system consisting of enrichment cultures of cold surface marine sediments from the Baltic Sea (Aarhus Bay) that were incubated at 60°C. Enrichments contained 25 mM nitrate and 40 mM sulphate as potential electron acceptors, and a mixture of the organic substrates acetate, lactate, propionate, butyrate (5 mM each) and yeast extract (0.01%) as potential carbon sources and electron donors. Slurries were incubated at 60°C both with and without initial pasteurization at 80°C for 2 hours. In the enrichments containing both nitrate and sulphate, the concentration of nitrate decreased indicating metabolic activity of NRM. After a four-hour lag phase the rate of nitrate reduction increased and the concentration of nitrate dropped to zero after 10 hours of incubation. The concentration of nitrite increased as the reduction of nitrate progressed and reached 16.3 mM after 12 hours, before being consumed and falling to 4.4 mM after 19-day of incubation. No evidence for sulphate reduction was observed in these cultures during the 19-day incubation period. In contrast, the concentration of sulphate decreased up to 50% after one week incubation in controls containing only sulphate but no nitrate. Similar sulfate reduction rates were seen in the pasteurized controls suggesting the presence of heat resistant SRM, whereas nitrate reduction rates were lower in the

  16. Concurrent validity and reliability of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Kênnea Martins; Dutra, Maria Virginia Peixoto; Mello, Rosane Reis de; Reis, Ana Beatriz Rodrigues; Martins, Priscila Silveira

    2008-01-01

    To verify the concurrent validity and interobserver reliability of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) in premature infants followed-up at the outpatient clinic of Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (IFF/Fiocruz), in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 88 premature infants were enrolled at the follow-up clinic at IFF/Fiocruz, between February and December of 2006. For the concurrent validity study, 46 infants were assessed at either 6 (n = 26) or 12 (n = 20) months' corrected age using the AIMS and the second edition of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, by two different observers, and applying Pearson's correlation coefficient to analyze the results. For the reliability study, 42 infants between 0 and 18 months were assessed using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale, by two different observers and the results analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. The concurrent validity study found a high level of correlation between the two scales (r = 0.95) and one that was statistically significant (p < 0.01) for the entire population of infants, with higher values at 12 months (r = 0.89) than at 6 months (r = 0.74). The interobserver reliability study found satisfactory intraclass correlation coefficients at all ages tested, varying from 0.76 to 0.99. The AIMS is a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of motor development in high-risk infants within the Brazilian public health system.

  17. Siderophore production by bacterioplankton in enriched seawater incubations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gledhill, M.; McCormack, P.; Worsfold, P. J.

    2003-04-01

    Iron is known to limit primary productivity in about 40 % of the worlds oceans. However the role of Fe in controlling bacterioplankton productivity is still a subject of debate, as carbon is also likely to be a significant limiting factor. Furthermore bacterioplankton are thought to have evolved a high affinity Fe transport mechanism utilising siderophores, which would enable acquisition even in the most Fe limited regions of the ocean. However, it is not yet certain if or how such a mechanism is employed in the oceans. Progress in this research area has been hindered by the lack of sufficiently sensitive analytical techniques for the determination of siderophores. We have recently developed a novel, highly sensitive technique for the detection of siderophore type compounds using electrospray ionisation - mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Coupling of the technique with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has allowed us to separate and identify siderophore type compounds present in complex mixtures at low concentrations (pM), thus allowing us to work with natural assemblages of bacteria in seawater. In this presentation we report on results obtained from incubations of natural bacterioplankton assemblages using coastal seawater from the English Channel. Known and unknown siderophores were identified in incubations carried out with additions of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous. Iron speciation in the incubations was modified through the presence or absence of the chelating agent ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acid. Results show that different siderophores are produced under different conditions, probably a reflection of the type of bacterioplankton best able to exploit the incubation conditions. The results will be discussed with respect to their relevance to the marine environment.

  18. Ion transport in rat liver mitochondria: the effect of the incubation medium osmolarity.

    PubMed

    Novgorodov, S A; Yaguzhinsky, L A

    1985-04-08

    A decrease in the incubation medium osmolarity from 320 to 120 mosM reverses the pH dependence of K+ efflux from rat liver mitochondria. The K+ efflux is no longer inhibited by oligomycin and a free radical scavenger butylhydroxytoluene. At 320 mosM, the addition of carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) accelerates the K+ efflux, while EGTA inhibits it. At 120 mosM these CCCP and EGTA effects are reversed. In either case the K+ efflux is inhibited by Mg2+. The decrease in osmolarity changes the ruthenium red-insensitive Ca2+ efflux in the same manner. It has thus been shown that the modification of the mitochondrial structure by changing the incubation medium osmolarity results in a qualitative alteration of the systems regulating the K+ and Ca2+ effluxes.

  19. Incubation temperature modifies neonatal thermoregulation in the lizard Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Rachel M; Walguarnery, Justin W

    2007-08-01

    The thermal environment experienced during embryonic development can profoundly affect the phenotype, and potentially the fitness, of ectothermic animals. We examined the effect of incubation temperature on the thermal preferences of juveniles in the oviparous lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Temperature preference trials were conducted in a laboratory thermal gradient within 48 hr of hatching and after 22-27 days of maintenance in a common laboratory environment. Incubation temperature had a significant effect on the upper limit of the interquartile range (IQR) of temperatures selected by A. carolinensis within the first 2 days after hatching. Between the first and second trials, the IQR of selected temperatures decreased significantly and both the lower limit of the IQR and the median selected temperature increased significantly. This, along with a significant incubation temperature by time interaction in the upper limit of the IQR, resulted in a pattern of convergence in thermoregulation among treatment groups. The initial differences in selected temperatures, as well as the shift in selected temperatures between first and second trials, demonstrate plasticity in temperature selection. As a previous study failed to find environmentally induced plasticity in temperature selection in adult A. carolinensis, this study suggests that this type of plasticity is exclusive to the period of neonatal development. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Frontal electroencephalographic correlates of individual differences in emotion expression in infants: a brain systems perspective on emotion.

    PubMed

    Dawson, G

    1994-01-01

    Emotion expressions can be characterized by both the type of emotion displayed and the intensity with which the emotion is expressed. Individual differences in these two aspects of emotion appear to vary independently and may perhaps account for distinct dimensions of temperament, personality, and vulnerability to psychopathology. We reviewed several sets of data gathered in our laboratory that indicate that these two dimensions of emotion expression are associated with distinct and independent patterns of frontal EEG activity in infants. Specifically, whereas the type of emotion expression was found to be associated with asymmetries in frontal EEG activity, the intensity of emotion expression was found to be associated with generalized activation of both the right and the left frontal regions. Moreover, we reviewed and provided evidence that measures of asymmetrical frontal activity are better predictors of individual differences in the tendency to express certain emotions, such as distress and sadness, whereas measures of generalized frontal activity are better predictors of individual differences in emotional reactivity and emotion intensity. The neuroanatomical bases of emotion were discussed with special reference to the role of the frontal lobe in emotion regulation. It was hypothesized that the frontal activation asymmetries that have been found to accompany emotion expressions reflect specific regulation strategies. The left frontal region is specialized for regulation strategies involving action schemes that serve to maintain continuity and stability of the organism-environment relation and of ongoing motor schemes, such as those involved in language and the expression of happiness and interest. In contrast, the right frontal region appears to be specialized for regulation strategies that involve processing novel stimuli that disrupt ongoing activity, such as might occur during the expression of fear, disgust, and distress. Furthermore, it was proposed

  1. Disentangling controls on mineral-stabilized soil organic matter using a slurry incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallee, J. M.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Paul, E. A.; Conant, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral-stabilized organic matter (OM) is the largest and oldest pool of soil carbon and nitrogen. Mineral stabilization limits OM availability to soil microbes, preventing its decomposition and prolonging its turnover. Thus, understanding controls on the decomposition of mineral-stabilized OM is key to understanding soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics. The very slow turnover of mineral-stabilized OM makes it challenging to study in a typical incubation, and as a result, many potential controls (temperature, OM chemistry, and mineralogy) on its turnover remain unclear. We aimed to better understand controls on decomposition of mineral-stabilized OM by employing a slurry incubation technique, which speeds up microbial processing of OM by maximizing OM accessibility to microbes. In a slurry incubation, we expect that any OM that is not stabilized on mineral surfaces will be available for decomposition and will be converted to CO2. Using this technique, we studied the interactive effects of incubation temperature, plant material type (aboveground vs. belowground), and soil fraction (silt vs. clay) on CO2 efflux and OM stabilization. We separated silt-sized and clay-sized fractions from an agricultural soil, added aboveground or belowground plant material to each, and incubated them at 15°C, 25°C and 35°C. The added plant material was isotopically labeled (13C and 15N), which allowed us to trace it through the system and distinguish between the responses of the new (derived from the plant material) and old (derived from what was already present in the silt and clay) OM to warming. We measured CO2 efflux and 13CO2 efflux throughout the incubation. We performed one short-term harvest at day 6 and one final harvest at day 60. Initial results show higher cumulative CO2 efflux at warmer temperatures regardless of plant material type or soil fraction. A larger fraction of that CO2 came from OM that was initially present in the silt and clay, rather than from the plant

  2. Maternal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system activity and stress during pregnancy: Effects on gestational age and infant's anthropometric measures at birth.

    PubMed

    Gilles, Maria; Otto, Henrike; Wolf, Isabell A C; Scharnholz, Barbara; Peus, Verena; Schredl, Michael; Sütterlin, Marc W; Witt, Stephanie H; Rietschel, Marcella; Laucht, Manfred; Deuschle, Michael

    2018-04-22

    Prenatal maternal stress might be a risk for the developing fetus and may have long-lasting effects on child and adult vulnerability to somatic and psychiatric disease. Over-exposure of the unborn to excess glucocorticoids and subsequent alteration of fetal development is hypothesized to be one of the key mechanisms linking prenatal stress with negative child outcome. In this prospective longitudinal study, mothers-to-be (n = 405) in late pregnancy (36.8 ± 1.9 weeks of gestational age) and their singleton neonates were studied. We investigated the impact of different prenatal stress indices derived from six stress variables (perceived stress, specific prenatal worries, negative life events, symptoms of depression, trait anxiety, neuroticism) and diurnal maternal saliva cortisol secretion on gestational age and anthropometric measures at birth. Maternal prenatal distress during late gestation was associated with significant reduction in birth weight (-217 g; p = .005), birth length (-1.2 cm; p = .005) and head circumference (-0.8 cm; p = .001). Prenatal stress was modestly but significantly associated with altered diurnal cortisol pattern (flattened cortisol decline and higher evening cortisol), which in turn was significantly related to reduced length of gestation. No evidence for a profound interaction between maternal cortisol level in late pregnancy and infant's anthropometric measures at birth (i.e., birth weight, length, head circumference) was found. Prenatal stress is associated with flattened circadian saliva cortisol profiles and reduced infant's anthropometric measures at birth. HPA system activity during pregnancy may be related to low gestational age. The effect of prenatal stress might be partly mediated by maternal-placental-fetal neuroendocrine mechanisms especially the dysregulation of diurnal cortisol profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    PubMed

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative.

  4. Use of hydrogen peroxide during incubation of landlocked fall Chinook salmon eggs in vertical-flow incubators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, M.E.; Gaikowski, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Six different hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes were evaluated in a series of three trials with landlocked fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha eggs incubated in vertical-flow incubators. Six daily 15-min hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes (1,000 mg/L; 1,000 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation; 2,000 mg/L; 2,000 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation; 2,500 mg/L; and 2,500 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation) were compared with daily 15-min treatments of 1,667 mg/L of formalin. Mortality at egg eye-up and fry hatch and from eye-up to hatch was significantly greater in eggs receiving the 2,500-mg/L hydrogen peroxide treatments throughout incubation and in those receiving 2,500 mg/L hydrogen peroxide with a decrease to 500 mg/L during blastopore formation than in either of the 1,000-mg/L hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes or the formalin-treated eggs in the first trial. No significant differences in mortality were observed among any of the treatments in the subsequent two trials with maximum hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 2,000 mg/L. Fungal infestations were observed primarily in the incubation trays treated at either of the 1,000-mg/L hydrogen peroxide regimens, as well as in those trays whose treatment concentrations were dropped to 500 mg/L during blastopore formation. Infestations were not observed in any of the formalin-treated trays. If minor fungal infestation is acceptable, then daily hydrogen peroxide treatments of 1,000 mg/L for 15 min would probably provide adequate fungal control compared with formalin usage.

  5. Randomized controlled trial of two methods of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (N-CPAP) in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: underwater bubbly CPAP vs. Medijet system device.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mohammad Bagher; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Balila, Masumeh; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Janani, Raheleh; Safavi-nia, Sima; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Alikhah, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the application of non-invasive respiratory support in preterm infants, and different types of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (N-CPAP) devices are being used in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). The objective of the present study was to compare the duration of CPAP need and possible complications of two methods of (N-CPAP) delivery: Bubble CPAP (B-CPAP) and Medijet (MJ) system device in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). This prospective randomized clinical trial was performed on 161 preterm infants (28-37 weeks of gestational age) with RDS and eligible for CPAP therapy. The infants were inborn and admitted in a level III NICU of Al-Zahra Teaching Hospital (Tabriz, Iran) from April 2010 to September 2011. All infants were randomized in the first hour of life to B-CPAP or MJ system. Short binasal prongs were used in both groups and CPAP was set at the level of 5-6 cm H2O. The primary outcome of this study was duration of CPAP need (hour). Other outcomes, such as complications of the two methods of N-CPAP, were evaluated using a checklist. Ninety infants were randomized to the MJ system, and 71 were randomized to B-CPAP. The mean gestational age and birth weight were similar in the two groups, as was the duration of CPAP need (44.3 ± 20.64 vs. 49.2 ± 21.2 hours, respectively; p=0.66). Moreover, the probability of complications, such as CPAP failure rate, pulmonary hemorrhage, pneumothorax, intraventricular hemorrhage, abdominal distention, necrotizing enterocolitis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, was the same between the two study groups (p>0.05). There was a trend of more hyperemia of the nose in the B-CPAP group in comparison to the MJ system group (10% versus 3.3%, respectively), but the difference was not significant (p=0.08). In conclusion, the MJ system is as effective as B-CPAP in the management of infants with RDS.

  6. Prebiotics in infant formula

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  7. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited.

  8. Infants in cocktail parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Rochelle S.

    2003-04-01

    Most work on listeners' ability to separate streams of speech has focused on adults. Yet infants also find themselves in noisy environments. In order to learn from their caregivers' speech in these settings, they must first separate it from background noise such as that from television shows and siblings. Previous work has found that 7.5-month-old infants can separate streams of speech when the target voice is more intense than the distractor voice (Newman and Jusczyk, 1996), when the target voice is known to the infant (Barker and Newman, 2000) or when infants are presented with an audiovisual (rather than auditory-only) signal (Hollich, Jusczyk, and Newman, 2001). Unfortunately, the paradigm in these studies can only be used on infants at least 7.5 months of age, limiting the ability to investigate how stream segregation develops over time. The present work uses a new paradigm to explore younger infants' ability to separate streams of speech. Infants aged 4.5 months heard a female talker repeat either their own name or another infants' name, while several other voices spoke fluently in the background. We present data on infants' ability to recognize their own name in this cocktail party situation. [Work supported by NSF and NICHD.

  9. Seasonal shifts in sex ratios are mediated by maternal effects and fluctuating incubation temperatures.

    PubMed

    Carter, Amanda W; Bowden, Rachel M; Paitz, Ryan T

    2017-04-01

    Sex-specific maternal effects can be adaptive sources of phenotypic plasticity. Reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) are a powerful system to investigate such maternal effects because offspring phenotype, including sex, can be sensitive to maternal influences such as oestrogens and incubation temperatures.In red-eared slider turtles ( Trachemys scripta ), concentrations of maternally derived oestrogens and incubation temperatures increase across the nesting season; we wanted to determine if sex ratios shift in a seasonally concordant manner, creating the potential for sex-specific maternal effects, and to define the sex ratio reaction norms under fluctuating temperatures across the nesting season.Eggs from early and late season clutches were incubated under a range of thermally fluctuating temperatures, maternally derived oestradiol concentrations were quantified via radioimmunoassay, and hatchling sex was identified. We found that late season eggs had higher maternal oestrogen concentrations and were more likely to produce female hatchlings. The sex ratio reaction norm curves systematically varied with season, such that with even a slight increase in temperature (0.5°C), late season eggs produced up to 49% more females than early season eggs.We found a seasonal shift in sex ratios which creates the potential for sex-specific phenotypic matches across the nesting season driven by maternal effects. We also describe, for the first time, systematic variation in the sex ratio reaction norm curve within a single population in a species with TSD.

  10. KMC facilitates mother baby attachment in low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Gathwala, Geeta; Singh, Bir; Balhara, Bharti

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether Kangaroo mother care (KMC) facilitates mother baby attachment in low birth weight infants. Over 16 month period 110 neonates were randomized into kangaroo mother care group and control group using a random number table. The kangaroo group was subjected to Kangaroo mother care for at least 6 hours per day. The babies also received kangaroo care after shifting out from NICU and at home. The control group received standard care (incubator or open care system). After 3 months followup, structured maternal interview was conducted to assess attachment between mothers and their babies. Mean birth weight was 1.69 +/- 0.11 Kg in KMC group compared to 1.690 +/- 0.12 Kg in control group (p>0.05). Mean gestational age was 35.48 +/- 1.20 week in KMC group and 35.04+/-1.09 week in the control group (p>0.05). KMC was initiated at a mean age of 1.72+/-0.45 days. The duration of KMC in first month was 10.21+/-1.50 hour, in the 2nd month was 10.03+/-1.57 hour and in the 3rd month was 8.97+/-1.37 hours. The duration of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the KMC group (3.56+/-0.57 days) compared to control group (6.80+/-1.30 days). The total attachment score (24.46+/-1.64) in the KMC group was significantly higher than that obtained in control group (18.22+/-1.79, p< 0.001). In KMC group, mother was more often the main caretaker of the baby. Mothers were significantly more involved in care taking activities like bathing, diapering, sleeping with their babies and spent more time beyond usual care taking. They went out without their babies less often and only for unavoidable reasons. They derived greater pleasure from their babies. KMC facilitates mother baby attachment in low birth weight infants.

  11. The effect of ambient temperature, habitat quality and individual age on incubation behaviour and incubation feeding in a socially monogamous songbird.

    PubMed

    Amininasab, Seyed Mehdi; Kingma, Sjouke A; Birker, Martje; Hildenbrandt, Hanno; Komdeur, Jan

    Incubation is an important aspect of avian life history. The behaviour is energetically costly, and investment in incubation strategies within species, like female nest attentiveness and the feeding by the non-incubating partner during incubation, can therefore vary depending on environmental and individual characteristics. However, little is known about the combined effect of these characteristics. We investigated the importance of ambient temperature, habitat quality, and bird age on female incubation behaviour and male feeding of the incubating female (incubation feeding) in blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus , a socially monogamous songbird. An increase in ambient temperature resulted in a higher nest temperature, and this enabled females to increase the time off the nest for self-maintenance activities. Probably as a consequence of this, an increase in ambient temperature was associated with fewer incubation feedings by the male. Moreover, in areas with more food available (more deciduous trees), females had shorter incubation recesses and males fed females less often. Additionally, males fed young females more, presumably to increase such females' investment in their eggs, which were colder on average (despite the length of recesses and female nest attentiveness being independent of female age). Male age did not affect incubation feeding rate. In conclusion, the patterns of incubation behaviour were related to both environmental and individual characteristics, and male incubation feeding was adjusted to females' need for food according these characteristics, which can facilitate new insights to the study of avian incubation energetics. Parents often invest a substantial amount of energy in raising offspring. How much they do so depends on several environmental factors and on the extent they cooperate to raise the offspring. In birds, males can feed incubating females, which may allow females to stay longer on the nest, which, in turn, may ultimately improve

  12. Gender and discipline in 5-12-month-old infants: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ahl, Richard Evan; Fausto-Sterling, Anne; García-Coll, Cynthia; Seifer, Ronald

    2013-04-01

    We examined the effects of infant age and gender on the behaviors of infants and mothers during discipline interactions using longitudinal, naturalistic, home-based, taped observations of 16 mother-infant dyads (eight males and eight females). These observations were conducted between the child ages of 5 and 12 months and used a devised Maternal Discipline Coding System to code for the occurrence of discipline events. During discipline interactions, mothers vocalized longer, used harsher tones, and used more explanations with older compared to younger infants. Male infants were more likely than female infants to cry or whine during discipline events. Mothers of male infants used longer vocalizations, more words, and more affectionate terms than mothers of female infants. Male infants were more difficult during discipline interactions than female infants, but it appeared that mothers of males responded to this difficulty by using milder discipline techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of massage on heart rate variability in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Smith, S L; Lux, R; Haley, S; Slater, H; Beachy, J; Beechy, J; Moyer-Mileur, L J

    2013-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that massage would improve autonomic nervous system (ANS) function as measured by heart rate variability (HRV) in preterm infants. Medically stable, 29- to 32-week preterm infants (17 massage, 20 control) were enrolled in a masked, randomized longitudinal study. Licensed massage therapists provided the massage or control condition twice a day for 4 weeks. Weekly HRV, a measure of ANS development and function, was analyzed using SPSS generalized estimating equations. Infant characteristics were similar between groups. HRV improved in massaged infants but not in the control infants (P<0.05). Massaged males had a greater improvement in HRV than females (P<0.05). HRV in massaged infants was on a trajectory comparable to term-born infants by study completion. Massage-improved HRV in a homogeneous sample of hospitalized, medically stable, preterm male infants and may improve infant response to exogenous stressors. We speculate that massage improves ANS function in these infants.

  14. Oxytocin and mutual communication in mother-infant bonding

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Miho; Okabe, Shota; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    Mother-infant bonding is universal to all mammalian species. In this review, we describe the manner in which reciprocal communication between the mother and infant leads to mother-infant bonding in rodents. In rats and mice, mother-infant bond formation is reinforced by various social stimuli, such as tactile stimuli and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) from the pups to the mother, and feeding and tactile stimulation from the mother to the pups. Some evidence suggests that mother and infant can develop a cross-modal sensory recognition of their counterpart during this bonding process. Neurochemically, oxytocin in the neural system plays a pivotal role in each side of the mother-infant bonding process, although the mechanisms underlying bond formation in the brains of infants has not yet been clarified. Impairment of mother-infant bonding, that is, deprivation of social stimuli from the mother, strongly influences offspring sociality, including maternal behavior toward their own offspring in their adulthood, implying a “non-genomic transmission of maternal environment,” even in rodents. The comparative understanding of cognitive functions between mother and infants, and the biological mechanisms involved in mother-infant bonding may help us understand psychiatric disorders associated with mother-infant relationships. PMID:22375116

  15. Congenital anomalies in infants conceived by assisted reproductive techniques.

    PubMed

    Mozafari Kermani, Ramin; Nedaeifard, Leila; Nateghi, Mohammad Reza; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhassan; Ahmadi, Ebrahim; Osia, Mohammad Ali; Jafarzadehpour, Ebrahim; Nouri, Soudabeh

    2012-04-01

    Many studies show that congenital defects in infants conceived by assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are more than infants of normal conception (NC). The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of congenital anomalies in ART infants from Royan Institute and to compare congenital anomalies between two ART techniques.  In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 400 ART infants from Royan Institute who resided in Tehran were selected by non-random, consecutive sampling. Infants were examined twice (until 9 months of age) by a pediatrician. Infants' congenital anomalies were described by each body system or organ and type of ART. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 and Fisher's exact test. The frequency of different organ involvement in the two examinations were: 40 (10%) skin, 25 (6.2%) urogenital system, 21 (5.2%) gastrointestinal tract, 13 (3.2%) visual, and 8 (2%) cardiovascular system. Major congenital defects in infants conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were hypospadiasis, inguinal hernia, patent ductus arteriosus plus ventricular septal defect (PDA + VSD), developmental dysplasia of the hip, lacrimal duct stenosis during the first year of life, hydronephrosis and urinary reflux over grade III, undescending testis, ureteropelvic junction stenosis, and torticoli. Two-thirds of ART infants had no defects. A total of 7% of IVF and ICSI infants had one of the major abovementioned congenital anomalies. This rate was higher than NC infants (2%-3%). There was no difference between the ICSI and IVF group.

  16. Cobedding of twin premature infants: calming effects on pain responses.

    PubMed

    Badiee, Zohreh; Nassiri, Zohreh; Armanian, Amirmohammad

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this trial was to determine whether cobedding of preterm twins has analgesic effects during heel lancing or not. One hundred premature twins (50 sets) born between 26 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation undergoing heel blood sampling were randomly assigned into two groups: the cobedding group (receiving care in the same incubator) and the standard care group (receiving care in separate incubators). Pain was assessed using the premature infant pain profile score. Duration of crying was measured after heel blood sampling, and salivary cortisol was measured prior to and after heel blood sampling. Infants in the standard care group cried for a longer time during heel lancing than those in the cobedding group (42.6 ± 19.8 seconds vs. 36.4 ± 21.7 seconds, p = 0.03). The mean premature infant pain profile score after heel lancing was significantly higher in the standard care group (9.8 ± 2.6 vs. 8.06 ± 2.8, p = 0.002). The mean salivary cortisol after heel lancing was also significantly higher in the standard care group (24.3 ± 7.4 nmol/L vs. 20.8 ± 7.4 nmol/L, p = 0.02). No significant adverse effects were seen with cobedding. Cobedding is a comforting measure for twin premature infants during heel lancing, which can be performed without any significant adverse effects. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome during its incubation period.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guang; Xie, Shu-Yun; Li, Qin; Ou, Jian-Ming

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) during its incubation period by investigating chains of transmission and individuals isolated for medical observation with a view to providing scientific evidence for updating protocols of medical isolation. Individuals related with the two SARS chains of transmission in Beijing in 2003 and a group of individuals isolated for medical observation in Haidian district of Beijing during the SARS outbreak were selected as subjects of study. Contactors with SARS patients and those with symptom development following the contacts were investigated via questionnaire. Serum samples were collected from super transmitters and tested for SARS-CoV antibody by neutralization test and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 1112 contactors were investigated in three surveys. Of them, 669 had a history of close contact with symptomatic SARS patients, 101 developed symptoms with a rate of 15.1%, 363 had a history of close contact with patients in their incubation period, none of whom developed symptoms (0%). Serum samples were collected from 32 highly-exposed individuals, of whom 13 developing SARS symptoms after contact had serum samples positive for SARS-CoV antibody. Samples collected from the asymptomatic contactors were all negative for SARS-CoV antibody. SARS cases are infectious only during their symptomatic period and are non-infectious during the incubation period. Isolation for medical observation should be placed for individuals who are in close contact with symptomatic SARS patients. The results of our study are of decisive significance for the Ministry of Health to the definition of SARS close contactor.

  18. Assessment of radiant temperature in a closed incubator.

    PubMed

    Décima, Pauline; Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Pelletier, Amandine; Ghyselen, Laurent; Delanaud, Stéphane; Dégrugilliers, Loïc; Telliez, Frédéric; Bach, Véronique; Libert, Jean-Pierre

    2012-08-01

    In closed incubators, radiative heat loss (R) which is assessed from the mean radiant temperature (Tr) accounts for 40-60% of the neonate's total heat loss. In the absence of a benchmark method to calculate Tr--often considered to be the same as the air incubator temperature-errors could have a considerable impact on the thermal management of neonates. We compared Tr using two conventional methods (measurement with a black-globe thermometer and a radiative "view factor" approach) and two methods based on nude thermal manikins (a simple, schematic design from Wheldon and a multisegment, anthropometric device developed in our laboratory). By taking the Tr estimations for each method, we calculated metabolic heat production values by partitional calorimetry and then compared them with the values calculated from V(O2) and V(CO2) measured in 13 preterm neonates. Comparisons between the calculated and measured metabolic heat production values showed that the two conventional methods and Wheldon's manikin underestimated R, whereas when using the anthropomorphic thermal manikin, the simulated versus clinical difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is a need for a safety standard for measuring TR in a closed incubator. This standard should also make available estimating equations for all avenues of the neonate's heat exchange considering the metabolic heat production and the modifying influence of the thermal insulation provided by the diaper and by the mattress. Although thermal manikins appear to be particularly appropriate for measuring Tr, the current lack of standardized procedures limits their widespread use.

  19. A rumor transmission model with incubation in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jianwen; Wu, Wenjiang

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a rumor transmission model with incubation period and constant recruitment in social networks. By carrying out an analysis of the model, we study the stability of rumor-free equilibrium and come to the local stable condition of the rumor equilibrium. We use the geometric approach for ordinary differential equations for showing the global stability of the rumor equilibrium. And when ℜ0 = 1, the new model occurs a transcritical bifurcation. Furthermore, numerical simulations are used to support the analysis. At last, some conclusions are presented.

  20. Phylogenetic and Epidemiologic Evidence of Multiyear Incubation in Human Rabies

    PubMed Central

    Boland, Torrey A.; McGuone, Declan; Jindal, Jenelle; Rocha, Marcelo; Cumming, Melissa; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Barbosa, Taciana Fernandes Souza; de Novaes Oliveira, Rafael; Chu, Catherine J.; Cole, Andrew J.; Kotait, Ivanete; Kuzmina, Natalia A.; Yager, Pamela A.; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Hedley-Whyte, E. Tessa; Brown, Catherine M.; Rosenthal, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Eight years after emigrating from Brazil, an otherwise healthy man developed rabies. An exposure prior to immigration was reported. Genetic analysis revealed a canine rabies virus variant found only in the patient’s home country, and the patient had not traveled internationally since immigrating to the United States. We describe how epidemiological, phylogenetic, and viral sequencing data provided confirmation that rabies encephalomyelitis may present after a long, multiyear incubation period, a consideration that previously has been hypothesized without the ability to exclude a more recent exposure. Accordingly, rabies should be considered in the diagnosis of any acute encephalitis, myelitis, or encephalomyelitis. PMID:24038455

  1. Blockade of CB1 receptors prevents retention of extinction but does not increase low pre-incubated conditioned fear in the fear incubation procedure

    PubMed Central

    Pickens, Charles L.; Theberge, Florence R.

    2015-01-01

    We recently developed a procedure to study fear incubation in which rats given 100 tone-shock pairings over 10 days show low fear 2 days after conditioned fear training and high fear after 30 days. Notably, fear 2 days after 10 sessions of fear conditioning is lower than fear seen 2 days after a single session of fear conditioning, suggesting that fear is suppressed. Here, we investigate the potential role of CB1 receptor activation by endocannabinoids in this fear suppression. We gave rats 10 days of fear conditioning and then gave systemic injections of the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 before a conditioned fear test conducted 2 days later under extinction conditions. A second test was conducted without any injections on the following day (3 days post-training) to examine fear extinction retention. SR141716 injections did not increase fear expression 2 days after extended fear conditioning or affect within-session extinction, but impaired retention of between-session fear extinction in the day 3 test. These data suggest that CB1 receptor activation is not suppressing fear soon after extended fear conditioning in the fear incubation task. The data also add to an existing literature on the effects of CB1 receptors in extinction of conditioned fear. PMID:24346290

  2. Servo-control for maintaining abdominal skin temperature at 36C in low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J C

    2000-01-01

    Randomized trials have shown that the neonatal mortality rate of low birth-weight babies can be reduced by keeping them warm. For low birth-weight babies nursed in incubators, warm conditions may be achieved either by heating the air to a desired temperature, or by servo-controlling the baby's body temperature at a desired set-point. In low birth weight infants, to determine the effect on death and other important clinical outcomes of targeting body temperature rather than air temperature as the end-point of control of incubator heating. Standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Collaborative Review Group. Randomized or quasi-randomized trials which test the effects of having the heat output of the incubator servo-controlled from body temperature compared with setting a constant incubator air temperature. Trial methodologic quality was systematically assessed. Outcome measures included death, timing of death, cause of death, and other clinical outcomes. Categorical outcomes were analyzed using relative risk and risk difference. Meta-analysis assumed a fixed effect model. Compared to setting a constant incubator air temperature of 31.8C, servo-control of abdominal skin temperature at 36C reduces the neonatal death rate among low birth weight infants: relative risk 0.72 (95% CI 0.54, 0.97); risk difference -12.7% (95% CI -1.6, -23.9). This effect is even greater among VLBW infants. During at least the first week after birth, low birth weight babies should be provided with a carefully regulated thermal environment that is near the thermoneutral point. For LBW babies in incubators, this can be achieved by adjusting incubator temperature to maintain an anterior abdominal skin temperature of at least 36C, using either servo-control or frequent manual adjustment of incubator air temperature.

  3. Infant Mortality: Development of a Proposed Update to the Dollfus Classification of Infant Deaths

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Melanie S.; Minnal, Archana; Damesyn, Mark; Curtis, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Identifying infant deaths with common underlying causes and potential intervention points is critical to infant mortality surveillance and the development of prevention strategies. We constructed an International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) parallel to the Dollfus cause-of-death classification scheme first published in 1990, which organized infant deaths by etiology and their amenability to prevention efforts. Methods Infant death records for 1996, dual-coded to the ICD Ninth Revision (ICD-9) and ICD-10, were obtained from the CDC public-use multiple-cause-of-death file on comparability between ICD-9 and ICD-10. We used the underlying cause of death to group 27,821 infant deaths into the nine categories of the ICD-9-based update to Dollfus' original coding scheme, published by Sowards in 1999. Comparability ratios were computed to measure concordance between ICD versions. Results The Dollfus classification system updated with ICD-10 codes had limited agreement with the 1999 modified classification system. Although prematurity, congenital malformations, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, and obstetric conditions were the first through fourth most common causes of infant death under both systems, most comparability ratios were significantly different from one system to the other. Conclusion The Dollfus classification system can be adapted for use with ICD-10 codes to create a comprehensive, etiology-based profile of infant deaths. The potential benefits of using Dollfus logic to guide perinatal mortality reduction strategies, particularly to maternal and child health programs and other initiatives focused on improving infant health, warrant further examination of this method's use in perinatal mortality surveillance. PMID:26556935

  4. Determination of Sediment Oxygen Demand in the Ziya River Watershed, China: Based on Laboratory Core Incubation and Microelectrode Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Nan; Shan, Baoqing; Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    A study coupling sedimentcore incubation and microelectrode measurementwas performed to explore the sediment oxygen demand (SOD) at 16 stations in the Ziya River Watershed, a severely polluted and anoxic river system in the north of China. Total oxygen flux values in the range 0.19–1.41 g/(m2·d) with an average of 0.62 g/(m2·d) were obtained by core incubations, and diffusive oxygen flux values in the range 0.15–1.38 g/(m2·d) with an average of 0.51 g/(m2·d) were determined by microelectrodes. Total oxygen flux obviously correlated with diffusive oxygen flux (R2 = 0.842). The microelectrode method produced smaller results than the incubation method in 15 of 16 sites, and the diffusive oxygen flux was smaller than the total oxygen flux. Although the two sets of SOD values had significant difference accepted by the two methods via the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p < 0.05), the microelectrode method was shown to produce results that were similar to those from the core incubation method. The microelectrode method, therefore, could be used as an alternative method for traditional core incubation method, or as a method to verify SOD rates measured by other methods. We consider that high potential sediment oxygen demand would occur in the Ziya River Watershed when the dissolved oxygen (DO) recovered in the overlying water. PMID:26907307

  5. Determination of low intrinsic clearance in vitro: the benefit of a novel internal standard in human hepatocyte incubations.

    PubMed

    Zanelli, Ugo; Michna, Thomas; Petersson, Carl

    2018-03-26

    1. A novel method utilizing an internal standard in hepatocytes incubations has been developed and demonstrated to decrease the variability in the determination of intrinsic clearance (CL int ) in this system. The reduced variability was shown to allow differentiation of lower elimination rate constants from noise. 2. The suggested method was able to compensate for a small but systematic error (0.5 µL/min/10 6 cells) caused by an evaporation of approximately 15% of the volume during the incubation time. 3. The approach was validated using six commercial drugs (ketoprofen, tolbutamide, phenacetin, etodolac and quinidine) which were metabolized by different pathways. 4. The suggested internal standard, MSC1815677, was extensively characterized and the acquired data suggest that it fulfills the requirements of an internal standard present during the incubation. The proposed internal standard was stable during the incubation and showed a low potential to inhibit drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. With MSC1815677 we propose a novel simple, robust and cost-effective method to address the challenges in the estimation of low clearance in hepatocyte incubations.

  6. Infants: Their Social Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbourd, Bernice, Ed.; Musick, Judith S., Ed.

    This book deals with issues surrounding the social and caregiving environments of children's first three years. Issues most relevant to the assessment of infants and their caregiving environments and to the design and implementation of programs for infants and toddlers are addressed in the first paper. The second paper discusses the developmental…

  7. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  8. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  9. The Infant Development Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birr, Jack

    Reported are services provided to developmentally or behaviorally disturbed children (0-to-3-years-old) and their parents by the Infant Development Center (IDC) in Mission, Kansas. Outlined is information such as the IDC's primary activities (infant developmental stimulation and parental training and support), secondary activities (such as…

  10. Emerging Connections: Quantum & Classical Optics Incubator Program Book

    SciTech Connect

    Lesky, Marcia

    The Emerging Connections: Quantum & Classical Optics Incubator was a scientific meeting held in Washington, DC on 6-8 November 2016. This Incubator provided unique and focused experiences and valuable opportunities to discuss advances, challenges and opportunities regarding this important area of research. Quantum optics and classical optics have coexisted for nearly a century as two distinct, but consistent descriptions of light in their respective domains. Recently, a number of detailed examinations of the structure of classical light beams have revealed that effects widely thought to be solely quantum in origin also have a place in classical optics. These new quantum-classicalmore » connections are informing classical optics in meaningful ways specifically by expanding understanding of optical coherence. Simultaneously, relationships discovered with classical light beams now also serve as a vehicle to illuminate concepts that no longer solely belong to the quantum realm. Interference, polarization, coherence, complementarity and entanglement are a partial list of elementary notions that now appear to belong to both quantum and classical optics. The goal of this meeting was to bring emerging quantum-classical links into wider view and to indicate directions in which forthcoming and future work would promote discussion and lead to a more unified understanding of optics.« less

  11. Necrotizing Enterocolitis in the Premature Infant

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Katherine E.; DeForge, Christine E.; Natale, Kristan M.; Phillips, Michele; Van Marter, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains one of the most catastrophic comorbidities associated with prematurity. In spite of extensive research, the disease remains unsolved. The aims of this paper are to present the current state of the science on the pathogenesis of NEC, summarize the clinical presentation and severity staging of the disease, and highlight the nursing assessments required for early identification of NEC and ongoing care for infants diagnosed with this gastrointestinal disease. The distributions of systemic and intestinal clinical signs that are most sensitive to nursing assessment and associated with Bell Staging Criteria are presented. This descriptive data is representative of 117 cases of NEC diagnosed in low gestational age infants (<29 weeks gestation). The data highlights the clinical signs most commonly observed in infants with NEC, and thus, provides NICU nurses an evidence-based guide for assessment and care of infants with NEC. PMID:21730907

  12. Effect of diet composition and incubation time on feed indigestible neutral detergent fiber concentration in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Krizsan, S J; Huhtanen, P

    2013-03-01

    Indigestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) predicts forage digestibility accurately and precisely when determined by a 288-h ruminal in situ incubation, and it is an important parameter in mechanistic rumen models. The long incubation time required is a disadvantage. Further, intrinsic cell wall characteristics of feeds should be determined under ideal conditions for fiber digestion. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet composition and rumen incubation time on the concentrations of indigestible NDF (iNDF) for a wide range of feeds in dairy cows. Additionally, predicted concentrations of unavailable NDF generated using the National Research Council (NRC) model and the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) were evaluated. Indigestible NDF was evaluated in 18 feeds using 4 cows in a split-split plot design. Treatments were in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement, consisting of different diets and incubation times. Diet composition was primarily varied by changing the level of concentrate supplementation between 190 (low), 421 (medium), and 625 (high)g/kg of diet dry matter (DM). Grass silage was used as the basal forage for all cows. The feeds were incubated for 144, 216, and 288 h. Indigestible NDF was determined from 2-g samples weighed into polyester bags with a pore size of 12 µm and a pore area equal to 6% of the total surface area, giving a sample size to surface ratio of 10mg/cm(2). Across all feeds, the measured iNDF concentrations ranged from 6 to 516 g/kg of DM. The feed iNDF concentration was not affected by the cow used, but diet composition had a significant effect. The mean measured iNDF concentrations for cows consuming low-, medium-, and high-concentrate diets were 178, 186, and 197 g/kg of DM, respectively. The incubation time also affected the feed iNDF concentrations, which averaged 199, 185, and 177 g/kg of DM for 144-, 216-, and 288-h incubations, respectively. We also observed significant interactions between

  13. Reagent-free and portable detection of Bacillus anthracis spores using a microfluidic incubator and smartphone microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchison, Janine R.; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Sheen, Allison M.

    Rapid, cost-effective bacterial detection systems are needed to respond to potential biothreat events. Here we report the use of smartphone-based microscopy in combination with a simple microfluidic incubation device to detect 5000 Bacillus anthracis spores in 3 hours. This field-deployable approach is compatible with real-time PCR for secondary confirmation.

  14. Biparental incubation-scheduling: no experimental evidence for major energetic constraints

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Will; Rutten, Anne L.; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Incubation is energetically demanding, but it is debated whether these demands constrain incubation-scheduling (i.e., the length, constancy, and timing of incubation bouts) in cases where both parents incubate. Using 2 methods, we experimentally reduced the energetic demands of incubation in the semipalmated sandpiper, a biparental shorebird breeding in the harsh conditions of the high Arctic. First, we decreased the demands of incubation for 1 parent only by exchanging 1 of the 4 eggs for an artificial egg that heated up when the focal bird incubated. Second, we reanalyzed the data from the only published experimental study that has explicitly tested energetic constraints on incubation-scheduling in a biparentally incubating species (Cresswell et al. 2003). In this experiment, the energetic demands of incubation were decreased for both parents by insulating the nest cup. We expected that the treated birds, in both experiments, would change the length of their incubation bouts, if biparental incubation-scheduling is energetically constrained. However, we found no evidence that heating or insulation of the nest affected the length of incubation bouts: the combined effect of both experiments was an increase in bout length of 3.6min (95% CI: −33 to 40), which is equivalent to a 0.5% increase in the length of the average incubation bout. These results demonstrate that the observed biparental incubation-scheduling in semipalmated sandpipers is not primarily driven by energetic constraints and therefore by the state of the incubating bird, implying that we still do not understand the factors driving biparental incubation-scheduling. PMID:25713473

  15. Biparental incubation-scheduling: no experimental evidence for major energetic constraints.

    PubMed

    Bulla, Martin; Cresswell, Will; Rutten, Anne L; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Incubation is energetically demanding, but it is debated whether these demands constrain incubation-scheduling (i.e., the length, constancy, and timing of incubation bouts) in cases where both parents incubate. Using 2 methods, we experimentally reduced the energetic demands of incubation in the semipalmated sandpiper, a biparental shorebird breeding in the harsh conditions of the high Arctic. First, we decreased the demands of incubation for 1 parent only by exchanging 1 of the 4 eggs for an artificial egg that heated up when the focal bird incubated. Second, we reanalyzed the data from the only published experimental study that has explicitly tested energetic constraints on incubation-scheduling in a biparentally incubating species (Cresswell et al. 2003). In this experiment, the energetic demands of incubation were decreased for both parents by insulating the nest cup. We expected that the treated birds, in both experiments, would change the length of their incubation bouts, if biparental incubation-scheduling is energetically constrained. However, we found no evidence that heating or insulation of the nest affected the length of incubation bouts: the combined effect of both experiments was an increase in bout length of 3.6min (95% CI: -33 to 40), which is equivalent to a 0.5% increase in the length of the average incubation bout. These results demonstrate that the observed biparental incubation-scheduling in semipalmated sandpipers is not primarily driven by energetic constraints and therefore by the state of the incubating bird, implying that we still do not understand the factors driving biparental incubation-scheduling.

  16. A Test of Kangaroo Care on Preterm Infant Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Tully, Kristin P; Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C; David, Richard; O'Shea, T Michael; Geraldo, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    To test the effects of kangaroo care (KC) on breastfeeding outcomes in preterm infants compared with two control groups and to explore whether maternal-infant characteristics and the mother's choice to use KC were related to breastfeeding measures. Secondary analysis of a multisite, stratified, randomized three-arm trial. The treatment groups used KC, auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention, or received preterm infant care information. Neonatal intensive care units from 4 hospitals in the United States from 2006 to 2011. Racially diverse mothers (N = 231) and their preterm infants born weighing less than 1,750 g. Mothers and their infants were enrolled once the infants were no longer critically ill, weighed at least 1,000 g, and could be safely held outside the incubator by parents. Participants were instructed by study nurses; those allocated to the KC or ATVV groups were asked to engage in these interactions with their infants for a minimum of 3 times a week in the hospital and at home until their infants reached age 2 months adjusted for prematurity. Feeding at the breast during hospitalization, the duration of postdischarge breastfeeding, and breastfeeding exclusivity after hospital discharge did not differ statistically among the treatment groups. Regardless of group assignment, married, older, and more educated women were more likely to feed at the breast during hospitalization. Mothers who practiced KC, regardless of randomly allocated group, were more likely to provide their milk than those who did not practice KC. Breastfeeding duration was greatest among more educated women. As implemented in this study, assignment to the KC group did not appear to influence the measured breastfeeding outcomes. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of fiber optic based respiratory sensor for newborn incubator application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhia, Arika; Devara, Kresna; Abuzairi, Tomy; Poespawati, N. R.; Purnamaningsih, Retno W.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports the design of respiratory sensor using fiber optic for newborn incubator application. The sensor works based on light intensity losses difference obtained due to thorax movement during respiration. The output of the sensor launched to support electronic circuits to be processed in Arduino Uno microcontroler such that the real-time respiratory rate (breath per minute) can be presented on LCD. Experiment results using thorax expansion of newborn simulator show that the system is able to measure respiratory rate from 10 up to 130 breaths per minute with 0.595% error and 0.2% hysteresis error.

  18. Best Practices for In-Situ Sediment-Water Incubations with Benthic Landers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tengberg, Anders; Kononets, Mikhail; Hall, Per; Nilsson, Madeleine; Ekeroth, Nils

    2017-04-01

    Biological, chemical, physical and geological processes that take place at the seafloor are crucial in influencing and regulating many aquatic environments. One method to estimate exchange rates, fluxes, between the sediment and the overlying water is in-situ sediment-water incubations using autonomous chamber landers. As for all field sampling and measurements best practices methods are needed to obtain high quality data. With experiences form many years usage of the Gothenburg autonomous bottom lander systems this presentation will describe some of the experimental work that has been done with focus on quality control and data evaluation methods.

  19. Striped Bass, morone saxatilis, egg incubation in large volume jars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, C.J.; Wrege, B.M.; Jeffery, Isely J.

    2010-01-01

    The standard McDonald jar was compared with a large volume jar for striped bass, Morone saxatilis, egg incubation. The McDonald jar measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. The experimental jar measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. The hypothesis is that there is no difference in percent survival of fry hatched in experimental jars compared with McDonald jars. Striped bass brood fish were collected from the Coosa River and spawned using the dry spawn method of fertilization. Four McDonald jars were stocked with approximately 150 g of eggs each. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96, and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg loading rate (??1 SE) in McDonald jars of 21.9 ?? 0.03 eggs/mL and in experimental jars of 10.9 ?? 0.57 eggs/mL. The major finding of this study was that average fry survival was 37.3 ?? 4.49% for McDonald jars and 34.2 ?? 3.80% for experimental jars. Although survival in experimental jars was slightly less than in McDonald jars, the effect of container volume on survival to 48 h (F = 6.57; df = 1,5; P > 0.05), 96 h (F = 0.02; df = 1, 4; P > 0.89), and 144 h (F = 3.50; df = 1, 4; P > 0.13) was not statistically significant. Mean survival between replicates ranged from 14.7 to 60.1% in McDonald jars and from 10.1 to 54.4% in experimental jars. No effect of initial stocking rate on survival (t = 0.06; df = 10; P > 0.95) was detected. Experimental jars allowed for incubation of a greater number of eggs in less than half the floor space of McDonald jars. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental jars offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing labor and operations cost. As survival was similar to McDonald jars, the experimental jar is suitable for striped bass egg incubation. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.

  20. Shared and Distinct Features of Human Milk and Infant Stool Viromes

    PubMed Central

    Pannaraj, Pia S.; Ly, Melissa; Cerini, Chiara; Saavedra, Monica; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Saboory, Abdul A.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Pride, David T.

    2018-01-01

    Infants acquire many of their microbes from their mothers during the birth process. The acquisition of these microbes is believed to be critical in the development of the infant immune system. Bacteria also are transmitted to the infant through breastfeeding, and help to form the microbiome of the infant gastrointestinal (GI) tract; it is unknown whether viruses in human milk serve to establish an infant GI virome. We examined the virome contents of milk and infant stool in a cohort of mother-infant pairs to discern whether milk viruses colonize the infant GI tract. We observed greater viral alpha diversity in milk than in infant stool, similar to the trend we found for bacterial communities from both sites. When comparing beta diversity, viral communities were mostly distinguishable between milk and infant stool, but each was quite distinct from adult stool, urine, and salivary viromes. There were significant differences in viral families in the infant stool (abundant bacteriophages from the family Siphoviridae) compared to milk (abundant bacteriophages from the family Myoviridae), which may reflect significant differences in the bacterial families identified from both sites. Despite the differences in viral taxonomy, we identified a significant number of shared viruses in the milk and stool from all mother-infant pairs. Because of the significant proportion of bacteriophages transmitted in these mother-infant pairs, we believe the transmission of milk phages to the infant GI tract may help to shape the infant GI microbiome. PMID:29910789