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Sample records for infant piglets description

  1. Mineral retention in three-week-old piglets fed goat and cow milk infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, S M; Darragh, A J; Hendriks, W H; Prosser, C G; Lowry, D

    2006-12-01

    Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula with respect to mineral absorption and deposition using the 3-wk-old piglet as a model for the 3-mo-old infant. Equal numbers of piglets (n = 8) were fed either the goat milk formula or the cow milk formula. The mineral composition of the prepared goat milk formula was higher than that of the prepared cow milk formula for most minerals, including calcium (75.1 vs. 56.7 mg/100 mL) but excluding iron, which was higher in the prepared cow milk formula (0.92 vs. 0.74 mg/100 mL). The amounts of calcium, phosphorus, and manganese absorbed by the piglets were significantly higher for the goat milk formula, whereas the amounts of zinc, iron, and magnesium absorbed were significantly higher for the cow milk formula. Apparent mineral absorption, relative to intake, was statistically higher in the cow milk formula for calcium and phosphorus, although the actual differences were very small (less than 1.3%). For copper, zinc, iron, and magnesium there was no significant difference between treatments in apparent mineral absorption, whereas for manganese, absorption was higher for the goat milk infant formula. The absolute mineral deposition was higher in piglets fed the goat milk formula for calcium, phosphorus, and manganese, whereas iron deposition was higher in the piglets fed cow milk formula. For all other minerals tested, there were no significant differences between treatments. The goat milk infant formula provided a pattern of mineral retention in the 3-wk-old piglet very similar to that of the adapted cow milk infant formula. The minor differences observed between the 2 appeared to be due to the different mineral contents of the 2 formulas.

  2. The piglet as a model for studying dietary components in infant diets: effects of galacto-oligosaccharides on intestinal functions.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, A; Akbari, P; Difilippo, E; Schols, H A; Ulfman, L H; Schoterman, M H C; Garssen, J; Fink-Gremmels, J; Braber, S

    2016-02-28

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides, including galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), are used in infant formula to mimic human milk oligosaccharides, which are known to have an important role in the development of the intestinal microbiota and the immune system in neonates. The maturation of the intestines in piglets closely resembles that of human neonates and infants. Hence, a neonatal piglet model was used to study the multi-faceted effect of dietary GOS in early life. Naturally farrowed piglets were separated from the mother sow 24-48 h postpartum and received a milk replacer with or without the addition of GOS for 3 or 26 d, whereafter several indicators of intestinal colonisation and maturation were measured. Dietary GOS was readily fermented in the colon, leading to a decreased pH, an increase in butyric acid in caecum digesta and an increase in lactobacilli and bifidobacteria numbers at day 26. Histomorphological changes were observed in the intestines of piglets fed a GOS diet for 3 or 26 d. In turn, differences in the intestinal disaccharidase activity were observed between control and GOS-fed piglets. The mRNA expression of various tight junction proteins was up-regulated in the intestines of piglet fed a GOS diet and was not accompanied by an increase in protein expression. GOS also increased defensin porcine β-defensin-2 in the colon and secretory IgA levels in saliva. In conclusion, by applying a neonatal piglet model, it could be demonstrated that a GOS-supplemented milk replacer promotes the balance of the developing intestinal microbiota, improves the intestinal architecture and seems to stimulate the intestinal defence mechanism.

  3. Improvement in the accuracy of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry for whole body and regional analysis of body composition: validation using piglets and methodologic considerations in infants.

    PubMed

    Brunton, J A; Weiler, H A; Atkinson, S A

    1997-04-01

    Previously, we conducted dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-1000/W) scans and carcass analysis of piglets to evaluate the Pediatric Whole Body software (PedWB) (V5.35) for use in infants. A software upgrade designed for infant whole body (InfWB) (V5.56) led to a reassessment of DXA by: 1) reanalysis of the original scans using InfWB software and 2) comparison of InfWB-estimates of bone mineral content (BMC) and lean and fat mass with chemical analysis. Other assessments included 1) methods of regional analysis and 2) artifacts and the Infant Table Pad in the scan field. The mean coefficients of variation for InfWB whole body measures in small piglets (n = 10, weight 1575 +/- 73 g) and large piglets (n = 10, weight 5894 +/- 208 g) were less than 2.6% except for fat mass which was higher (8.0% versus 6.3% and 6.6% versus 3.5%, respectively) compared with PedWB. In large piglets InfWB produced good estimates of BMC, lean and fat masses. In small piglets, fat mass by InfWB was correlated with chemical analysis, but not by PedWB. There was improvement in the estimation of BMC with InfWB, from 27 +/- 2.2 g to 32 +/- 2.3 g (carcass ash = 38 +/- 3.3 g). Femur BMC analysis by InfWB was precise and was accurate when compared with chemical analysis. Artifacts in the DXA scan field (diapers and blankets) resulted in an increase of the DXA-estimated fat and lean masses. The Infant Table Pad increased the estimate of fat mass in a small piglet by 50%, thus further study is required before it is used routinely. Improvements of the DXA technology have resulted in a more accurate tool, if scanning procedures are carefully implemented. PMID:9098865

  4. Ulinastatin Protects against Acute Kidney Injury in Infant Piglets Model Undergoing Surgery on Hypothermic Low-Flow Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaocou; Xue, Qinghua; Yan, Fuxia; Liu, Jinping; Li, Shoujun; Hu, Shengshou

    2015-01-01

    Objective Infants are more vulnerable to kidney injuries induced by inflammatory response syndrome and ischemia-reperfusion injury following cardiopulmonary bypass especially with prolonged hypothermic low-flow (HLF). This study aims to evaluate the protective role of ulinastatin, an anti-inflammatory agent, against acute kidney injuries in infant piglets model undergoing surgery on HLF cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods Eighteen general-type infant piglets were randomly separated into the ulinastatin group (Group U, n = 6), the control group (Group C, n = 6), and the sham operation group (Group S, n = 6), and anaesthetized. The groups U and C received following experimental procedure: median thoracotomy, routine CPB and HLF, and finally weaned from CPB. The group S only underwent sham median thoracotomy. Ulinastatin at a dose of 5,000 units/kg body weight and a certain volume of saline were administrated to animals of the groups U and C at the beginning of CPB and at aortic declamping, respectively. Venous blood samples were collected at 3 different time points: after anesthesia induction in all experimental groups, 5 minutes, and 120 minutes after CPB in the Groups U and C. Markers for inflammation and acute kidney injury were tested in the collected plasma. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) from urine, markers of oxidative stress injury and TUNEL-positive cells in kidney tissues were also detected. Results The expressions of plasma inflammatory markers and acute kidney injury markers increased both in Group U and Group C at 5 min and 120 min after CPB. Also, numbers of TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney rose in both groups. At the time point of 120-min after CPB, compared with the Group C, some plasma inflammatory and acute kidney injury markers as well as TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney were significantly reduced in the Group U. Histologic analyses showed that HLF promoted acute tubular necrosis and dilatation

  5. Infant formula promotes bone growth in neonatal piglets by enhancing osteoblastogenesis through bone morphogenic protein signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively few studies have examined the effects of formula feeding relative to breast-feeding on bone in the neonate. Using peripheral quantitative CT scan and histomorphometric analysis, we demonstrated that neonatal piglets fed with soy-based formula (SF) and cow milk-based formula (MF) for 21 or...

  6. Saturated fatty acid chain length and positional distribution in infant formula: effects on growth and plasma lipids and ketones in piglets.

    PubMed

    Innis, S M; Quinlan, P; Diersen-Schade, D

    1993-03-01

    Human milk contains a large proportion of palmitic acid (16:0) with > 70% esterified to the center sn-2 position of the milk triglyceride. Infant formulas often use 8:0 + 10:0 [medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)] or 12:0 + 14:0 (coconut oil) as the saturated fat. The effect of formula saturated fatty acid composition; 8:0 + 10:0, 12:0 + 14:0, or 16:0 from palm oil or synthesized triglyceride containing predominantly sn-2 16:0 on plasma lipids and fatty acids was studied in piglets. Although the formulas contained similar 18:1 and 18:2n-6, plasma lipid percentages of 18:1 and 18:2n-6 were higher in piglets fed the formula with MCT or coconut oil rather than the formulas with 16:0, or sow milk. The sn-2 16:0 of the synthesized triglyceride had unique properties. Specifically, piglets fed synthesized triglyceride had significantly higher cholesteryl ester 16:0 identical to that in piglets fed sow milk and higher plasma total and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol than piglets fed the other formulas. PMID:8438772

  7. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel L; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM; raw bovine milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm pigs received parenteral and enteral nutrition consisting of IF (n = 13), BM (n = 13), or BC (n = 14). In a second study, WMP (n = 15) was compared with IF (n = 10) and BM (n = 9). Compared with pigs fed IF, pigs that were fed BM had significantly improved intestinal structure (mucosal weight, villus height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk) and milk processing (e.g., homogenization, fractionation, pasteurization, spray-drying) are important factors in determining milk quality during the early postnatal period of preterm neonates.

  8. Feeding infant piglets formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as triacylglycerols or phospholipids influences the distribution of these fatty acids in plasma lipoprotein fractions.

    PubMed

    Amate, L; Gil, A; Ramírez, M

    2001-04-01

    Several sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) are currently available for infant formula supplementation. These oils differ in their fatty acid composition, the chemical form of the fatty acid esters [triacylglycerols (TG) or phospholipids (PL)] and presence of other lipid components. These differences may affect LCP absorption, distribution and metabolic fate after ingestion. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different chemical forms of dietary LCP on the composition of plasma, plasma lipoproteins, liver and jejunum in infant piglets. Thirty pigs (5 d old) were bottle-fed different diets for 4 wk: a control diet (C), a diet containing LCP as TG from tuna and fungal oils (TF-TG) or a diet containing LCP as PL from egg yolk (E-PL). We measured lipid and fatty acid composition of plasma and lipoproteins, as well as lipid composition of liver and intestinal mucosa. The arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in HDL-PL were significantly higher in piglets fed the E-PL diet than in those fed the TF-TG diet. Opposite results were found in the LDL-PL diet. No significant differences were found between groups in TG or cholesterol concentrations of plasma or lipoproteins. Arachidonic acid in plasma PL and cholesteryl esters was significantly higher in the E-PL group than in the TF-TG group. The chemical form in which LCP esters are present in different dietary sources influences their distribution in plasma lipoproteins. This may be important for infant nutrition and suggests that not all LCP sources may be biologically equivalent. PMID:11285334

  9. A Description of Congenital Anomalies Among Infants in Entebbe, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ndibazza, Juliet; Lule, Swaib; Nampijja, Margaret; Mpairwe, Harriet; Oduru, Gloria; Kiggundu, Molly; Akello, Miriam; Muhangi, Lawrence; Elliott, Alison M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on congenital anomalies from developing countries of the sub-Saharan region are scarce. However, it is important to have comprehensive and reliable data on the description and prevalence of congenital anomalies to allow surveillance and the implementation of appropriate public health strategies for prevention and management. In this study, we describe the profile of congenital anomalies seen in a birth cohort in Entebbe, Uganda. METHODS: Congenital anomalies were defined as any structural defect present at birth. Pregnant women were recruited to the cohort between 2003 and 2005. Defects present at birth were recorded by the midwife at delivery and by physicians at the routine six-week postnatal visit and at illness-related visits until 1 year of life. The anomalies were classified by organ system according to the 10th version of the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). RESULTS: There were 180 infants with a congenital anomaly among 2365 births. The most commonly affected systems were the musculoskeletal (42.7 per 1000 births) and skin (16.1 per 1000 births). The prevalence of major anomalies was 20.3 per 1000 births; 1.7 per 1000 births for cardiac anomalies and 1.3 per 1000 births for neural system anomalies. Forty (22%) of the congenital anomalies were identified at birth, 131 (73%) at the 6-week postnatal visit, and nine (5%) at illness-related visits. CONCLUSION: Congenital anomalies are common in developing countries. Establishment of comprehensive databases for surveillance would be helpful for surveillance of effects of new exposures, for prevention, management, and health care planning. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21770020

  10. Serotonin’s role in piglet mortality and thriftiness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving piglet survivability rates is of high priority for swine production as well as for piglet well-being. Dysfunction in the serotonin system has been associated with growth deficiencies, infant mortalities or failure to thrive in human infants. The aim of this research was to determine if a r...

  11. A role for serotonin in piglet preweaning mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving piglet survivability rate is of high priority for swine production as well as for piglet well-being. Dysfunction in the serotonin system has been associated with growth deficiencies, infant mortality or failure to thrive (FTT) in human infants. The aim of this study was to examine the role...

  12. Baby Events: Assembling Descriptions of Infants in Family Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Ben; Sumsion, Jennifer; Stratigos, Tina; Elwick, Sheena

    2012-01-01

    The idea that research on infants should "voice" their "perspectives", their experiences, what they are "really saying," is a central feature of current moves toward participatory research. While embracing the ethos of participation, this article steps away from the binary logic of identity that implicitly underpins such approaches--self-other,…

  13. Caregiver Descriptions of the Developmental Skills of Infants and Toddlers Entering Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarborough, Anita A.; Hebbeler, Kathleen M.; Simeonsson, Rune J.; Spiker, Donna

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to describe the developmental skills of a national sample of infants and toddlers at entry into early intervention services. Caregivers were asked about their child's skills during a telephone interview. Summary values were derived from descriptions of motor, communication, independence, and cognitive skills. More…

  14. Serotonin's role in piglet mortality and thriftiness.

    PubMed

    Dennis, R L; McMunn, K A; Cheng, H W; Marchant-Forde, J N; Lay, D C

    2014-11-01

    Improving piglet survivability rates is of high priority for swine production as well as for piglet well-being. Dysfunction in the serotonin (5-HT) system has been associated with growth deficiencies, infant mortalities, or failure to thrive in human infants. The aim of this research was to determine if a relationship exists between infant mortality and failure to thrive (or unthriftiness), and umbilical 5-HT concentration in piglets. Umbilical blood was collected from a total of 60 piglets from 15 litters for analysis of 5-HT and tryptophan (Trp; the AA precursor to 5-HT) concentrations. Behavior was scan sampled for the first 2 days after birth. Brain samples were also taken at 8 h after birth from healthy and unthrifty piglets (n = 4/group). The raphe nucleus was dissected out and analyzed for 5-HT and dopamine concentrations as well as their major metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Piglets that died within 48 h of birth (n = 14) had significantly lower umbilical blood 5-HT concentrations at the time of their birth compared to their healthy counterparts (n = 46, P = 0.003). However, no difference in Trp was detected (P 0.38). Time spent under the heat lamp and sleeping were positively correlated with umbilical 5-HT levels (P = 0.004 and P = 0.02, respectively), while inactivity had a negative correlation with 5-HT levels (P = 0.04). In the raphe nucleus, the center for brain 5-HT biosynthesis, unthrifty piglets had a greater concentration of 5-HIAA (P = 0.02) and a trend for higher concentrations of 5-HT (P = 0.07) compared with healthy piglets. Dopamine levels did not differ between thrifty and unthrifty piglets (P = 0.45); however, its metabolite HVA tended to be greater in unthrifty piglets (P = 0.05). Our results show evidence of serotonergic dysfunction, at both the central and peripheral levels, accompanying early piglet mortalities. These data suggest a possible route for

  15. Emerging Piglet Models of Neonatal Short Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lim, David W; Turner, Justine M; Wales, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a growing problem in the human neonatal population. In infants, SBS is the leading cause of intestinal failure, the state of being unable to absorb sufficient nutrients for growth and development. Neonates with SBS are dependent on long-term parenteral nutrition therapy, but many succumb to the complications of sepsis and liver disease. Research in neonatal SBS is challenged by the ethical limits of studying sick human neonates and the heterogeneous nature of the disease process. Outcomes in SBS vary depending on residual intestinal anatomy, intestinal length, patient age, and exposure to nutrition therapies. The neonatal piglet serves as an appropriate translational model of the human neonate because of similarities in gastrointestinal ontogeny, physiological maturity, and adaptive processes. Re-creating the disease process in a piglet model presents a unique opportunity for researchers to discover novel insights and therapies in SBS. Emerging piglet models of neonatal SBS now represent the entire spectrum of disease seen in human infants. This review aims to contextualize these emerging piglet models within the context of SBS as a heterogeneous disease. We first explore the factors that account for SBS heterogeneity and then explore the suitability of the neonatal piglet as an appropriate translational animal model. We then examine differences between the emerging piglet models of neonatal SBS and how these differences affect their translational potential to human neonates with SBS.

  16. Does higher income inequality adversely influence infant mortality rates? Reconciling descriptive patterns and recent research findings.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Jones, Marcella K; Erwin, Paul Campbell

    2015-04-01

    As the struggle continues to explain the relatively high rates of infant mortality (IMR) exhibited in the United States, a renewed emphasis is being placed on the role of possible 'contextual' determinants. Cross-sectional and short time-series studies have found that higher income inequality is associated with higher IMR at the state level. Yet, descriptively, the longer-term trends in income inequality and in IMR seem to call such results into question. To assess whether, over the period 1990-2007, state-level income inequality is associated with state-level IMR; to examine whether the overall effect of income inequality on IMR over this period varies by state; to test whether the association between income inequality and IMR varies across this time period. IMR data--number of deaths per 1000 live births in a given state and year--were obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Wonder database. Income inequality was measured using the Gini coefficient, which varies from zero (complete equality) to 100 (complete inequality). Covariates included state-level poverty rate, median income, and proportion of high school graduates. Fixed and random effects regressions were conducted to test hypotheses. Fixed effects models suggested that, overall, during the period 1990-2007, income inequality was inversely associated with IMR (β = -0.07, SE (0.01)). Random effects models suggested that when the relationship was allowed to vary at the state-level, it remained inverse (β = -0.05, SE (0.01)). However, an interaction between income inequality and time suggested that, as time increased, the effect of income inequality had an increasingly positive association with total IMR (β = 0.009, SE (0.002)). The influence of state income inequality on IMR is dependent on time, which may proxy for time-dependent aspects of societal context.

  17. Polydextrose enrichment of infant formula demonstrates prebiotic characteristics by altering intestinal microbiota, organic acid concentrations, and cytokine expression in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Herfel, Tina M; Jacobi, Sheila K; Lin, Xi; Fellner, Vivek; Walker, D Carey; Jouni, Zeina E; Odle, Jack

    2011-12-01

    Oligosaccharides, the 3rd-most abundant component in human milk, are virtually absent from infant formulas and from the cow milk on which most are based. In breast-fed infants, human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) act as both receptor analogs, interfering with pathogen adhesion, and as prebiotics, stimulating the growth of certain commensal bacteria (e.g. bifidobacteria) and supporting the innate immunity. To further align the functional properties of infant formula with those of human milk, polydextrose (PDX) is proposed as a substitute for HMO. To determine the prebiotic functionality of PDX, 1-d-old pigs were fed a cow milk-based formula supplemented with increasing concentrations of PDX (0, 1.7, 4.3, 8.5, or 17 g/L) for 18 d (n = 13). Additional reference groups included pigs sampled at d 0 and sow-reared pigs sampled at d 18 (n = 12). Ileal Lactobacilli CFU, but not Bifidobacteria, increased linearly with increasing PDX (P = 0.02). The propionic acid concentration in digesta linearly increased with the PDX level (P = 0.045) and lactic acid increased linearly by 5-fold with increasing PDX (P = 0.001). Accordingly, digesta pH decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as PDX increased, with a maximal reduction approaching 0.5 pH units in pigs fed 17 g/L. Expression of TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-8 showed a negative quadratic pattern in response to PDX supplementation, declining at intermediate concentrations and rebounding at higher concentrations of PDX. In summary, PDX enrichment of infant formula resulted in a prebiotic effect by increasing ileal lactobacilli and propionic and lactic acid concentrations and decreasing pH with associated alterations in ileal cytokine expression.

  18. Dietary bovine lactoferrin increases intestinal cell proliferation in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Reznikov, Elizabeth A; Comstock, Sarah S; Yi, Cuiyi; Contractor, Nikhat; Donovan, Sharon M

    2014-09-01

    Lactoferrin is a bioactive milk protein that stimulates cell proliferation in vitro; however, limited in vivo evidence exists to allow lactoferrin to be incorporated into infant formula. Herein, the effect of dietary bovine lactoferrin (bLF) on neonatal intestinal growth and maturation was investigated guided by the hypothesis that bLF would increase cellular proliferation leading to functional differences in neonatal piglets. Colostrum-deprived piglets were fed formula containing 0.4 [control (Ctrl)], 1.0 (LF1), or 3.6 (LF3) g bLF/L for the first 7 or 14 d of life. To provide passive immunity, sow serum was provided orally during the first 36 h of life. Intestinal cell proliferation, histomorphology, mucosal DNA concentration, enzyme activity, gene expression, and fecal bLF content were measured. Intestinal enzyme activity, DNA concentration, and villus length were unaffected by bLF. However, crypt proliferation was 60% greater in LF1- and LF3-fed piglets than in Ctrl piglets, and crypt depth and area were 20% greater in LF3-fed piglets than in Ctrl piglets. Crypt cells from LF3-fed piglets had 3-fold higher β-catenin mRNA expression than did crypt cells from Ctrl piglets. Last, feces of piglets fed bLF contained intact bLF, suggesting that some bLF was resistant to digestion and could potentially affect intestinal proliferation through direct interaction with intestinal epithelial cells. This study is the first to our knowledge to show that dietary bLF stimulates crypt cell proliferation in vivo. The increased β-catenin expression indicates that Wnt signaling may in part mediate the stimulatory effect of bLF on intestinal cell proliferation. PMID:25056692

  19. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to infant feeding among women in rural Papua New Guinea: a descriptive, mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the well-recognized effectiveness of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of an infant life for reducing infant mortality, adherence to this practice is not widespread in the developing world. Although several studies on infant nutrition practices have been conducted in urban settings of Papua New Guinea (PNG), there is only scant information on infant feeding practices in rural settings. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice associated with exclusive breastfeeding in various locations in rural PNG. Methods A mixed method study using interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire (n = 140) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) was conducted among mothers in rural PNG between August and September 2012. Participants were selected using convenience sampling. Included in the study were both primiparous and multiparous mothers with a child below the age of two years. Content analysis was used for qualitative data and descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data. Results Whereas most women indicated breastfeeding as a better way to feed babies, knowledge of the reasons for its superiority over infant formula was generally poor. Only 17% of mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months postpartum. Our study showed that the size of the gap between exclusive breastfeeding practice and global recommendations was striking. Taking into account the low educational profile of the participants, the disparity may be explained by the fact that most of the mothers in this study had no formal education on infant feeding. Conclusions This study showed a lack of understanding of the importance of and poor adherence to exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months postpartum among rural mothers. As exclusive breastfeeding promotion has been proved to be one of most effective ways to improve infant survival, more attention should be given to it, especially targeting the large

  20. Moderate Perinatal Choline Deficiency Elicits Altered Physiology and Metabolomic Profiles in the Piglet.

    PubMed

    Getty, Caitlyn M; Dilger, Ryan N

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary choline on the health and well-being of swine, and those pivotal papers were aimed at determining dietary requirements for sows and growing pigs. This is of importance as the piglet is becoming a widely accepted model for human infant nutrition, but little is known about the impacts of perinatal choline status on overall health and metabolism of the growing piglet. In the present study, sows were provided either a choline deficient (CD, 625 mg choline/kg dry matter) or choline sufficient (CS, 1306 mg choline/kg dry matter) diet for the last 65 d of gestation (prenatal intervention). Piglets were weaned from the sow 48 h after farrowing and provided either a CD (477 mg choline/kg dry matter) or CS (1528 mg choline/kg dry matter) milk replacer (postnatal intervention) for 29 ± 2 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 treatment (prenatal/postnatal) groups: CS/CS, CS/CD, CD/CS, and CD/CD. Piglet growth was normal for artificially-reared piglets, and was not impacted by perinatal choline status. Piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment had lower (P < 0.01) plasma choline and choline-containing phospholipid concentrations and higher (P < 0.05) liver enzyme (alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase) values compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Hepatic lipid content of piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment was higher (P < 0.01) compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Additionally, postnatally CD piglets had lower (P = 0.01) plasma cholesterol than postnatally CS piglets. Brain development was also impacted by perinatal choline status, with brains of piglets exposed to prenatal CD being smaller (P = 0.01) than those of prenatally CS piglets. These findings support the hypothesis that the piglet is a sensitive model for choline deficiency during the perinatal period. In the present study, piglets exhibited similarities in health markers and metabolomic

  1. Moderate Perinatal Choline Deficiency Elicits Altered Physiology and Metabolomic Profiles in the Piglet

    PubMed Central

    Getty, Caitlyn M.; Dilger, Ryan N.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary choline on the health and well-being of swine, and those pivotal papers were aimed at determining dietary requirements for sows and growing pigs. This is of importance as the piglet is becoming a widely accepted model for human infant nutrition, but little is known about the impacts of perinatal choline status on overall health and metabolism of the growing piglet. In the present study, sows were provided either a choline deficient (CD, 625 mg choline/kg dry matter) or choline sufficient (CS, 1306 mg choline/kg dry matter) diet for the last 65 d of gestation (prenatal intervention). Piglets were weaned from the sow 48 h after farrowing and provided either a CD (477 mg choline/kg dry matter) or CS (1528 mg choline/kg dry matter) milk replacer (postnatal intervention) for 29 ± 2 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 treatment (prenatal/postnatal) groups: CS/CS, CS/CD, CD/CS, and CD/CD. Piglet growth was normal for artificially-reared piglets, and was not impacted by perinatal choline status. Piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment had lower (P < 0.01) plasma choline and choline-containing phospholipid concentrations and higher (P < 0.05) liver enzyme (alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase) values compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Hepatic lipid content of piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment was higher (P < 0.01) compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Additionally, postnatally CD piglets had lower (P = 0.01) plasma cholesterol than postnatally CS piglets. Brain development was also impacted by perinatal choline status, with brains of piglets exposed to prenatal CD being smaller (P = 0.01) than those of prenatally CS piglets. These findings support the hypothesis that the piglet is a sensitive model for choline deficiency during the perinatal period. In the present study, piglets exhibited similarities in health markers and metabolomic

  2. Moderate Perinatal Choline Deficiency Elicits Altered Physiology and Metabolomic Profiles in the Piglet.

    PubMed

    Getty, Caitlyn M; Dilger, Ryan N

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary choline on the health and well-being of swine, and those pivotal papers were aimed at determining dietary requirements for sows and growing pigs. This is of importance as the piglet is becoming a widely accepted model for human infant nutrition, but little is known about the impacts of perinatal choline status on overall health and metabolism of the growing piglet. In the present study, sows were provided either a choline deficient (CD, 625 mg choline/kg dry matter) or choline sufficient (CS, 1306 mg choline/kg dry matter) diet for the last 65 d of gestation (prenatal intervention). Piglets were weaned from the sow 48 h after farrowing and provided either a CD (477 mg choline/kg dry matter) or CS (1528 mg choline/kg dry matter) milk replacer (postnatal intervention) for 29 ± 2 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 treatment (prenatal/postnatal) groups: CS/CS, CS/CD, CD/CS, and CD/CD. Piglet growth was normal for artificially-reared piglets, and was not impacted by perinatal choline status. Piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment had lower (P < 0.01) plasma choline and choline-containing phospholipid concentrations and higher (P < 0.05) liver enzyme (alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase) values compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Hepatic lipid content of piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment was higher (P < 0.01) compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Additionally, postnatally CD piglets had lower (P = 0.01) plasma cholesterol than postnatally CS piglets. Brain development was also impacted by perinatal choline status, with brains of piglets exposed to prenatal CD being smaller (P = 0.01) than those of prenatally CS piglets. These findings support the hypothesis that the piglet is a sensitive model for choline deficiency during the perinatal period. In the present study, piglets exhibited similarities in health markers and metabolomic

  3. Early Supplementation of Phospholipids and Gangliosides Affects Brain and Cognitive Development in Neonatal Piglets123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongnan; Radlowski, Emily C; Conrad, Matthew S; Li, Yao; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because human breast milk is a rich source of phospholipids and gangliosides and breastfed infants have improved learning compared with formula-fed infants, the importance of dietary phospholipids and gangliosides for brain development is of interest. Objective: We sought to determine the effects of phospholipids and gangliosides on brain and cognitive development. Methods: Male and female piglets from multiple litters were artificially reared and fed formula containing 0% (control), 0.8%, or 2.5% Lacprodan PL-20 (PL-20; Arla Foods Ingredients), a phospholipid/ganglioside supplement, from postnatal day (PD) 2 to PD28. Beginning on PD14, performance in a spatial T-maze task was assessed. At PD28, brain MRI data were acquired and piglets were killed to obtain hippocampal tissue for metabolic profiling. Results: Diet affected maze performance, with piglets that were fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 making fewer errors than control piglets (80% vs. 75% correct on average; P < 0.05) and taking less time to make a choice (3 vs. 5 s/trial; P < 0.01). Mean brain weight was 5% higher for piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 (P < 0.05) than control piglets, and voxel-based morphometry revealed multiple brain areas with greater volumes and more gray and white matter in piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 than in control piglets. Metabolic profiling of hippocampal tissue revealed that multiple phosphatidylcholine-related metabolites were altered by diet. Conclusion: In summary, dietary phospholipids and gangliosides improved spatial learning and affected brain growth and composition in neonatal piglets. PMID:25411030

  4. CT measurement of indomethacin-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes in the newborn piglet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Derek W.; Hadway, Jennifer; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2003-05-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), a common condition among preterm infants, increases the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and death in afflicted individuals. Current clinical treatment of PDA relies on use of the drug indomethacin to close the ductus arteriosus. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of indomethacin on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral mean transit time (MTT) in newborn piglets using computed tomography (CT) perfusion. Twenty newborn piglets divided by age into two groups, less than 12 hours of age (n = 10) and greater than 12 hours of age (n = 10) were studied. Five piglets in each group received indomethacin treatment (0.2 mg/kg infused over 30 min) while remaining piglets served as controls. No significant changes in CBF were observed in control groups. In both indomethacin treated groups, average CBF decreased 32.3% and 34.3% (P > 0.05) below baseline immediately post infusion in piglets less than and greater than 12 hours of age respectively. Piglets less than 12hours of age treated with indomethacin also exhibited a delayed increase in CBF, maximum average increase of 41.7% (P > 0.05) above baseline at 210 min post infusion, a response not observed in the corresponding group of piglets greater than 12 hours of age. The observed age dependent response may be due to functional/anatomical closure of the PDA.

  5. The suckling piglet as an agrimedical model for the study of pediatric nutrition and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Odle, Jack; Lin, Xi; Jacobi, Sheila K; Kim, Sung Woo; Stahl, Chad H

    2014-02-01

    The neonatal pig ranks among the most prominent research models for the study of pediatric nutrition and metabolism. Its precocial development at birth affords ready adaptation to artificial rearing systems, and research using this model spans a wide array of nutrients. Sophisticated in vitro and in vivo methodologies supporting both invasive, reduction-science research as well as whole-animal preclinical investigations have been developed. Potential applications may dually benefit both agricultural and medical sciences (e.g., "agrimedical research"). The broad scope of this review is to outline the fundamental elements of the piglet model and to highlight key aspects of relevance to various macronutrients, including lipids, carbohydrates, proteins/amino acids, and calcium/phosphorus. The review examines similarities between piglets and infants and also piglet idiosyncrasies, concluding that, overall, the piglet represents an adaptable and robust model for pediatric nutrition and metabolism research.

  6. Early Postnatal Respiratory Viral Infection Induces Structural and Neurochemical Changes in the Neonatal Piglet Brain

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Matthew S.; Sutton, Bradley P.; Larsen, Ryan; Van Alstine, William G.; Johnson, Rodney W.

    2015-01-01

    Infections that cause inflammation during the postnatal period are common, yet little is known about their impact on brain development in gyrencephalic species. To address this issue, we investigated brain development in domestic piglets which have brain growth and morphology similar to human infants, after experimentally infecting them with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to induce an interstitial pneumonia Piglets were inoculated with PRRSV on postnatal day (PD) 7 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess brain macrostructure (voxel-based morphometry), microstructure (diffusion tensor imaging) and neurochemistry (MR-spectroscopy) at PD 29 or 30. PRRSV piglets exhibited signs of infection throughout the post-inoculation period and had elevated plasma levels of TNFα at the end of the study. PRRSV infection increased the volume of several components of the ventricular system including the cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle, and the lateral ventricles. Group comparisons between control and PRRSV piglets defined 8 areas where PRRSV piglets had less gray matter volume; 5 areas where PRRSV piglets had less white matter volume; and 4 relatively small areas where PRRSV piglets had more white matter. Of particular interest was a bilateral reduction in gray and white matter in the primary visual cortex. PRRSV piglets tended to have reduced fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum. Additionally, N-acetylaspartate, creatine, and myo-inositol were decreased in the hippocampus of PRRSV piglets suggesting disrupted neuronal and glial health and energy imbalances. These findings show in a gyrencephalic species that early-life infection can affect brain growth and development. PMID:25967923

  7. Vaccination of gnotobiotic piglets against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Eaton, K A; Ringler, S S; Krakowka, S

    1998-11-01

    To determine the effect of oral adjuvant-assisted and parenteral vaccination, germ-free piglets were vaccinated orally with and without labile toxin adjuvant or parenterally and challenged with viable Helicobacter pylori. All prechallenge vaccination regimens induced anti-H. pylori antibodies and suppressed bacterial colonization, but no vaccination regime completely prevented infection. Parenteral vaccination given after infection had no effect on bacterial colonization. Lymphocytic gastritis was present in all piglets challenged with live bacteria regardless of vaccination status. Neutrophilic gastritis was present in vaccinated challenged piglets but not in infected, unvaccinated piglets. Gastritis was not present in uninfected control piglets regardless of vaccination status. In gnotobiotic piglets, vaccination suppresses but does not prevent infection by H. pylori, and parenteral vaccination does not cure infected piglets. Vaccination does not ameliorate gastritis due to H. pylori in piglets but does induce neutrophilic gastric inflammation in some infected piglets.

  8. Formula feeding and protein source alter hepatic gene expression, iron and lipid homeostasis in neonatal piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although breast feeding is recommended, most US infants are formula-fed. In this study, neonatal piglets were breast-fed or were fed milk formula (MF) or soy formula (SF) from PND 2 until sacrifice at PND21. Commercial formulas were used with modifications to meet pig NRC recommendations. Serum chol...

  9. Biomechanical Properties of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve in the Piglet

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Megan J.; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie M.; Vande Geest, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVP) results from damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). The most common causes of UVP are associated with compromised RLN tissue. The purpose of this research was to investigate the biomechanical properties of piglet RLN and identify differences in these properties along its length and in between the left and right side. Quasi-static uniaxial tensile testing and isotropic constitutive modeling was performed on seven piglet RLNs. Stiffness and other biomechanical parameters were derived from these tests and compared from conducting two different statistical analysis for the between and within nerve comparisons. Results showed higher stiffness values in the left RLN segment than for the right. Descriptive data demonstrated a higher stiffness in RLN segments surrounding the aortic arch, indicating a more protective role of the extracellular matrix in these nerves. This research offers insight regarding the protective function of the RLN connective tissues and structural compromise due to its environment. PMID:20369296

  10. Oligosaccharides in Urine, Blood, and Feces of Piglets Fed Milk Replacer Containing Galacto-oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Bettonvil, Monique; Willems, Rianne H A M; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Jeurink, Prescilla V; Schoterman, Margriet H C; Gruppen, Harry; Schols, Henk A

    2015-12-23

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are absorbed into the blood (about 1% of the HMO intake) and subsequently excreted in urine, where they may protect the infant from pathogen infection. As dietary galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) have partial structural similarities with HMOs, this study investigated the presence of GOS and oligosaccharides originating from milk replacer in blood serum, urine, and cecal and fecal samples of piglets, as a model for human infants. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection, oligosaccharides originating from piglet diet including 3'-sialyllactose and specific GOS ranging from degree of polymerization 3 to 6 were detected in blood serum and in urine of piglets. In blood serum, GOS levels ranged from 16 to 23 μg/mL, representing about 0.1% of the GOS daily intake. In urine, approximately 0.85 g of GOS/g of creatinine was found. Cecum digesta and feces contained low amounts of oligosaccharides, suggesting an extensive GOS intestinal fermentation in piglets. PMID:26621571

  11. Early postnatal respiratory viral infection alters hippocampal neurogenesis, cell fate, and neuron morphology in the neonatal piglet.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Matthew S; Harasim, Samantha; Rhodes, Justin S; Van Alstine, William G; Johnson, Rodney W

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory viral infections are common during the neonatal period in humans, but little is known about how early-life infection impacts brain development. The current study used a neonatal piglet model as piglets have a gyrencephalic brain with growth and development similar to human infants. Piglets were inoculated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to evaluate how chronic neuroinflammation affects hippocampal neurogenesis and neuron morphology. Piglets in the neurogenesis study received one bromodeoxyuridine injection on postnatal day (PD) 7 and then were inoculated with PRRSV. Piglets were sacrificed at PD 28 and the number of BrdU+ cells and cell fate were quantified in the dentate gyrus. PRRSV piglets showed a 24% reduction in the number of newly divided cells forming neurons. Approximately 15% of newly divided cells formed microglia, but this was not affected by sex or PRRSV. Additionally, there was a sexual dimorphism of new cell survival in the dentate gyrus where males had more cells than females, and PRRSV infection caused a decreased survival in males only. Golgi impregnation was used to characterize dentate granule cell morphology. Sholl analysis revealed that PRRSV caused a change in inner granule cell morphology where the first branch point was extended further from the cell body. Males had more complex dendritic arbors than females in the outer granule cell layer, but this was not affected by PRRSV. There were no changes to dendritic spine density or morphology distribution. These findings suggest that early-life viral infection can impact brain development.

  12. Identification of a Divergent Lineage Porcine Pestivirus in Nursing Piglets with Congenital Tremors and Reproduction of Disease following Experimental Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Bailey L.; Arruda, Paulo H.; Magstadt, Drew R.; Schwartz, Kent J.; Dohlman, Tyler; Schleining, Jennifer A.; Patterson, Abby R.; Visek, Callie A.; Victoria, Joseph G.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital tremors is a sporadic disease of neonatal pigs characterized by action-related repetitive myoclonus. A majority of outbreaks of congenital tremors have been attributed to an unidentified virus. The objectives of this project were to 1) detect potential pathogen(s) in samples from piglets with congenital tremors and 2) develop an infection model to reproduce disease. Using next-generation sequencing, a divergent lineage pestivirus was detected in piglets with congenital tremors. The virus was originally most closely related to a bat pestivirus but is now more closely related to a recently published novel porcine pestivirus provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus. A quantitative real-time PCR detected the virus in samples from neonatal piglets with congenital tremors from two separate farms, but not in samples from unaffected piglets from the same farm. To fulfill the second objective, pregnant sows were inoculated with either serum containing the pestivirus or PBS (control) by intravenous and intranasal routes simultaneously with direct inoculation of fetal amniotic vesicles by ultrasound-guided surgical technique. Inoculations were performed at either 45 or 62 days of gestation. All sows inoculated with the novel pestivirus farrowed piglets affected with congenital tremors while PBS-inoculated control piglets were unaffected. Tremor severity for each piglet was scored from videos taken 0, 1 and 2 days post-farrowing. Tremor severity remained relatively constant from 0 to 2 days post-farrowing for a majority of piglets. The prevalence of congenital tremors in pestivirus-inoculated litters ranged from 57% (4 out of 7 affected piglets) to 100% (10 out of 10 affected piglets). The virus was consistently detected by PCR in tissues from piglets with congenital tremors but was not detected in control piglets. Samples positive by PCR in greater than 90% of piglets sampled included brainstem (37 out of 41), mesenteric lymph node (37 out of 41

  13. Description of the Motor Development of 3-12 Month Old Infants with Down Syndrome: The Influence of the Postural Body Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudella, Eloisa; Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the rate of motor development in infants with Down syndrome in the age range of 3-12 months and identify the difficulties both in performance and acquiring motor skills in prone, supine, sitting and standing positions. Nineteen infants with Down syndrome and 25 healthy full term typical infants were…

  14. Repeated Traumatic Brain Injury Affects Composite Cognitive Function in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Friess, Stuart H.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Ralston, Jill; Ryall, Karen; Helfaer, Mark A.; Smith, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Cumulative effects of repetitive mild head injury in the pediatric population are unknown. We have developed a cognitive composite dysfunction score that correlates white matter injury severity in neonatal piglets with neurobehavioral assessments of executive function, memory, learning, and problem solving. Anesthetized 3- to 5-day-old piglets were subjected to single (n = 7), double one day apart (n = 7), and double one week apart (n = 7) moderate (190 rad/s) rapid non-impact axial rotations of the head and compared to instrumented shams (n = 7). Animals experiencing two head rotations one day apart had a significantly higher mortality rate (43%) compared to the other groups and had higher failures rates in visual-based problem solving compared to instrumented shams. White matter injury, assessed by β-APP staining, was significantly higher in the double one week apart group compared to that with single injury and sham. Worsening performance on cognitive composite score correlated well with increasing severity of white matter axonal injury. In our immature large animal model of TBI, two head rotations produced poorer outcome as assessed by neuropathology and neurobehavioral functional outcomes compared to that with single rotations. More importantly, we have observed an increase in injury severity and mortality when the head rotations occur 24 h apart compared to 7 days apart. These observations have important clinical translation to infants subjected to repeated inflicted head trauma. PMID:19275468

  15. Postpartum deaths: piglet, placental, and umbilical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rootwelt, V; Reksen, O; Farstad, W; Framstad, T

    2013-06-01

    The fetal growth of the piglet is highly dependent on its placenta, and the newborn piglet birth weight is highly associated with postpartum death. However, there is little information available in the literature on the assessment of the placenta in relation to postpartum death in piglets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the placental area and placental weight, status of the umbilical cord, and piglet birth characteristics, such as blood parameters, vitality score, and birth weight on postpartum death. All live born piglets in litters from 26 Landrace-Yorkshire sows were monitored during farrowing and the status of each was recorded, including placental area and placental weight and blood variables obtained from the piglets and umbilical veins. Out of the 386 live-born piglets, 16.8% died before weaning at 5 wk. Among these, 78.5% died within the first 3 d of life. Mean blood concentration of lactate was increased in piglets that did not survive to weaning (P = 0.003). Concentrations of hemoglobin and hematocrit were decreased (P < 0.001) compared with survivors. Piglets born with a broken umbilical cord had a reduced vitality score vs. piglets born with an intact umbilical cord (P = 0.021), and they had an increased probability of dying before weaning (P = 0.050). Mean birth weight, body mass index, placental area (P < 0.001), and placental weight (P = 0.020) were reduced in piglets that died before weaning vs. those that survived. Birth weight and placental area were furthermore negatively associated with live litter size. Blood concentrations of IgG and albumin recorded at d 1 were decreased in piglets that died before weaning (P < 0.01), and blood concentration of albumin was positively associated with placental area (P < 0.001). We conclude that placental area and placental weight, status of the umbilical cord, birth weight, body mass index, blood concentrations of lactate, hemoglobin, and hematocrit recorded at birth, and blood

  16. Respiratory Viral Infection in Neonatal Piglets Causes Marked Microglia Activation in the Hippocampus and Deficits in Spatial Learning

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Monica R. P.; Burton, Michael D.; Conrad, Matthew S.; Rytych, Jennifer L.; Van Alstine, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental insults during sensitive periods can affect hippocampal development and function, but little is known about peripheral infection, especially in humans and other animals whose brain is gyrencephalic and experiences major perinatal growth. Using a piglet model, the present study showed that inoculation on postnatal day 7 with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) caused microglial activation within the hippocampus with 82% and 43% of isolated microglia being MHC II+ 13 and 20 d after inoculation, respectively. In control piglets, <5% of microglia isolated from the hippocampus were MHC II+. PRRSV piglets were febrile (p < 0.0001), anorectic (p < 0.0001), and weighed less at the end of the study (p = 0.002) compared with control piglets. Increased inflammatory gene expression (e.g., IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) was seen across multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus, whereas reductions in CD200, NGF, and MBP were evident. In a test of spatial learning, PRRSV piglets took longer to acquire the task, had a longer latency to choice, and had a higher total distance moved. Overall, these data demonstrate that viral respiratory infection is associated with a marked increase in activated microglia in the hippocampus, neuroinflammation, and impaired performance in a spatial cognitive task. As respiratory infections are common in human neonates and infants, approaches to regulate microglial cell activity are likely to be important. PMID:24501353

  17. Acquisition of Clostridium difficile by piglets.

    PubMed

    Hopman, N E M; Keessen, E C; Harmanus, C; Sanders, I M J G; van Leengoed, L A M G; Kuijper, E J; Lipman, L J A

    2011-04-21

    Clostridium difficile is recognized as an important cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in humans especially in association with administration of antibiotics. In pigs, C. difficile can cause neonatal enteritis and can be isolated from faeces from both diseased and healthy animals. The presented prospective study describes how soon C. difficile can be isolated from newborn piglets after normal parturition and how C. difficile spreads within a pig farm. Six sows, their farrowing crates and their litters at one farm were sampled until C. difficile was found in all piglets. Within 48 h after birth, all 71 piglets became positive for C. difficile (two piglets were already positive within 1h post partum), all sows became positive within 113 h after parturition and the farrowing crates were found intermittently positive. C. difficile could also be detected in air samples and in samples of teats of the sows. All isolates belonged to PCR ribotype 078. Twenty-one C. difficile ribotype 078 isolates, found at the farm, were further analyzed by MLVA (multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis) and belonged to one clonal complex, except one isolate. To be sure that piglets were not born already infected with C. difficile ribotype 078, 38 caesarean derived piglets were sampled immediately after surgery. All piglets tested negative at delivery and stayed negative for C. difficile ribotype 078 during the 21 days in which they were kept in sterile incubators. This study shows that C. difficile ribotype 078 spreads easily between sows, piglets and the environment. Vertical transmission of C. difficile ribotype 078 was not found and is very unlikely to occur.

  18. Dietary canola oil alters hematological indices and blood lipids in neonatal piglets fed formula.

    PubMed

    Innis, S M; Dyer, R A

    1999-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of canola oil on platelet characteristics, blood lipids and growth in exclusively formula-fed piglets. Piglets were fed from birth to 10 or 18 d with formula containing 51% energy from fat, with 100% fat as canola or soybean oil; 26% soybean, 59% high oleic acid sunflower and 12% flax oil (canola mimic); or 26% canola (canola blend) or soybean (soybean blend) with high oleic acid sunflower, palm and coconut oil. The canola mimic provided similar carbon chain 16 and 18 fatty acids without the sterol or 20:1 and erucic acid (22:1) of canola oil. The oil blends provided formula resembling infant formulas but with higher 16:0 and lower unsaturated fatty acid levels than in canola or soybean oil. Body weight, weight gain and heart and liver weight were not different after 10 or 18 d feeding canola when compared to soybean oil alone or blended oil formulas. Piglets fed formulas with 100% canola oil had lower platelet counts than piglets fed formula soybean oil or the canola oil mimic. Platelet counts were lower, and platelet distribution width and volume were higher, when formulas with 100% canola or soybean rather than the blended oil formulas were fed. The results show that formula fat composition influences the developing hematological system and that canola oil suppresses the normal developmental increase in platelet count in piglets by a mechanism apparently unrelated to the formula 16:0, 18:1, 18:2(n-6) or 18:3(n-3), or plasma phospholipid 20:4(n-6) or 20:5(n-3).

  19. Supplementation transgenic cow's milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin enhances systematic and intestinal immune responses in piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuling; Hu, Wenping; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Jianwu; Dai, Yunping; Zhao, Yaofeng; Meng, Qingyong; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) plays an important role in the body's immune system. However, the immunomodulatory effects of supplementation transgenic cow's milk containing recombinant human LF (rhLF) on the systemic and intestinal immune systems in infants remain unclear. Our laboratory has used genetic engineer to produce transgenic cow secreted rhLF. To assess the immune responses we took piglets as an animal model for infants. Eighteen piglets at 7 days of age were fed ordinary milk, 1:1 mix of ordinary and rhLF milk, or rhLF milk (LFM) for 30 days. The incidence of diarrhea in piglets in natural condition was observed. The protein abundances of immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM, IgE, histamine, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 interferon, tumor necrosis factor in the plasma, spleen or intestine were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intestinal structure was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin. The mRNA levels of immune and allergy-related genes were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that LFM-fed significantly reduced incidence of diarrhea, enhanced humoral immunity, T helper (Th) 1, and Th2 cell responses, improved the structure of the intestinal mucosal and did not induce food allergy. LFM increased mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 2 and nuclear factor-κB p65 and decreased that of FCεRI β. In conclusion, rhLF-enriched formula could improve systematic and intestinal immune responses and did not elicit food allergies in neonatal piglets. PMID:24420858

  20. Sow postural changes, responsiveness to piglet screams, and their impact on piglet mortality in pens and crates.

    PubMed

    Melišová, M; Illmann, G; Chaloupková, H; Bozděchová, B

    2014-07-01

    Free farrowing pens (pens) improve the welfare of sows but may increase sow activity and negatively influence piglet production. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pens and crates on sow postural changes, piglet trapping, sow responses to piglet screams, piglet mortality, and piglet BW gain. It was predicted that provision of greater space (in pens) would increase not only the frequency of sow postural changes and the probability of trappisng but also sow responses to the screams of piglets; thus, the outcome would be no differences in fatal piglet crushing or overall mortality between the housing systems. Sows were randomly moved to either a farrowing pen (n = 20) or farrowing crate (n = 18). Sow behavior was recorded and analyzed for 72 h from the birth of the first piglet (BFP). Sow postural changes included rolling from a ventral to lateral position and vice versa and going from standing to sitting, standing to lying, and sitting to lying. Occurrences of piglet trapping and sow responsiveness to real crushing situations were analyzed. Sow responsiveness was assessed in response to audio playbacks (PB) of piglet screams on d 3 postpartum (48 to 72 h after BFP; PB crush calls) and real piglet crushing during the first 72 h after BFP (real crush calls). Piglet BW gain was estimated 24 h after BFP, piglet BW was recorded at weaning, and piglet crushing and piglet mortality were recorded during the 72 h after BFP. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED and PROC GENMOD of SAS. Sows in pens showed more postural changes (P = 0.04) and tended to have greater incidences of piglet trapping (P = 0.07) than those in crates. Sow response to PB crush calls was greater in pens (P = 0.04) but did not differ for real crush calls between pens and crates (P = 0.62). There was no effect on the probability of piglet crushing (P = 0.38) and mortality (P = 0.41) during the 72 h after BFP nor in piglet mortality at weaning (P = 0.81) between pens and crates. Piglet BW gain

  1. Invited review: piglet mortality: management solutions.

    PubMed

    Kirkden, R D; Broom, D M; Andersen, I L

    2013-07-01

    Preweaning mortality varies greatly among herds and this is partly attributed to differences in farrowing house management. In this review, we describe the various management strategies than can be adopted to decrease mortality and critically examine the evidence that exists to support their use. First, we consider which management procedures are effective against specific causes of death: intrapartum stillbirth, hypothermia, starvation, disease, crushing, and savaging. The most effective techniques include intervention to assist dystocic sows, measures to prevent and treat sow hypogalactia, good farrowing house hygiene, providing newborn piglets with a warm microenvironment, early fostering of supernumerary piglets, methods that assist small and weak piglets to breathe and obtain colostrum, and intervention to prevent deaths from crushing and savaging. The provision of nest-building material and modifications to the pen to assist the sow when lying down may also be beneficial, but the evidence is less clear. Because most deaths occur around the time of farrowing and during the first few days of life, the periparturient period is a particularly important time for management interventions intended to reduce piglet mortality. A number of procedures require a stockperson to be present during and immediately after farrowing. Second, we consider the benefits of farrowing supervision for preweaning mortality in general, focusing particularly on methods for the treatment of dystocia and programs of piglet care that combine multiple procedures. Third, we discuss the need for good stockmanship if farrowing supervision is to be effective. Stockmanship refers not only to technical skills but also to the manner in which sows are handled because this influences their fearfulness of humans. We conclude that piglet survival can be improved by a range of management procedures, many of which occur in the perinatal period and require the supervision of farrowing by trained staff

  2. CPR - infant

    MedlinePlus

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... those who take care of children should learn infant and child CPR. See www.americanheart.org for ...

  3. Infant Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Mortality Infant Mortality: What is CDC Doing? Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Teen Pregnancy Contraception CDC Contraceptive Guidance for ... and low birth weight Maternal complications of pregnancy Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Injuries (e.g., suffocation). The top ...

  4. Piglet behavior as a measure of vitality and its influence on piglet survival and growth during lactation.

    PubMed

    Muns, R; Manzanilla, E G; Sol, C; Manteca, X; Gasa, J

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a vitality scoring method, based on piglet behavior and relate it to piglet growth and survival. From 21 sows (Sus scrofa), 287 piglets were used. After farrowing (d 0), piglets were weighed and tested for 4 behavioral parameters in a circular enclosure (55 cm diam.): movement capacity (M), udder stimulation (U), number of completed circles around the enclosure (NCC), and screaming (Sc). Piglets were weighed again on d 1, 2, 3, and 17. Piglet rectal temperature (RT) was recorded on d 0, 1, 2, and 3. Farrowing information of the sow was also recorded. Multiple regression analyses for survival and BW gain at weaning as dependent variables were performed. Piglet BW gain at weaning was influenced by BW at birth (P < 0.001), sow parity (P = 0.024), total number of piglets born alive per sow (P < 0.001), and sum of U and NCC parameters (UN; P = 0.023). Piglet survival during lactation was influenced by BW at birth (P = 0.015), UNCC parameter (P = 0.026), and RT on d 3 (P = 0.085). The sum of U and NCC parameters, in combination with BW at birth and information of the sow, might be useful to predict piglet growth survival during lactation, thus becoming a useful tool to improve piglet management during the first days of lactation. In conclusion, UNCC parameter seems to be an easy and useful way to assess piglet vitality for both scientific and commercial purposes.

  5. A comparison of intragastric and intrajejunal feedings in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Curet-Scott, M; Shermeta, D W

    1986-06-01

    Intrajejunal feedings by continuous infusion of nutrients into the proximal jejunum have been advocated for premature and low-birthweight infants. This technique eliminates the risks of gastric distention and aspiration associated with intragastric feedings. However, intrajejunal feedings disregard the normal physiologic responses to gastric feedings and completely bypass the stomach and duodenum, thus eliminating the important contributions to intestinal function of salivary enzymes, pancreatic secretions, and duodenal osmoregulation and absorption. The objective of this investigation is the comparison in neonatal piglets of differences in nutritional status and intestinal absorption between animals administered intrajejunal nutrients with those given intragastric formula. A total of 14 three- to five-day-old 1.5 to 2.5 kg domestic strain piglets were studied for two weeks. Seven animals underwent operative insertion of a jejunostomy tube into the proximal jejunum, while seven animals had a gastrostomy tube inserted. Intravenous antibiotics and fluids were given for two days postoperatively, then Premature Enfamil (24 kcal/oz) was administered continuously through the feeding tube. The animals were maintained on 115 kcal/kg/d for 10 to 14 days with daily measurements of weight, height, length, stool volume, and weekly determinations of electrolytes, blood counts, and fecal fat analysis. Student's unpaired t-test analysis of the data reveals significantly greater weight gain in the gastrostomy animals (2.5% weight gain/d +/- 0.3% v 1.5% +/- 0.3%, P less than 0.05). These animals also had less diarrhea (14% v 71%), and less fat malabsorption (0.15g/48 hr v 0.9g/48 hr).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. A descriptive study on complementary and alternative medicine use in 0 to 1-year-old infants and nurses' awareness and recommendation for complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Çalişkan, Nurcan; Yıldırım, Nuriye; Atalay, Sitem; Kavaklı, Müjde; Özdoğan, Ayşegül

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to determine complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) recommended by midwives and nurses and used by mothers on their 0 to 1-year-old infants. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample of the study consisted of 65 midwives and mothers of 349 infants registered at these health-care centres. The frequency of CAM use on a regular basis by mothers participating in the study on their infants was 24.6%, whereas the frequency of CAM use for a while was 41.3%. Of the mothers using CAM, 81.5-98.5% stated that the method they were employing was useful. The mothers used CAM on their infants, and the midwives and nurses recommended CAM use. However, the midwives and nurses themselves should be first trained to be able to inform individuals/mothers about CAM. Evidence-based studies on CAM are needed.

  7. Postmortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Winther, K D; Secher, J O; Callesen, H

    2015-10-01

    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Göttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not transgenic). Overall pregnancy rate was 76%, and there were more abortions in recipients with minipig embryos than in those with LW embryos (26% and 24% vs. 6%). Piglets (n = 815) were born from 128 sows with 6.5 ± 0.4 full-born piglets per litter. The overall rate of stillborn piglets was 21% of all born with the number of stillborn piglets ranging from one to nine in a litter. The mortality of the surviving piglets during the first month was 48%. Thus, altogether 58% of the full-born piglets died before weaning. In 87 of the 128 litters (68%), one to 12 of the piglets showed major or minor malformations. Malformations were found in 232 piglets (29.5% of all born). A single malformation was registered in 152 piglets, but several piglets showed two (n = 58) or more (n = 23) malformations (7.4% and 2.8% of all born, respectively). A significantly higher malformation rate was found in transgenic Göttingen and Yucatan piglets (32% and 46% of all born, respectively) than in nontransgenic LW (17%). There was a gender difference in the transgenic minipigs because male piglets had a higher rate of malformations (49.1%) than females (29.7%). The most common defects in the cloned piglets were in the digestive (12.2%), circulatory (9.4%), reproductive (11.3%), and musculoskeletal (9.1%) systems. Malformations of the musculoskeletal system were most frequent in Göttingen (16.3% vs. approximately 5.5% in the two other breeds), whereas abnormal cardiopulmonary systems were most

  8. Intestinal epithelial apoptosis initiates gut mucosal injury during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the newborn piglet.

    PubMed

    MohanKumar, Krishnan; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; McIlwain, R Britt; Timpa, Joseph G; Jagadeeswaran, Ramasamy; Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Kurundkar, Ashish R; Kelly, David R; Garzon, Steven A; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2014-02-01

    Neonates and young infants exposed to extracorporeal circulation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and cardiopulmonary bypass are at risk of developing a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with multi-organ dysfunction. We used a piglet model of ECMO to investigate the hypothesis that epithelial apoptosis is an early event that precedes villous damage during ECMO-related bowel injury. Healthy 3-week-old piglets were subjected to ECMO for up to 8 h. Epithelial apoptosis was measured in histopathological analysis, nuclear imaging, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Intestinal mast cells were isolated by fluorescence-assisted cell sorting. Cleaved caspase-8, caspase-9, phospho-p38 MAPK, and fas ligand expression were investigated by immunohistochemistry, western blots, and reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR. Piglet ECMO was associated with increased gut epithelial apoptosis. Extensive apoptotic changes were noted on villus tips and in scattered crypt cells after 2 h of ECMO. After 8 h, the villi were denuded and apoptotic changes were evident in a majority of crypt cells. Increased circulating I-FABP levels, a marker of gut epithelial injury, showed that epithelial injury occurred during ECMO. We detected increased cleaved caspase-8, but not cleaved caspase-9, in epithelial cells indicating that the extrinsic apoptotic pathway was active. ECMO was associated with increased fas ligand expression in intestinal mast cells, which was induced through activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. We conclude that epithelial apoptosis is an early event that initiates gut mucosal injury in a piglet model of ECMO.

  9. 49 CFR 572.25 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 6-Month-Old Infant § 572.25 General description. (a) The infant dummy is specified in its entirety by means of 5 drawings (No. SA...

  10. 49 CFR 572.151 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES CRABI 12-Month-Old Infant, Alpha Version § 572.151 General description. (a) The 12-month-old-infant crash test dummy is...

  11. Intestinal and systemic immune development and response to vaccination are unaffected by dietary (1,3/1,6)-β-D-glucan supplementation in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Hester, Shelly N; Comstock, Sarah S; Thorum, Shannon C; Monaco, Marcia H; Pence, Brandt D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Donovan, Sharon M

    2012-09-01

    Infants are susceptible to infections in early life and must rely on their innate immune system for protection. β-Glucans potentiate immune responses. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of purified yeast (1,3/1,6)-β-d-glucan (Wellmune WGP, here referred to as WGP) on the development of the gastrointestinal tract and the intestinal and systemic immune systems in neonatal piglets. Piglets were fed formula containing 0 (control), 1.8, 18, or 90 mg WGP/kg body weight (BW) and were vaccinated against human influenza. Piglets were euthanized at 7 or 21 days of age. Piglet weight and small intestinal length and weight were unaffected by dietary WGP. In addition, WGP did not affect ileal crypt depth, villus height, or ascending colon cuff depth. Immune parameters not affected by WGP supplementation included T cell phenotypes, cytokine gene expression, and cell proliferation. However, vaccination and developmental effects were seen. Overall, the doses of 1.8, 18, and 90 mg/kg BW of dietary WGP had no effect on intestinal or immune development and did not improve the antibody response to vaccination in neonatal piglets.

  12. Intestinal and Systemic Immune Development and Response to Vaccination Are Unaffected by Dietary (1,3/1,6)-β-d-Glucan Supplementation in Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Shelly N.; Comstock, Sarah S.; Thorum, Shannon C.; Monaco, Marcia H.; Pence, Brandt D.; Woods, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Infants are susceptible to infections in early life and must rely on their innate immune system for protection. β-Glucans potentiate immune responses. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of purified yeast (1,3/1,6)-β-d-glucan (Wellmune WGP, here referred to as WGP) on the development of the gastrointestinal tract and the intestinal and systemic immune systems in neonatal piglets. Piglets were fed formula containing 0 (control), 1.8, 18, or 90 mg WGP/kg body weight (BW) and were vaccinated against human influenza. Piglets were euthanized at 7 or 21 days of age. Piglet weight and small intestinal length and weight were unaffected by dietary WGP. In addition, WGP did not affect ileal crypt depth, villus height, or ascending colon cuff depth. Immune parameters not affected by WGP supplementation included T cell phenotypes, cytokine gene expression, and cell proliferation. However, vaccination and developmental effects were seen. Overall, the doses of 1.8, 18, and 90 mg/kg BW of dietary WGP had no effect on intestinal or immune development and did not improve the antibody response to vaccination in neonatal piglets. PMID:22815151

  13. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets

    PubMed Central

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Mason, Andrew Z; Sharma, Neha; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. However, there is a paucity of controlled studies in this area. Here, piglets were fed soy infant formula (soy), cow’s milk formula (milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum iron concentrations were higher in formula-fed compared to breastfed piglets (P < 0.05). Serum zinc values were higher in milk compared to breastfed or soy groups (P < 0.05). Zinc transporter Zip4 mRNA was elevated in small intestine of the soy compared to breastfed group (P < 0.05). Transporter Znt1 mRNA was greater in small intestine of both formula-fed groups and in liver of the milk compared to the breastfed group (P < 0.05). Metallothionein Mt1 mRNA expression was higher in small intestine and liver of milk compared to breastfed and soy groups (P < 0.05). In liver, metallothionein protein levels and protein bound zinc were also highly elevated in the milk compared to other groups (P < 0.05). mRNA encoding the hepatic zinc-regulated gene Gclc was higher in the milk than soy group (P < 0.05). ChIP assay revealed increased binding of the zinc-regulated transcription factor MTF1 to the promoters of hepatic Mt3 and Gclc genes in the milk compared to the soy group. These data provide evidence that trace element status differs in breastfed, milk-fed, and soy-fed piglets and that despite similar levels of dietary supplementation, allows strong causal inference that significant differences in serum zinc after cow’s milk formula compared to soy formula consumption result in compensatory changes in expression of zinc transporters, binding proteins, and zinc-regulated genes. PMID:25179632

  14. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets.

    PubMed

    Ronis, Martin J J; Miousse, Isabelle R; Mason, Andrew Z; Sharma, Neha; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. However, there is a paucity of controlled studies in this area. Here, piglets were fed soy infant formula (soy), cow's milk formula (milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum iron concentrations were higher in formula-fed compared to breastfed piglets (P < 0.05). Serum zinc values were higher in milk compared to breastfed or soy groups (P < 0.05). Zinc transporter Zip4 mRNA was elevated in small intestine of the soy compared to breastfed group (P < 0.05). Transporter Znt1 mRNA was greater in small intestine of both formula-fed groups and in liver of the milk compared to the breastfed group (P < 0.05). Metallothionein Mt1 mRNA expression was higher in small intestine and liver of milk compared to breastfed and soy groups (P < 0.05). In liver, metallothionein protein levels and protein bound zinc were also highly elevated in the milk compared to other groups (P < 0.05). mRNA encoding the hepatic zinc-regulated gene Gclc was higher in the milk than soy group (P < 0.05). ChIP assay revealed increased binding of the zinc-regulated transcription factor MTF1 to the promoters of hepatic Mt3 and Gclc genes in the milk compared to the soy group. These data provide evidence that trace element status differs in breastfed, milk-fed, and soy-fed piglets and that despite similar levels of dietary supplementation, allows strong causal inference that significant differences in serum zinc after cow's milk formula compared to soy formula consumption result in compensatory changes in expression of zinc transporters, binding proteins, and zinc-regulated genes.

  15. Associations between intrapartum death and piglet, placental, and umbilical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rootwelt, V; Reksen, O; Farstad, W; Framstad, T

    2012-12-01

    Intrapartum death in multiparous gestations in sows (Sus scrofa) is often caused by hypoxia. There is little information in the literature on the assessment of the placenta in relation to intrapartum death in piglets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the placental area and weight upon piglet birth characteristics and intrapartum death. Litters from 26 Landrace-Yorkshire sows were monitored during farrowing and the status of each piglet was recorded, including blood parameters of piglets and their umbilical veins. Of 413 piglets born, 6.5% were stillborn. Blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, and CO(2) partial pressure were increased in the stillborn piglets (P < 0.05) and corresponding umbilical veins (P < 0.01) vs. live-born piglets, whereas pH and base excess were decreased (P < 0.001). Time from onset of parturition until birth was increased for piglets born dead vs. live (P < 0.001). Mean birth weight for piglets born dead was not different from live-born piglets (P = 0.631), whereas mean body mass index was reduced (P < 0.001). Mean placental area and placental weight belonging to stillborn piglets were not different from live-born piglets (P = 0.662 and P = 0.253, respectively). Blood concentrations of lactate, hemoglobin, and hematocrit recorded in all piglets pooled were associated with placental area (P < 0.05), but not with placental weight (P > 0.2). Piglet BW was positively correlated with placental area and placental weight (P < 0.001). The risk of being born dead increased with increasing birth order group, and broken umbilical cords explained 71% of the stillbirths (P = 0.001). We conclude that placental area and placental weight are both positively associated with piglet birth weight, but not with the probability of being born dead. Placental area was a better predictor of piglet vitality than placental weight. Because umbilical cord rupture and prolonged birth time were associated with being born dead, umbilical cord rupture

  16. Hematological and lipid changes in newborn piglets fed milk-replacer diets containing erucic acid.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J K; Sauer, F D; Farnworth, E R; Stevenson, D; Rock, G A

    1998-01-01

    Canola oil is not presently permitted in infant formulations in the United States because of lack of information concerning the effects of feeding canola oil to the newborn. We have previously reported a transient decrease in platelet counts and an increase in platelet size in newborn piglets fed canola oil for 4 wk, and have confirmed this in the present study. In canola oil-fed piglets, changes in platelet size and number were overcome by adding either long-chain saturated fatty acids from cocoa butter (16:0 and 18:0), or shorter-chain saturates from coconut oil (12:0 and 14:0). Feeding a high erucic acid rape-seed (HEAR) oil, with 20% 22:1n-9, led to an even greater platelet reduction and increased platelet size throughout the 4-wk trial. Bleeding times were longer in piglets fed canola oil or HEAR oil compared to sow-reared and soybean oil-fed piglets. There were no other diet-related changes. Diet-induced platelet changes were not related to platelet lipid class composition, but there were fatty acid changes. The incorporation of 22:1n-9 into platelet phospholipids of piglets fed canola oil was low (0.2-1.2%), and even for the HEAR oil group ranged from only 0.2% in phosphatidylinositol to 2.4% in phosphatidylserine. A much greater change was observed in the concentration of 24:1n-9 and in the 24:1n-9/24:0 ratio in platelet sphingomyelin (SM). The 24:1n-9 increased to 49% in the HEAR oil group compared to about 12% in animals fed the control diets (sow-reared piglets and soybean oil-fed group), while the 24:1n-9/24:0 ratio increased from about 1 to 12. Even feeding canola oil, prepared to contain 2% 22:1n-9, led to a marked increase in 24:1n-9 to 29% and had a 24:1n-9/24:0 ratio of 5. The canola oil/cocoa butter group, which also contained 2% 22:1n-9, showed a lower level of 24:1n-9 (20%) and the 24:1n-9/24:0 ratio (3) compared to the canola oil group. The results suggest that the diet-related platelet changes in newborn piglets may be related to an increase

  17. Piglet behavior as a measure of vitality and its influence on piglet survival and growth during lactation.

    PubMed

    Muns, R; Manzanilla, E G; Sol, C; Manteca, X; Gasa, J

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a vitality scoring method, based on piglet behavior and relate it to piglet growth and survival. From 21 sows (Sus scrofa), 287 piglets were used. After farrowing (d 0), piglets were weighed and tested for 4 behavioral parameters in a circular enclosure (55 cm diam.): movement capacity (M), udder stimulation (U), number of completed circles around the enclosure (NCC), and screaming (Sc). Piglets were weighed again on d 1, 2, 3, and 17. Piglet rectal temperature (RT) was recorded on d 0, 1, 2, and 3. Farrowing information of the sow was also recorded. Multiple regression analyses for survival and BW gain at weaning as dependent variables were performed. Piglet BW gain at weaning was influenced by BW at birth (P < 0.001), sow parity (P = 0.024), total number of piglets born alive per sow (P < 0.001), and sum of U and NCC parameters (UN; P = 0.023). Piglet survival during lactation was influenced by BW at birth (P = 0.015), UNCC parameter (P = 0.026), and RT on d 3 (P = 0.085). The sum of U and NCC parameters, in combination with BW at birth and information of the sow, might be useful to predict piglet growth survival during lactation, thus becoming a useful tool to improve piglet management during the first days of lactation. In conclusion, UNCC parameter seems to be an easy and useful way to assess piglet vitality for both scientific and commercial purposes. PMID:23408816

  18. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePlus

    IV fluids - infants; TPN - infants; Intravenous fluids - infants; Hyperalimentation - infants ... vitamins, minerals, and often lipids (fats) into an infant's vein. TPN can be lifesaving for very small ...

  19. Piglet preweaning mortality in a commercial swine herd in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuntapaitoon, Morakot; Tummaruk, Padet

    2015-12-01

    In the modern swine industry, the number of piglets born alive per litter is dramatically increasing due to genetic improvement of litter traits. However, knowledge on post-partum management is inadequate to reduce piglet preweaning mortality. The present study aimed to investigate piglet preweaning mortality in a commercial swine herd in Thailand in relation to the number of littermate pigs and piglet birth weight. Data included 11,154 litters from 3574 sows farrowed from January 2009 to December 2012. Littermate pig was defined as the number of piglets after cross-fostering. Number of littermate pigs was classified as 1-7, 8-10, 11-12, and 13-15 piglets per litter. Mean birth weight of the piglets was classified as low (<1.30 kg), medium (1.30-1.79 kg), and high (≥1.80 kg). Piglet preweaning mortality was calculated, logged transformed, and analyzed by general linear mixed models. On average, piglet preweaning mortality was 14.5 % (median = 10.0 %). Piglet preweaning mortality in the litter with 13-15 littermate pigs (24.1 %) was significantly higher than the litter with 1-7 (11.9 %, P < 0.001), 8-10 (11.8 %, P < 0.001), and 11-12 (14.6 %, P < 0.001) littermate pigs. The litters with a low piglet birth weight had a higher piglet preweaning mortality rate (18.8 %) than the litters with a medium (15.7 %, P < 0.001) and a high piglet birth weight (12.1 %, P < 0.001). In conclusion, to reduce piglet preweaning mortality in commercial swine herds, special care needs to be taken in litters with more than 13 littermate pigs and with piglets with birth weight below 1.30 kg.

  20. Effect of weaning age on cortisol release in piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, L A; Yang, J J; Li, Y; Lv, L; Xie, J J; Du, G M; Jin, T M; Qin, S Y; Jiao, X L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of weaning age on the adrenal cortex, which plays a vital role in the stress response, is currently unknown. Therefore, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels, weights and relative weights of adrenal glands, and steroidogenesis-related protein and enzyme expression levels in piglets weaned on different days were determined. Piglets weaned at 35 days had significantly lower ACTH levels than those weaned at 14 or 21 days, and cortisol levels of piglets weaned at 21, 28, and 35 days were significantly lower than those of piglets weaned on day 14. Adrenal gland weights of piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days and relative adrenal gland weights of piglets weaned at 35 days were significantly lower than those of piglets weaned at 14 days. However, no significant difference was detected in the expression of melanocortin-type 2 receptor mRNA, which is associated with weaning age. Steroidogenic acute-regulatory (StAR) mRNA and cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 mRNA expression levels in piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days were significantly lower than in those weaned at 14 or 21 days, and P450 11β mRNA expression levels in piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days were significantly lower than in those weaned at 14 days. Therefore, early-weaned piglets exhibited increased adrenal gland weights and StAR and steroidogenic enzyme expression, all of which contributed to high cortisol levels. The high plasma ACTH and cortisol levels in early-weaned piglets indicate that these animals would be greatly affected by stress. PMID:27173313

  1. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    PubMed

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (P<0·05). However, IUGR piglets fed HMB-Ca had a net weight and ADG similar to that of NBW piglets fed the CON diet. Irrespective of body weight (BW), HMB-Ca supplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (P<0·05). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the effects of BW and HMB on mTOR expression in the LD (P<0·05). In conclusion, HMB-Ca supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.

  2. Touch during preterm infant resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Kitchin, L W; Hutchinson, S

    1996-10-01

    Preterm infants frequently require resuscitation in the delivery room. Under the intense circumstances of providing lifesaving interventions, caregivers may be unaware of the amount and kind of touch an infant receives. The purpose of this qualitative, ethologic study was to describe the kinds of touch that occur during resuscitation of premature infants immediately after delivery as viewed on videotape. The convenience sample consisted of ten videotapes of premature infant resuscitation performed at a tertiary care center. Using Spradley's Developmental Research Sequence, a description of kinds of touch--including mechanical and human touch--was developed. Descriptive research conceptualizing touch promotes awareness of current practice and may lead to alterations in clinical practice that best support the adaptive response in the depressed infant. PMID:9035643

  3. Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in experimentally infected conventional piglets.

    PubMed

    Poutahidis, T; Tsangaris, T; Kanakoudis, G; Vlemmas, I; Iliadis, N; Sofianou, D

    2001-11-01

    A conventional nonmutant animal that could be experimentally infected with Helicobacter pylori isolates would be a useful animal model for human H. pylori-associated gastritis. Gnotobiotic and barrier-born pigs are susceptible to H. pylori infection, but attempts to infect conventional pigs with this bacterium have been unsuccessful. In the present study, a litter of eight 20-day-old crossbreed piglets were purchased from a commercial farm. Six of them were orally challenged two to five times at different ages, between 29 and 49 days, with doses of H. pylori inoculum containing approximately 10(9) bacterial cells. Two animals served as controls. The inoculation program began 2 days postweaning when the piglets were 29 days of age. Prior to every inoculation, the piglets were fasted and pretreated with cimetidine, and prior to the first and second inoculation each piglet also was pretreated with dexamethasone. The challenged piglets were euthanasized between 36 and 76 days of age. H. pylori colonized all six inoculated piglets. The pathology of the experimentally induced gastritis was examined macroscopically and by light and electron microscopy. H. pylori induced a severe lymphocytic gastritis in the conventional piglets and reproduced the large majority of the pathologic features of the human disease. Therefore, the conventional piglet represents a promising new model for study of the various pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of lesions of the human H. pylori-associated gastritis.

  4. Intestinal absorption of colostral lymphoid cells in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Tuboly, S; Bernáth, S; Glávits, R; Medveczky, I

    1988-12-01

    Intestinal absorption of colostral lymphoid cells was studied in 23 piglets of four sows (sows A, B, C and D). From the colostrum and blood of the sows the lymphoid cells were isolated with Ficoll-Paque and labelled with technetium (Na99mTcO4). In the 7th hour after birth, 5-ml volumes of the cell suspensions were injected, following laparotomy, directly into the stomach (piglets of sow A) or into the jejunum (piglets of sow B), whereas piglets of sows C and D received the suspensions through a naso-oesophageal tube. Cryostat sections of duodenum, jejunum and lymph node samples of piglets killed by bleeding 8 h after the treatment were examined by autoradiography. It was found that lymphoid cells present in the colostrum of a piglet's own mother were absorbed from the digestive tract and, via the lymphatic vessels, were transported to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Electron microscopy revealed that absorption took place intercellularly. Colostral cells of sows other than a piglet's own mother were observed only in the epithelial layer of the mucous membrane. The lymphoid cells isolated from the sows' blood and heat-treated colostral lymphoid cells were not absorbed. The results indicate that in the pig, an animal having an epitheliochorial placenta, the colostral lymphoid cells are absorbed from the digestive tract and, hence, they can confer an active cellular immunity on the newborn piglets.

  5. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  6. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  7. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  8. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  9. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  10. Does light attract piglets to the creep area?

    PubMed

    Larsen, M L V; Pedersen, L J

    2015-06-01

    Hypothermia, experienced by piglets, has been related to piglet deaths and high and early use of a heated creep area is considered important to prevent hypothermia. The aims of the present study were to investigate how a newly invented radiant heat source, eHeat, would affect piglets' use of the creep area and whether light in the creep area works as an attractant on piglets. A total of 39 sows, divided between two batches, were randomly distributed to three heat source treatments: (1) standard infrared heat lamp (CONT, n=19), (2) eHeat with light (EL, n=10) and (3) eHeat without light (ENL, n=10). Recordings of piglets' use of the creep area were made as scan sampling every 10 min for 3 h during two periods, one in daylight (0900 to 1200 h) and one in darkness (2100 to 2400 h), on day 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 21 postpartum. On the same days, piglets were weighted. Results showed an interaction between treatment and observation period (P<0.05) with a lower use of the creep area during darkness compared with daylight for CONT and EL litters, but not for ENL litters. Piglets average daily weight gain was not affected by treatment, but was positively correlated with piglets' birth weight and was lower in batch 1 compared with batch 2. Seen from the present results, neither eHeat nor light worked as an attractant on piglets; in contrast, piglets preferred to sleep in the dark and it would therefore be recommended to turn off the light in the creep area during darkness. Heating up the creep area without light can be accomplished by using a radiant heat source such as eHeat in contrast to the normally used light-emitting infrared heat lamp.

  11. Contributions of the maternal uterine environment and piglet genotype on weaning survivability potential: I. Development of neonatal piglets after reciprocal embryo transfers between Meishan and White crossbred gilts.

    PubMed

    Miles, J R; Vallet, J L; Ford, J J; Freking, B A; Cushman, R A; Oliver, W T; Rempel, L A

    2012-07-01

    In commercial pigs, the greatest susceptibility for pre-weaning mortality occurs in low birth-weight piglets. Despite their overall decreased birth weight, Meishan (MS) piglets have decreased pre-weaning mortality rates compared with contemporary Western breeds. The objective of the current study was to determine the contributions of the maternal uterine environment, piglet genotype, and their interaction on the development of neonatal piglets pertaining to pre-weaning survivability using reciprocal embryo transfer between MS and White crossbred (WC) pigs. Twenty-five successful pregnancies were produced from 2 farrowing seasons, generating litters of maternal uterine environment (MUE) by piglet genotype (PigG) combinations; MS × MS (n = 4 litters), MS × WC (n = 7 litters), WC × MS (n = 7 litters), and WC × WC (n = 7 litters). At approximately 24 h of age (Day 1), piglets (n = 173) were weighed and a blood sample was taken. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, plasma urea nitrogen, albumin, NEFA, lactate, and cortisol were measured in all blood samples. Representative piglets (n = 46) from each litter were harvested and body measurements (i.e., organ weights, tissue glycogen content, and body composition) were determined. Piglet data were analyzed by ANOVA using MIXED model procedures. Both MUE (P < 0.001) and PigG (P < 0.01) affected piglet BW, illustrating that piglets gestated in WC gilts were heavier than piglets gestated in MS gilts, and WC piglets were heavier than MS piglets. Serum albumin concentrations were increased (P < 0.05) in MS piglets compared with WC piglets, indicating greater liver maturity. Significant MUE × PigG interactions were observed for hematocrit and hemoglobin, in which the greatest concentrations were observed in MS piglets gestated in MS and WC gilts, and the lowest concentrations were observed in WC piglets gestated in WC gilts, demonstrating increased oxygen-carrying capability. The percentage of fat and nitrogen, as well as the GE

  12. Magnesium is a cerebrovasodilator in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Kim, C R; Oh, W; Stonestreet, B S

    1997-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, in newborn piglets, magnesium results in a dose-dependent prostanoid-mediated cerebrovasodilation. Pial arterioles (50-200 microns in diameter) were serially measured, and cortical subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected for radioimmunoassay of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha, hydrolysis product of prostacyclin) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2, metabolite of thromboxane A2) before and after CSF containing 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, and 9.6 mM MgCl2 was suffused over the parietal cortex under a closed cranial window in twelve 2- to 4-day-old piglets. Magnesium suffusion resulted (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent pial arteriolar vasodilation. The increase in vessel diameter was greater (P < 0.001) with 2.4, 4.8, and 9.6 mM than with 1.2 mM concentration of magnesium. The increase in vessel diameter with 9.6 mM was also greater (P < 0.001) than with the 2.4 mM concentration of magnesium. Magnesium suffusion did not result in changes in cortical CSF prostanoid concentrations. The effect of intravenous indomethacin (5 mg/kg) on cyclooxygenase inhibition in the pial arterioles was confirmed by a 24 +/- 3% decrease in vessel diameter at the baseline (1.2 mM) magnesium concentration. In contrast, cyclooxygenase inhibition with intravenous indomethacin did not attenuate the magnesium-induced cerebrovasodilation. We conclude that in new born piglets magnesium suffusion over the parietal cortex results in a dose-dependent cerebrovasodilation that is most likely not mediated by prostanoids.

  13. [Infant botulism].

    PubMed

    Falk, Absalom; Afriat, Amichay; Hubary, Yechiel; Herzog, Lior; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2014-01-01

    Infant botulism is a paralytic syndrome which manifests as a result of ingesting spores of the toxin secreting bacterium Clostridium botulinum by infants. As opposed to botulism in adults, treating infant botulism with horse antiserum was not approved due to several safety issues. This restriction has led to the development of Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV; sells under BabyBIG). In this article we review infant botulism and the advantages of treating it with BIG-IV.

  14. Maternal presence and environmental enrichment affect food neophobia of piglets.

    PubMed

    Oostindjer, Marije; Muñoz, Julia Mas; Van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2011-02-23

    Young omnivores show food neophobia in order to avoid the potential harmful effects of ingesting unfamiliar food items. We investigated whether the presence of the mother and an enriched rearing environment would reduce food neophobia in piglets. A mother may provide information on suitable food types to include in the diet, whereas an enriched environment may stimulate behavioural development and reduce reactivity towards novel stimuli (including food). Five barren-reared or enriched-reared piglets per litter were exposed to two novel food items in the presence, and the other five per litter in the absence, of the mother in a 7 min test. Maternal presence reduced food neophobia profoundly as reflected in a reduced latency to touching the food, a higher proportion of piglets sampling the two different food items and a higher intake. Latency to touch the food, however, was affected by maternal presence more strongly for barren-reared piglets than for enriched-reared piglets, and in the absence of the sow, consumption of one novel food type and time spent in the feeding area were higher for enriched-reared piglets. Environmental enrichment does have the potential to reduce food neophobia, but the presence of the mother during the encounter with novel food seems more efficient in decreasing food neophobia of piglets.

  15. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  16. The Way Humans Behave Modulates the Emotional State of Piglets.

    PubMed

    Brajon, Sophie; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Océane; Devillers, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The emotional state can influence decision-making under ambiguity. Cognitive bias tests (CBT) proved to be a promising indicator of the affective valence of animals in a context of farm animal welfare. Although it is well-known that humans can influence the intensity of fear and reactions of animals, research on cognitive bias often focusses on housing and management conditions and neglects the role of humans on emotional states of animals. The present study aimed at investigating whether humans can modulate the emotional state of weaned piglets. Fifty-four piglets received a chronic experience with humans: gentle (GEN), rough (ROU) or minimal contact (MIN). Simultaneously, they were individually trained on a go/no-go task to discriminate a positive auditory cue, associated with food reward in a trough, from a negative one, associated with punishments (e.g. water spray). Independently of the treatment (P = 0.82), 59% of piglets completed the training. Successfully trained piglets were then subjected to CBT, including ambiguous cues in presence or absence of a human observer. As hypothesized, GEN piglets showed a positive judgement bias, as shown by their higher percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue compared to ROU (P = 0.03) and MIN (P = 0.02) piglets, whereas ROU and MIN piglets did not differ (P > 0.10). The presence of an observer during CBT did not modulate the percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue (P > 0.10). However, regardless of the treatment, piglets spent less time in contact with the trough following positive cues during CBT in which the observer was present than absent (P < 0.0001). This study originally demonstrates that the nature of a chronic experience with humans can induce a judgement bias indicating that the emotional state of farm animals such as piglets can be affected by the way humans interact with them.

  17. The Way Humans Behave Modulates the Emotional State of Piglets.

    PubMed

    Brajon, Sophie; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Océane; Devillers, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The emotional state can influence decision-making under ambiguity. Cognitive bias tests (CBT) proved to be a promising indicator of the affective valence of animals in a context of farm animal welfare. Although it is well-known that humans can influence the intensity of fear and reactions of animals, research on cognitive bias often focusses on housing and management conditions and neglects the role of humans on emotional states of animals. The present study aimed at investigating whether humans can modulate the emotional state of weaned piglets. Fifty-four piglets received a chronic experience with humans: gentle (GEN), rough (ROU) or minimal contact (MIN). Simultaneously, they were individually trained on a go/no-go task to discriminate a positive auditory cue, associated with food reward in a trough, from a negative one, associated with punishments (e.g. water spray). Independently of the treatment (P = 0.82), 59% of piglets completed the training. Successfully trained piglets were then subjected to CBT, including ambiguous cues in presence or absence of a human observer. As hypothesized, GEN piglets showed a positive judgement bias, as shown by their higher percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue compared to ROU (P = 0.03) and MIN (P = 0.02) piglets, whereas ROU and MIN piglets did not differ (P > 0.10). The presence of an observer during CBT did not modulate the percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue (P > 0.10). However, regardless of the treatment, piglets spent less time in contact with the trough following positive cues during CBT in which the observer was present than absent (P < 0.0001). This study originally demonstrates that the nature of a chronic experience with humans can induce a judgement bias indicating that the emotional state of farm animals such as piglets can be affected by the way humans interact with them. PMID:26244335

  18. The Way Humans Behave Modulates the Emotional State of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Brajon, Sophie; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Océane; Devillers, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The emotional state can influence decision-making under ambiguity. Cognitive bias tests (CBT) proved to be a promising indicator of the affective valence of animals in a context of farm animal welfare. Although it is well-known that humans can influence the intensity of fear and reactions of animals, research on cognitive bias often focusses on housing and management conditions and neglects the role of humans on emotional states of animals. The present study aimed at investigating whether humans can modulate the emotional state of weaned piglets. Fifty-four piglets received a chronic experience with humans: gentle (GEN), rough (ROU) or minimal contact (MIN). Simultaneously, they were individually trained on a go/no-go task to discriminate a positive auditory cue, associated with food reward in a trough, from a negative one, associated with punishments (e.g. water spray). Independently of the treatment (P = 0.82), 59% of piglets completed the training. Successfully trained piglets were then subjected to CBT, including ambiguous cues in presence or absence of a human observer. As hypothesized, GEN piglets showed a positive judgement bias, as shown by their higher percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue compared to ROU (P = 0.03) and MIN (P = 0.02) piglets, whereas ROU and MIN piglets did not differ (P > 0.10). The presence of an observer during CBT did not modulate the percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue (P > 0.10). However, regardless of the treatment, piglets spent less time in contact with the trough following positive cues during CBT in which the observer was present than absent (P < 0.0001). This study originally demonstrates that the nature of a chronic experience with humans can induce a judgement bias indicating that the emotional state of farm animals such as piglets can be affected by the way humans interact with them. PMID:26244335

  19. Antimicrobial Therapies for Helicobacter pylori Infection in Gnotobiotic Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Krakowka, Steven; Eaton, K. A.; Leunk, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    Gnotobiotic piglets infected with Helicobacter pylori were treated with various antimicrobials as monotherapy and dual therapy, and the results were compared to those for piglets treated with a triple-therapy regimen (bismuth subsalicyclate at 5.7 mg/kg of body weight, metronidazole at 4.4 mg/kg, and amoxicillin at 6.8 mg/kg four times a day [QID]). Clearance of infection was assessed after 7 days of treatment, and eradication was assessed following 7 days of treatment and a 14-day posttreatment observation interval. Monotherapy with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and ciprofloxacin cleared and eradicated the organism from porcine stomachs; monotherapy with metronidazole cleared the infection and eradicated it from some piglets. Metronidazole-resistant microbes were recovered from treated piglets which cleared but did not eradicate the infection. Monotherapy with bismuth subsalicylate, erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, and tetracycline in the dosage range of 5.0 to 7.1 mg/kg QID was less than 100% effective in clearance and eradication, in that these drugs cleared and/or eradicated the infection from some of the piglets but did not eradicate the infection from all of the piglets. Monotherapy with an H-2 receptor antagonist (ranitidine) or a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole) was ineffective at either clearance or eradication. In vivo dose titrations with several effective monotherapies were performed to determine the lowest effective in vivo dose of drug. In piglets, eradication was associated with a statistically significant decline in serum H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies; the titers of both IgA and IgG also declined, but the values were not statistically significant. For many antimicrobials, piglets are more sensitive indicators of clearance and eradication than humans. These data establish the H. pylori-infected gnotobiotic piglet as a useful model for the identification of novel antimicrobials for the treatment of this disease and for drug

  20. Healthy birth weight results in higher vitamin A storage in neonate piglets administered high-dose supplements.

    PubMed

    Heying, Emily K; Hovel, Elizabeth; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2015-10-01

    A proposed intervention for newborn infants in countries with suspected vitamin A (VA) deficiency is to administer 50,000 IU retinyl palmitate at birth to reduce mortality risk. However, no studies have investigated birth weight effects. In this study, low birth weight (LBW; <1 kg, n = 18) and healthy birth weight (HBW) piglets (>1.5 kg, n = 18) from VA-depleted sows were dosed with 25,000 or 50,000 IU retinyl palmitate (26.2 or 52.4 µmol retinol equivalents) at birth to compare VA reserves. Blood was collected at varying times (n = 3-5/time/dose), and piglets were killed at 12 or 24 h for blood, liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs, adrenal gland, and intestinal contents. HBW piglets had significantly higher birth, death, and organ weights than LBW (P < 0.0001 for all). HBW and LBW piglets, which received VA, had higher liver and kidney VA concentrations (0.18 ± 0.09, 0.24 ± 0.10 µmol/g liver and 13.4 ± 4.1, 14.2 ± 4.5 nmol/g kidney, respectively) than controls (n = 10) (0.051 ± 0.01 µmol/g liver and 1.01 ± 0.43 nmol/g kidney) (P = 0.0061 and < 0.0001, respectively). Total liver (9.75 ± 5.16 µmol) and kidney retinol (204 ± 79.1 nmol) were higher in HBW than LBW piglets (P < 0.0001). Extrahepatic tissues, except lung, had higher VA concentration than controls (P < 0.0001). Serum retinol and ester concentrations were higher in treated than control piglets (P = 0.0028, P < 0.0001, respectively), and significantly changed during the times sampled (P = 0.022, P = 0.011, respectively). Peak serum retinyl ester concentrations, which occurred at 3 h, were higher in piglets that received 50,000 IU (4.2 ± 4.4 µmol/L) than 25,000 IU (2.7 ± 2.3 µmol/L) (P = 0.031). Regardless of dose amount, HBW piglets stored more supplemental VA than LBW piglets when administered at birth. PMID:25681469

  1. Healthy birth weight results in higher vitamin A storage in neonate piglets administered high-dose supplements

    PubMed Central

    Heying, Emily K; Hovel, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    A proposed intervention for newborn infants in countries with suspected vitamin A (VA) deficiency is to administer 50,000 IU retinyl palmitate at birth to reduce mortality risk. However, no studies have investigated birth weight effects. In this study, low birth weight (LBW; <1 kg, n = 18) and healthy birth weight (HBW) piglets (>1.5 kg, n = 18) from VA-depleted sows were dosed with 25,000 or 50,000 IU retinyl palmitate (26.2 or 52.4 µmol retinol equivalents) at birth to compare VA reserves. Blood was collected at varying times (n = 3–5/time/dose), and piglets were killed at 12 or 24 h for blood, liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs, adrenal gland, and intestinal contents. HBW piglets had significantly higher birth, death, and organ weights than LBW (P < 0.0001 for all). HBW and LBW piglets, which received VA, had higher liver and kidney VA concentrations (0.18 ± 0.09, 0.24 ± 0.10 µmol/g liver and 13.4 ± 4.1, 14.2 ± 4.5 nmol/g kidney, respectively) than controls (n = 10) (0.051 ± 0.01 µmol/g liver and 1.01 ± 0.43 nmol/g kidney) (P = 0.0061 and < 0.0001, respectively). Total liver (9.75 ± 5.16 µmol) and kidney retinol (204 ± 79.1 nmol) were higher in HBW than LBW piglets (P < 0.0001). Extrahepatic tissues, except lung, had higher VA concentration than controls (P < 0.0001). Serum retinol and ester concentrations were higher in treated than control piglets (P = 0.0028, P < 0.0001, respectively), and significantly changed during the times sampled (P = 0.022, P = 0.011, respectively). Peak serum retinyl ester concentrations, which occurred at 3 h, were higher in piglets that received 50,000 IU (4.2 ± 4.4 µmol/L) than 25,000 IU (2.7 ± 2.3 µmol/L) (P = 0.031). Regardless of dose amount, HBW piglets stored more supplemental VA than LBW piglets when administered at birth. PMID:25681469

  2. Gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori in gnotobiotic piglets.

    PubMed

    Krakowka, S; Eaton, K A; Rings, D M; Morgan, D R

    1991-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has recently been recognized as a gastric pathogen in humans. Experimental oral inoculation of gnotobiotic piglets with this organism results in gastritis that exhibits many features of the corresponding disease in humans. In piglets the organism is restricted to the gastric microenvironment and persists in that location despite prompt humoral and cellular responses to antigens of H. pylori. The gnotobiotic piglet model is useful for delineation of the role of suspected bacterial virulence factors (i.e., motility and urease production) in gastric colonization and for preclinical determination of the efficacy of various antimicrobial substances.

  3. Congenital cutaneous histiocytosis in a piglet.

    PubMed

    Hélie, P; Kiupel, M; Drolet, R

    2014-07-01

    A 2-week-old crossbred male piglet with numerous congenital, variably sized macules, plaques, and papules distributed all over the body was submitted for necropsy. Significant gross and histological lesions were restricted to the skin. On light microscopic examination, these cutaneous lesions corresponded to dermal and/or subcutaneous masses composed of spindle-shaped to round cells that multifocally contained hemosiderin; epidermotropism was not observed. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for CD204; moderately positive for CD163, lysozyme, and vimentin; and negative for Mac 387, α-1-antitrypsin, S-100 protein and E-cadherin; frozen tissues were not available for CD1a and CD11c. Transmission electron microscopic examination of sections from formalin-fixed tissues did not reveal Birbeck's granules. The clinical, morphological, and immunohistochemical results were consistent with a congenital cutaneous histiocytosis of non-Langerhans cell origin. The condition most resembled juvenile xanthogranuloma in humans, a generally skin-limited non-Langerhans histiocytic disorder that can be congenital. Cutaneous and/or systemic histiocytic disorders are well characterized in dogs and have been described in cats, and a case with some similarities to ours has been reported in a neonatal piglet, but this is to our knowledge the first immunohistochemically supported report of histiocytosis in the pig and congenital histiocytosis in animals.

  4. Comparison of near-infrared spectroscopy with CT cerebral blood flow measurements in newborn piglets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Derek W.; Picot, Paul A.; Springett, Roger; Delpy, David T.; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2001-05-01

    Severely premature infants are often at high risk of cerebral hemorrhage or ischemic injury due to their inability to properly regulate blood flow to the brain. If blood flow is too high, the infant is at risk of cerebral hemorrhage, while too little blood flow can result in ischemic injury. The purpose of this research is to design and develop a means of non-invasively measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Such a device would greatly aid the diagnosis and monitoring of afflicted infants. Previous attempts to measure CBF with NIRS have achieved limited success. In this study we acquired high signal-to-noise NIR spectrum from 600 to 980 nm with a cooled CCD spectrometer. This spectrometer enables the differential path length factor (DPF) to be estimated with accuracy using a second derivative technique described by Matcher et al. The validity of our new approach is determined via direct comparison with a previously validated computed tomography (CT) method. Three newborn piglets were studied. CBF measurements were performed at various partial arterial CO2 tensions (PaCO2) using both the NIRS and CT methods. The results of the two methods correlate well with a relationship of CBFCT equals -4.30 + 1.05 CBFNIRS (r2 equals 0.96).

  5. Carrageenan analysis. Part 1: Characterisation of the carrageenan test material and stability in swine-adapted infant formula.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, William R; Davis, Steven R; Hroncich, Maggie M; Vurma, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    A method was developed and validated in support of a 28-day feeding study of swine-adapted infant formula stabilised with carrageenan administered to neonatal piglets. Carrageenan concentrations in the test formulations were 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 mg kg(-1) formula. Extraction of carrageenan from swine-adapted infant formula was achieved by breaking carrageenan-protein cross-linkages using saturated sodium chloride, followed by separation of the non-gelling carrageenan fraction via centrifugation. The extraction of carrageenan from formula was successful with respect to consistent recovery of the non-gelling carrageenan fraction from both test and control formula samples. Molecular weight analysis (Mw) of the recovered carrageenan fractions from the test and control formula samples confirmed that the carrageenan used to manufacture the formula was not degraded during the infant formula production process and subsequent storage for 4 months covering the 28-day piglet dietary feeding study. Carrageenan has excellent stability in infant formulations.

  6. Similar efficacy of human banked milk and bovine colostrum to decrease incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm piglets.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Michael L; Sangild, Per T; Lykke, Mikkel; Schmidt, Mette; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Preterm birth and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants. As mother's milk is often absent following preterm delivery, infant formula (IF) and human donor milk (HM) are frequently used as alternatives. We have previously shown that porcine and bovine colostrum (BC) provide similar NEC protection in preterm piglets relative to IF. We hypothesized that HM exerts similar effects and that this effect is partly species-independent. Preterm piglets (n = 40) received 2 days of total parenteral nutrition, followed by a rapid transition to full enteral feeding (15 ml·kg(-1)·2 h(-1)) for 2 days using BC (n = 13), HM (n = 13), or IF (n = 14). Intestinal passage time and hexose absorption were tested in vivo. Body and organ weights were recorded on day 5, and macroscopic NEC lesions in the gastrointestinal tract were assessed. Intestinal samples were collected for determination of histomorphology, histopathology, tissue IL-6 and IL-8, organic acids, bacterial adherence by fluorescence in situ hybridization score, and digestive enzyme activities. Relative to IF, pigs from BC and HM showed longer intestinal passage time; higher weight gain, hexose absorptive capacity, mucosal proportion, and enzyme activities; lower NEC incidence, organic acid concentration, and IL-8 concentration; and reduced histopathology lesions. Tissue IL-6 concentration and bacterial adherence score were lower for HM, relative to both BC and IF groups. We conclude that BC and HM are both superior to IF in stimulating gut structure, function, and NEC resistance in preterm piglets. BC may be a relevant alternative to HM when mother's milk is unavailable during the first week after preterm birth. PMID:23657639

  7. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L.; Theodorou, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian (AI) mothers’ perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 AI mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of AI culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that healthcare providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports AI mothers and their premature infants. PMID:25721716

  8. Modeling Pediatric Brain Trauma: Piglet Model of Controlled Cortical Impact.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Jennifer C Munoz; Keeley, Kristen; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Dodge, Carter P

    2016-01-01

    The brain has different responses to traumatic injury as a function of its developmental stage. As a model of injury to the immature brain, the piglet shares numerous similarities in regards to morphology and neurodevelopmental sequence compared to humans. This chapter describes a piglet scaled focal contusion model of traumatic brain injury that accounts for the changes in mass and morphology of the brain as it matures, facilitating the study of age-dependent differences in response to a comparable mechanical trauma.

  9. Postnatal Leptin Promotes Organ Maturation and Development in IUGR Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Attig, Linda; Brisard, Daphné; Larcher, Thibaut; Mickiewicz, Michal; Guilloteau, Paul; Boukthir, Samir; Niamba, Claude-Narcisse; Gertler, Arieh; Djiane, Jean; Monniaux, Danielle; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa

    2013-01-01

    Babies with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for experiencing negative neonatal outcomes due to their general developmental delay. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a short postnatal leptin supply on the growth, structure, and functionality of several organs at weaning. IUGR piglets were injected from day 0 to day 5 with either 0.5 mg/kg/d leptin (IUGRLep) or saline (IUGRSal) and euthanized at day 21. Their organs were collected, weighed, and sampled for histological, biochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses. Leptin induced an increase in body weight and the relative weights of the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, and small intestine without any changes in triglycerides, glucose and cholesterol levels. Notable structural and functional changes occurred in the ovaries, pancreas, and secondary lymphoid organs. The ovaries of IUGRLep piglets contained less oogonia but more oocytes enclosed in primordial and growing follicles than the ovaries of IUGRSal piglets, and FOXO3A staining grade was higher in the germ cells of IUGRLep piglets. Within the exocrine parenchyma of the pancreas, IUGRLep piglets presented a high rate of apoptotic cells associated with a higher trypsin activity. In the spleen and the Peyer’s patches, B lymphocyte follicles were much larger in IUGRLep piglets than in IUGRSal piglets. Moreover, IUGRLep piglets showed numerous CD79+cells in well-differentiated follicle structures, suggesting a more mature immune system. This study highlights a new role for leptin in general developmental processes and may provide new insight into IUGR pathology. PMID:23741353

  10. Reactive Oxygen Species-Reducing Strategies Improve Pulmonary Arterial Responses to Nitric Oxide in Piglets with Chronic Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dikalova, Anna; Slaughter, James C.; Kaplowitz, M.R.; Zhang, Y.; Aschner, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: There are no effective treatments for chronic pulmonary hypertension in infants with cardiopulmonary disorders associated with hypoxia, such as those with chronic lung disease. These patients often have poor or inconsistent pulmonary dilator responses to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy for unknown reasons. One possible explanation for poor responsiveness to iNO is reduced NO bioavailability caused by interactions between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NO. Our major aim was to determine if strategies to reduce ROS improve dilator responses to the NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP), in resistance pulmonary arteries (PRAs) from a newborn piglet model of chronic pulmonary hypertension. Results: The dilation to SNAP was significantly impaired in PRAs from piglets with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. ROS scavengers, including cell-permeable and impermeable agents to degrade hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), improved dilation to SNAP in PRAs from chronically hypoxic piglets. Treatment with agents to inhibit nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase, potential enzymatic sources of ROS, also improved dilation to SNAP in PRAs from hypoxic piglets. Innovation: Our studies are the first to utilize a newborn model of chronic pulmonary hypertension to evaluate the impact of a number of potential therapeutic strategies for ROS removal on responses to exogenous NO in the vessels most relevant to the regulation of pulmonary vascular resistance (PRA). Conclusions: Strategies aimed at reducing ROS merit further evaluation and consideration as therapeutic approaches to improve responses to iNO in infants with chronic pulmonary hypertension. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1727–1738. PMID:23244497

  11. Individual piglets' contribution to the development of tail biting.

    PubMed

    Zonderland, J J; Kemp, B; Bracke, M B M; den Hartog, L A; Spoolder, H A M

    2011-02-01

    Conflicting hypotheses exist about the contribution of individual pigs to the development of a tail-biting outbreak, but there is limited quantitative information to support or dismiss them. This study aims to quantify the development of tail-biting behaviour at pen and individual piglet level, before and after the first visible tail damage. Video recordings of 14 pens with tail-biting outbreaks and individually marked weaned piglets were used to observe tail-biting incidents (TBIs; piglet biting a penmate's tail). When visible tail damage was first observed in a pen (i.e. day of tail biting outbreak; D0), the video recordings of the previous 6 (till D-6) and the following 6 days (till D6) were analysed every other day for TBIs and the identities of the biter and bitten piglet were recorded. The average TBIs per individual piglet (within each pen) per observation day were analysed to quantify the development of tail-biting behaviour and to identify pronounced biters and/or bitten piglets. The (absence of) coherence for TBIs in a pen was used to test whether biters preferred a specific penmate. There was an exponential increase in the intensity (linear on log scale) of the TBIs from an average of 0.7 bites/h at D-6 to 2.3 bites/h at D6. An additional negative quadratic component suggests that a plateau for tail-biting behaviour was reached by the end of the observation period. Before any visible tail damage was observed (i.e. before D0), 82% of the piglets performed and 96% of them received tail bites. After D0, the figures were 99% and 100%, respectively. One or a few pronounced biters could be identified in almost all pens. These biters already showed more tail biting at D-6 than their penmates. Furthermore, these biters showed a greater increase in tail-biting behaviour during the observation period than the average scores of their penmates. In contrast, there was no apparent increase in the receipt of bites among the piglets that had already been bitten more

  12. Contributions of the maternal uterine environment and piglet genotype on weaning survivability potential: II. Piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition, and piglet blood profiles during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfers between Meishan and White crossbred gilts.

    PubMed

    Miles, J R; Vallet, J L; Ford, J J; Freking, B A; Oliver, W T; Rempel, L A

    2015-04-01

    Crossbreeding studies between Meishan (MS) and Large White (LW) pigs have illustrated that increased piglet growth before weaning is attributed to the maternal genotype of LW dams. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of the maternal uterine environment (MUE), piglet genotype (PigG), piglet age (PA), and their interactions on piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition, and piglet blood profiles during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfers between MS and White crossbred (WC) gilts. Twenty-five successful pregnancies were generated by embryo transfer in 2 farrowing years representing all MUE × PigG combinations: MS × MS (n = 4 litters), MS × WC (n = 7 litters), WC × MS (n = 7 litters), and WC × WC (n = 7 litters). At d 1 and 10 and at weaning, piglets (n = 147, n = 96, and n = 94, respectively) were weighed and blood samples were collected and measured for hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, nitrogen, NEFA, albumin, lactate, and cortisol. In addition, sows were manually milked from a medial mammary gland to determine milk composition. All data were analyzed by ANOVA using MIXED model procedures with the fixed effects of MUE, PigG, PA, and their interactions. Piglet weight was greater (P < 0.001) in piglets from WC dams compared to MS dams at d 10 and weaning but not at d 1. In addition, ADG were greater (P < 0.05) from piglets from WC dams compared to MS dams throughout lactation. However, milk composition was greater (P < 0.05) for GE and fat content from MS dams compared to WC dams, illustrating differences in milk quality between the breeds. There were significant MUE × PigG × PA interactions for hematocrit and hemoglobin levels in which greater (P < 0.001) levels were observed in MS piglets, irrespective of MUE, at d 1 of lactation and in MS piglets from MS dams at d 10 of lactation. Blood glucose was greater (P = 0.01) at d 1 in piglets from WC dams regardless of PigG but, at weaning, glucose was greater (P = 0

  13. Role of vacuolating cytotoxin in gastritis due to Helicobacter pylori in gnotobiotic piglets.

    PubMed

    Eaton, K A; Cover, T L; Tummuru, M K; Blaser, M J; Krakowka, S

    1997-08-01

    To investigate the role of the Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin in the pathogenesis of gastritis, gnotobiotic piglets were colonized with either toxigenic H. pylori or a nontoxigenic isogenic mutant. Only piglets given the toxigenic strain developed toxin-neutralizing antibodies (indicating that toxin is expressed in vivo), but there was no difference in bacterial colonization, epithelial vacuolation, or gastritis between the two groups of piglets.

  14. Determination of piglet location in farrowing crates based on depth and digital images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding and properly managing behavioral responses of prewean piglets to the farrowing environment can improve well-being and pre-weaning performance of the piglets. This paper aims to quantify piglet location in the farrowing crate as affected by the lactating sow’s lying posture. Each farrow...

  15. Computational modelling of the piglet brain to simulate near-infrared spectroscopy and magnetic resonance spectroscopy data collected during oxygen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Moroz, Tracy; Banaji, Murad; Robertson, Nicola J; Cooper, Chris E; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2012-07-01

    We describe a computational model to simulate measurements from near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the piglet brain. Piglets are often subjected to anoxic, hypoxic and ischaemic insults, as experimental models for human neonates. The model aims to help interpret measurements and increase understanding of physiological processes occurring during such insults. It is an extension of a previous model of circulation and mitochondrial metabolism. This was developed to predict NIRS measurements in the brains of healthy adults i.e. concentration changes of oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin and redox state changes of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO). We altered and enhanced the model to apply to the anaesthetized piglet brain. It now includes metabolites measured by (31)P-MRS, namely phosphocreatine, inorganic phosphate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It also includes simple descriptions of glycolysis, lactate dynamics and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The model is described, and its simulations compared with existing measurements from piglets during anoxia. The NIRS and MRS measurements are predicted well, although this requires a reduction in blood pressure autoregulation. Predictions of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) and lactate concentration, which were not measured, are given. Finally, the model is used to investigate hypotheses regarding changes in CCO redox state during anoxia.

  16. Evaluation of Bioequivalency and Toxicological Effects of Three Sources of Arachidonic Acid (ARA) in Domestic Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Tyburczy, Cynthia; Brenna, Margaret E.; DeMari, Joseph A.; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Blank, Bryant S.; Valentine, Helen; McDonough, Sean P.; Banavara, Dattatreya; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A.; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are routinely added to infant formula to support growth and development. We evaluated the bioequivalence and safety of three ARA-rich oils for potential use in infant formula using the neonatal pig model. The primary outcome for bioequivalence was brain accretion of ARA and DHA. Days 3 to 22 of age, domestic pigs fed one of three formulas, each containing ARA at ~0.64% and DHA at ~0.34% total fatty acids (FA). Control diet ARA was provided by ARASCO® and all diets had DHA from DHASCO® (Martek Biosciences Corp., Columbia, MD). The experimental diets a1 and a2 provided ARA from Refined Arachidonic acid-rich Oil (RAO; Cargill, Inc., Wuhan, China) and SUNTGA40S (Nissui, Nippon Suisan Kaisha, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), respectively. Formula intake and growth were similar across all diets, and ARA was bioequivalent across treatments in the brain, retina, heart, liver and day 21 RBC. DHA levels in the brain, retina and heart were unaffected by diet. Liver sections, clinical chemistry, and hematological parameters were normal. We conclude that RAO and SUNTGA40S, when added to formula to supply ~0.64% ARA are safe and nutritionally bioequivalent to ARASCO in domestic piglets. PMID:21722692

  17. Consequences for Piglet Performance of Group Housing Lactating Sows at One, Two, or Three Weeks Post-Farrowing

    PubMed Central

    Thomsson, Ola; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Magnusson, Ulf; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Wallenbeck, Anna; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi

    2016-01-01

    Housing lactating sows with piglets in a multi-suckling pen from around 14 days post-farrowing is common practice in Swedish organic piglet production. However, nursing-suckling interaction is less frequent in multi-suckling pens than in individual farrowing pens, thus affecting piglet performance, e.g., piglet growth. Moreover, piglet mortality is higher in systems using multi-suckling pens. Three management routines whereby lactating sows with piglets were moved from individual farrowing pens to multi-suckling pens at one, two, or three weeks post-farrowing were compared in terms of nursing-suckling interaction and piglet performance. Correlations between nursing-suckling interaction, piglet performance, and piglet mortality were also examined. In total, 43 Yorkshire sows with piglets were included in the study. Nursing-suckling interaction and all piglet performance parameters except piglet mortality did not differ between management routines. Piglet mortality in the individual farrowing pens did not differ between management routines, but piglet mortality in the multi-suckling pen was lower (P<0.05) when piglets were group housed at three weeks compared with one week post-farrowing. Overall piglet mortality was positively correlated with mortality in the multi-suckling pen for piglets group housed at one week (r = 0.61: P<0.05) and at two weeks post-farrowing (r = 0.62: P<0.05) but not for piglets group housed at three weeks post-farrowing. In conclusion, overall piglet mortality could be reduced if sows and piglets are group housed at three weeks post-farrowing and piglet survival the first week post-farrowing is improved. PMID:27258149

  18. Consequences for Piglet Performance of Group Housing Lactating Sows at One, Two, or Three Weeks Post-Farrowing.

    PubMed

    Thomsson, Ola; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Magnusson, Ulf; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Wallenbeck, Anna; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi

    2016-01-01

    Housing lactating sows with piglets in a multi-suckling pen from around 14 days post-farrowing is common practice in Swedish organic piglet production. However, nursing-suckling interaction is less frequent in multi-suckling pens than in individual farrowing pens, thus affecting piglet performance, e.g., piglet growth. Moreover, piglet mortality is higher in systems using multi-suckling pens. Three management routines whereby lactating sows with piglets were moved from individual farrowing pens to multi-suckling pens at one, two, or three weeks post-farrowing were compared in terms of nursing-suckling interaction and piglet performance. Correlations between nursing-suckling interaction, piglet performance, and piglet mortality were also examined. In total, 43 Yorkshire sows with piglets were included in the study. Nursing-suckling interaction and all piglet performance parameters except piglet mortality did not differ between management routines. Piglet mortality in the individual farrowing pens did not differ between management routines, but piglet mortality in the multi-suckling pen was lower (P<0.05) when piglets were group housed at three weeks compared with one week post-farrowing. Overall piglet mortality was positively correlated with mortality in the multi-suckling pen for piglets group housed at one week (r = 0.61: P<0.05) and at two weeks post-farrowing (r = 0.62: P<0.05) but not for piglets group housed at three weeks post-farrowing. In conclusion, overall piglet mortality could be reduced if sows and piglets are group housed at three weeks post-farrowing and piglet survival the first week post-farrowing is improved.

  19. Dietary supplementation of Bifidobacterium longum strain AH1206 increases its cecal abundance and elevates intestinal interleukin-10 expression in the neonatal piglet.

    PubMed

    Herfel, Tina M; Jacobi, Sheila K; Lin, Xi; Jouni, Zeina E; Chichlowski, Maciej; Stahl, Chad H; Odle, Jack

    2013-10-01

    Intestinal microbiota of infants differ in response to gestational age, delivery mode and feeding regimen. Dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria is one method of promoting healthy populations. We examined the impact of a novel probiotic strain of Bifidobacterium longum (AH1206) on the health, growth and development of neonatal pigs as a model for infants. Day-old pigs were fed milk-based formula containing AH1206 at 0, 10⁹, or 10¹¹ CFU/d for 18 d (n=10/treatment). Differences were not detected in growth, organ weights or body temperatures (P>0.1); however pigs fed the high dose showed a small (2%) reduction in feed intake. Bacterial translocation was not affected as indicated by total anaerobic and aerobic counts (CFU) in samples of spleen, liver and mesenteric lymph nodes (P>0.1). Feeding AH1206 had no effects on fecal consistency, but increased the density of B. longum in the cecum. Ileal TNF expression tended to increase (P=0.08) while IL-10 expression increased linearly (P=0.01) with supplementation. Based upon findings in the suckling piglet model, we suggest that dietary supplementation with B. longum (AH1206) may be safe for human infants based on a lack of growth, development or deleterious immune-related effects observed in piglets. PMID:23872134

  20. The subventricular zone in the immature piglet brain: anatomy and exodus of neuroblasts into white matter after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Costine, Beth A; Missios, Symeon; Taylor, Sabrina R; McGuone, Declan; Smith, Colin M; Dodge, Carter P; Harris, Brent T; Duhaime, Ann-Christine

    2015-01-01

    , less than 1% of neuroblasts in the white matter were born in the 2 days following injury. These data show that the SVZ in the piglet shares many anatomical similarities with the SVZ in the human infant, and that TBI had only modest effects on the SVZ and the number of neuroblasts in the white matter. Piglets at an equivalent developmental stage to human infants were equipped with the largest SVZ and a tremendous number of neuroblasts in the white matter, which may be sufficient in lesion repair without the dramatic stimulation of neurogenic machinery. It has yet to be determined whether neurogenesis and migrating neuroblasts play a role in repair after TBI and/or whether an alteration of normal migration during active postnatal population of brain regions is beneficial in species with gyrencephalic brains.

  1. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... infant is a baby born before 37 completed weeks of gestation (more than 3 weeks before the due date). ... one of the following: Premature (less than 37 weeks gestation) Full term (37 to 42 weeks gestation) ...

  2. Neutropenia - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007230.htm Neutropenia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neutropenia is an abnormally low number of white blood ...

  3. Infant botulism

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in soil and certain foods (such as honey and some corn syrups). Infant botulism occurs mostly ... late as 1 year. Risk factors include swallowing honey as a baby, being around contaminated soil, and ...

  4. Infant reflexes

    MedlinePlus

    ... neck reflex; Galant reflex; Truncal incurvation; Rooting reflex; Parachute reflex; Grasp reflex ... was stroked and begin to make sucking motions. PARACHUTE REFLEX This reflex occurs in slightly older infants ...

  5. Characterization of the Intestinal Lactobacilli Community following Galactooligosaccharides and Polydextrose Supplementation in the Neonatal Piglet

    PubMed Central

    Hoeflinger, Jennifer L.; Kashtanov, Dimitri O.; Cox, Stephen B.; Dowd, Scot E.; Jouni, Zeina E.; Donovan, Sharon M.; Miller, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, prebiotic supplementation of infant formula has become common practice; however the impact on the intestinal microbiota has not been completely elucidated. In this study, neonatal piglets were randomized to: formula (FORM, n = 8), formula supplemented with 2 g/L each galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX, F+GP, n = 9) or a sow-reared (SOW, n = 12) reference group for 19 days. The ileal (IL) and ascending colon (AC) microbiota were characterized using culture-dependent and -independent methods. 16S amplicon sequencing identified no differences at the genera level in the IL. Interestingly, six genera in the AC were significantly different between FORM and F+GP (P<0.05): Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, Parabacteroides, Oscillospira, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium and Catabacter. In particular, the relative abundance of AC Lactobacillus was higher (P = 0.04) in F+GP as compared to FORM. Culture-dependent analysis of the IL and AC lactobacilli communities of FORM and F+GP revealed a Lactobacillus spp. composition similar to 16S amplicon sequencing. Additional analysis demonstrated individual Lactobacillus isolates were unable to ferment PDX. Conversely, a majority of lactobacilli isolates could ferment GOS, regardless of piglet diet. In addition, the ability of lactobacilli isolates to ferment the longer chain GOS fragments (DP 3 or greater), which are expected to be present in the distal intestine, was not different between FORM and F+GP. In conclusion, prebiotic supplementation of formula impacted the AC microbiota; however, direct utilization of GOS or PDX does not lead to an increase in Lactobacillus spp. PMID:26275147

  6. Characterization of the Intestinal Lactobacilli Community following Galactooligosaccharides and Polydextrose Supplementation in the Neonatal Piglet.

    PubMed

    Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Kashtanov, Dimitri O; Cox, Stephen B; Dowd, Scot E; Jouni, Zeina E; Donovan, Sharon M; Miller, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, prebiotic supplementation of infant formula has become common practice; however the impact on the intestinal microbiota has not been completely elucidated. In this study, neonatal piglets were randomized to: formula (FORM, n = 8), formula supplemented with 2 g/L each galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX, F+GP, n = 9) or a sow-reared (SOW, n = 12) reference group for 19 days. The ileal (IL) and ascending colon (AC) microbiota were characterized using culture-dependent and -independent methods. 16S amplicon sequencing identified no differences at the genera level in the IL. Interestingly, six genera in the AC were significantly different between FORM and F+GP (P<0.05): Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, Parabacteroides, Oscillospira, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium and Catabacter. In particular, the relative abundance of AC Lactobacillus was higher (P = 0.04) in F+GP as compared to FORM. Culture-dependent analysis of the IL and AC lactobacilli communities of FORM and F+GP revealed a Lactobacillus spp. composition similar to 16S amplicon sequencing. Additional analysis demonstrated individual Lactobacillus isolates were unable to ferment PDX. Conversely, a majority of lactobacilli isolates could ferment GOS, regardless of piglet diet. In addition, the ability of lactobacilli isolates to ferment the longer chain GOS fragments (DP 3 or greater), which are expected to be present in the distal intestine, was not different between FORM and F+GP. In conclusion, prebiotic supplementation of formula impacted the AC microbiota; however, direct utilization of GOS or PDX does not lead to an increase in Lactobacillus spp.

  7. The effects of nicotine on the alpha-7 and beta-2 nicotinic acetycholine receptor subunits in the developing piglet brainstem.

    PubMed

    Browne, Cherylea J; Sharma, Nidhi; Waters, Karen A; Machaalani, Rita

    2010-02-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). We tested the hypothesis that nicotine increases expression of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits alpha7 and beta2 in a piglet model. Piglets exposed to 2mg/kg/day nicotine for 14 days postnatally (n=14) were compared to non-exposed controls (n=14), (equal gender proportions). Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify and quantify changes in, alpha7 and beta2 nAChR subunits in 8 nuclei of the medulla at both the rostral and caudal levels. Compared to controls, nicotine exposed piglets had decreased alpha7 in the rostral dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (rDMNV) (p=0.01), and increased beta2 in the caudal DMNV (cDMNV) (p=0.05), caudal nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (cNSTT) (p=0.03) and caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS) (p=0.04). Analysis by gender showed that in the control group, compared to males, females had higher beta2 in the caudal hypoglossal (cXII) (p<0.01) and caudal inferior olivary (p=0.04) nuclei, while in the nicotine group females had higher beta2 in the cDMNV (p=0.02). Compared to control males, nicotine exposed males had lower beta2 in the cXII (p<0.01). Overall, changes in alpha7 were specific to nicotine exposure with no gender differentiation. Changes in beta2 were more widespread but showed gender-specific effects. These findings provide evidence that early postnatal exposure to nicotine significantly affects nAChR subunit expressions in the developing brainstem.

  8. Weanling piglet cerebellum: a surrogate for tolerance to MRT (microbeam radiation therapy) in pediatric neuro-oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Blattmann, Hans; Di Michiel, Marco; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Guzman, Raphael; Zimmermann, Werner; Birrer, Stephan; Bley, Tim; Kircher, Patrick; Stettler, Regina; Fatzer, Rosmarie; Jaggy, Andre; Smilowitz, Henry; Brauer, Elke; Bravin, Alberto; Le Duc, Geraldine; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Thomlinson, William C.; Stepanek, Jiri; Wagner, Hans-Peter

    2001-12-01

    The cerebellum of the weanling piglet (Yorkshire) was used as a surrogate for the radiosensitive human infant cerebellum in a Swiss-led program of experimental microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) at the ESRF. Five weanlings in a 47 day old litter of seven, and eight weanlings in a 40 day old litter of eleven were irradiated in November, 1999 and June, 2000, respectively. A 1.5 cm-wide x 1.5 xm-high array of equally space approximately equals 20-30 micrometers wide, upright microbeams spaced at 210 micrometers intervals was propagated horizontally, left to right, through the cerebella of the prone, anesthetized piglets. Skin-entrance intra-microbeam peak adsorbed doses were uniform, either 150, 300, 425, or 600 gray (Gy). Peak and inter-microbeam (valley) absorbed doses in the cerebellum were computed with the PSI version of the Monte Carlo code GEANT and benchmarked using Gafchromic and radiochromic film microdosimetry. For approximately equals 66 weeks [first litter; until euthanasia], or approximately equals 57 weeks [second litter; until July 30, 2001] after irradiation, the littermates were developmentally, behaviorally, neurologically and radiologically normal as observed and tested by experienced farmers and veterinary scientists unaware of which piglets were irradiated or sham-irradiated. Morever, MRT implemented at the ESRF with a similar array of microbeams and a uniform skin-entrance peak dose of 625 Gy, followed by immunoprophylaxis, was shown to be palliative or curative in young adult rats bearing intracerebral gliosarcomas. These observations give further credence to MRT's potential as an adjunct therapy for brain tumors in infancy, when seamless therapeutic irradiation of the brain is hazardous.

  9. 49 CFR 572.151 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Alpha Version § 572.151 General description. (a) The 12-month-old-infant crash test dummy is described... no contact between metallic elements throughout the range of motion or under simulated crash...

  10. 49 CFR 572.151 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Alpha Version § 572.151 General description. (a) The 12-month-old-infant crash test dummy is described... no contact between metallic elements throughout the range of motion or under simulated crash...

  11. 49 CFR 572.151 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Alpha Version § 572.151 General description. (a) The 12-month-old-infant crash test dummy is described... no contact between metallic elements throughout the range of motion or under simulated crash...

  12. 49 CFR 572.151 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Alpha Version § 572.151 General description. (a) The 12-month-old-infant crash test dummy is described... no contact between metallic elements throughout the range of motion or under simulated crash...

  13. Modeling Pediatric Brain Trauma: Piglet Model of Controlled Cortical Impact.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Jennifer C Munoz; Keeley, Kristen; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Dodge, Carter P

    2016-01-01

    The brain has different responses to traumatic injury as a function of its developmental stage. As a model of injury to the immature brain, the piglet shares numerous similarities in regards to morphology and neurodevelopmental sequence compared to humans. This chapter describes a piglet scaled focal contusion model of traumatic brain injury that accounts for the changes in mass and morphology of the brain as it matures, facilitating the study of age-dependent differences in response to a comparable mechanical trauma. PMID:27604727

  14. Utilization of milk amino acids by the suckling Iberian piglet.

    PubMed

    Aguinaga, M A; Gómez-Carballar, F; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2011-12-01

    Sixteen pure-bred Iberian (IB) sows were used in two trials to determine the efficiency of utilization of milk protein and amino acid (AA) for growth in suckling piglets. It was hypothesized that there may be one or more strongly limiting essential AA (EAA) responsible for the slow rate of growth of the IB piglet. This AA will show the highest fractional retention. Daily milk yield and composition were determined weekly over a 34-day lactation period. Within each litter, one piglet at birth and four piglets on d 35 of life were slaughtered. The protein content of the IB sow milk was similar to that reported for conventional breeds. However, branched-chain AA, Thr, Pro, Asp and Ala were in concentrations somewhat below the range of literature values and Arg and Met, substantially above it. Milk intake per piglet tended to be greater in Trial 2 (832 vs. 893 g/day respectively; p = 0.066). However, the IB piglets grew at 168 ± 3.3 g/day, irrespective of the trial. The whole-body protein of piglets at weaning and the protein deposited in their body during the lactating period showed very close AA pattern. Among EAA, His and Arg show the highest fractional retentions (g AA retained/g AA ingested) in whole-body tissues (1.019 ± 0.025 and 0.913 ± 0.017 respectively) and also the highest body to milk ratios (1.50 and 1.41 respectively). Gly and Ala presented, among non essential AA, the highest efficiencies of utilization for tissue deposition (1.803 ± 0.057 and 1.375 ± 0.026 respectively) and body to milk ratios (2.75 and 2.12 respectively). These results suggest that the low efficiency of utilization of milk protein and the low rate of gain of the IB suckling piglet can be explained by a marked shortage in His supply, in addition to the suboptimal milk provision of Arg, Gly and Ala.

  15. [Experiences with pain control during piglet castration in Switzerland Part 1: Inhalation anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Enz, A; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Bettschart, R; Fuschini, E; Bürgi, E; Sidler, X

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were a description of the practical implementation of the painless castration under inhalational anaesthesia with an objective assessment of animal welfare, workplace safety and time exposure. 600 questionnaires were sent to farmers all over Switzerland and 100 farms were visited during castration under inhalation anaesthesia. 44 % of the visited farmers administered analgetics during anaesthesia or less than 10 minutes before castration. 14 % of the piglets were insufficiently anaesthetised (moving or vocalising) and 18 % showed stronger bleeding tendency after castration. The mortality rate was less than 0.1 %. 22 % of the swine farmers reported headache or dizziness during or after castration work. The Isoflurane level on 2 farms was above the Swiss safety limits. The time needed for castration was with 4.3 minutes clearly above the time necessary without anaesthesia. The additional financial costs and time are at the moment not adequately compensated to the farmers.

  16. Optimizing Production of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Piglet Feces as Feed Additives for Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chen, Hsi-Chia; Chen, Kun-Nan; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Ya-Ting; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii x-1d-2 and Lactobacillus mucosae x-4w-1, originally isolated from piglet feces, have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activities, antibiotic resistances and interleukin-6 induction ability in RAW 267.4 macrophages in our previous study. These characteristics make L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 good candidates for application in feed probiotics. In this study, soybeal meal, molasses and sodium acetate were selected to optimize the growth medium for cultivation of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1. These two strains were then freeze-dried and mixed into the basal diet to feed the weaned piglets. The effects of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 on the growth performance and fecal microflora of weaned piglets were investigated. The results showed that the bacterial numbers of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 reached a maximum of 8.90 and 9.30 log CFU/mL, respectively, when growing in optimal medium consisting of 5.5% (wt/vol) soybean meal, 1.0% (wt/vol) molasses and 1.0% (wt/vol) sodium acetate. The medium cost was 96% lower than the commercial de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium. In a further feeding study, the weaned piglets fed basal diet supplemented with freeze-dried probiotic cultures exhibited higher (p<0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, and gain/feed ratio than weaned piglets fed basal diet. Probiotic feeding also increased the numbers of lactobacilli and decreased the numbers of E. coli in the feces of weaned piglets. This study demonstrates that L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 have high potential to be used as feed additives in the pig industry. PMID:26104525

  17. Optimizing Production of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Piglet Feces as Feed Additives for Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chen, Hsi-Chia; Chen, Kun-Nan; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Ya-Ting; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii x-1d-2 and Lactobacillus mucosae x-4w-1, originally isolated from piglet feces, have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activities, antibiotic resistances and interleukin-6 induction ability in RAW 267.4 macrophages in our previous study. These characteristics make L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 good candidates for application in feed probiotics. In this study, soybeal meal, molasses and sodium acetate were selected to optimize the growth medium for cultivation of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1. These two strains were then freeze-dried and mixed into the basal diet to feed the weaned piglets. The effects of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 on the growth performance and fecal microflora of weaned piglets were investigated. The results showed that the bacterial numbers of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 reached a maximum of 8.90 and 9.30 log CFU/mL, respectively, when growing in optimal medium consisting of 5.5% (wt/vol) soybean meal, 1.0% (wt/vol) molasses and 1.0% (wt/vol) sodium acetate. The medium cost was 96% lower than the commercial de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium. In a further feeding study, the weaned piglets fed basal diet supplemented with freeze-dried probiotic cultures exhibited higher (p<0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, and gain/feed ratio than weaned piglets fed basal diet. Probiotic feeding also increased the numbers of lactobacilli and decreased the numbers of E. coli in the feces of weaned piglets. This study demonstrates that L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 have high potential to be used as feed additives in the pig industry.

  18. [Infant feeding].

    PubMed

    Robert, M

    2012-09-01

    Infants are vulnerable: their growth and their development depend largely on their nutritional status. It is important to propose for them an optimal food. The human milk is unquestionably the best choice for the infant. When breastfeeding is not possible, the choice of the milk is made among hundreds of formulas for infants. They are regulated by a European directive. The healthcare professionals have to recommend as often as possible an infant formula: low protein content, predominance of whey proteins, enrichment with long chain fatty acids, lactose, addition of pre- or probiotics. The formulas for specific indications will be recommended in case of particular situations after verification that the complaints (constipation, regurgitations, stomach pains) cannot be corrected by simple dietary measures (increasing of the intakes of meals with a concomitant reduction of the volume of the meals). The food diversification is recommended between 17 and 26 weeks according to the neuromuscular capacities of the infant. These meals must be presented with a spoon to assure a sufficient nutritional intake. In Belgium, the use is to begin with fruits. One should avoid adding biscuits or sugar. The meal of vegetables will be introduced a little later. It should consist of starchy foods, vegetables with some fat to which the meat will be added. Numerous foods (biscuits, croissants and similar products, chips) should never be part of the ordinary menu, but should be reserved for particular occasions. The education of the children should begin from this age on.

  19. Infant formula.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Nina R

    2009-04-01

    Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend breast milk for optimal infant nutrition, many parents still choose formula as an acceptable alternative. The wide variety of available formulas is confusing to parents and physicians, but formulas can be classified according to three basic criteria: caloric density, carbohydrate source, and protein composition. Most infants require a term formula with iron. There is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid or arachidonic acid. Soy formulas are indicated for congenital lactase deficiency and galactosemia, but are not recommended for colic because of insufficient evidence of benefit. Hypoallergenic formulas with extensively hydrolyzed protein are effective for the treatment of milk protein allergy and the prevention of atopic disease in high-risk infants. Antireflux formulas decrease emesis and regurgitation, but have not been shown to affect growth or development. Most infants with reflux require no treatment. Family physicians can use these guidelines to counsel parents about infant formula, countering consumer advertising that is not evidence-based. PMID:19378873

  20. Slow growing pre weaning piglets have altered adipokine gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs were selected from seven litters were monitored for growth rate from day 1 to 21. Samples of subcutaneous (SQ) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissues were collected at day 21 of age from the fastest and slowest growing piglets within the litter. Total RNA was extracted and reverse transcription a...

  1. Gas alternatives to carbon dioxide for euthanasia: A piglet perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The search for alternative methods to euthanize piglets is critical to address the public’s concern that current methods are not acceptable. Scientific evidence support that blunt force trauma is humane when carried out correctly, but most people find it visually difficult to accept. The use of carb...

  2. Gas alternatives to carbon dioxide for euthanasia: A piglet perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification and validation of a humane method to euthanize piglets is critical to address concern that current methods are not acceptable. This research sought to: 1) identify a method of scientifically determining if pigs find a specific euthanasia method aversive, and 2) develop an innovati...

  3. Ultrastructural study of Helicobacter pylori adherence properties in gnotobiotic piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Rudmann, D G; Eaton, K A; Krakowka, S

    1992-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of gastric mucosa from Helicobacter pylori-infected gnotobiotic piglets identified four general adherence patterns comparable to those observed in human patients. Intimate associations between the bacterial and mucosal cell membranes, including cuplike invaginations and adherence pedestals, were present and were accompanied by alterations to microvilli and cell membrane morphology. Images PMID:1563801

  4. Congenital urethral stenosis in a male miniature piglet

    PubMed Central

    Pouleur-Larrat, Bénédicte; Maccolini, Edouard; Carmel, Eric Norman; Hélie, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    A 2-month-old male miniature pig showed progressive abdominal pain, pollakiuria, and stranguria that progressed to complete urinary obstruction. Postmortem examination revealed idiopathic urethral stenosis at the level of the recess, of probable congenital origin. Urinary tract malformations should be included in the differential diagnosis of miniature piglets with urinary disorders. PMID:24891635

  5. Species H rotavirus detected in piglets with diarrhea, Brazil, 2012.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Bruna L D; Lorenzetti, Elis; Otonel, Rodrigo A A; Alfieri, Alice F; Alfieri, Amauri A

    2014-06-01

    We determined nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the rotavirus gene encoding viral protein 6 from 3 fecal samples collected from piglets with diarrhea in Brazil, 2012. The analyses showed that the porcine rotavirus strains in Brazil are closely related to the novel species H rotavirus. PMID:24855935

  6. Potential routes of acquisition of Arcobacter species by piglets.

    PubMed

    Ho, T K H; Lipman, L J A; van der Graaf-van Bloois, L; van Bergen, M; Gaastra, W

    2006-04-16

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the transmission routes of Arcobacter spp. in sows and their offspring on a breeding farm. Twelve Arcobacter-positive sows and their litters were studied for this purpose. Analysis of rectal samples showed a high prevalence of Arcobacter spp. among the sows (approximately 42% of the sows carried one or more Arcobacter species). Intermittent excretion of one particular species and shifts in excretion from one species to another were observed in individual animals over time. The detection of Arcobacter spp. in amniotic fluid of the sows and in rectal samples from newborn piglets (ranging from 38.5-83.3% per litter), as well as the high similarity between PFGE profiles of Arcobacter isolates from sows and their respective newborns indicated the existence of an intra-uterine transmission route for Arcobacter spp. Specific antibodies against Arcobacter spp. were detected in colostrum by Western blot. At 2 weeks of age, only a few piglets were positive for Arcobacter. The reappearance of Arcobacter in these piglets at Week 3 and the shift in the Arcobacter species detected (from a prominent presence of A. cryaerophilus at birth to the presence of A. skirrowii and A. butzleri at 3 weeks after birth) showed that a post-natal infection route from their mothers, newcomers or the environment to the piglets existed. Thus, in this manuscript the transmission of Arcobacter spp. (both vertical and horizontal) from carrying sows to their offspring is demonstrated.

  7. Pulmonary microRNA expression profiling in an immature piglet model of cardiopulmonary bypass-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlei; Ma, Kai; Zhang, Sen; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jinping; Wang, Xu; Li, Shoujun

    2015-04-01

    After surgery performed under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), severe lung injury often occurs in infants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potentially involved in diverse pathophysiological processes via regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate differentially expressed miRNAs and their potential target genes in immature piglet lungs in response to CPB. Fourteen piglets aged 18.6 ± 0.5 days were equally divided into two groups that underwent sham sternotomy or CPB. The duration of aortic cross-clamping was 2 h, followed by 2 h reperfusion. Lung injury was evaluated by lung function indices, levels of cytokines, and histological changes. We applied miRNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis to determine miRNA expression. Meanwhile, qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for validation of predicted mRNA targets. The deterioration of lung function and histopathological changes revealed the piglets' lungs were greatly impaired due to CPB. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, and interleukin 10 increased in the lung tissue after CPB. Using miRNA microarray, statistically significant differences were found in the levels of 16 miRNAs in the CPB group. Up-regulation of miR-21 was verified by PCR. We also observed down-regulation in the levels of miR-127, miR-145, and miR-204, which were correlated with increases in the expression of the products of their potential target genes PIK3CG, PTGS2, ACE, and IL6R in the CPB group, suggesting a potential role for miRNA in the regulation of inflammatory response. Our results show that CPB induces severe lung injury and dynamic changes in miRNA expression in piglet lungs. Moreover, the changes in miRNA levels and target gene expression may provide a basis for understanding the pathogenesis of CPB-induced injury to immature lungs.

  8. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components Thereof, DN 2976; the Commission is soliciting...

  9. Effect of sow and piglet porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on piglet mortality, viraemia, antibody titre and production parameters.

    PubMed

    Fraile, Lorenzo; Sibila, Marina; Nofrarías, Miquel; López-Jimenez, Rosa; Huerta, Eva; Llorens, Anna; López-Soria, Sergio; Pérez, Diego; Segalés, Joaquim

    2012-12-28

    The present study describes the effects of sow and/or piglet porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on viraemia, antibody response and production parameters (average daily weight gain [ADWG] and mortality) of piglets from a PCV2 subclinically infected farm. Four hundred seventy-six piglets born from vaccinated (V) or non-vaccinated (NV) sows were further subdivided in a total of four groups: NV sows-NV pigs (NV-NV, n=134), NV sows-V pigs (NV-V, n=135);V sows-NV pigs (V-NV, n=104) and V sows-V pigs (V-V, n=103). A single vaccination of sows before mating was able to confer significantly higher antibody titres to their piglets at 4 weeks of age and a different PCV2 dynamics infection compared to piglets coming from NV sows. Piglet vaccination (independently of sow treatment) caused an earlier seroconversion and lower percentages of PCV2 infected pigs compared to the NV ones throughout their life. The double PCV2 vaccination strategy was able to reduce PCV2 infection but apparently caused some interference in piglet humoral response development. PCV2 vaccination was able to overcome this interference since the ADWG was improved in both groups of vaccinated piglets, independently of the sow treatment, being the highest ones obtained in the double vaccination group.

  10. Effect of drinker type on water intake and waste in newly weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Torrey, S; Toth Tamminga, E L M; Widowski, T M

    2008-06-01

    During the first few days after weaning, pigs often experience BW loss as they adapt to eating solid food. During this time period, they are also known to drink excessively and develop abnormal oral behavior such as belly nosing. The excessive drinking may stem from the piglets' attempt to satiate hunger through gut fill from a familiar ingestive source. Gut fill through water intake may affect the establishment of feeding behavior. Using drinker devices other than the standard nipple drinker may ease the piglets' transition at weaning by facilitating the initiation of feeding and preventing the development of behavioral problems such as excessive drinking and belly nosing. In this experiment, we examined the effect of drinker type on water and food intake, growth rates, and belly nosing in newly weaned piglets. Eighteen pens of 15 piglets each (270 piglets total) were weaned at 18.1 +/- 0.1 d of age and housed in pens containing 1 of 3 drinker devices (standard nipple, push-lever bowl, and float bowl). Piglets' water and feed intake, water use, BW, and behavior were examined on a pen basis through 2 wk after weaning. Piglets with nipple drinkers wasted more water than the other piglets (P < 0.001; float, 295 +/- 70 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); nipple, 1,114 +/- 63 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); and push-lever, 186 +/- 63 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1)), whereas piglets with float bowls consumed less water than the other piglets (P < 0.001; float, 475 +/- 81 mL . pig(-1) x d(-1); nipple, 870 +/- 76 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); push-lever, 774 +/- 76 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1)). Drinker type affected feeding behavior (P = 0.02); piglets with push-lever bowls spent less time at the feeder than the other piglets, although no difference was detected for feed intake (P = 0.64) or overall ADG (P = 0.16). Piglets with push-lever bowls also tended to perform less piglet-directed nosing behavior than piglets with the float bowl (P = 0.04). Piglets appear to use more water during the first 2 d after weaning with

  11. Nitrous oxide by itself is insufficient to relieve pain due to castration in piglets.

    PubMed

    Rault, J-L; Lay, D C

    2011-10-01

    Surgical castration is performed on most male piglets in the United States. However, castration is painful and analgesics have been considered to relieve pain. Inhalant gases with analgesic properties allow for a fast induction, have short-term and reversible effects, and are a needle-free option. Nitrous oxide (N(2)O; "laughing gas") has been widely used in human surgery and dental offices as an analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic drug, yet N(2)O has not been thoroughly investigated for use in farm animals. We hypothesized that the analgesic effect of N(2)O could reduce the pain experienced by piglets during or immediately after castration. Twenty-four male piglets, from 12 litters, were castrated at 3 d of age. One piglet received N(2)O and a littermate received air as a control. After 150 s of exposure to the gas, castration was performed while the piglet remained exposed to the gas. Agitation scores and total vocalization length were recorded during castration. Behavioral observations were continued for 3 d postcastration by using a 5-min scan-sampling method for 4 h the first morning and for 2-h periods in the morning and afternoon of each day thereafter. Body weight gain was measured on the day before castration, at 3 d postcastration, and at weaning. Data were analyzed using a mixed model in SAS (Cary, NC). Nitrous oxide successfully induced anesthesia in all N(2)O piglets, as validated by a skin pinch test and the loss of the palpebral reflex. Total vocalization length was shorter in piglets receiving N(2)O during the induction phase (P = 0.003) but was not different during castration itself because piglets receiving N(2)O awoke and vocalized as much as control piglets (P = 0.87). Agitation scores during the whole procedure were reduced in piglets receiving N(2)O in both frequency (P = 0.005) and intensity (P = 0.026). For 2 h after castration, piglets receiving N(2)O displayed less huddling behavior than did control piglets (P = 0.01). Over the 3 d

  12. Changes in orexinergic immunoreactivity of the piglet hypothalamus and pons after exposure to chronic postnatal nicotine and intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Nicholas J; Russell, Benjamin; Du, Man K; Waters, Karen A; Machaalani, Rita

    2016-06-01

    We recently showed that orexin expression in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants was reduced by 21% in the hypothalamus and by 40-50% in the pons as compared with controls. Orexin maintains wakefulness/sleeping states, arousal, and rapid eye movement sleep, abnormalities of which have been reported in SIDS. This study examined the effects of two prominent risk factors for SIDS, intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH) (prone-sleeping) and chronic nicotine exposure (cigarette-smoking), on orexin A (OxA) and orexin B (OxB) expression in piglets. Piglets were randomly assigned to five groups: saline control (n = 7), air control (n = 7), nicotine [2 mg/kg per day (14 days)] (n = 7), IHH (6 min of 7% O2 /8% CO2 alternating with 6-min periods of breathing air, for four cycles) (n = 7), and the combination of nicotine and IHH (N + IHH) (n = 7). OxA/OxB expression was quantified in the central tuberal hypothalamus [dorsal medial hypothalamus (DMH), perifornical area (PeF), and lateral hypothalamus], and the dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus of the pons. Nicotine and N + IHH exposures significantly increased: (i) orexin expression in the hypothalamus and pons; and (ii) the total number of neurons in the DMH and PeF. IHH decreased orexin expression in the hypothalamus and pons without changing neuronal numbers. Linear relationships existed between the percentage of orexin-positive neurons and the area of pontine orexin immunoreactivity of control and exposure piglets. These results demonstrate that postnatal nicotine exposure increases the proportion of orexin-positive neurons in the hypothalamus and fibre expression in the pons, and that IHH exposure does not prevent the nicotine-induced increase. Thus, although both nicotine and IHH are risk factors for SIDS, it appears they have opposing effects on OxA and OxB expression, with the IHH exposure closely mimicking what we recently found in SIDS. PMID:27038133

  13. Validation of a new in vitro dynamic system to simulate infant digestion.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Olivia; Cattenoz, Thomas; Guillemin, Hervé; Souchon, Isabelle; Deglaire, Amélie; Dupont, Didier; Picque, Daniel

    2014-02-15

    Understanding the mechanisms of infant formula disintegration in the infant gastrointestinal tract is a key step for developing new formulas with health benefits for the neonate. For ethical reasons, the access to in vivo data obtained on infants is limited. The use of animal models can be an alternative but these experiments are labour intensive, expensive and results obtained show high inter-individual variability, making their interpretation difficult. The aim of this work was to develop a simple in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal digestion system, for studying infant formula digestion, and to validate it by comparing the kinetics of proteolysis obtained in vitro with in vivo data collected from piglets. Results showed a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo data and confirmed the rapid hydrolysis of caseins in gastric conditions, whereas whey proteins appeared more resistant to digestion.

  14. Effects of intermittent suckling on body composition of Iberian piglets weaned at 35 days of age.

    PubMed

    Castellano, R; Aguinaga, M A; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F; Haro, A; Seiquer, I

    2014-05-01

    Piglet body composition at weaning could be a determinant for pig's viability and may be influenced by factors such as the nutritional management followed during suckling. An experiment was conducted to study whether intermittent suckling (IS) affects body composition at weaning and nutrient and energy retention during a 34-day lactation period in Iberian piglets. Litters were subjected to conventional suckling (CS) or IS (n=10 litters of six piglets per treatment) in two trials. All piglets had ad libitum access to creep feed from day 15 onwards. In IS, piglets were progressively separated from the sow for 6, 8 and 10 h daily during the last week of lactation, whereas in CS piglets had continuous access to their dams. Creep feed intake in litters and BW development of individual piglets were measured throughout the 34-day lactation. Within each litter, both at birth and at weaning (day 35), one piglet was used to assess nutrient retention and body composition by the comparative slaughter approach. During days 29 to 35 of the experiment, daily creep feed intake was greater in IS piglets (IS 124, CS 67 g/piglet, P=0.040), and average daily gain differed significantly between groups (IS 190, CS 150 g/day, P=0.010). BW at weaning was higher in the IS than in the CS piglets (IS 8.19, CS 7.48 kg, P=0.011). Empty-body fat and energy content at weaning were higher in the IS compared with CS litters, as well as fat content in the carcass (P=0.04). The IS treatment did not affect empty-body protein deposition, but significantly increased daily retention of fat, energy, ash and calcium, compared with CS litters (P<0.05). Thus, IS in Iberian piglets seems to enhance feed intake, growth rate and retention of some body components, which may contribute to a higher body fat content at weaning and facilitate the weaning process.

  15. Influence of housing and social changes on growth, behaviour and cortisol in piglets at weaning.

    PubMed

    Colson, V; Martin, E; Orgeur, P; Prunier, A

    2012-08-20

    The present experiment aimed at evaluating the relative effects of environmental and social changes on behaviour, growth and salivary cortisol of piglets at weaning. On Day 0, 26-day old piglets were weaned and allocated to one of four treatments: neither environmental nor social change (C), environmental change (E), social change (S), and both changes (SE). Overall, 6 replicates of 10-12 animals/pen/treatment were analysed. Piglets were video recorded during the first three days after weaning to observe social behaviour and general activity. Saliva was collected between 07:00 and 09:00 on Day 0 just before weaning (D0H7), on Day 1 (D1H7) and Day 2 (D2H7 and D2H16) to measure cortisol. Saliva cortisol did not change after weaning in C piglets but increased significantly at D1H7 in S and SE piglets, at D2H7 and D2H16 in E and SE piglets. Compared to C piglets, numerous behaviours were altered in SE piglets: more total lying (P<0.08), less lying on the belly, less environmental exploration, less playing, more fighting regardless the day, more lying awake inactive on Day 0 (P<0.05). Compared to C piglets, E piglets displayed more total lying but less environmental exploration whereas S piglets showed less lying on the belly but more fighting (P<0.05). Present results show that moving piglets to a new environment as well as mixing them with unfamiliar conspecifics at weaning have stressful effects which are additive.

  16. Mode of delivery and early nutrition modulate microbial colonization and fermentation products in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Radlowski, Emily C; Monaco, Marcia H; Fahey, George C; Gaskins, H Rex; Donovan, Sharon M

    2013-06-01

    Colonization of the intestinal microbiota after birth plays an important role in development of the neonatal gastrointestinal and immune systems. Two key environmental factors that influence the colonization pattern are delivery mode and nutrition. In this study, the impact of delivery mode and nutrition on microbial colonization and metabolic activity was investigated in the pig model. Vaginally (VD) or caesarean- (CD) delivered piglets were sow-reared (SR) or fed formula alone (FF) or with 4 g/L prebiotics [1:1 ratio of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) and polydextrose (PDX); FP]. Intestinal contents were collected on d 7 and 14. SR piglets harbored different microbial populations from FF and FP piglets in ileum and ascending colon (AC). On d 7, FF piglets had a greater abundance of Clostridium XIVa in AC, but lower total bacteria, Clostridium XIVa, and Lactobacillus spp. in ileum and Fecalibacterium prausnitzii in AC compared with FP piglets. On d 14, total bacteria were more abundant in FP than FF piglets. Butyrate, isobutyrate, valerate, and isovalerate concentrations in AC were greater in SR piglets compared with FF or FP piglets. At both sampling days, acetate concentrations in AC were similar between the SR and FF groups, whereas propionate was higher in the SR compared with FF group. Delivery mode also significantly affected microbial populations. Bacterial densities differed in AC for Bacteroides-Prevotella at d 7 and Clostridium XIVa at d 14, being higher in VD piglets. Correspondingly, VD piglets had higher propionate in ileum and propionate and butyrate in AC compared with CD piglets. Our results indicate that both delivery mode and nutrition affect microbial composition and metabolic activity. Supplementation of scFOS/PDX to formula modulates microbial colonization and produces a SCFA pattern closer to that of SR piglets.

  17. 49 CFR 572.25 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General description. 572.25 Section 572.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 6-Month-Old Infant § 572.25 General description. (a) The...

  18. Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Eucker, Stephanie A.; Durduran, Turgut; Yu, Guoqiang; Ralston, Jill; Friess, Stuart H.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Margulies, Susan S.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2009-05-01

    We used a nonimpact inertial rotational model of a closed head injury in neonatal piglets to simulate the conditions following traumatic brain injury in infants. Diffuse optical techniques, including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), were used to measure cerebral blood oxygenation and blood flow continuously and noninvasively before injury and up to 6 h after the injury. The DCS measurements of relative cerebral blood flow were validated against the fluorescent microsphere method. A strong linear correlation was observed between the two techniques (R=0.89, p<0.00001). Injury-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes were quantified, and significant changes were found in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations, total hemoglobin concentration, blood oxygen saturation, and cerebral blood flow after the injury. The diffuse optical measurements were robust and also correlated well with recordings of vital physiological parameters over the 6-h monitoring period, such as mean arterial blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, and heart rate. Finally, the diffuse optical techniques demonstrated sensitivity to dynamic physiological events, such as apnea, cardiac arrest, and hypertonic saline infusion. In total, the investigation corraborates potential of the optical methods for bedside monitoring of pediatric and adult human patients in the neurointensive care unit.

  19. Adaptation of Piglets Using Different Methods of Stress Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bekenev, Vitaly; Garcia, Arlene; Hasnulin, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Stressful events play a major negative role in the modern technology of weaned piglets. These events include but are not limited to weaning itself, lack of maternal milk, loss of maternal bonding, mixing of different litters, transportation to growing-finishing farms, and housing conditions. Various additives (phenazepam, aminazine, vitamins E and C, the extract Eleutherococcus senticosus, and ultraviolet irradiation) at different doses and combinations with or without ultraviolet irradiation were used to evaluate their effect on the viability and growth rate of piglets after weaning. Content of lipids in the blood and liver, antioxidant activity (AOA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) significantly decreased or increased with the use of the additives. Feeding a mixture of additives increased survival rate, average daily gain, and live weight at the end of the experiment. Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability and growth rate of piglets after weaning, the content of lipids in the blood and liver, antioxidant activity (AOA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) when various additives are used in feed. The experiments were performed on two crosses of piglets obtained from Large White breed sows and Landrace breed boars. Twenty to 28 animals were randomly assigned per group. The following additives were tested: the benzodiazepine phenazepam, the neuroleptic aminazine, vitamins E and C, and the extract Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae). Different doses and combinations of the additives against ultraviolet irradiation were used. The addition of these substances improved the growth rate and viability of piglets. AOA increased under the influence of all factors studied, especially with the addition of extract of Eleutherococcus in feed in combination with aminazine and UV-irradiation (p < 0.01). However, the addition of Eleutherococcus extract and aminazine intensified LPO (p < 0.01), but use of UV irradiation helped to decrease LPO values

  20. The Dynamic Still-Face Effect: Do Infants Decrease Bidding over Time when Parents Are Not Responsive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Haltigan, John D.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    The still-face paradigm (SFP) was designed to assess infant expectations that parents will respond to infant communicative signals. During the still-face (SF) episode, the parent ceases interaction and maintains a neutral expression. Original, qualitative descriptions of infant behavior suggested changes within the SF episode: infants decrease…

  1. Interactive Behaviors of Ethnic Minority Mothers and their Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Landerman, Lawrence R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the interactive behaviors of American Indian mothers and their premature infants with those of African American mothers and their premature infants. Design Descriptive, comparative study. Setting Three neonatal intensive care units and two pediatric clinics in the southeast. Participants Seventy-seven mother-infant dyads: 17 American Indian mother-infant dyads and 60 African American mother-infant dyads. Methods Videotapes of mother-infant interactions and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were used to assess the interactions of the mothers and their premature infants at six months corrected age. Results American Indian mothers looked more, gestured more, and were more often the primary caregivers to their infants than the African American mothers. American Indian infants expressed more positive affect and gestured more to their mothers, whereas African American infants engaged in more non-negative vocalization toward their mothers. African American mothers scored higher on the HOME subscales of provision of appropriate play materials and parental involvement with the infant. American Indian mothers scored higher on the opportunities for variety in daily living subscale. Conclusion Although many of the interactive behaviors of American Indian and African American mother-infant dyads were similar, some differences did occur. Clinicians need to be aware of the cultural differences in mother-infant interactions. To optimize child developmental outcomes, nurses need to support mothers in their continuation or adoption of positive interactive behaviors. PMID:23682698

  2. Supplementation of piglets with nutrient-dense complex milk replacer improves intestinal development and microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    de Greeff, A; Resink, J W; van Hees, H M J; Ruuls, L; Klaassen, G J; Rouwers, S M G; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N

    2016-03-01

    Weaning of piglets causes stress due to environmental, behavioral, and nutritional stressors and can lead to postweaning diarrhea and impaired gut development. The diet changes experienced during weaning require extensive adaptation of the digestive system. A well-developed piglet that had creep-feed experience before weaning performs better after weaning. In the current study, the effect of providing sow-fed piglets with a supplemental nutrient-dense complex milk replacer (NDM) on gut development and growth performance was studied. Litters of sows with similar parities (3.6 ± 0.8) and similar numbers of live born piglets (13.5 ± 0.3) were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 1 group of piglets had ad libitum access to NDM from Day 2 through 21 after birth, whereas the other group was used as controls. Nutrient-dense complex milk replacer-fed piglets were shown to be significantly heavier after 21 d of supplementation compared with the control piglets. At Day 21, 3 piglets from each litter were euthanized for morphological and functional analyses of the intestinal tract. The small intestines of NDM-fed piglets had significantly higher weights (g) as well as significantly higher relative weight:length ratios (g//cm) compared with the small intestines of control piglets ( < 0.05). Morphometric analysis demonstrated that villi length and numbers of goblet cells did not differ between groups. However, NDM-fed piglets had deeper crypts ( < 0.001) and an increased expression of the cell-proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen in crypts ( < 0.05), suggesting higher cell-proliferation rates. The gene encoding IGF-1 showed a tendency to higher gene expression in the jejunum from NDM-fed piglets ( = 0.07) compared with the jejunum from control piglets, suggesting that IGF-1 might be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and intestinal growth. Finally, as a result of dietary fiber in NDM, piglets showed significantly increased concentrations of metabolic

  3. Inverted teats (Mammillae invertitae) in gilts - effect on piglet survival and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Chalkias, H; Ekman, E; Lundeheim, N; Rydhmer, L; Jacobson, M

    2014-06-01

    In the modern pig industry, the increasing number of piglets born per litter augments the importance of the number of functional teats in the sow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and importance of inverted teats during nursing and to analyze structural and functional differences between the mammary glands of inverted teats versus normal teats. Nine farrowing gilts (8 purebred Swedish Yorkshire gilts and 1 cross between Swedish Yorkshire and Norwegian Landrace) and 94 piglets (59 piglets suckling normal teats, 32 piglets suckling protruded teats [i.e., previously inverted], 2 piglets suckling inverted teats, and 3 piglets suckling considerably smaller teats) were included in the study. Teat fidelity (keeping the same teat between the nursings) was registered, excluding the first 48 h postpartum. Piglet weight was recorded daily during the first week of life and thereafter once a week until weaning at 4 wk of age. Weight and growth rate were analyzed using repeated observation mixed-model analysis of variance. The 2 piglets that suckled the inverted teats were not able to emerge the teats and they were euthanized 4 and 8 d after birth, respectively, due to loss of BW. The average weight at weaning (28 d of age) was 8.1 kg (range 3.2-13.8 kg). In the normal teats (n = 53), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue at necropsy was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.33, P < 0.05), 3 (r = 0.55, P < 0.001), and 4 (r = 0.47, P < 0.001). In the protruded teats (n = 32), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.63, P < 0.001) and 3 (r = 0.43, P < 0.05). Among the piglets nursing normal teats, 82% kept fidelity to its teat and the corresponding percent for the protruded teats was 26%. In 7 of the 9 sows, the weaning weight of the piglets suckling protruded teats was numerically lower compared to the

  4. A piglet model for studying Candida albicans colonization of the human oro-gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Coleman, David A; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Miller, Michael J; Hoyer, Lois L

    2014-08-01

    Pigs from a variety of sources were surveyed for oro-gastrointestinal (oro-GIT) carriage of Candida albicans. Candida albicans-positive animals were readily located, but we also identified C. albicans-free pigs. We hypothesized that pigs could be stably colonized with a C. albicans strain of choice, simply by feeding yeast cells. Piglets were farrowed routinely and remained with the sow for 4 days to acquire a normal microbiota. Piglets were then placed in an artificial rearing environment and fed sow milk replacer. Piglets were inoculated orally with one of three different C. albicans strains. Piglets were weighed daily, and culture swabs were collected to detect C. albicans orally, rectally and in the piglet's environment. Stable C. albicans colonization over the course of the study did not affect piglet growth. Necropsy revealed mucosally associated C. albicans throughout the oro-GIT with the highest abundance in the esophagus. Uninoculated control piglets remained C. albicans-negative. These data establish the piglet as a model to study C. albicans colonization of the human oro-GIT. Similarities between oro-GIT colonization in humans and pigs, as well as the ease of working with the piglet model, suggest its adaptability for use among investigators interested in understanding C. albicans-host commensal interactions.

  5. The association between immunoglobulin G in sow colostrum and piglet plasma.

    PubMed

    Kielland, C; Rootwelt, V; Reksen, O; Framstad, T

    2015-09-01

    Colostrum provides newborn piglets with energy and passive immunity and is essential for survival of the piglets. The plasma concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in piglets is dependent on several factors, most importantly the concentration of IgG in sow colostrum (colostrum IgG). The main aims of this study were to investigate the variation in concentration of colostrum IgG between herds and the individual sows within herd and to investigate factors associated with plasma IgG concentrations in piglets (piglet IgG). From 4 herds (A to D), 876 piglets from 62 sows were included in the study. Colostrum was sampled from sows immediately after expulsion of the first piglet and before the first suckling (t1), midway through farrowing (just after the sixth piglet was born; t2), and after the last piglet was born (t3). At d 1, 0.5 mL blood from piglets was collected in tubes containing EDTA, and IgG concentrations were analyzed. Mean colostrum IgG concentration across all herds was 53.9 g/L. Herd A had mean colostrum IgG of 38.3 g/L, whereas the other 3 herds (B,C, and D) had mean colostrum IgG of 47.4, 60.4, and 67.8 g/L, respectively. Colostrum IgG at t1, t2, and t3 across all herds was 56.2, 53.7, and 42.5 g/L, respectively. Mean concentration of piglet IgG across all samplings was 21.7 g/L. Multilevel linear regression analysis was performed with piglet IgG (g/L) as outcome. In this model, the herd effect accounted for 9% of the total variance and 34% of the variance resided at sow level. Piglet IgG was associated with herd, birth order (), body mass index (BMI) > 17 (kg/m), and colostrum IgG at t1 (g/L) with an overall -value < 0.01. Herd D had the highest predicted mean level of piglet IgG. The main model predicted that piglet IgG decreased linearly by 0.4 g/L with each piglet born ( < 0.01). The model also predicted an increase by 0.1 g/L for each gram per liter extra colostrum IgG in colostrum ( = 0.03). Piglets with a BMI above 17 kg/m had a greater piglet Ig

  6. The nasogastric tube syndrome in infants.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jeffrey; Balakrishnan, Karthik; de Alarcon, Alessandro; Hart, Catherine K

    2014-05-01

    This series of three patients is the first description of the presentation, clinical course, and endoscopic findings of nasogastric tube-related airway distress, or nasogastric tube syndrome, in infants. We identify key differences in disease features from those described in adults, based on our literature review. Specifically, infant nasogastric tube syndrome presented as significant respiratory distress and postcricoid inflammation without vocal fold immobility. Symptoms resolved more quickly (mean±SD, 2±1 days) than reported in adults. We suggest that nasogastric tube syndrome should be considered in infants with otherwise unexplained respiratory distress, even in the absence of impaired vocal fold mobility.

  7. Ultrastructure of liver from piglets fed Tower rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Cullen, C; Singh, A; Shahidi, E

    1996-01-01

    Effect of Tower rapeseed oil (RO) containing lower (0.4%) erucic acid on the piglet liver was studied by electron microscopy. The animals were placed in two groups of four and were fed the diets for eight weeks. Animals in the treated group were given a basal diet comprising corn-soybean plus Tower RO at a 10% concentration; animals that were given the basal diet with no added oil served as the controls. Architecture of the liver from animals of the control group appeared normal. Ultrastructural changes in the liver of RO-fed animals included dilation of lumens and loss of microvilli in bile canaliculi. In addition, closely aligned mitochondrial cristae, elevated number of peroxisomes, and an unusual increase in the size and number of membrane bound spaces in zone 3 of liver acini were noticed. These alterations may reflect a disturbance in piglet liver functions following Tower RO feeding.

  8. Osteopenia - premature infants

    MedlinePlus

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of calcium ...

  9. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call ... boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health ...

  10. Peripheral intravenous line - infants

    MedlinePlus

    PIV - infants; Peripheral IV - infants; Peripheral line - infants; Peripheral line - neonatal ... A peripheral intravenous line (PIV) is a small, short, plastic tube, called a catheter. A health care provider puts ...

  11. A Piglet Model of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Kyng, Kasper J; Skajaa, Torjus; Kerrn-Jespersen, Sigrid; Andreassen, Christer S; Bennedsgaard, Kristine; Henriksen, Tine B

    2015-05-16

    Birth asphyxia, which causes hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), accounts for 0.66 million deaths worldwide each year, about a quarter of the world's 2.9 million neonatal deaths. Animal models of HIE have contributed to the understanding of the pathophysiology in HIE, and have highlighted the dynamic process that occur in brain injury due to perinatal asphyxia. Thus, animal studies have suggested a time-window for post-insult treatment strategies. Hypothermia has been tested as a treatment for HIE in pdiglet models and subsequently proven effective in clinical trials. Variations of the model have been applied in the study of adjunctive neuroprotective methods and piglet studies of xenon and melatonin have led to clinical phase I and II trials(1,2). The piglet HIE model is further used for neonatal resuscitation- and hemodynamic studies as well as in investigations of cerebral hypoxia on a cellular level. However, it is a technically challenging model and variations in the protocol may result in either too mild or too severe brain injury. In this article, we demonstrate the technical procedures necessary for establishing a stable piglet model of neonatal HIE. First, the newborn piglet (< 24 hr old, median weight 1500 g) is anesthetized, intubated, and monitored in a setup comparable to that found in a neonatal intensive care unit. Global hypoxia-ischemia is induced by lowering the inspiratory oxygen fraction to achieve global hypoxia, ischemia through hypotension and a flat trace amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) indicative of cerebral hypoxia. Survival is promoted by adjusting oxygenation according to the aEEG response and blood pressure. Brain injury is quantified by histopathology and magnetic resonance imaging after 72 hr.

  12. Adrenergic receptor subtypes in the cerebral circulation of newborn piglets

    SciTech Connect

    Wagerle, L.C.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptor subtype mediating cerebral vasoconstriction during sympathetic nerve stimulation in the newborn piglet. The effect of ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonists prazosin and yohimbine on the cerebrovascular response to unilateral electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 15 V) of the superior cervical sympathetic trunk was studied in 25 newborn piglets. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with tracer microspheres. Sympathetic stimulation decreased blood flow to the ipsilateral cerebrum hippocampus, choroid plexus, and masseter muscle. ..cap alpha../sub 1/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin inhibited the sympathetic vasoconstriction in the cerebrum, hippocampus, and masseter muscle and abolished it in the choroid plexus. ..cap alpha../sub s/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with yohimbine had no effect. Following the higher dose of yohimbine, however, blood flow to all brain regions was increased by approximately two-fold, possibly due to enhanced cerebral metabolism. These data demonstrate that vascular ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors mediate vasoconstriction to neuroadrenergic stimulation in cerebral resistance vessels in the newborn piglet.

  13. Enteral leptin administration affects intestinal autophagy in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Słupecka, M; Woliński, J; Gajewska, M; Pierzynowski, S G

    2014-01-01

    Leptin has been shown to play an integral role in the endocrine regulation of metabolism. Moreover, a substantial amount of this peptide has been found in colostrum and milk. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of exogenous leptin, administered intragastrically, on the process of autophagy and the changes in cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the small intestine mucosa. Three groups (n = 6) of neonatal piglets were used in the study. The pigs were fed either by their sows (sow-reared piglets) or with only milk formula, or with milk formula together with leptin administered via a stomach tube (10 μg/kg BW) every 8 h for 6 d. We have shown that pure milk formula feeding significantly elevates (P < 0.05) autophagy compared with that observed in sow-reared piglets. Compared with the control group, feeding milk formula supplemented with leptin resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in immunodetection of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, as well as significantly accelerated epithelial cell renewal (P < 0.05). We demonstrated that autophagy is involved in the remodeling of the small intestine mucosa and that leptin, when administered enterally, may be an important factor for its regulation.

  14. The Intestinal Eukaryotic Virome in Healthy and Diarrhoeic Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hayer, Juliette; Berg, Mikael; Jacobson, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal porcine diarrhoea of uncertain aetiology has been reported from a number of European countries. The aim of the present study was to use viral metagenomics to examine a potential viral involvement in this diarrhoea and to describe the intestinal virome with focus on eukaryotic viruses. Samples from the distal jejunum of 50 diarrhoeic and 19 healthy piglets from 10 affected herds were analysed. The viral fraction of the samples was isolated and nucleic acids (RNA and DNA fractions) were subjected to sequence independent amplification. Samples from diarrhoeic piglets from the same herds were pooled whereas samples from healthy piglets were analysed individually. In total, 29 clinical samples, plus two negative controls and one positive control consisting of a mock metagenome were sequenced using the Ion Torrent platform. The resulting sequence data was subjected to taxonomic classification using Kraken, Diamond and HMMER. In the healthy specimens, eight different mammalian virus families were detected (Adenoviridae, Anelloviridae, Astroviridae, Caliciviridae, Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, and Reoviridae) compared to four in the pooled diarrhoeic samples (Anelloviridae, Circoviridae, Picornaviridae, and Reoviridae). It was not possible to associate a particular virus family with the investigated diarrhoea. In conclusion, this study does not support the hypothesis that the investigated diarrhoea was caused by known mammalian viruses. The results do, however, indicate that known mammalian viruses were present in the intestine as early as 24–48 hours after birth, indicating immediate infection post-partum or possibly transplacental infection. PMID:26982708

  15. Dietary inulin alters the intestinal absorptive and barrier function of piglet intestine after weaning.

    PubMed

    Awad, Wageha A; Ghareeb, Khaled; Paßlack, Nadine; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary inulin supplementation on the electrophysiological properties of small intestine of suckling and weaned piglets as indicators for glucose absorption and barrier function. Ten sows were divided into two groups, receiving either a control diet, or a diet with 3% inulin. The diets were fed from 3 weeks ante partum to 6 weeks post partum. In the first 2 weeks of life, piglets received only sow's milk. Irrespective to sex and without castration of males, four piglets (one piglet of each litter) from each group were selected and sacrificed on day 10 of age. The gastrointestinal tract of each piglet was removed and segments were immediately taken from the mid-jejunum and mounted in Ussing chambers. Furthermore, at weaning (6 weeks old) 8 piglets were randomly selected irrespective to sex and males were un-castrated (4 animals from sows received control diet and 4 animals from sows received 3% inulin supplemented diet) and fed for 2 weeks either control weaning diet or inulin supplemented diet. Thereafter segments of the mid-jejunum were used to investigate the effect of inulin on the gut electrophysiology of weaned piglets. The increase in short-circuit current (Isc) after the addition of glucose is an indicator of higher glucose absorption and the higher tissue conductance (Gt) of the epithelium suggested a higher intestinal permeability to paracellular Na(+). In suckling piglets, the addition of d-glucose on the luminal side of the isolated jejunal mucosa increased (P<0.001) the Isc in the inulin-supplemented and control groups compared to basal values. Electrogenic glucose transport (ΔIsc) was similar in suckling piglets from sows fed inulin or control diet, suggesting that feeding of inulin to the mother sows had no effect on glucose absorption across the jejunal mucosa of suckling piglets. However, the dietary inulin supplementation after weaning increased the ΔIsc (P<0.001) compared with the controls

  16. Plasma metabolomics indicates metabolic perturbations in low birth weight piglets supplemented with arginine.

    PubMed

    Getty, C M; Almeida, F N; Baratta, A A; Dilger, R N

    2015-12-01

    Large profit losses in the swine industry can be attributed to morbidity and mortality of piglets before weaning, especially in the low birth weight (LBW) piglet. Recent evidence suggests sow's milk contains insufficient concentrations of Arg to support optimal growth and health of piglets. Therefore, our objective was to assess global metabolomic profiles and the potential for Arg supplementation to promote growth of LBW (≤0.9 kg BW) and average birth weight (ABW; 1.3 to 1.5 kg BW) piglets. Piglets were selected in littermate pairs at processing to receive either Arg or an isonitrogenous control (Ala) and weighed daily to assess growth rate, and blood was collected at approximately 16 d of age for metabolomics analysis. In terms of growth, LBW and ABW piglets supplemented with Arg weighed 22.3 and 12.7% less, respectively, at d 16 compared with Ala-supplemented piglets of the same birth weight group. Overall, differences ( < 0.05) were observed among treatments for metabolic pathways involving energy (i.e., tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates), AA, nucleotides, and fatty acids. Increased nucleotide turnover, indicative of an increase in DNA damage and cell death, was particularly noted in the LBW piglet. However, Arg supplementation reduced these effects to levels comparable to those observed in ABW piglets. Moreover, changes in glucose metabolism suggested a compromised ability to extract energy from dietary sources may have occurred in the LBW piglet, but these effects were partially recovered by Arg supplementation. We conclude that a reduction in the growth potential of LBW piglets may be associated with alterations in multiple metabolic pathways, and further reduction due to Arg supplementation may have resulted from perturbations in multiple metabolic pathways. PMID:26641185

  17. Drought description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, N.C.

    1991-01-01

    What constitutes a comprehensive description of drought, a description forming a basis for answering why a drought occurred is outlined. The description entails two aspects that are "naturally" coupled, named physical and economic, and treats the set of hydrologic measures of droughts in terms of their multivariate distribution, rather than in terms of a collection of the marginal distributions. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Laboratory detection of Clostridium difficile in piglets in Australia.

    PubMed

    Knight, Daniel R; Squire, Michele M; Riley, Thomas V

    2014-11-01

    Clostridium difficile is a well-known enteric pathogen of humans and the causative agent of high-morbidity enteritis in piglets aged 1 to 7 days. C. difficile prevalence in Australian piglets is as high as 70%. The current diagnostic assays have been validated only for human infections, and there are no published studies assessing their performance in Australian piglets. We evaluated the suitability of five assays for detecting C. difficile in 157 specimens of piglet feces. The assays included a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LMIA)-PCR for tcdA (illumigene C. difficile; Meridian), a real-time PCR for tcdB (GeneOhm Cdiff; Becton Dickinson), two-component enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) (EIA-GDH) and TcdA/TcdB (EIA-TcdA/TcdB) (C. diff Quik Chek; Alere), and direct culture (DC) (C. difficile chromID agar; bioMérieux). The assays for detection of the organism were compared against enrichment culture (EC), and assays for detection of toxins/toxin genes were compared against EC followed by PCR for toxin genes (toxigenic EC [TEC]). The recovery of C. difficile by EC was 39.5% (n = 62/157), and TEC revealed that 58.1% (n = 36/62) of isolates were positive for at least one toxin gene (tcdA/tcdB). Compared with those for EC/TEC, the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values were, respectively, as follows: DC, 91.9, 100.0, 100.0, and 95.0%; EIA-GDH, 41.9, 92.6, 78.8, and 71.0%; EIA-TcdA/TcdB, 5.6, 99.2, 66.7, and 77.9%; real-time PCR, 42.9, 96.7, 78.9, and 85.4% and LMIA-PCR, 25.0, 95.9, 64.3, and 81.1%. The performance of the molecular methods was poor, suggesting that the current commercially available assays for diagnosis of C. difficile in humans are not suitable for use in piglets. C. difficile recovery by the DC provides a cost-effective alternative.

  19. Laboratory Detection of Clostridium difficile in Piglets in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Daniel R.; Squire, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a well-known enteric pathogen of humans and the causative agent of high-morbidity enteritis in piglets aged 1 to 7 days. C. difficile prevalence in Australian piglets is as high as 70%. The current diagnostic assays have been validated only for human infections, and there are no published studies assessing their performance in Australian piglets. We evaluated the suitability of five assays for detecting C. difficile in 157 specimens of piglet feces. The assays included a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LMIA)-PCR for tcdA (illumigene C. difficile; Meridian), a real-time PCR for tcdB (GeneOhm Cdiff; Becton Dickinson), two-component enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) (EIA-GDH) and TcdA/TcdB (EIA-TcdA/TcdB) (C. diff Quik Chek; Alere), and direct culture (DC) (C. difficile chromID agar; bioMérieux). The assays for detection of the organism were compared against enrichment culture (EC), and assays for detection of toxins/toxin genes were compared against EC followed by PCR for toxin genes (toxigenic EC [TEC]). The recovery of C. difficile by EC was 39.5% (n = 62/157), and TEC revealed that 58.1% (n = 36/62) of isolates were positive for at least one toxin gene (tcdA/tcdB). Compared with those for EC/TEC, the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values were, respectively, as follows: DC, 91.9, 100.0, 100.0, and 95.0%; EIA-GDH, 41.9, 92.6, 78.8, and 71.0%; EIA-TcdA/TcdB, 5.6, 99.2, 66.7, and 77.9%; real-time PCR, 42.9, 96.7, 78.9, and 85.4% and LMIA-PCR, 25.0, 95.9, 64.3, and 81.1%. The performance of the molecular methods was poor, suggesting that the current commercially available assays for diagnosis of C. difficile in humans are not suitable for use in piglets. C. difficile recovery by the DC provides a cost-effective alternative. PMID:25122859

  20. Social Approaches to Infant Feeding in Urban African Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children in the Tropics, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This case study examines solutions to infant malnutrition in Africa from an interdisciplinary perspective, identifying factors that directly or indirectly influence practices involved in feeding infants from birth to age 3 in Maradi, Niger. The study begins by providing a conceptual framework and description of the approach used in the analysis,…

  1. Fluid therapy trials in neonatal piglets infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Drolet, R; Morin, M; Fontaine, M

    1985-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an oral fluid therapy alone or combined with parenteral administration of a 5% dextrose solution to attenuate the clinical signs and the pathophysiological consequences of transmissible gastroenteritis in neonatal piglets. Eighteen two day old conventional piglets were infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus while six others were used as controls (Group 1). At the onset of diarrhea, infected piglets were divided into three groups of six (Groups 2, 3 and 4). Piglets in group 2 were not treated and were fed a milk replacer ad libitum. Piglets in group 3 were removed from the milk replacer and placed on an oral glucose-glycine-electrolyte solution ad libitum. Those in group 4 were placed on oral fluid therapy and received a 5% dextrose solution intraperitoneally at the rate of 25 mL/kg of body weight once a day. Blood samples were collected in heparin within minutes after the infected piglets became comatose and from the controls at four or five days of age. The following variables were measured: packed red cell volume, blood pH, total plasma protein and bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen, and plasma glucose, creatinine, chloride, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. Vomiting and diarrhea appeared 12 to 24 hours postinoculation in the infected piglets. There was a sudden and rapid progression into a comatose and moribund state one or two days later whether the infected piglets were treated or not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4075236

  2. Viral metagenomics analysis demonstrates the diversity of viral flora in piglet diarrhoeic faeces in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Tang, Cheng; Yue, Hua; Ren, Yupeng; Song, Zhigang

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the diversity of viral flora, we used metagenomics to study the viral communities in a pooled faecal sample of 27 diarrhoeic piglets from intensive commercial farms in China. The 15 distinct mammalian viruses identified in the pooled diarrhoeic sample were, in order of abundance of nucleic acid sequence, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), sapovirus, porcine bocavirus-4 (PBoV-4), sapelovirus, torovirus, coronavirus, PBoV-2, stool-associated single-stranded DNA virus (poSCV), astrovirus (AstV), kobuvirus, posavirus-1, porcine enterovirus-9 (PEV-9), porcine circovirus-like (po-circo-like) virus, picobirnavirus (PBV) and Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV-2). The prevalence rate of each virus was verified from diarrhoeic and healthy piglets by PCR assay. A mean of 5.5 different viruses were shed in diarrhoeic piglets, and one piglet was in fact co-infected with 11 different viruses. By contrast, healthy piglets shed a mean of 3.2 different viruses. Compared with samples from healthy piglets, the co-infection of PEDV and PBoV had a high prevalence rate in diarrhoea samples, suggesting a correlation with the appearance of diarrhoea in piglets. Furthermore, we report here for the first time the presence of several recently described viruses in China, and the identification of novel genotypes. Therefore, our investigation results provide an unbiased survey of viral communities and prevalence in faecal samples of piglets.

  3. Duration of maternally derived antibodies in Toxoplasma gondii naturally infected piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A longitudinal study was performed to analyze the dynamics of T. gondii antibodies in naturally infected piglets from 1 to 25 weeks of age. Seventy three piglets from 20 seronegative sows (modified agglutination test, MAT <1:25) and 20 naturally infected T. gondii seropositive sows (MAT>/=1:25) were...

  4. Effects of a bovine colostrum-supplemented diet on some gut parameters in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Huguet, Antoine; Sève, Bernard; Le Dividich, Jean; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a bovine colostrum-supplemented diet on gut post-weaning adaptation and health in piglets. Thirty-six 21-d-old piglets were allocated to one of the three following dietary treatments: sow-reared (SR), weaned on a control starter diet (WCtrl) or on a starter diet supplemented with bovine colostrum (WCol) until slaughter at 28 d or 35 d of age. Gastric pH and intestinal bacteriological, structural and functional parameters were determined. Compared to WCtrl, the gastric pH was lower (P < 0.05) and the duodenal lactobacilli:coliform ratio was higher (P = 0.05) in WCol piglets. The relative small intestine weight was 18% (P < 0.05) higher in WCol piglets than in SR piglets. Duodenal villous height was lower (P < 0.01) in WCtrl than in SR piglets, whereas the value for WCol piglets was intermediate. The weaning-increased crypt cell proliferation was not affected by bovine colostrum supplementation. The mucosal ribosomal capacity was higher (P < 0.05) in W than in SR piglets. In conclusion, a diet supplemented with colostrum induced, although not always significantly, variations of gut parameters, suggesting that globally, colostrum may limit weaning-induced gut structural and microbial alterations. The observed effects occurred early and were maintained throughout the post-weaning adaptive phase.

  5. Newborn piglet traits associated with survival and growth performance until weaning.

    PubMed

    Panzardi, A; Bernardi, M L; Mellagi, A P; Bierhals, T; Bortolozzo, F P; Wentz, I

    2013-06-01

    Pre-weaning piglet mortality represents significant economic losses, and approximately half of this mortality occurs within the first 3 days after birth. Factors involved in postnatal mortality can also be associated with a poor growth performance until weaning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some variables measured right after birth on piglet survival during the first week of life and growth performance until weaning. Piglets included in the analysis (n=612) were born from 3 to 5 parity sows. Piglets were monitored for blood oxygen saturation (SatO2), heart rate (HR), blood glucose concentration, rectal temperature at birth (RT0 h) and at 24h after birth (RT24 h). Genetic line, birth following or not an obstetric intervention, birth order, sex, skin color, integrity of the umbilical cord, and time elapsed from birth until first attempts to stand were also recorded. Piglets were weighed at birth (BW), and at 7, 14 and 21 days after birth in order to evaluate their postnatal development. Cumulative mortality rates were 3.3%, 5.4% and 8.7% at 3, 7 and 21 days after birth, respectively. Body temperature at birth (RT0 h) did not affect (P>0.05) the survival nor the piglet growth performance. Piglets with cyanotic skin and those that took more than 5 min to stand showed higher chance of mortality (P<0.05) compared to normal skin piglets and to piglets which stood before 1 min, respectively. Piglets with broken umbilical cord had higher odds (P<0.05) of mortality up to 3 days after birth, respectively. Higher odds (P<0.05) of mortality up to 3 or 7 days were associated with later birth order (>9), low BW (<1275g), low (24-30 mg/dl) and high (45-162 mg/dl) blood glucose concentrations, or low RT24 h (<38.1°C). Piglets with BW<1545 g, low RT24 h (<38.6°C) and female piglets had higher odds of a low weight at weaning (P<0.05). Among the factors studied, cyanotic skin, delay for standing, broken umbilical cord, high birth order, low BW, low RT24 h, and

  6. Effect of oral polyamine supplementation pre-weaning on piglet growth and intestinal characteristics.

    PubMed

    van Wettere, W H E J; Willson, N-L; Pain, S J; Forder, R E A

    2016-10-01

    A high proportion of piglets fail to adapt to the changing composition of their diet at weaning, resulting in weight loss and increased susceptibility to pathogens. Polyamines are present in sow milk and promote neonatal maturation of the gut. We hypothesised that oral spermine and spermidine supplementation before weaning would increase piglet growth and promote gastrointestinal development at weaning. In Experiment One, one pair of liveweight (LW)-matched piglets per litter from first and third lactation sows received 2 ml of a 0 (Control) or 463 nmol/ml spermine solution at 14, 16, 18, 20 and 22 days of age (n=6 piglets/treatment per parity). Villus height and crypt depth in the duodenum and jejunum were measured at weaning (day 23 postpartum). In Experiment Two, piglets suckling 18 first and 18 third lactation sows were used. Within each litter, piglets received 2 ml of either water (Control), 463 nmol/ml spermine solution or 2013 nmol/ml spermidine solution at 14, 16, 18, 22 and 24 days of age (n=54 piglets/treatment per sow parity). Piglets were weighed individually at 14, 18, 24 (weaning) and 61 days of age. In Experiment One, oral spermine supplementation resulted in a 41% increase in villus height, a 21% decrease in crypt depth and 79% decrease in the villus height : crypt depth ratio compared with control piglets (P<0.01). In Experiment Two, spermine and spermidine-supplemented piglets suckling first lactation sows grew faster (P<0.05) between days 14 and 18 postpartum than control piglets: 0.230±0.011 and 0.227±0.012 v. 0.183±0.012 kg/day, respectively. Spermine supplementation tended (P<0.1) to increase piglet LW gain from weaning to day 37 post-weaning compared with control piglets (0.373±0.009 v. 0.341±0.010 kg/day). In conclusion, spermine supplementation increased villus height at weaning, and appears to have the potential to improve the pre- and post-weaning growth of conventionally weaned piglets.

  7. Development of immunity to porcine rotavirus in piglets protected from disease by bovine colostrum.

    PubMed Central

    Bridger, J C; Brown, J F

    1981-01-01

    Bovine colostrum with rotavirus-neutralizing activity was fed for 10 days to two groups of piglets, one of which was inoculated intranasally with a rotavirus of porcine origin. A third group, which did not receive colostrum, was also inoculated with the virus, and these piglets developed diarrhea, excreted rotavirus in the feces, and died 6 days after infection. In contrast, the infected piglets fed with bovine colostrum remained healthy, although they developed antibody to rotavirus. Twenty-seven days after the primary inoculation, piglets in the colostrum-fed groups were inoculated intranasally with virus. Those in the previously unexposed group became clinically ill and excreted rotavirus, whereas those which had experienced a previous subclinical infection (the colostrum-fed, virus-inoculated group) remained healthy. It was concluded that bovine colostrum protected piglets from the clinical effects of a porcine rotavirus and that these animals developed an immunity which prevented subsequent disease. PMID:6262251

  8. Detection of rotavirus antigen in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic piglets in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atii, D J; Ojeh, C K; Durojaiye, O A

    1990-01-01

    Faecal samples from 96 piglets with acute gastroenteritis and 41 samples from non-diarrhoeic piglets were investigated for porcine rotavirus (PRV) antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PRV was detected in 43 of 96 (44.8%) in the diarrhoeic group whilst none of the samples in the non-diarrhoeic group was positive for PRV (P less than 0.01). Age distribution of infection showed a higher infection rate of 30.2% in piglets aged 1-3 weeks, which was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) than in piglets aged 4-6 weeks, where the infection rate was 14.6 per cent. No PRV antigen was detected in diarrhoeic piglets above 6 weeks of age. Titration of 10 randomly selected ELISA-positive samples showed titres ranging from 512 to greater than or equal to 4.096.

  9. Diarrhoea in piglets and monkeys experimentally infected with Balantidium coli isolated from human faeces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Zeng, L; Li, M; Zhou, J

    1995-02-01

    Ten piglets and four monkeys free from Balantidium were dosed with human faecal homogenate which contained 1.2 x 10(4)-4.8 x 10(4) B. coli cysts. The infection resulted in severe diarrhoea in piglets 1-6 and hydrocortisone-treated monkeys 1-2, moderate diarrhoea in piglets 7-10 and a subclinical infection in monkeys 3-4. In piglets 1-3 and monkeys 1-2, heavy infection of the intestinal mucosa extended from the terminal ileum to the rectum and the mucosa was severely damaged. In piglets 4-10, infection was heavy in the large intestine with moderate mucosal damage. PMID:7861483

  10. Postnatal nicotine effects on the expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the developing piglet hippocampus and brainstem.

    PubMed

    Vivekanandarajah, Arunnjah; Waters, Karen A; Machaalani, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Postnatal exposure to cigarette smoke during infancy is associated with increased number of respiratory illnesses, impaired pulmonary function, and the occurrence of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). It is also associated with reduced cognitive functioning and attention deficits in childhood. Nicotine, the major neurotoxic component of cigarette smoke, induces its actions by binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Using a piglet model of postnatal nicotine exposure, we studied the immunohistochemical expression of nAChR subunits α2, α3, α4, α5, α7, α9, β1 and β2 in the brainstem medulla and the hippocampus, given the role of these structures in cardiorespiratory control and cognition, respectively. We compared piglets exposed postnatally to 2mg/kg/day nicotine for 14 days (n=14: 7 males: 7 females) to controls (n=14: 7 males: 7 females). In the hippocampus, decreased expression was seen for α3 in CA1 (p=0.017), α9 in CA1 (p<0.001) and CA2 (p<0.001), β1 in CA1 (p=0.001) and CA2 (p=0.001) and β2 in CA3 (p=0.036). In the medulla, the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract had increased α2 and α4; vestibular nucleus increased α2 and α3, and decreased α4; hypoglossal decreased α3 and β1; dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus decreased α4 and β1. This is the first demonstration that non-classical nAChR subunits are affected by postnatal nicotine in the developing brain, and the implications are discussed. PMID:26440997

  11. Postnatal nicotine effects on the expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the developing piglet hippocampus and brainstem.

    PubMed

    Vivekanandarajah, Arunnjah; Waters, Karen A; Machaalani, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Postnatal exposure to cigarette smoke during infancy is associated with increased number of respiratory illnesses, impaired pulmonary function, and the occurrence of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). It is also associated with reduced cognitive functioning and attention deficits in childhood. Nicotine, the major neurotoxic component of cigarette smoke, induces its actions by binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Using a piglet model of postnatal nicotine exposure, we studied the immunohistochemical expression of nAChR subunits α2, α3, α4, α5, α7, α9, β1 and β2 in the brainstem medulla and the hippocampus, given the role of these structures in cardiorespiratory control and cognition, respectively. We compared piglets exposed postnatally to 2mg/kg/day nicotine for 14 days (n=14: 7 males: 7 females) to controls (n=14: 7 males: 7 females). In the hippocampus, decreased expression was seen for α3 in CA1 (p=0.017), α9 in CA1 (p<0.001) and CA2 (p<0.001), β1 in CA1 (p=0.001) and CA2 (p=0.001) and β2 in CA3 (p=0.036). In the medulla, the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract had increased α2 and α4; vestibular nucleus increased α2 and α3, and decreased α4; hypoglossal decreased α3 and β1; dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus decreased α4 and β1. This is the first demonstration that non-classical nAChR subunits are affected by postnatal nicotine in the developing brain, and the implications are discussed.

  12. Weaning Markedly Affects Transcriptome Profiles and Peyer’s Patch Development in Piglet Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Ryo; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nakatani, Masako; Okutani, Mie; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Ogawa, Shohei; Harayama, Tomoko; Nagino, Takayuki; Hatanaka, Hironori; Fukuta, Kikuto; Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A.; Ushida, Kazunari; Kelly, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome analyses were conducted on the ileal mucosa of 14- to 35-day-old piglets to investigate postnatal gut development during suckling and postweaning. The transcriptome profiles of 14-day-old suckling piglets showed a considerably higher number of differentially expressed genes than did those of 21-, 28-, and 35-day olds, indicating an intensive gut development during the first 14–21 postnatal days. In addition, the analysis of biological pathways indicated that Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was the most significantly affected pathway in suckling piglets between 14 and 21 days of age. Weaning negatively affected pathways associated with acquired immunity, but positively affected those associated with innate immunity. Interestingly, pathway Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was found positively affected when comparing 14- and 21-day-old suckling piglets, but negatively affected in 28-day-old piglets weaned at 21 days of age, when compared with 28-day-old suckling piglets. Genes CXCL13, SLA-DOA (MHC class II), ICAM1, VAV1, and VCAM1 were involved in the pathway Chemotaxis Leukocyte chemotaxis and they were found to significantly change between 14- and 21-day-old suckling piglets and between groups of suckling and weaned piglets. The expression of these genes significantly declined after weaning at 14, 21, and 28 days of age. This decline indicated that CXCL13, SLA-DOA, ICAM1, VAV1, and VCAM1 may be involved in the development of Peyer’s patches (PP) because lower gene expression clearly corresponded with smaller areas of PP in the ileal mucosa of piglets. Moreover, weaning piglets prior to a period of intensive gut development, i.e., 14 days of age, caused significant adverse effects on the size of PP, which were not reverted even 14 days postweaning. PMID:26697021

  13. Between-breed variability of stillbirth and its relationship with sow and piglet characteristics.

    PubMed

    Canario, L; Cantoni, E; Le Bihan, E; Caritez, J C; Billon, Y; Bidanel, J P; Foulley, J L

    2006-12-01

    Litter characteristics at birth were recorded in 4 genetic types of sows with differing maternal abilities. Eighty-two litters from F(1) Duroc x Large White sows, 651 litters from Large White sows, 63 litters from Meishan sows, and 173 litters from Laconie sows were considered. Statistical models included random effects of sow, litter, or both; fixed effects of sow genetic type, parity, birth assistance, and piglet sex, as well as gestation length, farrowing duration, piglet birth weight, and litter size as linear covariates. The quadratic components of the last 2 factors were also considered. For statistical analyses, GLM were first considered, assuming a binomial distribution of stillbirth. Hierarchical models were also fitted to the data to take into account correlations among piglets from the same litter. Model selection was performed based on deviance and deviance information criterion. Finally, standard and robust generalized estimating equations (GEE) procedures were applied to quantify the importance of each effect on a piglet's probability of stillbirth. The 5 most important factors involved were, in decreasing order (contribution of each effect to variance reduction): difference between piglet birth weight and the litter mean (2.36%), individual birth weight (2.25%), piglet sex (1.01%), farrowing duration (0.99%), and sow genetic type (0.94%). Probability of stillbirth was greater for lighter piglets, for male piglets, and for piglets from small or very large litters. Probability of stillbirth increased with sow parity number and with farrowing duration. Piglets born from Meishan sows had a lower risk of stillbirth (P < 0.0001) and were little affected by the sources of variation mentioned above compared with the 3 other sow genetic types. Standard and robust GEE approaches gave similar results despite some disequilibrium in the data set structure highlighted with the robust GEE approach.

  14. Weaning Markedly Affects Transcriptome Profiles and Peyer's Patch Development in Piglet Ileum.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ryo; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nakatani, Masako; Okutani, Mie; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Ogawa, Shohei; Harayama, Tomoko; Nagino, Takayuki; Hatanaka, Hironori; Fukuta, Kikuto; Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A; Ushida, Kazunari; Kelly, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome analyses were conducted on the ileal mucosa of 14- to 35-day-old piglets to investigate postnatal gut development during suckling and postweaning. The transcriptome profiles of 14-day-old suckling piglets showed a considerably higher number of differentially expressed genes than did those of 21-, 28-, and 35-day olds, indicating an intensive gut development during the first 14-21 postnatal days. In addition, the analysis of biological pathways indicated that Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was the most significantly affected pathway in suckling piglets between 14 and 21 days of age. Weaning negatively affected pathways associated with acquired immunity, but positively affected those associated with innate immunity. Interestingly, pathway Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was found positively affected when comparing 14- and 21-day-old suckling piglets, but negatively affected in 28-day-old piglets weaned at 21 days of age, when compared with 28-day-old suckling piglets. Genes CXCL13, SLA-DOA (MHC class II), ICAM1, VAV1, and VCAM1 were involved in the pathway Chemotaxis Leukocyte chemotaxis and they were found to significantly change between 14- and 21-day-old suckling piglets and between groups of suckling and weaned piglets. The expression of these genes significantly declined after weaning at 14, 21, and 28 days of age. This decline indicated that CXCL13, SLA-DOA, ICAM1, VAV1, and VCAM1 may be involved in the development of Peyer's patches (PP) because lower gene expression clearly corresponded with smaller areas of PP in the ileal mucosa of piglets. Moreover, weaning piglets prior to a period of intensive gut development, i.e., 14 days of age, caused significant adverse effects on the size of PP, which were not reverted even 14 days postweaning.

  15. Dietary (1,3/1,6)-β-D-glucan decreases transforming growth factor β expression in the lung of the neonatal piglet.

    PubMed

    Thorum, Shannon C; Hester, Shelly N; Comstock, Sarah S; Monaco, Marcia H; Pence, Brandt D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Donovan, Sharon M

    2013-04-01

    Identification and characterization of compounds that enhance the growth, development, and health of infants who are not breastfed continues to be a goal for nutritional science. This study explored the effects of one dietary component, (1,3/1,6)-β-D-glucan (Wellmune WGP), on lung immune development in the neonatal piglet. The hypothesis was that supplementation with WGP, a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, would enhance pathogen-responsive elements of the immune system, for instance, by increasing the size of the cytotoxic T-cell population or the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Piglets were fed a control formula or formula plus WGP at 1.8, 18, or 90 mg/kg body weight per day. Serum, thoracic lymph nodes (TLNs), mediastinal lymph nodes, and lung were collected at days 7 or 21. Immune parameters including tissue messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and T-cell phenotypes were analyzed. Normal developmental changes were observed, with a decrease in T-helper cells and an increase in cytotoxic T cells in both TLN and mediastinal lymph node, but there was no effect of WGP. Dietary WGP reduced the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor (TGF) β2 and tended to reduce the mRNA expression of TGF-β1 in lung tissue. With the exception of reducing TGF-β mRNA in the lung and tending to decrease the ratio of T helper to cytotoxic T cell in the TLN, dietary WGP did not affect lung-associated adaptive immunity in piglets.

  16. Factors affecting duration of the expulsive stage of parturition and piglet birth intervals in sows with uncomplicated, spontaneous farrowings.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, A J; van Rens, B T T M; van der Lende, T; Taverne, M A M

    2005-10-15

    Modern pig farming is still confronted with high perinatal piglet losses which are mainly contributed to factors associated with the progress of piglet expulsion. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify sow- and piglet factors affecting the duration of the expulsive stage of farrowing and piglet birth intervals in spontaneous farrowing sows originating from five different breeds. In total 211 litters were investigated. Breed affected duration of the expulsive stage significantly: the shortest duration was found in Large White x Meishan F2 crossbred litters and the longest duration in Dutch Landrace litters. No effect of parity on the duration of the expulsive stage was found. An increase in littersize (P<0.01), an increase in number of stillborn piglets per litter (P<0.05) and a decrease of gestation length (P<0.05, independently of littersize) all resulted in an increased duration of the expulsive stage of farrowing. A curvilinear relationship between birth interval and rank (relative position in the birth order) of the piglets was found. Besides that, piglet birth intervals increased with an increasing birth weight (P<0.001). Stillborn (P<0.01) and posteriorly presented (P<0.05) piglets were delivered after significantly longer birth intervals than liveborn and anteriorly presented piglets. The results on sow- and piglet factors affecting duration of the expulsive stage and piglet birth intervals obtained in this study contribute to an increased insight into (patho) physiological aspects of perinatal mortality in pigs.

  17. Climatic effects on sow fertility and piglet survival under influence of a moderate climate.

    PubMed

    Wegner, K; Lambertz, C; Daş, G; Reiner, G; Gauly, M

    2014-09-01

    Although the climate in Germany is moderate, heat stress conditions may occur during summer months. However, it is unknown to what extent sow fertility and piglet survival are affected under moderate climatic conditions in indoor systems. Therefore, this study estimated effects of temperature and temperature-humidity index (THI) on sow fertility and piglet survival under practical husbandry conditions. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded in six piglet-producing farms in Lower Saxony, Germany, from July 2011 to August 2012. Based on that, the THI was calculated. In one farrowing, waiting and servicing unit of each farm two data loggers were installed. Reproductive parameters of 8279 successful inseminations and 10 369 litters including total number of piglets born, liveborn, stillborn and weaned piglets as well as pre-weaning mortality were evaluated. The effects of temperature and THI on reproductive parameters were estimated for varying periods after breeding and before and after farrowing, respectively. Average daily temperature across all units ranged from 15.6°C to 29.0°C, and average THI from 62.4 to 75.1. Season and parity significantly affected total number of piglets born, number of liveborn, stillborn and weaned piglets (P<0.001). The number of piglets born increased with rising temperature and THI in the 1st week post breeding. Higher temperatures and THI values before farrowing resulted in a reduced number of liveborn piglets. Elevated temperature and THI values after farrowing were associated with a greater number of weaned piglets. The pre-weaning mortality significantly decreased with increasing temperature and THI values after farrowing (P<0.05). In conclusion, temperature and THI affected the reproductive performance of the sows and the survival of the piglets in different ways. While increased climatic values at the time of breeding positively affected the total number of piglets born, increased values at the time of farrowing had

  18. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Alexandra Ferreira da Silva; Nääs, Irenilza de Alencar; Oliveira, Stanley R. M.; Violaro, Fabio; de Almeida, Andréia C. M.; Neves, Diego Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This research aimed to analyze the possibility of assessing piglets’ welfare using the records of their vocalization. The trial was done in a pig commercial farm, and we recorded the vocal signals from piglets in several stressful exposure situations. Data mining techniques were applied to the processed signals in order to obtain a stress classification using the recorded data. We found that, using the piglets’ vocalization, it was possible to identify the most frequent stressful conditions at the farrowing phase, namely: pain, cold and hunger. Abstract Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline), feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger), with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets. PMID:26479541

  19. Therapeutic effects of glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Miaomiao; Xiao, Hao; Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Tan, Bie; Liu, Gang; Li, Lili; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Xiong, Xia; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common food contaminants, primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract to affect animal and human health. This study was conducted to examine the protective function of glutamic acid on intestinal injury and oxidative stress caused by DON in piglets. Twenty-eight piglets were assigned randomly into 4 dietary treatments (7 pigs/treatment): 1) uncontaminated control diet (NC), 2) NC+DON at 4 mg/kg (DON), 3) NC+2% glutamic acid (GLU), and 4) NC+2% glutamic acid + DON at 4 mg/kg (DG). At day 15, 30 and 37, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of CAT (catalase), T-AOC (total antioxidant capacity), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), NO (nitric oxide), MDA (maleic dialdehyde), DAO (diamine oxidase) and D-lactate. Intestinal morphology, and the activation of Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway, as well as the concentrations of H2O2, MDA, and DAO in kidney, liver and small intestine, were analyzed at day 37. Results showed that DON significantly (P<0.05) induced oxidative stress in piglets, while this stress was remarkably reduced with glutamic acid supplementation according to the change of oxidative parameters in blood and tissues. Meanwhile, DON caused obvious intestinal injury from microscopic observations and permeability indicators, which was alleviated by glutamic acid supplementation. Moreover, the inhibition of DON on Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway was reduced by glutamic acid supplementation. Collectively, these data suggest that glutamic acid may be a useful nutritional regulator for DON-induced damage manifested as oxidative stress, intestinal injury and signaling inhibition.

  20. Therapeutic Effects of Glutamic Acid in Piglets Challenged with Deoxynivalenol

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Tan, Bie; Liu, Gang; Li, Lili; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Xiong, Xia; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common food contaminants, primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract to affect animal and human health. This study was conducted to examine the protective function of glutamic acid on intestinal injury and oxidative stress caused by DON in piglets. Twenty-eight piglets were assigned randomly into 4 dietary treatments (7 pigs/treatment): 1) uncontaminated control diet (NC), 2) NC+DON at 4 mg/kg (DON), 3) NC+2% glutamic acid (GLU), and 4) NC+2% glutamic acid + DON at 4 mg/kg (DG). At day 15, 30 and 37, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of CAT (catalase), T-AOC (total antioxidant capacity), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), NO (nitric oxide), MDA (maleic dialdehyde), DAO (diamine oxidase) and D-lactate. Intestinal morphology, and the activation of Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway, as well as the concentrations of H2O2, MDA, and DAO in kidney, liver and small intestine, were analyzed at day 37. Results showed that DON significantly (P<0.05) induced oxidative stress in piglets, while this stress was remarkably reduced with glutamic acid supplementation according to the change of oxidative parameters in blood and tissues. Meanwhile, DON caused obvious intestinal injury from microscopic observations and permeability indicators, which was alleviated by glutamic acid supplementation. Moreover, the inhibition of DON on Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway was reduced by glutamic acid supplementation. Collectively, these data suggest that glutamic acid may be a useful nutritional regulator for DON-induced damage manifested as oxidative stress, intestinal injury and signaling inhibition. PMID:24984001

  1. Hypoglycemia: a factor associated with low survival rate of neonatal piglets infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Drolet, R; Morin, M; Fontaine, M

    1984-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to study changes in the balance of fluids, electrolytes and blood metabolites in neonatal piglets with severe transmissible gastroenteritis. Six two day old conventional piglets were infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus while six others were used as normal controls. Blood samples were collected in heparin when the infected piglets were moribund. The following variables were measured: packed red cell volume, total plasma protein and bicarbonate, blood pH, blood urea nitrogen and plasma glucose, creatinine, chloride, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. Vomiting and diarrhea appeared 12 to 24 hours postinoculation in the infected piglets and they were moribund one or two days later. Before becoming moribund, most of the piglets fell rapidly into a lethargic and comatose state. The most evident changes in their blood variables were an increase in packed cell volume, total protein, blood urea nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium levels and a decrease in pH and bicarbonate concentration as well as a severe hypoglycemia. The results suggest that severe hypoglycemia coupled with metabolic acidosis and dehydration might be an important factor contributing to the high mortality rates caused by transmissible gastroenteritis in neonatal piglets. The hypoglycemia results from a combination of the inadequate glucose metabolism inherent to neonatal piglets and the acute maldigestion and malabsorption resulting from the diffuse and severe villous atrophy induced by the virus. PMID:6478297

  2. Atypical Porcine Pestivirus: A Possible Cause of Congenital Tremor Type A-II in Newborn Piglets

    PubMed Central

    de Groof, Ad; Deijs, Martin; Guelen, Lars; van Grinsven, Lotte; van Os-Galdos, Laura; Vogels, Wannes; Derks, Carmen; Cruijsen, Toine; Geurts, Victor; Vrijenhoek, Mieke; Suijskens, Janneke; van Doorn, Peter; van Leengoed, Leo; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Congenital tremor type A-II in piglets has been regarded as a transmissible disease since the 1970s, possibly caused by a very recently-described virus: atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, we describe several strains of APPV in piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremor (10 of 10 farms tested). Piglets on a farm with no history of congenital tremor were PCR-negative for the virus. To demonstrate a causal relationship between APPV and disease, three gilts were inoculated via intramuscular injection at day 32 of pregnancy. In two of the three litters, vertical transmission of the virus occurred. Clinical signs of congenital tremor were observed in APPV-infected newborns, yet also two asymptomatic carriers were among the offspring. Piglets of one litter were PCR-negative for the virus, and these piglets were all without congenital tremors. Long-term follow up of farm piglets born with congenital tremors showed that the initially high viremia in serum declines at five months of age, but shedding of the virus in feces continues, which explains why the virus remains present at affected farms and causes new outbreaks. We conclude that trans-placental transmission of APPV and subsequent infection of the fetuses is a very likely cause of congenital tremor type A-II in piglets. PMID:27782037

  3. Use of recombinant porcine β-defensin 2 as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zixin; Wang, Anru; Xie, Linqi; Song, Weiping; Wang, Jie; Yin, Zhe; Zhou, Dongsheng; Li, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) in piglets is associated with colonization of the intestine with bacterial pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the use of recombinant porcine β-defensin 2 (rpBD2) as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets. The crude extract from the culture supernatant of rpBD2-expressing Pichia pastoris was used as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets. Dietary treatments included a positive control (basal diet + antibiotics, designated PC) and three different rpBD2 treatments without antibiotics (basal diet supplemented with 1, 5, or 15 g of crude rpBD2/kg basal diet, designated 1PD, 5PD, and 15PD, respectively). Of all the treatments, 5PD had the greatest impact on the weaned piglets. It increased their body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake, and intestinal villus height in the duodenum and jejunum, and reduced the incidence of PWD. The diversity of the cecal digesta and mucosa microflora was compared between the weaned piglets in the PC and 5PD groups. Piglets treated with 5PD had lower diversity indices and fewer bacterial pathogens in their cecal digesta and mucosa than the PC group. Our results demonstrate that crude rpBD2 could provide an alternative to the traditional antibiotic feed additives given to weaned piglets. PMID:27225034

  4. Analysis of possible influence of conjugated linoleic acid on growth performance and losses of piglets.

    PubMed

    Hadaš, Z; Čechová, M; Nevrkla, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of supplementing the feed ration for lactating sows with the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth performance and losses of piglets from birth to weaning. The monitoring comprised 20 litters in control and 20 litters in experimental group of Czech Large White × Czech Landrace hybrid combination sows. The control group was given a standard feed mixture for lactating sows, and experimental group was fed with the feed mixture supplemented with 2% of CLA, from the day of farrowing to the weaning of piglets, that is for the time of 28 days. The results of the experiment indicate the significantly better parameters of the numbers of reared piglets in the experimental group and the related lower level of losses of piglets from birth to weaning (p < 0.01). However, the feed mixture for lactating sows enriched in conjugated linoleic acid had no significant effect on the growth performance of piglets from birth to weaning (p > 0.05). Sows in the experimental group showed earlier onset of post-partal oestrus after weaning of piglets (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that the supplementation of diet for lactating sows with CLA can improve survival of piglets from birth to weaning and shortening of weaning-to-oestrous interval in sows.

  5. Reduced Neonatal Mortality in Meishan Piglets: A Role for Hepatic Fatty Acids?

    PubMed Central

    Bacardit, Jaume; Li, Dongfang; Wessely, Frank; Mongan, Nigel P.; Symonds, Michael E.; Clarke, Lynne; Mostyn, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The Meishan pig breed exhibits increased prolificacy and reduced neonatal mortality compared to commercial breeds, such as the Large White, prompting breeders to introduce the Meishan genotype into commercial herds. Commercial piglets are highly susceptible to hypoglycemia, hypothermia, and death, potentially due to limited lipid stores and/or delayed hepatic metabolic ability. We therefore hypothesized that variation in hepatic development and lipid metabolism could contribute to the differences in neonatal mortality between breeds. Liver samples were obtained from piglets of each breed on days 0, 7, and 21 of postnatal age and subjected to molecular and biochemical analysis. At birth, both breeds exhibited similar hepatic glycogen contents, despite Meishan piglets having significantly lower body weight. The livers from newborn Meishan piglets exhibited increased C18∶1n9C and C20∶1n9 but lower C18∶0, C20∶4n6, and C22∶6n3 fatty acid content. Furthermore, by using an unsupervised machine learning approach, we detected an interaction between C18∶1n9C and glycogen content in newborn Meishan piglets. Bioinformatic analysis could identify unique age-based clusters from the lipid profiles in Meishan piglets that were not apparent in the commercial offspring. Examination of the fatty acid signature during the neonatal period provides novel insights into the body composition of Meishan piglets that may facilitate liver responses that prevent hypoglycaemia and reduce offspring mortality. PMID:23155453

  6. Influence of birth prematurity on colostrum composition and subsequent immunity of piglets.

    PubMed

    Milon, A; Aumaitre, A; Le Dividich, J; Franz, J; Metzger, J J

    1983-01-01

    Two groups of seven pregnant sows were farrowing either naturally after 111-114 days of gestation or prematurely after 109 days following an injection of 125 micrograms/animal of a prostaglandin analogue. Colostrum intake was controlled individually on piglets during the first 24 h of life. Measurements of IgG, IgA and IgM were performed on 3 samples of colostrum after 0, 12 and 24 h following the birth of the first piglet, then in the serum of the piglets, sampled at 4, 12 and 42 days of age. Then, we calculated the total amount of Ig intake during the first 24 h of life and an estimation of the Ig stores of each piglet on the basis of weight, blood volume, and hematocrit at different ages. Results showed a marked average difference in the birth weight in favour of mature piglets as well as an increased colostrum intake: 315 vs an average of 213 g for premature piglets. Considerable variations between sows were found in the initial level of colostral IgG, independently of the gestation length. Two thirds of the IgG intake by piglets occurred during the first 12 h. Total Immunoglobulin intake in the first day was respectively 15.8 g vs 25.1 g for premature or mature piglets. Total estimated Ig content in the serum of 4 day-old piglets was also lower for premature ones (2.55 vs 3.2 g/animal), representing 10 to 27% of the total amount of Igs ingested during the first day of life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Does Circulating Antibody Play a Role in the Protection of Piglets against Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus?

    PubMed Central

    Poonsuk, Korakrit; Giménez-Lirola, Luis Gabriel; Zhang, Jianqiang; Arruda, Paolo; Chen, Qi; Correa da Silva Carrion, Lucas; Magtoto, Ronaldo; Pineyro, Pablo; Sarmento, Luciana; Wang, Chong; Sun, Yaxuan; Madson, Darin; Johnson, John; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Main, Rodger

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of circulating antibody to the protection of naïve piglets against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was evaluated using a passive antibody transfer model. Piglets (n = 62) derived from 6 sows were assigned to one of 6 different treatments using a randomized block design which provided for allocation of all treatments to all sows' litters. Each treatment was designed to achieve a different level of circulating anti-PEDV antibody via intraperitoneally administration of concentrated serum antibody. Piglets were orally inoculated with PEDV (USA/IN/2013/19338E, 1 x 103 TCID50 per piglet) 24 hours later and then monitored for 14 days. Piglets remained with their dam throughout the experiment. Sow milk samples, piglet fecal samples, and data on piglet clinical signs, body weight, and body temperature were collected daily. Fecal samples were tested by PEDV real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Serum, colostrum, and milk were tested for PEDV IgG, IgA, and virus-neutralizing antibody. The data were evaluated for the effects of systemic PEDV antibody levels on growth, body temperature, fecal shedding, survival, and antibody response. The analysis showed that circulating antibody partially ameliorated the effect of PEDV infection. Specifically, antibody-positive groups returned to normal body temperature faster and demonstrated a higher rate of survivability than piglets without PEDV antibody. When combined with previous literature on PEDV, it can be concluded that both systemic antibodies and maternal secretory IgA in milk contribute to the protection of the neonatal pig against PEDV infections. Overall, the results of this experiment suggested that passively administered circulating antibodies contributed to the protection of neonatal piglets against PEDV infection. PMID:27050556

  8. Drying and warming immediately after birth may reduce piglet mortality in loose-housed sows.

    PubMed

    Andersen, I L; Haukvik, I A; Bøe, K E

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of placing newborn piglets under the heat lamp or both drying and placing them under the heat lamp on piglet mortality. Sixty-seven healthy (Landrace × Yorkshire) sows were divided equally into three different experimental groups: a control group where the farrowings occurred without supervision from the farmer (C; n = 23 litters), another group where the piglets were placed under the heat lamp in the creep area immediately after birth (HL; n = 22 litters) and a third group where the piglets were dried with straw and paper towels followed by placing them under the heat lamp in the creep area immediately after birth (DHL; n = 22 litters). The sows were individually loose-housed in farrowing pens during farrowing and lactation. The piglets were not closed inside the creep area, but were free to move around in the pen. The routines in the experimental groups required the stock person to attend the farrowings from the onset of birth of the first piglet until the last piglet was born. All the dead piglets were weighed and subjected to a post mortem examination at the farm to ascertain the causes of death. Postnatal mortality (% of live born) was significantly lower in the HL and DHL groups than in the control group (P < 0.0001). This was significant concerning all causes of mortality. Compared to the control group, crushing occurred in significantly fewer litters when the piglets were both dried and placed under the heat lamp (P < 0.05). In the DHL treatment, crushing of one or more piglets by the sow occurred in only 13.6% of the litters, whereas this was increased to 34.8% in the HL and to 47.9% in the control group, respectively. All causes of death, except the proportion of stillborn piglets, increased significantly with increasing litter size. Because of the relatively large potential that these rather simple routines may have to improve piglet survival, different types of management or human

  9. Identifying the limitations for growth in low performing piglets from birth until 10 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Paredes, S P; Jansman, A J M; Verstegen, M W A; den Hartog, L A; van Hees, H M J; Bolhuis, J E; van Kempen, T A T G; Gerrits, W J J

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of hyper-prolific pig breeds has led to a higher within-litter variation in birth weight and in BW gain during the nursery phase. Based on an algorithm developed in previous research, two populations from a pool of 368 clinically healthy piglets at 6 weeks of age were selected: a low (LP) and a high (HP) performing population and their development was monitored until the end of the nursery phase (10 weeks of age). To understand the cause of the variation in growth between these populations we characterized the LP and HP piglets in terms of body morphology, behaviour, voluntary feed intake, BW gain, and apparent total tract and ileal nutrient digestibility. Piglets were housed individually and were fed a highly digestible diet. At selection, 6 weeks of age, the BW of LP and HP piglets were 6.8±0.1 and 12.2±0.1 kg, respectively. Compared with the LP piglets the HP piglets grew faster (203 g/day), ate more (275 g/day) from 6 to 10 weeks of age and were heavier at 10 weeks (30.0 v. 18.8 kg, all P<0.01). Yet, the differences in average daily gain and average daily feed intake disappeared when compared per kg BW0.75. Assuming similar maintenance requirements per kg BW0.75 the efficiency of feed utilization above maintenance was 0.1 g/g lower for the LP piglets (P=0.09).The gain : feed ratio was similar for both groups. LP piglets tended to take more time to touch a novel object (P=0.10), and spent more time eating (P<0.05). At 10 weeks, LP piglets had a higher body length and head circumference relative to BW (P<0.01). Relative to BW, LP had a 21% higher small intestine weight; 36% longer length, and relative to average FI, the small intestinal weight was 4 g/kg higher (both P=<0.01). Apparent total tract and ileal dry matter, N and gross energy digestibility were similar between groups (P>0.10). We concluded that the low performance of the LP piglets was due to their inability to engage compensatory gain or compensatory feed intake as efficiency of

  10. The ability of different thermal aids to reduce hypothermia in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, L J; Larsen, M L V; Malmkvist, J

    2016-05-01

    We investigated whether hypothermia in newborn piglets could be reduced by applying different thermal aids. The experiment was performed on 150 newborn piglets from 24 sows. Right after birth, the piglets were moved to a wire mesh cage for the first 2 h of life where they experienced 1 of 7 different combinations of flooring (solid vs. slatted) and treatments: control, with no additional thermal aids on a solid floor ( = 26) or a slatted floor ( = 26); built-in floor heating ( = 31) or floor heating as a radiant floor plate on solid floor (FloorPlate; = 19); radiant heater above a solid floor (RadiantC; = 22) or a slatted floor (RadiantSlat; = 18); and provision of straw on a solid floor (Straw; = 8). Piglets' rectal temperature was measured both continuously and manually every 10 min for the first 2 h after birth using a thermal sensor inserted in the rectum of the piglets. The rectal temperature curve was analyzed for differences in the slope of the drop in rectal temperature and the deflection tangent of the curve. Furthermore, differences in average rectal temperature, minimum rectal temperature, rectal temperature 2 h after birth, and time with rectal temperature below 35°C were analyzed. All statistical analyses were performed using a mixed model. All thermal aids/heat solutions resulted in a less steep drop in rectal temperature, a faster recovery, and, for the smaller piglets, also a greater average rectal temperature (except for built-in floor heating) and less time with rectal temperature below 35°C. The most efficient thermal aids to reduce hypothermia in newborn piglets were Straw and RadiantC. Furthermore, Straw, RadiantC, and FloorPlate also eliminated the effect of birth weight on some of these indicators of thermoregulatory success. Otherwise, FloorPlate and RadiantSlat showed an intermediate outcome for most measures. With no heating, piglets on a solid floor experienced more severe hypothermia than piglets on a slatted floor. In conclusion

  11. Cardiovascular response to histamine during normoxaemia and hypoxaemia in piglets.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B J

    1989-02-01

    The cardiovascular effects of exogenously administered histamine were investigated in conscious newborn piglets aged 10-11 days during normoxia (21% (v/v) O2) and during isocapneic alveolar hypoxia (10% O2, 3% CO2, 87% N2) to determine its influence on preexisting vascular tone. In the first set of experiments (n = 6), four histamine doses (1,10,50,100 micrograms/kg) were tested in sequence during normoxia. Histamine was injected intravenously and cardiovascular variables were recorded. Heart rate increased at all doses studied. Pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures, cardiac output and stroke volume were unchanged at the low histamine doses (1 and 10 micrograms), but all decreased at the high doses (50 and 100 micrograms). Pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances were unchanged at each dose. In the second set of experiments (n = 7), two histamine doses (1 and 5 micrograms/kg) were administered during alveolar hypoxia. Hypoxia caused increases in heart rate and pulmonary arterial pressure and resistance. After injection of each dose of histamine, pulmonary pressure and resistance decreased but remained higher than baseline. No other measured cardiovascular variables were altered. Thus, during normoxia histamine did not alter vascular tone, but high doses did adversely affect myocardial function. During alveolar hypoxia histamine caused weak pulmonary vasodilation at doses that did not alter systemic vascular tone. Histamine is not a potent modifier of the circulation in the newborn piglet during conditions of normoxaemia or hypoxaemia.

  12. Salmonella Typhimurium exploits inflammation to its own advantage in piglets.

    PubMed

    Chirullo, Barbara; Pesciaroli, Michele; Drumo, Rosanna; Ruggeri, Jessica; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Pistoia, Claudia; Petrucci, Paola; Martinelli, Nicola; Cucco, Lucilla; Moscati, Livia; Amadori, Massimo; Magistrali, Chiara F; Alborali, Giovanni L; Pasquali, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is responsible for foodborne zoonotic infections that, in humans, induce self-limiting gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the wild-type strain S. Typhimurium (STM14028) is able to exploit inflammation fostering an active infection. Due to the similarity between human and porcine diseases induced by S. Typhimurium, we used piglets as a model for salmonellosis and gastrointestinal research. This study showed that STM14028 is able to efficiently colonize in vitro porcine mono-macrophages and intestinal columnar epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells, and that the colonization significantly increases with LPS pre-treatment. This increase was then reversed by inhibiting the LPS stimulation through LPS antagonist, confirming an active role of LPS stimulation in STM14028-intracellular colonization. Moreover, LPS in vivo treatment increased cytokines blood level and body temperature at 4 h post infection, which is consistent with an acute inflammatory stimulus, capable to influence the colonization of STM14028 in different organs and tissues. The present study proves for the first time that in acute enteric salmonellosis, S. Typhimurium exploits inflammation for its benefit in piglets.

  13. Interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 enhance thermal prolongation of the LCR in decerebrate piglets.

    PubMed

    Xia, Luxi; Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, J C

    2016-08-01

    Thermal stress and prior upper respiratory tract infection are risk factors for the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. The adverse effects of prior infection are likely mediated by interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Therefore, we examined the single and combined effects of IL-1β and elevated body temperature on the duration of the Laryngeal Chemoreflex (LCR) in decerebrate neonatal piglets ranging in age from post-natal day (P) 3 to P7. We examined the effects of intraperitoneal (I.P.) injections of 0.3mg/Kg IL-1β with or without I.P. 10mg/Kg indomethacin pretreatment on the duration of the LCR, and in the same animals we also examined the duration of the LCR when body temperature was elevated approximately 2°C. We found that IL-1β significantly increased the duration of the LCR even when body temperature was held constant. There was a significant multiplicative effect when elevated body temperature was combined with IL-1β treatment: prolongation of the LCR was significantly greater than the sum of independent thermal and IL-1β-induced prolongations of the LCR. The effects of IL-1β, but not elevated body temperature, were blocked by pretreatment with indomethacin alone. We also tested the interaction between IL-6 given directly into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) bilaterally in 100ngm microinjections of 50μL and pretreatment with indomethacin. Here again, there was a multiplicative effect of IL-6 treatment and elevated body temperature, which significantly prolonged the LCR. The effect of IL-6 on the LCR, but not elevated body temperature, was blocked by pretreatment with indomethacin. We conclude that cytokines interact with elevated body temperature, probably through direct thermal effects on TRPV1 receptors expressed pre-synaptically in the NTS and through cytokine-dependent sensitization of the TRPV1 receptor. This sensitization is likely initiated by cyclo-oxygenase-2 dependent synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which is stimulated by elevated levels of IL-1

  14. Nighttime parenting strategies and sleep-related risks to infants.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Lane E; Ball, Helen L; McKenna, James J

    2013-02-01

    A large social science and public health literature addresses infant sleep safety, with implications for infant mortality in the context of accidental deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As part of risk reduction campaigns in the USA, parents are encouraged to place infants supine and to alter infant bedding and elements of the sleep environment, and are discouraged from allowing infants to sleep unsupervised, from bed-sharing either at all or under specific circumstances, or from sofa-sharing. These recommendations are based on findings from large-scale epidemiological studies that generate odds ratios or relative risk statistics for various practices; however, detailed behavioural data on nighttime parenting and infant sleep environments are limited. To address this issue, this paper presents and discusses the implications of four case studies based on overnight observations conducted with first-time mothers and their four-month old infants. These case studies were collected at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame USA between September 2002 and June 2004. Each case study provides a detailed description based on video analysis of sleep-related risks observed while mother-infant dyads spent the night in a sleep lab. The case studies provide examples of mothers engaged in the strategic management of nighttime parenting for whom sleep-related risks to infants arose as a result of these strategies. Although risk reduction guidelines focus on eliminating potentially risky infant sleep practices as if the probability of death from each were equal, the majority of instances in which these occur are unlikely to result in infant mortality. Therefore, we hypothesise that mothers assess potential costs and benefits within margins of risk which are not acknowledged by risk-reduction campaigns. Exploring why mothers might choose to manage sleep and nighttime parenting in ways that appear to increase potential risks to infants may

  15. Nighttime Parenting Strategies and Sleep-Related Risks to Infants

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Lane E.; Ball, Helen L.; McKenna, James J.

    2012-01-01

    A large social science and public health literature addresses infant sleep safety, with implications for infant mortality in the context of accidental deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As part of risk reduction campaigns in the USA, parents are encouraged to place infants supine and to alter infant bedding and elements of the sleep environment, and are discouraged from allowing infants to sleep unsupervised, from bed-sharing either at all or under specific circumstances, or from sofa-sharing. These recommendations are based on findings from large-scale epidemiological studies that generate odds ratios or relative risk statistics for various practices; however, detailed behavioural data on nighttime parenting and infant sleep environments are limited. To address this issue, this paper presents and discusses the implications of four case studies based on overnight observations conducted with first-time mothers and their four-month old infants. These case studies were collected at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame USA between September 2002 and June 2004.Each case study provides a detailed description based on video analysis of sleep-related risks observed while mother-infant dyads spent the night in a sleep lab. The case studies provide examples of mothers engaged in the strategic management of nighttime parenting for whom sleep-related risks to infants arose as a result of these strategies. Although risk reduction guidelines focus on eliminating potentially risky infant sleep practices as if the probability of death from each were equal, the majority of instances in which these occur are unlikely to result in infant mortality. Therefore, we hypothesise that mothers assess potential costs and benefits within margins of risk which are not acknowledged by risk-reduction campaigns. Exploring why mothers might choose to manage sleep and nighttime parenting in ways that appear to increase potential risks to infants may help

  16. Does the newly weaned piglet select a zinc oxide supplemented feed, when given the choice?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, F H; Forbes, J M; Miller, H M

    2010-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine whether weaned piglets would display preference for a food containing a pharmacological level of zinc oxide (ZnO). A total of 60 piglets were weaned at 7.8 kg ± 0.14 (s.e.m.) and 27.8 ± 0.11 days of age into eight mixed sex groups of seven or eight piglets per pen. Groups were balanced for litter origin, weaning weight and sex. Piglet feeding behaviour was constantly recorded by a multi-spaced feeding behaviour recording system (Leeds University Feeding Behaviour System) in each pen. Each pen of pigs was offered ad libitum access to two different foods (16.2 MJ digestible energy, 16 g lysine/kg), which differed only in the level of ZnO supplementation: unsupplemented (U) or supplemented (Z; ZnO 3100 mg/kg). Both foods contained a basal level of zinc (100 mg/kg). Feeding time was recorded for each individual at each trough. Piglets were weighed at weaning and at 7 and 13 days thereafter. The experiment ran for 13 days. Any piglet observed with post-weaning scour (Y) was recorded and treated appropriately whereas healthy piglets were categorised as N (no scour). Preference for a food was defined as being significantly different from 50% of total feed intake or time spent feeding. There was no difference between piglet numbers selecting each food as their first meal. However, within the first 24 h, piglets preferred (P < 0.001) food U, spending only 36.3% (32.2 to 40.5; 95% confidence interval) of feeding time at food Z. Throughout the experiment, piglets showed aversion (P < 0.001) to food Z, consumption being 8.9% (5.1 to 13.6) and 15.7% (8.9 to 23.9) of total intake in weeks 1 and 2, respectively. Individual piglets showed their preference for food U with only 16.6% (14.6 to 18.5) and 21.8% (19.6 to 24.0) of feeding time spent on food Z in weeks 1 and 2, respectively. Scouring piglets did not show any difference in feeding behaviour from healthy piglets in either week. Average piglet gain (of all piglets) was low, at 0.039

  17. Reducing sow confinement during farrowing and in early lactation increases piglet mortality.

    PubMed

    Condous, P C; Plush, K J; Tilbrook, A J; van Wettere, W H E J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sow confinement and nonconfinement during parturition and early lactation on the performance of sows and piglets prior to weaning. Sows and their litters were housed in either a conventional farrowing crate (control; 1.7 × 2.4 m) or a swing-sided pen (2.8 × 2.15 m). Sows housed in the swing-sided pen had the crate open (open) or closed (closed) during farrowing and opened on d 3 (LAC3) or 7 (LAC7) of lactation. Data are means ± SEM. The numbers of total and live-born piglets were not different between treatments and averaged 13.1 ± 0.4 and 12.3 ± 0.2 piglets/litter, respectively. Sows housed in a farrowing crate had a greater ( = 0.03) number of stillborn piglets compared with open sows from pens (1.1 ± 0.2 vs. 0.6 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively). Live-born piglet mortality before litter equalization on d 1 was greater ( < 0.01) for open sows compared with closed and control sows (1.6 ± 0.2 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively) and was largely explained by an increase in the incidence of piglets overlain ( < 0.01) in the open compared to closed and control sows (1.3 ± 0.1 vs. 0.5 ± 0.1 vs. 0.8 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively). Overlay mortality between d 3 and 7 of lactation was greater ( = 0.03) in LAC3 sows compared to LAC7 and control sows (0.4 ± 0.1 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively). Treatment did not affect either the incidence or cause of piglet mortality after d 7 of lactation ( > 0.05). Total live-born piglet mortality from birth until weaning for the control, closedLAC7, closedLAC3, openLAC7, and openLAC3 was 1.86 ± 0.19, 1.95 ± 0.23, 2.10 ± 0.39, 2.45 ± 0.27, and 3.74 ± 0.48, piglets/litter, respectively. Total live-born piglet mortality from birth until weaning was greater in the openLAC3 and openLAC7 treatments compared to control ( < 0.01), and openLAC3 was also greater than openLAC7, closedLAC3, and closedLAC7 ( < 0.01). The

  18. Reducing sow confinement during farrowing and in early lactation increases piglet mortality.

    PubMed

    Condous, P C; Plush, K J; Tilbrook, A J; van Wettere, W H E J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sow confinement and nonconfinement during parturition and early lactation on the performance of sows and piglets prior to weaning. Sows and their litters were housed in either a conventional farrowing crate (control; 1.7 × 2.4 m) or a swing-sided pen (2.8 × 2.15 m). Sows housed in the swing-sided pen had the crate open (open) or closed (closed) during farrowing and opened on d 3 (LAC3) or 7 (LAC7) of lactation. Data are means ± SEM. The numbers of total and live-born piglets were not different between treatments and averaged 13.1 ± 0.4 and 12.3 ± 0.2 piglets/litter, respectively. Sows housed in a farrowing crate had a greater ( = 0.03) number of stillborn piglets compared with open sows from pens (1.1 ± 0.2 vs. 0.6 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively). Live-born piglet mortality before litter equalization on d 1 was greater ( < 0.01) for open sows compared with closed and control sows (1.6 ± 0.2 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively) and was largely explained by an increase in the incidence of piglets overlain ( < 0.01) in the open compared to closed and control sows (1.3 ± 0.1 vs. 0.5 ± 0.1 vs. 0.8 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively). Overlay mortality between d 3 and 7 of lactation was greater ( = 0.03) in LAC3 sows compared to LAC7 and control sows (0.4 ± 0.1 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively). Treatment did not affect either the incidence or cause of piglet mortality after d 7 of lactation ( > 0.05). Total live-born piglet mortality from birth until weaning for the control, closedLAC7, closedLAC3, openLAC7, and openLAC3 was 1.86 ± 0.19, 1.95 ± 0.23, 2.10 ± 0.39, 2.45 ± 0.27, and 3.74 ± 0.48, piglets/litter, respectively. Total live-born piglet mortality from birth until weaning was greater in the openLAC3 and openLAC7 treatments compared to control ( < 0.01), and openLAC3 was also greater than openLAC7, closedLAC3, and closedLAC7 ( < 0.01). The

  19. Does the newly weaned piglet select a zinc oxide supplemented feed, when given the choice?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, F H; Forbes, J M; Miller, H M

    2010-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine whether weaned piglets would display preference for a food containing a pharmacological level of zinc oxide (ZnO). A total of 60 piglets were weaned at 7.8 kg ± 0.14 (s.e.m.) and 27.8 ± 0.11 days of age into eight mixed sex groups of seven or eight piglets per pen. Groups were balanced for litter origin, weaning weight and sex. Piglet feeding behaviour was constantly recorded by a multi-spaced feeding behaviour recording system (Leeds University Feeding Behaviour System) in each pen. Each pen of pigs was offered ad libitum access to two different foods (16.2 MJ digestible energy, 16 g lysine/kg), which differed only in the level of ZnO supplementation: unsupplemented (U) or supplemented (Z; ZnO 3100 mg/kg). Both foods contained a basal level of zinc (100 mg/kg). Feeding time was recorded for each individual at each trough. Piglets were weighed at weaning and at 7 and 13 days thereafter. The experiment ran for 13 days. Any piglet observed with post-weaning scour (Y) was recorded and treated appropriately whereas healthy piglets were categorised as N (no scour). Preference for a food was defined as being significantly different from 50% of total feed intake or time spent feeding. There was no difference between piglet numbers selecting each food as their first meal. However, within the first 24 h, piglets preferred (P < 0.001) food U, spending only 36.3% (32.2 to 40.5; 95% confidence interval) of feeding time at food Z. Throughout the experiment, piglets showed aversion (P < 0.001) to food Z, consumption being 8.9% (5.1 to 13.6) and 15.7% (8.9 to 23.9) of total intake in weeks 1 and 2, respectively. Individual piglets showed their preference for food U with only 16.6% (14.6 to 18.5) and 21.8% (19.6 to 24.0) of feeding time spent on food Z in weeks 1 and 2, respectively. Scouring piglets did not show any difference in feeding behaviour from healthy piglets in either week. Average piglet gain (of all piglets) was low, at 0.039

  20. Central venous line - infants

    MedlinePlus

    CVL - infants; Central catheter - infants - surgically placed ... plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A ... central catheter (PICC) or midline central catheter (MCC). A CVL ...

  1. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  2. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... blood vessel of the kidney) In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  3. Parenting Your Infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... easily. This can lead to choking! Infants Have Personalities Even very tiny infants act in very individual ... a parent, you already know your baby’s unique personality. Think about this personality when you are caring ...

  4. Urinary catheter - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This article addresses urinary catheters in babies. WHY IS ...

  5. Infant Temperament and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Infants have definite personality characteristics from birth onward. Despite wide variation in infant temperament styles, ranging from easy to difficult, responsive parents and non-parental caregivers can ensure positive emotional-social development. This paper, which reviews various theories and research on personality development in infants and…

  6. Tracking Infants "At Risk."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Pamela; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reveals that infants in West Virginia judged at risk were not followed more closely by county health department nurses than infants judged not at risk. Negotiations are underway with divisions in the State Department of Health to identify high-risk infants routinely, notify local health departments, and conduct a screening in order to provide help…

  7. Does the environmental background (intensive v. outdoor systems) influence the behaviour of piglets at weaning?

    PubMed

    Lau, Y Y W; Pluske, J R; Fleming, P A

    2015-08-01

    Under intensive pig husbandry, outdoor systems offer a more complex physical and social environment compared with indoor systems (farrowing sheds). As the rearing environment affects behavioural development, it can, therefore, influence behavioural responses of pigs to stressful environments in later stages of production. We tested how the rearing environment influenced behavioural responses to a novel arena test in piglets on the day that they were weaned and mixed into large groups. We recorded video footage and compared the behavioural responses of 30 outdoor-raised and 30 farrowing shed-raised piglets tested in an experimental arena and sequentially exposed to four challenges (each for 5 min) on the day of weaning. Quantitative and qualitative behavioural measures were recorded using time budgets and scoring demeanour or 'qualitative behavioural expression' (using Qualitative Behavioural Assessment (QBA)). When held in isolation (challenge 1), both groups were scored as more 'scared/worried', while outdoor-raised piglets spent more time eating and jumping against the arena walls. Both groups interacted with a plastic ball (challenge 2: exposure to a novel object) during which they were scored as more 'playful/curious' than other challenges. When a food bowl was introduced (challenge 3), farrowing shed-raised piglets were more interested in playing with the food bowl itself, whereas outdoor-raised piglets spent more time eating the feed. Finally, there were no significant differences in social behaviour (challenge 4: introduction of another piglet) between the two groups in terms of the latency to contact each other, amount of time recorded engaged in aggressive/non-aggressive social interactions or QBA scores. Although piglets spent 30% of their time interacting with the other piglet, and half of this time (47%) was engaged in negative interactions (pushing, biting), the levels of aggression were not different between the two groups. Overall, outdoor

  8. Evaluation of immunoglobulin G absorption from colostrum supplements gavaged to newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J; Jacobi, S; Liu, Y; Robertson, K Hard; Drayton, J; Medina, I; Polo, J; Crenshaw, J; Odle, J

    2012-12-01

    Absorption of energy and IgG at birth from colostrum may improve survival and immune competency of newborn piglets. Adequate intake of colostrum may be difficult for piglets due to low birth weight, birth order, or viability. This study was designed to evaluate orally fed colostrum supplements with different energy sources and IgG from porcine plasma on piglet serum IgG content and absorption of IgG compared to pooled sow colostrum. Ninety-six newborn piglets from 12 sows with an average birth weight of 1,288 g were used. Eight piglets were removed from each sow immediately at birth, prior to suckling, and randomly allotted to receive either pooled sow colostrum or 1 of 3 colostrum supplements (A, B, and C) fed at 2 dosing schemes. Piglets received their allotted treatment as either one 30-mL dose at 0 h or three 10-mL doses at 0, 2, and 4 h. Piglets received ad libitum access to water at 2-h intervals after receiving their last treatment dose. Twelve hours after the first dose, piglets were weighed and 4 mL of blood was collected. Plasma IgG content, apparent efficiency of absorption, hematocrit, protein, and glucose were determined. Birth weight and final BW did not differ between treatments; however, pigs fed sow colostrum lost more weight (-72 g) than pigs fed colostrum supplements (-40 g; P < 0.001). Differences in hematocrit or serum glucose were not detected. Serum protein was higher (P < 0.05) in piglets fed colostrum supplements than in pigs fed sow colostrum. Serum IgG content did not differ among treatments. Apparent efficiency of IgG absorption was greatest for sow colostrum followed by colostrum supplements B, A, and C (28.5, 27.6, 25.5, and 24.7%, respectively). The single and multiple dose regimes delivered comparable serum IgG whereas the single dose yielded better piglet hydration as noted by less weight loss. In conclusion, all colostrum supplements were comparable in delivering absorbable IgG to the neonatal piglet.

  9. Bacterially synthesized folate and supplemental folic acid are absorbed across the large intestine of piglets.

    PubMed

    Asrar, Farhan M; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2005-10-01

    A large pool of folate exists in the large intestine of humans. Preliminary evidence, primarily in vitro, suggests that this folate may be bioavailable. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that supplemental folic acid and bacterially synthesized folate are absorbed across the large intestine of piglets. The pig was used as an animal model because it resembles the human in terms of folate absorption, at least in the small intestine. A tracer of [3H]-folic acid or [3H]-para-aminobenzoic acid ([3H]-PABA), a precursor of bacterially synthesized folate, was injected into the cecum of 11-day-old piglets. Feces and urine were collected for 3 days. Thereafter, piglets were killed, and livers and kidneys harvested. [3H]-Folate was isolated from biological samples by affinity chromatography using immobilized milk folate binding proteins and counted using a scintillation counter. In piglets injected with [3H]-folic acid, the feces, liver, urine and kidneys accounted for 82.1%, 12.3%, 3.9% and 1.7% of recovered [3H]-folate, respectively. In piglets injected with [3H]-PABA, the amount of recovered bacterially synthesized folate in the feces, liver and urine was 85.1%, 0.4% and 14.6%, respectively. Twenty-three percent and 13% of tritium were recovered in samples examined (liver, kidney, fecal and urine) from piglets injected with [3H]-folic acid and [3H]-PABA, respectively. Using our estimates of [3H]-folic acid absorption and the total and percent monoglutamyl folate content of piglet feces, we predict that at least 18% of the dietary folate requirement for the piglet could be met by folate absorption across the large intestine.

  10. Postnatal nutritional restriction affects growth and immune function of piglets with intra-uterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yan, Chuan; Peng, Xie; Xu, Qin; Xuan, Yue; Han, Fei; Tian, Gang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Zhang, Keying; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De; Che, Lianqiang

    2015-07-14

    Postnatal rapid growth by excess intake of nutrients has been associated with an increased susceptibility to diseases in neonates with intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR). The aim of the present study was to determine whether postnatal nutritional restriction could improve intestinal development and immune function of neonates with IUGR using piglets as model. A total of twelve pairs of normal-birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 d old) were randomly assigned to receive adequate nutrient intake or restricted nutrient intake (RNI) by artificially liquid feeding for a period of 21 d. Blood samples and intestinal tissues were collected at necropsy and were analysed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, immune cells and expression of innate immunity-related genes. The results indicated that both IUGR and postnatal nutritional restriction delayed the growth rate during the sucking period. Irrespective of nutrient intake, piglets with IUGR had a significantly lower villous height and crypt depth in the ileum than the NBW piglets. Moreover, IUGR decreased alkaline phosphatase activity while enhanced lactase activity in the jejunum and mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in the ileum of piglets. Irrespective of body weight, RNI significantly decreased the number and/or percentage of peripheral leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of piglets, whereas the percentage of neutrophils and the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ were increased. Furthermore, RNI markedly enhanced the mRNA expression of TLR-9 and DNMT1, but decreased the expression of NOD2 and TRAF-6 in the ileum of piglets. In summary, postnatal nutritional restriction led to abnormal cellular and innate immune response, as well as delayed the growth and intestinal development of IUGR piglets. PMID:26059215

  11. Gut response induced by weaning in piglet features marked changes in immune and inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Bomba, Lorenzo; Minuti, Andrea; Moisá, Sonia J; Trevisi, Erminio; Eufemi, Elisa; Lizier, Michela; Chegdani, Fatima; Lucchini, Franco; Rzepus, Marcin; Prandini, Aldo; Rossi, Filippo; Mazza, Raffaele; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Loor, Juan J; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    At weaning, piglets are exposed to many stressors, such as separation from the sow, mixing with other litters, end of lactational immunity, and a change in their environment and gut microbiota. The sudden change of feeding regime after weaning causes morphological and histological changes in the small intestine which are critical for the immature digestive system. Sixteen female piglets were studied to assess the effect of sorbic acid supplementation on the small intestine tissue transcriptome. At weaning day (T0, piglet age 28 days), four piglets were sacrificed and ileal tissue samples collected. The remaining 12 piglets were weighed and randomly assigned to different postweaning (T5, piglet age 33 days) diets. Diet A (n = 6) contained 5 g/kg of sorbic acid. In diet B (n = 6), the organic acids were replaced by barley flour. Total RNA was isolated and then hybridized to CombiMatrix CustomArray™ 90-K platform microarrays, screening about 30 K genes. Even though diet had no detectable effect on the transcriptome during the first 5 days after weaning, results highlighted some of the response mechanisms to the stress of weaning occurring in the piglet gut. A total of 205 differentially expressed genes were used for functional analysis using the bioinformatics tools BLAST2GO, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis 8.0, and Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that apoptosis, RIG-I-like, and NOD-like receptor signaling were altered as a result of weaning. Interferons and caspases gene families were the most activated after weaning in response to piglets to multiple stressors. Results suggest that immune and inflammatory responses were activated and likely are a cause of small intestine atrophy as revealed by a decrease in villus height and villus/crypt ratio.

  12. Metabolomic determinants of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies in premature infants and animals show that carbohydrate malabsorption and gut microbiota colonisation are key elements for triggering necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Our aim was to determine how dietary carbohydrate composition affects the metabolomic profile and whether unique metabolite s...

  13. Chronic active gastritis due to Helicobacter pylori in immunized gnotobiotic piglets.

    PubMed

    Eaton, K A; Krakowka, S

    1992-11-01

    In gnotobiotic piglets, parenteral vaccination with formalin-killed Helicobacter pylori and oral vaccination with live bacteria induced H. pylori-specific serum immunoglobulins G, M, and A. Vaccination reduced but did not prevent infection by subsequent challenge with viable H. pylori. Oral vaccination with killed bacteria was less effective in inducing serum antibody and had no effect on bacterial colonization. Immunization status influenced the histologic response of piglets to challenge by H. pylori. Lymphoplasmacytic gastritis was more severe in parenterally vaccinated piglets than in the other groups. In addition, neutrophilic infiltrates and neutrophilic gland abscesses in the gastric mucosa were present in 5 of 7 parenterally immunized piglets, none of the orally immunized piglets, and only 1 of 8 infected nonimmune control piglets. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between immunoglobulin G, M, and A titer at challenge and severity of both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation. These results suggest that although vaccination does not prevent infection by H. pylori, infection of an immune host leads to increased severity and activity of gastritis.

  14. [Experiences with pain control during piglet castration in Switzerland Part 2: Injection anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Enz, A; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Bettschart, R; Fuschini, E; Bürgi, E; Sidler, X

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the practical implementation of the painless castration under injection anaesthesia in Switzerland. 30 swine farms were visited and 60 farmers answered a questionnaire. 34 % of the piglets showed movements during castration under injection anaesthesia and 17 % had excitations during recovery from anaesthesia. After 48 minutes half of the piglets were in sternal position and after 112 minutes half of them showed coordinated movements. The body temperature decreased by 3.1 °C until 60 minutes after castration, especially small piglets reached critical temperature levels. 38 % of the piglets showed strong bleeding after castration. The healing of the wound was good according to 82 % of the farmers. 83 % of the farmers reported piglet losses, especially at the beginning of the anaesthesia period. The anaesthesia may be improved by using butorphanol in addition to the combination of ketamine and azaperone. The recovery of the piglets should be in a warm place without any risk of injury by obstacles or the sow. Increased bleeding can be controlled by using an emasculator.

  15. [Experiences with pain control during piglet castration in Switzerland Part 2: Injection anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Enz, A; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Bettschart, R; Fuschini, E; Bürgi, E; Sidler, X

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the practical implementation of the painless castration under injection anaesthesia in Switzerland. 30 swine farms were visited and 60 farmers answered a questionnaire. 34 % of the piglets showed movements during castration under injection anaesthesia and 17 % had excitations during recovery from anaesthesia. After 48 minutes half of the piglets were in sternal position and after 112 minutes half of them showed coordinated movements. The body temperature decreased by 3.1 °C until 60 minutes after castration, especially small piglets reached critical temperature levels. 38 % of the piglets showed strong bleeding after castration. The healing of the wound was good according to 82 % of the farmers. 83 % of the farmers reported piglet losses, especially at the beginning of the anaesthesia period. The anaesthesia may be improved by using butorphanol in addition to the combination of ketamine and azaperone. The recovery of the piglets should be in a warm place without any risk of injury by obstacles or the sow. Increased bleeding can be controlled by using an emasculator. PMID:24297840

  16. [Heat dissipation through the floor in piglet housing].

    PubMed

    Drybcák, J; Rasovská, B

    1982-11-01

    Trials were performed in 1980 and 1981 to test a new methodical procedure of measuring heat flow with Alfameter and to evaluate the dissipation of heat via the floor in piglet finishing houses with three large pig herds. It was demonstrated during the period of the study that slatted floors dissipated much more heat from the house, as compared with solid floors. The comparison of the density of heat flow over steel slats and plastic slats showed that the plastic slats wasted less heat: in the winter season the difference was 65 to 125 W/m2 and in summer 20 to 75 W/m2. In the houses with steel slats the comparison of heated and unheated lying place showed that the heat flow emitted from the lying place reduced the dissipation of heat via the slats.

  17. Anaphoric Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The study of definite descriptions has been a central part of research in linguistics and philosophy of language since Russell's seminal work "On Denoting" (Russell 1905). In that work Russell quickly dispatches analyses of denoting expressions with forms like "no man," "some man," "a man," and "every…

  18. Limited effects of preterm birth and the first enteral nutrition on cerebellum morphology and gene expression in piglets.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Kaalund, Sanne S; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Andersen, Anders D; Pakkenberg, Bente; Rosenørn, Ann; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Thymann, Thomas; Greisen, Gorm O; Sanglid, Per T

    2016-07-01

    Preterm pigs show many signs of immaturity that are characteristic of preterm infants. In preterm infants, the cerebellum grows particularly rapid and hypoplasia and cellular lesions are associated with motor dysfunction and cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that functional brain delays observed in preterm pigs would be paralleled by both structural and molecular differences in the cerebellum relative to term born piglets. Cerebella were collected from term (n = 56) and preterm (90% gestation, n = 112) pigs at 0, 5, and 26 days after birth for stereological volume estimations, large-scale qPCR gene expression analyses (selected neurodevelopmental genes) and western blot protein expression analysis (Sonic Hedgehog pathway). Memory and learning was tested using a T-maze, documenting that preterm pigs showed delayed learning. Preterm pigs also showed reduced volume of both white and gray matter at all three ages but the proportion of white matter increased postnatally, relative to term pigs. Early initiation of enteral nutrition had limited structural or molecular effects. The Sonic Hedgehog pathway was unaffected by preterm birth. Few differences in expression of the selected genes were found, except consistently higher mRNA levels of Midkine, p75, and Neurotrophic factor 3 in the preterm cerebellum postnatally, probably reflecting an adaptive response to preterm birth. Pig cerebellar development appears more affected by postconceptional age than by environmental factors at birth or postnatally. Compensatory mechanisms following preterm birth may include faster white matter growth and increased expression of selected genes for neurotrophic factors and regulation of angiogenesis. While the pig cerebellum is immature in 90% gestation preterm pigs, it appears relatively mature and resilient toward environmental factors. PMID:27462071

  19. Limited effects of preterm birth and the first enteral nutrition on cerebellum morphology and gene expression in piglets.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Kaalund, Sanne S; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Andersen, Anders D; Pakkenberg, Bente; Rosenørn, Ann; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Thymann, Thomas; Greisen, Gorm O; Sanglid, Per T

    2016-07-01

    Preterm pigs show many signs of immaturity that are characteristic of preterm infants. In preterm infants, the cerebellum grows particularly rapid and hypoplasia and cellular lesions are associated with motor dysfunction and cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that functional brain delays observed in preterm pigs would be paralleled by both structural and molecular differences in the cerebellum relative to term born piglets. Cerebella were collected from term (n = 56) and preterm (90% gestation, n = 112) pigs at 0, 5, and 26 days after birth for stereological volume estimations, large-scale qPCR gene expression analyses (selected neurodevelopmental genes) and western blot protein expression analysis (Sonic Hedgehog pathway). Memory and learning was tested using a T-maze, documenting that preterm pigs showed delayed learning. Preterm pigs also showed reduced volume of both white and gray matter at all three ages but the proportion of white matter increased postnatally, relative to term pigs. Early initiation of enteral nutrition had limited structural or molecular effects. The Sonic Hedgehog pathway was unaffected by preterm birth. Few differences in expression of the selected genes were found, except consistently higher mRNA levels of Midkine, p75, and Neurotrophic factor 3 in the preterm cerebellum postnatally, probably reflecting an adaptive response to preterm birth. Pig cerebellar development appears more affected by postconceptional age than by environmental factors at birth or postnatally. Compensatory mechanisms following preterm birth may include faster white matter growth and increased expression of selected genes for neurotrophic factors and regulation of angiogenesis. While the pig cerebellum is immature in 90% gestation preterm pigs, it appears relatively mature and resilient toward environmental factors.

  20. Infant-Infant Interaction in a Daycare Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durfee, Joan T.; Lee, Lee C.

    The Infant-Infant Contact Code, developed to observe the social behavior in infants, is described. Results from using this scale with nine infants under nine months indicated that contacts between infants are complex in nature, that there are developmental changes in models of encounter, and that babies take different roles in relation to the…

  1. Maternal endometrial oedema may increase perinatal mortality of cloned and transgenic piglets.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Winter, K D; Dantzer, V; Li, J; Kragh, P M; Du, Y; Lin, L; Liu, Y; Vajta, G; Sangild, P T; Callesen, H; Agerholm, J S

    2011-01-01

    The perinatal mortality of cloned animals is a well-known problem. In the present retrospective study, we report on mortality of cloned transgenic or non-transgenic piglets produced as part of several investigations. Large White (LW) sows (n = 105) received hand-made cloned LW or minipig blastocysts and delivered either spontaneously or after prostaglandin induction followed by either Caesarean section or vaginal birth. The overall pregnancy rate was 62%, with 26% of pregnancies terminating before term. This resulted in 48 deliveries. The terminated pregnancies consisted of 12 abortions that occurred at 35 ± 2 days gestation and five sows that went to term without returning to heat and then by surgery showed the uterus without fetal content. The gestation length was for sows with LW piglets that delivered by Caesarean section or vaginally was 115.7 ± 0.3 and 117.6 ± 0.4 days, respectively. In sows with minipiglets, the gestation length for those delivered by Caesarean section or vaginally 114.4 ± 0.2 and 115.5 ± 0.3 days, respectively. Of the 34 sows that delivered vaginally, 28 gave birth after induction, whereas 6 farrowed spontaneously. Of the 14 sows that delivered after Caesarean section and in the five empty sows, the endometrium and placenta showed severe oedema. Piglet mortality following vaginal delivery was higher than after Caesarean section (31% v. 10%, respectively; P < 0.001). When vaginal delivery occurred spontaneously, the stillborn rate was greater than after induced delivery (56% v. 24%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Internal organ weights were recorded for seven cloned LW piglets and six normal piglets. The relative weight of the heart, liver, kidneys and small intestine was found to be reduced in the cloned piglets (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrates extensive endometrial oedema in sows pregnant with cloned and transgenic piglets, as well as in empty recipients, at term. The growth of certain organs in some of the cloned piglets was

  2. Post-mortem findings and piglet mortality in relation to strategic use of straw at farrowing.

    PubMed

    Westin, Rebecka; Holmgren, Nils; Hultgren, Jan; Ortman, Kerstin; Linder, Anders; Algers, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Piglet survival is the outcome of complex interactions between the sow, the piglet and their environment. In order to facilitate nest-building and to provide a suitable environment for the newborn piglets, a strategic method to supply loose housed sows with large quantities of straw at farrowing has been developed by Swedish piglet-producing farmers. The objectives of this cohort study were to use post-mortem findings to assess the causes of death and to quantify the effect of a large quantity of straw provided before farrowing compared to limited small daily amounts on stillbirths, post-mortem findings in piglets dying within 5 days after birth and the pre-weaning mortality. On each of four commercial piglet-producing farms in South-West Sweden, one batch of sows was studied during two consecutive lactations. At inclusion, sows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups, and sows remaining in the batch during the next lactation switched treatment group. In the STRAW group (n=181 litters) sows were provided with 15-20 kg of chopped straw 2 days prior to the calculated date of farrowing. Sows in the CONTROL group (n=182 litters) received 0.5-1 kg of chopped straw on a daily basis plus about 2 kg for nest-building when the stockperson judged the sow to be about to farrow. After onset of farrowing, additionally 1-2 kg was given. Post-mortem examination was performed in all piglets that died within 5 days after birth (n=798). The three major post-mortem findings were starvation (34%) crushing by the sow (28%), and enteritis (24%). In conclusion, strategic use of large quantities of straw reduced the number of stillborn piglets per litter by 27% (p=0.007). Under the conditions studied, the pre-weaning mortality of liveborn piglets was not affected by treatment; however, the distribution of post-mortem findings differed with fewer piglets dying due to starvation and more due to crushing and enteritis in STRAW litters.

  3. Relationship of sow udder morphology with piglet suckling behavior and teat access.

    PubMed

    Balzani, Agnese; Cordell, Heather J; Edwards, Sandra A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between the latency to the first suckling and udder and teat morphology and to assess the extent to which piglet and sow characteristics influence teat pair position preference. Udder morphology trait measurements, piglet suckling behavior, and sow productive and behavioral traits were recorded from a population of 74 Large White X Landrace sows of different parities. The interteat distance within the same row was larger between the teats that were suckled at the first contact with the udder compared with the unsuckled teats (P = 0.04). There was a tendency for piglets to suckle first from teats placed closer to the abdominal midline. A high proportion of siblings (64%) suckled for the first time on a teat previously chosen by another piglet. Most neonates suckled first from a teat located in the posterior part of the udder (41%) or in the anterior part (33%), rather than the middle section. Latency from birth to suckling and the time from the first udder contact to locate a teat and suckle was shorter for piglets first suckling the anterior (28:03 and 9:48 minutes) and posterior teats (26:31; 8:38 minutes) than for those sucking the midsection teats (34:30 minutes, F7,256 = 1.99, P = 0.05; 10:30, F7,256 = 2.37, P = 0.05). To avoid possible confounds, other potential causes of delay in successful suckling were studied. The latency to suckle was not influenced by piglet vitality score at birth, weight, or provision of human assistance to place it at the udder. It was shorter when the piglets were born later in the litter (P < 0.001), from a litter with a low incidence of piglets born dead (P = 0.001) and from a sow with an induced farrowing (P = 0.007). Moreover, there was a tendency for piglets born from a multiparous sow (P = 0.06) and in a large litter size (P = 0.07) to have a longer latency to find a teat and suckle once they had made the first contact with the udder

  4. Increased intestinal barrier function in the small intestine of formula-fed neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Huygelen, V; De Vos, M; Willemen, S; Tambuyzer, B; Casteleyn, C; Knapen, D; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C

    2012-12-01

    Within-litter birth weight variation is adversely correlated to piglet survival and postnatal growth. A less efficient epithelial barrier function in light piglets may partly explain this inverse relationship between birth weight and zootechnical performance. A compromised epithelial barrier increases paracellular permeability; consequently, toxins, allergenic compounds, or bacteria may enter systemic circulation and induce inflammatory responses. Dietary effects on function of gut epithelium of piglet are largely unknown. This study investigated epithelial barrier function of the small intestine of normal birth weight (NBW) piglets (1.46 ± 0.10 kg) and low birth weight (LBW) piglets (<1 kg at birth) in relation to their diet. Sixteen pairs of 3-d-old LBW and NBW piglets were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a sow-fed control group euthanized at day 3 of age (SOW3), piglets sow fed until day 10 (SOW10), and formula-fed piglets fed formula from day 3 until day 10 (FOR10). To measure gut permeability, piglets were dosed intragastrically with 0.75 g lactulose/kg BW and 0.3 g mannitol/kg BW 4 h before euthanasia. Urinary sugar excretion was measured using enzymatic spectrophotometry. Irrespective of birth weight, lactulose levels of FOR10 (4.4 ± 2.3 mmol/L) tended to be lower (P = 0.07) than SOW10 (26.4 ± 10.2 mmol/L) indicating a reduced paracellular intestinal permeability in FOR10. This reduction was associated with a 6-fold elevated (P < 0.01) protein expression of occludin, an important tight junction protein, in FOR10 compared to SOW10. Mannitol levels in FOR10 (31.0 ± 18.2 mmol/L) did not differ (P = 0.28) from SOW10 (61.1 ± 10.2 mmol/L). However, shorter villi (P < 0.01) in FOR10 indicated a reduced absorptive capacity. In conclusion, formula feeding caused minor symptoms of gastrointestinal dysfunction compared to sow-fed piglets irrespective of their birth weight.

  5. Relationship of sow udder morphology with piglet suckling behavior and teat access.

    PubMed

    Balzani, Agnese; Cordell, Heather J; Edwards, Sandra A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between the latency to the first suckling and udder and teat morphology and to assess the extent to which piglet and sow characteristics influence teat pair position preference. Udder morphology trait measurements, piglet suckling behavior, and sow productive and behavioral traits were recorded from a population of 74 Large White X Landrace sows of different parities. The interteat distance within the same row was larger between the teats that were suckled at the first contact with the udder compared with the unsuckled teats (P = 0.04). There was a tendency for piglets to suckle first from teats placed closer to the abdominal midline. A high proportion of siblings (64%) suckled for the first time on a teat previously chosen by another piglet. Most neonates suckled first from a teat located in the posterior part of the udder (41%) or in the anterior part (33%), rather than the middle section. Latency from birth to suckling and the time from the first udder contact to locate a teat and suckle was shorter for piglets first suckling the anterior (28:03 and 9:48 minutes) and posterior teats (26:31; 8:38 minutes) than for those sucking the midsection teats (34:30 minutes, F7,256 = 1.99, P = 0.05; 10:30, F7,256 = 2.37, P = 0.05). To avoid possible confounds, other potential causes of delay in successful suckling were studied. The latency to suckle was not influenced by piglet vitality score at birth, weight, or provision of human assistance to place it at the udder. It was shorter when the piglets were born later in the litter (P < 0.001), from a litter with a low incidence of piglets born dead (P = 0.001) and from a sow with an induced farrowing (P = 0.007). Moreover, there was a tendency for piglets born from a multiparous sow (P = 0.06) and in a large litter size (P = 0.07) to have a longer latency to find a teat and suckle once they had made the first contact with the udder

  6. When infants talk, infants listen: pre-babbling infants prefer listening to speech with infant vocal properties.

    PubMed

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-03-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to vowel sounds with infant vocal properties over vowel sounds with adult vocal properties. A listening preference favoring infant vowels may derive from their higher voice pitch, which has been shown to attract infant attention in infant-directed speech (IDS). In addition, infants' nascent articulatory abilities may induce a bias favoring infant speech given that 4- to 6-month-olds are beginning to produce vowel sounds. We created infant and adult /i/ ('ee') vowels using a production-based synthesizer that simulates the act of speaking in talkers at different ages and then tested infants across four experiments using a sequential preferential listening task. The findings provide the first evidence that infants preferentially attend to vowel sounds with infant voice pitch and/or formants over vowel sounds with no infant-like vocal properties, supporting the view that infants' production abilities influence how they process infant speech. The findings with respect to voice pitch also reveal parallels between IDS and infant speech, raising new questions about the role of this speech register in infant development. Research exploring the underpinnings and impact of this perceptual bias can expand our understanding of infant language development.

  7. Carrying Position Influences Infant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A total of 32 3-month-old infants were carried by their mothers in a soft infant carrier designed to place the infants facing either inward or outward. A within-subject comparison found that when infants were carried facing in, they spent significantly more time sleeping, while infants carried facing out were more active. (MDM)

  8. Acute effects of rotavirus and malnutrition on intestinal barrier function in neonatal piglets

    PubMed Central

    Jacobi, Sheila K; Moeser, Adam J; Blikslager, Anthony T; Rhoads, J Marc; Corl, Benjamin A; Harrell, Robert J; Odle, Jack

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of protein-energy malnutrition on intestinal barrier function during rotavirus enteritis in a piglet model. METHODS: Newborn piglets were allotted at day 4 of age to the following treatments: (1) full-strength formula (FSF)/noninfected; (2) FSF/rotavirus infected; (3) half-strength formula (HSF)/noninfected; or (4) HSF/rotavirus infected. After one day of adjustment to the feeding rates, pigs were infected with rotavirus and acute effects on growth and diarrhea were monitored for 3 d and jejunal samples were collected for Ussing-chamber analyses. RESULTS: Piglets that were malnourished or infected had lower body weights on days 2 and 3 post-infection (P < 0.05). Three days post-infection, marked diarrhea and weight loss were accompanied by sharp reductions in villus height (59%) and lactase activity (91%) and increased crypt depth (21%) in infected compared with non-infected pigs (P < 0.05). Malnutrition also increased crypt depth (21%) compared to full-fed piglets. Villus:crypt ratio was reduced (67%) with viral infection. There was a trend for reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance with rotavirus infection and malnutrition (P = 0.1). 3H-mannitol flux was significantly increased (50%; P < 0.001) in rotavirus-infected piglets compared to non-infected piglets, but there was no effect of nutritional status. Furthermore, rotavirus infection reduced localization of the tight junction protein, occludin, in the cell membrane and increased localization in the cytosol. CONCLUSION: Overall, malnutrition had no additive effects to rotavirus infection on intestinal barrier function at day 3 post-infection in a neonatal piglet model. PMID:23964143

  9. [Water consumption in piglets weaned early at various ages and fed a liquid diet].

    PubMed

    Holub, A

    1991-07-01

    Water consumption was recorded in 72 piglets of the Lorge White breed, weaned either on the second, sixth, tenth day or on the fourteenth day of age, this parameter was followed till the age of four weeks. The piglets were kept individually in a thermoneutral zone and they received a milk diet with macronutrient content, similar to sow's milk and water content of from 78.47%. The diet was offered to suck nine times a day in two-hour intervals. The piglet age at weaning was found to influence significantly water intake. Daily water ingestion is higher in piglets separated from the sows at a younger age than in piglets weaned later on; it reaches as much as 29% in the first group, 26% in the second group, 28% and 20% of live weight in the third and fourth groups, respectively. If converted to the metabolic weight, the percentage is still higher: more than 40% in the first group at the end of the fourth week. Although the spans of weaning beginnings were always identical in particular groups of piglets (four days), the differences in the water consumption were not the same. The differences were smaller between the first and second group, and the third and fourth group, in comparison with those between the second and third group. This fact confirms previous general statements about the periodization of early postnatal life of piglets. The beginning of weaning of the first two groups belongs to the "suckling" period, while the beginning of weaning of the other groups is within the "weaning" period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Nitrous oxide as a humane method for piglet euthanasia: Behavior and electroencephalography (EEG).

    PubMed

    Rault, Jean-Loup; Kells, Nikki; Johnson, Craig; Dennis, Rachel; Sutherland, Mhairi; Lay, Donald C

    2015-11-01

    The search for humane methods to euthanize piglets is critical to address public concern that current methods are not optimal. Blunt force trauma is considered humane but esthetically objectionable. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is used but criticized as aversive. This research sought to: 1) evaluate the aversiveness of inhaling nitrous oxide (N2O; 'laughing gas') using an approach-avoidance test relying on the piglet's perspective, and 2) validate its humaneness to induce loss of consciousness by electroencephalography (EEG). The gas mixtures tested were N2O and air (90%:10%; '90 N'); N2O, oxygen and air (60%:30%:10%; '60 N'); and CO2 and air (90%:10%; '90 C'). Experiment 1 allowed piglets to walk freely between one chamber filled with air and another prefilled with 60 N or 90 N. All piglets exposed to 60 N lasted for the 10 min test duration whereas all piglets exposed to 90 N had to be removed within 5 min because they fell recumbent and unresponsive and then started to flail. Experiment 2 performed the same test except the gas chamber held N2O prefilled at 25%, 50%, or 75% or CO2 prefilled at 7%, 14%, or 21%. The test was terminated more quickly at higher concentrations due to the piglets' responses. Time spent ataxic was greater in the middle concentration gradients. Flailing behavior tended to correlate with increasing concentrations of CO2 but not N2O. Experiment 3, using the minimal anesthesia model, showed that both 90 N and 90 C induced isoelectric EEG, in 71 and 59 s respectively, but not 60 N within 15 min. The EEG results together with the observed behavioral changes reflect differences in the animal's perceptive experience. The implications for animal welfare are that N2O is much less aversive than CO2, and 90% N2O can euthanize piglets. PMID:26129686

  11. Labour time required for piglet castration with isoflurane-anaesthesia using shared and stationary inhaler devices.

    PubMed

    Weber, Sabrina; Das, Gürbüz; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Isoflurane-anaesthesia combined with an analgesic represents a welfare-friendly method of pain mitigation for castration of piglets. However, it requires an inhaler device, which is uneconomic for small farms. Sharing a device among farms may be an economical option if the shared use does not increase labour time and the resulting costs. This study aimed to investigate the amount and components of labour time required for piglet castration with isoflurane anaesthesia performed with stationary and shared devices. Piglets (N = 1579) were anaesthetised with isoflurane (using either stationary or shared devices) and castrated.The stationary devices were used in a group (n = 5) of larger farms (84 sows/farm on an average), whereas smaller farms (n = 7; 32 sows/farm on an average) shared one device. Each farm was visited four times and labour time for each process-step was recorded. The complete process included machine set-up, anaesthesia and castration by a practitioner, and preparation, collection and transport of piglets by a farmer. Labour time of the complete process was increased (P = 0.012) on farms sharing a device (266 s/piglet) compared to farms using stationary devices (177 s/ piglet), due to increased time for preparation (P = 0.055), castration (P = 0.026) and packing (P = 0.010) when sharing a device. However, components of the time budget of farms using stationary or shared devices did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Cost arising from time spent by farmers did not differ considerably between the use of stationary (0.28 Euro per piglet) and shared (0.26 Euro) devices. It is concluded that costs arising from the increased labour time due to sharing a device can be considered marginal, since the high expenses originating from purchasing an inhaler device are shared among several farms.

  12. Confinement of lactating sows in crates for 4 days after farrowing reduces piglet mortality.

    PubMed

    Moustsen, V A; Hales, J; Lahrmann, H P; Weber, P M; Hansen, C F

    2013-04-01

    To reduce mortality among suckling piglets, lactating sows are traditionally housed in farrowing crates. Alternatively, lactating sows can be housed in farrowing pens where the sow is loose to ensure more behavioural freedom and consequently a better welfare for the sow, although under commercial conditions, farrowing pens have been associated with increased piglet mortality. Most suckling piglets that die do so within the first week of life, so potentially lactating sows do not have to be restrained during the entire lactation period. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether confinement of the sow for a limited number of days after farrowing would affect piglet mortality. A total of 210 sows (Danish Landrace × Danish Yorkshire) were farrowed in specially designed swing-aside combination farrowing pens measuring 2.6 m × 1.8 m (combi-pen), where the sows could be kept loose or in a crate. The sows were either: (a) loose during the entire experimental period, (b) crated from days 0 to 4 postpartum, (c) crated from days 0 to 7 postpartum or (d) crated from introduction to the farrowing pen to day 7 postpartum. The sows and their subsequent litters were studied from introduction to the combi-pen ∼1 week before expected farrowing and until 10 days postpartum. Confinement period of the sow failed to affect the number of stillborn piglets; however, sows that were crated after farrowing had fewer live-born mortality deaths (P < 0.001) compared with the sows that were loose during the experimental period. The increased piglet mortality among the loose sows was because of higher mortality in the first 4 days after farrowing. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that crating the sow for 4 days postpartum was sufficient to reduce piglet mortality.

  13. Nitrous oxide as a humane method for piglet euthanasia: Behavior and electroencephalography (EEG).

    PubMed

    Rault, Jean-Loup; Kells, Nikki; Johnson, Craig; Dennis, Rachel; Sutherland, Mhairi; Lay, Donald C

    2015-11-01

    The search for humane methods to euthanize piglets is critical to address public concern that current methods are not optimal. Blunt force trauma is considered humane but esthetically objectionable. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is used but criticized as aversive. This research sought to: 1) evaluate the aversiveness of inhaling nitrous oxide (N2O; 'laughing gas') using an approach-avoidance test relying on the piglet's perspective, and 2) validate its humaneness to induce loss of consciousness by electroencephalography (EEG). The gas mixtures tested were N2O and air (90%:10%; '90 N'); N2O, oxygen and air (60%:30%:10%; '60 N'); and CO2 and air (90%:10%; '90 C'). Experiment 1 allowed piglets to walk freely between one chamber filled with air and another prefilled with 60 N or 90 N. All piglets exposed to 60 N lasted for the 10 min test duration whereas all piglets exposed to 90 N had to be removed within 5 min because they fell recumbent and unresponsive and then started to flail. Experiment 2 performed the same test except the gas chamber held N2O prefilled at 25%, 50%, or 75% or CO2 prefilled at 7%, 14%, or 21%. The test was terminated more quickly at higher concentrations due to the piglets' responses. Time spent ataxic was greater in the middle concentration gradients. Flailing behavior tended to correlate with increasing concentrations of CO2 but not N2O. Experiment 3, using the minimal anesthesia model, showed that both 90 N and 90 C induced isoelectric EEG, in 71 and 59 s respectively, but not 60 N within 15 min. The EEG results together with the observed behavioral changes reflect differences in the animal's perceptive experience. The implications for animal welfare are that N2O is much less aversive than CO2, and 90% N2O can euthanize piglets.

  14. Validating hyperbilirubinemia and gut mucosal atrophy with a novel ultramobile ambulatory total parenteral nutrition piglet model.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ajay K; Wen, Joy X; Arora, Sumit; Blomenkamp, Keith S; Rodrigues, Jonathan; Blaufuss, Timothy A; Liou, Victor; Burrin, Douglas G; Long, John P; Teckman, Jeffery H

    2015-02-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) provides all nutrition intravenously. Although TPN therapy has grown enormously, it causes significant complications, including gut and hepatic dysfunction. Current models use animal tethering which is unlike ambulatory human TPN delivery and is cost prohibitive. We hypothesize that using ultramobile infusion pumps, TPN can be delivered cost-effectively, resulting in classical gut and hepatic injury, and we thus aim to establish a new model system. Neonatal pigs (n=8) were implanted with jugular vein and duodenal catheters. Animals were fitted in dual-pocket jackets. An ultramobile ambulatory pump was placed in one pocket and connected to the jugular vein or duodenal catheter. Isocaloric TPN or swine formula was placed in the other pocket. Rigorous Wifi-based video and scheduled monitoring was performed. After 14days, the animals were euthanized. The mean (±SD) daily weight gain (in grams) for enteral-fed control (EN) vs TPN animals was 102.4±10.8 and 91.03±12.1 respectively (P<.05). Total parenteral nutrition resulted in significant conjugated bilirubin elevation and hepatomegaly. Mean (±SD) serum conjugated bilirubin (in μmol/L) was 1.5±0.7 for EN and 6.3±2.8 for TPN (P<.05). Marked gut atrophy was noted with TPN. The mean (±SD) gut weight as a percent of body weight was 4.30±0.26 for EN and 2.62±0.48 for TPN (P<.05). Surgical sites healed well. All animals remained completely mobile. We thus established that TPN can be successfully delivered using ultramobile pumps and believe that this remains the first such description of an ambulatory piglet TPN model system. In addition to cholestasis and gut atrophy, classical TPN-induced injury was documented. PMID:25649660

  15. Validating hyperbilirubinemia and gut mucosal atrophy with a novel ultramobile ambulatory total parenteral nutrition piglet model.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ajay K; Wen, Joy X; Arora, Sumit; Blomenkamp, Keith S; Rodrigues, Jonathan; Blaufuss, Timothy A; Liou, Victor; Burrin, Douglas G; Long, John P; Teckman, Jeffery H

    2015-02-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) provides all nutrition intravenously. Although TPN therapy has grown enormously, it causes significant complications, including gut and hepatic dysfunction. Current models use animal tethering which is unlike ambulatory human TPN delivery and is cost prohibitive. We hypothesize that using ultramobile infusion pumps, TPN can be delivered cost-effectively, resulting in classical gut and hepatic injury, and we thus aim to establish a new model system. Neonatal pigs (n=8) were implanted with jugular vein and duodenal catheters. Animals were fitted in dual-pocket jackets. An ultramobile ambulatory pump was placed in one pocket and connected to the jugular vein or duodenal catheter. Isocaloric TPN or swine formula was placed in the other pocket. Rigorous Wifi-based video and scheduled monitoring was performed. After 14days, the animals were euthanized. The mean (±SD) daily weight gain (in grams) for enteral-fed control (EN) vs TPN animals was 102.4±10.8 and 91.03±12.1 respectively (P<.05). Total parenteral nutrition resulted in significant conjugated bilirubin elevation and hepatomegaly. Mean (±SD) serum conjugated bilirubin (in μmol/L) was 1.5±0.7 for EN and 6.3±2.8 for TPN (P<.05). Marked gut atrophy was noted with TPN. The mean (±SD) gut weight as a percent of body weight was 4.30±0.26 for EN and 2.62±0.48 for TPN (P<.05). Surgical sites healed well. All animals remained completely mobile. We thus established that TPN can be successfully delivered using ultramobile pumps and believe that this remains the first such description of an ambulatory piglet TPN model system. In addition to cholestasis and gut atrophy, classical TPN-induced injury was documented.

  16. Sleep and Infant Learning

    PubMed Central

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Balsam, Peter D.; Fifer, William P.

    2010-01-01

    Human neonates spend the majority of their time sleeping. Despite the limited waking hours available for environmental exploration, the first few months of life are a time of rapid learning about the environment. The organization of neonate sleep differs qualitatively from adult sleep, and the unique characteristics of neonatal sleep may promote learning. Sleep contributes to infant learning in multiple ways. First, sleep facilitates neural maturation, thereby preparing infants to process and explore the environment in increasingly sophisticated ways. Second, sleep plays a role in memory consolidation of material presented while the infant was awake. Finally, emerging evidence indicates that infants process sensory stimuli and learn about contingencies in their environment even while asleep. As infants make the transition from reflexive to cortically mediated control, learned responses to physiological challenges during sleep may be critical adaptations to promote infant survival. PMID:21311602

  17. Infants in cocktail parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Rochelle S.

    2003-04-01

    Most work on listeners' ability to separate streams of speech has focused on adults. Yet infants also find themselves in noisy environments. In order to learn from their caregivers' speech in these settings, they must first separate it from background noise such as that from television shows and siblings. Previous work has found that 7.5-month-old infants can separate streams of speech when the target voice is more intense than the distractor voice (Newman and Jusczyk, 1996), when the target voice is known to the infant (Barker and Newman, 2000) or when infants are presented with an audiovisual (rather than auditory-only) signal (Hollich, Jusczyk, and Newman, 2001). Unfortunately, the paradigm in these studies can only be used on infants at least 7.5 months of age, limiting the ability to investigate how stream segregation develops over time. The present work uses a new paradigm to explore younger infants' ability to separate streams of speech. Infants aged 4.5 months heard a female talker repeat either their own name or another infants' name, while several other voices spoke fluently in the background. We present data on infants' ability to recognize their own name in this cocktail party situation. [Work supported by NSF and NICHD.

  18. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  19. Prebiotics in infant formula

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  20. Influence of the protein status of piglets on their ability to select and prefer protein sources.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Pino, Sergio A; Solà-Oriol, David; Figueroa, Jaime; Pérez, José F

    2014-04-22

    Pigs may have retained the capacity to choose feeds based on their nutritional requirements, even after decades in which they are not allowed to select their diet composition due to the common feeding systems of the intensive pig industry. We used 480 early-weaned piglets in two experiments to assess their ability to select and prefer protein-related sources, depending on their protein status. Piglets were fed after weaning with two isoenergetic diets formulated to contain an optimal or sub-optimal crude-protein (CP) content, a high-protein (HP, 204g CP/kg as-fed) or a low-protein diet (LP, 142g CP/kg), respectively. In Experiment 1, the preference of piglets was assessed by using a choice test between protein (porcine digestible peptides [PDP] 40g/L) and carbohydrate (sucrose 40g/L) water-based solutions for a period of 3min. Piglets showed higher intake and preference for the sucrose 40g/L than for the PDP 40g/L solution, independently of the dietary CP content (9.8mL/kg body weight [BW] vs. 3.7mL/kg BW and 10.4mL/kg BW vs. 4.3mL/kg BW in HP and LP pigs, respectively). In Experiment 2, piglets were given eight training sessions in which two equally preferred flavors were mixed with protein (porcine animal plasma 60g/L, CSp) or carbohydrate (maltodextrin 60g/L, CSc) solutions. In the subsequent choice test, piglets fed the HP diet showed a tendency to a higher intake of CSc than of CSp (6.5mL/kg BW vs. 5.4mL/kg BW). On the other hand, piglets fed the LP diet showed a higher intake and preference for CSp than for CSc (15.5mL/kg BW vs. 10.2mL/kg BW), differences being higher for medium and low BW piglets than for heavy ones. The results show that piglets are unable to express a specific appetite for protein to correct previous underfeeding with it; however, they may show an appropriate dietary selection pattern in order to overcome protein deficiency through associative learning.

  1. Temporary confinement of loose-housed hyperprolific sows reduces piglet mortality.

    PubMed

    Hales, J; Moustsen, V A; Nielsen, M B F; Hansen, C F

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate piglet mortality in a commercial setting where sows were accommodated in a loose-housed system with an option to confine the sow for a few days around farrowing and during early lactation. The study was conducted in a Danish piggery where records were obtained from 2,139 farrowings. Sows were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments: loose-loose (LL), loose-confined (LC), and confined-confined (CC). In LL, sows were loose housed from the time they entered the farrowing pens to weaning. In LC, sows were loose housed until farrowing was finished and then confined to d 4 after farrowing. In CC, sows were confined at d 114 of gestation to d 4 after farrowing. All sows were loose housed from d 5 to weaning. Total piglet mortality was analyzed at batch level to include piglets fostered by nurse sows and at sow level to analyze the effects of confinement during different time periods. Total piglet mortality was greater in LL (26.0%) and LC (25.4%) compared with CC (22.1%; < 0.001). The proportion of stillborn piglets was not different between treatments ( = 0.21) but a larger proportion was crushed in LL (10.7%) compared with LC (9.7%; = 0.03), which again was greater than CC (7.8%; < 0.001). Piglet mortality before equalization was lower in CC (3.7%) than in LL (7.5%) and LC (7.0%; < 0.001). Confinement reduced mortality from litter equalization to d 4 (7.6% for LL vs. 6.7% for LC; = 0.01) but more so in CC (5.6%) than in LC ( < 0.001). From d 4 to weaning, LL had lower mortality (5.6%) than LC (6.9%) and CC (6.6%; = 0.01). A larger proportion of sows in CC were classified as "low mortality" compared with LL and LC both before ( < 0.001) and after ( = 0.002) litter equalization. The results in this study emphasize that the period of time from the birth of the first piglet to litter equalization is important in relation to piglet mortality. The results also suggest that confinement for 4 d after farrowing can reduce mortality

  2. Effects of methacholine infusion on desflurane pharmacokinetics in piglets.

    PubMed

    Kozian, Alf; Kretzschmar, Moritz; Baumgardner, James E; Schreiber, Jens; Hedenstierna, Göran; Larsson, Anders; Hachenberg, Thomas; Schilling, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The data of a corresponding animal experiment demonstrates that nebulized methacholine (MCh) induced severe bronchoconstriction and significant inhomogeneous ventilation and pulmonary perfusion (V̇A/Q̇) distribution in pigs, which is similar to findings in human asthma. The inhalation of MCh induced bronchoconstriction and delayed both uptake and elimination of desflurane (Kretzschmar et al., 2015) [1]. The objective of the present data is to determine V̇A/Q̇ matching by Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET) in piglets before and during methacholine- (MCh-) induced bronchoconstriction, induced by MCh infusion, and to assess the blood concentration profiles for desflurane (DES) by Micropore Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (MMIMS). Healthy piglets (n=4) under general anesthesia were instrumented with arterial, central venous, and pulmonary artery lines. The airway was secured via median tracheostomy with an endotracheal tube, and animals were mechanically ventilated with intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with a FiO2 of 0.4, tidal volume (V T)=10 ml/kg and PEEP of 5cmH2O using an open system. The determination of V.A/Q. was done by MIGET: before desflurane application and at plateau in both healthy state and during MCh infusion. Arterial blood was sampled at 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min during wash-in and washout, respectively. Bronchoconstriction was established by MCH infusion aiming at doubling the peak airway pressure, after which wash-in and washout of the anesthetic gas was repeated. Anesthesia gas concentrations were measured by MMIMS. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, paired t-test, and by nonparametric Friedman׳s test and Wilcoxon׳s matched pairs test. We measured airway pressures, pulmonary resistance, and mean paO2 as well as hemodynamic variables in all pigs before desflurane application and at plateau in both healthy state and during methacholine administration by infusion. By MIGET, fractional alveolar ventilation and

  3. Comparison of growth, nitrogen metabolism and organ weights in piglets and rats fed on diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans.

    PubMed

    Huisman, J; van der Poel, A F; van Leeuwen, P; Verstegen, M W

    1990-11-01

    The effects of lectins in the diet have been mainly studied in rats. An important question is whether results obtained in rats can be extrapolated to larger animals like the pig. Phaseolus vulgaris beans are rich in toxic lectins. Therefore a study was carried out to compare the effects of diets containing 200 g Phaseolus vulgaris beans (raw or toasted)/kg in rats and piglets. Live-weight gain, nitrogen digestibility and N balance were much lower in piglets than in rats fed on diets containing raw beans. Live-weight gain and N balance were slightly negative in the piglets. When toasted beans were given, live-weight gain and N balance values were reduced in piglets but hardly at all in rats. Giving raw beans caused hypertrophy of the pancreas in the rats but in piglets the weight of the pancreas was reduced. Spleen weight was depressed in the piglets but not in the rats. Weight of liver was not affected in either animal species. When toasted beans were given no effects on the weights of pancreas, spleen or liver were found in piglets or rats. It was concluded that the piglet is much more sensitive to antinutritional factors in the Phaseolus vulgaris bean than the rat. PMID:2265182

  4. Genetic characterization of porcine kobuvirus variants identified from healthy piglets in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wen-Jie; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Zhen-Peng; Wang, Wan-Yi; Yang, Juan; Qin, Ai-Jian; Yang, Han-Chun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, two porcine kobuvirus strains, JS-01-CHN and JS-02a-CHN were detected from piglets with diarrhea and asymptomatic, respectively. The sequences of the two strains were analyzed using a bioinformatics software package. The full-length genome of JS-02a-CHN, was detected in healthy piglets was 8121 nucleotides (nt) long excluding the poly(A) tail. There was a 30 amino acid deletion in the 2B-coding region of JS-02a-CHN. We are the first to report a 30 amino acid deletion in porcine kobuvirus from asymptomatic piglets, indicating that porcine kobuvirus may have evolved differently based on geography and host differences. Fecal samples were obtained from pigs with diarrhea (n=91) and healthy (n=126) pigs and analyzed using RT-PCR. Of these, 64.8% (59/91) of diarrheic piglets and 19.8% (25/126) of healthy piglets were positive for PKV using VP1 specific primers. Twenty-eight (28) virus positive samples were randomly selected and the VP1 gene was analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the 15 strains isolated from pigs with diarrhea clustered into different branches, while the VP1 sequences from clinically healthy pigs clustered into a single large group. These results indicate that the VP1 gene is diverse in pigs with diarrhea but conserved in healthy pigs in the Jiangsu Province. PMID:26238210

  5. Effects of glutamine supplementation on the immune status in weaning piglets with intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiang; Li, Wei; Huang, Xuexin; Wang, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Lili; Zhou, Yanmin; Hussain, Ahmad; Wang, Tian

    2012-10-01

    Neonates with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) often suffer from impaired cellular immunity, and weaning may further aggravate adverse effects of IUGR on development and function of the immune system. In this study, we investigated effects of glutamine supplementation on immune status in the intestines of weaning pigs with IUGR, focusing on molecular mechanisms underlying altered immune response. Piglets with IUGR were weaned at 21 days of age and received orally 1.22 g alanine or 1 g glutamine per kg body weight every 12 h. Weight gain and intestinal weight of weaning piglets were increased by glutamine supplementation. Levels of serum IgG in piglets supplemented with glutamine were increased compared with Control piglets. The production of IL-1 and IL-8 in the serum and jejunum was decreased by glutamine supplementation, whereas the levels of IL-4 in the serum and the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-10 in the jejunum were increased. The expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the jejunum was increased by glutamine supplementation, but the degradation of inhibitor κB and the activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were decreased. In conclusion, glutamine supplementation enhanced immune response in weaning piglets with IUGR. The effects of glutamine in IUGR are associated with increased Hsp70 expression and suppression of NF-κB activation.

  6. Heritability of shoulder ulcers and genetic correlations with mean piglet weight and sow body condition.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, H; Zumbach, B; Lundeheim, N; Grandinson, K; Vangen, O; Olsen, D; Rydhmer, L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to estimate the heritability for shoulder ulcers and the genetic correlations between shoulder ulcers, mean piglet weight and sow body condition. The analyses were based on information on 5549 Norwegian Landrace sows and their 7614 purebred litters. The genetic analysis was performed using the Gibbs sampling method. Shoulder ulcers were analyzed as a threshold trait. Sow body condition and mean piglet weight were analyzed as linear traits. The heritability of shoulder ulcers was estimated at 0.25 (s.d. = 0.03). The heritability for sow body condition was estimated at 0.14 (s.d. = 0.02) and that for mean piglet weight at 0.23 (s.d. = 0.02). The genetic correlation between shoulder ulcers and sow body condition was negative (-0.59, s.d. = 0.09). The genetic correlation between shoulder ulcers and mean piglet weight was positive (0.23, s.d. = 0.10) and the genetic correlation between sow body condition and mean piglet weight was negative (-0.24, s.d. = 0.10).

  7. Pathogenicity and protective effect of rough mutants of Salmonella species in germ-free piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Dlabac, V; Trebichavský, I; Reháková, Z; Hofmanová, B; Splíchal, I; Cukrowska, B

    1997-01-01

    In this study, two stable, rough, streptomycin-sensitive Salmonella mutants with different types of genetic defects were used to colonize groups of germ-free (GF) piglets. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Salmonella typhimurium SF 1591 was of the Ra chemotype (complete core), whereas the LPS of the S. minnesota mR 595 deep-rough mutant contained only lipid A and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid (Re chemotype). Both strains readily colonized the intestinal tracts of GF piglets and were stable during the whole experiment. All animals survived, and only transient fever was observed in some piglets colonized with the SF 1591 strain. Finally, streptomycin and virulent, smooth, streptomycin-resistant S. typhimurium LT2 were administered perorally 1 week later. All piglets colonized previously with the deep-rough mutant mR 595 died of sepsis, in contrast to piglets infected with the LT2 strain and colonized with the SF 1591 mutant, all of which survived. This difference is explained by the penetration of the mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver by great numbers of live bacteria in the latter case, resulting in prominent systemic and local immune responses. On the other hand, live bacteria were found only rarely in the mesenteric lymph nodes of animals colonized with the mR 595 strain and a negligible antibody response was observed. PMID:9393821

  8. Effect of supplementing sows' feed with alpha-tocopherol acetate and vitamin C on transfer of alpha-tocopherol to piglet tissues, colostrum, and milk: aspects of immune status of piglets.

    PubMed

    Pinelli-Saavedra, A; Calderón de la Barca, A M; Hernández, J; Valenzuela, R; Scaife, J R

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of sows with alpha-tocopherol acetate (ATA) and vitamin C on deposition of alpha-tocopherol (AT) in piglet lymphoid organs, such as bone marrow, thymus, and spleen at birth and at weaning, as well as on indicators of immune response in piglets. Sows were given the following treatment diets: control, vitamin C 10 g/day, ATA 500 mg/kg feed, and combined vitamins (ATA 500+Vit-C 10). Supplementation with vitamins started at the beginning of pregnancy and lasted until weaning at 21+/-3 days of age. AT was determined in colostrum, milk, piglet plasma (cord blood) and tissues at birth and on day 21. Immunoglobulins were measured in piglet plasma, milk, and colostrum. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to PHA and ConA was determined in sow and piglet blood. ATA supplementation resulted in a significant increase (P<0.001) in the AT content of colostrum, milk, piglet plasma, liver, thymus, bone marrow, and spleen at weaning. The AT content of colostrum and milk significantly (P<0.001) influenced the AT content of piglet plasma and tissues at weaning (day 21). Total Ig and IgG concentrations in piglet plasma were significantly increased in piglets given the combined vitamin treatment. No effect of AT supplementation was observed on IgG and IgA in colostrum and milk. In sows, vitamin C given alone significantly increased lymphocyte response to ConA and PHA; whereas, in piglets, there was no significant effect of treatments on lymphocyte response to PHA and ConA.

  9. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of infant mortality. Asian/Pacific Islanders women generally have lower infant mortality rates ...

  10. Positive human contact on the first day of life alters the piglet's behavioural response to humans and husbandry practices.

    PubMed

    Muns, Ramon; Rault, Jean-Loup; Hemsworth, Paul

    2015-11-01

    This experiment examined the effects of positive human contact at suckling on the first day of life on the behavioural and physiological responses of piglets to both humans and routine husbandry procedures. Forty litters from multiparous sows were randomly allocated to one of two treatments: Control (CC, minimal human interaction with day-old piglets) or Positive Contact (PC, human talking and caressing piglets during 6 suckling bouts on their first day of life, day 1). In each litter, 2 males and 2 females were randomly selected and their behavioural responses to tail docking (day 2), and to an experimenter (day 35) were studied. Escape behaviour at tail docking was assessed according to intensity (on a scale from 0 to 4 representing no movement to high intensity movement) and duration (on a scale from 0 to 3 representing no movement to continuous movement). At day 15 of age, a human approach and avoidance test was performed on focal piglets and at day 15, escape behaviour to capture before and after testing was recorded again. Blood samples for cortisol analysis were obtained from the focal piglets 30 min after tail docking and 1 h after weaning. Escape behaviour to tail docking of the PC piglets was of shorter duration than that of the CC piglets (P = 0.05). There was a tendency for the escape behaviour both before and after testing at day 15 to be of a lower intensity (P = 0.11 and P = 0.06, respectively) and a shorter duration (P = 0.06 and P = 0.08, respectively) in the PC piglets. There was a tendency for PC piglets to have higher cortisol concentrations after tail docking than the CC piglets (P = 0.07). Male piglets had higher cortisol concentrations after tail docking and after weaning than female piglets (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03). The results indicate that Positive Contact treatment reduced the duration of escape behaviour of piglets to tail docking. The role of classical conditioning, habituation and developmental changes in the observed effects of the

  11. [Infant mortality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ramos Padilla, M A

    1987-01-01

    Bolivia, Haiti, and Peru have infant mortality levels as high as those of the developed countries a century ago. The decline of general and especially infant mortality experienced in Latin America beginning in the 1940s was uneven throughout the continent. Cuba's infant mortality rate declined by 86% between 1940-80, but Peru's declined by only 48% despite its higher initial level. In 1984, 34% of all deaths in Peru were to children under 1 year and about 21% were to children 1-5 years old. Socioeconomic factors are the major explanation of Peru's poor infant mortality levels. Regional and social disparities in access to housing, food, urban infrastructure, and other vital goods and services are reflected in infant mortality statistics. Infant mortality has declined in both rural and urban areas, but the magnitude of the decline was much greater in urban areas. Between 1960-75, the infant mortality rate declined from 133 to 80/1000 live births in urban areas, but only from 180 to 150/1000 in rural areas. Investment in the infrastructure and services of the cities during the 1950s and 60s was not matched by any significant investment in rural infrastructure. Rural-urban mortality differentials are not as profound in countries which distribute public investment more evenly between rural and urban areas. Cuba's rural infant mortality rate is only 16% greater than its urban rate, while Peru's rural rate is 47% higher. The rural-urban differential in Peru hides a steep gap between the metropolitan zone of Lima-Callao, which has an infant mortality rate of 55/1000, and that of all cities, which have a rate 45% higher. Metropolitan Lima has the highest levels of living in Peru, including the highest incomes and best housing and service infrastructure. A majority of Peru's economic and industrial development has been concentrated in Lima. Peru's infant mortality differentials are also striking at the departmental level. The 5 departments with the highest infant mortality

  12. Effects of Cannabidiol and Hypothermia on Short-Term Brain Damage in New-Born Piglets after Acute Hypoxia-Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Lafuente, Hector; Pazos, Maria R.; Alvarez, Antonia; Mohammed, Nagat; Santos, Martín; Arizti, Maialen; Alvarez, Francisco J.; Martinez-Orgado, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypothermia is a standard treatment for neonatal encephalopathy, but nearly 50% of treated infants have adverse outcomes. Pharmacological therapies can act through complementary mechanisms with hypothermia improving neuroprotection. Cannabidiol could be a good candidate. Our aim was to test whether immediate treatment with cannabidiol and hypothermia act through complementary brain pathways in hypoxic-ischemic newborn piglets. Hypoxic-ischemic animals were randomly divided into four groups receiving 30 min after the insult: (1) normothermia and vehicle administration; (2) normothermia and cannabidiol administration; (3) hypothermia and vehicle administration; and (4) hypothermia and cannabidiol administration. Six hours after treatment, brains were processed to quantify the number of damaged neurons by Nissl staining. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were obtained and analyzed for lactate, N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. Metabolite ratios were calculated to assess neuronal damage (lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate) and excitotoxicity (glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate). Western blot studies were performed to quantify protein nitrosylation (oxidative stress), content of caspase-3 (apoptosis) and TNFα (inflammation). Individually, the hypothermia and the cannabidiol treatments reduced the glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate ratio, as well as TNFα and oxidized protein levels in newborn piglets subjected to hypoxic-ischemic insult. Also, both therapies reduced the number of necrotic neurons and prevented an increase in lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio. The combined effect of hypothermia and cannabidiol on excitotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and on cell damage, was greater than either hypothermia or cannabidiol alone. The present study demonstrated that cannabidiol and hypothermia act complementarily and show additive effects on the main factors leading to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage if applied shortly after the insult. PMID:27462203

  13. Effects of Cannabidiol and Hypothermia on Short-Term Brain Damage in New-Born Piglets after Acute Hypoxia-Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, Hector; Pazos, Maria R; Alvarez, Antonia; Mohammed, Nagat; Santos, Martín; Arizti, Maialen; Alvarez, Francisco J; Martinez-Orgado, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Hypothermia is a standard treatment for neonatal encephalopathy, but nearly 50% of treated infants have adverse outcomes. Pharmacological therapies can act through complementary mechanisms with hypothermia improving neuroprotection. Cannabidiol could be a good candidate. Our aim was to test whether immediate treatment with cannabidiol and hypothermia act through complementary brain pathways in hypoxic-ischemic newborn piglets. Hypoxic-ischemic animals were randomly divided into four groups receiving 30 min after the insult: (1) normothermia and vehicle administration; (2) normothermia and cannabidiol administration; (3) hypothermia and vehicle administration; and (4) hypothermia and cannabidiol administration. Six hours after treatment, brains were processed to quantify the number of damaged neurons by Nissl staining. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were obtained and analyzed for lactate, N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. Metabolite ratios were calculated to assess neuronal damage (lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate) and excitotoxicity (glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate). Western blot studies were performed to quantify protein nitrosylation (oxidative stress), content of caspase-3 (apoptosis) and TNFα (inflammation). Individually, the hypothermia and the cannabidiol treatments reduced the glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate ratio, as well as TNFα and oxidized protein levels in newborn piglets subjected to hypoxic-ischemic insult. Also, both therapies reduced the number of necrotic neurons and prevented an increase in lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio. The combined effect of hypothermia and cannabidiol on excitotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and on cell damage, was greater than either hypothermia or cannabidiol alone. The present study demonstrated that cannabidiol and hypothermia act complementarily and show additive effects on the main factors leading to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage if applied shortly after the insult. PMID:27462203

  14. Recombinant Monovalent Llama-Derived Antibody Fragments (VHH) to Rotavirus VP6 Protect Neonatal Gnotobiotic Piglets against Human Rotavirus-Induced Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Vlasova, Anastasia N.; Chattha, Kuldeep S.; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Nuñez, Carmen; Alvarado, Carmen; Lasa, Rodrigo; Escribano, José M.; Garaicoechea, Lorena L.; Fernandez, Fernando; Bok, Karin; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Saif, Linda J.; Parreño, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Group A Rotavirus (RVA) is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children. The aims of the present study were to determine the neutralizing activity of VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH nanoAbs) against different RVA strains in vitro and to evaluate the ability of G6P[1] VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH) to protect against human rotavirus in gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets experimentally inoculated with virulent Wa G1P[8] rotavirus. Supplementation of the daily milk diet with 3B2 VHH clone produced using a baculovirus vector expression system (final ELISA antibody -Ab- titer of 4096; virus neutralization -VN- titer of 256) for 9 days conferred full protection against rotavirus associated diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. The administration of comparable levels of porcine IgG Abs only protected 4 out of 6 of the animals from human RVA diarrhea but significantly reduced virus shedding. In contrast, G6P[1]-VP6 rotavirus-specific IgY Abs purified from eggs of hyperimmunized hens failed to protect piglets against human RVA-induced diarrhea or virus shedding when administering similar quantities of Abs. The oral administration of VHH nanoAb neither interfered with the host's isotype profiles of the Ab secreting cell responses to rotavirus, nor induced detectable host Ab responses to the treatment in serum or intestinal contents. This study shows that the oral administration of rotavirus VP6-VHH nanoAb is a broadly reactive and effective treatment against rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal pigs. Our findings highlight the potential value of a broad neutralizing VP6-specific VHH nanoAb as a treatment that can complement or be used as an alternative to the current strain-specific RVA vaccines. Nanobodies could also be scaled-up to develop pediatric medication or functional food like infant milk formulas that might help treat RVA diarrhea. PMID:23658521

  15. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F.; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls—the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)—across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal. PMID:26274816

  16. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls-the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)-across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal.

  17. Proper Timing of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccination of Piglets with Maternally Derived Antibodies Will Maximize Expected Protection Levels.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Aldo; Chénard, Gilles; Stockhofe, Norbert; Eblé, Phaedra L

    2016-01-01

    We investigated to what extent maternally derived antibodies interfere with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in order to determine the factors that influence the correct vaccination for piglets. Groups of piglets with maternally derived antibodies were vaccinated at different time points following birth, and the antibody titers to FMD virus (FMDV) were measured using virus neutralization tests (VNT). We used 50 piglets from 5 sows that had been vaccinated 3 times intramuscularly in the neck during pregnancy with FMD vaccine containing strains of FMDV serotypes O, A, and Asia-1. Four groups of 10 piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly in the neck at 3, 5, 7, or 9 weeks of age using a monovalent Cedivac-FMD vaccine (serotype A TUR/14/98). One group of 10 piglets with maternally derived antibodies was not vaccinated, and another group of 10 piglets without maternally derived antibodies was vaccinated at 3 weeks of age and served as a control group. Sera samples were collected, and antibody titers were determined using VNT. In our study, the antibody responses of piglets with maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 7 or 9 weeks of age were similar to the responses of piglets without maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 3 weeks of age. The maternally derived antibody levels in piglets depended very strongly on the antibody titer in the sow, so the optimal time for vaccination of piglets will depend on the vaccination scheme and quality of vaccine used in the sows and should, therefore, be monitored and reviewed on regular basis in countries that use FMD prophylactic vaccination. PMID:27446940

  18. Proper Timing of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccination of Piglets with Maternally Derived Antibodies Will Maximize Expected Protection Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Aldo; Chénard, Gilles; Stockhofe, Norbert; Eblé, Phaedra L.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated to what extent maternally derived antibodies interfere with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in order to determine the factors that influence the correct vaccination for piglets. Groups of piglets with maternally derived antibodies were vaccinated at different time points following birth, and the antibody titers to FMD virus (FMDV) were measured using virus neutralization tests (VNT). We used 50 piglets from 5 sows that had been vaccinated 3 times intramuscularly in the neck during pregnancy with FMD vaccine containing strains of FMDV serotypes O, A, and Asia-1. Four groups of 10 piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly in the neck at 3, 5, 7, or 9 weeks of age using a monovalent Cedivac-FMD vaccine (serotype A TUR/14/98). One group of 10 piglets with maternally derived antibodies was not vaccinated, and another group of 10 piglets without maternally derived antibodies was vaccinated at 3 weeks of age and served as a control group. Sera samples were collected, and antibody titers were determined using VNT. In our study, the antibody responses of piglets with maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 7 or 9 weeks of age were similar to the responses of piglets without maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 3 weeks of age. The maternally derived antibody levels in piglets depended very strongly on the antibody titer in the sow, so the optimal time for vaccination of piglets will depend on the vaccination scheme and quality of vaccine used in the sows and should, therefore, be monitored and reviewed on regular basis in countries that use FMD prophylactic vaccination. PMID:27446940

  19. Infant neurologic assessment.

    PubMed

    Hobdell, E

    2001-08-01

    Infant neurologic assessment reflects the ongoing maturation of the central nervous system. Traditional approaches to assessment cannot be used. Key factors are accurate observation and flexibility in obtaining the data. A case example using a 4-month-old infant illustrates specific approaches to assessment. PMID:11497071

  20. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  1. [Map of infant mortality].

    PubMed

    Ramos, H

    1988-06-01

    The heterogeneous economic development of Peru and its relationship to the developed countries have determined that the advances of medical science and their influence on infant mortality rates have been unevenly distributed in Peru. Around 1986, the average infant mortality rate was 14/1000 live births in Europe, 118/1000 in Africa, 86/1000 in Asia, 10/1000 in North America, and 62/1000 in Latin America. The unequal development achieved in different countries is the main reason for the different infant mortality rates. The infant mortality rate for each of Peru's provinces around 1981 was estimated using a program for personal computers from the Latin American Demographic Center, which applied the Coale and Trussell variant of the Brass method to information from Peru's 1981 census. The national average infant mortality rate in 1981 was 101.0/1000 live births. 84 provinces, 55%, had high or very high infant mortality rates ranging from 101.0 to 184.0/1000. All were located in the highlands or jungle where the level of poverty is significantly greater than the national average. 28 provinces (18%) had infant mortality rates of 48-80/1000, considered low in Peru. They were almost all in the more developed coastal region. The remaining 41 provinces (27%) with medium infant mortality levels of 81-100/1000 live births were mostly the sites of provincial capitals of departments or other centers with some significant economic activity that attracted health, educational, and other investments. PMID:12315514

  2. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  3. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ...

  4. Efficient modification of the myostatin gene in porcine somatic cells and generation of knockout piglets.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shengbin; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Nakano, Kazuaki; Watanabe, Masahito; Asano, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Eri; Yamamoto, Takashi; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of myogenesis, and disruption of its function causes increased muscle mass in various species. Here, we report the generation of MSTN-knockout (KO) pigs using genome editing technology combined with somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) with non-repeat-variable di-residue variations, called Platinum TALEN, was highly efficient in modifying genes in porcine somatic cells, which were then used for SCNT to create MSTN KO piglets. These piglets exhibited a double-muscled phenotype, possessing a higher body weight and longissimus muscle mass measuring 170% that of wild-type piglets, with double the number of muscle fibers. These results demonstrate that loss of MSTN increases muscle mass in pigs, which may help increase pork production for consumption in the future.

  5. In Vitro Fermentation of Porcine Milk Oligosaccharides and Galacto-oligosaccharides Using Piglet Fecal Inoculum.

    PubMed

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne H A M; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-03-16

    In this study, the in vitro fermentation by piglet fecal inoculum of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) was investigated to identify possible preferences for individual oligosaccharide structures by piglet microbiota. First, acidic PMOs and GOS with degrees of polymerization 4-7 were depleted within 12 h of fermentation, whereas fucosylated and phosphorylated PMOs were partially resistant to fermentation. GOS structures containing β1-3 and β1-2 linkages were preferably fermented over GOS containing β1-4 and β1-6 linkages. Upon in vitro fermentation, acetate and butyrate were produced as the main organic acids. GOS fermentation by piglet inoculum showed a unique fermentation pattern with respect to preference of GOS size and organic acids production.

  6. Modelling blood flow and metabolism in the piglet brain during hypoxia-ischaemia: simulating brain energetics.

    PubMed

    Moroz, Tracy; Hapuarachchi, Tharindi; Bainbridge, Alan; Price, David; Cady, Ernest; Baer, Ether; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Broad, Kevin; Ezzati, Mojgan; Robertson, Nicola J; Thomas, David; Golay, Xavier; Cooper, Chris E

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a computational model to simulate hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) in the neonatal piglet brain. It has been extended from a previous model by adding the simulation of carotid artery occlusion and including pH changes in the cytoplasm. Here, simulations from the model are compared with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measurements from two piglets during HI and short-term recovery. One of these piglets showed incomplete recovery after HI, and this is modelled by considering some of the cells to be dead. This is consistent with the results from MRS and the redox state of cytochrome-c-oxidase as measured by NIRS. However, the simulations do not match the NIRS haemoglobin measurements. The model therefore predicts that further physiological changes must also be taking place if the hypothesis of dead cells is correct.

  7. Crying in infants

    PubMed Central

    de Weerth, Carolina; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-01-01

    Up to around a quarter of all infants cry excessively and unsoothably during their first months of life. This phenomenon has been termed “infant colic.” In most cases, physicians are unable to determine the cause of the colicky behavior. In a recent study, and by means of comprehensive and deep analyses of more than 1000 intestinal phylotypes, we found that infants with colic showed lower microbiota diversity and stability than control infants in the first weeks of life. Colic-control differences in the abundance of certain bacteria were also found at 2 weeks. These microbial signatures possibly explain the colic phenotype. In this addendum we discuss other recent publications on the subject and present previously unpublished analyses of our own. We address possible mechanisms behind the links between microbiota and crying, and present future directions that could further help elucidate the hypothesized relations between intestinal microbiota and infant colic. PMID:23941920

  8. Cyclosporin A Preserves Mitochondrial Function after Traumatic Brain Injury in the Immature Rat and Piglet

    PubMed Central

    Kilbaugh, Todd J.; Bhandare, Sunita; Lorom, David H.; Saraswati, Manda; Robertson, Courtney L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cyclosporin A (CsA) has been shown to be neuroprotective in mature animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but its effects on immature animal models of TBI are unknown. In mature animal models, CsA inhibits the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), thereby maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis following injury by inhibiting calcium influx and preserving mitochondrial membrane potential. The aim of the present study was to evaluate CsA's ability to preserve mitochondrial bioenergetic function following TBI (as measured by mitochondrial respiration and cerebral microdialysis), in two immature models (focal and diffuse), and in two different species (rat and piglet). Three groups were studied: injured+CsA, injured+saline vehicle, and uninjured shams. In addition, we evaluated CsA's effects on cerebral hemodynamics as measured by a novel thermal diffusion probe. The results demonstrate that post-injury administration of CsA ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction, preserves cerebral blood flow (CBF), and limits neuropathology in immature animals 24 h post-TBI. Mitochondria were isolated 24 h after controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rats and rapid non-impact rotational injury (RNR) in piglets, and CsA ameliorated cerebral bioenergetic crisis with preservation of the respiratory control ratio (RCR) to sham levels. Results were more dramatic in RNR piglets than in CCI rats. In piglets, CsA also preserved lactate pyruvate ratios (LPR), as measured by cerebral microdialysis and CBF at sham levels 24 h after injury, in contrast to the significant alterations seen in injured piglets compared to shams (p<0.01). The administration of CsA to piglets following RNR promoted a 42% decrease in injured brain volume (p<0.01). We conclude that CsA exhibits significant neuroprotective activity in immature models of focal and diffuse TBI, and has exciting translational potential as a therapeutic agent for neuroprotection in children. PMID

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) Scanning Facilitates Early Identification of Neonatal Cystic Fibrosis Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Antoine; Chevaleyre, Claire; Barc, Celine; Berri, Mustapha; Adriaensen, Hans; Lecompte, François; Villemagne, Thierry; Pezant, Jérémy; Delaunay, Rémi; Moënne-Loccoz, Joseph; Berthon, Patricia; Bähr, Andrea; Wolf, Eckhard; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Attucci, Sylvie; Ramphal, Reuben; Sarradin, Pierre; Buzoni-Gatel, Dominique; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Caballero, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most prevalent autosomal recessive disease in the Caucasian population. A cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout (CFTR-/-) pig that displays most of the features of the human CF disease has been recently developed. However, CFTR-/- pigs presents a 100% prevalence of meconium ileus that leads to death in the first hours after birth, requiring a rapid diagnosis and surgical intervention to relieve intestinal obstruction. Identification of CFTR-/- piglets is usually performed by PCR genotyping, a procedure that lasts between 4 to 6 h. Here, we aimed to develop a procedure for rapid identification of CFTR-/- piglets that will allow placing them under intensive care soon after birth and immediately proceeding with the surgical correction. Methods and Principal Findings Male and female CFTR+/- pigs were crossed and the progeny was examined by computed tomography (CT) scan to detect the presence of meconium ileus and facilitate a rapid post-natal surgical intervention. Genotype was confirmed by PCR. CT scan presented a 94.4% sensitivity to diagnose CFTR-/- piglets. Diagnosis by CT scan reduced the birth-to-surgery time from a minimum of 10 h down to a minimum of 2.5 h and increased the survival of CFTR-/- piglets to a maximum of 13 days post-surgery as opposed to just 66 h after later surgery. Conclusion CT scan imaging of meconium ileus is an accurate method for rapid identification of CFTR-/- piglets. Early CT detection of meconium ileus may help to extend the lifespan of CFTR-/- piglets and, thus, improve experimental research on CF, still an incurable disease. PMID:26600426

  10. [Spray-dried plasma in diets for weaned piglets: influence on growth and underlying mechanisms].

    PubMed

    van Dijk, A J

    2002-09-01

    Spray-dried animal plasma (SDAP) is a by-product of slaughter plants. The plasma obtained from slaughtered pigs or ruminants is spray-dried and used for the production of human foodstuffs and animal feeds. SDAP added to the diet of weaned piglets has considerable positive effects on the growth performance of piglets. In a meta-analysis, it was calculated from 68 comparisons between SDAP-containing diets and control diets that the SDAP-induced change in average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) in the first 2 weeks after weaning was +26.8% and +24.5%, respectively. Two experiments demonstrated that dietary SDAP can reduce post-weaning diarrhoea. The aim of the research described in this thesis was to learn more about the mechanisms underlying the growth- and health-promoting properties of SDAP in the diet of weaned piglets. Results showed that dietary SDPP has positive effects on the post-weaning growth performance and health of piglets. These effects are more pronounced in piglets kept under suboptimal conditions and/or high infection pressure, and in piglets fed on diets lacking anti-microbial growth promoters. SDAP acts by influencing the gastrointestinal microflora: it appears to affect pathogenic bacteria rather than exert a general anti-bacterial effect leading to nutrient sparing, as has been described for anti-microbial growth promoters. SDAP has great potential as treatment for immuno-compromised mammals, such as neonates, and for animals in which antibiotic treatment is not possible, for instance when there is a ban against antibiotics or when multi-resistant bacteria are involved. PMID:12244856

  11. Cross-cultural analysis of the motor development of Brazilian, Greek and Canadian infants assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale

    PubMed Central

    Saccani, Raquel; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the motor development of infants from three population samples (Brazil, Canada and Greece), to investigate differences in the percentile curves of motor development in these samples, and to investigate the prevalence of motor delays in Brazilian children. METHODS: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study with 795 Brazilian infants from zero to 18 months of age, assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) at day care centers, nurseries, basic health units and at home. The Brazilian infants' motor scores were compared to the results of two population samples from Greece (424 infants) and Canada (2,400 infants). Descriptive statistics was used, with one-sample t-test and binomial tests, being significant p≤0.05. RESULTS: 65.4% of Brazilian children showed typical motor development, although with lower mean scores. In the beginning of the second year of life, the differences in the motor development among Brazilian, Canadian and Greek infants were milder; at 15 months of age, the motor development became similar in the three groups. A non-linear motor development trend was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The lowest motor percentiles of the Brazilian sample emphasized the need for national norms in order to correctly categorize the infant motor development. The different ways of motor development may be a consequence of cultural differences in infant care. PMID:24142318

  12. Efficacy of activated diatomaceous clay in reducing the toxicity of zearalenone in rats and piglets.

    PubMed

    Denli, M; Blandon, J C; Guynot, M E; Salado, S; Pérez, J F

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an activated diatomaceous clay (ADC) in reducing the toxic effects of zearalenone (ZEA) in the diet of rats and piglets. In the rat experiment, 90 Sprague-Dawley female weanling rats with an initial BW of 45 ± 1.0 g were assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments for 28 d in a completely randomized design (CRD) with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (0 or 6 mg ZEA/kg feed and 0, 1, and 5 g ADC/kg feed). In the piglet experiment, 64 female piglets ([Large White × Landrace] × Pietrain with an initial BW of 14.9 ± 1.65 kg) were fed 1 of 8 experimental diets for 26 d in a CRD design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (0 or 0.8 mg ZEA/kg feed and 0, 1, 2, and 5 g ADC/kg feed). The ADFI, ADG, and G:F were determined at the end of each experiment. At the conclusion of studies, serum samples were collected and rats and piglets were euthanized to determine visceral organ weights. The diet contaminated with ZEA did not alter the growth of rats and the relative weight of liver and kidneys. However, ZEA increased ( < 0.05) the relative weight of uterus, ovaries, and spleen and decreased ( < 0.05) the serum activities of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase compared to the control group. Supplementation of ADC in the rat diets counteracted ( < 0.05) the observed toxic effects of ZEA on the uterus and ovaries weight. The diet contaminated with ZEA (0.8 mg/kg feed) increased ( < 0.05) the weight of the uterus and ovaries in piglets but did not modify the serum biochemical variables or the relative weight of other visceral organs. The addition of 5 g ADC/kg to the contaminated feed reduced the toxic effects of ZEA on uterus and ovary weights to that of the control group. Zearalenone (10.5 μg/kg bile) and α-zearalenol (5.6 μg/kg bile) residues were detected in the bile of piglets fed the ZEA treatment. Supplementation of ADC to diets contaminated with ZEA reduced ( = 0.001) ZEA content in bile compared to the

  13. Dietary bovine lactoferrin alters mucosal and systemic immune cell responses in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Reznikov, Elizabeth A; Contractor, Nikhat; Donovan, Sharon M

    2014-04-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional immune protein found at high concentrations in human milk. Herein, the effect of dietary bovine LF (bLF) on mucosal and systemic immune development was investigated. Colostrum-deprived piglets were fed formula containing 130 [control (Ctrl)], 367 (LF1), or 1300 (LF3) mg of bLF/(kg body weight · d). To provide passive immunity, sow serum was provided orally during the first 36 h of life. Blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), and ascending colon (Asc) contents were collected on day 7 (n = 10-14/group) and day 14 (n = 10-12/group). Immune cell populations were quantified by flow cytometry and immunoglobulins (Igs) were measured by ELISA. Additionally, immune cells were isolated from spleen and MLNs (n = 7/group) on day 7 and stimulated ex vivo with phytohemagglutinin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ± LF for 72 h. Secreted cytokine concentrations were quantified by multiplex assay. Lymphocyte populations [cluster determinant (CD)4, CD8, and natural killer cells] developed normally and were unaffected by dietary bLF. LF3 piglets tended to have 1.4 to 2 times more serum IgG than Ctrl piglets (P = 0.07) or LF1 piglets (P = 0.03), but IgA in Asc contents was unaffected by bLF. Asc IgA was 4 times higher on day 14 than day 7. Spleen cells from LF3 piglets produced 2 times more interleukin (IL)-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α ex vivo than those from Ctrl or LF1 piglets. MLN cells from LF1 and LF3 piglets produced 40% more IL-10 and tended to produce 40% more IL-6 (P = 0.05) than those from Ctrl piglets. However, ex vivo bLF did not affect the cytokine response of spleen or MLN cells to LPS. In summary, dietary bLF alters the capacity of MLN and spleen immune cells to respond to stimulation, supporting a role for LF in the initiation of protective immune responses in these immunologically challenged neonates. PMID:24553692

  14. Dietary triacylglycerol structure and saturated fat alter plasma and tissue fatty acids in piglets.

    PubMed

    Innis, S M; Dyer, R; Quinlan, P T; Diersen-Schade, D

    1996-05-01

    Human and pig milk triacylglycerols contain a large proportion of palmitic acid (16:0) which is predominately esterified in the 2-position. Other dietary fats contain variable amounts of 16:0, with unsaturated fatty acids predominantly esterified in the 2-position. These studies determined if the amount or position of 16:0 in dietary fat influences the composition or distribution of liver, adipose tissue, lung, or plasma fatty acids in developing piglets. Piglets were fed to 18 d with sow milk or formula with saturated fat from medium-chain triglyceride (MCT), coconut or palm oil, or synthesized triacylglycerols (synthesized to specifically direct 16:0 to the 2-position) with, in total fatty acids, 30.7, 4.3, 6.5, 27.0, and 29.6% 16:0, and in 2-position fatty acids, 55.3, 0.4, 1.3, 4.4, and 69.9% 16:0, respectively. The percentage of 16:0 in the 2-position of adipose fat from piglets fed sow milk, palm oil, and synthesized triacylglycerols were similar and higher than in piglets fed MCT or coconut oil. Thus, the amount, not the position, of dietary 16:0 determines piglet adipose tissue 16:0 content. The effects of the diets on the plasma and liver triacylglycerols were similar, with significantly lower 16:0 in total and 2-position fatty acids of the MCT and coconut oil groups, and significantly higher 16:0 in the plasma and liver triacylglycerol 2-position of piglets fed the synthesized triacylglycerols rather than sow milk or palm oil. The lung phospholipid total and 2-position 16:0 was significantly lower in the MCT, coconut, and palm oil groups, but similar in the synthesized triacylglycerol group and sow milk group. The lung phospholipid total and 2-position percentage of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) was significantly lower in all of the formula-fed piglets than in milk-fed piglets. The physiological significance of this is not known. PMID:8727642

  15. Pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency impairs spatial learning and memory in the cognitive holeboard task in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C.; Scholz, Gabi; Berg, Brian M.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in humans, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Early-life iron deficiency can lead to irreversible deficits in learning and memory. The pig represents a promising model animal for studying such deficits, because of its similarities to humans during early development. We investigated the effects of pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency in piglets on growth, blood parameters, cognitive performance, and brain histology later in life. Four to six days after birth, 10 male sibling pairs of piglets were taken from 10 different sows. One piglet of each pair was given a 200 mg iron dextran injection and fed a control milk diet for 28 days (88 mg Fe/kg), whereas the other sibling was given a saline injection and fed an iron deficient (ID) milk diet (21 mg Fe/kg). Due to severely retarded growth of two of the ID piglets, only eight ID piglets were tested behaviorally. After dietary treatment, all piglets were fed a balanced commercial pig diet (190–240 mg Fe/kg). Starting at 7.5 weeks of age, piglets were tested in a spatial cognitive holeboard task. In this task, 4 of 16 holes contain a hidden food reward, allowing measurement of working (short-term) memory and reference (long-term) memory (RM) simultaneously. All piglets received 40–60 acquisition trials, followed by a 16-trial reversal phase. ID piglets showed permanently retarded growth and a strong decrease in blood iron parameters during dietary treatment. After treatment, ID piglets' blood iron values restored to normal levels. In the holeboard task, ID piglets showed impaired RM learning during acquisition and reversal. Iron staining at necropsy at 12 weeks of age showed that ID piglets had fewer iron-containing cells in hippocampal regions CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG). The number of iron-containing cells in CA3 correlated positively with the average RM score during acquisition across all animals. Our results support the hypothesis that early

  16. Descriptive thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, David; Huntsman, Steven

    2006-06-01

    Thermodynamics (in concert with its sister discipline, statistical physics) can be regarded as a data reduction scheme based on partitioning a total system into a subsystem and a bath that weakly interact with each other. Whereas conventionally, the systems investigated require this form of data reduction in order to facilitate prediction, a different problem also occurs, in the context of communication networks, markets, etc. Such “empirically accessible” systems typically overwhelm observers with the sort of information that in the case of (say) a gas is effectively unobtainable. What is required for such complex interacting systems is not prediction (this may be impossible when humans besides the observer are responsible for the interactions) but rather, description as a route to understanding. Still, the need for a thermodynamical data reduction scheme remains. In this paper, we show how an empirical temperature can be computed for finite, empirically accessible systems, and further outline how this construction allows the age-old science of thermodynamics to be fruitfully applied to them.

  17. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  18. Multivariate Model of Infant Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierscht, Marcia Selland; Vietze, Peter M.

    This paper describes a multivariate model of early infant competence formulated from variables representing infant-environment transaction including: birthweight, habituation index, personality ratings of infant social orientation and task orientation, ratings of maternal responsiveness to infant distress and social signals, and observational…

  19. Ocular Manifestations in Infants Resulted from Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Mohhamadi, Ali Reza; Nateghi, Mohammad Reza; Fazeli, Abolhasan Shahzade; Kashi, Khashayar Mehdizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective Nowadays, many infertile couples can have child by assistant reproductive technology (ART). Always the undesirable effects of these methods on newborn are considered and are evaluated. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of ART on ocular and visual performances of infants born by these methods. Materials and methods In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 479 infants aged three-nine months presented to an optometry clinic of Child Health and Development Research Department (CHDRD), Tehran, Iran. Static retinoscopy, qualitative fixation evaluation, Hirschberg test, red reflex assessment and external eye examination were carried out. Other information such as birth weight and maturity of the infants was recorded. Results It was possible to assess only 320 out of 479 infants due to general condition of some participants. Comparison of mean refractive error in infants’ right and left eyes did not show any significant difference. Our findings confirmed that 20.3% had poor fixation, while 2.9% revealed manifest strabismus. The results also revealed the prevalences of myopia, hyperopia and emmetropia are 2.9%, 87%, and 10.1%, respectively. Red reflex abnormalities were significantly found in boys and in preterm infants (p < 0.05). Failure of fixation control was seen more frequently with increasing refractive error, which significantly developed in preterm infants (p < 0.001). Conclusion These results reflect the necessity of more comprehensive assessments and further follow-up of infants born by ART, especially for premature male ART infants. These results also suggest the probability of fixation condition and visual deficiencies in these infants. It is recommended to pay close attention to this preliminary report about the refractive and fixation condition of the infants born after ART. PMID:24971123

  20. Milk diets influence doxorubicin-induced intestinal toxicity in piglets.

    PubMed

    Shen, Rene L; Pontoppidan, Peter E L; Rathe, Mathias; Jiang, Pingping; Hansen, Carl Frederik; Buddington, Randal K; Heegaard, Peter M H; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per T

    2016-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is a common adverse effect of cancer treatment. We used preweaned piglets as models to test our hypothesis that the immunomodulatory and GI trophic effects of bovine colostrum would reduce the severity of GI complications associated with doxorubicin (DOX) treatment. Five-day-old pigs were administered DOX (1 × 100 mg/m(2)) or an equivalent volume of saline (SAL) and either fed formula (DOX-Form, n = 9, or SAL-Form, n = 7) or bovine colostrum (DOX-Colos, n = 9, or SAL-Colos, n = 7). Pigs were euthanized 5 days after initiation of chemotherapy to assess markers of small intestinal function and inflammation. All DOX-treated animals developed diarrhea, growth deficits, and leukopenia. However, the intestines of DOX-Colos pigs had lower intestinal permeability, longer intestinal villi with higher activities of brush border enzymes, and lower tissue IL-8 levels compared with DOX-Form (all P < 0.05). DOX-Form pigs, but not DOX-Colos pigs, had significantly higher plasma C-reactive protein, compared with SAL-Form. Plasma citrulline was not affected by DOX treatment or diet. Thus a single dose of DOX induces intestinal toxicity in preweaned pigs and may lead to a systemic inflammatory response. The toxicity is affected by type of enteral nutrition with more pronounced GI toxicity when formula is fed compared with bovine colostrum. The results indicate that bovine colostrum may be a beneficial supplementary diet for children subjected to chemotherapy and subsequent intestinal toxicity. PMID:27445347

  1. Isolation and characterization of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from calves and piglets.

    PubMed

    Foditsch, Carla; Santos, Thiago M A; Teixeira, Andre G V; Pereira, Richard V V; Dias, Juliana M; Gaeta, Natália; Bicalho, Rodrigo C

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to isolate and characterize Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from fecal samples of healthy calves and piglets, in order to develop a novel probiotic for livestock animals. We identified 203 isolates of Faecalibacterium sp., which were clustered in 40 genetically distinct groups. One representative isolate from each cluster was selected for further characterization. The concentrations of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, butyrate, propionate and isobutyrate in the culture media were measured by gas chromatography. We observed reduction in the concentration of acetate followed by concomitant increase in the concentration of butyrate, suggesting that the isolates were consuming acetate present in the media and producing butyrate. Butyrate production correlated positively with bacterial growth. Since butyrate has many benefits to the colonic epithelial cells, the selection of strains that produce higher amounts of butyrate is extremely important for the development of this potential probiotic. The effect of pH and concentration of bile salts on bacterial growth was also evaluated in order to mimic the conditions encountered by F. prausnitzii in vivo. The optimal pH for growth ranged between 5.5 and 6.7, while most isolates were inhibited by of the lowest concentration of bile salts tested (0.1%). Antimicrobial resistance profile showed that most isolates of Faecalibacterium sp. were resistant against ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. More than 50% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, amikacin, cefepime and cefoxitin. A total of 19 different combinations of multidrug resistance were observed among the isolates. Our results provide new insights into the cultural and physiological characteristics of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii illustrating large variability in short chain fatty acid production, in vitro growth, sensitivity to bile salts, and antibiotic resistance and suggesting that future probiotic candidates

  2. Benefits of infant massage.

    PubMed

    Day, Jane

    2014-05-01

    After spending three months as a clinical midwifery tutor at a remote hospital in Zambia, where I helped to train student midwives and other students, my interest in infant massage was ignited, having witnessed the benefits of massage to both mother and baby. Once back in the UK, I trained and qualified as a massage instructor with an international infant massage training organisation, which has led me to work extensively with parents and babies, offering one-to-one and group courses. It has been a privilege to be able to teach parents the valuable skill of infant massage, and consequently pass on the benefits both physiological and psychosocial. PMID:24873112

  3. Development of a novel live vaccine delivering enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbrial antigens to prevent post-weaning diarrhea in piglets.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, John Hwa

    2012-05-15

    The efficacy of a novel, live delivery vaccine was examined for protection against post-weaning diarrhea in pigs. An expression/secretion plasmid harboring genes encoding enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88ab, K88ac, FedA and FedF fimbriae was constructed and harbored in an attenuated Salmonella, which was used as the vaccine candidate. Groups A (n=3) and B (n=3) sows were orally immunized with the candidate vaccine and PBS as a control, respectively, at 8 and 11 weeks of pregnancy. All group piglets were challenged with two challenge strains at 5-week-old. All immunized sows had significantly increased IgG and IgA levels in both serum and colostrum to individual adhesins compared to the control (p ≤ 0.05). Immune response in Group A piglets were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, no clinical signs were observed in Group A piglets after the challenge and no challenge strains were detected in rectal swabs, while diarrhea was observed in 47.8% control piglets and challenge strains were isolated from all the diarrheic piglets. These results show that immune response of sucking piglets can maintain at higher levels through the milk of the immunized sows and vaccination of sows with the candidate may protect colibacillosis in weaned piglets. PMID:22417986

  4. Dynamics and longevity of maternally-acquired antibodies to Taenia solium in piglets born to naturally infected sows.

    PubMed

    Sikasunge, Chummy S; Phiri, Isaac K; Willingham, Arve L; Johansen, Maria V

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the longevity of maternally-acquired specific antibody (Ab) isotypes in piglets born to sows with Taenia solium cysticercosis. Four isotypes of anti-cysticercal immunoglobulins (IgG(total), IgG1, IgG2 and IgA), were assessed in sows naturally infected with T. solium (n=5) and their piglets (5/sow). Specific IgG2 and IgA responses were not detected in piglets at any sampling point. However, IgG(total) and IgG1 responses were detectable in sera from piglets from day 0 but not at 2months of age. Antibody profiles differed significantly over time between littermates and between piglets from different sows. These findings raise important questions as to the optimal timing of mass vaccination of piglets as a method of controlling cysticercosis in humans. The observed variations in the level of maternally-acquired Abs amongst piglets will pose a major challenge to the implementation of vaccination programmes against T. solium cysticercosis.

  5. Characterization of neural stem/progenitor cells expressing VEGF and its receptors in the subventricular zone of newborn piglet brain.

    PubMed

    Ara, Jahan; Fekete, Saskia; Zhu, Anli; Frank, Melissa

    2010-09-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSP) biology and neurogenesis in adult central nervous system (CNS) are important both towards potential future therapeutic applications for CNS repair, and for the fundamental function of the CNS. In the present study, we report the characterization of NSP population from subventricular zone (SVZ) of neonatal piglet brain using in vivo and in vitro systems. We show that the nestin and vimentin-positive neural progenitor cells are present in the SVZ of the lateral ventricles of neonatal piglet brain. In vitro, piglet NSPs proliferated as neurospheres, expressed the typical protein of neural progenitors, nestin and a range of well-established neurodevelopmental markers. Upon dissociation and subculture, piglet NSPs differentiated into neurons and glial cells. Clonal analysis demonstrates that piglet NSPs are multipotent and retain the capacity to generate both glia and neurons. These cells expressed VEGF, VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and Neuropilin-1 and -2 mRNAs. Real time PCR revealed that SVZ NSPs from newborn piglet expressed total VEGF and all VEGF splice variants. These findings show that piglet NSPs may be helpful to more effectively design growth factor based strategies to enhance endogenous precursor cells for cell transplantation studies potentially leading to the application of this strategy in the nervous system disease and injury.

  6. Encoding of Situations in the Vocal Repertoire of Piglets (Sus scrofa): A Comparison of Discrete and Graded Classifications

    PubMed Central

    Tallet, Céline; Linhart, Pavel; Policht, Richard; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Šimeček, Petr; Kratinova, Petra; Špinka, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Two important questions in bioacoustics are whether vocal repertoires of animals are graded or discrete and how the vocal expressions are linked to the context of emission. Here we address these questions in an ungulate species. The vocal repertoire of young domestic pigs, Sus scrofa, was quantitatively described based on 1513 calls recorded in 11 situations. We described the acoustic quality of calls with 8 acoustic parameters. Based on these parameters, the k-means clustering method showed a possibility to distinguish either two or five clusters although the call types are rather blurred than strictly discrete. The division of the vocal repertoire of piglets into two call types has previously been used in many experimental studies into pig acoustic communication and the five call types correspond well to previously published partial repertoires in specific situations. Clear links exist between the type of situation, its putative valence, and the vocal expression in that situation. These links can be described adequately both with a set of quantitative acoustic variables and through categorisation into call types. The information about the situation of emission of the calls is encoded through five call types almost as accurately as through the full quantitative description. PMID:23967251

  7. Evaluation of the anaesthetic depth during piglet castration under an automated isoflurane-anaesthesia at farm level.

    PubMed

    Schwennen, Cornelia; Kolbaum, Nina; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Höltig, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Piglet castration under isoflurane-anaesthesia could represent an alternative to the practice of castration without anaesthesia. The objective of this study was to evaluate practicality and effectiveness of an automated isoflurane-anaesthesia for castration. A field study on three different farms in Germany (farm A, B: 200 sows; C: 540 sows) was performed. In total, 1429 (1166 anaesthetised and 263 conventionally castrated) male piglets (age: 1-8 days; bodyweight: 0.7-3.7 kg) were monitored. All piglets were treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs directly before castration. Castration and anaesthesia were performed by the farm-manager in presence of a veterinarian. All farmers used the PIGNAP Pro® (Agrosystems GmbH, CH) anaesthetic device (5 vol.% isoflurane, 30% oxygen; flow rate: 2 l/min). Vocalisation and defensive movements of 1166 anaesthetised piglets was rated using a scoring system. Presence or absence of the palpebral- and flexor-reflex was noted. Approximately every second piglet was weighed and oxygen-saturation and pulse- frequency of 231 animals were measured during treatment. Rectal temperatures before and after castration of 264 anaesthetised and 263 conventionally castrated piglets were compared. Only 77% of the anaesthetised piglets showed a sufficient anaesthetic depth based on the assessment of reflexes as well as vocalisations and defensive movements. It was found that the probability for a sufficient depth of anaesthesia decreases with increasing age and weight. The measurements of the pulse-frequency and oxygen-saturation showed an average oxygen-saturation of 98% and an average heart rate of 270/min during anaesthesia. The conventionally castrated piglets had significantly higher rectal temperatures in comparison to the anaesthetised (p < 0.0001). The result of 77% sufficiently anaesthetised piglets is not adequate for commercial application of this technology.

  8. The Level of Protein in Milk Formula Modifies Ileal Sensitivity to LPS Later in Life in a Piglet Model

    PubMed Central

    Gras-Le Guen, Christèle; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Boudry, Gaëlle

    2011-01-01

    Background Milk formulas have higher protein contents than human milk. This high protein level could modify the development of intestinal microbiota, epithelial barrier and immune functions and have long-term consequences. Methodology/Principal findings We investigated the effect of a high protein formula on ileal microbiota and physiology during the neonatal period and later in life. Piglets were fed from 2 to 28 days of age either a normoprotein (NP, equivalent to sow milk) or a high protein formula (HP, +40% protein). Then, they received the same solid diet until 160 days. During the formula feeding period ileal microbiota implantation was accelerated in HP piglets with greater concentrations of ileal bacteria at d7 in HP than NP piglets. Epithelial barrier function was altered with a higher permeability to small and large probes in Ussing chambers in HP compared to NP piglets without difference in bacterial translocation. Infiltration of T cells was increased in HP piglets at d28. IL-1β and NF-κB sub-units mRNA levels were reduced in HP piglets at d7 and d28 respectively; plasma haptoglobin also tended to be reduced at d7. Later in life, pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in response to high doses of LPS in explants culture was reduced in HP compared to NP piglets. Levels of mRNA coding the NF-κB pathway sub-units were increased by the challenge with LPS in NP piglets, but not HP ones. Conclusions/Significance A high protein level in formula affects the postnatal development of ileal microbiota, epithelial barrier and immune function in piglets and alters ileal response to inflammatory mediators later in life. PMID:21573022

  9. Informing the ‘early years’ agenda in Scotland: understanding infant feeding patterns using linked datasets

    PubMed Central

    Ajetunmobi, Omotomilola; Whyte, Bruce; Chalmers, James; Fleming, Michael; Stockton, Diane; Wood, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing infants with the ‘best possible start in life’ is a priority for the Scottish Government. This is reflected in policy and health promotion strategies to increase breast feeding, which gives the best source of nutrients for healthy infant growth and development. However, the rate of breast feeding in Scotland remains one of the lowest in Europe. Information is needed to provide a better understanding of infant feeding and its impact on child health. This paper describes the development of a unique population-wide resource created to explore infant feeding and child health in Scotland. Methods Descriptive and multivariate analyses of linked routine/administrative maternal and infant health records for 731 595 infants born in Scotland between 1997 and 2009. Results A linked dataset was created containing a wide range of background, parental, maternal, birth and health service characteristics for a representative sample of infants born in Scotland over the study period. There was high coverage and completeness of infant feeding and other demographic, maternal and infant records. The results confirmed the importance of an enabling environment—cultural, family, health service and other maternal and infant health-related factors—in increasing the likelihood to breast feed. Conclusions Using the linked dataset, it was possible to investigate the determinants of breast feeding for a representative sample of Scottish infants born between 1997 and 2009. The linked dataset is an important resource that has potential uses in research, policy design and targeting intervention programmes. PMID:24129609

  10. Effect of inflammation stimulation on energy and nutrient utilization in piglets selected for low and high residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Labussière, E; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Thibault, J N; Le Floc'h, N; Noblet, J; van Milgen, J

    2015-10-01

    Selection of animals for improved feed efficiency can affect sustainability of animal production because the most efficient animals may face difficulties coping with challenges. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an inflammatory challenge (using an intravenous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant - CFA) in piglets from two lines of pigs divergently selected during the fattening period for a low (RFI-) or a high (RFI+) residual feed intake (RFI; difference between actual feed intake and theoretical feed requirements). Nitrogen and energy balances (including heat production - HP - and its components: activity-related HP - AHP, thermic effect of feeding, and resting HP) were measured individually in thirteen 20-kg BW castrated male piglets (six and seven from RFI+ and RFI- line, respectively) fed at the same level (1.72 MJ ME/kg BW0.60 per day) from 3 days before to 3 days after CFA injection. Dynamics of dietary U-13C-glucose oxidation were estimated from measurements of 13CO2 production on the day before and 3 days after the CFA injection. Oxidation of dietary nutrients and lipogenesis were calculated based on HP and O2 consumption and CO2 production. The data were analyzed as repeated measurements within piglets in a mixed model. Before CFA injection, RFI- piglets had a lower resting energy expenditure than RFI+ piglets, which tended to increase energy retention because of a higher energy retention as fat. The CFA injection did not affect feed intake from the day following CFA injection onwards but it increased energy retention (P=0.04). Time to recover 50% of 13C from dietary glucose as expired 13CO2 was higher in RFI+ piglets before inducing inflammation but decreased after to the level of RFI- piglets (P<0.01). Oxidation of U-13C-glucose tended to slightly increased in RFI- piglets and to decreased in RFI+ piglets (P=0.10) because of CFA. Additionally, RFI- piglets had a lower respiratory quotient during the 1st day following the CFA

  11. Sudden infant death syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Crib death; SIDS ... However, SIDS is still a major cause of death in infants under 1 year old. Thousands of ... affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS deaths occur in the winter. The following may increase ...

  12. Infant - newborn development

    MedlinePlus

    ... infant responds to rocking and changes of position LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Crying is a very important way to communicate. By the baby's third day of life, mothers can tell their own baby's cry from that ...

  13. Pyloric stenosis - infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vomiting is forceful (projectile vomiting) The infant is hungry after vomiting and wants to feed again Other ... birth and may include: Abdominal pain Burping Constant hunger Dehydration (gets worse as vomiting gets worse) Failure ...

  14. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  15. Infant deaths in slings.

    PubMed

    Madre, Chrystèle; Rambaud, Caroline; Avran, David; Michot, Charlotte; Sachs, Philippe; Dauger, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    Although the incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) decreased markedly after campaigns to promote supine positioning during sleeping, it has remained unchanged over the last decade. Epidemiological data suggest a role for new causes such as suffocation, asphyxia, and entrapment. Health authorities in several countries have issued warnings about slings used to carry infants. However, few reports of infant deaths in slings have been published in medical journals. Our paediatric intensive care unit has admitted two infants who experienced cardiorespiratory arrest while carried in a sling. Diagnostic investigations including a post-mortem examination established asphyxia as the mechanism of death. In conclusion, baby slings may carry a risk of SUDI, either by compression of the baby into a forward-flexed position or by direct suffocation. European recommendations for the cautious use of baby slings should be disseminated to families and professionals involved in caring for infants, as done recently in Australia, Canada, and the USA. PMID:24343674

  16. Infant dental care (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Even though newborns and infants do not have teeth, care of the mouth and gums is important. ... sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which ...

  17. Gastroesophageal reflux in infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... contents leak backward from the stomach into the esophagus. This causes " spitting up " in infants. ... from the throat to the stomach through the esophagus. The esophagus is called the food pipe or ...

  18. Effects of cholecystokinin on liquid diet intake of early weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Baranyiová, E; Hullinger, R L

    The effect of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) on the consumption of a liquid diet was investigated in 10 piglets, weaned on Day 1, housed individually in cages, and offered a commercial diet for suckling from feeding bottles nine times a day at 2-h intervals with an 8-h break during the night. CCK-8 was administered to piglets (n = 5) on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 20, and 23 in single intraperitoneal doses of 4 microg x kg(-1) in saline, 5-7 min before the first morning feeding at 0600 h. The relative diet intake in CCK-treated animals was reduced significantly (p < 0.05) on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 23 compared to saline-treated controls, and on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 23 when the consumption at 0600 and 0800 h in CCK-treated piglets was compared. Our data support the notion that the short-term mechanisms involved in food intake control of piglets are relatively complex and operative at the time of birth, and that CCK plays a role in their food intake regulatory cascade.

  19. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Guan, Guiping; Fang, Jun; Martínez, Yordan; Chen, Shuai; Bin, Peng; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Gong, Ting; Tossou, Myrlene Carine B; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive), an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin), and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract). The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P < 0.05). The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics. PMID:27525260

  20. Prenatally stressed piglets 'shut down' in response to separation, oxytocin modulates some effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prenatal stress (PNS) effects may enhance offspring’s survival traits. Yet, PNS could be maladaptive for captive animals, causing anxiety and abnormal social development. Oxytocin (OT) reduces anxiety while OT deficiency results in social behavior alteration. We hypothesized that PNS piglets would b...

  1. Effects of oral supplementation with bovine colostrum on the immune system of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Boudry, C; Buldgen, A; Portetelle, D; Collard, A; Théwis, A; Dehoux, J-P

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of bovine colostrum supplementation on the immune system of weaned piglets in a context of a full ban of in-feed antibiotics. After weaning at 21 days, 24 outbred piglets were fed with a diet supplemented daily for three weeks with 0, 1 or 5 g of colostrum. Feed intake, growth performance, haematological parameters, and serum and local anti-colostrum immunoglobulin levels were examined. Lymphocytes from the blood, spleen, and gut-associated lymphoid were analysed for phenotype as well as for their ability to produce cytokines. The stimulation index (SI) of mononuclear cells from different organs was obtained after colostral or mitogenic stimulation. Feed intake, growth, and haematological parameters were not significantly affected by colostrum. Total serum IgA levels were increased after colostrum supplementation, with a transient decrease in total IgG. Local anti-colostrum immunization was observed in colostrum-fed piglets. The CD21+/CD3+ cells populations of the ileal Peyer's patch (iPP) were markedly affected. The SI of lymphocyte populations changed significantly whereas, naive blood lymphocytes were not stimulated in vitro in the presence of bovine colostrum, suggesting local anti-colostrum immunization and an absence of direct mitogenic effects of the colostrum. Both Th1 and Th2 cytokine production was present in the different organs of colostrum-fed piglets. Bovine colostrum especially stimulated iPP cells. PMID:17187836

  2. Group B streptococcus has no effect on piglet diaphragmatic force generation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, T D; Mayock, D E; Standaert, T A; Gibson, R L; Woodrum, D E

    1992-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that diaphragmatic contractility is adversely affected by bacterial infection. Using transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) with phrenic nerve stimulation, the effect of continuous Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infusion on diaphragmatic force output was studied in seven anesthetized, spontaneously breathing 1-month old piglets. Pdi was measured under baseline condition (50% O2/50% N2) and at 1, 2, and 4 h of GBS infusion. The GBS was infused at a level that caused a doubling of the pulmonary artery pressure and a 32% decrease in cardiac output but which avoided hypotension or acidosis--both of which can decrease diaphragmatic contractility. In addition, the piglets were kept hyperoxic (PaO2 greater than 100) and no piglet with hypercapnia (PaCO2 greater than 65) was studied, as hypoxia and hypercapnia also can cause respiratory muscle dysfunction. Pdi in response to phrenic nerve stimulation did not change during GBS infusion. We conclude that GBS infusion, in the absence of hypotension, hypercapnia, hypoxia, or acidosis, has no effect on diaphragmatic force generation in the piglet. PMID:1736760

  3. The Effects of Tail Docking Method on Piglets' Behavioral Responses to a Formalin Pain Test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine piglet production procedures, for example teeth clipping, tail docking and castration, most likely cause pain and are under increasing scrutiny from the animal rights lobby. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of 2 alternative methods of tail-docking on subsequent response...

  4. Transcriptome profiling of the small intestinal epithelium in germfree versus conventional piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain insight into host-microbe interactions in a piglet model, a functional genomics approach was used to address the working hypothesis that transcriptionally regulated genes associated with promoting epithelial barrier function are activated as a defensive response to the intestinal microbiota....

  5. Iron bioavailability to piglets from red and white common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenols in foods may chelate dietary Fe and lower its bioavailability. Concentrations of phenols are substantially higher in red beans than in white beans. The aim of this study was to compare iron bioavailabilities from red and white beans in a piglet hemoglobin repletion model. Fe deficient cr...

  6. Genome Sequence of Chlamydia suis MD56, Isolated from the Conjunctiva of a Weaned Piglet

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Manuela; Huot-Creasy, Heather; Humphrys, Michael; Di Paolo, Maria; Di Francesco, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia suis is a natural pathogen of pigs (Sus scrofa) and causes conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis, and various reproductive disorders that adversely impact this economically important animal. Here, we report the first C. suis genome, that of C. suis MD56, isolated from a conjunctival swab of a weaned piglet. PMID:24812227

  7. The piglet as a model for B cell and immune system development

    PubMed Central

    Butler, J.E.; Lager, K.M.; Splichal, I.; Francis, D.; Kacskovics, I.; Sinkora, M.; Wertz, N.; Sun, J.; Zhao, Y.; Brown, W.R.; DeWald, R.; Dierks, S.; Muyldermans, S.; Lunney, J.K.; McCray, P.B.; Rogers, C.S.; Welsh, M.J.; Navarro, P.; Klobasa, F.; Habe, F.; Ramsoondar, J.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to identify factors responsible for disease in all species depends on the ability to separate those factors which are environmental from those that are intrinsic. This is particularly important for studies on the development of the adaptive immune response of neonates. Studies on laboratory rodents or primates have been ambiguous because neither the effect of environmental nor maternal factors on the newborn can be controlled in mammals that: (i) transmit potential maternal immunoregulatory factors in utero and (ii) are altricial and cannot be reared after birth without their mothers. Employing the newborn piglet model can address each of these concerns. However, it comes at the price of having first to characterize the immune system of swine and its development. This review focuses on the porcine B cell system, especially on the methods used for its characterization in fetal studies and neonatal piglets. Understanding these procedures is important in the interpretation of the data obtained. Studies on neonatal piglets have (a) provided valuable information on the development of the adaptive immune system, (b) lead to important advances in evolutionary biology, (c) aided our understanding of passive immunity and (d) provided opportunities to use swine to address specific issues in veterinary and biomedical research and immunotherapy. This review summarizes the history of the development of the piglet as a model for antibody repertoire development, thus providing a framework to guide future investigators. PMID:19056129

  8. Nitrous oxide as a humane method for piglet euthanasia: behavior and electroencephalography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The search for humane methods to euthanize piglets is critical to address public concern that current methods are not optimal. Blunt force trauma is considered humane but aesthetically objectionable. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is used but criticized as aversive. This research sought to: 1) evaluate the av...

  9. Presence of atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) genomes in newborn piglets correlates with congenital tremor

    PubMed Central

    Postel, Alexander; Hansmann, Florian; Baechlein, Christine; Fischer, Nicole; Alawi, Malik; Grundhoff, Adam; Derking, Sarah; Tenhündfeld, Jörg; Pfankuche, Vanessa Maria; Herder, Vanessa; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Wendt, Michael; Becher, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Pestiviruses are highly variable RNA viruses belonging to the continuously growing family Flaviviridae. A genetically very distinct pestivirus was recently discovered in the USA, designated atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, a screening of 369 sera from apparently healthy adult pigs demonstrated the existence of APPV in Germany with an estimated individual prevalence of 2.4% and ~10% at farm level. Additionally, APPV genomes were detected in newborn piglets affected by congenital tremor (CT), but genomes were absent in unaffected piglets. High loads of genomes were identified in glandular epithelial cells, follicular centers of lymphoid organs, the inner granular cell layer of the cerebellum, as well as in the trigeminal and spinal ganglia. Retrospective analysis of cerebellum samples from 2007 demonstrated that APPV can be found in piglets with CT of unsolved aetiology. Determination of the first European APPV complete polyprotein coding sequence revealed 88.2% nucleotide identity to the APPV sequence from the USA. APPV sequences derived from different regions in Germany demonstrated to be highly variable. Taken together, the results of this study strongly suggest that the presence of APPV genomes in newborn piglets correlates with CT, while no association with clinical disease could be observed in viremic adult pigs. PMID:27292119

  10. Effects of Weaning on Intestinal Upper Villus Epithelial Cells of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaocheng; Tan, Bie; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal upper villus epithelial cells represent the differentiated epithelial cells and play key role in digesting and absorbing lumenal nutrients. Weaning stress commonly results in a decrease in villus height and intestinal dysfunction in piglets. However, no study have been conducted to test the effects of weaning on the physiology and functions of upper villus epithelial cells. A total of 40 piglets from 8 litters were weaned at 14 days of age and one piglet from each litter was killed at 0 d (w0d), 1 d (w1d), 3 d (w3d), 5 d (w5d), and 7 d (w7d) after weaning, respectively. The upper villus epithelial cells in mid-jejunum were isolated using the distended intestinal sac method. The expression of proteins in upper villus epithelial cells was analyzed using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification or Western blotting. The expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism, Golgi vesicle transport, protein amino acid glycosylation, secretion by cell, transmembrane transport, ion transport, nucleotide catabolic process, translational initiation, and epithelial cell differentiation and apoptosis, was mainly reduced during the post-weaning period, and these processes may be regulated by mTOR signaling pathway. These results indicated that weaning inhibited various cellular processes in jejunal upper villus epithelial cells, and provided potential new directions for exploring the effects of weaning on the functions of intestine and improving intestinal functions in weaning piglets. PMID:27022727

  11. Establishment of gastric Campylobacter pylori infection in the neonatal gnotobiotic piglet.

    PubMed Central

    Krakowka, S; Morgan, D R; Kraft, W G; Leunk, R D

    1987-01-01

    Campylobacter pylori, a gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium, has been implicated in the genesis of human gastritis, dyspepsia, and gastroduodenal ulceration. Previous attempts to reproduce the diseases in conventional laboratory animal species have been unsuccessful. To determine if neonatal gnotobiotic piglets were susceptible to C. pylori, we orally challenged two litters (n = 17) with 10(9) CFU after pretreating them with cimetidine. Controls housed in separate units received nothing or peptone water alone. Piglets were examined 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after challenge. Colonization by the bacterium and inflammation of the gastric mucosa persisted throughout the study period. Organisms were revealed by Warthin-Starry silver stain to reside between the mucus layer and the gastric epithelium. Culturing of samples from sites along the gastrointestinal tract revealed that the bacterium colonized essentially only the gastric and proximal duodenal mucosae. Gross pathological changes were restricted to the stomachs of infected piglets and consisted of submucosal edema, increased gastric mucus production, and progressive development of mucosal lymphoid follicles. Microscopic lesions consisted of transient neutrophilic infiltrates followed by diffuse and follicular infiltrations of mononuclear leukocytes into the mucosa and submucosa. Alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff stains suggested that the infection resulted in the depletion of mucopolysaccharide production by deep gastric glands. These data indicate that gnotobiotic piglets reproduce many of the features of diseases associated with C. pylori in humans. Images PMID:3666963

  12. Weaning Induced Hepatic Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, and Aminotransferases through MAPK Signaling Pathways in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhen; Zhu, Wei; Guo, Qi; Luo, Wenli; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Weina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of weaning on the hepatic redox status, apoptosis, function, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways during the first week after weaning in piglets. A total of 12 litters of piglets were weaned at d 21 and divided into the weaning group (WG) and the control group (CG). Six piglets from each group were slaughtered at d 0 (d 20, referred to weaning), d 1, d 4, and d 7 after weaning. Results showed that weaning significantly increased the concentrations of hepatic free radicals H2O2 and NO, malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), while significantly decreasing the inhibitory hydroxyl ability (IHA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and altered the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD). The apoptosis results showed that weaning increased the concentrations of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. In addition, aspartate aminotransferase transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in liver homogenates increased after weaning. The phosphorylated JNK and ERK1/2 increased, while the activated p38 initially decreased and then increased. Our results suggested that weaning increased the hepatic oxidative stress and aminotransferases and initiated apoptosis, which may be related to the activated MAPK pathways in postweaning piglets. PMID:27807471

  13. Impact of two different colistin dosing strategies on healthy piglet fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Fleury, M A; Jouy, E; Eono, F; Cariolet, R; Couet, W; Gobin, P; Le Goff, O; Blanquet-Diot, S; Alric, M; Kempf, I

    2016-08-01

    Colistin is often used in piglets but underdosing and overdosing are frequent. The impact of such administrations on fecal microbiota was studied. Piglets were given either underdoses of colistin by oral gavage for five days or overdoses by in-feed medication for 14days. The composition of fecal microbiota was studied by quantitative PCR, 16S rRNA sequencing, culture of Enterobacteriaceae, and quantification of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The mean colistin concentrations during the treatment for underdosed and overdosed groups were 14.4μg/g and 64.9μg/g of feces respectively. Whatever the piglet and the sampling day, the two main phyla were Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, The main families were Lactobacillaceae, Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. The main perturbation was the significant but transitory decrease in the Escherichia coli population during treatment, yet all the E. coli isolates were susceptible to colistin. Moreover, colistin did not affect the production of SCFAs. These results show that under- or overdoses of colistin do not result in any major disturbance of piglet fecal microbiota and rarely select for chromosomal resistance in the dominant E. coli population. PMID:27473989

  14. Alpha (1,2)-fucosyltransferase M307A polymorphism improves piglet survival.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungtae; Nguyen, Dinh Truong; Choi, Minkyung; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Seo, Han Geuk; Dadi, Hailu; Cha, Se-Yeoun; Seo, Kunho; Lee, Yun-Mi; Kim, Jong-Joo; Park, Chankyu

    2013-01-01

    To confirm the beneficial effects of alpha (1,2)-fucosyltransferase (FUT1) M307 (A) on piglet survival on commercial farms, we performed PCR-RFLP analysis of FUT1 M307 in successfully marketed (n = 245) and disease affected/deceased pigs during weaning (n = 252) at a commercial farm. We also evaluated the FUT1 genotypes of 190 healthy pigs from three different genetic backgrounds. The distribution of genotypes differed between the successfully marketed and disease affected/deceased pig groups. The frequency of the A allele, associated with resistance to edema and post-weaning diarrhea, was higher in the post-weaning survival group (0.21) than in the non-survival group (0.16, P < 0.05). The odds ratio for piglet survival between AA and GG genotypes was 1.98; thus, piglet survival for individuals with the AA genotype was almost two-fold greater than for GG individuals. The FUT1 gene polymorphism can be used as an effective marker for selection programs to improve post-weaning piglet survival.

  15. Impact of two different colistin dosing strategies on healthy piglet fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Fleury, M A; Jouy, E; Eono, F; Cariolet, R; Couet, W; Gobin, P; Le Goff, O; Blanquet-Diot, S; Alric, M; Kempf, I

    2016-08-01

    Colistin is often used in piglets but underdosing and overdosing are frequent. The impact of such administrations on fecal microbiota was studied. Piglets were given either underdoses of colistin by oral gavage for five days or overdoses by in-feed medication for 14days. The composition of fecal microbiota was studied by quantitative PCR, 16S rRNA sequencing, culture of Enterobacteriaceae, and quantification of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The mean colistin concentrations during the treatment for underdosed and overdosed groups were 14.4μg/g and 64.9μg/g of feces respectively. Whatever the piglet and the sampling day, the two main phyla were Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, The main families were Lactobacillaceae, Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. The main perturbation was the significant but transitory decrease in the Escherichia coli population during treatment, yet all the E. coli isolates were susceptible to colistin. Moreover, colistin did not affect the production of SCFAs. These results show that under- or overdoses of colistin do not result in any major disturbance of piglet fecal microbiota and rarely select for chromosomal resistance in the dominant E. coli population.

  16. Piglet mortality: the impact of induction of farrowing using prostaglandins and oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Kirkden, R D; Broom, D M; Andersen, I L

    2013-04-01

    Induction is usually carried out by administering prostaglandins (prostaglandin F2α or a synthetic analogue). Other hormones, most commonly oxytocin, may also be given. The primary objective is to increase the synchrony of farrowing. This facilitates farrowing supervision, early fostering and 'all in, all out' management of the farrowing house, all of which have the potential to decrease piglet mortality. However, there are also risks, including decreased piglet viability when farrowing is induced too early and an increased probability of dystocia associated with oxytocin use. What are the effects of induction procedures on mortality in pigs? With respect to prostaglandins, studies show that the date of induction and the level of supervision provided are important factors affecting piglet mortality. We recommend administering prostaglandins no earlier than 2d before the expected farrowing date for the herd. Some studies have reported that prostaglandin induction decreases stillbirth and live-born mortality and this is probably due to increased farrowing supervision. The incidence of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome is also decreased in herds with a high prevalence of this condition. Inconsistent effects on the progress of farrowing are reported following the routine administration of oxytocin 20-24h after prostaglandin. Although there is generally no effect on stillbirth rate, dystocia may increase. Earlier administration of low doses may decrease stillbirths, but this requires further research. Carbetocin, a long-acting analogue of oxytocin, is a possible alternative. We recommend that prostaglandin induction be used in conjunction with skilled farrowing supervision to decrease piglet mortality.

  17. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jun; Martínez, Yordan; Bin, Peng; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive), an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin), and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract). The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P < 0.05). The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics. PMID:27525260

  18. Effects of fructooligosaccharides on cecum polyamine concentration and gut maturation in early-weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    Sabater-Molina, María; Larqué, Elvira; Torrella, Francisco; Plaza, Javier; Ramis, Guillermo; Zamora, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Polyamines are molecules involved in cell growth and differentiation and are produced by bacterial metabolism. However, their production and effects by the microbiota selected by fructooligosaccharides consumption are controversial. In this study, we investigated the influence of supplementation of fructooligosaccharides on the cecal polyamine production by the microflora selected, and its effect on gut maturation in newborn piglets. Twenty piglets were fed a control formula (n = 10) or a formula supplemented with fructooligosaccharides (8 g/l) (n = 10) for 13 days. Colony-forming unit’s count of cecal content was done in different media. Several intestinal development parameters were measured as well as the polyamine concentration in the cecal mucosa and cecal content. A dose-dependent study on in vitro polyamine production by fructooligosaccharides addition to the isolated cecal content was performed. Bifidogenic activity of fructooligosaccharides increased polyamine concentration in the cecal content, mainly putrescine, with no beneficial effect on gut maturation. Bifidobacterium spp. were able to produce polyamines, but they were not the most significant bacterial producer of polyamines in the cecum of piglets fed fructooligosaccharides. Bifidogenic activity of fructooligosaccharides did not lead to an increase in gut maturation in piglets of 15 days of age although polyamines were increased in the cecal content. PMID:21562644

  19. Prevalence and age-dependent occurrence of intestinal protozoan infections in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Damriyasa, I Made; Bauer, Christian

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed on 20 pig breeding farms in southern Hesse, central Germany, to evaluate the prevalence and age-dependent occurrence of intestinal protozoan parasites in unweaned piglets. Faecal samples of 514 clinically unaffected piglets of different age (< 1 to 5-7 weeks) were examined using the sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF) concentration technique. Infections with the following protozoan species were detected: Balantidium coli (16 of 20 farms), Entamoeba sp. (15), Jodamoeba sp. (14), Isospora (I.) suis (9), Chilomastix sp. (6) and Eimeria spp. (6). The protozoan species differed in the start and course of (oo)cyst excretion. I. suis oocysts and Jodamoeba cysts were detected already in the first week of life whereas shedding of the other parasites started later on. The prevalence of Isospora oocyst excretion increased to a maximum (18%) in 2-3 weeks old animals followed by a sharp decline. The proportion of Balantidium, Entamoeba or Jodamoeba positive suckling piglets continously increased until the age of 5-7 weeks to 60%, 52% and 22%, respectively, whereas that of Chilomastix positive animals remained on a low level of 8-12% independent of the age. Eimeria oocysts were found transiently in the faeces of 1-4 weeks old piglets. PMID:17009710

  20. Presence of atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) genomes in newborn piglets correlates with congenital tremor.

    PubMed

    Postel, Alexander; Hansmann, Florian; Baechlein, Christine; Fischer, Nicole; Alawi, Malik; Grundhoff, Adam; Derking, Sarah; Tenhündfeld, Jörg; Pfankuche, Vanessa Maria; Herder, Vanessa; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Wendt, Michael; Becher, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Pestiviruses are highly variable RNA viruses belonging to the continuously growing family Flaviviridae. A genetically very distinct pestivirus was recently discovered in the USA, designated atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, a screening of 369 sera from apparently healthy adult pigs demonstrated the existence of APPV in Germany with an estimated individual prevalence of 2.4% and ~10% at farm level. Additionally, APPV genomes were detected in newborn piglets affected by congenital tremor (CT), but genomes were absent in unaffected piglets. High loads of genomes were identified in glandular epithelial cells, follicular centers of lymphoid organs, the inner granular cell layer of the cerebellum, as well as in the trigeminal and spinal ganglia. Retrospective analysis of cerebellum samples from 2007 demonstrated that APPV can be found in piglets with CT of unsolved aetiology. Determination of the first European APPV complete polyprotein coding sequence revealed 88.2% nucleotide identity to the APPV sequence from the USA. APPV sequences derived from different regions in Germany demonstrated to be highly variable. Taken together, the results of this study strongly suggest that the presence of APPV genomes in newborn piglets correlates with CT, while no association with clinical disease could be observed in viremic adult pigs. PMID:27292119

  1. Experimental infection of gnotobiotic piglets with Escherichia coli strains positive for EAST1 and AIDA.

    PubMed

    Zajacova, Zuzana Sramkova; Faldyna, Martin; Kulich, Pavel; Kummer, Vladimir; Maskova, Jarmila; Alexa, Pavel

    2013-03-15

    The virulence factors EAST1 and AIDA are often detected in ETEC/VTEC strains isolated from pigs and their role in diarrhoeal infections is discussed. In order to elucidate the pathogenesis of AIDA, the colonisation patterns of F4 positive and AIDA positive strains were investigated. Two wild-type Escherichia coli strains AIDA/EAST1 and F4/EAST1 isolated from diarrhoeal piglets were used for animal experiment to evaluate the ability of the EAST1 toxin to be involved in induction of diarrhoea. Gnotobiotic piglets were supplemented with normal porcine serum and orally inoculated with the strains. Faecal bacterial shedding of the challenge strains was observed during the experiment. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to detect the colonisation pattern of both challenge strains. Although bacterial isolation demonstrated shedding of the challenge strains until the end of the experiment, diarrhoea did not develop in any piglet. Based on histological examination, piglets were more heavily colonised in the case of infection with E. coli O149/F4/EAST1 strain. Scanning electron microscopy showed bacterial cells of F4/EAST1 E. coli adhering to enterocytes, in contrast to AIDA/EAST1 which were poorly present on the intestinal surface. The EAST1 toxin alone was not able to induce diarrhoea in animals. Therefore our results demonstrate that the function/role of EAST1 and AIDA in colibacillosis of pigs remains to be elucidated. PMID:23068274

  2. Postnatal piglet husbandry practices and well-being: The effects of alternative techniques delivered separately

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soon after birth, piglets undergo procedures that are a likely source of stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate stress responses evoked by 2 combinations of alternative methods for performing the following processing procedures: 1) teeth resection (TR) – clip vs. grind; 2) identification (ID)...

  3. Postnatal piglet husbandry practices and well being: The effects of alternative techniques delivered separately.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soon after birth, piglets undergo procedures that are a likely source of stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative impact on stress responses of two alternative methods for performing the following processing procedures: 1) teeth resection (TR) - clip vs. grind; 2) tail-docking (TD)...

  4. Protective effect of oral administration of transgenic tobacco seeds against verocytotoxic Escherichia coli strain in piglets.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Luciana; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Vagni, Simona; Sala, Vittorio; Reggi, Serena; Baldi, Antonella

    2014-03-01

    The use of transgenic plants as delivery system for antigenic proteins is attractive for its simplicity and increases likelihood for local immune response at sites of infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of oral administration of tobacco seeds, expressing the FedA, the major protein of the F18 adhesive fimbriae, and B subunit of verocytotoxin, against verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) strain in piglets. Forty-three early weaned piglets, were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups: 3 test groups and a control. Treatment groups orally received a bolus, with different dose of tobacco seeds on 0, 1, 2, 14 days post primary administration. After challenge, with 1*10(10) CFU of O138 Escherichia coli strain, piglets showed clinical scores significantly higher in the control group compared to orally immunized groups (P < 0.05) and the latter showed a faster recovery than in CG. In conclusion, oral administration of recombinant tobacco seeds expressing antigenic proteins against VTEC strains can induce a protective effect against challenger strain in piglets.

  5. Determination of the extent of Clostridium difficile colonisation and toxin accumulation in sows and neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Grześkowiak, Łukasz; Zentek, Jürgen; Vahjen, Wilfried

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important spore-forming, opportunistic pathogen in animal husbandry and health care. In pig farming, only neonatal piglets are affected, and diarrhoea and necrotising lesions are common symptoms leading to dehydration and in some cases death. This study aimed at the assessment of the quantitative development of C. difficile colonisation in neonatal piglets by determining the shedding of spores and C. difficile toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) concentrations in sow (n = 5-6) and piglet pen faeces (n = 5-6) at different time points. Spores were quantified on selective agar plates and toxins using ELISA method. C. difficile was not detected in the faeces of all but one sow during the perinatal period. Faeces of 2- and 4-day-old piglets contained 0.65 log cells/g and 5.88 log cells/g of C. difficile, respectively. Toxins were detected on day 4 at a concentration of 2.13 log ng/g (TcdA) and 2.06 log ng/g (TcdB). On day 6, concentration of C. difficile reached 6.14 log CFU/g and toxins 2.02 log ng/g (TcdA) and 2.20 log ng/g (TcdB). Two-week-old piglets showed 4.72 log CFU/g of C. difficile but toxins could not be detected. At 21 days of age, both C. difficile and toxins were undetectable. The concentration and the prevalence of C. difficile were positively associated with the prevalence of toxins in piglets. A very short time window for colonisation by C. difficile, including toxin-producing strains can be observed in neonatal piglets. The significance for animal health and the risk of a carrier status need to be addressed in future studies.

  6. Responses of growth performance and proinflammatory cytokines expression to fish oil supplementation in lactation sows' and/or weaned piglets' diets.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Huang, Feiruo; Xiao, Chenglin; Fang, Zhengfeng; Peng, Jian; Jiang, Siwen

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate whether dietary fish oil could influence growth of piglets via regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. A split-plot experimental design was used with sow diet effect in the main plots and differing piglet diet effect in the subplot. The results showed that suckling piglets from fish oil fed dams grew rapidly (P < 0.05) than control. It was also observed that these piglets had higher ADG, feed intake, and final body weight (P < 0.05) during postweaning than those piglets from lard fed dams. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the expression of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor- α in longissimus dorsi muscle. In contrast, there was a tendency (P < 0.10) towards lower ADG and higher feed:gain in weaned piglets receiving fish oil compared with those receiving lard. Meanwhile, splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression was increased (P < 0.01) in piglets receiving fish oil during postweaning period. The results suggested that 7% fish oil addition to sows' diets alleviated inflammatory response via decreasing the proinflammatory cytokines expression in skeletal muscle and accelerated piglet growth. However, 7% fish oil addition to weaned piglets' diets might decrease piglet growth via increasing splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression.

  7. Sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adams, Stephen M; Ward, Chad E; Garcia, Karla L

    2015-06-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden unexpected death of a child younger than one year during sleep that cannot be explained after a postmortem evaluation including autopsy, a thorough history, and scene evaluation. The incidence of SIDS has decreased more than 50% in the past 20 years, largely as a result of the Back to Sleep campaign. The most important risk factors relate to the sleep environment. Prone and side sleeping positions are significantly more dangerous than the supine position. Bed sharing with a parent is strongly correlated with an increased risk of SIDS, especially in infants younger than 12 weeks. Apparent life-threatening events are not a risk factor for SIDS. Parents should place infants on their backs to sleep, should not share a bed, and should avoid exposing the infant to tobacco smoke. Other risk-reducing measures include using a firm crib mattress, breastfeeding, keeping vaccinations up to date, avoiding overheating due to overbundling, avoiding soft bedding, and considering the use of a pacifier during sleep once breastfeeding is established. One consequence of the Back to Sleep campaign is a significant increase in the incidence of occipital flattening. Infants who develop a flat spot should be placed with the head facing alternating directions each time he or she is put to bed. Supervised prone positioning while the infant is awake, avoiding excessive use of carriers, and upright positioning while awake are also recommended. PMID:26034855

  8. Neonatal piglet traits of importance for survival in crates and indoor pens.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, L J; Berg, P; Jørgensen, G; Andersen, I L

    2011-04-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the same piglet traits contributed to the same causes of neonatal piglet mortality in crates (CT) and pens (PN). Gilts originating from 2 distinct genetic groups that differed in breeding value for piglet survival rate at d 5 (SR5) were used. These were distributed to farrow in either PN or CT as follows: high-SR5 and CT (n = 30); low-SR5 and CT (n = 27); high-SR5 and PN (n = 22); and low-SR5 and PN (n = 24). Data on individual piglets were collected at birth, including interbirth interval; birth order; birth weight; rectal temperature at birth, 2 h after birth, and 24 h after birth; cordal plasma lactate; and latency to first suckle. Based on autopsy, causes of mortality were divided into stillborn, bitten to death, starvation, crushed, disease, and other causes. Potential risk factors of dying were estimated using a GLM with a logit link function. No significant effect (NS) of housing was observed on the odds of a piglet being stillborn (F(1,73) = 0.1, NS), being crushed (F(1,53) = 1.4, NS), or dying of starvation (F(1,53) = 0.3, NS). No significant differences were observed between the 2 genetic groups for any category of mortality. Piglet traits for pre- and postnatal survival were the same for CT and PN. The odds of being stillborn were increased in piglets born late in the birth order (F(1,1061) = 33.5, P < 0.0001), after a long interbirth interval (F(1,1061) = 19.2, P < 0.0001), and with a lighter birth weight (F(1,1061) = 9.2, P = 0.003). The lighter the birth weight of the piglets, the greater were the odds of being crushed (F(1,1050) = 18, P < 0.0001) and dying of starvation (F(1,1050) = 19, P < 0.0001). The lower the rectal temperature 2 h after birth, the greater were the odds of being crushed (F(1,1050) = 4.6, P = 0.03), starving (F(1,1050) = 16.6, P < 0.0001), or dying of diseases (F(1,1050) = 4.9, P = 0.03). Increased cordal plasma lactate increased the odds of dying from starvation (F(1

  9. Effects of Soybean Agglutinin on Intestinal Barrier Permeability and Tight Junction Protein Expression in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Qin, Guixin; Sun, Zewei; Che, Dongsheng; Bao, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    This study was developed to provide further information on the intestinal barrier permeability and the tight junction protein expression in weaned piglets fed with different levels of soybean agglutinin (SBA). Twenty-five weaned crossbred barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected and randomly allotted to five groups, each group with five replicates. The piglets in the control group were not fed with leguminous products. 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2% SBA was added to the control diet to form four experimental diets, respectively. After the experimental period of 7 days (for each group), all the piglets were anesthetized with excess procaine and slaughtered. The d-lactic acid in plasma and the Ileal mucosa diamine oxidase (DAO) was analyzed to observe the change in the intestinal permeability. The tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 in the jejunum tissue distribution and relative expression were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. The results illustrated that a high dose of SBA (0.1–0.2%) could increase the intestinal permeability and reduce piglet intestinal epithelial tight junction protein occludin or ZO-1 expression, while low dose of SBA (0.05% of total diet) had no significant affects. The contents of DAO, d-lactic acid, occludin or ZO-1, had a linear relationship with the SBA levels (0–0.2%) in diets. The high dose SBA (0.1–0.2%) could increase the intestinal permeability and reduce piglet intestinal epithelial tight junction protein occludin or ZO-1 expression, while low dose of SBA (0.05% of total diet) had no affects. PMID:22272087

  10. Influence of the probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on the intestinal immunity of piglets.

    PubMed

    Scharek, L; Altherr, B J; Tölke, C; Schmidt, M F G

    2007-12-15

    In a feeding trial, sows and piglets were fed with the probiotic bacterium Bacillus cereus var. toyoi as a feed additive, and the effects on immune cell populations were examined. The development of the gut immune system was determined for piglets at the ages of 14, 28, 35 and 56 days post partum. Tissue samples of the Jejunum and the continuous Peyer's patch were used for enumeration of intraepithelial lymphocyte populations by fluorescence activated flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Both independent methods of investigation led to similar results: the population of intraepithelial CD8+ T cells was significantly enhanced in the probiotic group piglets (p< or =0.05), and the numbers of gammadelta T cells tended to be higher in the intestinal epithelium (p<0.1) at the time of weaning (day 28). Lamina propria lymphocytes were also influenced by the treatment. Application of B. cereus var. toyoi resulted in significantly more CD25+ lymphocytes and gammadelta T cells in the probiotic group post-weaning. The occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli serogroups was also less frequent in the feces of piglets from the probiotic group. The finding that the CD8+ T cell population in the intestinal mucosa showed changes on day 28 indicated that the influence of B. cereus var. toyoi supplementation on the intestinal immune system started before weaning, an observation supported by changes in the intestinal microflora observed during the suckling-period. The results suggest that feeding of B. cereus var. toyoi to sows may result in beneficial effects on piglet health status independent of their feed supplementation.

  11. Fenugreek seed affects intestinal microbiota and immunological variables in piglets after weaning.

    PubMed

    Zentek, Jürgen; Gärtner, Stefanie; Tedin, Lydia; Männer, Klaus; Mader, Anneluise; Vahjen, Wilfried

    2013-03-14

    Fenugreek seed has been shown to affect the intestinal microbiota and immunological responses in animals. A feeding trial with male castrated piglets was performed over 28 d without or with the addition of 1·5 g fenugreek seeds/kg complete diet in ten and eleven piglets, weaned at 21 d. In the intestinal tract, pH, lactate and SCFA were measured as major bacterial metabolites. Immune cell phenotypes, phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen, concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin M were measured by flow cytometry. Health status and performance of the piglets were not affected by fenugreek. The pH in the caecum and colon were reduced compared with the control (P< 0·05). Higher concentrations of l-lactic acid were recorded in the small-intestinal digesta (average concentrations from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum; P< 0·05), while the concentrations of SCFA remained unchanged except an increase in n-butyric acid in colon contents (P< 0·05). The piglets fed the fenugreek diet had higher Lactobacillus and clostridium cluster I concentrations and lower Escherichia, Hafnia and Shigella concentrations in the small intestine. The addition of fenugreek increased the relative concentration of the γδ T-cell population (TCR1+CD8α-) in the blood with a simultaneous reduction of antigen-presenting cells (MHCII+CD5-) (P< 0·05). Proliferation rate and phagocytosis activity of monocytes were not affected by the additive. In conclusion, fenugreek seeds might be interesting as a feed ingredient for young piglets due to their effects on the intestinal microbiota and immunological variables. The impact on performance and animal health has to be further evaluated. PMID:22874597

  12. Plasma metabolomic profiles and immune responses of piglets after weaning and challenge with E. coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The processes of weaning and exposure to pathogenic bacteria induce stress responses, which may alter the metabolism. In this study, we investigated the changes in plasma metabolites and immune responses in piglets in response to the stress induced by weaning and Escherichia coli challenge. Results Fecal dry matter decreased (P = 0.003) and nearly half (44.4%) the piglets developed diarrhea on day 2 and 3 postweaning. The concentration of plasma immunoglobulin A was higher (P < 0.001) on day 11 postweaning than on day 0 or 4 postweaning. The levels of white blood cells increased continuously (P < 0.001) from day 0 to day 11 postweaning. Differences in the percentages of neutrophils (P = 0.029) and lymphocytes (P = 0.022) were seen, but the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio did not differ in the period after weaning. A clear separation of the metabolomic profile data for day 0 and day 4 postweaning was observed with a principal components analysis (PCA) scores plot, and the data for day 11 were located between those for day 0 and day 4 postweaning. The plasma levels of proline, taurine, and carnitine were higher, whereas those of betaine, creatine, L-arginine and acetylcarnitine were lower on day 4 postweaning than on day 0. Levels of lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine were either higher or lower after weaning, depending on the chain lengths or characters of these metabolites. Conclusions Our results show a clear separation in the plasma metabolomic profiles of piglets that corresponded to the fecal responses to stress on the piglets induced by weaning or exposure to a pathogen (E. coli). These plasma metabolite profiles suggest that the challenges induced proinflammatory responses in the piglets, resulting in postweaning diarrhea, which was associated with higher concentrations of IgA in the plasma. PMID:24624922

  13. Very low birth weight piglets show improved cognitive performance in the spatial cognitive holeboard task.

    PubMed

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in humans and has been found to cause lasting cognitive and developmental deficits later in life. It is thought that the primary cause is intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to a shortage of oxygen and supply of nutrients to the fetus. Pigs appear to be a good model animal to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW, as LBW is common in commercially farmed breeds of pigs. Moreover, pigs are developmentally similar to humans and can be trained to perform complex tasks. In this study, we trained ten very low birth weight (vLBW) piglets and their ten normal birth weight (NBW) siblings in a spatial cognitive holeboard task in order to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW. In this task, four out of sixteen holes contain a hidden food reward, which allows measuring working memory (WM) (short-term memory) and reference memory (RM) (long-term memory) in parallel. Piglets were trained for 46-54 trials during the acquisition phase, followed by a 20-trial reversal phase in which a different set of four holes was baited. Both groups acquired the task and improved their performance over time. A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA revealed that vLBW piglets showed better RM performance than NBW piglets in both the acquisition and reversal phase. Additionally, WM scores in the vLBW were less disrupted than in the NBW animals when switched to the reversal phase. These findings are contrary to findings in humans. Moreover, vLBW pigs had lower hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) than NBW pigs in flank hair at 12 weeks of age. These results could indicate that restricted intra-uterine growth causes compensatory mechanisms to arise in early development that result in beneficial effects for vLBW piglets, increasing their low survival chances in early-life competition.

  14. Welfare implications of invasive piglet husbandry procedures, methods of alleviation and alternatives: a review.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A

    2015-01-01

    Iron administration, teeth clipping, tail docking and castration are common invasive husbandry procedures performed on piglets on commercial farms, generally within the first week of life. These procedures are performed to prevent potential health and welfare problems of piglets and/or the sow, or, with respect to castration, to enhance meat quality. The objectives of this review were firstly, to provide the rationale and scientific evidence for performing these procedures, secondly, to describe the welfare implications of these procedures, and lastly, to describe mitigation strategies or alternatives that can be used to eliminate or reduce the pain caused by these procedures. Administering supplementary iron is necessary to prevent anaemia in piglets and the procedure has a low welfare impact. The stated benefits of teeth clipping to prevent udder lesions do not appear to outweigh the risk from injury and infection in piglets following the procedure. Tail docking reduces the prevalence of tail biting, but does not eliminate this behaviour and the practice of tail docking can cause acute pain. Castration is primarily performed to reduce the occurrence of boar taint, but alternatives are now available that negate the need to perform this procedure. Teeth clipping, tail docking and castration all cause behavioural and physiological changes indicative of acute pain and can have potentially long-term negative consequences such as causing abscesses, lesions and the formation of neuromas. Therefore effective pain mitigation strategies (e.g. analgesia, local or general anaesthesia) that markedly alleviate the pain caused by these procedures are necessary to improve the welfare of piglets. Alternatively, if management practices are available that eliminate the need for performing these procedures altogether, then they should be adopted. PMID:25204203

  15. Testing Eurasian wild boar piglets for serum antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Che' Amat, A; González-Barrio, D; Ortiz, J A; Díez-Delgado, I; Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Bezos, J; Romero, B; Armenteros, J A; Lyashchenko, K P; Venteo, A; Rueda, P; Gortázar, C

    2015-09-01

    Animal tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC), is often reported in the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Tests detecting antibodies against MTC antigens are valuable tools for TB monitoring and control in suids. However, only limited knowledge exists on serology test performance in 2-6 month-old piglets. In this age-class, recent infections might cause lower antibody levels and lower test sensitivity. We examined 126 wild boar piglets from a TB-endemic site using 6 antibody detection tests in order to assess test performance. Bacterial culture (n=53) yielded a M. bovis infection prevalence of 33.9%, while serum antibody prevalence estimated by different tests ranged from 19% to 38%, reaching sensitivities between 15.4% and 46.2% for plate ELISAs and between 61.5% and 69.2% for rapid immunochromatographic tests based on dual path platform (DPP) technology. The Cohen kappa coefficient of agreement between DPP WTB (Wildlife TB) assay and culture results was moderate (0.45) and all other serological tests used had poor to fair agreements. This survey revealed the ability of several tests for detecting serum antibodies against the MTC antigens in 2-6 month-old naturally infected wild boar piglets. The best performance was demonstrated for DPP tests. The results confirmed our initial hypothesis of a lower sensitivity of serology for detecting M. bovis-infected piglets, as compared to older wild boar. Certain tests, notably the rapid animal-side tests, can contribute to TB control strategies by enabling the setup of test and cull schemes or improving pre-movement testing. However, sub-optimal test performance in piglets as compared to that in older wild boar should be taken into account.

  16. Effect of CLA on performance and immune response of weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Moraes, M L; Ribeiro, A M L; Kessler, A M; Ledur, V S; Fischer, M M; Bockor, L; Cibulski, S P; Gava, D

    2012-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of CLA on the immune response and performance of piglets when subjected to an immune challenge. A total of 32 weanling pigs (17 to 23 d of age) with an initial BW of 8.9 kg were allotted to a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. There were 3 levels of dietary CLA (0%, 1%, and 2%) and 2 levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (unchallenged and challenged). Challenged pigs were challenged on d 7 and 21. On d 4 and 18, all pigs were inoculated with BSA for assessment of IgG production. There was no difference in growth performance among piglets receiving different CLA supplementation levels. However, LPS-challenged piglets had poorer BW (P < 0.05), ADFI (P < 0.01), and ADG (P < 0.001) compared with the control group at d 35 postweaning. Lipopolysaccharide-challenged piglets also had increased respiratory rate (P < 0.001) and rectal temperature (P < 0.001), and decreased plasma proteins, hematocrit, and white blood cell counts (P < 0.05). Production of IgG against BSA was increased in the 1% CLA supplementation group (P < 0.001), indicating that CLA has an immunomodulatory effect. Supplementation with CLA did not affect lymphocyte proliferation, percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, plasma proteins, red and white blood cell count, respiratory rate, or rectal temperature after LPS challenge. Although CLA supplementation did not influence growth performance or certain immune system measurements, the increased IgG titers with 1% CLA dietary supplementation indicate that it has a beneficial effect on the humoral immune system of weaned piglets.

  17. Fenugreek seed affects intestinal microbiota and immunological variables in piglets after weaning.

    PubMed

    Zentek, Jürgen; Gärtner, Stefanie; Tedin, Lydia; Männer, Klaus; Mader, Anneluise; Vahjen, Wilfried

    2013-03-14

    Fenugreek seed has been shown to affect the intestinal microbiota and immunological responses in animals. A feeding trial with male castrated piglets was performed over 28 d without or with the addition of 1·5 g fenugreek seeds/kg complete diet in ten and eleven piglets, weaned at 21 d. In the intestinal tract, pH, lactate and SCFA were measured as major bacterial metabolites. Immune cell phenotypes, phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen, concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin M were measured by flow cytometry. Health status and performance of the piglets were not affected by fenugreek. The pH in the caecum and colon were reduced compared with the control (P< 0·05). Higher concentrations of l-lactic acid were recorded in the small-intestinal digesta (average concentrations from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum; P< 0·05), while the concentrations of SCFA remained unchanged except an increase in n-butyric acid in colon contents (P< 0·05). The piglets fed the fenugreek diet had higher Lactobacillus and clostridium cluster I concentrations and lower Escherichia, Hafnia and Shigella concentrations in the small intestine. The addition of fenugreek increased the relative concentration of the γδ T-cell population (TCR1+CD8α-) in the blood with a simultaneous reduction of antigen-presenting cells (MHCII+CD5-) (P< 0·05). Proliferation rate and phagocytosis activity of monocytes were not affected by the additive. In conclusion, fenugreek seeds might be interesting as a feed ingredient for young piglets due to their effects on the intestinal microbiota and immunological variables. The impact on performance and animal health has to be further evaluated.

  18. Very low birth weight piglets show improved cognitive performance in the spatial cognitive holeboard task

    PubMed Central

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in humans and has been found to cause lasting cognitive and developmental deficits later in life. It is thought that the primary cause is intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to a shortage of oxygen and supply of nutrients to the fetus. Pigs appear to be a good model animal to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW, as LBW is common in commercially farmed breeds of pigs. Moreover, pigs are developmentally similar to humans and can be trained to perform complex tasks. In this study, we trained ten very low birth weight (vLBW) piglets and their ten normal birth weight (NBW) siblings in a spatial cognitive holeboard task in order to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW. In this task, four out of sixteen holes contain a hidden food reward, which allows measuring working memory (WM) (short-term memory) and reference memory (RM) (long-term memory) in parallel. Piglets were trained for 46–54 trials during the acquisition phase, followed by a 20-trial reversal phase in which a different set of four holes was baited. Both groups acquired the task and improved their performance over time. A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA revealed that vLBW piglets showed better RM performance than NBW piglets in both the acquisition and reversal phase. Additionally, WM scores in the vLBW were less disrupted than in the NBW animals when switched to the reversal phase. These findings are contrary to findings in humans. Moreover, vLBW pigs had lower hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) than NBW pigs in flank hair at 12 weeks of age. These results could indicate that restricted intra-uterine growth causes compensatory mechanisms to arise in early development that result in beneficial effects for vLBW piglets, increasing their low survival chances in early-life competition. PMID:25774127

  19. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets. XXIV. Hypothesis: The ileal Peyer patches (IPP) are the major source of primary, undiversified IgA antibodies in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Butler, John E; Santiago-Mateo, Kristina; Wertz, Nancy; Sun, Xiuzhu; Sinkora, Marek; Francis, David L

    2016-12-01

    The ileal Peyers patches (IPP) of newborn germfree (GF) piglets were isolated into blind loops and the piglets colonized with a defined probiotic microflora. After 5 weeks, IgA levels in the intestinal lavage (IL) of loop piglets remained at GF levels and IgM comprised ∼70% while in controls, IgA levels were elevated 5-fold and comprised ∼70% of total Igs. Loop piglets also had reduced serum IgA levels suggesting the source of serum IgA had been interrupted. The isotype profile for loop contents was intermediate between that in the IL of GF and probiotic controls. Surprisingly, colonization alone did not result in repertoire diversification in the IPP. Rather, colonization promoted pronounced proliferation of fully switched IgA(+)IgM(-) B cells in the IPP that supply early, non-diversified "natural" SIgA antibodies to the gut lumen and a primary IgA response in serum. PMID:27497872

  20. Effects of gestation and transition diets, piglet birth weight, and fasting time on depletion of glycogen pools in liver and 3 muscles of newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Theil, P K; Cordero, G; Henckel, P; Puggaard, L; Oksbjerg, N; Sørensen, M T

    2011-06-01

    The experiment was conducted to assess the effects of maternal nutrition in late gestation on glycogen pools of newborn piglets of different birth weights and to assess how rapidly the glycogen pools in the liver and 3 muscles are mobilized during fasting. Until d 108 of gestation, 48 sows were fed a gestation standard diet (GSD) with low dietary fiber (DF, 17.1%), or 1 of 3 diets with high DF (32.3 to 40.4%) consisting of pectin residue (GPR), potato pulp (GPP), or sugar-beet pulp (GSP). From d 108 until farrowing, sows were fed 1 of 6 transition diets with low or high dietary fat: one group received a standard diet (TSD; control) containing 3% animal fat, another group received the TSD diet + 2.5 g/d of hydroxy-methyl butyrate as topdressing (THB), and 4 other groups received diets with 8% added fat from coconut oil (TCO), sunflower oil (TSO), fish oil (TFO), or 4% octanoic acid + 4% fish oil (TOA). Two piglets per litter (the second and fifth born) were blood sampled, and 1 was killed immediately after birth, whereas the other, depending on the litter, was killed after 12, 24, or 28.5 to 36 h (mean 32.5 h) of fasting. Samples of liver, LM, M. semimembranousus (SM), and M. diaphragm (DP) were collected and analyzed for glycogen concentration. No dietary effects (P > 0.20) on glycogen concentrations in liver, LM, SM, or DP were observed. The weight of the liver was affected by gestation diet (P < 0.05) and was greater in GSD and GSP piglets (36.7 and 36.3 g) than in GPR piglets (32.6 g), and intermediate (33.6 g) in GPP piglets. Liver weight, estimated muscle mass, and glycogen pools (P < 0.001) were affected by birth weight, whereas glycogen concentrations in liver and LM, SM, and DP muscles were not (P > 0.05). Liver weight; glycogen concentrations in liver, LM, SM, and DP; and glycogen pools in liver and muscles decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing duration of fasting, and at 32.5 h of fasting, glycogen concentration was reduced by 80% in liver, 64% in DP, 46

  1. Recurrent Wheezing in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Belhassen, Manon; De Blic, Jacques; Laforest, Laurent; Laigle, Valérie; Chanut-Vogel, Céline; Lamezec, Liliane; Brouard, Jacques; Fauroux, Brigitte; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Ginoux, Marine; Van Ganse, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent wheezing (RW) has a significant impact on infants, caregivers, and society, but morbidity and related medical resource utilization (MRU) have not been thoroughly explored. The burden of RW needs to be documented with population-based data. The objective was to assess the characteristics, medical management, and MRU of RW infants identified from national claims data. Infants aged from 6 to 24 months, receiving ≥2 dispensations of respiratory drugs within 3 months, and presenting a marker of poor control (index date), were selected. During the 6 months after index date, MRU was described in the cohort and among 3 subgroups with more severe RW, defined as ≥4 dispensations of respiratory drugs, ≥3 dispensations of oral corticosteroids (OCS), or ≥1 hospitalization for respiratory symptoms. A total of 115,489 infants had RW, corresponding to 8.2% of subjects in this age group. During follow-up, 68.7% of infants received inhaled corticosteroids, but only 1.8 U (unit) were dispensed over 6 months, suggesting discontinuous use. Control was mostly inadequate: 61.7% of subjects received OCS, 80.2% antibiotics, and 71.2% short-acting beta-agonists, and medical/paramedical visits were numerous, particularly for physiotherapy. Severe RW concerned 39.0% of the cohort; 32.8% and 11.7% of infants had repeated use of respiratory drugs and OCS, respectively, and 5.5% were hospitalized for respiratory symptoms. In this real-life nation-wide study, RW was common and infants had poor control and high MRU. Interventions are needed to support adequate use of controller therapy, and to improve medical care. PMID:27082618

  2. An in vivo three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging-based averaged brain collection of the neonatal piglet (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Conrad, Matthew S; Sutton, Bradley P; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    Due to the fact that morphology and perinatal growth of the piglet brain is similar to humans, use of the piglet as a translational animal model for neurodevelopmental studies is increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be a powerful tool to study neurodevelopment in piglets, but many of the MRI resources have been produced for adult humans. Here, we present an average in vivo MRI-based atlas specific for the 4-week-old piglet. In addition, we have developed probabilistic tissue classification maps. These tools can be used with brain mapping software packages (e.g. SPM and FSL) to aid in voxel-based morphometry and image analysis techniques. The atlas enables efficient study of neurodevelopment in a highly tractable translational animal with brain growth and development similar to humans.

  3. Effect of radiant heat at the birth site in farrowing crates on hypothermia and behaviour in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Andersen, H M-L; Pedersen, L J

    2016-01-01

    It has been documented that floor heating of the farrowing area in loose housed sows improves survival of piglets significantly. However, today, the majority of farrowing pens are designed with crating of sows and slatted floor at the birth site. The aim of this study was to investigate whether providing radiant heat at the birth site to new-born piglets in pens with crated sows reduced hypothermia, time to first milk intake and growth of the piglets during the 1(st) week. Second parity Danish Landrace×Yorkshire sows (n=36) were randomly divided into two groups: Control (CG) and heat (HG). In the area behind the sow (zone 1), two radiant heat panels were mounted above the slatted floor in the HG. The farrowings were attended, and the heaters were turned on at birth of first piglet and turned off 12 h after. Birth time, time to leave zone 1, time to first contact with udder and time to first suckling were registered by direct observation. The piglet's rectal temperature (RT) was measured 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 min after birth and 12, 14 and 24 h after birth of first piglet. Piglets were weighed at birth, 24 and 48 h and 7 days after birth. Data were analysed in a mixed model in SAS. The drop in RT was lower in HG compared with CG (P=0.002), and the RT in HG remained higher than in CG from 30 to 240 min after birth (P<0.05), whereas no difference was found at 12 h after birth of first piglet (P=0.92). Piglets in HG stayed longer in zone 1 than those in CG (P=0.01), whereas time to reach udder (P=0.35) and to first suckling (P=0.56) did not differ. No difference in weight gain was found between piglets in HG and CG at 24 h (P=0.23), 48 h (P=0.28) and 7 days after birth (P=0.44). Birth weight had a positive effect on RT (P<0.001) and reduced time to leave zone 1 (P<0.01), reach udder (P<0.001) and time to first suckling (P<0.001). The results showed that radiant heating behind the sows reduced hypothermia in new-born piglets and indicate that providing heat during

  4. Non-anemic Iron Deficiency from Birth to Weaning Does Not Impair Growth or Memory in Piglets.

    PubMed

    Antonides, Alexandra; van Laarhoven, Serana; van der Staay, Franz J; Nordquist, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    Early iron deficiency is associated with impaired (cognitive) development, the severity of which depends on the timing and duration of the under-supply of iron. To design effective treatment and prevention strategies for iron deficiency in humans, suited animal models are needed. In an earlier study (Antonides et al., 2015b) we separated 10 pairs of piglets from their mothers within a few days after birth and reared one sibling with artificial iron-deficient (ID) and the other with balanced control milk until weaning. ID piglets grew slower and showed poorer reference memory (RM) performance than their controls in a spatial holeboard task, even weeks after iron repletion. One putative intervening factor in that study was pre-weaning maternal deprivation. In an attempt to refine the piglet iron-deficiency model, we assessed whether piglets reared by sows, but withheld iron supplementation, can serve as animal model of iron deficiency. As sow milk is inherently ID, piglets normally receive a prophylactic iron injection. Ten pairs of piglets were housed with foster sows until weaning (4 weeks). One sibling per pair was randomly assigned to the control group (receiving iron dextran injections: 40 mg iron per kilogram body mass on days 3 and 10), the other to the ID group. From weaning, all pigs were fed a balanced commercial diet. Blood samples were taken in week 1, 3.5, 6, and 12. Pre-weaning blood iron values of ID piglets were lower than those of controls, but recovered to normal values after weaning. Hemoglobin of ID piglets did not reach anemic values. Hematocrit and hemoglobin of ID animals did not decrease, and serum iron even increased pre-weaning, suggesting that the piglets had access to an external source of iron, e.g., spilled feed or feces of the foster sows. Growth, and spatial memory assessed in the holeboard from 10 to 16 weeks of age, was unaffected in ID pigs. We conclude that sow-raised piglets are not a suitable model for iron-deficiency induced

  5. Impact of Transmammary-Delivered Meloxicam on Biomarkers of Pain and Distress in Piglets after Castration and Tail Docking

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Jessica L.; Karriker, Locke A.; Stock, Matthew L.; Pertzborn, Kelly M.; Baldwin, Luke G.; Wulf, Larry W.; Lee, C. J.; Wang, Chong; Coetzee, Johann F.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate a novel route for providing analgesia to processed piglets via transmammary drug delivery, meloxicam was administered orally to sows after farrowing. The objectives of the study were to demonstrate meloxicam transfer from sows to piglets via milk and to describe the analgesic effects in piglets after processing through assessment of pain biomarkers and infrared thermography (IRT). Ten sows received either meloxicam (30 mg/kg) (n = 5) or whey protein (placebo) (n = 5) in their daily feedings, starting four days after farrowing and continuing for three consecutive days. During this period, blood and milk samples were collected at 12-hour intervals. On Day 5 after farrowing, three boars and three gilts from each litter were castrated or sham castrated, tail docked, and administered an iron injection. Piglet blood samples were collected immediately before processing and at predetermined times over an 84-hour period. IRT images were captured at each piglet blood collection point. Plasma was tested to confirm meloxicam concentrations using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Meloxicam was detected in all piglets nursing on medicated sows at each time point, and the mean (± standard error of the mean) meloxicam concentration at castration was 568.9±105.8 ng/mL. Furthermore, ex-vivo prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis inhibition was greater in piglets from treated sows compared to controls (p = 0.0059). There was a time-by-treatment interaction for plasma cortisol (p = 0.0009), with meloxicam-treated piglets demonstrating lower cortisol concentrations than control piglets for 10 hours after castration. No differences in mean plasma substance P concentrations between treatment groups were observed (p = 0.67). Lower cranial skin temperatures on IRT were observed in placebo compared to meloxicam-treated piglets (p = 0.015). This study demonstrates the successful transfer of meloxicam from sows to

  6. Non-anemic Iron Deficiency from Birth to Weaning Does Not Impair Growth or Memory in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Antonides, Alexandra; van Laarhoven, Serana; van der Staay, Franz J.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Early iron deficiency is associated with impaired (cognitive) development, the severity of which depends on the timing and duration of the under-supply of iron. To design effective treatment and prevention strategies for iron deficiency in humans, suited animal models are needed. In an earlier study (Antonides et al., 2015b) we separated 10 pairs of piglets from their mothers within a few days after birth and reared one sibling with artificial iron-deficient (ID) and the other with balanced control milk until weaning. ID piglets grew slower and showed poorer reference memory (RM) performance than their controls in a spatial holeboard task, even weeks after iron repletion. One putative intervening factor in that study was pre-weaning maternal deprivation. In an attempt to refine the piglet iron-deficiency model, we assessed whether piglets reared by sows, but withheld iron supplementation, can serve as animal model of iron deficiency. As sow milk is inherently ID, piglets normally receive a prophylactic iron injection. Ten pairs of piglets were housed with foster sows until weaning (4 weeks). One sibling per pair was randomly assigned to the control group (receiving iron dextran injections: 40 mg iron per kilogram body mass on days 3 and 10), the other to the ID group. From weaning, all pigs were fed a balanced commercial diet. Blood samples were taken in week 1, 3.5, 6, and 12. Pre-weaning blood iron values of ID piglets were lower than those of controls, but recovered to normal values after weaning. Hemoglobin of ID piglets did not reach anemic values. Hematocrit and hemoglobin of ID animals did not decrease, and serum iron even increased pre-weaning, suggesting that the piglets had access to an external source of iron, e.g., spilled feed or feces of the foster sows. Growth, and spatial memory assessed in the holeboard from 10 to 16 weeks of age, was unaffected in ID pigs. We conclude that sow-raised piglets are not a suitable model for iron-deficiency induced

  7. Safety and early onset of immunity with a novel European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine in young piglets.

    PubMed

    Piontkowski, Michael; Kroll, Jeremy; Kraft, Christian; Coll, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be difficult to manage in commercial settings. A novel type I PRRSV vaccinal strain (94881) was evaluated for safety and efficacy/onset of immunity (OOI) in piglets. In 2 experiments, groups of piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (IM) at approximately 14 d of age with a maximum-range commercial dose, an overdose, or a placebo in experiment 1 and either a minimum-range commercial dose or a placebo in experiment 2. The piglets in experiment 1 were evaluated for local and systemic reactions from days -2 through 14 after vaccination. The piglets in experiment 2 were challenged with a virulent heterologous type I PRRSV isolate 14 d after vaccination and observed once daily for general health from days -1 through 12 after vaccination and once daily for clinical signs associated with challenge from days 13 through 24 after vaccination. The average daily weight gain (ADWG) and the results of serologic and viremia testing were evaluated in experiments 1 and 2. Lung lesion scores and results of testing for PRRSV in lung tissue were evaluated in experiment 2. In experiment 1 the vaccine was shown to be safe, as there were no relevant differences between the vaccinated piglets and the piglets given a placebo. In experiment 2 the vaccine's efficacy, with an OOI of 14 d after vaccination, was established, as the vaccinated and challenged piglets exhibited significantly lower lung lesion scores, viremia, viral load in lung tissue, and total clinical sign scores, along with a significantly greater ADWG, compared with the placebo-vaccinated and challenged piglets. PMID:27127339

  8. The Effects of Using a Ramp and Elevator to Load and Unload Trailers on the Behavior and Physiology of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    McGlone, John; Sapkota, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Transport is a routine practice in the modern swine industry. Loading the pigs into trailers can be a novel and stressful experience for the animals. This study compared behaviors and physiological variables during and after loading using a ramp or elevator to determine which method is the least stressful to the pigs. Loading pigs by ramp appears to cause more stress than loading by elevator. Abstract Transport is an inevitable process in the modern U.S. swine industry. The loading process is a novel and potentially stressful experience. This study uses behavior, heart rate and leukocyte counts to compare stress one hour before, during and after loading via ramp or elevator. Piglets were held in a home pen (control (CON)), walked up and down an aisle (handled (HAN)), or walked to a truck and loaded via elevator (ELE) or ramp (RAM). Sitting, feeding and blood parameters did not show a significant treatment by time effect (p > 0.05). Standing behavior did not differ between CON and HAN piglets nor between RAM and ELE piglets (p > 0.05); however, CON and HAN piglets stood more than RAM and ELE piglets during treatment (p < 0.05). After treatment, drinking behavior was increased in RAM piglets (p < 0.05). The heart rate of ELE piglets decreased 6.3% after treatment; whereas the heart rate of RAM piglets remained elevated 2.4% (p < 0.05). In terms of heart rate, loading by elevator appears to be less stressful than loading by ramp. PMID:26480323

  9. Protein complex formation with heat shock protein 90 in chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Sandra L.; Slaughter, James C.; Kaplowitz, Mark R.; Zhang, Yongmei; Zeng, Heng; Frye, Naila Rashida; Aschner, Judy L.

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant interactions between heat shock protein (Hsp)90 and its client proteins could contribute to pulmonary hypertension. We tested the hypotheses that 1) the interaction between Hsp90 and its known client protein, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), is impaired in pulmonary resistance arteries (PRAs) from piglets with pulmonary hypertension caused by exposure to 3 or 10 days of hypoxia and 2) Hsp90 interacts with the prostanoid pathway proteins prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) and/or thromboxane synthase (TXAS). We also determined whether Hsp90 antagonism with geldanamycin alters the agonist-induced synthesis of prostacyclin and thromboxane or alters PRA responses to these prostaglandin metabolites. Compared with normoxic piglets, less eNOS coimmunoprecipitated with Hsp90 in PRAs from hypoxic piglets. Despite reduced Hsp90-eNOS interactions, dilation to ACh was enhanced in geldanamycin-treated PRAs from hypoxic, but not normoxic, piglets. In PRAs from all groups of piglets, PGIS and TXAS coimmunoprecipitated with Hsp90. Geldanamycin reduced the ACh-induced synthesis of prostacyclin and thromboxane and altered responses to the thromboxane mimetic U-46619 in PRAs from all groups. Although geldanamycin enhanced responses to prostacyclin in PRAs from both groups of hypoxic piglets, geldanamycin had no effect on prostacyclin responses in PRAs from either group of normoxic piglets. Our findings indicate that Hsp90 influences both prostanoid and eNOS signaling in the pulmonary circulation of newborn piglets and that the impact of pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 on these signaling pathways is altered during exposure to chronic hypoxia. PMID:20693398

  10. Effects of birth weight and maternal dietary fat source on the fatty acid profile of piglet tissue.

    PubMed

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; Missotten, J; Vlaeminck, B; De Smet, S

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects and possible interactions of birth weight and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation of the maternal diet on the fatty acid status of different tissues of newborn piglets. These effects are of interest as both parameters have been associated with pre-weaning mortality. Sows were fed a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed, echium or fish oil from day 73 of gestation. As fish oil becomes a scarce resource, linseed and echium oil were supplemented as sustainable alternatives, adding precursor fatty acids for DHA to the diet. At birth, the lightest and heaviest male piglet per litter were killed and samples from liver, brain and muscle were taken for fatty acid analysis. Piglets that died pre-weaning had lower birth weights than piglets surviving lactation (1.27±0.04 v. 1.55±0.02 kg; P<0.001), but no effect of diet on mortality was found. Lower DHA concentrations were observed in the brain of the lighter piglets compared with their heavier littermates (9.46±0.05 v. 9.63±0.04 g DHA/100 g fatty acids; P=0.008), suggesting that the higher incidence of pre-weaning mortality in low birth weight piglets may be related to their lower brain DHA status. Adding n-3 PUFA to the sow diet could not significantly reduce this difference in DHA status, although numerically the difference in the brain DHA concentration between the piglet weight groups was smaller when fish oil was included in the sow diet. Independent of birth weight, echium or linseed oil in the sow diet increased the DHA concentration of the piglet tissues to the same extent, but the concentrations were not as high as when fish oil was fed.

  11. Safety and early onset of immunity with a novel European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine in young piglets.

    PubMed

    Piontkowski, Michael; Kroll, Jeremy; Kraft, Christian; Coll, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be difficult to manage in commercial settings. A novel type I PRRSV vaccinal strain (94881) was evaluated for safety and efficacy/onset of immunity (OOI) in piglets. In 2 experiments, groups of piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (IM) at approximately 14 d of age with a maximum-range commercial dose, an overdose, or a placebo in experiment 1 and either a minimum-range commercial dose or a placebo in experiment 2. The piglets in experiment 1 were evaluated for local and systemic reactions from days -2 through 14 after vaccination. The piglets in experiment 2 were challenged with a virulent heterologous type I PRRSV isolate 14 d after vaccination and observed once daily for general health from days -1 through 12 after vaccination and once daily for clinical signs associated with challenge from days 13 through 24 after vaccination. The average daily weight gain (ADWG) and the results of serologic and viremia testing were evaluated in experiments 1 and 2. Lung lesion scores and results of testing for PRRSV in lung tissue were evaluated in experiment 2. In experiment 1 the vaccine was shown to be safe, as there were no relevant differences between the vaccinated piglets and the piglets given a placebo. In experiment 2 the vaccine's efficacy, with an OOI of 14 d after vaccination, was established, as the vaccinated and challenged piglets exhibited significantly lower lung lesion scores, viremia, viral load in lung tissue, and total clinical sign scores, along with a significantly greater ADWG, compared with the placebo-vaccinated and challenged piglets.

  12. Folate Deficiency during Early-Mid Pregnancy Affects the Skeletal Muscle Transcriptome of Piglets from a Reciprocal Cross

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Sun, Yanxiao; Feng, Qiang; Li, Guanglei; Wang, Meng; Cui, Xinxing; Kang, Li; Jiang, Yunliang

    2013-01-01

    Folate deficiency (FD) during pregnancy can cause fetal intrauterine growth restriction in pigs, of which the skeletal dysplasia is a major manifestation. Factors influencing muscle development are very important in the formation of porcine meat quality trait. However, the effect of folate deficiency on skeletal muscle development and its molecular mechanisms are unknown. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of maternal folate deficiency on the skeletal muscle transcriptome of piglets from a reciprocal cross, in which full-sibling Landrace (LR) and full-sibling Chinese local breed Laiwu (LW) pigs were used for reciprocal cross matings, and sows were fed either a folate deficient or a normal diet during early-mid gestation. In addition, the difference in the responsiveness of the piglets to folate deficiency during early-mid pregnancy between reciprocal cross groups was investigated. Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle samples were collected from newborn piglets and a 4 × 44K Agilent porcine oligo microarray was used for transcriptome analysis of porcine LD muscle. The results showed that folate deficiency during early-mid pregnancy affected piglet body weight, LD muscle fiber number and content of intramuscular triglyceride. The microarray results indicated that 3154 genes were differentially expressed between folate deficient and normal piglets from the LR♂ × LW♀ cross, and 3885 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the ones from the LW♂ × LR♀ cross. From functional analyses, sow folate deficiency affected almost all biological processes in the progeny. Lipid metabolism-related genes and associated metabolic pathways were regulated extensively by folate deficiency, especially in LR♂ × LW♀ cross piglets. Most of the genes that are regulated by folate deficiency in the LD muscle of piglets were different between LR♂ × LW♀ and LW♂ × LR♀ crosses, suggesting some epigenetic effects of FD exist in genes underlying myogenesis and

  13. Safety and early onset of immunity with a novel European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine in young piglets

    PubMed Central

    Piontkowski, Michael; Kroll, Jeremy; Kraft, Christian; Coll, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be difficult to manage in commercial settings. A novel type I PRRSV vaccinal strain (94881) was evaluated for safety and efficacy/onset of immunity (OOI) in piglets. In 2 experiments, groups of piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (IM) at approximately 14 d of age with a maximum-range commercial dose, an overdose, or a placebo in experiment 1 and either a minimum-range commercial dose or a placebo in experiment 2. The piglets in experiment 1 were evaluated for local and systemic reactions from days −2 through 14 after vaccination. The piglets in experiment 2 were challenged with a virulent heterologous type I PRRSV isolate 14 d after vaccination and observed once daily for general health from days −1 through 12 after vaccination and once daily for clinical signs associated with challenge from days 13 through 24 after vaccination. The average daily weight gain (ADWG) and the results of serologic and viremia testing were evaluated in experiments 1 and 2. Lung lesion scores and results of testing for PRRSV in lung tissue were evaluated in experiment 2. In experiment 1 the vaccine was shown to be safe, as there were no relevant differences between the vaccinated piglets and the piglets given a placebo. In experiment 2 the vaccine’s efficacy, with an OOI of 14 d after vaccination, was established, as the vaccinated and challenged piglets exhibited significantly lower lung lesion scores, viremia, viral load in lung tissue, and total clinical sign scores, along with a significantly greater ADWG, compared with the placebo-vaccinated and challenged piglets. PMID:27127339

  14. Pareidolia in infants.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masaharu; Mugitani, Ryoko

    2015-01-01

    Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants' orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area) during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth.

  15. Renal transplantation in infants.

    PubMed

    Jalanko, Hannu; Mattila, Ilkka; Holmberg, Christer

    2016-05-01

    Renal transplantation (RTx) has become an accepted mode of therapy in infants with severe renal failure. The major indications are structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, congenital nephrotic syndrome, polycystic diseases, and neonatal kidney injury. Assessment of these infants needs expertise and time as well as active treatment before RTx to ensure optimal growth and development, and to avoid complications that could lead to permanent neurological defects. RTx can be performed already in infants weighing around 5 kg, but most operations occur in infants with a weight of 10 kg or more. Perioperative management focuses on adequate perfusion of the allograft and avoidance of thrombotic and other surgical complications. Important long-term issues include rejections, infections, graft function, growth, bone health, metabolic problems, neurocognitive development, adherence to medication, pubertal maturation, and quality of life. The overall outcome of infant RTx has dramatically improved, with long-term patient and graft survivals of over 90 and 80 %, respectively. PMID:26115617

  16. The role of cosmetologists as health promoters in the prevention of infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Redmond, Michelle L; Struemph, Gretchen; Hunninghake, John; Nimeskern, Joy

    2014-04-01

    Safe sleep practices reduce an infant's risk for sudden infant death syndrome and sleep-related death. While rates of infants placed on their back to sleep are high, other safe sleep practices are less widely implemented. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility of using cosmetologists as health promoters for infant safe sleep to reduce infant mortality. In this descriptive study, a 27-item survey was mailed to the 405 licensed cosmetologists residing in the five zip codes with the highest infant mortality rates in the county. Of 149 completed surveys (36.8 %), 103 cosmetologists (69.1 %) were currently working. Most were comfortable (68.9 %) promoting health topics with their clients. Popular health-related topics currently discussed included: diet/weight control, healthy eating, and physical activity. Few (≤13 %) were interested in discussing infant mortality prevention or safe sleep promotion. Most respondents were either unsure (56 %) or did not feel infant mortality was a problem in their community (41 %); however, more than half (53 %) knew someone who had experienced an infant death. Cosmetologists were not highly interested in providing safe sleep education; however they engaged in diet and exercise talk already. Cosmetologists may be more appropriate for obesity-prevention programs to reduce infant mortality than safe sleep promotion. PMID:23979670

  17. The role of cosmetologists as health promoters in the prevention of infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Redmond, Michelle L; Struemph, Gretchen; Hunninghake, John; Nimeskern, Joy

    2014-04-01

    Safe sleep practices reduce an infant's risk for sudden infant death syndrome and sleep-related death. While rates of infants placed on their back to sleep are high, other safe sleep practices are less widely implemented. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility of using cosmetologists as health promoters for infant safe sleep to reduce infant mortality. In this descriptive study, a 27-item survey was mailed to the 405 licensed cosmetologists residing in the five zip codes with the highest infant mortality rates in the county. Of 149 completed surveys (36.8 %), 103 cosmetologists (69.1 %) were currently working. Most were comfortable (68.9 %) promoting health topics with their clients. Popular health-related topics currently discussed included: diet/weight control, healthy eating, and physical activity. Few (≤13 %) were interested in discussing infant mortality prevention or safe sleep promotion. Most respondents were either unsure (56 %) or did not feel infant mortality was a problem in their community (41 %); however, more than half (53 %) knew someone who had experienced an infant death. Cosmetologists were not highly interested in providing safe sleep education; however they engaged in diet and exercise talk already. Cosmetologists may be more appropriate for obesity-prevention programs to reduce infant mortality than safe sleep promotion.

  18. Activities for Infant Stimulation or Mother-Infant Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Earladeen

    Specific suggestions are offered for mother-infant activities, sequenced according to developmental levels, which foster the physical and mental development of the infant and the socio-emotional relationship between mother and infant. The activities are intended for use by professionals, paraprofessionals, and mother-teacher aides who work with…

  19. Effects of intrauterine growth retardation and maternal folic acid supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial function and gene expression in piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbo; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2012-10-01

    Piglets with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) or with normal birth weight (NBW) were selected to evaluate the effects of maternal folic acid supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial function and expression levels of genes involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) biogenesis and mitochondrial function. During gestation, primiparous Yorkshire sows were fed a Control diet (folic acid 1.3 mg/kg) or a folic acid-supplemented diet (folic acid 30 mg/kg) with 16 replicates per diet. During the 28-d lactation period, sows were fed a common diet. Compared with NBW piglets, hepatic ATP concentrations and mtDNA contents were decreased in IUGR piglets. Furthermore, IUGR piglets exhibited lower membrane potential and decreased oxygen consumption in liver mitochondria, but these parameters were not affected by maternal folic acid supplementation. Intrauterine growth retardation decreased mRNA expression abundance of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, mitochondrial transcription factor A, uncoupling protein 3, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and IV. Impaired antioxidant capacity characterised by increased malondialdehyde content and decreased manganese-superoxide dismutase activity was also observed in IUGR pigs. In IUGR piglets, however, nearly all of these parameters were normalised to the level of NBW piglets when the maternal diet was supplemented with folic acid during pregnancy. Hence, maternal folic acid supplementation was proved to be an effective way to reverse the changes in gene expressions in IUGR pigs, which provided a possible nutritional strategy to improve growth development of IUGR individuals.

  20. Characterization of the porcine CDKN3 gene as a potential candidate for congenital splay leg in piglets

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Congenital splay leg is a hereditary disease observed in newborn piglets. The etiology and pathogenetic mechanism of the disorder are still unknown. The gene for cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) was identified as a potential candidate gene in a differential display experiment. We analyzed the gene on sequence variations and compared its expression in M. biceps femoris between healthy and affected piglets. Comparative sequencing of the coding region of three healthy and four splay leg piglets revealed twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) resulting in six amino acid exchanges in the deduced sequences. However, all polymorphisms were observed in healthy as well as in splay leg piglets thus excluding structural differences of the gene as a cause of the disease. Besides full length transcripts, we found a variety of aberrantly transcribed cDNA in clones derived from M. biceps femoris of healthy as well as of splay leg piglets. All alternative transcripts coexist with normal cDNA. Expression analysis revealed a trend towards higher values in M. biceps femoris of splay leg piglets supporting the results obtained from a differential display. PMID:12927088

  1. Protective efficacy by various doses of Salmonella ghost vaccine candidate carrying enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbrial antigen against neonatal piglet colibacillosis.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-07-01

    Humoral immune responses and protective efficacy by various doses of Salmonella ghost cells carrying enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) fimbrial antigens for protection against piglet colibacillosis were studied. All groups were orally primed and boosted at 11 and 14 wk of pregnancy, respectively. Group A sows were inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and groups B, C, and D sows were immunized with 2 × 10(9), 2 × 10(10), and 2 × 10(11) ghost cells, respectively. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G, and colostrum IgG and IgA levels of groups C and D sows were significantly higher than those of group A sows. In addition, serum IgG and IgA levels in group C and D piglets were significantly increased compared to those of group A piglets. After challenge with wild-type ETEC, diarrhea and mortality were not observed in group C and D piglets, while diarrhea was observed in 88.9% and 58.8% of groups A and B piglets, respectively, and 16.7% mortality was observed in group A piglets. These findings indicate that oral immunization of sows with 2 × 10(10) or 10(11) ghost cells can effectively protect their offspring from colibacillosis.

  2. Cellular changes and cytokine expression in the ilea of gnotobiotic piglets resulting from peroral Salmonella typhimurium challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Trebichavský, I; Dlabac, V; Reháková, Z; Zahradnícková, M; Splíchal, I

    1997-01-01

    Two stable rough mutants of Salmonella spp. were studied as live peroral vaccines. The SF1591 mutant of S. typhimurium (Ra chemotype) protected germ-free piglets against subsequent infection with virulent smooth S. typhimurium LT2, whereas a deep-rough mutant of S. minnesota mR595 (Re chemotype) did not. We investigated cytokine and leukocyte profiles in the ilea of gnotobiotic piglets colonized for 1 week either with rough mutants alone or with rough mutants followed by S. typhimurium LT2. The ileal mucosae of piglets associated with strain SF1591 alone were not inflamed. Villi contained activated macrophages, and enterocytes expressed transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Subsequent infection of piglets with S. typhimurium LT2 resulted in immigration of alphabeta T cells and immunoglobulin A (IgA) response. In contrast, the ileal mucosae of piglets associated with strain mR595 alone expressed heat shock proteins and inflammatory cytokines but not TGF-beta. Acellular villi contained numerous gammadelta T cells but no alphabeta T cells. After subsequent challenge with the LT2 strain, most piglets died of sepsis. Intestinal mucosae contained IgG but no IgA. These findings suggest the importance of cytokine signals in the regulation of intestinal responses against Salmonella infection. PMID:9393822

  3. Infant Mortality and Hispanic Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table A. http://www. ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www. ...

  4. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table A. http://www. ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www. ...

  5. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... Share this: Page Content SIDS is the sudden death of an infant younger than 1 year of ...

  6. Cronobacter Illness and Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... many germs. Breastfeeding helps prevent many kinds of sicknesses among infants. Wash your hands carefully with soap ... do: Breastfeed. Breastfeeding helps prevent many kinds of sicknesses among infants. Almost no cases of Cronobacter sickness ...

  7. Postnatal piglet husbandry practices and well-being: the effects of alternative techniques delivered in combination.

    PubMed

    Marchant-Forde, J N; Lay, D C; McMunn, K A; Cheng, H W; Pajor, E A; Marchant-Forde, R M

    2014-03-01

    After birth, piglets undergo procedures likely to cause stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate stress responses evoked by 2 combinations (More Stressful [all a] or Less Stressful [all a] or More Stressful [all b]) of alternative methods for performing the following processing procedures: 1) teeth resection (TR) – [a] clip vs. [b] grind; 2) identification (ID) – [a] ear tag vs. [b] ear notch; 3)iron administration (FE) – [a] inject vs. [b] oral; 4) castration (CA) – [a] cords cut vs. [b] cords torn; 5) taildocking (TD) – [a] cold clip vs. [b] hot clip [corrected]. Ten litters of eight 2- and 3-d-old piglets were assigned to each procedure. Within each litter 1 male and 1 female piglet was assigned to 1 of 4 possible procedures: the 2 combinations, sham procedures, and sham procedures plus blood sampling. Blood was collected before processing and at 45 min, 4 h, 48 h, 1 wk, and 2 wk afterward and assayed for cortisol and β-endorphin concentrations. Procedures were videotaped and analyzed to evaluate the time taken to perform the procedure and the number of squeals, grunts, and escape attempts. Vocalizations were analyzed to determine mean and peak frequencies and duration. Piglets were weighed before the procedure and at 24 h, 48 h, 1 wk, and 2 wk afterward. Identification, tail docking, and castration lesions were scored on a 0 to 5 scale at 24 h, 1 wk, and 2 wk postprocedure. Both combinations of methods took longer to carry out than sham procedures and resulted in more squeals, grunts, and escape attempts during the procedures and higher peak frequencies of vocalizations compared with the control treatments (P < 0.05). Cortisol concentrations 45 min after processing were also higher in the 2 combination treatments than in the sham treatments (P < 0.05). Comparing between procedure treatments, the More Stressful combination of methods took longer to carry out, resulted in higher β-endorphin concentrations at 1 wk, had higher peak frequency of

  8. Effects of sodium butyrate on growth performance, haematological and immunological characteristics of weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Fang, C L; Sun, H; Wu, J; Niu, H H; Feng, J

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the effects of sodium butyrate (SB) on growth, haematological and immunological characteristics in weanling pigs. A total of 100 male piglets (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with a body weight of 8.0 ± 0.2 kg weaned at the age of 28 days were randomly assigned to two treatments with five replicates and 10 pigs per replicate. Piglets received a basal diet (control group) or diets supplemented with 1000 mg/kg SB. The feeding trial lasted for 21 days. The results showed that dietary SB significantly decreased (p < 0.05) diarrhoea incidence of weaned piglets, but did not affect (p > 0.05) the average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed to gain (F/G). Furthermore, piglets fed dietary SB had higher (p < 0.05) serum concentrations of glucose and triglycerides and lower (p < 0.05) serum concentrations of urea nitrogen, cortisol, D-lactic acid and diamine oxidase when compared with the control group. However, dietary SB did not affect concentrations of serum albumin, total protein, insulin and glucagon (p > 0.05). There were no significant (p > 0.05) treatment effects on serum IgA and IgM, whereas serum IgG concentration and IgA+ cell count in jejunum from pigs fed SB were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in those given the basal diet. In conclusion, the present study indicated that dietary SB significantly decreased diarrhoea incidence of weaned piglets and increased the efficiency of nitrogen utilization. Also, dietary SB could regulate and enhance the immune function of piglets by increasing the serum IgG concentration and IgA+ cell count in jejunum. Our results suggest that SB may reduce some of the adverse effects of weaning stress and play an important role in maintaining the integrity of intestinal mucosa.

  9. The olfactory bulb in newborn piglet is a reservoir of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lee J; Katzenelson, Alyssa; Koehler, Raymond C; Chang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) periventricular zone is an extension of the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) and thus is a source of neuroprogenitor cells and neural stem cells. While considerable information is available on the SVZ-OB neural stem cell (NSC)/neuroprogenitor cell (NPC) niche in rodents, less work has been done on this system in large animals. The newborn piglet is used as a preclinical translational model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, but information about the endogenous sources of NSCs/NPCs in piglet is needed to implement endogenous or autologous cell-based therapies in this model. We characterized NSC/NPC niches in piglet forebrain and OB-SVZ using western blotting, histological, and cell culture methods. Immunoblotting revealed nestin, a NSC/NPC marker, in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ in newborn piglet. Several progenitor or newborn neuron markers, including Dlx2, musashi, doublecortin, and polysialated neural cell adhesion molecule were also detected in OB-SVZ by immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of nestin, musashi, and doublecortin in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling showed that the forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ accumulate newly replicated cells. BrdU-positive cells were immunolabeled for astroglial, oligodendroglial, and neuronal markers. A lateral migratory pathway for newly born neuron migration to primary olfactory cortex was revealed by BrdU labeling and co-labeling for doublecortin and class III β tubulin. Isolated and cultured forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ cells from newborn piglet had the capacity to generate numerous neurospheres. Single cell clonal analysis of neurospheres revealed the capacity for self-renewal and multipotency. Neurosphere-derived cells differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes and were amenable to permanent genetic tagging with lentivirus encoding green fluorescent protein. We conclude that the piglet OB-SVZ is a reservoir of NSCs and NPCs suitable

  10. Diminished Reactivity of Postmature Human Infants to Sucrose Compared with Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of healthy 39-week-old infants, so-called term infants, and chronically stressed 42-week-old infants, so-called postmature infants, showed that sucrose was extremely effective in calming term infants but less effective in calming postmature infants. Results supported the hypothesis that sucrose engages an opioid system in infants. (BG)

  11. Crawling and walking infants elicit different verbal responses from mothers.

    PubMed

    Karasik, Lana B; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Adolph, Karen E

    2014-05-01

    We examined mothers' verbal responses to their crawling or walking infants' object sharing (i.e. bids). Fifty mothers and their 13-month-olds were observed for 1 hour at home. Infants bid from a stationary position or they bid after carrying the object to their mothers. Mothers responded with affirmations (e.g. 'thank you'), descriptions ('red box'), or action directives ('open it'). Infants' locomotor status and the form of their bids predicted how mothers responded. Mothers of walkers responded with action directives more often than mothers of crawlers. Notably, differences in the responses of mothers of walkers versus those of crawlers were explained by differences in bid form between the two groups of infants. Walkers were more likely to engage in moving bids than crawlers, who typically shared objects from stationary positions. When crawlers displayed moving bids, their mothers offered action directives just as often as did mothers of walkers. Findings illustrate developmental cascades, wherein Infants' locomotor status affects how infants share objects with mothers, which in turn shapes mothers' verbal responses.

  12. Crawling and walking infants elicit different verbal responses from mothers.

    PubMed

    Karasik, Lana B; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Adolph, Karen E

    2014-05-01

    We examined mothers' verbal responses to their crawling or walking infants' object sharing (i.e. bids). Fifty mothers and their 13-month-olds were observed for 1 hour at home. Infants bid from a stationary position or they bid after carrying the object to their mothers. Mothers responded with affirmations (e.g. 'thank you'), descriptions ('red box'), or action directives ('open it'). Infants' locomotor status and the form of their bids predicted how mothers responded. Mothers of walkers responded with action directives more often than mothers of crawlers. Notably, differences in the responses of mothers of walkers versus those of crawlers were explained by differences in bid form between the two groups of infants. Walkers were more likely to engage in moving bids than crawlers, who typically shared objects from stationary positions. When crawlers displayed moving bids, their mothers offered action directives just as often as did mothers of walkers. Findings illustrate developmental cascades, wherein Infants' locomotor status affects how infants share objects with mothers, which in turn shapes mothers' verbal responses. PMID:24314018

  13. Assessment of pain and agitation in critically ill infants.

    PubMed

    Ramelet, A S

    1999-09-01

    Critically ill infants are subjected to many painful experiences that, if inadequately treated, can have severe physiological and psychological consequences. Optimal management of pain relies on the adequacy of nurses' assessment; this, however, is complicated by another common condition, agitation. A multidimensional assessment is therefore necessary to adequately identify pain and agitation. The aim of this descriptive study was to identify the cues that nurses caring for critically ill infants use to assess pain and agitation. A questionnaire, developed from the literature, was distributed to all registered nurses (85) working in the neonatal and paediatric intensive care units of an Australian teaching hospital. Questionnaires were completed by 41 nurses (a 57 per cent response rate). Results revealed that, except for diagnosis, there were no significant differences between the cues participants used to assess pain and those to assess agitation. Nurses used numerous cues from various sources: most importantly, their own judgement (99 per cent); the parents' judgement (90 per cent); the infant's environment; documentation (78 per cent), and the infant's cues (70 per cent). These findings demonstrate the relevance of the nurse's role in assessment of pain and agitation in critically ill infants. Nurses used cues specific to the critically ill rather than the less sick infant. Results of this study also show the difficulty of differentiating between pain and agitation. Further research on ways of distinguishing between the construct of pain and agitation needs to be undertaken.

  14. Infant Feeding: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Christine Marie, Comp.; Kumer, Bonnie Lee, Comp.

    Intended for parents, health professionals and allied health workers, and others involved in caring for infants and young children, this annotated bibliography brings together in one selective listing a review of over 700 current publications related to infant feeding. Reflecting current knowledge in infant feeding, the bibliography has as its…

  15. Generalized Vocal Imitation in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulson, Claire L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study of three infants whose parents presented vocal models for the infants to imitate. Parents presented vocal models both with and without social praise. Infants showed systematic increases in matching after praise was introduced. Nonmatching vocalizations did not increase with introduction of praise. Findings demonstrate generalized…

  16. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

  17. Infant Care Suggestions for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... fragile infants. They can help parents learn the skills and gain confidence necessary to care for their fragile. The infant who has osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) has some special characteristics. The infant may have an unusually soft skull, startle very easily, have bone deformity and ...

  18. Tinea Capitis in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a reasonably common infection among the pediatric population; however, it is still a relatively rare entity among infants less than one year of age. As such, a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis among infants and an appropriate diagnostic work up should be employed in any case where a dermatophyte infection is suspected. Several methods are available for diagnosis. In addition, proper identification of the specific dermatophyte genera involved should be considered as treatment options may be altered based on the causative pathogen identified. PMID:22468173

  19. Infant mortality and related risk factors among Asian Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, H W; Chávez, G F; Giannoni, P P; Shah, R S

    1994-01-01

    To examine differences in perinatal health among nine Asian ethnic subgroups, a descriptive epidemiological study was conducted using linked birth/infant death certificates for 1982 to 1987. When compared with Whites, Asians had a lower proportion of young mothers, unmarried mothers, and women who received first trimester prenatal care; a higher proportion of foreign-born mothers; and a different birthweight distribution. A great deal of heterogeneity was found in risk factors and infant mortality rates among the various Asian ethnic subgroups. Paradoxically, although Asian ethnic subgroups had a higher perinatal risk profile, they had more favorable birth outcomes than did Whites. PMID:8092381

  20. Effect of benzoic acid on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, gastrointestinal microflora and parameters of microbial metabolism in piglets.

    PubMed

    Kluge, H; Broz, J; Eder, K

    2006-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of benzoic acid on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and gastrointestinal microflora of piglets, we conducted a performance experiment and a separate balance study. The performance experiment involved four different dietary treatments: (1) basal diet (negative control); (2) basal diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 g/kg; (3) basal diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg; (4) basal diet supplemented with potassium diformate at 12 g/kg. Each dietary treatment was assigned to nine replicate groups, each consisting of two piglets. Live weight, daily weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were monitored as performance parameters over a 35-day period. Supplementation of the diet with benzoic acid resulted in a dose-dependent increase in feed intake and body weight gain and an improved feed conversion ratio. Piglets fed the diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg outperformed the control piglets in mean feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio by 9%, 15% and 6% respectively. Growth performance of the piglets fed the diet with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg was similar to that of piglets fed the diet supplemented with potassium diformate. In the balance experiment three groups of six piglets each were fed either a control diet or diets supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 or 10 g/kg respectively. Benzoic acid did not significantly affect nutrient digestibility but increased nitrogen retention. Piglets fed the diets supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 or 10 g/kg retained 5% and 6% more nitrogen, respectively, than control piglets. Supplementation of benzoic acid did not influence the pH value or the concentration of ammonia in the gastrointestinal tract but reduced the number of bacteria in the digesta. In the stomach the number of total aerobic, total anaerobic, lactic acid forming and gram-negative bacteria was reduced; in the duodenum the presence of benzoic acid reduced

  1. The effect of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ab,ac on early-weaned piglets: a gene expression study.

    PubMed

    Schroyen, M; Goddeeris, B M; Stinckens, A; Verhelst, R; Janssens, S; Cox, E; Georges, M; Niewold, T; Buys, N

    2013-03-15

    Diarrhoea in neonatal and early-weaned piglets due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-F4 (ETEC-F4) is an important problem in the pig farming industry. There is substantial evidence for a genetic basis for susceptibility to ETEC-F4 since not all pigs suffer from diarrhoea after an ETEC-F4 infection. A region on SSC13 has been found to be in close linkage to the susceptibility of piglets for ETEC-F4ab,ac. Potential candidate genes on SSC13 have been examined and although some polymorphisms were found to be in linkage disequilibrium with the phenotype, the causative mutation has not yet been found. In this study we are looking at the expression of porcine genes in relation to ETEC-F4ab,ac. With the aid of the Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Array we were able to find differentially expressed genes between ETEC-F4ab,ac receptor positive (Fab,acR(+)) piglets without diarrhoea and F4ab,acR(+) piglets with diarrhoea or F4ab,acR(-) animals. Since the susceptibility to ETEC-F4ab,ac was described as a Mendelian trait, it is not so surprisingly that only two differentially expressed genes, transferrin receptor (TFRC) and trefoil factor 1 (TFF1), came out of the analysis. Although both genes could pass for functional candidate genes only TFRC also mapped to the region on SSC13 associated with susceptibility for ETEC-F4, which makes TFRC a positional functional candidate gene. Validation by qRT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of TFRC and TFF1. In piglets without diarrhoea, the expression of both genes was higher in F4ab,acR(+) than in F4ab,acR(-) piglets. Similarly, TFRC and TFF1 expression in F4ab,acR(+) piglets without diarrhoea was also higher than in F4ab,acR(+) piglets with diarrhoea. Consequently, although both genes might not play a role as receptor for F4 fimbriae, they could be of great importance during an ETEC-F4 outbreak. An upregulation of TFRC can be a consequence of the piglets ability to raise an effective immune response. An elevation of TFF1, a

  2. Influence of dietary electrolyte balance on feed preference and growth performance of postweaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Pino, S A; Solà-Oriol, D; Davin, R; Manzanilla, E G; Pérez, J F

    2015-06-01

    A total of 672 male and female piglets (21 d postweaning; approximately 13 kg BW) were selected to be used in 3 different experiments to assess the influence of dietary electrolyte balance (dEB; Na + K - Cl, in mEq/kg of diet) on feed preference and growth performance. In Exp. 1, piglets were fed 4 isoenergetic diets differing in dEB level: 16, 133, 152, and 269 mEq/kg diets. Changes on dEB were obtained by changing the levels of sodium and chloride with calcium chloride, calcium carbonate, and sodium bicarbonate. Piglets fed the 16 and 133 mEq/kg diets achieved a greater ADG (P < 0.04), BW (P < 0.04), and apparent total-tract digestibility of CP and Zn (P < 0.05) than did piglets fed the 269 mEq/kg diet. The 16 mEq/kg level also reduced blood total CO (P < 0.01), bicarbonate (P < 0.01), and base excess (P < 0.02) concentrations compared with the rest of the dietary treatments. Three diets differing in dEB were designed for Exp. 2 and 3: -16, 151, and 388 mEq/kg diets. In Exp. 2, greater ADFI (P = 0.03), BW (P = 0.02), ADG (P < 0.001), and G:F (P < 0.01) were observed for piglets fed the -16 mEq/kg diet than those fed the 388 mEq/kg diet. Subsequently, their short-term preference for these diets was assessed by using a 2-d choice-test protocol (30 min). Piglets preferred (P < 0.001) the 388 mEq/kg diet to the -16 mEq/kg diet, independently of the dietary treatment they received before. Pigs also preferred (P < 0.001) the 151 mEq/kg diet when compared with the -16 mEq/kg diet. Experiment 3 assessed the long-term preference and short-term consumption of the -16 and 388 mEq/kg diets. Similar to Exp. 2, animals showed a greater (P < 0.001) intake of the 388 mEq/kg diet than they did of the -16 mEq/kg diet during both the preference (14 d) and 1-feeder (2 h) tests conducted. Results show that low rather than high dEB levels optimize growth performance of piglets. When they have the opportunity to choose, piglets are unable to select the diet that optimizes their

  3. Effect of ketoprofen on pre-weaning piglet mortality on commercial farms.

    PubMed

    Homedes, Josep; Salichs, Marta; Sabaté, David; Sust, Mariano; Fabre, Ramon

    2014-09-01

    The effect of ketoprofen on pre-weaning piglet mortality was evaluated in a large-scale study on commercial farms. Sows (n= 1486) from 15 farms were included. Half of the sows received 3 mg/kg ketoprofen in a single intramuscular administration within 12 h after farrowing. The other half remained untreated. Pre-weaning mortality was lower in the ketoprofen-treated group than in the control group (8.43% vs. 10.24%, respectively; P= 0.010). The major impact of ketoprofen on mortality was seen between days 2 and 7 postpartum (mortality rates of 2.75% vs. 4.02% for treated and control groups, respectively; P= 0.001). In addition, ketoprofen treatment was associated with a higher number of piglets weaned per litter than when no treatment was given (10.0 vs. 9.84, respectively; P= 0.012).

  4. Effects of dietary supplementation with a protease on the apparent ileal digestibility of the weaned piglet.

    PubMed

    Guggenbuhl, P; Waché, Y; Wilson, J W

    2012-12-01

    The effects of an acid-stable protease (RONOZYME ProAct) supplemented to a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-based diet on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients were evaluated in 120 weaned piglets (28 d old; 8.17 ± 0.90 kg). Pigs were divided into 2 equal groups and had free access to mash diet containing 0.4% Cr(2)O(3) as indigestible marker [basal diet (Std)] or this diet supplemented with RONOZYME ProAct at 15,000 PROT [the amount of enzyme that releases 1 μmol of pnitroaniline from 1 μM of substrate (Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroaniline) per min at pH 9.0 and 37°C)/kg (ProA). The ileal content was collected for the digestibility determination after euthanasia of 35 piglets of each group after 14 d of study and 25 piglets of each group after 29 d. Compared to group Std, AID of CP was increased (P < 0.05) after 29 d of treatment in group ProA. The AID of the indispensable AA, Met + Cys, and branched-chain AA was increased (P < 0.05) at the end of the study. In the protease supplemented pigs, the AID of the individual AA was not improved after 14 d of treatment whereas it was increased (P < 0.05) at the end of the experiment for Arg, Asp + Asn, Glu + Gln, His, Ile, Lys, Phe, Thr, Tyr ,and Val. In conclusion, dietary protease supplementation increased AID of AA in piglets.

  5. Early-Life Environmental Variation Affects Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Development in New-Born Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling-li; Vastenhouw, Stéphanie A.; Heilig, Hans G. H. J.; Smidt, Hauke; Rebel, Johanna M. J.; Smits, Mari A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early-life environmental variation affects gut microbial colonization and immune competence development; however, the timing and additional specifics of these processes are unknown. The impact of early-life environmental variations, as experienced under real life circumstances, on gut microbial colonization and immune development has not been studied extensively so far. We designed a study to investigate environmental variation, experienced early after birth, to gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate effects of early-life environmental changes, the piglets of 16 piglet litters were divided into 3 groups per litter and experimentally treated on day 4 after birth. During the course of the experiment, the piglets were kept with their mother sow. Group 1 was not treated, group 2 was treated with an antibiotic, and group 3 was treated with an antibiotic and simultaneously exposed to several routine, but stressful management procedures, including docking, clipping and weighing. Thereafter, treatment effects were measured at day 8 after birth in 16 piglets per treatment group by community-scale analysis of gut microbiota and genome-wide intestinal transcriptome profiling. We observed that the applied antibiotic treatment affected the composition and diversity of gut microbiota and reduced the expression of a large number of immune-related processes. The effect of management procedures on top of the use of an antibiotic was limited. Conclusions/Significance We provide direct evidence that different early-life conditions, specifically focusing on antibiotic treatment and exposure to stress, affect gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. This reinforces the notion that the early phase of life is critical for intestinal immune development, also under regular production circumstances. PMID:24941112

  6. The healing of wounds in the skin of piglets treated with benzoyl peroxide.

    PubMed

    Colman, G J; Roenigk, H H

    1978-09-01

    Clinical and microscopic changes in the healing of dermal wounds in the skin of piglets that were treated with a 20% benzoyl peroxide lotion were compared with untreated wounds in the same animal. The wounds treated with benzoyl peroxide showed more rapid healing clinically, and a very pronounced foreign-body giant-cell infiltrate and very vascular granulation tissue microscopically. It may be that benzoyl peroxide promotes wound healing by attracting macrophages and histiocytes into the wound.

  7. Prolonged hypoxia augments l-citrulline transport by System A in the newborn piglet pulmonary circulation

    PubMed Central

    Fike, Candice D.; Sidoryk-Wegrzynowicz, Marta; Aschner, Michael; Summar, Marshall; Prince, Lawrence S.; Cunningham, Gary; Kaplowitz, Mark; Zhang, Yongmei; Aschner, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) express the enzymes needed for generation of l-arginine from intracellular l-citrulline but do not express the enzymes needed for de novo l-citrulline synthesis. Hence, l-citrulline levels in PAECs are dependent on l-citrulline transport. Once generated, l-arginine can be converted to l-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO) by the enzyme NO synthase. We sought to determine whether hypoxia, a condition aetiologically linked to pulmonary hypertension, alters the transport of l-citrulline and the expression of the sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNATs) in PAECs from newborn piglets. Methods and results PAECs isolated from newborn piglets were cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and used to measure SNAT1, 2, 3, and 5 protein expression and 14C-l-citrulline uptake. SNAT1 protein expression was increased, while SNAT2, SNAT3, and SNAT5 expression was unaltered in hypoxic PAECs. 14C-l-citrulline uptake was increased in hypoxic PAECs. Studies with inhibitors of System A (SNAT1/2) and System N (SNAT3/5) revealed that the increased 14C-l-citrulline uptake was largely due to System A-mediated transport. Additional studies were performed to evaluate SNAT protein expression and l-citrulline levels in lungs of piglets with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and comparable age controls. Lungs from piglets raised in chronic hypoxia exhibited greater SNAT1 expression and higher l-citrulline levels than lungs from controls. Conclusion Increased SNAT1 expression and the concomitant enhanced ability to transport l-citrulline in PAECs could represent an important regulatory mechanism to counteract NO signalling impairments known to occur during the development of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborns. PMID:22673370

  8. Pathological, Immunohistochemical and Molecular Findings Associated with Senecavirus A-Induced Lesions in Neonatal Piglets.

    PubMed

    Leme, R A; Oliveira, T E S; Alfieri, A F; Headley, S A; Alfieri, A A

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the cause of the mortality of piglets with cutaneous, enteric and neurological disorders from seven pig farms located in different geographical regions of Brazil. Twelve 1- to 5-day-old piglets were submitted for pathological evaluation. The principal gross findings included faint rib impressions on the pleural surface of the lungs (n = 9), diphtheritic glossitis (n = 6) and ulcerative lesions at the coronary band (n = 5). Histopathology revealed interstitial pneumonia (n = 12), myocarditis (n = 6), diphtheritic glossitis (n = 3), encephalitis (n = 3) and atrophy of intestinal villi with vacuolation of the superficial epithelial cells (n = 6). Immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies specific for Senecavirus A (SenV-A) demonstrated immunoreactivity of the choroid plexus of the cerebrum, degenerate epithelium of ulcerative lesions of the tongue, the urothelium of the kidney and urinary bladder, and the superficial cells of the intestine. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR and/or quantitative PCR assays were used to investigate viral agents associated with vesicular and/or enteric diseases. Antigens and RNA of SenV-A were identified in multiple tissues of all piglets; molecular assays for all other viruses evaluated yielded negative results. These findings confirm the participation of SenV-A in the multiple lesions observed in these piglets. Several theories are proposed: SenV-A may be eliminated via the urinary system, neurological disease may occur due to initial invasion of choroid plexus, enteric disease may be related to atrophy and fusion of villi of the small intestine, and vertical transmission could be a form of dissemination. PMID:27473601

  9. Longitudinal serological and virological study on porcine torovirus (PToV) in piglets from Spanish farms.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, J; Grau-Roma, L; Jiménez, M; Segalés, J; Rodríguez, D

    2010-12-15

    A study was performed to evaluate porcine torovirus (PToV) seroprevalence and infection in three multi-site farms from the North-eastern region of Spain. Serum samples from 120 piglets and faecal samples from 36 piglets were longitudinally collected at 1, 3, 7, 11 and 15 weeks of age. Serum samples from their dams (n=30) were also taken 1-week post-farrowing. PToV antibodies in serum were monitored by ELISA, while viral infection was assessed by real-time RT-PCR in faeces. A high seroprevalence (about 100%) was observed in animals older than 11 weeks and in adult sows. Moreover, all 1-week-old animals were seropositive, indicating maternal antibody transference through colostrum. The antibody titers declined to close to or below the ELISA cut-off value by the age of weaning (3 weeks of age). Development of a significant antibody response to PToV occurred before 7 weeks of age in about 50% of piglets, and the remaining animals developed the response by weeks 11 or 15. These results indicate that PToV infection occurred soon after weaning. Although the prevalence of infection in suckling piglets varied among the studied farms, PToV prevalences in 7 and 11-week-old pigs were between 50-67% and 58-75%, respectively, in all farms. Sequencing results indicated that more than one PToV strains were circulating in the studied farms. Present data suggest that PToV was endemic on the studied farms, and provide new insights on the epidemiology of PToV.

  10. Effects of oregano on performance and immunmodulating factors in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Stelter, Katrin; Frahm, Jana; Paulsen, Jana; Berk, Andreas; Kleinwächter, Maik; Selmar, Dirk; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Many health effects can be attributed to the Mediterranean herb oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and several studies demonstrated the improving effect on performance, changes in blood count, antibacterial, antifungal and immunmodulating abilities. The majority of these investigations were carried out with processed essential oil, while whole plant material was only used in a few studies. Thus, the aim of the present experiment was to test the effect of increasing proportions of dried oregano in piglet feed on health and performance, with a special focus on immune modulation. A total of 80 male castrated weaned piglets (body weight [BW] 7.9 kg ± 1.0 kg) were used in a feeding experiment lasting 5 weeks. They were assigned to 4 experimental groups: a control diet, and three diets with an oregano supplementation at 2 g, 4 g and 8 g per kg feed, respectively, corresponding to 23.5 mg, 46.9 mg and 93.9 mg carvacrol/kg DM. After 3 weeks, half of each group was challenged with 5 µg lipopolysaccharides (LPS) per kg BW. Blood samples were collected 2 h after LPS stimulation and analysed for T-cell phenotypes, granulocyte activity, clinical-chemistry as well as white and red blood count. The results indicate no effects of oregano on performance. In contrast, oregano altered the lymphocyte proportion and the ratio of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells as well as the triglyceride concentration in the serum of non-stimulated and in LPS-stimulated piglets. In conclusion, whole plant supplementation of oregano to piglet feed altered immune-related parameters, but did not modulate the acute inflammatory response induced by LPS stimulation.

  11. Parent-Infant Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnley, Lucile; Myre, Gloria

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the development and philosophy of parent-infant education programs provided by Washington State community colleges and vocational technical schools consisting of parent-participation classes and cooperative preschools for 10,000 families. Describes program at Seattle Community College. (BF/JH)

  12. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  13. Infant Group Care Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.

    Children under 3 years of age who are in group care face special health risks. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control indicate the existence of a causal relationship between infant group day care and certain diseases that are spread through contact at day care centers. Children in group care who are still in diapers are especially vulnerable to…

  14. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  15. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... to cow's milk may also be allergic to soy milk. Soy-based formulas should be used for infants with galactosemia , a rare condition. These formulas can also be used ... have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or ...

  16. Pareidolia in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masaharu; Mugitani, Ryoko

    2015-01-01

    Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants’ orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area) during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth. PMID:25689630

  17. Ptosis - infants and children

    MedlinePlus

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  18. Reading with an Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes that parents' reading to infants fosters interest in literature and provides foundation for basic reading skills. Titles of musical books, point-and-say books, touch and smell books, cardboard books, cloth books, plastic books, and early stories are provided. (Author/DB)

  19. Infant Vocal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hursh, Daniel E.

    In Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior, three categories of environmental control over instances of verbal behavior appear to be relevant to the study of infant vocal development: the mand, the tact, and the echoic categories. Procedures used in the remediation of language deficiencies and procedures found in work in the area of language…

  20. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Berger, R.; Söder, S.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation. PMID:25650134

  1. [Infants and Toddlers].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue contains four articles which focus on the development of normal and handicapped infants in various settings. "The Baby's World," by Lois Barclay Murphy and Colleen T. Small, emphasizes experiences of sensation and discovery in the first three years of life, noting the role of caregivers and the cultural context. "The…

  2. Infant Phonotactic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatte, Victoria Anne

    2011-01-01

    For the past several decades, researchers have been investigating the stages infants go through on their way to acquiring their native language. Research into the question of the order in which, and time when, various facets of phonology are acquired has resulted in a basic timeline of development. Exploration of a second question, namely what…

  3. Infant Development: Recent Advances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

    Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced…

  4. The Infant Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the usefulness of the Infant Rating Scale (IRS) in the early identification of learning difficulties. Thirteen hundred five-year-olds were rated by their teachers after one term in school. The structure of the IRS, its reliability, and predictive validity are examined. (Author/SJL)

  5. Improving Infant Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Vince L.

    This speech sketches a picture of post-natal health care in the United States, circa 1979. Between 1970 and 1976, post-natal infant deaths in the first week after birth dropped 32%. During the same period, the post-neonatal decline was just 12%. Statistics are presented which highlight areas of concern. Variation across states, high incidence in…

  6. Behavioral Contrast in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagen, Jeffrey W.

    This study used the behavioral contrast paradigm to assess the excitatory and inhibitory capabilities of young infants. Behavioral contrast is described as the phenomenon whereby the rates of responding in the presence of two stimuli, both of which were previously associated with reinforcement, change in opposite directions when only one of them…

  7. [Infant acute leukemia].

    PubMed

    Brethon, Benoît; Cavé, Hélène; Fahd, Mony; Baruchel, André

    2016-03-01

    If acute leukemia is the most frequent cancer in childhood (33%), it remains a very rare diagnosis in infants less than one year old, e.g. less than 5% of cases. At this age, the frequency of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (almost all of B-lineage) is quite similar to the one of myeloblastic forms (AML). Infant leukemia frequently presents with high hyperleucocytosis, major tumoral burden and numerous extra-hematological features, especially in central nervous system and skin. Whatever the lineage, the leukemic cell is often very immature cytologically and immunologically. Rearrangements of the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene, located on band 11q23, are the hallmark of these immature leukemias and confer a particular resistance to conventional approaches, corticosteroids and chemotherapy. The immaturity of infants less than 1-year-old is associated to a decrease of the tolerable dose-intensity of some drugs (anthracyclines, alkylating agents) or asks questions about some procedures like radiotherapy or high dose conditioning regimen, responsible of inacceptable acute and late toxicities. The high level of severe infectious diseases and other high-grade side effects limits also the capacity to cure these infants. The survival of infants less than 1-year-old with AML is only 50% but similar to older children. On the other hand, survival of those with ALL is the same, then quite limited comparing the 80% survival in children over one year. Allogeneic stem cell transplantations are indicated in high-risk subgroups of infant ALL (age below 6 months, high hyperleucocytosis >300.10(9)/L, MLL-rearrangement, initial poor prednisone response). However, morbidity and mortality remain very important and these approaches cannot be extended to all cases. During the neonatal period, the dismal prognosis linked to the high number of primary failures or very early relapses and uncertainties about the late toxicities question physicians about ethics. It is an emergency to

  8. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual.

  9. Immediate Remote Ischemic Postconditioning Reduces Brain Nitrotyrosine Formation in a Piglet Asphyxia Model

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Rudge, Brogan; Hughes, Michael P.; Rahim, Ahad A.; Hristova, Mariya; Robertson, Nicola J.

    2016-01-01

    Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) is a promising therapeutic intervention that could be administered as an alternative to cooling in cases of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). In the current study we hypothesized that RIPostC in the piglet model of birth asphyxia confers protection by reducing nitrosative stress and subsequent nitrotyrosine formation, as well as having an effect on glial immunoreactivity. Postnatal day 1 (P1) piglets underwent HI brain injury and were randomised to HI (control) or HI + RIPostC. Immunohistochemistry assessment 48 hours after HI revealed a significant decrease in brain nitrotyrosine deposits in the RIPostC-treated group (p = 0.02). This was accompanied by a significant increase in eNOS expression (p < 0.0001) and decrease in iNOS (p = 0.010), with no alteration in nNOS activity. Interestingly, RIPostC treatment was associated with a significant increase in GFAP (p = 0.002) and IBA1 (p = 0.006), markers of astroglial and microglial activity, respectively. The current study demonstrates a beneficial effect of RIPostC therapy in the preclinical piglet model of neonatal asphyxia, which appears to be mediated by modulation of nitrosative stress, despite glial activation. PMID:27379176

  10. Oral administration of protease inhibits enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli receptor activity in piglet small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Mynott, T L; Luke, R K; Chandler, D S

    1996-01-01

    The virulence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is attributed to their ability to adhere via fimbrial adhesins to specific receptors located on the intestinal mucosa. A novel approach to preventing ETEC induced diarrhoea would be to prevent attachment of ETEC to intestine by proteolytically modifying the receptor attachment sites. This study aimed to examine the effect of bromelain, a proteolytic extract obtained from pineapple stems, on ETEC receptor activity in porcine small intestine. Bromelain was administered orally to piglets and K88+ ETEC attachment to small intestine was measured at 50 cm intervals using an enzyme immunoassay. K88+ ETEC attachment to intestinal sections that were not treated with bromelain varied appreciably between sampling sites. Variability in receptor activity along the intestinal surface is though to be caused by the localised effects of endogenous proteases. Oral administration of exogenous protease inhibited K88+ ETEC attachment to pig small intestine in a dose dependent manner (p < 0.05). Attachment of K88+ ETEC was negligible after treatment, resembling the levels of attachment of K88 to piglets of the genetically determined non-adhesive phenotype, which are resistant to K88+ ETEC infection. Serum biochemical analysis and histopathological examination of treated piglets showed no adverse effects of the bromelain treatment. It is concluded that administration of bromelain can inhibit ETEC receptor activity in vivo and may therefore be useful for prevention of K88+ ETEC induced diarrhoea. PMID:8566855

  11. Proteome analysis for the global proteins in the jejunum tissues of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli -infected piglets

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Chen, Shuai; Duan, Jielin; Liu, Gang; Li, Tiejun; Li, Nengzhang; Peng, Yuanyi; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in humans and livestock. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with multidimensional liquid chromatography (LC) and MS analysis was used for screening the differentially expressed proteins in piglet jejunum after ETEC infection. Totally 1,897 proteins were identified with quantitative information in piglet jejunum. We identified 92 differentially expressed proteins in ETEC-induced diarrhea, of which 30 were up regulated and 62 down regulated. Most of the differentially expressed proteins were involved in intestinal function of binding, metabolic process, catalytic activity and immune responses. The inhibition of intestinal immune responses in the jejunum in ETEC-induced diarrhea was also validated by immunobloting and RT-PCR. Our study is the first attempt to analyze the protein profile of ETEC-infected piglets by quantitative proteomics, and our findings could provide valuable information with respect to better understanding the host response to ETEC infection. PMID:27157636

  12. Improving the environment for weaned piglets using polypropylene fabrics above the animals in cold periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolz, Noé; Babot, Daniel; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Forcada, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of polypropylene fabrics in weaned pig facilities (5-10 weeks of age) during the winter period to improve thermal environment and energy saving for heating. Two experiments were conducted to validate the effects of fabrics (F) compared to control (C) in three 2-week periods using natural ventilation (assay 1, 2013) and forced ventilation (assay 2, 2014). Air temperature was greater in F than in C compartments in both years, particularly during the first 2-week periods (2 °C of mean difference). Natural ventilation was not enough to maintain relative humidity levels below 70 % at the end of the postweaning period (9-10 weeks of age) in both groups (F and C), whereas forced ventilation allowed controlling daily mean relative humidity levels <60 %. About 12-26 % of the radiant heat was transmitted through the fabrics cover, depending on the wavelength. There were no differences on growth performance of piglets in the two compartments in both years. The use of polypropylene fabrics was associated with a significant electric energy saving for heating during the first (data available only in 2014) and second 2-week period in both years. In conclusion, polypropylene fabrics may be an interesting tool to provide optimal environmental conditions for weaned piglets in winter, especially during the two first weeks after weaning. Their transmittance properties allow trapping infrared emission produced by the piglets and heating, avoiding heat losses through the roof, and therefore saving heating energy.

  13. Effects of dietary fibre source on microbiota composition in the large intestine of suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingli; Mu, Chunlong; He, Xiangyu; Su, Yong; Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Jing; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary fibre sources on the gut microbiota in suckling piglets, and to test the hypothesis that a moderate increase of dietary fibre may affect the gut microbiota during the suckling period. Suckling piglets were fed different fibre-containing diets or a control diet from postnatal day 7 to 22. Digesta samples from cecum, proximal colon and distal colon were used for Pig Intestinal Tract Chip analysis. The data showed that the effects of fibre-containing diet on the gut microbiota differed in the fibre source and gut location. The alfalfa diet increased Clostridium cluster XIVb and Sporobacter termitidis in the cecum compared to the pure cellulose diet. Compared to the control diet, the alfalfa diet also increased Coprococcus eutactus in the distal colon, while the pure cellulose diet decreased Eubacterium pyruvativorans in the cecum. The pure cellulose diet increased Prevotella ruminicola compared to the wheat bran diet. Interestingly, the alfalfa group had the lowest abundance of the potential pathogen Streptococcus suis in the cecum and distal colon. These results indicated that a moderate increase in dietary fibres affected the microbial composition in suckling piglets, and that the alfalfa inclusion produced some beneficial effects on the microbial communities. PMID:27231242

  14. Protection of agammaglobulinemic piglets from porcine rotavirus infection by antibody against simian rotavirus SA-11.

    PubMed Central

    Lecce, J G; Leary, H L; Clarke, D A; Batema, R P

    1991-01-01

    Rotavirus, a double-stranded RNA virus, has been implicated as a diarrhea-provoking agent in a variety of animal species. Several previous reports have shown that immunization with a single serotype may result in increased in vitro neutralization titers against serotypes not represented in the immunogen. This study was undertaken to determine whether antibody from cows immunized against simian rotavirus strain SA-11 (which is alien to pigs) could protect neonatal piglets from infection with a North Carolina isolate of porcine rotavirus. Accordingly, cows were immunized with SA-11 and an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-rich fraction was isolated from their colostrum. An IgG-rich fraction was similarly isolated from colostrum of nonimmunized cows. At equal concentrations, IgG from SA-11-immunized cows had two- to fourfold higher neutralization titers to seven of eight test strains of rotavirus, including SA-11 (serotype 3); human rotavirus serotypes 1, 3, and 4; North Carolina porcine rotavirus (serotype undetermined); Ohio State porcine rotavirus (serotype 5); and bovine rotavirus (serotype 6). The IgG-rich fractions were fed as dietary supplements to agammaglobulinemic piglets infected with the North Carolina porcine rotavirus. IgG from the SA-11-immunized cows was about eightfold more effective in protecting piglets than was IgG from nonimmunized cows. PMID:1653265

  15. Changes induced in newborn piglets by the trichothecene toxin T-2.

    PubMed

    Ványi, A; Glávits, R; Gajdács, E; Sándor, G; Kovács, F

    1991-01-01

    Three pregnant sows, being in the last quarter of gestation, were used in an experiment to study the changes induced in newborn piglets by T-2 toxin. One sow was used as control (C). The other two received 24 mg (sow A) and 6 mg (sow B) T-2 toxin, respectively, mixed in the feed, daily, up to the time of farrowing. The piglets of sow A became ill by 48-72 h after birth, while the litters of sow B and C remained healthy. The clinical symptoms included faintness, diarrhoea, decreased blood glucose level, and collapse followed by death. The milk and urine of sow A and the stomach contents of affected and dead piglets contained T-2 toxin and its metabolites. Pathological changes seen at necropsy included acute enteritis, degeneration of the liver and kidneys, and oedema of the mesentery. The stomach was filled with clotted milk. Histopathological and electron-microscopic findings consisted of reduced glycogen content and pathological simple fatty infiltration of the liver cells, lymphocyte depletion and necrosis in the lymphoid follicles of the intestinal mucosa, atrophy of the thymic cortex, and hyperfunction of the adrenal and thyroid glands compared to the control.

  16. Thyroid hormone inhibits the proliferation of piglet Sertoli cell via PI3K signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Yang, WeiRong; Luo, HongLin; Wang, XianZhong; Chen, ZhongQiong; Zhang, JiaoJiao; Wang, Yi; Li, XiaoMin

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating researches show that thyroid hormone (TH) inhibits Sertoli cells (SCs) proliferation and stimulates their functional maturation in prepubertal rat testis, confirming that TH plays a key role in testicular development. However, the mechanism under the T3 regulation of piglet SC proliferation remains unclear. In the present study, in order to investigate the possible mechanism of T3 on the suppression of SC proliferation, the expression pattern of TRα1 and cell cycle-related molecules, effect of T3 on SC proliferation, and the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway on the T3-mediated SC proliferation in piglet testis were explored. Our results demonstrated that TRα1 was expressed in all tested stages of SCs and decreased along with the ages. T3 inhibited the proliferation of SCs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and T3 treatment downregulated the expressions of cell cycling molecules, such as cyclinA2, cyclinD1, cyclinE1, PCNA, and Skp2, but upregulated the p27 expression in SCs. Most importantly, the suppressive effects of T3 on SC proliferation seemed dependent on the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and pre-stimulation of PI3K could enhance such suppressive effects. Together, our findings demonstrate that TH inhibits the proliferation of piglet SCs via the suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  17. Physiological meaning of cerebral oxygen saturation for piglet with hypoxia-ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Haishu; Huang, Lan; Jen, Chungchien; Hwang, Betau; Lee, Zhiguang; Teng, Yichao; Zheng, Meizhi

    2005-01-01

    The physiological meaning of cerebral oxygen saturation absolute values and the oxygen metabolism of piglet with hypoxia-ischemia (HIE) were researched. The subjects were two piglets. During the total experiment of hypoxia then recovery, the regional cerebral tissue oxygen (rScO2), pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) were detected non-invasively and the jugular oxygen saturation (SjO2), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) were given invasively. The results show that because SjO2 was equal to or larger than rScO2 and SaO2 > ScO2, rScO2 cannot be determined by the weighted sum of SjO2 and SaO2 which had been presented in some papers. According to above-mentioned analysis, the ecchymoma and pathological changes of the vessels due to HIE may be another contribution of rScO2. SjO2 was correlated with SaO2 (R=0.996 and 0.962 for two piglets) and the values of (SaO2-SjO2) are close to constants (29.3+/-8% and 30.3+/-8%).It means that because the subjects were under anesthesia, the oxygen consumption of cerebral tissue kept constants.

  18. Immediate Remote Ischemic Postconditioning Reduces Brain Nitrotyrosine Formation in a Piglet Asphyxia Model.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Rudge, Brogan; Hughes, Michael P; Rahim, Ahad A; Hristova, Mariya; Robertson, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) is a promising therapeutic intervention that could be administered as an alternative to cooling in cases of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). In the current study we hypothesized that RIPostC in the piglet model of birth asphyxia confers protection by reducing nitrosative stress and subsequent nitrotyrosine formation, as well as having an effect on glial immunoreactivity. Postnatal day 1 (P1) piglets underwent HI brain injury and were randomised to HI (control) or HI + RIPostC. Immunohistochemistry assessment 48 hours after HI revealed a significant decrease in brain nitrotyrosine deposits in the RIPostC-treated group (p = 0.02). This was accompanied by a significant increase in eNOS expression (p < 0.0001) and decrease in iNOS (p = 0.010), with no alteration in nNOS activity. Interestingly, RIPostC treatment was associated with a significant increase in GFAP (p = 0.002) and IBA1 (p = 0.006), markers of astroglial and microglial activity, respectively. The current study demonstrates a beneficial effect of RIPostC therapy in the preclinical piglet model of neonatal asphyxia, which appears to be mediated by modulation of nitrosative stress, despite glial activation.

  19. Proteome analysis for the global proteins in the jejunum tissues of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli -infected piglets.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Chen, Shuai; Duan, Jielin; Liu, Gang; Li, Tiejun; Li, Nengzhang; Peng, Yuanyi; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in humans and livestock. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with multidimensional liquid chromatography (LC) and MS analysis was used for screening the differentially expressed proteins in piglet jejunum after ETEC infection. Totally 1,897 proteins were identified with quantitative information in piglet jejunum. We identified 92 differentially expressed proteins in ETEC-induced diarrhea, of which 30 were up regulated and 62 down regulated. Most of the differentially expressed proteins were involved in intestinal function of binding, metabolic process, catalytic activity and immune responses. The inhibition of intestinal immune responses in the jejunum in ETEC-induced diarrhea was also validated by immunobloting and RT-PCR. Our study is the first attempt to analyze the protein profile of ETEC-infected piglets by quantitative proteomics, and our findings could provide valuable information with respect to better understanding the host response to ETEC infection. PMID:27157636

  20. Functional piglet model for the clinical syndrome and postmortem findings induced by staphylococcal enterotoxin B.

    PubMed

    van Gessel, Yvonne A; Mani, Sachin; Bi, Shuguang; Hammamieh, Rasha; Shupp, Jeffrey W; Das, Rina; Coleman, Gary D; Jett, Marti

    2004-11-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) B causes serious gastrointestinal illness, and intoxication with this exotoxin can lead to lethal toxic shock syndrome. In order to overcome significant shortcomings of current rodent and nonhuman primate models, we developed a piglet model of lethal SEB intoxication. Fourteen-day-old Yorkshire piglets were given intravenous SEB, observed clinically, and sacrificed at 4, 6, 24, 48, 72, or 96 hrs posttreatment. Clinical signs were biphasic with pyrexia, vomiting, and diarrhea within 4 hrs, followed by terminal hypotension and shock by 96 hrs. Mild lymphoid lesions were identified as early as 24 hrs, with severe lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and prominent Peyer's patches found by 72 hrs. Widespread edema-most prominent in the mesentery, between loops of spiral colon, and in retroperitoneal connective tissue-was found in animals at 72 hrs. Additional histologic changes included perivascular aggregates of large lymphocytes variably present in the lung and brain, circulating lymphoblasts, and lymphocytic portal hepatitis. Preliminary molecular investigation using gene array has uncovered several gene profile changes that may have implications in the pathophysiology leading to irreversible shock. Five genes were selected for further study, and all showed increased mRNA levels subsequent to SEB exposure. The use of this piglet model will continue to elucidate the pathogenesis of SEB intoxication and facilitate the testing of new therapeutic regimens that may better correlate with human lesions.

  1. Systemic Metabolic Responses of Broiler Chickens and Piglets to Acute T-2 Toxin Intravenous Exposure.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qianfen; He, Qinghua; Deng, Xianbai; Hao, Fuhua; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2016-01-27

    The aim of this study is to thoroughly investigate the toxicity mechanism of mycotoxin T-2 toxin and to further understand the endogenous metabolic alterations induced by T-2 toxin. To achieve this, a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics approach was used to analyze the metabolic alterations induced by a single intravenous injection of T-2 toxin (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) in piglets and broiler chickens. A range of metabolites in the plasma, liver, kidney, and spleen of broiler chickens and plasma of piglets was changed following T-2 toxin injection. For example, a rapid increase of amino acids together with a significant reduction of glucose and lipid occurred in the plasma of broiler chickens and piglets following T-2 toxin treatment. A significant accumulation of amino acids and modulated nucleotides were detected in the liver, kidney, and spleen of T-2 toxin-treated broiler chickens. These data indicated that T-2 toxin caused endogenous metabolic changes in multiple organs and perturbed various metabolic pathways, including energy, amino acid, and nucleotide metabolism, as well as oxidative stress. We also observed elevated levels of tryptophan in the T-2 toxin-treated broiler chickens, which may explain the reported neurotoxic effects of T-2 toxin. These findings provide important information on the toxicity of T-2 toxin and demonstrate the power of the NMR-based metabonomics approach in exploring the toxicity mechanism of xenobiotics.

  2. Alterations in Daytime and Nighttime Activity in Piglets after Focal and Diffuse Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Olson, Emily; Badder, Carlie; Sullivan, Sarah; Smith, Colin; Propert, Kathleen; Margulies, Susan S

    2016-04-15

    We have developed and implemented a noninvasive, objective neurofunctional assessment for evaluating the sustained effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in piglets with both diffuse and focal injury types. Derived from commercial actigraphy methods in humans, this assessment continuously monitors the day/night activity of piglets using close-fitting jackets equipped with tri-axial accelerometers to monitor movements of the thorax. Acceleration metrics were correlated (N = 7 naïve piglets) with video images to define values associated with a range of activities, from recumbancy (rest) to running. Both focal (N = 8) and diffuse brain injury (N = 9) produced alterations in activity that were significant 4 days post-TBI. Compared to shams (N = 6) who acclimated to the animal facility 4 days after an anesthesia experience by blurring the distinction between day and night activity, post-TBI time-matched animals had larger fractions of inactive periods during the daytime than nighttime, and larger fractions of active time in the night were spent in high activity (e.g., constant walking, intermittent running) than during the day. These persistent disturbances in rest and activity are similar to those observed in human adults and children post-TBI, establishing actigraphy as a translational metric, used in both humans and large animals, for assessment of injury severity, progressions, and intervention. PMID:26414329

  3. Effect of earth as an additional stimulus on the behaviour of confined piglets.

    PubMed

    Appleby, M C; Wood-Gush, D G

    1988-08-01

    Groups of 8 piglets were housed in flat-deck cages with slatted floors. Experimental cages were provided with a trough of sterilized earth, and the behaviour of focal individuals was recorded for comparison with controls. This replaced an earlier study, with which some of the results were combined. Records were analysed for frequencies and duration of certain activities, and first order sequence analysis was carried out. Experimental piglets rooted in earth for 4 to 8% of observations and also fed for longer. They spent less time sitting or lying. Aggression was reduced and there was a trend for experimental piglets to chew each other less. These differences suggested conditions were more favourable in experimental pens than control pens. However, there were few differences in first order behavioural transitions. Use of earth was not involved in sequences with activities such as feeding, drinking or lying as expected. It seems likely that in these circumstances earth did not act as a stimulus relevant to behavioural organization, but in some other way, with interest declining over time.

  4. Effect of fatty acid composition of the sow diet on the innate and adaptive immunity of the piglets after weaning.

    PubMed

    Tanghe, Sofie; Cox, Eric; Melkebeek, Vesna; De Smet, Stefaan; Millet, Sam

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated whether the immunocompetence of piglets at weaning was modulated by including different sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the maternal diet. From day 73 of gestation until weaning at 4 weeks, 32 pregnant sows were fed a palm oil-based diet (control group) or a diet including 1% linseed oil (C18:3n-3), 1% echium oil (C18:3n-3, C18:4n-3, C18:3n-6) or 1% fish oil (C20:5n-3, C22:6n-3). It was hypothesized that each diet would differently affect immune function through effects such as specific eicosanoid production. Piglets were fed a conventional diet without added n-3 PUFA from weaning until day 35 post-weaning. At weaning and 21 days post-weaning, four piglets per litter were immunized with bovine thyroglobulin. Blood samples were taken from weaning until day 35 post-weaning to determine thyroglobulin-specific antibodies, serum amyloid A (SAA) concentration and fatty acid composition. The fatty acid composition of the maternal diets was reflected in the plasma and red blood cells of the weaned piglets. The onset of the thyroglobulin-specific IgM response differed between dietary groups, with a delay in response for piglets from sows fed the fish oil diet. No significant dietary effects were observed on the thyroglobulin-specific IgG and IgA titres or on SAA concentrations in the piglet serum. Including n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet at the concentrations used in the present study had no major effects on the adaptive and innate immunity of the piglets after weaning.

  5. Supplementation of the sow diet with chitosan oligosaccharide during late gestation and lactation affects hepatic gluconeogenesis of suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chunyan; Guo, Xiaoyun; Long, Cimin; Fan, Zhiyong; Xiao, Dingfu; Ruan, Zheng; Deng, Ze-yuan; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2015-08-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) has a blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic rats and is widely used as a dietary supplement. However, the effect of COS on the offspring of supplemented mothers is unknown. This experiment investigates the effect of supplementing sows during gestation and lactation on the levels of plasma glucose on suckling piglets. From day 85 of gestation to day 14 of lactation, 40 pregnant sows were divided into two treatment groups and fed either a control diet or a control diet containing 30mgCOS/kg. One 14 day old piglet per pen was selected to collect plasma and tissue (8pens/diet). Performance, hepatic gluconeogenesis genes and proteins expression, amino acids contents in sow milk, hepatic glycogen and free fatty acid were determined. Results showed that supplementation of the maternal diet with COS improved daily gain and weaning weight (P<0.05), and the concentration of amino acids in sow milk (P<0.05). Meanwhile, maternal supplementation with COS increased (P<0.05) mRNA expression levels and activities of PEPCK-C, PEPCK-M and G6Pase in the liver of piglets compared with piglets from control fed sows. Correspondingly, the level of plasma glucose was higher (P<0.001) and hepatic glycogen was lower (P<0.05) in piglets from COS fed sows when compared with that in the control group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of the diet with COS during late gestation and lactation reduced piglet hypoglycemia by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis and improved the growth rate of suckling piglets.

  6. Effect of N-acetyl cysteine on enterocyte apoptosis and intracellular signalling pathways' response to oxidative stress in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lihui; Cai, Xuan; Guo, Qi; Chen, Xiaolian; Zhu, Suwen; Xu, Jianxiong

    2013-12-14

    N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) has been widely used for preventing reactive oxygen species-induced damage. However, little is known as to whether dietary NAC supplementation would alleviate intestinal injury in weaned piglets. The present study evaluated the effect of NAC on enterocyte apoptosis and intracellular signalling pathways' response to weaning stress. The control piglets were normally suckling, and piglets in the weaning and NAC groups were fed the basal diet and basal+NAC diet from 14 to 25 d of age, respectively. Compared with the control piglets, weaning increased cortisol concentrations (P< 0·05), decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities (P< 0·05), increased malondialdehyde content (P< 0·05) in serum and enhanced enterocyte apoptosis index (AI) and concentrations of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 (P< 0·05). Gene expression analyses indicated that weaning induced apoptosis via Fas signalling and mitochondrial pathways in weaned piglets. Dietary NAC supplementation decreased (P< 0·05) cortisol concentrations and the AI, increased (P< 0·05) antioxidant status in serum and alleviated histopathological changes in the intestine. It also inhibited Fas, caspase-3, caspase-8 and integrin αvβ6 (αvβ6) gene expressions in the NAC-treated piglets. However, no significant decrease (P>0·10) in caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 concentrations was observed in the NAC group compared with the weaning group. In conclusion, weaning may induce enterocyte apoptosis via the activation of Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Although NAC had no effect on caspase concentrations, it was clearly beneficial for preserving morphological integrity in weaned piglets via the regulation of cell apoptosis and the inhibition of Fas-dependent apoptosis and αvβ6 expression.

  7. An automated approach for measuring infant head orientation in a face-to-face interaction.

    PubMed

    Væver, Mette; Beebe, Beatrice; Kirk, Otto; Snidmann, Nancy; Harder, Susanne; Tronick, Ed

    2015-06-01

    Head orientation in face-to-face interactions between mothers and infants is an important component of their communicative processes. Manual coding, however, is laborious. Obtaining inter-observer reliability is difficult, with disagreements mostly being related to the on- and offsets of a limited number of orientation categories. We used a motion capture system and developed an automated method for the quantitative measurement of infant head orientation in mother--infant face-to-face-interactions. Automated motion capture systems have the potential to objectively document not only the on- and offset of behaviors, but also continuous changes. Infants wore a cap with three reflecting markers, and eight infrared cameras captured the positions of the markers. Analytic algorithms generated continuous three-dimensional descriptions of the infants' head movements. We report here on an initial feasibility study of four infants. To evaluate the effectiveness of the automated approach, we compared it to standard manual categorical coding of six infant head orientations. We found that the central reliability issue was disagreement at the boundaries of the coding categories identified by continuous automated coding versus manual coding. The automated method was both more feasible and more precise in capturing continuous small changes. The study provides evidence for the usefulness of automated measurement of infant head orientation when infants interact in relational space.

  8. Duration of breastfeeding in preterm infants followed at a secondary referral service

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Brunnella Alcantara Chagas; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Carlos, Carla Fernanda Lisboa Valente; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Identify and analyze variables associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding in preterm infants. Methods: Retrospective cohort of premature infants followed up at secondary referral service in the period of 2010-2015. Inclusion: first appointment in the first month of corrected age and have undergone three or more consultations. Exclusion: diseases that impaired oral feeding. Outcome: duration of breastfeeding. A total of 103 preterm infants were evaluated, accounting for 28.8% of the preterm infants born in the municipality in that period, with a power of study of 80%. Descriptive analysis, t-test, chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were used. p-values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: The median duration of breastfeeding among preterm infants was 5.0 months. The risk of breastfeeding discontinuation among preterm infants with gestational age <32 weeks was 2.6-fold higher than for those born at 32 weeks or more and the risk of breastfeeding interruption in preterm infants who were receiving breastfeeding supplementation in the first outpatient visit was 3-fold higher when compared to those who were exclusively breastfed in the first consultation. Conclusions: The median duration of breastfeeding in preterm infants was below the recommended one and discontinuation was associated with gestational <32 weeks and the fact that the infant was no longer receiving exclusive breastfeeding in the first outpatient visit. When these two variables were associated, their negative effect on the median duration of breastfeeding was potentiated. PMID:26614258

  9. [Cough leading to the death of an infant].

    PubMed

    Hannele, Pruikkonen; Outi, Peltoniemi; Marjo, Renko; Terhi, Tapiainen

    2016-01-01

    Death from infections among previously healthy infants is rare in our country. Occasionally, warning of a severe disease may in the initial phase of the disease become manifest only from the parents' description of the condition of their child. We describe two infants under the age of 3 months with paroxysmal cough, whose whooping cough progressed to require intensive care. A suspicion of whooping cough was not roused neither among those making the emergency care assessment nor by the attending physicians before the patients had to be placed on a ventilator as the illness progressed. One of our patients succumbed to the illness despite of intensive care. Whooping cough should be suspected in all unimmunized infants having paroxysmal cough. PMID:27132293

  10. [Cough leading to the death of an infant].

    PubMed

    Hannele, Pruikkonen; Outi, Peltoniemi; Marjo, Renko; Terhi, Tapiainen

    2016-01-01

    Death from infections among previously healthy infants is rare in our country. Occasionally, warning of a severe disease may in the initial phase of the disease become manifest only from the parents' description of the condition of their child. We describe two infants under the age of 3 months with paroxysmal cough, whose whooping cough progressed to require intensive care. A suspicion of whooping cough was not roused neither among those making the emergency care assessment nor by the attending physicians before the patients had to be placed on a ventilator as the illness progressed. One of our patients succumbed to the illness despite of intensive care. Whooping cough should be suspected in all unimmunized infants having paroxysmal cough.

  11. Virulence factors in Escherichia coli strains isolated from Swedish piglets with diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Söderlind, O; Thafvelin, B; Möllby, R

    1988-01-01

    Parenteral vaccination of sows against Escherichia coli diarrhea in their newborn piglets has become more common during the last decade in Sweden, and the vaccination has generally had positive effects. For more than 20 years we have investigated E. coli strains isolated from piglets and weaned pigs with enteric disorders, noting the presence of O groups, enterotoxins, and adhesins. There has been a continuous change in the frequency of these virulence factors. The present study was performed during 1983 and 1984 to follow this change, since such information is essential for the proper choice of vaccines. A total of 856 E. coli strains were obtained from 683 herds divided into three age groups: 1 to 6 days old, 1 to 6 weeks old, and weaned pigs. O group 149 still dominated in the last two age groups, while O group 101 was, for the first time, the most frequent O group in neonatal piglets. All but four O149 strains carried the K88 antigen, which was found in only one other strain (O group 8). K99 antigen was most often found in O groups 101 and 64, and among all the K99 strains ST mouse was the most common (44 of 57), followed by ST mouse-ST pig strains (12 of 57). The 987P antigen was demonstrated in 26 strains belonging to O groups 141 and OX46 and nontypable strains. Two strains belonging to O group 101 were positive for F41 antigen; one of them also carried the K99 antigen. Among all non-O149 strains, ST mouse was the most common type of enterotoxigenic E. coli ( n = 88), followed in decreasing order by ST mouse-ST pig strains ( n = 69) and ST pig strains ( n = 33). In 114 strains producing enterotoxins no adhesive factor was found. Thus, vaccination of the Swedish sow population for more than 5 years with vaccines containing O149 and K88 antigens has apparently changed the pattern of enterotoxigenic E. coli in neonatal diarrhea. The frequency of O149:K88 strains has been reduced, and O101:K99:ST mouse strains now dominate. However, O149 strains remain the

  12. Magnetic Resonance Three-dimensional Cube Technique in the Measurement of Piglet Femoral Anteversion

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dong-Mei; Pan, Shi-Nong; Wang, En-Bo; Zheng, Li-Qiang; Guo, Wen-Li; Fu, Xi-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The accurate measurement of the femoral anteversion (FA) angle is always a topic of much debate in the orthopedic surgery and radiology research. We aimed to explore a new FA measurement method to acquire accurate results without radiation damage using piglet model. Methods: A total of thirty piglets were assigned to two groups based on the age. Bilateral femora were imaged with 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) and 64-slice computed tomography (CT) examinations on all piglets. FA was measured on MR-three-dimensional (3D) postprocessing software with a four-step method: initial validation of the femoral condylar axis, validation of the condylar plane, validation of the femoral neck axis, and line-plane angle measurement of FA. After MR and CT examinations, all piglets were sacrificed and their degree of FA was measured using their excised, dried femora. MR, CT, and dried-femur measurement results were analyzed statistically; MR and CT measurements were compared for accuracy against each other and against the gold standard dried femur measurement. Results: In both groups, the mean FA value measured by MR was lower than that measured by CT. A statistically significant difference was observed between CT- and dried-femur measurements but not between MR- and dried-femur measurements. A higher correlation (0.783 vs. 0.408) and a higher consistency (0.863 vs. 0.578) with dried-femur measurement results were seen for MR measurements than CT measurements in the 1-week age group. However, in the 8-week age group, similar correlations (0.707 vs. 0.669) and consistencies (0.864 vs. 0.821) were observed. Conclusions: Noninvasive MR-3D-Cube reconstruction was able to accurately measure FA in piglets. Particularly in the 1-week age group with a larger proportion of cartilaginous structures, the correlation and consistency between MR- and dried-femur measurement results were higher than those between CT- and dried-femur measurements, suggesting that MR may be a new useful

  13. Characteristics of biter and victim piglets apparent before a tail-biting outbreak.

    PubMed

    Zonderland, J J; Schepers, F; Bracke, M B M; den Hartog, L A; Kemp, B; Spoolder, H A M

    2011-04-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of biters and victims before the appearance of a tail-biting outbreak in groups of pigs. This study aimed to characterise biters and victims (according to gender and performance) and to quantify their behavioural development during the 6 days preceding the tail-biting outbreak. The hypotheses tested were: (a) biters are more often female, are the lighter pigs in the group, are more restless and perform more aggressive behaviour; and (b) victims are more often male, heavier and less active. Using video recordings we carried out a detailed study of 14 pens with a tail-biting outbreak among the weaned piglets. All piglets were individually marked and we observed the behaviour of biters, victims and control piglets (piglet types). In every pen, each piglet type was observed every other day from 6 days before (D-6) to the day of the first visible tail damage (i.e. day of tail biting outbreak; D0). While the number of male biters (6 of the 14 biters) and male victims (11 of the 14 victims) was not significantly different (P = 0.13), this numerical contrast was considerable. The start weight of victims was significantly (P = 0.03) higher (8.6 kg) than those of biters (7.5 kg) and control piglets (8.0 kg). Biters tended (P = 0.08) to spend longer sitting/kneeling (3.1 min/h) than controls (1.7 min/h), but no differences were seen in the time spent lying or standing. Victims tended (P = 0.07) to change posture more often (restlessness) than controls and chased penmates more (P = 0.04) than biters. Victims also performed more (P = 0.04) aggressive behaviour than biters and controls. In contrast, biters tended (P = 0.08) to be chased by penmates more often and tended (P = 0.06) to receive more aggressive behaviour than controls. Furthermore, biters spent longer manipulating the enrichment device (P = 0.01) and the posterior/tail (P = 0.02) of their penmates than controls and tended (P = 0.06) to perform more tail bites than victims

  14. Malaysian nurses' skin care practices of preterm infants: experience vs. knowledge.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Zainah; Newton, Jennifer Margaret; Lau, Rosalind

    2014-04-01

    This study sought to explore the impact of Malaysian nurses' perceptions, knowledge and experiences in preterm infant skin care practices using a descriptive approach. Questionnaires were distributed to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) nurses in one teaching hospital in Malaysia. A knowledge gap was revealed among nurses in both theoretical and practical knowledge of preterm infant skin. Nurses working for more than 5 years in NICU or having a Neonatal Nursing Certificate (NNC) were not predictors of having adequate knowledge of preterm infants' skin care. The results highlight the complex issue of providing effective skin care to preterm infants. However, a specific finding related to nurses' confidence provides some direction for future practice and research initiatives. Clear clinical evidence-based guidelines and Continuing Nursing Education on relevant topics of preterm infants' care may provide the required knowledge for the nurses.

  15. Initial Experience With a Miniaturized Multiplane Transesophageal Probe in Small Infants Undergoing Cardiac Operations

    PubMed Central

    Zyblewski, Sinai C.; Shirali, Girish S.; Forbus, Geoffrey A.; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Bradley, Scott M.; Atz, Andrew M.; Cohen, Meryl S.; Graham, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There has been reluctance to use intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in small infants. We assessed the utility and safety of a new miniaturized multiplane micro-TEE probe in small infants undergoing cardiac operations. Description Hemodynamic and ventilation variables were prospectively recorded before and after micro-TEE insertion and removal in infants weighing 5 kg or less undergoing cardiac operations. Evaluation The study included 42 patients with a mean weight of 3.6 ± 0.9 kg (range, 1.7 to 5 kg). All probe insertions were successful. There were no complications or clinically significant changes in hemodynamic or ventilation variables. Information provided by TEE resulted in surgical revision in 6 of the 42 patients. Conclusions The micro-TEE provides high quality, useful diagnostic images without hemodynamic or ventilation compromise in small infants undergoing cardiac operations. This advance is important with the growing trend towards complete repair of complex structural heart disease in small infants. PMID:20494062

  16. The diving reflex in healthy infants in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Fleming S; Riesgo, Rudimar S; Gatiboni, Tanira; Rotta, Newra T

    2012-02-01

    A cohort study was conducted with a random sample of 33 healthy infants evaluated at birth and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12 months to determine the frequency of respiratory rate changes in response to air blown over the face (diving reflex) in the first year of life, and to standardize the description of diving reflex occurrence. All 33 infants remained neurologically normal throughout follow-up. Diving reflex was observed in 95.3% of newborns and in 100% of infants between 2 and 6 months of age. At 6 months, it started to decrease but persisted in 90% of the infants up to 12 months. The diving reflex is highly prevalent in the first year of life and can be easily elicited by applying a flow of air over the infant's face, particularly during crying.

  17. The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guez, Jean R.

    This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…

  18. Butyrate supplementation to gestating sows and piglets induces muscle and adipose tissue oxidative genes and improves growth performance.

    PubMed

    Lu, H; Su, S; Ajuwon, K M

    2012-12-01

    Weaned pigs often experience growth reduction immediately after weaning due to multiple stress factors associated with weaning. We tested the effect of prenatal and postnatal butyrate supplementation on growth performance of piglets. In study 1, piglets were orally gavaged with 0.3% butyrate from day 4 after birth to weaning (day 21). Butyrate increased ADG by 13% compared to saline treated control. Expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) was higher in muscle, adipose tissue, and ileum of butyrate-supplemented animals. Also, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) was induced (P < 0.05) in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and muscle (longissimus dorsi [LD]) of butyrate-supplemented piglets. In vitro, butyrate increased (P < 0.05) fatty acid oxidation in primary adipocytes and suppressed basal lipolysis by 62% compared to untreated cells. Butyrate suppressed (P < 0.05) lipogenesis ((14)C-glucose incorporation into lipids) in adipocytes. This was accompanied by an approximately 30% reduction in the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase (P < 0.05) in butyrate-treated cells vs. controls. Piglets born to sows that were supplemented with 0.3% butyrate during the last trimester of gestation had a 15% higher (P < 0.05) body weight at 12 wk than controls. In summary, butyrate supplementation to gestating sows and piglets enhanced postweaning growth performance, which may be mediated by increased substrate oxidation in butyrate treated animals.

  19. Gnotobiotic Piglet Infection Model for Evaluating the Safe Use of Antibiotics against Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quanshun; Donohue-Rolfe, Arthur; Krautz-Peterson, Greice; Sevo, Milica; Parry, Nicola; Abeijon, Claudia; Tzipori, Saul

    2010-01-01

    Background Shiga toxin (Stx)–producing Escherichia coli (STEC), especially O157:H7, cause bloody diarrhea, and in 3%–15% of individuals the infection leads to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) or other complications. Use of antibiotics to treat STEC infections is controversial. Here, we describe the use of piglets to evaluate the efficacy and mechanism of action of antibiotics in these infections. Methods The effects of 2 antibiotics on STEC toxin production and their mechanisms of action were first determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and subsequently evaluated clinically in the gnotobiotic piglet infection model. Results In vitro treatment of clinical and isogenic strains with ciprofloxacin increased the production of Stx2 via phage induction but not the production of Stx1. Azithromycin caused no significant increase in toxin production. After treatment with ciprofloxacin, infected piglets had diarrhea and the severe fatal neurological symptoms associated with Stx2 intoxication. Characteristic petechial hemorrhages in the cerebellum were more severe in ciprofloxacin-treated animals than in control animals. In contrast, azithromycin-treated piglets survived the infection and had little or no brain hemorrhaging. Conclusions The increased in vitro toxin production caused by ciprofloxacin was strongly correlated with death and an increased rate of cerebellar hemorrhage, in contrast to the effect of azithromycin. The piglet is a suitable model for determining the effectiveness and safety of antibiotics available to treat patients. PMID:19125676

  20. Cisplatin-Induced Non-Oliguric Acute Kidney Injury in a Pediatric Experimental Animal Model in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Lázaro, Alberto; González, Rafael; Urbano, Javier; López, Jorge; Solana, Maria José; Toledo, Blanca; del Castillo, Jimena; Tejedor, Alberto; López-Herce, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Objective To design an experimental pediatric animal model of acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin. Methods Prospective comparative observational animal study in two different phases. Acute kidney injury was induced using three different doses of cisplatin (2, 3 and 5 mg/kg). The development of nephrotoxicity was assessed 2 to 4 days after cisplatin administration by estimating biochemical parameters, diuresis and renal morphology. Analytical values and renal morphology were compared between 15 piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg and 15 control piglets in the second phase of the study. Results 41 piglets were studied. The dose of 3 mg/kg administered 48 hours before the experience induced a significant increase in serum creatinine and urea without an increase in potassium levels. Piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg had significantly higher values of creatinine, urea, phosphate and amylase, less diuresis and lower values of potassium, sodium and bicarbonate than control piglets. Histological findings showed evidence of a dose-dependent increase in renal damage. Conclusions a dose of 3 mg/kg of cisplatin induces a significant alteration in renal function 48 hours after its administration, so it can be used as a pediatric animal model of non-oliguric acute kidney injury. PMID:26871589

  1. Synbiotics suppress the release of lactate dehydrogenase, promote non-specific immunity and integrity of jejunum mucosa in piglets.

    PubMed

    Andrejčáková, Zuzana; Sopková, Drahomíra; Vlčková, Radoslava; Kulichová, Lucia; Gancarčíková, Soňa; Almášiová, Viera; Holovská, Katarína; Petrilla, Vladimír; Krešáková, Lenka

    2016-09-01

    The aim of our experiment was to study how synbiotics are able to deal with the problems of post-weaning piglets. Lactobacillus plantarum - Biocenol(TM) LP96 (CCM 7512), Lactobacillus fermentum - Biocenol(TM) LF99 (CCM 7514) and flaxseed (rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) were administered to 36 conventional piglets from a problematic breed with confirmed presence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Coronavirus. The experimental piglets were supplied with probiotic cheeses and crushed flax-seed in the period starting 10 days before weaning and lasting up to 14 days post-weaning. Piglets in the control group were supplied only control cheese. The impact of such additives on the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; spectroscopic and electrophoretic assay), alteration of immunity (index of metabolic activity), jejunum histology (light microscopy), and health of conventional piglets from a problematic breed (monitoring of hematology, consistency and moisture of feces and body temperature) were examined. We found significant decrease in LDH leakage in the blood serum and tissue extracts, indicating better cell membrane integrity in the individual organs of animals. Probiotics and flaxseed applied together seem to be a good source of nutrients to improve the immune status and the integrity of jejunum mucosa during infection. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science. PMID:27581561

  2. Reoxygenation of Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets: Administration of 100% Oxygen Causes Significantly Higher Apoptosis in Cortical Neurons, as Compared to 21%

    PubMed Central

    Faa, G.; Fanos, V.; Fanni, D.; Gerosa, C.; Faa, A.; Fraschini, M.; Pais, M. E.; Di Felice, E.; Papalois, A.; Varsami, M.; Xanthos, T.; Iacovidou, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Evaluation of neuronal changes in an animal experimental model of normocapnic hypoxia- reoxygenation. Materials and Methods. Fifty male piglets were the study subjects; normocapnic hypoxia was induced in 40 piglets and ten were sham-operated (controls). When bradycardia and/or severe hypotension occurred, reoxygenation was initiated. Animals were allocated in 4 groups according to the oxygen concentration, they were resuscitated with 18%, 21%, 40%, and 100% O2. Persisting asystole despite 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation were the endpoints of the experiment. Surviving animals were euthanized and brain cortex samples were collected, hematoxylin and eosin-stained, and examined for apoptotic bodies observing 10 consecutive high power fields. Results. Histological examination of the control group did not show any pathological change. On the contrary, apoptosis of neurons was found in 87.5% of treated animals. When specimens were examined according to the oxygen concentration used for resuscitation, we found marked intergroup variability; a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons was observed in piglets of group 4 (100% oxygen) compared to the others (P = 0.001). Conclusions. This preliminary data shows that normocapnic hypoxia and reoxygenation in Landrace/Large White piglets resulted in significant histological changes in the brain cortex. The degree of pathological changes in cortical neurons was significantly associated with the oxygen concentration used for reoxygenation, with a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons being observed in piglets reoxygenated with 100% compared to 18% O2 and to 21% O2. PMID:24783208

  3. Feeding a high dosage of zinc oxide affects suppressor of cytokine gene expression in Salmonella Typhimurium infected piglets.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Jasper N; Brockmann, Gudrun A; Kreuzer-Redmer, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play an important role in the regulation of the immune response by inhibiting cytokines. Here we investigated the effects of zinc oxide fed at three different dosages (LZN=57ppm, MZN=167ppm, HZN=2425ppm) to weaned piglets that were or were not orally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104. We detected higher expression of SOCS3 six days after weaning for all analyzed piglets, regardless of the infection or the zinc feeding, suggesting a stress induced immune response. Whereas, SOCS1 showed only higher transcript amounts in S. Typhimurium infected piglets, especially the LZN group. This might indicate an infection regulating effect of zinc oxide in the infection model. After 42days of infection, the expression of SOCS2, SOCS4, and SOCS7 was increased only in animals fed the highest concentrations of zinc oxide, while non-infected piglets at the age of 56days showed no regulation for these genes. The up-regulation of SOCS genes in the mesenteric lymph nodes of piglets fed a diet with a very high concentration of zinc over 6 weeks suggests that such treatments may impair the immune response.

  4. Effect on the immune system of germ-free piglets of probiotics potentiated with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kastel, Rudolf; Bomba, Alojz; Herich, Robert; Vasko, Ladislav; Svedova, Martina

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the immune system of germ-free piglets. Oil with increased content of omega-3 PUFA was administered to piglets from the experimental group (EG) for four weeks. Piglets from the control group (CG) received identical volumes of saline solution. At the age of 21 days both groups of germ-free piglets were inoculated perorally with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei at a dose of 2 ml (1x10(8) mli). At the age of 28 days, i.e. after one-week colonisation of germ-free piglets with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, significant differences were recorded in phagocytic activity of neutrophils (PANe) and phagocytic activity of potentially phagocytizing cells (PA) (P < 0.05). Between EG and CG there have been observed no significant differences in absolute numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and numbers of IgM cells and in additional investigated parameters - number of CD2+ T lymphocytes, index of phagocytic activity of neutrophils (IPANe) and index of phagocytic activity (IPA). The total number of leukocytes (Le) in EG was also higher. Of the parameters determined in blood serum we observed a significant increase in concentration of alpha linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids and a parallel decrease in the level of arachidonic acid.

  5. Selenium-enriched probiotics improve antioxidant status, immune function, and selenoprotein gene expression of piglets raised under high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Gan, Fang; Chen, Xingxiang; Liao, Shengfa F; Lv, Chenhui; Ren, Fei; Ye, Gengping; Pan, Cuiling; Huang, Da; Shi, Jun; Shi, Xiuli; Zhou, Hong; Huang, Kehe

    2014-05-21

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP) on growth performance, antioxidant status, immune function, and selenoprotein gene expression of piglets under natural high ambient temperature in summer. Forty-eight crossbred weanling piglets randomly allocated to four groups were fed for 42 days ad libitum a basal diet without (Con, 0.16 mg Se/kg) and with supplementation of probiotics (P, 0.16 mg Se/kg), sodium selenite (SS, 0.46 mg Se/kg), and SP (0.46 mg Se/kg). From each group, three piglets were randomly selected for blood collection on days 0, 14, 28, and 42 and tissue collection on day 42. The SP improved growth performance of piglets. Both SS and SP increased blood glutathione peroxidase activity and tissue thioredoxin reductase 1 mRNA expression, with SP being higher than SS. All P, SS, and SP supplementation increased the superoxide dismutase activity (40.1, 53.0, and 64.5%), glutathione content (84.6, 104, and 165%), TCR-induced T lymphocyte proliferation (20.8, 26.4, and 50.0%), and IL-2 concentration (24.9, 27.2, and 46.2%) and decreased malondialdehyde content (25.1, 26.3, and 49.3%), respectively. The greatest effects of SP supplementation suggest that SP may serve as a better feed additive than P or SS for piglets under high-temperature environments.

  6. Pulmonary arterial responses to reactive oxygen species are altered in newborn piglets with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Fike, Candice D.; Aschner, Judy L.; Slaughter, James C.; Kaplowitz, Mark R.; Zhang, Yongmei; Pfister, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. ROS might mediate vascular responses, at least in part, by stimulating prostanoid production. Our goals were to determine if the effect of ROS on vascular tone is altered in resistance pulmonary arteries (PRA) of newborn piglets with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and the role, if any, of prostanoids in ROS-mediated responses. In cannulated, pressurized PRA, ROS generated by xanthine (X) plus xanthine oxidase (XO) had minimal effect on vascular tone in control piglets but caused significant vasoconstriction in hypoxic piglets. Both cyclooxygenase inhibition with indomethacin and thromboxane synthase inhibition with dazoxiben significantly blunted constriction to X+XO in hypoxic PRA. X+XO increased prostacyclin production (70±8%) by a greater degree than thromboxane production (50±6%) in control PRA; this was not the case in hypoxic PRA where the increases in prostacyclin and thromboxane production were not statistically different (78±13% versus 216±93%, respectively). Thromboxane synthase expression was increased in PRA from hypoxic piglets while prostacyclin synthase expression was similar in PRA from hypoxic and control piglets. Under conditions of chronic hypoxia, altered vascular responses to ROS may contribute to pulmonary hypertension by a mechanism that involves the prostanoid vasoconstrictor, thromboxane. PMID:21516056

  7. Does sow reproduction and piglet performance benefit from the addition of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to the maternal diet?

    PubMed

    Tanghe, Sofie; De Smet, Stefaan

    2013-09-01

    Good sow reproductive performance and piglet survival are essential for the profitability of the pig industry. Based on basic research of fatty acid and endocrine metabolism, it has been suggested that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could enhance reproductive outcome. However, proper requirements for these nutrients in sow diets have not been established. This review examines the literature on the effect of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet on sow reproduction and piglet performance. Few reported studies have included biochemical analyses, e.g. eicosanoid concentrations or gene expression data, which could help elucidate any link between dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation and reproduction. Additionally, most studies used relatively low numbers of pigs, limiting the validity of the conclusions which can be drawn. In pregnant pigs, supplementing with n-3 PUFA has not been shown to increase significantly the number of embryos (in gilts) or (in most studies) the total number of piglets born (live and/or stillborn), but may prolong gestation, although the literature is not consistent. Most studies found no effect of n-3 PUFA on piglet birth weight, although positive effects on piglet vitality and pre- and post-weaning growth have been reported. In contrast to the impact during pregnancy, low amounts of n-3 PUFA in the lactation diet may increase litter size in the subsequent gestation.

  8. Do infant rats cry?

    PubMed

    Blumberg, M S; Sokoloff, G

    2001-01-01

    In the current revival of interest in the emotional and mental lives of animals, many investigators have focused attention on mammalian infants that emit distress vocalizations when separated from the home environment. Perhaps the most intensively studied distress vocalization is the ultrasonic vocalization of infant rats. Since its discovery, this vocalization has been interpreted both as a communicatory signal for the elicitation of maternal retrieval and as the manifestation of emotional distress. In contrast, the authors examined the cardiovascular causes and consequences of the vocalization, and on the basis of this work, they hypothesized that the vocalization is the acoustic by-product of the abdominal compression reaction (ACR), a maneuver that results in increased venous return to the heart. Therefore, the vocalization may be analogous to a sneeze, serving a physiological function while incidentally producing sound. PMID:11212634

  9. [Sudden infant death syndrome].

    PubMed

    Espinosa Morett, A; Shkurovich, M; Carlos Ugartechea, J; Mallet Arelano, A; Salmón Rodríguez, L E

    1976-01-01

    This report is based on a review of the present situation of the sudden infant death syndrome through the presentation of four cases studied at the Unidad de Pediatría, Hospital General de México, S.S.A. All cases were in apparent good health before death. All babies were less than ten months of age. In three cases, necropsy was not performed, and the other one did not show significant abnormalities at the post-mortem examination. A complete review of the literature was made including: historical, epidemiological, genetic, clinical and pathological aspects. Special emphasis is made on the pathophysiology of the syndrome during MOR phase of sleep and muscular hypertrophy of the lungs arteriolae suggesting chronic hypoxia which are the most relevant theories in the sudden infant death syndrome. Psychological aspects and the family management by the physician and detection of possible future victims of the syndrome are finally discussed. PMID:973858

  10. [Drinking water in infants].

    PubMed

    Vitoria Miñana, I

    2004-02-01

    We review types of public drinking water and bottled water and provide recommendations on the composition of water for infants. Water used with any of the commercial infant formulas in Spain should contain less than 25 mg/l of sodium. Drinking water must be boiled for a maximum of one minute (at sea level) to avoid excessive salt concentration. Bottled water need not be boiled. Fluoride content in drinking water should be less than 0.3 mg/l in first year of life to prevent dental fluorosis. Nitrate content in water should be less than 25 mg/l to prevent methemoglobinemia. Water with a calcium concentration of between 50 and 100 mg/l is a dietary source of calcium since it provides 24-56 % of the required daily intake in infancy.

  11. Pharmacokinetics in the infant.

    PubMed

    Milsap, R L; Jusko, W J

    1994-12-01

    Processes controlling the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and pharmacologic effects of drugs are likely to be immature or altered in neonates and infants. Absorption may be affected by differences in gastric pH and stomach emptying rate. Low serum protein concentrations and higher body water composition can change drug distribution. Drug metabolism enzyme activity is typically reduced in the neonate, but rapidly develops over the first year of life. Renal excretion mechanisms are low at birth, but mature over a few months. Limited data are available on the pharmacodynamics of drugs; infants show greater sensitivity to d-tubocurarine. Developmental changes are rapid during the first weeks and months of life, thus requiring continual modification of drug dosage regimens designed for treating pediatric patients.

  12. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  13. The Role of Infant Cognitive Level in Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Patricia L.; Jones, Freda A.

    Videotapes of mother/infant pairs were made to assess the influence of selected infant and maternal characteristics on parent/child interaction. Characteristics of interest were infant mental age, infant chronological age, infant gender, and parity. Subjects were 37 mothers (20 primiparous, 17 multiparous) and their infants (19 males, 18 females)…

  14. Preference for infant-directed speech in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Butler, Samantha C; O'Sullivan, Laura P; Shah, Bhavesh L; Berthier, Neil E

    2014-11-01

    The current study explores the effects of exposure to maternal voice on infant sucking in preterm infants. Twenty-four preterm infants averaging 35 weeks gestational age were divided randomly into two groups. A contingency between high-amplitude sucking and presentation of maternal voice was instituted for one group while the other group served as a yoked control. No significant differences were observed in sucking of the two groups, but the degree of pitch modulation of the maternal voice predicted an increase in the rate of infant sucking.

  15. Age-related differences in mucosal barrier function and morphology of the small intestine in low and normal birth weight piglets.

    PubMed

    Huygelen, V; De Vos, M; Willemen, S; Fransen, E; Casteleyn, C; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C

    2014-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that the mucosal maturation of the small intestine is altered in low birth weight piglets, pairs of naturally suckled low birth weight (LBW, n = 20) and normal birth weight (NBW, n = 20) littermate piglets were selected and sampled after 0, 3, 10, and 28 d of suckling. In vivo intestinal permeability was evaluated via a lactulose-mannitol absorption test. Other indirect measurements for mucosal barrier functioning included sampling for histology and immunohistochemistry (intestinal trefoil factor [ITF]), measuring intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity, and immunoblotting for occludin, caspase-3, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The lactulose-mannitol ratio did not differ between NBW and LBW piglets, but a significant increase in this ratio was observed in 28-d-old piglets (P = 0.001). Small intestinal villus height did not differ with age (P = 0.02) or birth weight (P = 0.20). In contrast, villus width (P = 0.02) and crypt depth (P < 0.05) increased gradually with age, but no birth-weight-related differences were observed. LBW piglets had significantly (P = 0.03) more ITF immunoreactive positive cells per villus area compared to NBW piglets, whereas no age (P = 0.82) or region-related (P = 0.13) differences could be observed. The activity of IAP in the small intestine was higher in newborn piglets compared to the older piglets. No significant differences in cell proliferation in the small intestine was observed (P = 0.47) between NBW and LBW piglets; the highest proliferation was seen in piglets of 28 d of age (P = 0.01). Newborn piglets had significantly fewer apoptotic cells, whereas more apoptotic cells were seen in piglets of 10 d of age (P < 0.01). In conclusion, birth weight did not affect the parameters related to intestinal barrier function investigated in this study, suggesting that the mucosal barrier function is not altered in LBW piglets. Nevertheless, these results confirm that the mucosal barrier function

  16. Unnatural sudden infant death

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, R.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To identify features to help paediatricians differentiate between natural and unnatural infant deaths.
METHOD—Clinical features of 81 children judged by criminal and family courts to have been killed by their parents were studied. Health and social service records, court documents, and records from meetings with parents, relatives, and social workers were studied.
RESULTS—Initially, 42 children had been certified as dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and 29 were given another cause of natural death. In 24 families, more than one child died; 58died before the age of 6 months and most died in the afternoon or evening. Seventy per cent had experienced unexplained illnesses; over half were admitted to hospital within the previous month, and 15 had been discharged within 24 hours of death. The mother, father, or both were responsible for death in 43, five, and two families, respectively. Most homes were disadvantaged—no regular income, receiving income support—and mothers smoked. Half the perpetrators had a history of somatising or factitious disorder. Death was usually by smothering and 43% of children had bruises, petechiae, or blood on the face.
CONCLUSIONS—Although certain features are indicative of unnatural infant death, some are also associated with SIDS. Despite the recent reduction in numbers of infants dying suddenly, inadequacies in the assessment of their deaths exist. Until a thorough postmortem examination is combined with evaluation of the history and circumstances of death by an experienced paediatrician, most cases of covert fatal abuse will go undetected. The term SIDS requires revision or abandonment.

 PMID:10325752

  17. [Marginality and infant mortality].

    PubMed

    Jimenez Ornelas, R

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with differentials in infant and child mortality among low-income urban groups in Mexico. Mortality differentials within and among marginal socioeconomic groups in suburbs of Mexico City and Leon are analyzed and compared using data collected in interviews in 1980 and 1983. The results indicate that the health benefits associated with modernization, such as improved sanitation, can sometimes be offset by their negative impact on mortality, such as industrial accidents and environmental pollution.

  18. Brain tumors in infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyyed Mohammad; Habibi, Zohreh; Hanaei, Sara; Moradi, Ehsan; Nejat, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12) were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16); bulge fontanel (15); vomiting (15); developmental regression (11); sunset eye (7); seizure (4); loss of consciousness (4); irritability (3); nystagmus (2); visual loss (2); hemiparesis (2); torticollis (2); VI palsy (3); VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2); and ptosis (1). Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7), followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6) and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%), from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%), 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%), and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary. PMID:26962338

  19. Bone densitometry in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Barden, H.S.; Mazess, R.B.

    1988-07-01

    Bone mineral mass and density can be measured noninvasively by various absorptiometric procedures. Two methods, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography, have widespread application in adults but only limited use in children. One method, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), has been used extensively in adults and children and has been modified for use in infants. The radius shaft has been used for most research on infants. However, the difficulty of using older SPA methods on this small bone (4 to 7 mm width) has led a few investigators to measure the shaft of the humerus. The typical precision of measurement in a newborn is about 5% with the use of computerized rectilinear scanners for the radius; older linear scanners have a precision error of 5% to 10% on the humerus. Linear scanners cannot measure precisely the radius in individual neonates. The SPA scans typically take about 5 minutes. The DPA technique using /sup 153/Gd has been modified for use on smaller animals (5 to 10 kg monkeys and dogs), but it has not been used on infants because DPA scans take 20 minutes. New methods using x-ray absorptiometry allow rapid (1 minute), precise (1%) measurements in the perinate. The need for a soft tissue bolus is eliminated, and both the axial and peripheral skeletons can be measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ultrasonic measurements do not yet offer adequate precision in the neonate, given the limited biologic range of values. 83 references.

  20. Acquisition of teleological descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, David W.

    1992-03-01

    Teleology descriptions capture the purpose of an entity, mechanism, or activity with which they are associated. These descriptions can be used in explanation, diagnosis, and design reuse. We describe a technique for acquiring teleological descriptions expressed in the teleology language TeD. Acquisition occurs during design by observing design modifications and design verification. We demonstrate the acquisition technique in an electronic circuit design.

  1. Writing job descriptions.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, M

    1990-01-01

    The skill of writing job descriptions begins with an understanding of the advantages, as well as the basic elements, of a well written description. The end result should be approved and updated as needed. Having a better understanding of this process makes writing the job description a challenge rather than a chore.

  2. Genetic parameters of piglet survival and birth weight from a two-generation crossbreeding experiment under outdoor conditions designed to disentangle direct and maternal effects.

    PubMed

    Roehe, R; Shrestha, N P; Mekkawy, W; Baxter, E M; Knap, P W; Smurthwaite, K M; Jarvis, S; Lawrence, A B; Edwards, S A

    2010-04-01

    Multivariate Bayesian linear-threshold models were used to estimate genetic parameters of peri- and postnatal piglet survival and individual birth weight of piglets reared under outdoor conditions. Data of 21,835 individual piglet observations were available from a 2-generation crossbreeding experiment selected for direct and maternal genetic effects of postnatal piglet survival on piglet and dam levels, respectively. In the first generation, approximately one-half of the Landrace sires used were selected for large or average breeding values of maternal genetic effects on postnatal piglet survival, whereas in the second generation the Large White sires used were selected for direct genetic effects of the same trait. Estimates of direct and maternal heritability were 0.21 and 0.15, 0.24 and 0.14, and 0.36 and 0.28 for piglet survival at birth and during the nursing period, and individual birth weight, respectively. In particular, direct heritabilities are substantially larger than those from the literature estimated for indoor-reared piglets, suggesting that genetic effects of these traits are substantially greater under outdoor conditions. Direct or maternal genetic correlations between survival traits or with birth weight were small (ranging from 0.06 to 0.17), indicating that peri- and postnatal survival are genetically under rather different control, and survival was only slightly positively influenced by birth weight. There were significant (P < 0.05) negative genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects within each of the analyzed traits ranging from -0.36 to -0.45, which have to be considered when selecting for piglet survival. Adjustment of traits for litter size or inclusion of genetic groups showed insignificant effects on the magnitude of the estimated genetic parameters. The magnitude of genetic parameters suggested that there is substantial potential for genetic improvement of survival traits and birth weight in direct and maternal

  3. Medium-chain TAG improve energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in the liver of intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Yue; Hou, Xiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that medium-chain TAG (MCT) could alleviate hepatic oxidative damage in weanling piglets with intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). There is a relationship between oxidative status and energy metabolism, a process involved in substrate availability and glucose flux. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IUGR and MCT on hepatic energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in weanling piglets. Twenty-four IUGR piglets and twenty-four normal-birth-weight (NBW) piglets were fed a diet of either soyabean oil (SO) or MCT from 21 d of postnatal age to 49 d of postnatal age. Then, the piglets' biochemical parameters and gene expressions related to energy metabolism and mitochondrial function were determined (n 4). Compared with NBW, IUGR decreased the ATP contents and succinate oxidation rates in the liver of piglets, and reduced hepatic mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS) activity (P<0·05). IUGR piglets exhibited reductions in hepatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents and gene expressions related to mitochondrial biogenesis compared with NBW piglets (P<0·05). The MCT diet increased plasma ghrelin concentration and hepatic CS and succinate dehydrogenase activities, but decreased hepatic pyruvate kinase activity compared with the SO diet (P<0·05). The MCT-fed piglets showed improved mtDNA contents and PPARγ coactivator-1α expression in the liver (P<0·05). The MCT diet alleviated decreased mRNA abundance of the hepatic PPARα induced by IUGR (P<0·05). It can therefore be postulated that MCT may have beneficial effects in improving energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in weanling piglets.

  4. Transport of Particles in Intestinal Mucus under Simulated Infant and Adult Physiological Conditions: Impact of Mucus Structure and Extracellular DNA

    PubMed Central

    Macierzanka, Adam; Mackie, Alan R.; Bajka, Balazs H.; Rigby, Neil M.; Nau, Françoise; Dupont, Didier

    2014-01-01

    The final boundary between digested food and the cells that take up nutrients in the small intestine is a protective layer of mucus. In this work, the microstructural organization and permeability of the intestinal mucus have been determined under conditions simulating those of infant and adult human small intestines. As a model, we used the mucus from the proximal (jejunal) small intestines of piglets and adult pigs. Confocal microscopy of both unfixed and fixed mucosal tissue showed mucus lining the entire jejunal epithelium. The mucus contained DNA from shed epithelial cells at different stages of degradation, with higher amounts of DNA found in the adult pig. The pig mucus comprised a coherent network of mucin and DNA with higher viscosity than the more heterogeneous piglet mucus, which resulted in increased permeability of the latter to 500-nm and 1-µm latex beads. Multiple-particle tracking experiments revealed that diffusion of the probe particles was considerably enhanced after treating mucus with DNase. The fraction of diffusive 500-nm probe particles increased in the pig mucus from 0.6% to 64% and in the piglet mucus from ca. 30% to 77% after the treatment. This suggests that extracellular DNA can significantly contribute to the microrheology and barrier properties of the intestinal mucus layer. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the structure and permeability of the small intestinal mucus have been compared between different age groups and the contribution of extracellular DNA highlighted. The results help to define rules governing colloidal transport in the developing small intestine. These are required for engineering orally administered pharmaceutical preparations with improved delivery, as well as for fabricating novel foods with enhanced nutritional quality or for controlled calorie uptake. PMID:24755941

  5. Safety of Sildenafil in Infants*

    PubMed Central

    Samiee-Zafarghandy, Samira; Smith, P. Brian; van den Anker, Johannes N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In view of the recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s warning against the use of sildenafil in pediatric patients, we aimed to provide an updated overview of the dosing and safety of sildenafil in infants and to explore the relevance of the present safety concerns to the infant population. Data Source The National Library of Medicine PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched using the following terms: Sildenafil AND (infant OR infants OR newborn OR newborns OR child OR children OR childhood OR pediatric OR pediatrics OR paediatric OR paediatrics). Study Selection Studies presenting original clinical data regarding the dosing, use, or safety of sildenafil in infants with pulmonary hypertension would be included. Data Extraction Of the 49 included studies, case reports and case series were the most common type of publications (n = 25). The identified trials included 625 children, with more than 140 infants. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and pulmonary hypertension associated with other conditions were the most common underlying diagnoses. Conclusion There is currently no evidence of serious adverse event in infants exposed to sildenafil. Present safety concerns regarding the use of sildenafil in pediatric patients should be further explored before being applied to infant population. Sildenafil remains a valuable option for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in young infants. Prospective studies should be designed in such a way that they include a safety assessment to evaluate potential adverse outcomes of sildenafil therapy in this population. PMID:24583505

  6. Detection and molecular characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from piglets with exudative epidermitis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan

    2012-10-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an economically important emerging pathogen associated with distinct syndromes and diseases in swine, collectively known as porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of PCV2 in piglets affected with exudative epidermitis (EE) in Uruguay. In addition we aimed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the isolated strains. In June 2011 an outbreak of EE detected in a small herd was reported. Piglets presented skin lesions compatible with EE and symptoms associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) were also observed. Sera from affected and healthy animals were tested for the presence of viral DNA. Exclusively, diseased piglets were infected with PCV2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PCV2 isolates belonged to PCV2b genotype. We report the detection and molecular characterization of PCV2 strains for the first time in Uruguay.

  7. Production and composition of Iberian sow's milk and use of milk nutrients by the suckling Iberian piglet.

    PubMed

    Aguinaga, M A; Gómez-Carballar, F; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2011-08-01

    Sixteen purebred Iberian (IB) sows were used in two consecutive trials to determine the efficiency of conversion of sow's milk into piglet body weight (BW) gain and the relationship between milk protein and body protein retention and between milk energy yield and body energy retention in the nursing IB piglet. In each trial, four sows were selected in order to evaluate their milk production, litter growth and nutrient balance measurements, together with four additional sows for milk sampling. Litter size was equalized to six piglets. Daily milk yield (MY) was determined weekly by the weigh-suckle-weigh technique over a 34-day lactation period. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and then weekly from day 5 of lactation. Milk samples were collected on days 5, 12, 19, 26 and 34 post partum. The comparative slaughter procedure was used to determine piglet nutrient and energy retention. One piglet from each litter was slaughtered at birth and four on the morning of day 35. Total MY was on average 5.175 ± 0.157 kg/day. The average chemical composition (g/kg) of the milk was 179 ± 4 dry matter, 53.4 ± 1.0 CP, 58.5 ± 3.8 fat, 10.4 ± 0.3 ash and 56.9 ± 2.3 lactose. Milk gross energy (GE) was 4.626 ± 0.145 MJ/kg. Milk intake per piglet tended to increase in trial 2 (832 v. 893 g/day; P = 0.066). Piglet BW gain contained (g/kg) 172.1 ± 1.3 protein, 151.5 ± 3.5 fat, 41.4 ± 0.6 ash and 635 ± 3 water and 10.127 ± 0.126 MJ GE/kg. Throughout the 34-day nursing period, the piglets grew at an average rate of 168 ± 3 g/day. The ratio of daily piglet BW gain to daily MY was 0.195 ± 0.002 g/g and the gain per MJ milk GE intake was 41.9 ± 0.5 g/MJ. The overall efficiency of protein accretion (g CP gain/g CP milk intake) was low and declined in trial 2 (0.619 v. 0.571; P = 0.016). Nutrient and energy deposition between birth and weaning were 27.4 ± 0.5 g/day protein, 24.2 ± 0.8 g/day fat and 1615 ± 40 kJ/day energy. Piglet energy requirements for maintenance were

  8. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...

  9. Infant of a substance using mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... Maternal substance use; Maternal drug use; Narcotic exposure - infant; Substance use disorder - infant ... ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS SEEN IN AN INFANT OF A SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHER? Babies born to ...

  10. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Facts for Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents risk factors and prevention measures related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Offers infant sleep recommendations and five discussion questions to test knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (DLH)

  11. [Quantitative makeup of the gastrointestinal flora of piglets in the 1st 2 weeks of life. 2. The development of the gastrointestinal flora in primary specific-pathogen-free piglets].

    PubMed

    Schulze, F; Bocklisch, H; Kielstein, P; Schimmel, D; Sattler, H G

    1980-01-01

    Quantitative germ flora analyses were applied to 22 SPF piglets, aged between four hours and 14 days, to follow up the development of their gastro-intestinal flora. The development of a fairly stable gastro-intestinal flora was delayed. Escherichia coli strains were isolated from SPF piglets which had died following diarrhoea and septicaemia, but they did not fall in those E. coli sero-groups known for pathogenicity to swine. The outcome of raising was greatly stabilised and amounted to about 70 per cent by administration of something between 80 ml and 100 ml of radiation-sterilised sow colostrum.

  12. Nutrient intake of infants and toddlers in the United Arab Emirates: the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study.

    PubMed

    Abdulrazzaq, Y M; Nagelkerke, N; Abdulla, S; Belhaj, G

    2016-05-01

    This descriptive study evaluated the nutrient adequacy of the diet of infants (aged 6-11.9 months) and toddlers (aged 12-24 months) in the United Arab Emirates. A random sample of 1000 infants and toddlers was recruited from 2 cities (Al Ain and Dubai) from March 2011 to February 2012 and their usual nutrient intake was determined using 24-hour recall. In all, 54.2% of infants and 25.2% of toddlers were breastfeeding. Mean energy intake of infant girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 747 (SD 189) kcal and 773 (SD 215) kcal respectively and 810.5 (SD 232.2) kcal and 821.9 (SD 262) kcal for boys. In toddlers, mean energy intake for girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 1032.8 (SD 252) kcal and 1013 (SD 339.1) kcal respectively and 1057.2 (SD 201.8) kcal and 1030.3 (SD 341.7) kcal for boys. Iron intake was low in both groups. Mean body mass index and body weight and height were similar to World Health Organization figures but significant numbers of infants and toddlers of both sexes were over- or underweight. Although mean energy and macronutrient intakes were comparable to the RDA, significant numbers were over- or underfed.

  13. Nutrient intake of infants and toddlers in the United Arab Emirates: the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study.

    PubMed

    Abdulrazzaq, Y M; Nagelkerke, N; Abdulla, S; Belhaj, G

    2016-05-01

    This descriptive study evaluated the nutrient adequacy of the diet of infants (aged 6-11.9 months) and toddlers (aged 12-24 months) in the United Arab Emirates. A random sample of 1000 infants and toddlers was recruited from 2 cities (Al Ain and Dubai) from March 2011 to February 2012 and their usual nutrient intake was determined using 24-hour recall. In all, 54.2% of infants and 25.2% of toddlers were breastfeeding. Mean energy intake of infant girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 747 (SD 189) kcal and 773 (SD 215) kcal respectively and 810.5 (SD 232.2) kcal and 821.9 (SD 262) kcal for boys. In toddlers, mean energy intake for girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 1032.8 (SD 252) kcal and 1013 (SD 339.1) kcal respectively and 1057.2 (SD 201.8) kcal and 1030.3 (SD 341.7) kcal for boys. Iron intake was low in both groups. Mean body mass index and body weight and height were similar to World Health Organization figures but significant numbers of infants and toddlers of both sexes were over- or underweight. Although mean energy and macronutrient intakes were comparable to the RDA, significant numbers were over- or underfed. PMID:27553395

  14. Effects of yeast products on the intestinal morphology, barrier function, cytokine expression, and antioxidant system of weaned piglets*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huan-sheng; Wu, Fei; Long, Li-na; Li, Tie-jun; Xiong, Xia; Liao, Peng; Liu, Hong-nan; Yin, Yu-long

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a mixture of yeast culture, cell wall hydrolysates, and yeast extracts (collectively “yeast products,” YP) on the performance, intestinal physiology, and health of weaned piglets. A total of 90 piglets weaned at 21 d of age were blocked by body weight, sex, and litter and randomly assigned to one of three treatments for a 14-d feeding experiment, including (1) a basal diet (control), (2) 1.2 g/kg of YP, and (3) 20 mg/kg of colistin sulfate (CSE). No statistically significant differences were observed in average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain, or gain-to-feed ratio among CSE, YP, and control piglets. Increased prevalence of diarrhea was observed among piglets fed the YP diet, whereas diarrhea was less prevalent among those fed CSE. Duodenal and jejunal villus height and duodenal crypt depth were greater in the control group than they were in the YP or CSE groups. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in the duodenal and jejunal villi were enhanced by YP, whereas IEL in the ileal villi were reduced in weaned piglets fed YP. Secretion of jejunal and ileal interleukin-10 (IL-10) was higher and intestinal and serum antioxidant indexes were affected by YP and CSE. In YP- and CSE-supplemented animals, serum D-lactate concentration and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity were both increased, and intestinal mRNA expressions of occludin and ZO-1 were reduced as compared to the control animals. In conclusion, YP supplementation in the diets of weaned piglets appears to increase the incidence of diarrhea and has adverse effects on intestinal morphology and barrier function. PMID:27704745

  15. Population dynamics and intra-litter transmission patterns of Isospora suis in suckling piglets under on-farm conditions.

    PubMed

    Sotiraki, S; Roepstorff, A; Nielsen, J P; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Enøe, C; Boes, J; Murrell, K D; Thamsborg, S M

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the intra-litter infection dynamics of Isospora suis under natural conditions, and to study any association between parasite transmission and the contamination level of the farrowing pen by applying different interventions in order to reduce the transmission of I. suis infection within the litter. The study was divided in 2 trials including in total 22 litters (254 piglets). The first trial included 4 litters (where standard procedures practiced routinely on the farm piglets were applied) and the piglets were followed coprologically from farrowing until 2 weeks after weaning. The sows of those litters were also examined at various intervals before and after farrowing. The second trial included the application of 3 different management procedures: (A) standard farm hygiene and management procedures, (B) standard farm hygiene and management procedures+the first piglets found to excrete I. suis oocysts in each pen were removed from the pen, and (C) reduced cleaning. Each procedure was studied in 2 litters. This was replicated 3 times to yield a total of 18 litters. The results suggested that (i) the sow does not play an important role in transmission of I. suis in the farrowing pen; (ii) in natural infections, both the age of the piglet age at onset of oocyst excretion and the oocyst excretion patterns may vary considerably; (iii) the course of oocyst excretion or development of diarrhoea is related to the time of initial infection and (iii) piglets, which are heavy at birth, are more prone to acquire I. suis infection. Moreover, it was demonstrated that cleaning could be an effective means of restricting the spread of the parasite within the litter and thus the development of diarrhoea.

  16. NADPH oxidases and reactive oxygen species at different stages of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Kathleen E; Aschner, J L; Milatovic, D; Schmidt, J W; Aschner, M; Kaplowitz, M R; Zhang, Y; Fike, Candice D

    2009-10-01

    Recently, we reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidase (NOX) contribute to aberrant responses in pulmonary resistance arteries (PRAs) of piglets exposed to 3 days of hypoxia (Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 295: L881-L888, 2008). An objective of the present study was to determine whether NOX-derived ROS also contribute to altered PRA responses at a more advanced stage of pulmonary hypertension, after 10 days of hypoxia. We further wished to advance knowledge about the specific NOX and antioxidant enzymes that are altered at early and later stages of pulmonary hypertension. Piglets were raised in room air (control) or hypoxia for 3 or 10 days. Using a cannulated artery technique, we found that treatments with agents that inhibit NOX (apocynin) or remove ROS [an SOD mimetic (M40403) + polyethylene glycol-catalase] diminished responses to ACh in PRAs from piglets exposed to 10 days of hypoxia. Western blot analysis showed an increase in expression of NOX1 and the membrane fraction of p67phox. Expression of NOX4, SOD2, and catalase were unchanged, whereas expression of SOD1 was reduced, in arteries from piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 or 10 days. Markers of oxidant stress, F(2)-isoprostanes, measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were increased in PRAs from piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 days, but not 10 days. We conclude that ROS derived from some, but not all, NOX family members, as well as alterations in the antioxidant enzyme SOD1, contribute to aberrant PRA responses at an early and a more progressive stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets. PMID:19592458

  17. Evaluation of CO2 anaesthesia applied by a commercial device for the castration of male suckling piglets under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Langhoff, Rebecca; Auer, Ulrike; Maneng, Julia; Hochgerner, Agnes; Ritzmann, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe clinical and behavioural parameters of piglets castrated with the use of CO2 anaesthesia by using the commercial available device MS Pigsleeper. 80 male piglets with three to six days of age were allocated to four groups, and were castrated or left uncastrated either after receiving 70% CO2/30% O02, or without anaesthesia. Defensive movements and heart rates were measured during induction and castration phase. At castration phase the dewclaw reflex was tested and piglets were monitored for vocalisation. During recovery and the subsequent five minutes conspicuous behaviours were recorded. Intensity of defensive movements was significantly higher in groups with CO2 anaesthesia during induction phase. Defensive movements were significantly lower in groups with CO2, but also not fully absent, during castration phase. Surgical tolerance was only reached by 20% (4/20) of piglets castrated under anaesthesia. Heart rates were above physiological levels at the beginning of induction phase and dropped significantly thereafter. Dropping of heart rates was more pronounced in anaesthetised groups leading to significant differences compared to non-anaesthetised groups. A minimum heart rate of 20 beats per minute was measured. Conspicuous behaviours as spasms, gasping and licking were described for pigs after CO2 anaesthesia. Measured parameters implicated stress and discomfort during induction and recovery phase and severe cardiovascular depression during CO2 anaesthesia. Surgical tolerance was reached by only a small proportion of anaesthetised piglets. Therefore, welfare aspects were not met using CO2 anaesthesia for piglet castration in general and especially by applying the gas anaesthesia with the commercial device MS Pigsleeper.

  18. Infants' Behavioral and Physiological Profile and Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Raquel; Figueiredo, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to (a) identify and profile groups of infants according to their behavioral and physiological characteristics, considering their neurobehavioral organization, social withdrawal behavior, and endocrine reactivity to stress, and to (b) analyze group differences in the quality of mother-infant interaction. Ninety-seven 8-week-old…

  19. Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Infant brain development is a dynamic process dependent upon endogenous and exogenous stimulation and a supportive environment. A critical period of brain and neurosensory development occurs during the third trimester and into the "fourth" trimester (first three months of life). Disruption, damage, or deprivation in the infant's social and…

  20. Litter size and piglet traits of gilts with different prolactin receptor genotypes.

    PubMed

    van Rens, Birgitte T T M; van der Lende, Tette

    2002-01-15

    Seventy-seven Large White x Meishan F2 crossbred gilts with prolactin receptor (PRLR) genotype AA (n = 26), AB (n = 36) and BB (n = 15) were compared for teat number (FTm), age at first estrus, gestation length (GL), litter size, and litter means of functional teat number (FTp), birthweight (BW), and pre-weaning growth rate (GR). Own placental information was available for 88% of 620 live-born piglets (62 gilts), since placentae were labeled during farrowing. The effect of PRLR genotype of the mother on average placenta weight (PLW) and placenta efficiency (EFF = BW/PLW), was therefore, also analyzed, PRLR genotype significantly (P < 0.05) affected age at first estrus and, as a result (since the gilts were inseminated at a fixed estrus number), age and bodyweight at insemination. Furthermore, PRLR genotype affected total number of piglets born (TNB, P = 0.056) and number of piglets born alive (NBA, P = 0.072), but it did not affect (P > 0.3) GL, BW or GR, neither before nor after correction for litter size. BB gilts were significantly younger at first estrus and younger and lighter at insemination than AA gilts (P < 0.05). AA gilts had larger TNB (P = 0.047) and tended to have a larger NBA (P = 0.062) than BB gilts. TNB was 11.4 +/- 0.7, 10.8 +/- 0.6, and 8.8 +/- 0.9; NBA was 11.1 +/- 0.6, 10.5 +/- 0.6, and 8.7 +/- 0.9; BW was 1309 +/- 40, 1277 +/- 34, and 1290 +/- 53 g; and GL was 113.6 +/- 0.3, 113.8 +/- 0.3, and 113.5 +/- 0.4 days for AA, AB and BB gilts, respectively. The effects on litter size and age at first estrus are independent effects. PRLR affected PLW (P = 0.050) and EFF (P = 0.066), resulting in a difference between AA and BB gilts. PLW was 160 +/- 9, 181 +/- 7 and 196 +/- 11 g and EFF was 7.6 +/- 0.2, 7.3 +/- 0.2 and 6.7 +/- 0.3 for AA (n = 19), AB (n = 29) and BB (n = 14) gilts, respectively. After correction for TNB, the differences disappeared. Functional teat number of the AA. AB and BB gilts was 15.35 +/- 0.22, 15.53 +/- 0.18, and 15.60 +/- 0

  1. Effects of high fiber intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary fiber given during pregnancy may influence sow endocrinology and increase piglet BW gain during early lactation. The aim of the current study was to determine whether dietary fiber given to sows during late pregnancy induces endocrine changes that could modulate sow colostrum production and, thus, piglet performance. From d 106 of pregnancy until parturition, 29 Landrace×Large White nulliparous sows were fed gestation diets containing 23.4 [high fiber (HF); n=15] or 13.3% total dietary fiber [low fiber (LF); n=14]. In the HF diet, wheat and barley were partly replaced by soybean hulls, wheat bran, sunflower meal (undecorticated), and sugar beet pulp. After parturition, sows were fed a standard lactation diet. Colostrum production was estimated during 24 h, starting at the onset of parturition (T0) and ending at 24 h after parturition (T24) based on piglet weight gains. Jugular blood samples were collected from sows on d 101 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of gestation to d 3 of lactation, and then on d 7 and 21 of lactation (d 0 being the day of parturition). Postprandial kinetics of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were determined on d 112 of pregnancy. The feeding treatment did not influence sow colostrum yield (3.9±0.2 kg) or piglet weight gain during the first day postpartum to d 21 of lactation. Colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets (<900 g) was greater in litters from HF sows than from LF sows (216±24 vs. 137±22 g; P=0.02). Preweaning mortality was lower in HF than LF litters (6.2 vs. 14.7%; P=0.01). Circulating concentrations of progesterone, prolactin, estradiol-17β, and cortisol were not influenced by the treatment. Sows fed the HF diet had greater postprandial insulin concentrations than LF sows (P=0.02) whereas the postprandial glucose peak was similar. At T24, colostrum produced by HF sows contained 29% more lipid than colostrum produced by LF sows (P=0.04). Immunoglobulin A concentrations in colostrum were lower at T0 and T

  2. Effects of Early Intervention with Sodium Butyrate on Gut Microbiota and the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines in Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jumei; Chen, Xue; Yu, Shuiqing; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate in the gut of animals has potential properties including regulating the innate immune, modulating the lipid metabolism, and protecting gut healthy. So far, only limited information on the impact of butyrate on the neonatal is available. This study aimed to investigate effects of oral administration of sodium butyrate (SB) on gut microbiota and the expression of inflammatory cytokine in neonatal piglets. Ten litters of crossbred newborn piglets were randomly allocated to the SB and control (CO) groups, each group consisted of five litters (replicates). Piglets in the SB group were orally administrated with 7 to 13 ml sodium butyrate solution (150 mmol/l) per day from the age of 1 to 7 days, respectively; piglets in the CO group were treated with the same dose of physiological saline. On days 8 and 21 (of age), gut digesta and tissues were collected for the analysis of microbiota, butyrate concentration and gene expression of inflammatory cytokine. Results showed that there was no difference in the butyrate concentration in the gut of piglets on days 8 and 21 between two groups. Real-time PCR assay showed that SB had no effect on the numbers of total bacteria in the stomach, ileum, and colon. MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that SB increased the richness in the stomach and colon, and the diversity of colonic microbiota on day 8 (P < 0.05). Genera Acinetobacter, Actinobacillus, Facklamia, Globicatella, Kocuria, Rothia, unclassified Leptotrichiaceae, unclassified Neisseriaceae, and unclassified Prevotellaceae in the stomach were increased in relative abundance by SB treatment, whereas the abundances of Lactobacillus decreased on day 8 (P < 0.05). At the genus and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) levels, SB had low impact on bacterial community in the ileum and colon on days 8 and 21. SB treatment decreased the expression of IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10, TGF-β, and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) in the ileum of piglets on day 8

  3. Effects of Early Intervention with Sodium Butyrate on Gut Microbiota and the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines in Neonatal Piglets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jumei; Chen, Xue; Yu, Shuiqing; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate in the gut of animals has potential properties including regulating the innate immune, modulating the lipid metabolism, and protecting gut healthy. So far, only limited information on the impact of butyrate on the neonatal is available. This study aimed to investigate effects of oral administration of sodium butyrate (SB) on gut microbiota and the expression of inflammatory cytokine in neonatal piglets. Ten litters of crossbred newborn piglets were randomly allocated to the SB and control (CO) groups, each group consisted of five litters (replicates). Piglets in the SB group were orally administrated with 7 to 13 ml sodium butyrate solution (150 mmol/l) per day from the age of 1 to 7 days, respectively; piglets in the CO group were treated with the same dose of physiological saline. On days 8 and 21 (of age), gut digesta and tissues were collected for the analysis of microbiota, butyrate concentration and gene expression of inflammatory cytokine. Results showed that there was no difference in the butyrate concentration in the gut of piglets on days 8 and 21 between two groups. Real-time PCR assay showed that SB had no effect on the numbers of total bacteria in the stomach, ileum, and colon. MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that SB increased the richness in the stomach and colon, and the diversity of colonic microbiota on day 8 (P < 0.05). Genera Acinetobacter, Actinobacillus, Facklamia, Globicatella, Kocuria, Rothia, unclassified Leptotrichiaceae, unclassified Neisseriaceae, and unclassified Prevotellaceae in the stomach were increased in relative abundance by SB treatment, whereas the abundances of Lactobacillus decreased on day 8 (P < 0.05). At the genus and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) levels, SB had low impact on bacterial community in the ileum and colon on days 8 and 21. SB treatment decreased the expression of IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10, TGF-β, and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) in the ileum of piglets on day 8

  4. Relationships between day one piglet serum immunoglobulin immunocrit and subsequent growth, puberty attainment, litter size, and lactation performance.

    PubMed

    Vallet, J L; Miles, J R; Rempel, L A; Nonneman, D J; Lents, C A

    2015-06-01

    Colostrum affects gut and uterine gland development in the neonatal piglet, suggesting that subsequent growth and reproductive performance may be affected. Measuring immunoglobulin in piglet serum using the immunoglobulin immunocrit on Day 1 of age provides a simple, inexpensive indication of the amount of colostrum acquired by the piglet in the first day of life. Relationships between serum immunoglobulin immunocrit measures and subsequent growth rates, age at puberty, incidence of puberty failure, litter size, and lactation performance were examined in pigs born and subsequently farrowing between 2009 and 2013. Immunoglobulin immunocrit measures were collected on 16,762 piglets on Day 1 of age. Of these piglets, BW measurements were available from 15,324 (7,684 males and 7,640 females) piglets at a range of ages from weaning to 200 d of age, allowing an assessment of growth rates. Age at puberty was recorded from a subset of 2,857 of the females after observing them for estrous behavior from approximately 170 to 250 d of age. To examine relationships between d 1 immunocrit and puberty failure, gilts with immunocrit measures that failed to reach puberty (n = 119) were matched with littermate gilts with immunocrit measures that achieved puberty (n = 167). Similarly, number born alive was collected on a subset (n = 799) of females from first to fourth parities for which d 1 immunocrits were measured on them as neonates. Finally, d 1 immunocrit effect on adult lactational competence was assessed by measuring litter average (offspring of 440 females) and litter average piglet preweaning growth rate (offspring of 774 females) in females where d 1 immunocrits were available from them as neonates. Results indicated that low d 1 immunocrits were subsequently associated with reduced growth (P < 0.01), increased age at puberty (P < 0.01), reduced number born alive (P < 0.05), reduced litter average immunocrit (P < 0.05), and reduced litter average preweaning growth rate

  5. Use of modified halloysite nanotubes in the feed reduces the toxic effects of zearalenone on sow reproduction and piglet development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Rui; Liu, Min; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Cheng, Baojing

    2015-03-15

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a blend of corn contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on the physical condition of pregnant and suckling sows and the development of their offspring. Halloysite nanotubes modified using the surfactant, stearyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, were tested for its efficacy in protecting against the detrimental effects of zearalenone (ZEN) exposure. A total of 18 pregnant second parity Yorkshire sows (six per treatment) were fed control diet, contaminated grain diet (ZEN, 2.77 mg/kg), and contaminated grain + 1% modified halloysite nanotube (MHNT) diet (ZEN, 2.76 mg/kg) from 35 to 70 days in pregnancy (DIP), which is the critical period in development of fetuses. The results show that consumption of ZEN led to a reduction in sow's mass gain during 35 to 70 DIP and mass at 110 DIP, backfat at 70 DIP and weaning, placenta weight at 70 DIP and farrowing, the lactation average daily feed intake, and an increase in the weight of ovary at 70 DIP of sows (P < 0.05). The total number and average body weight (BW) of fetuses at 70 DIP, the number of piglets born, the litter birth weight, the average BW of piglet at birth, the number of piglets born alive, the born alive litter weight, and born alive piglet BW at farrowing were also decreased by ZEN exposure (P < 0.05). The increased expressions of P53, Bax, Cyto C, caspase 9, and caspase 3 and decreased expression of Bcl-2 were observed in the uterus and placenta of sows at 70 DIP, the placenta and fetal uterus at farrowing, and the piglet uterus at weaning (P < 0.05). Adding 1% MHNTs decreased the residue of ZEN in maternal and fetal tissues. The number of fetuses and the average fetus BW at 70 DIP, the total number of piglets born, the litter birth weight, the born alive piglet BW at farrowing, the average piglet BW, the litter weaned weight, and the average day gain at weaning were increased by adding 1% MHNTs, compared with the ZEN-treated group (P < 0

  6. Treatment of supraventricular tachycardia in infants: analysis of a large multicenter database

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Patricia Y.; Hill, Kevin D.; Clark, Reese H.; Smith, P. Brian; Hornik, Christoph P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is the most common arrhythmia in infants. Infants are typically treated with antiarrhythmic medications, but there is a lack of evidence guiding management, thus exposing infants to risks of both inadequate therapy and medication adverse events. We used data from a large clinical database to better understand current practices in SVT management, safety of commonly used medications, and outcomes of hospitalized infants treated for SVT. Methods This retrospective data analysis included all infants discharged from Pediatrix Medical Group neonatal intensive care units between 1998 and 2012 with a diagnosis of SVT who were treated with antiarrhythmic medications. We categorized infants by presence of congenital heart disease other than patent ductus arteriosus. Medications were categorized as abortive, acute, or secondary prevention therapies. We used descriptive statistics to describe medication use, adverse events, and outcomes including SVT recurrence and mortality. Results A total of 2848 infants with SVT were identified, of whom 367 (13%) had congenital heart disease. Overall, SVT in-hospital recurrence was high (13%), and almost one fifth of our cohort (18%) experienced an adverse event. Mortality was 2% in the overall cohort and 6% in the congenital heart disease group (p<0.001). Adenosine was the most commonly used abortive therapy, but there was significant practice variation in therapies used for acute treatment and secondary prevention of SVT. Conclusion and Practice Implication Significant variation in SVT treatment and suboptimal outcomes warrant future clinical trials to determine best practices in treating SVT in infants. PMID:25933212

  7. Differential maternal treatment of infant twins: effects of infant behaviors.

    PubMed

    DiLalla, L F; Bishop, E G

    1996-11-01

    This project utilized twins to study differential mother-sibling interactions. The use of twins circumvented the traditional confounds of studying siblings of different ages or at two points in time. When the twins were 7 and 9 months of age, mothers spent 2.5 min alone with each infant in an attempt to elicit child vocalizations. The mother and infant behaviors were coded both microanalytically and globally. The infant attention behaviors were influenced primarily by unique environment, whereas the temperament behaviors were influenced by both unique environmental and genetic effects. Mothers tended to treat both children similarly, regardless of zygosity, suggesting that maternal characteristics drove the mother-infant interactions. Thus, even though identical twins were more similar on some measures than fraternal twins, mothers tended to treat both types of twins comparably regardless of infant characteristics or behaviors.

  8. Anti-rotaviral effects of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract in piglets with rotavirus diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since rotavirus is one of the leading pathogens that cause severe gastroenteritis and represents a serious threat to human and animal health, researchers have been searching for cheap, safe, and effective anti-rotaviral drugs. There is a widespread of interest in using natural products as antiviral agents, and among them, licorice derived from Glycyrrhiza spp. has exerted antiviral properties against several viruses. In this study, anti-rotaviral efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract (GUE) as an effective and cheaper remedy without side-effects was evaluated in colostrums-deprived piglets after induction of rotavirus diarrhea. Methods Colostrums-deprived piglets were inoculated with porcine rotavirus K85 (G5P[7]) strain. On the onset of diarrhea, piglets were treated with different concentration of GUE. To evaluate the antiviral efficacy of GUE, fecal consistency score, fecal virus shedding and histological changes of the small intestine, mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL8, IL10, IFN-β, IFN-γ and TNF-α), signaling molecules (p38 and JNK), and transcription factor (NFκB) in the small intestine and spleen were determined. Results Among the dosages (100-400 mg/ml) administrated to animals, 400 mg/ml of GUE cured diarrhea, and markedly improved small intestinal lesion score and fecal virus shedding. mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL8, IL10, IFN-β, IFN-γ and TNF-α), signaling molecules (p38 and JNK), and transcription factor (NFκB) in the small intestine and spleen were markedly increased in animals with RVA-induced diarrhea, but dose- dependently decreased in GUE treated animals after RVA-induced diarrhea. Conclusions GUE cures rotaviral enteritis by coordinating antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Therapy of this herbal medicine can be a viable medication for curing rotaviral enteritis in animals and humans. PMID:23244491

  9. Piglets born from handmade cloning, an innovative cloning method without micromanipulation.

    PubMed

    Du, Y; Kragh, P M; Zhang, Y; Li, J; Schmidt, M; Bøgh, I B; Zhang, X; Purup, S; Jørgensen, A L; Pedersen, A M; Villemoes, K; Yang, H; Bolund, L; Vajta, G

    2007-11-01

    Porcine handmade cloning (HMC), a simplified alternative of micromanipulation based traditional cloning (TC) has been developed in multiple phases during the past years, but the final evidence of its biological value, births of piglets was missing. Here we report the first births of healthy piglets after transfer of blastocysts produced by HMC. As a cumulative effect of technical optimization, 64.3+/-2.3 (mean+/-S.E.M.) reconstructed embryos from 151.3+/-4.8 oocytes could be obtained after 3-4h manual work, including 1h pause between fusion and activation. About half (50.1+/-2.8%, n=16) of HMC reconstructed embryos developed to blastocysts with an average cell number of 77+/-3 (n=26) after 7 days in vitro culture (IVC). According to our knowledge, this is the highest in vitro developmental rate after porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). A total of 416 blastocysts from HMC, mixed with 150 blastocysts from TC using a cell line from a different breed were transferred surgically to nine synchronized recipients. Out of the four pregnancies (44.4%) two were lost, while two pregnancies went to term and litters of 3 and 10 piglets were delivered by Caesarean section, with live birth/transferred embryo efficiency of 17.2% (10/58) for HMC. Although more in vivo experiments are still needed to further stabilize the system, our data proves that porcine HMC may result in birth of healthy offspring. Future comparative examinations are required to prove the value of the new technique for large-scale application.

  10. Efficacy of an inactivated genotype 2b porcine epidemic diarrhea virus vaccine in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Baek, Pil-Soo; Choi, Hwan-Won; Lee, Sunhee; Yoon, In-Joong; Lee, Young Ju; Lee, Du Sik; Lee, Seungyoon; Lee, Changhee

    2016-06-01

    Massive outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) recurred in South Korea in 2013-2014 and affected approximately 40% of the swine breeding herds across the country, incurring a tremendous financial impact on producers and consumers. Despite the nationwide use of commercially available attenuated and inactivated vaccines in South Korea, PEDV has continued to plague the domestic pork industry, raising concerns regarding their protective efficacies and the need for new vaccine development. In a previous study, we isolated and serially cultivated a Korean PEDV epidemic strain, KOR/KNU-141112/2014, in Vero cells. With the availability of a cell culture-propagated PEDV strain, we are able to explore vaccination and challenge studies on pigs. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to produce an inactivated PEDV vaccine using the KNU-141112 strain and evaluate its effectiveness in neonatal piglets. Pregnant sows were immunized intramuscularly with the inactivated adjuvanted monovalent vaccine at six and three weeks prior to farrowing. Six-day-old piglets born to vaccinated or unvaccinated sows were challenged with the homogeneous KNU-141112 virus. The administration of the inactivated vaccine to sows greatly increased the survival rate of piglets challenged with the virulent strain, from 0% to approximately 92% (22/24), and significantly reduced diarrhea severity including viral shedding in feces. In addition, litters from unvaccinated sows continued to lose body weight throughout the experiment, whereas litters from vaccinated sows started recovering their daily weight gain at 7 days after the challenge. Furthermore, strong neutralizing antibody responses to PEDV were verified in immunized sows and their offspring, but were absent in the unvaccinated controls. Altogether, our data demonstrated that durable lactogenic immunity was present in dams administrated with the inactivated vaccine and subsequently conferred critical passive immune protection to

  11. Estimation of the tryptophan requirement in piglets by meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Simongiovanni, A; Corrent, E; Le Floc'h, N; van Milgen, J

    2012-04-01

    There is no consensus concerning the Trp requirement for piglets expressed relative to Lys on a standardized ileal digestible basis (SID Trp : Lys). A meta-analysis was performed to estimate the SID Trp : Lys ratio that maximizes performance of weaned piglets between 7 and 25 kg of BW. A database comprising 130 experiments on the Trp requirement in piglets was established. The nutritional values of the diets were calculated from the composition of feed ingredients. Among all experiments, 37 experiments were selected to be used in the meta-analysis because they were designed to express the Trp requirement relative to Lys (e.g. Lys was the second-limiting amino acid in the diet) while testing at least three levels of Trp. The linear-plateau (LP), curvilinear-plateau (CLP) and asymptotic (ASY) models were tested to estimate the SID Trp : Lys requirement using average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain-to-feed ratio (G : F) as response criteria. A multiplicative trial effect was included in the models on the plateau value, assuming that the experimental conditions affected only this parameter and not the requirement or the shape of the response to Trp. Model choice appeared to have an important impact on the estimated requirement. Using ADG and ADFI as response criteria, the SID Trp : Lys requirement was estimated at 17% with the LP model, at 22% with the CLP model and at 26% with the ASY model. Requirement estimates were slightly lower when G : F was used as response criterion. The Trp requirement was not affected by the composition of the diet (corn v. a mixture of cereals). The CLP model appeared to be the best-adapted model to describe the response curve of a population. This model predicted that increasing the SID Trp : Lys ratio from 17% to 22% resulted in an increase in ADG by 8%.

  12. Oyster crude polysaccharides attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokines production and PPARγ expression in weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guangwen; Huang, Juhui; Ma, Maotao; Suo, Xun; Huang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated whether oyster crude polysaccharides (OPS) attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune stress in weanling piglets. Thirty healthy crossbred piglets (28 ± 1 days old) were randomly divided into five groups (6 piglets/group). Blank control and LPS groups were fed with the basal diet, while low, medium and high dose of OPS groups were fed with the basal diet supplemented with 0.5, 0.8 and 1.2 % OPS, respectively, for 30 days. LPS group, as well as low, medium and high dose of OPS groups were then injected intraperitoneally with LPS (100 μg/kg body weight), whereas the blank control group was given phosphate buffered saline. The concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in plasma were detected by ELISA. The mRNA levels of PPARγ in liver, spleen, adrenal gland and thymus were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that compared with the blank control, LPS treatment significantly increased plasma IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels, which was significantly attenuated by supplementing 0.5, 0.8 or 1.2 % OPS in the diet. In addition, LPS significantly induced expression of PPARγ mRNA in liver, spleen, adrenal gland, and thymus, which was blocked by adding OPS regardless of the doses. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of OPS was able to alleviate the immune stress induced by LPS. PMID:27350914

  13. Exogenous leptin controls the development of the small intestine in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Woliński, J; Biernat, M; Guilloteau, P; Weström, B R; Zabielski, R

    2003-05-01

    Leptin, a hormone produced and secreted by adipose tIssue, muscles and stomach, is involved in the regulation of adipose tIssue mass, food intake and body weight in neonatal animals. It is also produced in the mammary glands and secreted into the colostrum and milk. Since leptin receptors are widely distributed in the small intestine mucosa, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exogenous leptin on the development of the small intestine in neonatal piglets. Male neonatal piglets were fed with sow's milk or artificial milk formula. Every 8 h the latter received either vehicle or leptin (2 or 10 microg/kg body weight). The animals were either killed after 6 days of treatment and the small intestine sampled for histology and brush border enzyme activities or were tested for marker molecule (Na-fluorescein and BSA) absorption in vivo. Feeding milk formula slowed the maturation of small intestinal mucosa compared with feeding sow's milk. However, after leptin treatment the length of the small intestine was increased, and intestinal villi length, but not crypt size, was reduced compared with controls. The mitotic index was increased and the percentage of vacuolated enterocytes was reduced in the entire small intestine. Enterocyte brush border protease and lactase activities were reduced in the jejunum. Na-fluorescein marker molecule absorption did not change but that of BSA was reduced 3.8-fold. In conclusion, exogenous leptin administered in physiological doses reversed the maturation of the small intestinal mucosa to the range found in sow-reared piglets.

  14. Randomized trial of volume infusion during resuscitation of asphyxiated neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, Myra; Garcia, Damian; Margraf, Linda; Perlman, Jeffrey; Laptook, Abbot

    2007-04-01

    Despite its use, there is little evidence to support volume infusion (VI) during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This study compares 5% albumin (ALB), normal saline (NS), and no VI (SHAM) on development of pulmonary edema and restoration of mean arterial pressure (MAP) during resuscitation of asphyxiated piglets. Mechanically ventilated swine (n=37, age: 8 +/- 4 d, weight: 2.2 +/- 0.7 kg) were progressively asphyxiated until pH <7.0, Paco2 >100 mm Hg, heart rate (HR) <100 bpm, and MAP <20 mm Hg. After 5 min of ventilatory resuscitation, piglets were randomized blindly to ALB, NS, or SHAM infusion. Animals were recovered for 2 h before euthanasia and lung tissue sampled for wet-to-dry weight ratio (W/D) as a marker of pulmonary edema. SHAM MAP was similar to VI during resuscitation. At 2 h post-resuscitation, MAP of SHAM (