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Sample records for infant piglets description

  1. Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury in Infant Piglets: Description of a New Large Animal Model and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kuluz, John; Samdani, Amer; Benglis, David; Gonzalez-Brito, Manuel; Solano, Juan P; Ramirez, Miguel A; Luqman, Ali; De Los Santos, Roosevelt; Hutchinson, David; Nares, Mike; Padgett, Kyle; He, Dansha; Huang, Tingting; Levi, Allan; Betz, Randal; Dietrich, Dalton

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop a new, clinically relevant large animal model of pediatric spinal cord injury (SCI) and compare the clinical and experimental features of pediatric SCI. Methods: Infant piglets (3–5 weeks old) underwent contusive SCI by controlled cortical impactor at T7. Severe complete SCI was induced in 6 piglets, defined as SCI with no spontaneous return of sensorimotor function. Eight piglets received incomplete SCI, which was followed by partial recovery. Somatosensory evoked potentials, magnetic resonance imaging, neurobehavioral function, and histopathology were measured during a 28-day survival period. Results: Mean SCI volume (defined as volume of necrotic tissue) was larger after complete compared with incomplete SCI (387 ± 29 vs 77 ± 38 mm3, respectively, P < 0.001). No functional recovery occurred after complete SCI. After incomplete SCI, piglets initially had an absence of lower extremity sensorimotor function, urinary and stool retention, and little to no rectal tone. Sensory responses recovered first (1–2 days after injury), followed by spontaneous voiding, lower extremity motor responses, regular bowel movements, and repetitive flexion-extension of the lower extremities when crawling. No piglet recovered spontaneous walking, although 4 of 8 animals with incomplete injuries were able to bear weight by 28 days. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging was performed safely, yielded high-resolution images of tissue injury, and correlated closely with injury volume seen on histopathology, which included intramedullary hemorrhage, cellular inflammation, necrosis, and apoptosis. Conclusion: Piglets performed well as a reproducible model of traumatic pediatric SCI in a large animal with chronic survival and utilizing multiple outcome measures, including evoked potentials, magnetic resonance imaging, functional outcome scores, and histopathology. PMID:20397443

  2. Mineral retention in three-week-old piglets fed goat and cow milk infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, S M; Darragh, A J; Hendriks, W H; Prosser, C G; Lowry, D

    2006-12-01

    Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula with respect to mineral absorption and deposition using the 3-wk-old piglet as a model for the 3-mo-old infant. Equal numbers of piglets (n = 8) were fed either the goat milk formula or the cow milk formula. The mineral composition of the prepared goat milk formula was higher than that of the prepared cow milk formula for most minerals, including calcium (75.1 vs. 56.7 mg/100 mL) but excluding iron, which was higher in the prepared cow milk formula (0.92 vs. 0.74 mg/100 mL). The amounts of calcium, phosphorus, and manganese absorbed by the piglets were significantly higher for the goat milk formula, whereas the amounts of zinc, iron, and magnesium absorbed were significantly higher for the cow milk formula. Apparent mineral absorption, relative to intake, was statistically higher in the cow milk formula for calcium and phosphorus, although the actual differences were very small (less than 1.3%). For copper, zinc, iron, and magnesium there was no significant difference between treatments in apparent mineral absorption, whereas for manganese, absorption was higher for the goat milk infant formula. The absolute mineral deposition was higher in piglets fed the goat milk formula for calcium, phosphorus, and manganese, whereas iron deposition was higher in the piglets fed cow milk formula. For all other minerals tested, there were no significant differences between treatments. The goat milk infant formula provided a pattern of mineral retention in the 3-wk-old piglet very similar to that of the adapted cow milk infant formula. The minor differences observed between the 2 appeared to be due to the different mineral contents of the 2 formulas.

  3. A neonatal piglet model for investigating brain and cognitive development in small for gestational age human infants.

    PubMed

    Radlowski, Emily C; Conrad, Matthew S; Lezmi, Stephane; Dilger, Ryan N; Sutton, Brad; Larsen, Ryan; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    The piglet was investigated as a potential model for studying brain and cognitive deficits associated with being born small for gestational age (SGA). Naturally farrowed SGA (0.7-1.0 kg BW) and average for gestational age (AGA, 1.3-1.6 kg BW) piglets were obtained on postnatal day (PD) 2, placed in individual cages, and provided a nutritionally adequate milk replacer diet (285 ml/kg/d). Beginning at PD14, performance in a spatial T-maze task was assessed. At PD28, piglets were anesthetized for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assess brain structure (voxel-based morphometry), connectivity (diffusion-tensor imaging) and metabolites in the hippocampus and corpus callosum (proton MR spectroscopy). Piglets born SGA showed compensatory growth such that BW of SGA and AGA piglets was similar (P>0.05), by PD15. Birth weight affected maze performance, with SGA piglets taking longer to reach criterion than AGA piglets (p<0.01). Total brain volume of SGA and AGA piglets was similar (P<0.05), but overall, SGA piglets had less gray matter than AGA piglets (p<0.01) and tended to have a smaller internal capsule (p = 0.07). Group comparisons between SGA and AGA piglets defined 9 areas (≥ 20 clusters) where SGA piglets had less white matter (p<0.01); 2 areas where SGA piglets had more white matter (p<0.01); and 3 areas where SGA piglets had more gray matter (p<0.01). The impact of being born SGA on white matter was supported by a lower (p<0.04) fractional anisotropy value for SGA piglets, suggesting reduced white matter development and connectivity. None of the metabolites measured were different between groups. Collectively, the results show that SGA piglets have spatial learning deficits and abnormal development of white matter. As learning deficits and abnormalities in white matter are common in SGA human infants, the piglet is a tractable translational model that can be used to investigate SGA-associated cognitive deficits and potential interventions.

  4. In vivo digestion of infant formula in piglets: protein digestion kinetics and release of bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Bouzerzour, Karima; Morgan, François; Cuinet, Isabelle; Bonhomme, Cécile; Jardin, Julien; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Dupont, Didier

    2012-12-28

    The first months of life correspond to a key period in human life where dramatic physiological changes (establishment of microbiota, development of the immune system, etc.) occur. In order to better control these changes it is necessary to understand the behaviour of food in the gastrointestinal tract of the newborn. Infant formula is the only food for the newborn when breast-feeding is impossible. The kinetics of digestion of milk proteins and the nature of the peptides liberated in the small intestine throughout infant formula digestion have never been extensively investigated so far and were therefore studied using the piglet as a model of the newborn child. Piglets were fed infant formula by an automatic delivery system during 28 d, and slaughtered 30, 90 and 210 min after the last meal. Contents of stomach, proximal and median jejunum and ileum were collected and characterised. The extent of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg), α-lactalbumin (α-la) and casein proteolysis was monitored by inhibition ELISA, SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting and MS. At 30 min after the last meal, caseins were shown to be extensively hydrolysed in the stomach. Nevertheless, peptides originating mainly from β-caseins (from 509 to 2510 Da) were identified in the jejunum and ileum of the piglets. β-Lg partially resisted gastric digestion but completely disappeared in the stomach after 210 min. α-La had a similar behaviour to that of β-lg. Two large peptides (4276 and 2674 Da) generated from β-lg were present in the ileum after 30 and 210 min and only one (2674 Da) after 90 min.

  5. Safety evaluation of sources of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid for use in infant formulas in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Russell J; Auestad, Nancy; Kruger, Claire; Buchanan, Sally

    2003-06-01

    Human milk provides small quantities of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA), usually less than 1% of total fatty acids. Vegetable oil blends commonly used in infant formulas have, until recently, provided the essential fatty acid precursors for these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), but no preformed DHA and ARA. This study evaluated the safety of ingredient sources of DHA and ARA for use in infant formulas in a neonatal piglet model. Newborn piglets were allowed to suckle for 3 days and then divided into 4 feeding groups of 6 males and 6 females. Piglets were bottle-fed at frequent feeding intervals until 19 days of age. The composition of the piglet formulas was modeled after standard milk-based formulas for human infants while meeting nutritional requirements for piglets. Formulas were a control formula (no added DHA or ARA), a DHA formula providing 55 mg DHA/100 Cal, an ARA formula providing 96 mg/100 Cal ARA, and a DHA+ARA formula providing 34 mg DHA and 62 mg ARA/100 Cal. All formulas were equal in fat content and provided approximately 1000 Cal/l. The ARA-rich oil was from a fermentation product of Mortierella alpina (40 wt.% fatty acids as ARA) and DHA was from high DHA tuna oil (25 wt.% fatty acids as DHA). There were no test article related effects of DHA and/or ARA indicative of an adverse health consequence to the animals seen in the clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, clinical chemistry, hematology, organ weights or gross or histopathology. The findings in this neonatal animal study support the safety of these ingredient oil sources of DHA and ARA for use in infant formulas.

  6. Calcium does not inhibit iron absorption or alter iron status in infant piglets adapted to a high calcium diet.

    PubMed

    Wauben, I P; Atkinson, S A

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a dietary calcium:iron ratio similar to that often consumed by premature human infants inhibits iron absorption in infant piglets adapted to a high calcium diet. Male Yorkshire piglets were randomized at 3 to 4 d of age to a high calcium diet (4.67 g/L = HC) or a normal calcium diet (2.0 g/L = NC) and fed for 2 to 2.5 wk. An iron dextran injection was administered in amounts to achieve a marginal state of iron repletion to simulate iron status of premature infants. In vivo iron absorption from the diet was determined using the radiotracers 55Fe and 59Fe and whole body counting. Calcium:iron interactions at absorption sites in piglets fed HC and NC were investigated by measurements of time-dependent 59Fe uptake in response to different calcium:iron ratios in vitro in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). In vivo iron absorption from the diet did not differ between NC and HC diet groups [57 +/- 8% versus 55 +/- 17% (mean +/- SD), respectively]. Iron status and iron contencentrations in spleen, liver, intestine, kidney and heart did not differ between diet groups. Iron uptake in BBMV was significantly reduced by calcium in both HC and NC (P < 0.001); but there were no significant differences in iron uptake in response to different calcium:iron ratios between HC and NC. With feeding a HC diet for 2 wk there may be an adaptive response to counteract the inhibitory effects of calcium on iron absorption, thus resulting in similar in vivo iron absorption and iron status irrespective of the 1.3-fold difference in dietary calcium:iron ratio between piglet groups. However, future studies are needed to determine the specific sites of calcium:iron interactions and adaptation mechanisms. Since the calcium:iron ratios used in this study reflect the usual calcium:iron ratios in diets for premature infants, it is unlikely that interactive effects of calcium with iron will compromise iron status in this infant population when

  7. Fermented Infant Formula Increases Ileal Protein Digestibility and Reduces Ileal Proteolytic Activity Compared with Standard and Hydrolyzed Infant Formulas in Piglets.

    PubMed

    Abrahamse, Evan; Huybers, Sylvie; Alles, Martine S; Renes, Ingrid B; Knol, Jan; Bouritius, Hetty; Ludwig, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    An infant formula that contained milk fermented by the bacteria Bifidobacterium breve and Streptococcus thermophilus (Lactofidus) was reported to alleviate functional digestive symptoms in infants. It was hypothesized that improved protein digestibility of the fermented infant formula could contribute to this effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein digestibility of a specific fermented (FF), a standard (SF), and an extensively hydrolyzed protein (HF) formula. Four-week-old piglets (n = 7) were fitted with a T-cannula at the terminal ileum and received each formula in a Latin square design. FF, SF, and HF contained 11.7%, 9.3%, and 11.9% (w/w) crude protein; 1.5%, 5.4%, and 5.6% (w/w) fiber; and had a casein/whey ratio of 60:40, 50:50, and 0:100 per kilogram of powder, respectively. Ileal digesta were collected and analyzed for amino acids and proteolytic activity. FF had a significantly higher apparent ileal crude protein digestibility (92.1% ± 1.0%) than SF and HF (84.4% ± 1.0% and 83.9% ± 0.9%, respectively). FF also had a significantly higher dry matter digestibility than SF and HF. The ileal crude protein flow of FF was significantly lower than that of SF and HF. The ileal flow of FF total proteolytic activity was significantly lower than that of SF but not significantly different from that of HF (412 ± 163 kU/8 h vs. 1530 ± 163 and 703 ± 156 kU/8 h, respectively). The FF in piglets had a significantly higher apparent ileal crude protein digestibility than the SF and HF and displayed lower ileal proteolytic activity than the SF. Both effects may contribute to the alleviation of functional gastrointestinal symptoms reported in infants fed fermented infant milk formula. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. QMR: Validation of an infant and children body composition instrument using piglets against chemical analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current study was undertaken to validate the first quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance instrument designed and built to assess body composition from birth through adulthood (up to 50 kg). A total of 50 pigs weighing between 3.0 and 49.1 kg were studied. Each piglet's body composition was ass...

  9. Infant formula promotes bone growth in neonatal piglets by enhancing osteoblastogenesis through bone morphogenic protein signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Relatively few studies have examined the effects of formula feeding relative to breast-feeding on bone in the neonate. Using peripheral quantitative CT scan and histomorphometric analysis, we demonstrated that neonatal piglets fed with soy-based formula (SF) and cow milk-based formula (MF) for 21 or...

  10. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel L; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM; raw bovine milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm pigs received parenteral and enteral nutrition consisting of IF (n = 13), BM (n = 13), or BC (n = 14). In a second study, WMP (n = 15) was compared with IF (n = 10) and BM (n = 9). Compared with pigs fed IF, pigs that were fed BM had significantly improved intestinal structure (mucosal weight, villus height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk) and milk processing (e.g., homogenization, fractionation, pasteurization, spray-drying) are important factors in determining milk quality during the early postnatal period of preterm neonates.

  11. An infant formula toxicity and toxicokinetic feeding study on carrageenan in preweaning piglets with special attention to the immune system and gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M L; Ferguson, H E; Thorsrud, B A; Nelson, K G; Blakemore, W R; Zeigler, B; Cameron, M J; Brant, A; Cochrane, L; Pellerin, M; Mahadevan, B

    2015-03-01

    A toxicity/toxicokinetic swine-adapted infant formula feeding study was conducted in Domestic Yorkshire Crossbred Swine from lactation day 3 for 28 consecutive days during the preweaning period at carrageenan concentrations of 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 ppm under GLP guidelines. This study extends the observations in newborn baboons (McGill et al., 1977) to piglets and evaluates additional parameters: organ weights, clinical chemistry, special gastrointestinal tract stains (toluidine blue, Periodic Acid-Schiff), plasma levels of carrageenan; and evaluation of potential immune system effects. Using validated methods, immunophenotyping of blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, B cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, mature T cells), sandwich immunoassays for blood cytokine evaluations (IL-6, IL-8, IL1β, TNF-α), and immunohistochemical staining of the gut for IL-8 and TNF-α were conducted. No treatment-related adverse effects at any carrageenan concentration were found on any parameter. Glucosuria in a few animals was not considered treatment-related. The high dose in this study, equivalent to ~430 mg/kg/day, provides an adequate margin of exposure for human infants, as affirmed by JECFA and supports the safe use of carrageenan for infants ages 0-12 weeks and older and infants with special medical needs.

  12. Serotonin’s role in piglet mortality and thriftiness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improving piglet survivability rates is of high priority for swine production as well as for piglet well-being. Dysfunction in the serotonin system has been associated with growth deficiencies, infant mortalities or failure to thrive in human infants. The aim of this research was to determine if a r...

  13. A role for serotonin in piglet preweaning mortality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improving piglet survivability rate is of high priority for swine production as well as for piglet well-being. Dysfunction in the serotonin system has been associated with growth deficiencies, infant mortality or failure to thrive (FTT) in human infants. The aim of this study was to examine the role...

  14. Male testicular development is affected by estrogens but not altered in neonatal piglets receiving soy infant formula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soy infant formula contains many phytochemicals, including phytoestrogens, which are structurally similar to estradiol (E2). As a result of their potentially estrogenic properties, soy infant formulas have been the subject of concern with regards to reproductive toxicity. To address these concerns...

  15. Baby Events: Assembling Descriptions of Infants in Family Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Ben; Sumsion, Jennifer; Stratigos, Tina; Elwick, Sheena

    2012-01-01

    The idea that research on infants should "voice" their "perspectives", their experiences, what they are "really saying," is a central feature of current moves toward participatory research. While embracing the ethos of participation, this article steps away from the binary logic of identity that implicitly underpins…

  16. Baby Events: Assembling Descriptions of Infants in Family Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Ben; Sumsion, Jennifer; Stratigos, Tina; Elwick, Sheena

    2012-01-01

    The idea that research on infants should "voice" their "perspectives", their experiences, what they are "really saying," is a central feature of current moves toward participatory research. While embracing the ethos of participation, this article steps away from the binary logic of identity that implicitly underpins…

  17. Caregiver Descriptions of the Developmental Skills of Infants and Toddlers Entering Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarborough, Anita A.; Hebbeler, Kathleen M.; Simeonsson, Rune J.; Spiker, Donna

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to describe the developmental skills of a national sample of infants and toddlers at entry into early intervention services. Caregivers were asked about their child's skills during a telephone interview. Summary values were derived from descriptions of motor, communication, independence, and cognitive skills. More…

  18. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Nie, Yangfan; Chen, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Zhichang; Fan, Qiwen; Yan, Xianghua

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia) significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of two genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium) significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of four genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida) significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants. PMID:27853453

  19. Enunciative categories in the description of language functioning of mothers and infants aged 1-4 months.

    PubMed

    Kruel, Cristina Saling; Rechia, Inaê Costa; Oliveira, Luciéle Dias; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de

    2016-01-01

    To present categories which explain the language functioning between infants and their mothers from Benveniste's concept of semiotic system, and verify whether such categories can be described numerically. Four mother-infant dyads were monitored in three stages. The first study consisted of a qualitative analysis of the transcribed video recordings conducted in each stage. We intended to identify the enunciative principles associated with the relationship between the semiotic system of the infant's body and their mother's language, namely, the principles of interpretancy and homology. The other study was conducted by means of a descriptive numerical analysis of the enunciative categories and the infant caregiver scale of behavior, using the ELAN software (EUDICO Linguistic Anotador). Mutuality in mother-infant interactions was observed in most of the scenes analyzed. Productive enunciative categories demonstrated in the infant's demand/mother's interpretation relation was identified in homology and interpretancy. It was also possible to use these categories to describe the mother-infant interactions numerically. In addition, other categories emerged because there are other subtypes of maternal productions not directly related to infant demand. This shows that infants are exposed to language of heterogeneous characteristics. The concept of semiotic system allowed the proposition of language functioning categories identifiable in the mother-infant relationship. Such categories were described numerically.

  20. Factors affecting mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Study design Descriptive, prospective cohort. Animals Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Methods Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Results Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p < 0.04 for all). Correlations between repeated measures increased from the first to the second week. Conclusions and Clinical relevance Repeatability was acceptable only during the second week of testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and

  1. Effects of early cholesterol intake on cholesterol 7 alpha hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) expression in piglets receiving sow's breast milk or infant formula until weaning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Unlike breast milk, infant formulas are not rich in cholesterol. To compensate for the dietary loss, hepatic cholesterol synthesis is increased in formula-fed infants. Observational studies have reported significant increases in serum cholesterol and triglycerides in adults that received formula dur...

  2. Total parenteral nutrition induces liver steatosis and apoptosis in neonatal piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) induces a high rate of liver disease in infants, yet the pathogenesis remains elusive. We used neonatal piglets as an animal model to assess early events leading to TPN-mediated liver injury. Newborn piglets (n = 7) were nourished for 7 d on TPN or enteral nutrition ...

  3. Description of 13 Infants Born During October 2015-January 2016 With Congenital Zika Virus Infection Without Microcephaly at Birth - Brazil.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Vanessa; Pessoa, André; Dobyns, William; Barkovich, A James; Júnior, Hélio van der Linden; Filho, Epitacio Leite Rolim; Ribeiro, Erlane Marques; Leal, Mariana de Carvalho; Coimbra, Pablo Picasso de Araújo; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco; Verçosa, Islane; Ventura, Camila; Ramos, Regina Coeli; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Mota, Vivian Maria Ribeiro; Dott, Mary; Hillard, Christina; Moore, Cynthia A

    2016-12-02

    Congenital Zika virus infection can cause microcephaly and severe brain abnormalities (1). Congenital Zika syndrome comprises a spectrum of clinical features (2); however, as is the case with most newly recognized teratogens, the earliest documented clinical presentation is expected to be the most severe. Initial descriptions of the effects of in utero Zika virus infection centered prominently on the finding of congenital microcephaly (3). To assess the possibility of clinical presentations that do not include congenital microcephaly, a retrospective assessment of 13 infants from the Brazilian states of Pernambuco and Ceará with normal head size at birth and laboratory evidence of congenital Zika virus infection was conducted. All infants had brain abnormalities on neuroimaging consistent with congenital Zika syndrome, including decreased brain volume, ventriculomegaly, subcortical calcifications, and cortical malformations. The earliest evaluation occurred on the second day of life. Among all infants, head growth was documented to have decelerated as early as 5 months of age, and 11 infants had microcephaly. These findings provide evidence that among infants with prenatal exposure to Zika virus, the absence of microcephaly at birth does not exclude congenital Zika virus infection or the presence of Zika-related brain and other abnormalities. These findings support the recommendation for comprehensive medical and developmental follow-up of infants exposed to Zika virus prenatally. Early neuroimaging might identify brain abnormalities related to congenital Zika infection even among infants with a normal head circumference (4).

  4. Emerging Piglet Models of Neonatal Short Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lim, David W; Turner, Justine M; Wales, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a growing problem in the human neonatal population. In infants, SBS is the leading cause of intestinal failure, the state of being unable to absorb sufficient nutrients for growth and development. Neonates with SBS are dependent on long-term parenteral nutrition therapy, but many succumb to the complications of sepsis and liver disease. Research in neonatal SBS is challenged by the ethical limits of studying sick human neonates and the heterogeneous nature of the disease process. Outcomes in SBS vary depending on residual intestinal anatomy, intestinal length, patient age, and exposure to nutrition therapies. The neonatal piglet serves as an appropriate translational model of the human neonate because of similarities in gastrointestinal ontogeny, physiological maturity, and adaptive processes. Re-creating the disease process in a piglet model presents a unique opportunity for researchers to discover novel insights and therapies in SBS. Emerging piglet models of neonatal SBS now represent the entire spectrum of disease seen in human infants. This review aims to contextualize these emerging piglet models within the context of SBS as a heterogeneous disease. We first explore the factors that account for SBS heterogeneity and then explore the suitability of the neonatal piglet as an appropriate translational animal model. We then examine differences between the emerging piglet models of neonatal SBS and how these differences affect their translational potential to human neonates with SBS.

  5. Oral doses of α-retinyl ester track chylomicron uptake and distribution of vitamin A in a male piglet model for newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Riabroy, Napaporn; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2014-08-01

    α-Retinol has utility in determining chylomicron trafficking of vitamin A to tissues given that it will not be recirculated in blood on retinol binding protein (RBP). In this study, α-retinol was used as a chylomicron tag to investigate short-term uptake from high-dose supplements given to piglets as a model for neonates. The distribution of orally administered α-retinol doses in liver and extrahepatic tissues was assessed at varying times after dosing. Male piglets (n = 24 per group) from vitamin A-depleted sows were orally given 26.2 or 52.4 μmol of α-retinyl acetate, the molar equivalent of 25,000 and 50,000 IU of vitamin A, respectively. Tissues were collected and analyzed by HPLC. Lung (6.46 ± 2.94 nmol/g), spleen (22.1 ± 11.3 nmol/g), and adrenal gland (17.0 ± 11.2 nmol/g) α-retinol concentrations peaked at 7 h after dosing, and, by 7 d, α-retinol was essentially cleared from these tissues (≤0.25 ± 0.12 nmol/g). This demonstrates that the lung, spleen, and adrenal gland receive substantial vitamin A from chylomicra to maintain concentrations. Conversely, storage of α-retinol in the liver reached a plateau at 24 h (1.72 ± 0.58 μmol/liver) and was retained through 7 d (2.10 ± 0.38 μmol/liver) (P > 0.05). This indicates that α-retinol was not substantially utilized locally in the liver nor transported out from the liver via RBP. In serum, the majority of α-retinol was in the ester form, which confirms that α-retinol does not bind to RBP but does circulate. α-Retinyl esters were detectable at 7 d in the serum but were not different from baseline. Collectively, these data suggest that crucial immune organs need constant dietary intake to maintain vitamin A concentrations because α-retinol was quickly taken up by tissues and decreased to baseline in all tissues except long-term storage in the liver. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Does higher income inequality adversely influence infant mortality rates? Reconciling descriptive patterns and recent research findings.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Jones, Marcella K; Erwin, Paul Campbell

    2015-04-01

    As the struggle continues to explain the relatively high rates of infant mortality (IMR) exhibited in the United States, a renewed emphasis is being placed on the role of possible 'contextual' determinants. Cross-sectional and short time-series studies have found that higher income inequality is associated with higher IMR at the state level. Yet, descriptively, the longer-term trends in income inequality and in IMR seem to call such results into question. To assess whether, over the period 1990-2007, state-level income inequality is associated with state-level IMR; to examine whether the overall effect of income inequality on IMR over this period varies by state; to test whether the association between income inequality and IMR varies across this time period. IMR data--number of deaths per 1000 live births in a given state and year--were obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Wonder database. Income inequality was measured using the Gini coefficient, which varies from zero (complete equality) to 100 (complete inequality). Covariates included state-level poverty rate, median income, and proportion of high school graduates. Fixed and random effects regressions were conducted to test hypotheses. Fixed effects models suggested that, overall, during the period 1990-2007, income inequality was inversely associated with IMR (β = -0.07, SE (0.01)). Random effects models suggested that when the relationship was allowed to vary at the state-level, it remained inverse (β = -0.05, SE (0.01)). However, an interaction between income inequality and time suggested that, as time increased, the effect of income inequality had an increasingly positive association with total IMR (β = 0.009, SE (0.002)). The influence of state income inequality on IMR is dependent on time, which may proxy for time-dependent aspects of societal context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polydextrose enrichment of infant formula demonstrates prebiotic characteristics by altering intestinal microbiota, organic acid concentrations, and cytokine expression in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Herfel, Tina M; Jacobi, Sheila K; Lin, Xi; Fellner, Vivek; Walker, D Carey; Jouni, Zeina E; Odle, Jack

    2011-12-01

    Oligosaccharides, the 3rd-most abundant component in human milk, are virtually absent from infant formulas and from the cow milk on which most are based. In breast-fed infants, human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) act as both receptor analogs, interfering with pathogen adhesion, and as prebiotics, stimulating the growth of certain commensal bacteria (e.g. bifidobacteria) and supporting the innate immunity. To further align the functional properties of infant formula with those of human milk, polydextrose (PDX) is proposed as a substitute for HMO. To determine the prebiotic functionality of PDX, 1-d-old pigs were fed a cow milk-based formula supplemented with increasing concentrations of PDX (0, 1.7, 4.3, 8.5, or 17 g/L) for 18 d (n = 13). Additional reference groups included pigs sampled at d 0 and sow-reared pigs sampled at d 18 (n = 12). Ileal Lactobacilli CFU, but not Bifidobacteria, increased linearly with increasing PDX (P = 0.02). The propionic acid concentration in digesta linearly increased with the PDX level (P = 0.045) and lactic acid increased linearly by 5-fold with increasing PDX (P = 0.001). Accordingly, digesta pH decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as PDX increased, with a maximal reduction approaching 0.5 pH units in pigs fed 17 g/L. Expression of TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-8 showed a negative quadratic pattern in response to PDX supplementation, declining at intermediate concentrations and rebounding at higher concentrations of PDX. In summary, PDX enrichment of infant formula resulted in a prebiotic effect by increasing ileal lactobacilli and propionic and lactic acid concentrations and decreasing pH with associated alterations in ileal cytokine expression.

  8. Air Trapping and Airflow Obstruction in Newborn Cystic Fibrosis Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Ryan J.; Michalski, Andrew S.; Bauer, Christian; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H.; Gross, Thomas J.; Awadalla, Maged S.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Taft, Peter J.; Hoegger, Mark J.; Diwakar, Amit; Ochs, Matthias; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Beichel, Reinhard R.; Meyerholz, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Air trapping and airflow obstruction are being increasingly identified in infants with cystic fibrosis. These findings are commonly attributed to airway infection, inflammation, and mucus buildup. Objectives: To learn if air trapping and airflow obstruction are present before the onset of airway infection and inflammation in cystic fibrosis. Methods: On the day they are born, piglets with cystic fibrosis lack airway infection and inflammation. Therefore, we used newborn wild-type piglets and piglets with cystic fibrosis to assess air trapping, airway size, and lung volume with inspiratory and expiratory X-ray computed tomography scans. Micro–computed tomography scanning was used to assess more distal airway sizes. Airway resistance was determined with a mechanical ventilator. Mean linear intercept and alveolar surface area were determined using stereologic methods. Measurements and Main Results: On the day they were born, piglets with cystic fibrosis exhibited air trapping more frequently than wild-type piglets (75% vs. 12.5%, respectively). Moreover, newborn piglets with cystic fibrosis had increased airway resistance that was accompanied by luminal size reduction in the trachea, mainstem bronchi, and proximal airways. In contrast, mean linear intercept length, alveolar surface area, and lung volume were similar between both genotypes. Conclusions: The presence of air trapping, airflow obstruction, and airway size reduction in newborn piglets with cystic fibrosis before the onset of airway infection, inflammation, and mucus accumulation indicates that cystic fibrosis impacts airway development. Our findings suggest that early airflow obstruction and air trapping in infants with cystic fibrosis might, in part, be caused by congenital airway abnormalities. PMID:24168209

  9. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. In the current study, piglets were fed soy infant formula (Soy), cow's milk formula (Milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum ...

  10. The domestic piglet: an important model for investigating the neurodevelopmental consequences of early life insults.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Matthew S; Johnson, Rodney W

    2015-01-01

    Insults in the prenatal and early postnatal period increase the risk for behavioral problems later in life. One hypothesis is that pre- and postnatal stressors influence structural and functional brain plasticity. Understanding the mechanisms is important, but progress has lagged because certain studies in human infants are impossible, while others are extremely difficult. Furthermore, results from popular rodent models are difficult to translate to human infants owing to the substantial differences in brain development and morphology. Because it overcomes some of these obstacles, the domestic piglet has emerged as an important model. Piglets have a gyrencephalic brain that develops similar to the human brain and that can be assessed in vivo by using clinical-grade neuroimaging instruments. Furthermore, owing to their precocial nature, piglets can be weaned at birth and used in behavioral testing paradigms to assess cognitive behavior at an early age. Thus, the domestic piglet represents an important translational model for investigating the neurodevelopmental consequences of early life insults.

  11. [Description of the long-term effects of breast feeding in the Hungarian guidelines for infant nutrition].

    PubMed

    Jakobik, Viktória; Martin-Bautista, Elena; Gage, Heather; Von Rosen-Von Hoewel, Julia; Laitinen, Kirsi; Schmid, Martina; Morgan, Jane; Williams, Peter; Campoy, Cristina; Koletzko, Berthold; Raats, Monique; Decsi, Tamás

    2011-10-09

    To identify and describe infant feeding policy documents in Hungary and compare them to the documents of other four European countries (England, Finland, Germany and Spain). The question was also addressed how the phenomenon of nutritional programming was represented in the documents. Policy documents on infant feeding were identified and analyzed in the five European countries by using uniform methods for searching and coding. Twenty-six documents were identified: 4 in England, 2 in Finland, 9 in Germany, 6 in Hungary and 5 in Spain. Altogether 203 statements linked to references were identified: benefits of breast-feeding in general (24%), protection against infections (32%), long-term advantages like the prevention of diabetes (31%) or allergy (12%). Considerable variations were found within and between countries in the evaluation of the duration and character of the positive effects. The majority of the statements in the Hungarian documents referred either to the role of breast-feeding in infection protection (n = 8), or to long-term protective effects (n = 13). Policy documents in the study countries varied both in their extent and in the description of the long-term effects of infant nutrition. Majority of the documents failed to contain evidence based discussion of the phenomenon of early nutritional programming.

  12. The Developmental Course of Behavioral States in Preterm Infants: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Glen P.

    1981-01-01

    Describes longitudinal changes in premature infants' behaviors after various forms of stimulation were given during a standardized neurological examination. Regardless of conceptional age, arousal level increased as the examination progressed. Conceptional age influenced rapidity of change from lower to higher states of arousal and determined the…

  13. A Descriptive Study of Play by Deaf and Hearing Infants. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Patricia Elizabeth; And Others

    Play behaviors of infants who had normal hearing or were deaf were observed during free play with their mothers, at ages 9, 12, and 18 months. Participants included 15 dyads of children who were deaf and mothers who were not, 15 dyads of children and mothers who were both deaf, and 15 dyads of children and mothers who both had normal hearing.…

  14. Propagation of infantile gastroenteritis virus (orbi-group) in conventional and germfree piglets.

    PubMed

    Middleton, P J; Petric, M; Szymanski, M T

    1975-12-01

    Infantile gastroenteritis virus (orbi-group) recovered from stools of infants with acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis was administered per os to germfree and conventional piglets. Virus was found subsequently in stools and in the mucosal epithelial cells of the small intestine of these animals. Some animals developed diarrhea. Added proof of orbivirus replication was obtained through the use of tritiated uridine injections and the recovery of labeled virus in gut contents at the time of autopsy. Serological conversion was demonstrated in infected germfree piglets.

  15. Moderate Perinatal Choline Deficiency Elicits Altered Physiology and Metabolomic Profiles in the Piglet

    PubMed Central

    Getty, Caitlyn M.; Dilger, Ryan N.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary choline on the health and well-being of swine, and those pivotal papers were aimed at determining dietary requirements for sows and growing pigs. This is of importance as the piglet is becoming a widely accepted model for human infant nutrition, but little is known about the impacts of perinatal choline status on overall health and metabolism of the growing piglet. In the present study, sows were provided either a choline deficient (CD, 625 mg choline/kg dry matter) or choline sufficient (CS, 1306 mg choline/kg dry matter) diet for the last 65 d of gestation (prenatal intervention). Piglets were weaned from the sow 48 h after farrowing and provided either a CD (477 mg choline/kg dry matter) or CS (1528 mg choline/kg dry matter) milk replacer (postnatal intervention) for 29 ± 2 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 treatment (prenatal/postnatal) groups: CS/CS, CS/CD, CD/CS, and CD/CD. Piglet growth was normal for artificially-reared piglets, and was not impacted by perinatal choline status. Piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment had lower (P < 0.01) plasma choline and choline-containing phospholipid concentrations and higher (P < 0.05) liver enzyme (alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase) values compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Hepatic lipid content of piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment was higher (P < 0.01) compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Additionally, postnatally CD piglets had lower (P = 0.01) plasma cholesterol than postnatally CS piglets. Brain development was also impacted by perinatal choline status, with brains of piglets exposed to prenatal CD being smaller (P = 0.01) than those of prenatally CS piglets. These findings support the hypothesis that the piglet is a sensitive model for choline deficiency during the perinatal period. In the present study, piglets exhibited similarities in health markers and metabolomic

  16. Early Supplementation of Phospholipids and Gangliosides Affects Brain and Cognitive Development in Neonatal Piglets123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongnan; Radlowski, Emily C; Conrad, Matthew S; Li, Yao; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because human breast milk is a rich source of phospholipids and gangliosides and breastfed infants have improved learning compared with formula-fed infants, the importance of dietary phospholipids and gangliosides for brain development is of interest. Objective: We sought to determine the effects of phospholipids and gangliosides on brain and cognitive development. Methods: Male and female piglets from multiple litters were artificially reared and fed formula containing 0% (control), 0.8%, or 2.5% Lacprodan PL-20 (PL-20; Arla Foods Ingredients), a phospholipid/ganglioside supplement, from postnatal day (PD) 2 to PD28. Beginning on PD14, performance in a spatial T-maze task was assessed. At PD28, brain MRI data were acquired and piglets were killed to obtain hippocampal tissue for metabolic profiling. Results: Diet affected maze performance, with piglets that were fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 making fewer errors than control piglets (80% vs. 75% correct on average; P < 0.05) and taking less time to make a choice (3 vs. 5 s/trial; P < 0.01). Mean brain weight was 5% higher for piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 (P < 0.05) than control piglets, and voxel-based morphometry revealed multiple brain areas with greater volumes and more gray and white matter in piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 than in control piglets. Metabolic profiling of hippocampal tissue revealed that multiple phosphatidylcholine-related metabolites were altered by diet. Conclusion: In summary, dietary phospholipids and gangliosides improved spatial learning and affected brain growth and composition in neonatal piglets. PMID:25411030

  17. Newborn piglet model for campylobacteriosis.

    PubMed Central

    Babakhani, F K; Bradley, G A; Joens, L A

    1993-01-01

    An in vivo model system for human campylobacteriosis has been developed in which colostrum-deprived newborn piglets are orally challenged with an invasive strain of Campylobacter jejuni. Piglets developed clinical symptoms and histopathological lesions similar to those observed in humans infected with C. jejuni. Gross lesion examination at autopsy revealed the presence of edema, hyperemia, and mucus. Histopathologic examinations by light and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated damage to surface epithelial cells with the presence of intracellular bacteria, mainly in the large intestine. Similar lesions were not demonstrated in control piglets. Images PMID:8335377

  18. Lung microbicidal mechanisms and pulmonary hypertension in septic piglets

    SciTech Connect

    Bowdy, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    These studies sought to determine whether the pulmonary hemodynamic abnormalities elicited in infant piglets in response to an intravascular bacterial challenge are dependent upon the clearance and killing of the organism by an oxygen radical dependent mechanism residing within the pulmonary circulation of the host. Initial studies were conducted to ascertain the effect of dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a relatively selective scavenger of hydroxyl radical, on Group B Streptococcus (GBS)-induced pulmonary abnormalities in young piglets. Lung samples from piglets infused with GBS and evaluated by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the GBS had been taken up by pulmonary intravascular macrophages. To determine clearance characteristics of intravascularly administered GBS as well as oxygen radical involvement in pulmonary bactericidal mechanisms, studies were performed in which GBS was radiolabelled with {sup 111}Indium-oxine and infused into piglets in the presence or absence of DMTU. In accord with the previous study, animals receiving GBS only exhibited profound increases in Ppa and TPR with concomitant arterial hypoxemia, all of which were attenuated by the co-administration of DMTU. Bacterial accumulated to the greatest extent in the lung, followed by the liver and spleen.

  19. Comparison of triglycerides and phospholipids as supplemental sources of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in piglets.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Susan A; Oliver, William T; Phillips, Oulayvanh T; Odle, Jack; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A; Harrell, Robert J

    2002-10-01

    Addition of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to infant formula promotes visual and neural development. This study was designed to determine whether the source of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) affected overall animal health and safety. Piglets consumed ad libitum from 1 to 16 d of age a skim milk-based formula with different fat sources added to provide 50% of the metabolizable energy. Treatment groups were as follows: control (CNTL; no added LCPUFA), egg phospholipid (PL), algal/fungal triglyceride (TG) oils, TG plus PL (soy lecithin source) added to match phospholipid treatment (TG + PL) and essential fatty acid deficient (EFAD). Formulas with LCPUFA provided 0.6 and 0.3 g/100 g total fatty acids as AA and DHA, respectively. CNTL piglets had 40% longer ileal villi than PL piglets (P < 0.03), but the TG group was not different from the CNTL group. Gross liver histology did not differ among any of the formula-fed groups (P > 0.1). Apparent dry matter digestibility was 10% greater in CNTL, TG and TG + PL groups compared with PL piglets (P < 0.002). No differences in alanine aminotransferase were detected among treatments, but aspartate aminotransferase was elevated (P < 0.03) in PL piglets compared with TG + PL piglets. Total plasma AA concentration was greater in the TG group compared with CNTL piglets (P < 0.05). Total plasma DHA concentrations were greater in TG piglets compared with PL (P < 0.06) or CNTL (P < 0.02) piglets. These data demonstrate that the algal/fungal TG sources of DHA and AA may be a more appropriate supplement for infant formulas than the egg PL source based on piglet plasma fatty acid profiles and apparent dry matter digestibilities.

  20. Early postnatal respiratory viral infection induces structural and neurochemical changes in the neonatal piglet brain.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Matthew S; Sutton, Bradley P; Larsen, Ryan; Van Alstine, William G; Johnson, Rodney W

    2015-08-01

    Infections that cause inflammation during the postnatal period are common, yet little is known about their impact on brain development in gyrencephalic species. To address this issue, we investigated brain development in domestic piglets which have brain growth and morphology similar to human infants, after experimentally infecting them with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to induce an interstitial pneumonia Piglets were inoculated with PRRSV on postnatal day (PD) 7 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess brain macrostructure (voxel-based morphometry), microstructure (diffusion tensor imaging) and neurochemistry (MR-spectroscopy) at PD 29 or 30. PRRSV piglets exhibited signs of infection throughout the post-inoculation period and had elevated plasma levels of TNFα at the end of the study. PRRSV infection increased the volume of several components of the ventricular system including the cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle, and the lateral ventricles. Group comparisons between control and PRRSV piglets defined 8 areas where PRRSV piglets had less gray matter volume; 5 areas where PRRSV piglets had less white matter volume; and 4 relatively small areas where PRRSV piglets had more white matter. Of particular interest was a bilateral reduction in gray and white matter in the primary visual cortex. PRRSV piglets tended to have reduced fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum. Additionally, N-acetylaspartate, creatine, and myo-inositol were decreased in the hippocampus of PRRSV piglets suggesting disrupted neuronal and glial health and energy imbalances. These findings show in a gyrencephalic species that early-life infection can affect brain growth and development.

  1. [Spanish collaborative study: Description of usual clinical practice in infant obesity].

    PubMed

    Lechuga Sancho, Alfonso; Palomo Atance, Enrique; Rivero Martin, María José; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Leis Trabazo, Rosaura; Bahíllo Curieses, María Pilar; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2017-09-21

    Childhood obesity is a high prevalence health problem. Although there are clinical guidelines for its management, there is variability in its clinical approach. The aim of this study is to describe the usual clinical practice in Paediatric Endocrinology Units in Spain and to evaluate if it resembles the recommended guidelines. An observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out by means of a questionnaire sent to paediatric endocrinologists of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Endocrinology. The questions were formulated based on the recommendations of "Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Prevention and Treatment of Childhood Obesity" issued by the Spanish Ministry of Health. A total of 125 completed questionnaires were obtained from all Autonomous Communities. Variability was observed both in the number of patients attended and in the frequency of the visits. The majority (70%) of the paediatricians who responded did not have a dietitian, psychologist or psychiatrist, in their centre to share the treatment for obese children. As regards treatment, dietary advice is the most used, and 69% have never prescribed weight-loss drugs. Of those who have prescribed them, 52.6% did not use informed consent as a prior step to them being used. There are few centres that comply with the recommendations of the clinical practice guidelines on prevention and treatment of childhood obesity as an established quality plan. Clinical practice differs widely among the paediatric endocrinologists surveyed. There are no uniform protocols of action, and in general there is limited availability of resources for the multidisciplinary treatment required by this condition. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  2. Types of drinks consumed by infants at 4 and 8 months of age: a descriptive study. The ALSPAC Study Team.

    PubMed

    Emmett, P; North, K; Noble, S

    2000-06-01

    To document the type and volume of drinks given to infants and investigate whether giving supplementary drinks leads to reduced milk consumption. Carers were asked to record all drinks consumed by the infants in a 24-hour period at two ages, detailing the types and volume taken. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). A randomly chosen population sample of over 1000 infants at 4 and 8 months of age. The different types of milk feed were used to group infants, compare volumes consumed and look at the use of non-milk drinks. The average volume of drinks consumed over 24 hours at 4 months was 861 ml and at 8 months was 662 ml. At 4 months 69.7% consumed infant formula and 43.0% breast milk. The mean volume of milk consumed by those having only formula was 802 ml and for those having only breast milk was estimated at 850 ml. The volumes of milks consumed were slightly lower in the groups who also had supplementary drinks. A quarter of infants were given fruit drinks and 14.6% herbal drinks. Supplementary drinks and solids were more likely to be given to formula-fed than breast-fed infants. At 8 months, formula milk was consumed by 71.4% and breast milk use had decreased (22.9%) but fruit drink use had increased (squash/cordial: 55.8%, fruit juice: 14.9%), with 13.9% of infants having no infant milk at all. More infants were fed formula milk and less were fed cows' milk compared with a nationally representative British study conducted 5 years earlier. Many infants were given supplementary drinks by 4 months; there is some evidence that this led to a small reduction in milk intake. A minority were not being given infant milks at all by 8 months, contrary to British infant feeding recommendations.

  3. Experiences of caregivers of infants who have been on bubble continuous positive airway pressure at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Malawi: A descriptive qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Gondwe, Mtisunge Joshua; Gombachika, Belinda; Majamanda, Maureen D

    2017-03-01

    An innovative, low-cost bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) device has recently been introduced in Malawi for the treatment of respiratory distress in infants. While this novel bCPAP system has been shown to be safe and effective in reducing infant mortality, caregivers' experiences have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to explore experiences of parents and guardians of infants who had been on bCPAP at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) in Blantyre, Malawi. This was a descriptive phenomenological study that was carried out at the Chatinkha nursery unit and the paediatric nursery ward at QECH, from January to February 2015. Purposive sampling was used to select participants for in-depth interviews. Data saturation was reached with 12 caregivers. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's framework. Caregivers received inadequate, inconsistent, and sporadic information about bCPAP. Student nurses and doctors were best able to answer caregivers' questions and concerns. When their infants were on bCPAP, caregivers felt anxious and fearful. However, upon implementation of bCPAP treatment for their children, the caregivers were satisfied with it. The main sources of psychological stress were limited parent-child interaction and the constraints of prescribed visiting hours. Family, friends, and caregiver involvement in the care of infants provided some psychological comfort. The results show gaps in the information and psychological support that mothers of infants on bCPAP receive in hospital. We recommend that psychological support be given to the mothers of infants on bCPAP at QECH.

  4. Pulmonary vascular responses during acute and sustained respiratory alkalosis or acidosis in intact newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J B; Rehorst-Paea, L A; Hoffman, G M; Nelin, L D

    1999-12-01

    Acute alkalosis-induced pulmonary vasodilation and acidosis-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction have been well described, but responses were generally measured within 5-30 min of changing pH. In contrast, several in vitro studies have found that relatively brief periods of sustained alkalosis can enhance, and sustained acidosis can decrease, vascular reactivity. In this study of intact newborn piglets, effects of acute (20 min) and sustained (60-80 min) alkalosis or acidosis on baseline (35% O2) and hypoxic (12% O2) pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were compared with control piglets exposed only to eucapnia. Acute alkalosis decreased hypoxic PVR, but sustained alkalosis failed to attenuate either baseline PVR or the subsequent hypoxic response. Acute acidosis did not significantly increase hypoxic PVR, but sustained acidosis markedly increased both baseline PVR and the subsequent hypoxic response. Baseline PVR was similar in all piglets after resumption of eucapnic ventilation, but the final hypoxic response was greater in piglets previously exposed to alkalosis than in controls. Thus, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was not attenuated during sustained alkalosis, but was accentuated during sustained acidosis and after the resumption of eucapnia in alkalosis-treated piglets. Although extrapolation of data from normal piglets to infants and children with pulmonary hypertension must be done with caution, this study suggests that sustained alkalosis may be of limited efficacy in treating acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and the risks of pulmonary hypertension must be considered when using ventilator strategies resulting in permissive hypercapnic acidosis.

  5. Propagation of infantile gastroenteritis virus (orbi-group) in conventional and germfree piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, P J; Petric, M; Szymanski, M T

    1975-01-01

    Infantile gastroenteritis virus (orbi-group) recovered from stools of infants with acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis was administered per os to germfree and conventional piglets. Virus was found subsequently in stools and in the mucosal epithelial cells of the small intestine of these animals. Some animals developed diarrhea. Added proof of orbivirus replication was obtained through the use of tritiated uridine injections and the recovery of labeled virus in gut contents at the time of autopsy. Serological conversion was demonstrated in infected germfree piglets. Images PMID:1239420

  6. Exposure of piglet coronary arterial muscle cells to low concentrations of Mg2+ found in blood of ischemic heart disease patients result in rapid elevation of cytosolic Ca2+: relevance to sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Altura, B M; Zhang, A; Altura, B T

    1997-11-05

    Exposure of cultured piglet primary neonatal coronary arterial smooth muscle cells to concentrations of ionized Mg2+ ([Mg2+]o (i.e., 0.48, 0.3, 0.15 mM) found in blood of patients presenting with ischemic heart disease and in hypoxic neonates resulted in concentration-dependent elevation in intracellular free Ca2+ ions ([Ca2+]i; the lower the [Mg2+]o, the higher the [Ca2+]i rise. The lowest concentration of [Mg2+]o tested, i.e., 0.15 mM, resulted in a clear rounding-up (i.e., contraction) of many of the coronary smooth muscle cells; reintroduction of normal 1.2 mM [Mg2+]o failed to restore either normal [Ca2+]i or cell shape.

  7. The pathogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica for piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Schiemann, D A

    1988-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica, a bacterium that has been isolated frequently from healthy swine, was studied in piglets by oral challenge of two litters, one derived by cesarean section and deprived of colostrum, and the other delivered at full-term. Eight cesarean-derived piglets were divided into groups of two and challenged with four serotypes of Y. enterocolitica (O:8, O:21, O:3, O:13). Two deaths occurred and two piglets were killed because of severe illness before termination of the experiment eight days after challenge. Surviving piglets showed no clinical signs of illness. Rectal cultures were consistently positive and all cesarean-derived piglets were colonized in the small intestine and throat at necropsy. Full-term piglets were allowed access for 36 hours to sow colostrum containing low levels of antibody against the challenge strains. Six full-term piglets challenged with three serotypes of Y. enterocolitica (O:8, O:21, O:13) survived for 15 days without any signs of illness. These piglets had fewer positive rectal cultures and showed less extensive colonization of internal organs at necropsy than did cesarean-derived piglets. It is uncertain whether this increased resistance to infection with Y. enterocolitica resulted from colostrum-derived antibody, intestinal colonization with other bacteria, or an improved physical condition which accompanied full-term development. Nevertheless, the results of this challenge experiment suggest that piglets are capable of restricting colonization by Y. enterocolitica to the throat and intestinal tract without development of serious illness. PMID:3167717

  8. Biomechanical properties of recurrent laryngeal nerve in the piglet.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Megan J; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie M; Vande Geest, Jonathan P

    2010-08-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVP) results from damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). The most common causes of UVP are associated with compromised RLN tissue. The purpose of this research was to investigate the biomechanical properties of piglet RLN and identify differences in these properties along its length and in between the left and right side. Quasi-static uniaxial tensile testing and isotropic constitutive modeling was performed on seven piglet RLNs. Stiffness and other biomechanical parameters were derived from these tests and compared from conducting two different statistical analysis for the between and within nerve comparisons. Results showed higher stiffness values in the left RLN segment than for the right. Descriptive data demonstrated a higher stiffness in RLN segments surrounding the aortic arch, indicating a more protective role of the extracellular matrix in these nerves. This research offers insight regarding the protective function of the RLN connective tissues and structural compromise due to its environment.

  9. Biomechanical Properties of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve in the Piglet

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Megan J.; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie M.; Vande Geest, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVP) results from damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). The most common causes of UVP are associated with compromised RLN tissue. The purpose of this research was to investigate the biomechanical properties of piglet RLN and identify differences in these properties along its length and in between the left and right side. Quasi-static uniaxial tensile testing and isotropic constitutive modeling was performed on seven piglet RLNs. Stiffness and other biomechanical parameters were derived from these tests and compared from conducting two different statistical analysis for the between and within nerve comparisons. Results showed higher stiffness values in the left RLN segment than for the right. Descriptive data demonstrated a higher stiffness in RLN segments surrounding the aortic arch, indicating a more protective role of the extracellular matrix in these nerves. This research offers insight regarding the protective function of the RLN connective tissues and structural compromise due to its environment. PMID:20369296

  10. Effects of Glucocorticoid Exposure on Growth and Structural Maturation of the Heart of the Preterm Piglet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Young; Eiby, Yvonne A.; Lumbers, Eugenie R.; Wright, Layne L.; Gibson, Karen J.; Barnett, Amanda C.; Lingwood, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate maintenance of systemic blood flow in neonates following preterm birth is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and may be due in part to structural immaturity of the myocardium. Maternal glucocorticoid administration is associated with improved cardiovascular function, and possibly promotes structural maturation of the myocardium. This study assessed the structural maturity of the myocardium in male and female preterm and term piglets, and preterm piglets exposed to a regimen of maternal glucocorticoids as used clinically. In preterm, term and glucocorticoid exposed preterm piglets cardiomyocyte maturity was examined by measuring the proportion of binucleated myocytes and the volumes of single living ventricular cardiomyocytes with fluorescence microscopy. Ventricular apoptosis and proliferation were measured by immunohistochemistry. Preterm piglet hearts had fewer binucleated myocytes, smaller myocytes, and more proliferative and fewer apoptotic nuclei than term hearts. Maternal glucocorticoid treatment resulted in increased binucleation with no increase in myocyte volume, and levels of proliferation and apoptosis that were more similar to the term heart. Atrial weights were increased and in female piglets there was an increase in the ratio of left to right ventricular weight. The observed changes in atrial mass and myocyte structural maturation correlated with changes in cardiac function of isolated hearts of littermates. In conclusion, the association between increased myocardial maturation following glucocorticoid exposure, improved cardiac function in littermates, and clinical improvement in human neonatal cardiac function exposed to antenatal glucocorticoids, suggests that glucocorticoid exposure contributes to improved cardiovascular function in preterm infants by promoting myocardial structural maturity. PMID:24676209

  11. Transgenic milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin modulates the intestinal flora in piglets.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenping; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Jianwu; Yu, Tian; Wang, Jing; Li, Ning

    2012-06-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a beneficial multifunctional protein in milk. The objective of this study was to determine whether bovine transgenic milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) can modulate intestinal flora in the neonatal pig as an animal model for the human infant. We fed 7-day-old piglets (i) ordinary whole milk (OM), (ii) a 1:1 mixture of OM and rhLF milk (MM), or (iii) rhLF milk (LFM). LFM provided better average daily mass gain than OM (P = 0.007). PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that the LFM piglets exhibited more diversity of the intestinal flora than the OM group. Except for the colon in the LFM group, an increasing trend in microbial diversity occurred from the duodenum to the colon. Fecal flora was not different across different ages or different treatment groups, but a cluster analysis showed that the fecal flora of OM- and MM-fed piglets had a higher degree of similarity than that of LFM-fed piglets. Based on culture-based bacterial counts of intestinal content samples, concentrations of Salmonella spp. in the colon and of Escherichia coli throughout the intestine were reduced with LFM (P < 0.01). Concentrations of Bifidobacterium spp. in the ileum and of Lactobacillus spp. throughout the intestine were also increased with LFM (P ≤ 0.01). We suggest that rhLF can modulate the intestinal flora in piglets.

  12. Iron Supplementation Attenuates the Inflammatory Status of Anemic Piglets by Regulating Hepcidin.

    PubMed

    Pu, Yutian; Guo, Bingxiu; Liu, Dan; Xiong, Haitao; Wang, Yizhen; Du, Huahua

    2015-09-01

    Iron deficiency is common throughout the world and has been linked to immunity impairments. Using piglets to model human infants, we assessed the impact of systemic iron homeostasis on proinflammatory status. Artificially reared piglets were parenterally supplied with iron dextran by intramuscular administration at the age of 3 days. Relative to no iron supplementation (control), iron dextran-treated (FeDex) piglets increased hematological parameters as well as iron levels in serum and tissues from days 21 to 49. High expression of hepcidin was observed in FeDex-treated piglets, which correlated with suppressed expression of ferroportin in duodenum. Lower levels of proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β) transcripts were detected in ileum of FeDex-treated piglets, which indicated that iron supplementation could attenuate the increase of inflammatory cytokines caused by iron deficiency. Histopathological analysis of liver and duodenum proved the less inflammatory responses after iron supplementation. Hepcidin was highly stimulated by FeDex supplementation and attenuated the inflammation of anemia, which implied that hepcidin might had antiinflammatory function and is a candidate regulator of the cross-talk between iron regulation and inflammation.

  13. Implementing services for Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) of HIV: a comparative descriptive analysis of national programs in four countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a significant increase in survival for HIV-infected children who have early access to diagnosis and treatment. The goal of this multi-country review was to examine when and where HIV-exposed infants and children are being diagnosed, and whether the EID service is being maximally utilized to improve health outcomes for HIV-exposed children. Methods In four countries across Africa and Asia existing documents and data were reviewed and key informant interviews were conducted. EID testing data was gathered from the central testing laboratories and was then complemented by health facility level data extraction which took place using a standardized and validated questionnaire Results In the four countries reviewed from 2006 to 2009 EID sample volumes rose dramatically to an average of >100 samples per quarter in Cambodia and Senegal, >7,000 samples per quarter in Uganda, and >2,000 samples per quarter in Namibia. Geographic coverage of sites also rapidly expanded to 525 sites in Uganda, 205 in Namibia, 48 in Senegal, and 26 in Cambodia in 2009. However, only a small proportion of testing was done at lower-level health facilities: in Uganda Health Center IIs and IIIs comprised 47% of the EID collection sites, but only 11% of the total tests, and in Namibia 15% of EID sites collected >93% of all samples. In all countries except for Namibia, more than 50% of the EID testing was done after 2 months of age. Few sites had robust referral mechanisms between EID and ART. In a sub-sample of children, we noted significant attrition of infants along the continuum of care post testing. Only 22% (Senegal), 37% (Uganda), and 38% (Cambodia) of infants testing positive by PCR were subsequently initiated onto treatment. In Namibia, which had almost universal EID coverage, more than 70% of PCR-positive infants initiated ART in 2008. Conclusions While EID testing has expanded dramatically, a large proportion of PCR- positive infants are initiated on treatment. As EID

  14. Identification of a Divergent Lineage Porcine Pestivirus in Nursing Piglets with Congenital Tremors and Reproduction of Disease following Experimental Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Bailey L.; Arruda, Paulo H.; Magstadt, Drew R.; Schwartz, Kent J.; Dohlman, Tyler; Schleining, Jennifer A.; Patterson, Abby R.; Visek, Callie A.; Victoria, Joseph G.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital tremors is a sporadic disease of neonatal pigs characterized by action-related repetitive myoclonus. A majority of outbreaks of congenital tremors have been attributed to an unidentified virus. The objectives of this project were to 1) detect potential pathogen(s) in samples from piglets with congenital tremors and 2) develop an infection model to reproduce disease. Using next-generation sequencing, a divergent lineage pestivirus was detected in piglets with congenital tremors. The virus was originally most closely related to a bat pestivirus but is now more closely related to a recently published novel porcine pestivirus provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus. A quantitative real-time PCR detected the virus in samples from neonatal piglets with congenital tremors from two separate farms, but not in samples from unaffected piglets from the same farm. To fulfill the second objective, pregnant sows were inoculated with either serum containing the pestivirus or PBS (control) by intravenous and intranasal routes simultaneously with direct inoculation of fetal amniotic vesicles by ultrasound-guided surgical technique. Inoculations were performed at either 45 or 62 days of gestation. All sows inoculated with the novel pestivirus farrowed piglets affected with congenital tremors while PBS-inoculated control piglets were unaffected. Tremor severity for each piglet was scored from videos taken 0, 1 and 2 days post-farrowing. Tremor severity remained relatively constant from 0 to 2 days post-farrowing for a majority of piglets. The prevalence of congenital tremors in pestivirus-inoculated litters ranged from 57% (4 out of 7 affected piglets) to 100% (10 out of 10 affected piglets). The virus was consistently detected by PCR in tissues from piglets with congenital tremors but was not detected in control piglets. Samples positive by PCR in greater than 90% of piglets sampled included brainstem (37 out of 41), mesenteric lymph node (37 out of 41

  15. Identification of a Divergent Lineage Porcine Pestivirus in Nursing Piglets with Congenital Tremors and Reproduction of Disease following Experimental Inoculation.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Bailey L; Arruda, Paulo H; Magstadt, Drew R; Schwartz, Kent J; Dohlman, Tyler; Schleining, Jennifer A; Patterson, Abby R; Visek, Callie A; Victoria, Joseph G

    2016-01-01

    Congenital tremors is a sporadic disease of neonatal pigs characterized by action-related repetitive myoclonus. A majority of outbreaks of congenital tremors have been attributed to an unidentified virus. The objectives of this project were to 1) detect potential pathogen(s) in samples from piglets with congenital tremors and 2) develop an infection model to reproduce disease. Using next-generation sequencing, a divergent lineage pestivirus was detected in piglets with congenital tremors. The virus was originally most closely related to a bat pestivirus but is now more closely related to a recently published novel porcine pestivirus provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus. A quantitative real-time PCR detected the virus in samples from neonatal piglets with congenital tremors from two separate farms, but not in samples from unaffected piglets from the same farm. To fulfill the second objective, pregnant sows were inoculated with either serum containing the pestivirus or PBS (control) by intravenous and intranasal routes simultaneously with direct inoculation of fetal amniotic vesicles by ultrasound-guided surgical technique. Inoculations were performed at either 45 or 62 days of gestation. All sows inoculated with the novel pestivirus farrowed piglets affected with congenital tremors while PBS-inoculated control piglets were unaffected. Tremor severity for each piglet was scored from videos taken 0, 1 and 2 days post-farrowing. Tremor severity remained relatively constant from 0 to 2 days post-farrowing for a majority of piglets. The prevalence of congenital tremors in pestivirus-inoculated litters ranged from 57% (4 out of 7 affected piglets) to 100% (10 out of 10 affected piglets). The virus was consistently detected by PCR in tissues from piglets with congenital tremors but was not detected in control piglets. Samples positive by PCR in greater than 90% of piglets sampled included brainstem (37 out of 41), mesenteric lymph node (37 out of 41

  16. Small intestinal segment perfusion test in piglets: future applications in studying probiotics-gut crosstalk in infectious diarrhoea?

    PubMed

    van der Meulen, J; Hulst, M M; Smits, M A; Schuurman, T

    2010-11-01

    Worldwide infectious diarrhoea, mainly caused by rotavirus and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), accounts for a large part of deaths in children. ETEC is also the main cause of traveller's diarrhoea. Probiotics are promising for prevention and treatment of diarrhoea, but there is insufficient evidence to support the use of any specific probiotic or probiotics in general. Because of the sensitivity of suckling and weaned piglets for ETEC, piglets are a good model for infectious diarrhoea in infants and traveller's diarrhoea. Just as in human the efficacy of probiotics in diminishing diarrhoea and improving growth in suckling and weaned piglets is not uniform. A piglet model of infectious diarrhoea provides access to intestinal compartments that are not easily accessible in infants. In an in situ piglet model of secretory diarrhoea, the functional physiological response to ETEC and the concomitant host genome response to ETEC and probiotics may be tested. This will provide new insights in the complex crosstalk between ETEC, probiotics and the gut in the future.

  17. Infant feeding practices and determinants of poor breastfeeding behavior in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although breastfeeding is almost universally accepted in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo, by the age of 2 to 3 months 65% of children are receiving something other than human milk. We sought to describe the infant feeding practices and determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding behaviors in DR Congo. Methods Survey questionnaire administered to mothers of infants aged ≤ 6 months and healthcare providers who were recruited consecutively at six selected primary health care facilities in Kinshasa, the capital. Results All 66 mothers interviewed were breastfeeding. Before initiating breastfeeding, 23 gave their infants something other than their milk, including: sugar water (16) or water (2). During the twenty-four hours prior to interview, 26 (39%) infants were exclusively breastfed (EBF), whereas 18 (27%), 12 (18%), and 10 (15%) received water, tea, formula, or porridge, respectively, in addition to human milk. The main reasons for water supplementation included “heat” and cultural beliefs that water is needed for proper digestion of human milk. The main reason for formula supplementation was the impression that the baby was not getting enough milk; and for porridge supplementation, the belief that the child was old enough to start complementary food. Virtually all mothers reported that breastfeeding was discussed during antenatal clinic visit and half reported receiving help regarding breastfeeding from a health provider either after birth or during well-child clinic visit. Despite a median of at least 14 years of experience in these facilities, healthcare workers surveyed had little to no formal training on how to support breastfeeding and inadequate breastfeeding-related knowledge and skills. The facilities lacked any written policy about breastfeeding. Conclusion Addressing cultural beliefs, training healthcare providers adequately on breastfeeding support skills, and providing structured breastfeeding support after maternity discharge is

  18. Infants under the age of six months with acute mastoiditis. A descriptive study of 15 years in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, K; Enoksson, F; Stalfors, J; Hultcrantz, M; Hermansson, A; Groth, A

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the occurrence, clinical signs and outcome of acute mastoiditis in infants under the age of 6 months in Sweden between the years 1993-2007. All ENT departments in Sweden reported children 0-5 months treated for acute mastoiditis 1993-2007 and all records were reviewed. The clinical course and various characteristics were recorded. Seventeen young infants with acute mastoiditis were identified. Three patients had suffered acute otitis media earlier, otherwise the children were previously healthy. Preceding the episode of acute mastoiditis, the children had an upper respiratory tract infection or fever for seven days in mean (median three days) and the mean number of days with ear-symptoms was three days (median two days). Three patients were treated with antibiotics prior to admittance. Almost all children presented with clear retroauricular signs with protruding ear and redness behind the ear. The children were hospitalised for six days (mean and median). Eight patients (47%) suffered from a subperiosteal abscess. All but one patient underwent surgery: myringotomy (13); incision or punction of the mastoid (5); mastoidectomy (3). Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequent bacterium identified in cultures. No intracranial complications or other severe complications were found. Acute mastoiditis is extremely rare in infants under the age of 6 months. The patients in this study did not have any predisposing diseases. An upper respiratory tract infection had preceded the episode of acute mastoiditis for some time in the majority of cases, but the time from first ear symptoms to hospitalization was very short. Acute mastoiditis is a potentially life-threatening disease, but the timely administration of intravenous antibiotics and surgical intervention prevented the occurrence of severe complications in these young infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression of Adrenoceptor Subtypes in Preterm Piglet Heart Is Different to Term Heart

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Young; Finch, Angela M.; Lumbers, Eugenie R.; Boyce, Amanda C.; Gibson, Karen J.; Eiby, Yvonne A.; Lingwood, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm delivery increases the risk of inadequate systemic blood flow and hypotension, and many preterm infants fail to respond to conventional inotrope treatments. If the profile of cardiac adrenoceptor subtypes in the preterm neonate is different to that at term this may contribute to these clinical problems. This study measured mRNA expression of β1, β2, α1A, α2A and α2B-adrenoceptor subtypes by real time PCR in term (113d), preterm (91d) and preterm piglets (91d) exposed to maternal glucocorticoid treatment. Abundance of β-adrenoceptor binding sites in the left ventricle was measured using saturation binding assays. Relative abundance of β1-adrenoceptor mRNA in untreated preterm hearts was ∼50% of term abundance in both left and right ventricles (P<0.001). Trends in receptor binding site density measurements supported this observation (P = 0.07). Glucocorticoid exposure increased β1-adrenoceptor mRNA levels in the right ventricle of preterm hearts (P = 0.008) but did not alter expression in the left ventricle (P>0.1). Relative abundance of α1A-adrenoceptor mRNA was the same in preterm and term piglet hearts (P = >0.1) but was reduced by maternal glucocorticoid treatment (P<0.01); α2A-adrenoceptor mRNA abundance was higher in untreated and glucocorticoid exposed preterm piglet hearts than in term piglets (P<0.001). There was no difference between male and female piglets in mRNA abundance of any of the genes studied. In conclusion, there is reduced mRNA abundance of β1-adrenoceptors in the preterm pig heart. If this lower expression of β-adrenoceptors occurs in human preterm infants, it could explain their poor cardiovascular function and their frequent failure to respond to commonly used inotropes. PMID:24670668

  20. Effect of supplemental heat for nursing piglets.

    PubMed

    Adams, K L; Baker, T H; Jensen, A H

    1980-05-01

    The effect of absence or presence of supplemental heat for nursing piglets (a 250-watt lamp suspended 45 cm above the sleeping area for each litter) was studied from October to April in each of three successive winter seasons. Ambient room temperature was 21 C. Sows were fed a fortified corn-soybean meal diet and piglets did not have access to creep feed. Floors were constructed of either wood and expanded metal or steel slats and expanded metal combinations. In Exp. 1, piglets were given either no supplemental heat or a heat lamp from birth to 21 days. Percentages of piglets that died within the first 3 days were 13.4 and 4.4%, respectively. Total losses for the 21-day period were 18.5 and 11.0%, respectively. Average body weight gains were 3.50 kg for the unsupplemented piglets and 3.69 kg for the heat-supplemented piglets. In Exp. 2, 133 litters were used to evaluate the effects of the absence or presence of supplemental heat from day 3 postpartum. Supplemental heat was provided either from day 3 to day 6 or from day 3 to day 21. The control litters had no supplemental heat from day 3 to day 21. Neither sow feed consumption nor body weight change was significantly affected by treatment. Percentage death loss was not significantly affected by treatment, but piglet body weight gain was greater (p less than .01) when the heat lamp was used, for the total period.

  1. Elevated body temperature enhances the laryngeal chemoreflex in decerebrate piglets.

    PubMed

    Curran, A K; Xia, L; Leiter, J C; Bartlett, D

    2005-03-01

    Hyperthermia and reflex apnea may both contribute to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Therefore, we investigated the effect of increased body temperature on the inhibition of breathing produced by water injected into the larynx, which elicits the laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR). We studied decerebrated, vagotomized, neonatal piglets aged 3-15 days. Blood pressure, end-tidal CO(2), body temperature, and phrenic nerve activity were recorded. To elicit the LCR, we infused 0.1 ml of distilled water through a polyethylene tube passed through the nose and positioned just rostral to the larynx. Three to five LCR trials were performed with the piglet at normal body temperature. The animal's core body temperature was raised by approximately 2.5 degrees C, and three to five LCR trials were performed before the animal was cooled, and three to five LCR trials were repeated. The respiratory inhibition associated with the LCR was substantially prolonged when body temperature was elevated. Thus elevated body temperature may contribute to the pathogenesis of SIDS by increasing the inhibitory effects of the LCR.

  2. One oxygen breath shortened the time to return of spontaneous circulation in severely asphyxiated piglets.

    PubMed

    Linner, Rikard; Cunha-Goncalves, Doris; Perez-de-Sa, Valeria

    2017-10-01

    Asphyxiated neonates should be resuscitated with air, but it remains unclear if oxygen supplementation is needed in ineffectively ventilated newborn infants. We studied the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) with oxygen or air in an experimental model of inadequate ventilation. Asphyxia was induced in 16 newborn piglets until their heart rate was <60 bpm or mean arterial pressure (MAP) <30 mmHg. During the first 10 minutes of resuscitation, they received one breath per minute of oxygen (n = 8) or air (n = 8). Tidal volume was 7.5 mL/kg. If MAP was <30 mmHg for 15 seconds, closed-chest cardiac massage (CCCM) was performed for 45 seconds. From 10 minutes onward, all piglets received normal ventilation with air. ROSC was defined as a heart rate >150 bpm, MAP >40 mmHg and no subsequent CCCM. Before resuscitation, the median arterial pH was 6.73. At 10 minutes, no piglets in the oxygen group needed CCCM, while all did in the air group (p < 0.001). The median time to ROSC was 60 seconds with oxygen and 845 seconds with air (p < 0.001). No brain tissue hyperoxia occurred. When ventilation was inadequate, one oxygen breath reduced time to ROSC in piglets with severe metabolic and respiratory acidosis. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Behavioral Characteristics of Weaned Piglets Mixed in Different Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyun-Su; Lee, Jae-Kang; Eom, Tae-Kyung; Son, Seung-Hun; Hong, Joon-Ki; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Rhim, Shin-Jae

    2016-01-01

    With regard to animal welfare concerns, behavioral information of weaned and mixed piglets is great interest in swine production. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in behavior of weaned piglets over time in two different groups (littermates and piglets from different litters) after mixing. Two weaned groups of piglets (72 individuals in all) housed either with littermates or with foreign piglets (6 individuals in 1.8 m×1.4 m pens, 28°C±1°C temperature) were observed with the aid of video technology for 9 consecutive hours on days 1, 2, and 3 after mixing. The behaviors of the weaned piglets in the control and treatment groups were significantly different among the days after mixing. Piglets were, however, more active and aggressive in the groups with foreign piglets. This study reveals a lower level of agonistic behavior in groups of piglets that came from the same litter. PMID:26954152

  4. Experimental model of atelectasis in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Comaru, Talitha; Fiori, Humberto Holmer; Fiori, Renato Machado; Padoim, Priscila; Stivanin, Jaqueline Basso; da Silva, Vinicius Duval

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies using animal models in chest physical therapy. However, there are no models to assess these effects in newborns. This study aimed to develop a model of obstructive atelectasis induced by artificial mucus injection in the lungs of newborn piglets, for the study of neonatal physiotherapy. Thirteen newborn piglets received artificial mucus injection via the endotracheal tube. X-rays and blood gas analysis confirmed the atelectasis. The model showed consistent results between oxygenation parameters and radiological findings. Ten (76.9%) of the 13 piglets responded to the intervention. This did not significantly differ from the expected percentage of 50% by the binomial test (95% CI 46.2-95%, P = .09). Our model of atelectasis in newborn piglets is both feasible and appropriate to evaluate the impact of physical therapies on atelectasis in newborns.

  5. Physiological and pathological responses to head rotations in toddler piglets.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nicole G; Ralston, Jill; Smith, Colin; Margulies, Susan S

    2010-06-01

    Closed head injury is the leading cause of death in children less than 4 years of age, and is thought to be caused in part by rotational inertial motion of the brain. Injury patterns associated with inertial rotations are not well understood in the pediatric population. To characterize the physiological and pathological responses of the immature brain to inertial forces and their relationship to neurological development, toddler-age (4-week-old) piglets were subjected to a single non-impact head rotation at either low (31.6 +/- 4.7 rad/sec(2), n = 4) or moderate (61.0 +/- 7.5 rad/sec(2), n = 6) angular acceleration in the axial direction. Graded outcomes were observed for both physiological and histopathological responses such that increasing angular acceleration and velocity produced more severe responses. Unlike low-acceleration rotations, moderate-acceleration rotations produced marked EEG amplitude suppression immediately post-injury, which remained suppressed for the 6-h survival period. In addition, significantly more severe subarachnoid hemorrhage, ischemia, and axonal injury by beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) were observed in moderate-acceleration animals than low-acceleration animals. When compared to infant-age (5-day-old) animals subjected to similar (54.1 +/- 9.6 rad/sec(2)) acceleration rotations, 4-week-old moderate-acceleration animals sustained similar severities of subarachnoid hemorrhage and axonal injury at 6 h post-injury, despite the larger, softer brain in the older piglets. We conclude that the traditional mechanical engineering approach of scaling by brain mass and stiffness cannot explain the vulnerability of the infant brain to acceleration-deceleration movements, compared with the toddler.

  6. Physiological and Pathological Responses to Head Rotations in Toddler Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nicole G.; Ralston, Jill; Smith, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Closed head injury is the leading cause of death in children less than 4 years of age, and is thought to be caused in part by rotational inertial motion of the brain. Injury patterns associated with inertial rotations are not well understood in the pediatric population. To characterize the physiological and pathological responses of the immature brain to inertial forces and their relationship to neurological development, toddler-age (4-week-old) piglets were subjected to a single non-impact head rotation at either low (31.6 ± 4.7 rad/sec2, n = 4) or moderate (61.0 ± 7.5 rad/sec2, n = 6) angular acceleration in the axial direction. Graded outcomes were observed for both physiological and histopathological responses such that increasing angular acceleration and velocity produced more severe responses. Unlike low-acceleration rotations, moderate-acceleration rotations produced marked EEG amplitude suppression immediately post-injury, which remained suppressed for the 6-h survival period. In addition, significantly more severe subarachnoid hemorrhage, ischemia, and axonal injury by β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) were observed in moderate-acceleration animals than low-acceleration animals. When compared to infant-age (5-day-old) animals subjected to similar (54.1 ± 9.6 rad/sec2) acceleration rotations, 4-week-old moderate-acceleration animals sustained similar severities of subarachnoid hemorrhage and axonal injury at 6 h post-injury, despite the larger, softer brain in the older piglets. We conclude that the traditional mechanical engineering approach of scaling by brain mass and stiffness cannot explain the vulnerability of the infant brain to acceleration-deceleration movements, compared with the toddler. PMID:20560753

  7. Respiratory Viral Infection in Neonatal Piglets Causes Marked Microglia Activation in the Hippocampus and Deficits in Spatial Learning

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Monica R. P.; Burton, Michael D.; Conrad, Matthew S.; Rytych, Jennifer L.; Van Alstine, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental insults during sensitive periods can affect hippocampal development and function, but little is known about peripheral infection, especially in humans and other animals whose brain is gyrencephalic and experiences major perinatal growth. Using a piglet model, the present study showed that inoculation on postnatal day 7 with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) caused microglial activation within the hippocampus with 82% and 43% of isolated microglia being MHC II+ 13 and 20 d after inoculation, respectively. In control piglets, <5% of microglia isolated from the hippocampus were MHC II+. PRRSV piglets were febrile (p < 0.0001), anorectic (p < 0.0001), and weighed less at the end of the study (p = 0.002) compared with control piglets. Increased inflammatory gene expression (e.g., IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) was seen across multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus, whereas reductions in CD200, NGF, and MBP were evident. In a test of spatial learning, PRRSV piglets took longer to acquire the task, had a longer latency to choice, and had a higher total distance moved. Overall, these data demonstrate that viral respiratory infection is associated with a marked increase in activated microglia in the hippocampus, neuroinflammation, and impaired performance in a spatial cognitive task. As respiratory infections are common in human neonates and infants, approaches to regulate microglial cell activity are likely to be important. PMID:24501353

  8. A 3-week dietary safety study of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starch in neonatal farm piglets.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Brinda; Thorsrud, Bjorn A; Brorby, Gregory P; Ferguson, Heather E

    2014-10-01

    Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starch functions as both an emulsifier and emulsion stabilizer in foods, and is intended for use in infant formula, follow-on formula, and formulae for special medical purposes. These formulae predominantly include extensively hydrolyzed protein or free amino acids, rather than intact protein, which otherwise would provide emulsifying functionality. The study objectives were to evaluate (1) the safety of OSA-modified starch after three weeks of administration to neonatal farm piglets, beginning 2 days after birth and (2) the impact of OSA-modified starch on piglet growth. OSA-modified starch was added to formula at concentrations of 2, 4, and 20 g/L. The vehicle control, low-dose, and mid-dose diets were supplemented with Amioca™ Powder to balance the nutritional profiles of all formulations. There were no test article-related effects of any diet containing OSA-modified starch on piglet growth and development (clinical observations, body weight, feed consumption), or clinical pathology parameters (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, urinalysis). In addition, there were no adverse effects at terminal necropsy (macro- and microscopic pathology evaluations). Therefore, dietary exposure to OSA-modified starch at concentrations up to 20 g/L was well tolerated by neonatal farm piglets and did not result in adverse health effects or impact piglet growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation ameliorates intestinal injury in lipopolysaccharide-challenged piglets.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Ding, Binying; Liu, Yulan; Zhu, Huiling; Liu, Jian; Li, Yongtang; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2010-07-01

    Neonates are at increased risk for inflammatory bowel disease, but effective prevention and treatments are currently limited. This study was conducted with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet model to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) on the intestinal morphology and function. Eighteen 24-day-old pigs (weaned at 21 days of age) were assigned randomly to control, LPS, and LPS + AKG groups. The piglets in the control and LPS groups were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet, whereas the LPS + AKG group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 1% AKG. On days 10, 12, 14, and 16, piglets in the LPS and LPS + AKG groups received intraperitoneal administration of LPS (80 microg/kg BW), whereas piglets in the control group received the same volume of saline. On day 16, D-xylose was orally administrated to all pigs at the dose of 0.1 g/kg BW, 2 h after LPS or saline injection, and blood samples were collected 3 h thereafter. Twenty-four hours post-administration of LPS or saline, pigs were killed to obtain intestinal mucosae for analysis. Compared with the control group, LPS challenge reduced (P < 0.05) protein levels, the ratio of villus height to crypt depth, and the ratio of phosphorylated mTOR to total mTOR in duodenal, jejunal, and ileal mucosa. These adverse effects of LPS were attenuated (P < 0.05) by AKG supplementation. Moreover, AKG prevented the LPS-induced increase in intestinal HSP70 expression. Collectively, these novel results indicate that dietary supplementation with 1% AKG activates the mTOR signaling, alleviates the mucosal damage, and improves the absorptive function of the small intestine in LPS-challenged piglets. The findings not only help understand the mode of AKGs actions in the neonatal gut but also have important implications for infant nutrition under inflammatory conditions.

  10. Acute necrotizing enterocolitis of preterm piglets is characterized by dysbiosis of ileal mucosa-associated bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Foster, Derek M; Cadenas, Maria B; Stone, Maria R; Jacobi, Sheila K; Stauffer, Stephen H; Pease, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of bacteria involved in pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is limited by infant fragility, analysis restricted to feces, use of culture-based methods and lack of clinically-relevant animal models. This study used a unique preterm piglet model to characterize spontaneous differences in microbiome composition of NEC-predisposed regions of gut. Preterm piglets (n = 23) were cesarean-delivered and nurtured for 30 h over which time 52% developed NEC. Bacterial DNA from ileal content, ileal mucosa and colonic mucosa were PCR amplified, subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and targeted 16s rDNA qPCR. Preterm ileal mucosa was specifically bereft in diversity of bacteria compared to ileal content and colonic mucosa. Preterm ileum was restricted to representation by only Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. In piglets with NEC, ileal mucosa was uniquely characterized by increases in number of Firmicutes and diversity of phyla to include Actinobacteria and uncultured bacteria. Five specific TRFLP profiles, corresponding in closest identity to Clostridium butyricum, C. neonatale, C. proteolyticum, Streptomyces spp. and Leptolyngbya spp., were significantly more prevalent or observed only among samples from piglets with NEC. Total numbers of Clostridium spp. and C. butyricum were significantly greater in samples of NEC ileal mucosa but not ileal content or colonic mucosa. These results provide strong support for ileal mucosa as a focus for investigation of specific dysbiosis associated with NEC and suggest a significant role for Clostridium spp., and members of the Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria in the pathogenesis of NEC in preterm piglets. PMID:21983069

  11. Description of the Motor Development of 3-12 Month Old Infants with Down Syndrome: The Influence of the Postural Body Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudella, Eloisa; Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the rate of motor development in infants with Down syndrome in the age range of 3-12 months and identify the difficulties both in performance and acquiring motor skills in prone, supine, sitting and standing positions. Nineteen infants with Down syndrome and 25 healthy full term typical infants were…

  12. Description of the Motor Development of 3-12 Month Old Infants with Down Syndrome: The Influence of the Postural Body Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudella, Eloisa; Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the rate of motor development in infants with Down syndrome in the age range of 3-12 months and identify the difficulties both in performance and acquiring motor skills in prone, supine, sitting and standing positions. Nineteen infants with Down syndrome and 25 healthy full term typical infants were…

  13. Enterovirus neutralizing activity in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, J B

    1974-10-01

    Neutralizing activity against porcine enterovirus strain T80 was demonstrated in the contents of the stomach, duodenum or ileum of four piglets which were suckling dams whose milk contained neutralizing substances against the same virus. No neutralizing activity was detected in the gastrointestinal contents of an unsuckled piglet or in four weaned piglets. Extracts of intestinal tissue from each of the above piglets failed to neutralize the virus. Four weaned piglets were dosed orally with live T80 virus. From nine days after infection virus neutralizing activity was found in extracts of tissue prepared from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon but not in the contents of the gastrointestinal tract and a serological response to the virus was demonstrated. No virus neutralizing activity was detected in gastrointestinal tissue or contents from four weaned piglets inoculated parenterally with live T80 virus or in four piglets dosed orally with inactivated T80 virus and these piglets did not respond serologically to the virus.

  14. Dietary L-arginine supplementation improves the intestinal development through increasing mucosal Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin signals in intra-uterine growth retarded piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Lili; Zhou, Genlai; Liao, Zhiyong; Ahmad, Hussain; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Tian

    2012-10-28

    Intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and development of the small intestine (SI) in neonatal pigs and infants. L-Arginine (Arg), a critical amino acid involved in promoting growth and metabolism in young mammals, is more deficient in IUGR fetuses. However, little is known whether dietary Arg supplementation would accelerate the impaired development of the SI induced by IUGR in piglets. In the present study, a total of six litters of newborn piglets were used. In each litter, one normal and two IUGR littermates were obtained. Piglets were fed milk-based diets supplemented with 0 (Normal), 0 (IUGR) and 0·60% Arg (IUGR+Arg) from 7 to 14 d of age, respectively. Compared with Normal piglets at 14 d of age, IUGR decreased (P < 0·05) the growth performance, entire SI weight, and villus height in the jejunum and ileum. IUGR piglets had lower (P < 0·05) mucosal concentrations of Arg, insulin, insulin growth factor 1, as well as phosphorylated Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70 S6 kinase but higher (P < 0·05) enterocyte apoptosis index (AI). After Arg treatment in IUGR piglets, the growth performance, weight of entire SI and mucosa, and villus height in the jejunum and ileum were increased (P < 0·05). Diet supplemented with Arg also increased (P < 0·05) the levels of Arg, insulin, phosphorylated Akt and mTOR in SI mucosa of IUGR piglets, and decreased (P < 0·05) the AI and caspase-3 activity. In conclusion, Arg has a beneficiary effect in improving the impaired SI development in IUGR piglets via regulating cell apoptosis and activating Akt and mTOR signals in SI mucosa.

  15. Muscimol dialysis in the rostral ventral medulla reduced the CO(2) response in awake and sleeping piglets.

    PubMed

    Curran, A K; Darnall, R A; Filiano, J J; Li, A; Nattie, E E

    2001-03-01

    Some victims of sudden infant death syndrome have arcuate nucleus abnormalities. The arcuate nucleus may be homologous with ventral medullary structures in the cat known to be involved in the control of breathing and the response to systemic hypercapnia. We refer to putative arcuate homologues in the piglet collectively as the rostral ventral medulla (RVM). We inhibited the RVM in awake and sleeping, chronically instrumented piglets by microdialysis of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol. Muscimol dialysis (10 and 40 mM) had no effect on eupnea but caused a significant reduction in the response to hypercapnia during both wakefulness (34.8 +/- 8.7 and 30.7 +/- 10.1%, respectively) and sleep (36.7 +/- 6.7 and 49.5 +/- 8.9%, respectively). The effect of muscimol on the CO(2) response was entirely via a reduction in tidal volume and appeared to be greater during non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. We conclude that the piglet RVM contains neurons of importance in the response to systemic CO(2) during both wakefulness and non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. We hypothesize that dysfunction of homologous regions in the human infant could lead to impaired ability to respond to hypercapnia, particularly during sleep, which could potentially be involved in the pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome.

  16. Postmortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Winther, K D; Secher, J O; Callesen, H

    2015-10-01

    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Göttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not transgenic). Overall pregnancy rate was 76%, and there were more abortions in recipients with minipig embryos than in those with LW embryos (26% and 24% vs. 6%). Piglets (n = 815) were born from 128 sows with 6.5 ± 0.4 full-born piglets per litter. The overall rate of stillborn piglets was 21% of all born with the number of stillborn piglets ranging from one to nine in a litter. The mortality of the surviving piglets during the first month was 48%. Thus, altogether 58% of the full-born piglets died before weaning. In 87 of the 128 litters (68%), one to 12 of the piglets showed major or minor malformations. Malformations were found in 232 piglets (29.5% of all born). A single malformation was registered in 152 piglets, but several piglets showed two (n = 58) or more (n = 23) malformations (7.4% and 2.8% of all born, respectively). A significantly higher malformation rate was found in transgenic Göttingen and Yucatan piglets (32% and 46% of all born, respectively) than in nontransgenic LW (17%). There was a gender difference in the transgenic minipigs because male piglets had a higher rate of malformations (49.1%) than females (29.7%). The most common defects in the cloned piglets were in the digestive (12.2%), circulatory (9.4%), reproductive (11.3%), and musculoskeletal (9.1%) systems. Malformations of the musculoskeletal system were most frequent in Göttingen (16.3% vs. approximately 5.5% in the two other breeds), whereas abnormal cardiopulmonary systems were most

  17. Early-Life Nutrition and Neurodevelopment: Use of the Piglet as a Translational Model.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Austin T; Dilger, Ryan N

    2017-01-01

    Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes. The piglet has emerged as an important translational model for studying neurodevelopmental outcomes influenced by pediatric nutrition. Given the comparable nutritional requirements and strikingly similar brain developmental patterns between young pigs and humans, the piglet is being used increasingly in developmental nutritional neuroscience studies. The piglet primarily has been used to assess the effects of dietary fatty acids and their accretion in the brain throughout neurodevelopment. However, recent research indicates that other dietary components, including choline, iron, cholesterol, gangliosides, and sialic acid, among other compounds, also affect neurodevelopment in the pig model. Moreover, novel analytical techniques, including but not limited to MRI, behavioral assessments, and molecular quantification, allow for a more holistic understanding of how nutrition affects neurodevelopmental patterns. By combining early-life nutritional interventions with innovative analytical approaches, opportunities abound to quantify factors affecting neurodevelopmental trajectories in the neonate. This review discusses research using the translational pig model with primary emphasis on early-life nutrition interventions assessing neurodevelopment outcomes, while also discussing nutritionally-sensitive methods to characterize brain maturation.

  18. Effects of nebulized nitroprusside on pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics during pulmonary hypertension in piglets.

    PubMed

    Meadow, W; Rudinsky, B; Bell, A; Hipps, R

    1998-08-01

    We tested the effects of nebulized nitroprusside (Neb-NP) on pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics during pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia or group B streptococci infusion in piglets. Twenty-three anesthetized and mechanically ventilated piglets received Neb-NP under four experimental conditions: 1) normoxia; 2) 15 and 60 min of pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia; 3) after pretreatment with dipyridamole; 4) pulmonary hypertension induced by infusion of group B streptococci. In addition, Neb-NP was contrasted to nebulization of tolazoline. During hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, Neb-NP significantly reduced pulmonary artery pressure [PAP; -8.4+/-0.9 (SEM) mm Hg] and pulmonary vascular resistance (-25+/-2.1%) (both p < 0.001), whereas neither systemic arterial pressure nor cardiac output changed significantly. Selective pulmonary vasodilation began within 2 min of the onset of Neb-NP, and did not wane over 1 h. In contrast, within 5 min after Neb-NP was discontinued while hypoxia persisted, PAP rose significantly. Pretreatment with dipyridamole did not enhance the pulmonary vasodilation induced by Neb-NP, but did reduce systemic arterial pressure. Nebulized tolazoline did not reduce PAP significantly, but did lower systemic arterial pressure. Selective pulmonary vasodilation induced by Neb-NP was significantly smaller during group B streptococci-induced versus hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. In sum, Neb-NP produced prompt, significant, selective reduction of PAP in piglets with pulmonary hypertension. Cautious extrapolation of these findings to selected clinical conditions in human infants may be warranted.

  19. Intestinal and Systemic Immune Development and Response to Vaccination Are Unaffected by Dietary (1,3/1,6)-β-d-Glucan Supplementation in Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Shelly N.; Comstock, Sarah S.; Thorum, Shannon C.; Monaco, Marcia H.; Pence, Brandt D.; Woods, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Infants are susceptible to infections in early life and must rely on their innate immune system for protection. β-Glucans potentiate immune responses. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of purified yeast (1,3/1,6)-β-d-glucan (Wellmune WGP, here referred to as WGP) on the development of the gastrointestinal tract and the intestinal and systemic immune systems in neonatal piglets. Piglets were fed formula containing 0 (control), 1.8, 18, or 90 mg WGP/kg body weight (BW) and were vaccinated against human influenza. Piglets were euthanized at 7 or 21 days of age. Piglet weight and small intestinal length and weight were unaffected by dietary WGP. In addition, WGP did not affect ileal crypt depth, villus height, or ascending colon cuff depth. Immune parameters not affected by WGP supplementation included T cell phenotypes, cytokine gene expression, and cell proliferation. However, vaccination and developmental effects were seen. Overall, the doses of 1.8, 18, and 90 mg/kg BW of dietary WGP had no effect on intestinal or immune development and did not improve the antibody response to vaccination in neonatal piglets. PMID:22815151

  20. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets.

    PubMed

    Ronis, Martin J J; Miousse, Isabelle R; Mason, Andrew Z; Sharma, Neha; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. However, there is a paucity of controlled studies in this area. Here, piglets were fed soy infant formula (soy), cow's milk formula (milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum iron concentrations were higher in formula-fed compared to breastfed piglets (P < 0.05). Serum zinc values were higher in milk compared to breastfed or soy groups (P < 0.05). Zinc transporter Zip4 mRNA was elevated in small intestine of the soy compared to breastfed group (P < 0.05). Transporter Znt1 mRNA was greater in small intestine of both formula-fed groups and in liver of the milk compared to the breastfed group (P < 0.05). Metallothionein Mt1 mRNA expression was higher in small intestine and liver of milk compared to breastfed and soy groups (P < 0.05). In liver, metallothionein protein levels and protein bound zinc were also highly elevated in the milk compared to other groups (P < 0.05). mRNA encoding the hepatic zinc-regulated gene Gclc was higher in the milk than soy group (P < 0.05). ChIP assay revealed increased binding of the zinc-regulated transcription factor MTF1 to the promoters of hepatic Mt3 and Gclc genes in the milk compared to the soy group. These data provide evidence that trace element status differs in breastfed, milk-fed, and soy-fed piglets and that despite similar levels of dietary supplementation, allows strong causal inference that significant differences in serum zinc after cow's milk formula compared to soy formula consumption result in compensatory changes in expression of zinc transporters, binding proteins, and zinc-regulated genes.

  1. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets

    PubMed Central

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Mason, Andrew Z; Sharma, Neha; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. However, there is a paucity of controlled studies in this area. Here, piglets were fed soy infant formula (soy), cow’s milk formula (milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum iron concentrations were higher in formula-fed compared to breastfed piglets (P < 0.05). Serum zinc values were higher in milk compared to breastfed or soy groups (P < 0.05). Zinc transporter Zip4 mRNA was elevated in small intestine of the soy compared to breastfed group (P < 0.05). Transporter Znt1 mRNA was greater in small intestine of both formula-fed groups and in liver of the milk compared to the breastfed group (P < 0.05). Metallothionein Mt1 mRNA expression was higher in small intestine and liver of milk compared to breastfed and soy groups (P < 0.05). In liver, metallothionein protein levels and protein bound zinc were also highly elevated in the milk compared to other groups (P < 0.05). mRNA encoding the hepatic zinc-regulated gene Gclc was higher in the milk than soy group (P < 0.05). ChIP assay revealed increased binding of the zinc-regulated transcription factor MTF1 to the promoters of hepatic Mt3 and Gclc genes in the milk compared to the soy group. These data provide evidence that trace element status differs in breastfed, milk-fed, and soy-fed piglets and that despite similar levels of dietary supplementation, allows strong causal inference that significant differences in serum zinc after cow’s milk formula compared to soy formula consumption result in compensatory changes in expression of zinc transporters, binding proteins, and zinc-regulated genes. PMID:25179632

  2. A cohort study on Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae colonisation in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Tobias, T J; Klinkenberg, D; Bouma, A; van den Broek, J; Daemen, A J J M; Wagenaar, J A; Stegeman, J A

    2014-06-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes respiratory disease in pigs and despite the use of preventive measures such as vaccination and antimicrobials clinical outbreaks still occur. At weaning often many piglets are not colonised. If differences in prevalence between litters are large and if factors were known that could explain these differences, this may provide an opportunity to raise groups of A. pleuropneumoniae free piglets. To this end, a cohort study was performed on two endemically infected farrow-to-finish farms. Seventy-six of 133 sows were selected using stratified random selection by parity. Farmers complied with a strict hygiene and animal management protocol to prevent transmission between litters. Tonsil brush and serum samples taken three weeks before parturition were tested for antigen with an apxIVA qPCR and antibodies with Apx and Omp ELISAs, respectively. Three days before weaning tonsil brush samples from all piglets (n=871) were collected and tested for antigen. Whereas all sows tested positive both in serology tests as well as qPCR, 0.41 of the litters tested fully negative and 0.73 of all piglets tested negative. The proportion of positively tested piglets in positive litters ranged from 0.08-1.0 (median=0.36). A grouped logistic regression model with a beta binomial distribution of the probability for piglets to become infected was fitted to the data and associations with explanatory variables were explored. To test the possibility that alternatively the clustering was caused by onwards transmission among the piglets, a transmission model was fitted to the data incorporating sow-piglet and piglet-piglet transmission, but this model did not fit better. The results of this study showed that the number of colonised suckling piglets was highly clustered and mainly attributable to the variability of infectiousness of the dam, but no dam related risk factor for colonisation status of litter or piglets within litters could be identified. Copyright

  3. Limits of fat utilization in the neonatal piglet

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dosing corn oil on the colostrum consumption in neonatal piglets, the capacity of neonatal piglets to digest and absorb fish oil and the effect of fasting on that capacity, and the capacity of neonatal piglets to absorb and oxidize long chain and medium chain triacylglycerols to identify an appropriate source and dosage of fat for maximum amount of energy. In experiment 1, piglets were either dosed 8 ml corn oil per kg body weight or sham fed, and then the colostrum consumption of each piglet during next 24-h period was measured by an isotope dilution technique. In experiment 2, neonatal piglets were given an amount of fish oil calculated to provide the piglet's maintenance energy needs for 12 h. Twelve hours after administration of fish oil, contents of stomach, small intestine and large intestine and feces were collected for lipid analyses. In experiment 3, neonatal piglets were given one of three levels of either (1-/sup 14/C)-triolein or (1-/sup 14/C)-trioctanoin, which supplied about .5, 1.0 or 2.0 times piglet's maintenance energy needs for 12 h. The hourly /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production was measured to estimate the oxidation rate, and the contents of digestive tract were collected for radioactivity and lipid analyses for estimating the absorption rate of the dosed triacylglycerols.

  4. Ectopia cordis thoracoabdominalis in a piglet.

    PubMed

    Freeman, L E; McGovern, P T

    1984-10-27

    A congenital anomaly characterised by displacement of the heart through a ventral body wall fissure involving the thoracic and cranial abdominal regions was recorded in a female Yorkshire-cross piglet. Dissection to assess the morphology of the developmental defect and a summary review of the literature on ectopia cordis were made. This case appears to be one of only three of ectopia cordis thoracoabdominalis reported in swine.

  5. Piglets born after intrauterine laparoscopic embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, J; Koseniuk, J; Mandryk, I; Poniedziałek-Kempny, K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was the preliminary development of laparoscopic transfer of embryos to the uterus in the pig, which can become the alternative for more invasive surgical methods. We proposed the original method of embryo transfer. Donors (n = 40) and recipients (n = 15) of embryos were sows of age of 6-8 months. The estrus cycle of both recipients and donors was routinely synchronized. The experimental animals were divided into two groups. In the first group (10 donors and 3 recipients) embryos were transplanted according to the method described earlier and in the second group (30 donors and 12 recipients) embryos were transplanted according to our own proposed method. As the control group, we used 16 sows after insemination (AI). In animals from both experimental groups pregnancy was diagnosed between 28-31 day after transplantation and in the control group between 28-31 day after insemination. All animals were observed during pregnancy and weaning period in pig farm. Embryos at the development stage of 2-4 cell were obtained surgically and cultured in vitro for 4 days. Obtained blastocysts were transferred to donors. The original set of catheters for blastocysts transfer to pig uterus was constructed. Three trocars were placed in abdominal cavity for inserting endoscope and 2 grasps for uterus stabilization. After uterus stabilization, the slide was inserted into abdomen which was used for putting the needle to puncture uterus. Through this needle catheter with embryos was inserted into the uterus cavity. Embryos were placed by injection into lumen of the one uterine horn. From 12 recipients pregnancy was diagnosed in 6 recipients. From 6 litters, 57 piglets were born. We weaned 41 piglets (71.9%). In our study we obtained 50% efficacy, with the mean number of 9.5 alive piglets in litter and 6.8 weaned piglets. The efficacy of developed method of laparoscopic transfer of porcine embryos allows it to be used in routine practice.

  6. Inhibition of medullary raphe serotonergic neurons has age-dependent effects on the CO2 response in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Messier, Michelle L; Li, Aihua; Nattie, Eugene E

    2004-05-01

    Medullary raphé serotonergic neurons are chemosensitive in culture and are situated adjacent to blood vessels in the brain stem. Selective lesioning of serotonergic raphé neurons decreases the ventilatory response to systemic CO2 in awake and sleeping adult rats. Abnormalities in the medullary serotonergic system, including the raphé, have been implicated in the sudden infant death syndrome (48). In this study, we ask whether serotonergic neurons in the medullary raphé and extra-raphé regions are involved in the CO2 response in unanesthetized newborn piglets, 3-16 days old. Whole body plethysmography was used to examine the ventilatory response to 5% CO2 before and during focal inhibition of serotonergic neurons by 8-hydroxy-2-di-n-propylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT), a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. 8-OH-DPAT (10 or 30 mM in artificial cerebrospinal fluid) decreased the CO2 response in wakefulness in an age-dependent manner, as revealed by a linear regression analysis that showed a significant negative correlation (P < 0.001) between the percent change in the CO2 response and piglet age. Younger piglets showed an exaggerated CO2 response. Control dialysis with artificial cerebrospinal fluid had no significant effect on the CO2 response. Additionally, 8-OH-DPAT increased blood pressure and decreased heart rate independent of age (P < 0.05). Finally, sleep cycling was disrupted by 8-OH-DPAT, such that piglets were awake more and asleep less (P < 0.05). Because of the fragmentary sleep data, it was not possible to examine the CO2 response in sleep. Inhibition of serotonergic medullary raphé and extra-raphé neurons decreases ventilatory CO2 sensitivity and alters cardiovascular variables and sleep cycling, which may contribute to the sudden infant death syndrome.

  7. Ventilatory response to hypercapnia and hypoxia after extensive lesion of medullary serotonergic neurons in newborn conscious piglets.

    PubMed

    Penatti, E M; Berniker, A V; Kereshi, B; Cafaro, C; Kelly, M L; Niblock, M M; Gao, H G; Kinney, H C; Li, A; Nattie, E E

    2006-10-01

    Acute inhibition of serotonergic (5-HT) neurons in the medullary raphé (MR) using a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist had an age-dependent impact on the "CO(2) response" of piglets (33). Our present study explored the effect of chronic 5-HT neuron lesions in the MR and extra-raphé on the ventilatory response to hypercapnia and hypoxia in piglets, with possible implications on the role of 5-HT in the sudden infant death syndrome. We established four experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 11) did not undergo any treatment. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were injected with either vehicle or the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine in the cisterna magna during the first week of life (group 2, n = 9; group 4, n = 11) or second week of life (group 3, n = 10). Ventilation was recorded in response to 5% CO(2) (all groups) and 12% O(2) (group 2) during wakefulness and sleep up to postnatal day 25. Surprisingly, the piglets did not reveal changes in their CO(2) sensitivity during early postnatal development. Overall, considerable lesions of 5-HT neurons (up to 65% decrease) in the MR and extra-raphé had no impact on the CO(2) response, regardless of injection time. Postlesion raphé plasticity could explain why we observed no effect. 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine-treated males, however, did present a lower CO(2) response during sleep. Hypoxia significantly altered the frequency during sleep in lesioned piglets. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of plasticity, sex, and 5-HT abnormalities in sudden infant death syndrome.

  8. Piglet preweaning mortality in a commercial swine herd in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuntapaitoon, Morakot; Tummaruk, Padet

    2015-12-01

    In the modern swine industry, the number of piglets born alive per litter is dramatically increasing due to genetic improvement of litter traits. However, knowledge on post-partum management is inadequate to reduce piglet preweaning mortality. The present study aimed to investigate piglet preweaning mortality in a commercial swine herd in Thailand in relation to the number of littermate pigs and piglet birth weight. Data included 11,154 litters from 3574 sows farrowed from January 2009 to December 2012. Littermate pig was defined as the number of piglets after cross-fostering. Number of littermate pigs was classified as 1-7, 8-10, 11-12, and 13-15 piglets per litter. Mean birth weight of the piglets was classified as low (<1.30 kg), medium (1.30-1.79 kg), and high (≥1.80 kg). Piglet preweaning mortality was calculated, logged transformed, and analyzed by general linear mixed models. On average, piglet preweaning mortality was 14.5 % (median = 10.0 %). Piglet preweaning mortality in the litter with 13-15 littermate pigs (24.1 %) was significantly higher than the litter with 1-7 (11.9 %, P < 0.001), 8-10 (11.8 %, P < 0.001), and 11-12 (14.6 %, P < 0.001) littermate pigs. The litters with a low piglet birth weight had a higher piglet preweaning mortality rate (18.8 %) than the litters with a medium (15.7 %, P < 0.001) and a high piglet birth weight (12.1 %, P < 0.001). In conclusion, to reduce piglet preweaning mortality in commercial swine herds, special care needs to be taken in litters with more than 13 littermate pigs and with piglets with birth weight below 1.30 kg.

  9. Torque teno virus (TTV) infection in sows and suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Sibila, M; Martínez-Guinó, L; Huerta, E; Mora, M; Grau-Roma, L; Kekarainen, T; Segalés, J

    2009-06-12

    Torque teno virus (TTV) is a single-stranded DNA virus that has been detected in serum of primate and non-primate species including swine. Little information on swine TTV infection and transmission dynamics is nowadays available. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the potential role of the sow in transmitting TTV to piglets and the infection dynamics of both swine TTV genogroups (TTV1 and TTV2) during the lactation period. Serum samples from 44 sows at 1-week post-farrowing and 215 piglets at 1 and 3 weeks of age were tested using TTV1 and TTV2 PCR methods. Sow parity distribution and the number of delivered piglets (liveborn, stillborn and mummified) per each studied sow were recorded. TTV1 was detected in higher percentages than TTV2 in both sows (75% vs. 43%, respectively) and piglets at 1 (17% vs. 7%, respectively) and 3 (32% vs. 12%, respectively) weeks of age. TTV1 and TTV2 co-infections were observed in higher percentages in sows (34%) than in piglets (2% and 4% at 1 and 3 weeks of age, respectively). Detection of swine TTV genogroups in sows was not associated with their detection in piglets. Moreover, there were piglets infected at 1 week of age with a swine TTV genogroup different from the one detected in their dam. The number of sows delivering stillborns and the mean number of stillborns per sow tended to be higher in the TTV2 infected sows; this value was significantly higher when co-infected sows (TTV1 and TTV2) were compared with non-co-infected ones. Old parity sows had a higher percentage of TTV1 infected 1-week-old piglets. Results of the present study showed that the TTV infection occurs early in the production system and that these viruses may be transmitted from sow-to-piglet but also from piglet-to-piglet in farrowing facilities.

  10. Significant head cooling can be achieved while maintaining normothermia in the newborn piglet.

    PubMed

    Tooley, J R; Eagle, R C; Satas, S; Thoresen, M

    2005-05-01

    Hypothermia has been shown to be neuroprotective in animal models of hypoxia-ischaemia. It is currently being evaluated as a potentially therapeutic option in the management of neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. However, significant hypothermia has adverse systemic effects. It has also recently been found that the stress of being cold can abolish the neuroprotective effects of hypothermia. It is hypothesised that selective head cooling (SHC) while maintaining normal core temperature would enable local hypothermic neuroprotection while limiting the stress and side effects of hypothermia. To determine whether it is possible to induce moderate cerebral hypothermia in the deep brain of the piglet while maintaining the body at normothermia (39 degrees C). Six piglets (<48 hours old) were anaesthetised, and temperature probes inserted into the brain. Temperature was measured at different depths from the brain surface (21 mm (T(deep brain)) to 7 mm (T(superficial brain))). After a 45 minute global hypoxic-ischaemic insult, each piglet was head cooled for seven hours using a cap circulated with cold water (median 8.9 degrees C (interquartile range 7.5-14)) wrapped around the head. Radiant overhead heating was used to warm the body during cooling. During SHC it was possible to cool the brain while maintaining a normal core temperature. The mean (SD) T(deep brain) during the seven hour cooling period was 31.1 (4.9) degrees C while T(rectal) remained stable at 38.8 (0.4) degrees C. The mean T(rectal)-T(deep brain) difference throughout the cooling period was 9.8 (6.1) degrees C. The mean T(skin) required was 40.8 (1.1) degrees C. There was no evidence of skin damage secondary to these skin temperatures. During cooling only one piglet shivered. It is possible to maintain systemic normothermia in piglets while significantly cooling the deeper structures of the brain. This method of cooling may further limit the side effects associated with systemic hypothermia and be

  11. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    PubMed

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (P<0·05). However, IUGR piglets fed HMB-Ca had a net weight and ADG similar to that of NBW piglets fed the CON diet. Irrespective of body weight (BW), HMB-Ca supplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (P<0·05). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the effects of BW and HMB on mTOR expression in the LD (P<0·05). In conclusion, HMB-Ca supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.

  12. Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in experimentally infected conventional piglets.

    PubMed

    Poutahidis, T; Tsangaris, T; Kanakoudis, G; Vlemmas, I; Iliadis, N; Sofianou, D

    2001-11-01

    A conventional nonmutant animal that could be experimentally infected with Helicobacter pylori isolates would be a useful animal model for human H. pylori-associated gastritis. Gnotobiotic and barrier-born pigs are susceptible to H. pylori infection, but attempts to infect conventional pigs with this bacterium have been unsuccessful. In the present study, a litter of eight 20-day-old crossbreed piglets were purchased from a commercial farm. Six of them were orally challenged two to five times at different ages, between 29 and 49 days, with doses of H. pylori inoculum containing approximately 10(9) bacterial cells. Two animals served as controls. The inoculation program began 2 days postweaning when the piglets were 29 days of age. Prior to every inoculation, the piglets were fasted and pretreated with cimetidine, and prior to the first and second inoculation each piglet also was pretreated with dexamethasone. The challenged piglets were euthanasized between 36 and 76 days of age. H. pylori colonized all six inoculated piglets. The pathology of the experimentally induced gastritis was examined macroscopically and by light and electron microscopy. H. pylori induced a severe lymphocytic gastritis in the conventional piglets and reproduced the large majority of the pathologic features of the human disease. Therefore, the conventional piglet represents a promising new model for study of the various pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of lesions of the human H. pylori-associated gastritis.

  13. Alopecia areata and humpy-back syndrome in suckling piglets

    PubMed Central

    Drolet, Richard; Denicourt, Martine; D’Allaire, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    This report describes an uncommon variant of humpy-back syndrome associated with multiple rib fractures and multisystemic vasculitis in several nursing piglets and, for the first time, a skin disease in swine consistent with alopecia areata. Both conditions were observed concurrently on the farm and occasionally in the same piglets. PMID:23372194

  14. Does light attract piglets to the creep area?

    PubMed

    Larsen, M L V; Pedersen, L J

    2015-06-01

    Hypothermia, experienced by piglets, has been related to piglet deaths and high and early use of a heated creep area is considered important to prevent hypothermia. The aims of the present study were to investigate how a newly invented radiant heat source, eHeat, would affect piglets' use of the creep area and whether light in the creep area works as an attractant on piglets. A total of 39 sows, divided between two batches, were randomly distributed to three heat source treatments: (1) standard infrared heat lamp (CONT, n=19), (2) eHeat with light (EL, n=10) and (3) eHeat without light (ENL, n=10). Recordings of piglets' use of the creep area were made as scan sampling every 10 min for 3 h during two periods, one in daylight (0900 to 1200 h) and one in darkness (2100 to 2400 h), on day 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 21 postpartum. On the same days, piglets were weighted. Results showed an interaction between treatment and observation period (P<0.05) with a lower use of the creep area during darkness compared with daylight for CONT and EL litters, but not for ENL litters. Piglets average daily weight gain was not affected by treatment, but was positively correlated with piglets' birth weight and was lower in batch 1 compared with batch 2. Seen from the present results, neither eHeat nor light worked as an attractant on piglets; in contrast, piglets preferred to sleep in the dark and it would therefore be recommended to turn off the light in the creep area during darkness. Heating up the creep area without light can be accomplished by using a radiant heat source such as eHeat in contrast to the normally used light-emitting infrared heat lamp.

  15. Pathogenesis of intestinal cryptosporidiosis in conventional and gnotobiotic piglets.

    PubMed

    Vítovec, J; Koudela, B

    1992-06-01

    The pathogenesis of intestinal cryptosporidiosis was studied in 52 conventionally reared and 20 gnotobiotically reared piglets by inoculation with different doses of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. The prepatent period of C. parvum in both groups of animals were variable, depending on the number of oocysts administered. The patent period of C. parvum in conventionally reared piglets was 8 or 9 days; in gnotobiotic piglets cryptosporidia were found in feces until Day post infection (DPI) 16, when the last piglet was necropsied. Cryptosporidiosis in conventionally reared piglets is a self-limited diarrheal disease associated with morphological changes within the intestine. The most severe lesion was seen in the posterior jejunum and ileum from DPI 3 to DPI 7, and consisted of villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia and inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria. In gnotobiotic piglets cryptosporidia induced severe enterocolitis which occurred at least until DPI 16. The characteristics of enteric lesions were similar to those found in conventionally reared piglets. Intestinal cryptosporidiosis in both groups of animals shifted in the course of infection in the caudal direction and terminated in the large intestine. Examination by scanning electron microscope showed that infected absorptive cells had thicker and longer microvilli than those on non-infected cells; neighboring non-infected cells were hypertrophic, bulbously protuberant with minute microvilli with no distinct intercellular borders. Numerous cryptosporidia in the heterotopic glandular epithelium in the submucosa of cecum and colon on DPI 9 and 10 were found. No differences in the location and degree of cryptosporidial infection between colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived conventionally reared piglets were found. Sow's colostrum does not appear to protect piglets from C. parvum infection. The role of intestinal microflora in the pathogenesis of cryptosporidiosis in piglets is discussed.

  16. Probiotic treatment using Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 reduces weanling diarrhea associated with rotavirus and Escherichia coli infection in a piglet model.

    PubMed

    Shu, Q; Qu, F; Gill, H S

    2001-08-01

    Diarrhea associated with rotavirus and Escherichia coli is one of the major gastrointestinal problems faced by human infants. Using a piglet model, the authors investigated the protective effectiveness of probiotic feeding against naturally acquired diarrhea in weanlings. Seventeen piglets were allocated into two groups balanced for live weight and litter of origin. The test group was administered Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (109 colony-forming units (cfu)/piglet/d) orally until the end of the experiment; the control group did not receive probiotic treatment. After 1 week, animals were penned individually and weaned onto a diet for a weaner. The degree of subsequent diarrheal disease was monitored in both groups of animals, feed intake and live weight gain of the piglets were assessed, and blood and fecal samples were collected to measure concurrent systemic and gastrointestinal tract immunologic activity. Compared with the controls, piglets that received B. lactis HN019 had a lower severity of weanling diarrhea and maintained a greater feed conversion efficiency during weaning. The protective effect of probiotic feeding was associated with lower concentrations of fecal rotavirus and E. coli, higher blood leukocyte phagocytic and T-lymphocyte proliferative responses, and higher gastrointestinal tract pathogen-specific antibody titers. These results show that dietary treatment using B. lactis HN019 can reduce the severity of weanling diarrhea associated with rotavirus and E. coli, possibly via a mechanism of enhanced immune-mediated protection. This study suggests that probiotic treatment may be an effective dietary means of preventing or limiting diarrhea in human infants.

  17. Surgery increases cell death and induces changes in gene expression compared with anesthesia alone in the developing piglet brain.

    PubMed

    Broad, Kevin D; Kawano, Go; Fierens, Igor; Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Hristova, Mariya; Ezzati, Mojgan; Rostami, Jamshid; Alonso-Alconada, Daniel; Chaban, Badr; Hassell, Jane; Fleiss, Bobbi; Gressens, Pierre; Sanders, Robert D; Robertson, Nicola J

    2017-01-01

    In a range of animal species, exposure of the brain to general anaesthesia without surgery during early infancy may adversely affect its neural and cognitive development. The mechanisms mediating this are complex but include an increase in brain cell death. In humans, attempts to link adverse cognitive development to infantile anaesthesia exposure have yielded ambiguous results. One caveat that may influence the interpretation of human studies is that infants are not exposed to general anaesthesia without surgery, raising the possibility that surgery itself, may contribute to adverse cognitive development. Using piglets, we investigated whether a minor surgical procedure increases cell death and disrupts neuro-developmental and cognitively salient gene transcription in the neonatal brain. We randomly assigned neonatal male piglets to a group who received 6h of 2% isoflurane anaesthesia or a group who received an identical anaesthesia plus 15 mins of surgery designed to replicate an inguinal hernia repair. Compared to anesthesia alone, surgery-induced significant increases in cell death in eight areas of the brain. Using RNAseq data derived from all 12 piglets per group we also identified significant changes in the expression of 181 gene transcripts induced by surgery in the cingulate cortex, pathway analysis of these changes suggests that surgery influences the thrombin, aldosterone, axonal guidance, B cell, ERK-5, eNOS and GABAA signalling pathways. This suggests a number of novel mechanisms by which surgery may influence neural and cognitive development independently or synergistically with the effects of anaesthesia.

  18. Surgery increases cell death and induces changes in gene expression compared with anesthesia alone in the developing piglet brain

    PubMed Central

    Fierens, Igor; Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Hristova, Mariya; Ezzati, Mojgan; Rostami, Jamshid; Alonso-Alconada, Daniel; Chaban, Badr; Hassell, Jane; Fleiss, Bobbi; Gressens, Pierre; Sanders, Robert D.; Robertson, Nicola J.

    2017-01-01

    In a range of animal species, exposure of the brain to general anaesthesia without surgery during early infancy may adversely affect its neural and cognitive development. The mechanisms mediating this are complex but include an increase in brain cell death. In humans, attempts to link adverse cognitive development to infantile anaesthesia exposure have yielded ambiguous results. One caveat that may influence the interpretation of human studies is that infants are not exposed to general anaesthesia without surgery, raising the possibility that surgery itself, may contribute to adverse cognitive development. Using piglets, we investigated whether a minor surgical procedure increases cell death and disrupts neuro-developmental and cognitively salient gene transcription in the neonatal brain. We randomly assigned neonatal male piglets to a group who received 6h of 2% isoflurane anaesthesia or a group who received an identical anaesthesia plus 15 mins of surgery designed to replicate an inguinal hernia repair. Compared to anesthesia alone, surgery-induced significant increases in cell death in eight areas of the brain. Using RNAseq data derived from all 12 piglets per group we also identified significant changes in the expression of 181 gene transcripts induced by surgery in the cingulate cortex, pathway analysis of these changes suggests that surgery influences the thrombin, aldosterone, axonal guidance, B cell, ERK-5, eNOS and GABAA signalling pathways. This suggests a number of novel mechanisms by which surgery may influence neural and cognitive development independently or synergistically with the effects of anaesthesia. PMID:28355229

  19. Maternal presence and environmental enrichment affect food neophobia of piglets.

    PubMed

    Oostindjer, Marije; Muñoz, Julia Mas; Van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2011-02-23

    Young omnivores show food neophobia in order to avoid the potential harmful effects of ingesting unfamiliar food items. We investigated whether the presence of the mother and an enriched rearing environment would reduce food neophobia in piglets. A mother may provide information on suitable food types to include in the diet, whereas an enriched environment may stimulate behavioural development and reduce reactivity towards novel stimuli (including food). Five barren-reared or enriched-reared piglets per litter were exposed to two novel food items in the presence, and the other five per litter in the absence, of the mother in a 7 min test. Maternal presence reduced food neophobia profoundly as reflected in a reduced latency to touching the food, a higher proportion of piglets sampling the two different food items and a higher intake. Latency to touch the food, however, was affected by maternal presence more strongly for barren-reared piglets than for enriched-reared piglets, and in the absence of the sow, consumption of one novel food type and time spent in the feeding area were higher for enriched-reared piglets. Environmental enrichment does have the potential to reduce food neophobia, but the presence of the mother during the encounter with novel food seems more efficient in decreasing food neophobia of piglets.

  20. Effect of apitherapy in piglets with preweaning diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seok Hwa; Cho, Seong Koo; Kang, Seong Soo; Bae, Chun Sik; Bai, Young Hoon; Lee, Seung Hoo; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the therapeutic effect of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) venom in piglets with bacterial diarrhea Comparison between bee venom- and drug-treated groups was our main concern in the present study. Preweaning piglets were assigned to treated and non-treated control groups. In the treated group, 47 piglets were acupunctured with the worker honeybee once a day for three consecutive days. Two acupoints, GV-1 (Jiao-chao) and ST-25 (Hai-men), were selected for apitherapy. In the control group, 44 piglets were intramuscularly injected with a standard dose of a known antibacterial drug, colistin sulfate (300,000 IU/kg of body weight), and an antidiarrheal drug (berberine, 2 ml/kg) once a day for three consecutive days. At post-treatment, 90.9% of the control piglets and 93.6% of piglets in the treated group recovered from bacterial diarrhea. Bee acupuncture therapy did not show any side effects such as allergy, intoxication, hemorrhage or infection. It is concluded that bee venom therapy was effective in controlling bacterial diarrhea in preweaning piglets.

  1. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  2. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  3. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  4. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  5. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  6. The Way Humans Behave Modulates the Emotional State of Piglets.

    PubMed

    Brajon, Sophie; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Océane; Devillers, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The emotional state can influence decision-making under ambiguity. Cognitive bias tests (CBT) proved to be a promising indicator of the affective valence of animals in a context of farm animal welfare. Although it is well-known that humans can influence the intensity of fear and reactions of animals, research on cognitive bias often focusses on housing and management conditions and neglects the role of humans on emotional states of animals. The present study aimed at investigating whether humans can modulate the emotional state of weaned piglets. Fifty-four piglets received a chronic experience with humans: gentle (GEN), rough (ROU) or minimal contact (MIN). Simultaneously, they were individually trained on a go/no-go task to discriminate a positive auditory cue, associated with food reward in a trough, from a negative one, associated with punishments (e.g. water spray). Independently of the treatment (P = 0.82), 59% of piglets completed the training. Successfully trained piglets were then subjected to CBT, including ambiguous cues in presence or absence of a human observer. As hypothesized, GEN piglets showed a positive judgement bias, as shown by their higher percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue compared to ROU (P = 0.03) and MIN (P = 0.02) piglets, whereas ROU and MIN piglets did not differ (P > 0.10). The presence of an observer during CBT did not modulate the percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue (P > 0.10). However, regardless of the treatment, piglets spent less time in contact with the trough following positive cues during CBT in which the observer was present than absent (P < 0.0001). This study originally demonstrates that the nature of a chronic experience with humans can induce a judgement bias indicating that the emotional state of farm animals such as piglets can be affected by the way humans interact with them.

  7. The Way Humans Behave Modulates the Emotional State of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Brajon, Sophie; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Océane; Devillers, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The emotional state can influence decision-making under ambiguity. Cognitive bias tests (CBT) proved to be a promising indicator of the affective valence of animals in a context of farm animal welfare. Although it is well-known that humans can influence the intensity of fear and reactions of animals, research on cognitive bias often focusses on housing and management conditions and neglects the role of humans on emotional states of animals. The present study aimed at investigating whether humans can modulate the emotional state of weaned piglets. Fifty-four piglets received a chronic experience with humans: gentle (GEN), rough (ROU) or minimal contact (MIN). Simultaneously, they were individually trained on a go/no-go task to discriminate a positive auditory cue, associated with food reward in a trough, from a negative one, associated with punishments (e.g. water spray). Independently of the treatment (P = 0.82), 59% of piglets completed the training. Successfully trained piglets were then subjected to CBT, including ambiguous cues in presence or absence of a human observer. As hypothesized, GEN piglets showed a positive judgement bias, as shown by their higher percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue compared to ROU (P = 0.03) and MIN (P = 0.02) piglets, whereas ROU and MIN piglets did not differ (P > 0.10). The presence of an observer during CBT did not modulate the percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue (P > 0.10). However, regardless of the treatment, piglets spent less time in contact with the trough following positive cues during CBT in which the observer was present than absent (P < 0.0001). This study originally demonstrates that the nature of a chronic experience with humans can induce a judgement bias indicating that the emotional state of farm animals such as piglets can be affected by the way humans interact with them. PMID:26244335

  8. Antimicrobial Therapies for Helicobacter pylori Infection in Gnotobiotic Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Krakowka, Steven; Eaton, K. A.; Leunk, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    Gnotobiotic piglets infected with Helicobacter pylori were treated with various antimicrobials as monotherapy and dual therapy, and the results were compared to those for piglets treated with a triple-therapy regimen (bismuth subsalicyclate at 5.7 mg/kg of body weight, metronidazole at 4.4 mg/kg, and amoxicillin at 6.8 mg/kg four times a day [QID]). Clearance of infection was assessed after 7 days of treatment, and eradication was assessed following 7 days of treatment and a 14-day posttreatment observation interval. Monotherapy with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and ciprofloxacin cleared and eradicated the organism from porcine stomachs; monotherapy with metronidazole cleared the infection and eradicated it from some piglets. Metronidazole-resistant microbes were recovered from treated piglets which cleared but did not eradicate the infection. Monotherapy with bismuth subsalicylate, erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, and tetracycline in the dosage range of 5.0 to 7.1 mg/kg QID was less than 100% effective in clearance and eradication, in that these drugs cleared and/or eradicated the infection from some of the piglets but did not eradicate the infection from all of the piglets. Monotherapy with an H-2 receptor antagonist (ranitidine) or a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole) was ineffective at either clearance or eradication. In vivo dose titrations with several effective monotherapies were performed to determine the lowest effective in vivo dose of drug. In piglets, eradication was associated with a statistically significant decline in serum H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies; the titers of both IgA and IgG also declined, but the values were not statistically significant. For many antimicrobials, piglets are more sensitive indicators of clearance and eradication than humans. These data establish the H. pylori-infected gnotobiotic piglet as a useful model for the identification of novel antimicrobials for the treatment of this disease and for drug

  9. A piglet model for studies of gastrointestinal uptake of cadmium in neonates.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Gunilla; Tallkvist, Jonas; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2004-02-02

    Newborns are believed to have a higher gastrointestinal uptake of inorganic cadmium (Cd) than adults. However, relevant models for investigations of absorption of dietary Cd in neonates are lacking. In the present study, piglets were exposed to 2 or 20 microg Cd/kg body weight (b wt) per day by repeated oral administrations of CdCl2 dissolved in deionized water or infant follow-up formula from days 0 to 10. Elevated and dose-dependent Cd retention in blood and tissues resulted from this low-dose Cd exposure, as determined at day 11. Follow-up formula reduced Cd uptake in comparison to deionized water. However, Cd distribution to the kidneys was higher when Cd was given in formula than in water. Metallothionein (MT) levels in liver, kidney and duodenum were six, three and two times higher, respectively compared to an un-exposed control. Differences in bioavailability and distribution of low-dose Cd given in various diets to newborns could be detected by the proposed piglet model.

  10. Laryngeal water receptors are insensitive to body temperature in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Xia, L; Leiter, J C; Bartlett, D

    2006-01-25

    Heat stress and the laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR) have both been implicated as possible contributors to the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). We recently reported that moderate hyperthermia, induced in decerebrate piglets by external heating, substantially prolonged the LCR elicited by injecting 0.1 ml of water into the larynx through a prepositioned transnasal catheter. To examine the question of whether hyperthermia influences the responses of laryngeal water receptors, we recorded single fiber action potentials in fine strands of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) in decerebrate piglets while the larynx was filled with water or isotonic saline. Water receptors, identified by their much brisker response to water than to saline, were studied with body temperature at 37.9+/-0.2 degrees C, after warming the animal to 40.6+/-0.2 degrees C and after cooling back to 37.7+/-0.3 degrees C. The results show no effect of body temperature change, in this range, on the responses of the laryngeal water receptors and thus suggest that the potentiation of the LCR by hyperthermia is mediated by a central action.

  11. Healthy birth weight results in higher vitamin A storage in neonate piglets administered high-dose supplements

    PubMed Central

    Heying, Emily K; Hovel, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    A proposed intervention for newborn infants in countries with suspected vitamin A (VA) deficiency is to administer 50,000 IU retinyl palmitate at birth to reduce mortality risk. However, no studies have investigated birth weight effects. In this study, low birth weight (LBW; <1 kg, n = 18) and healthy birth weight (HBW) piglets (>1.5 kg, n = 18) from VA-depleted sows were dosed with 25,000 or 50,000 IU retinyl palmitate (26.2 or 52.4 µmol retinol equivalents) at birth to compare VA reserves. Blood was collected at varying times (n = 3–5/time/dose), and piglets were killed at 12 or 24 h for blood, liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs, adrenal gland, and intestinal contents. HBW piglets had significantly higher birth, death, and organ weights than LBW (P < 0.0001 for all). HBW and LBW piglets, which received VA, had higher liver and kidney VA concentrations (0.18 ± 0.09, 0.24 ± 0.10 µmol/g liver and 13.4 ± 4.1, 14.2 ± 4.5 nmol/g kidney, respectively) than controls (n = 10) (0.051 ± 0.01 µmol/g liver and 1.01 ± 0.43 nmol/g kidney) (P = 0.0061 and < 0.0001, respectively). Total liver (9.75 ± 5.16 µmol) and kidney retinol (204 ± 79.1 nmol) were higher in HBW than LBW piglets (P < 0.0001). Extrahepatic tissues, except lung, had higher VA concentration than controls (P < 0.0001). Serum retinol and ester concentrations were higher in treated than control piglets (P = 0.0028, P < 0.0001, respectively), and significantly changed during the times sampled (P = 0.022, P = 0.011, respectively). Peak serum retinyl ester concentrations, which occurred at 3 h, were higher in piglets that received 50,000 IU (4.2 ± 4.4 µmol/L) than 25,000 IU (2.7 ± 2.3 µmol/L) (P = 0.031). Regardless of dose amount, HBW piglets stored more supplemental VA than LBW piglets when administered at birth. PMID:25681469

  12. The effect of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) on bone formation in piglets: a model for bone growth in nutritional investigation.

    PubMed

    Burke, A; Weiler, H

    2002-10-01

    This research investigates the effects of exogenous prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) treatment and arachidonic acid supplementation on the rate of growth in modelling bone of piglets. The piglet is a good model for the study of infant nutrition and bone growth. PGE(2) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC PUFA) supplementation, alone and in combination, are shown to have little or no effect on cortical bone thickness. Though exogenous PGE(2) supplementation and LC PUFA supplementation may both be effective in promoting bone growth and mass in adults, they do not appear to have the same positive effect on bone growth in infancy over a short term. A dynamic model for bone growth in piglets is proposed here for the first time. This research adds to our knowledge of the relationship between the dynamic histology of bone, the rate of osteogenesis, and the link between nutrition and bone growth.

  13. The indicator amino acid oxidation method identified limiting amino acids in two parenteral nutrition solutions in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Brunton, Janet A; Shoveller, Anna K; Pencharz, Paul B; Ball, Ronald O

    2007-05-01

    Recent studies using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique in TPN-fed piglets and infants have been instrumental in defining parenteral amino acid requirements. None of the commercial products in use are ideal when assessed against these new data. Our objectives were to determine whether the oxidation of an indicator amino acid would decline with the addition of amino acids that were limiting in the diets of TPN-fed piglets, and to use this technique to identify limiting amino acids in a new amino acid profile. Piglets (n = 26) were randomized to receive TPN with amino acids provided by Vaminolact (VM) or by a new profile (NP). After 5 d of TPN administration, lysine oxidation was measured using a constant infusion of L- [1-(14)C]-lysine. Immediately following the first IAAO study, the piglets were further randomized within diet group to receive either 1) supplemental aromatic amino acids (AAA), 2) sulfur amino acids (SAA) or 3) both (AAA+SAA) (n = 4-5 per treatment group). A second IAAO study was carried out 18 h later. In the first IAAO study, lysine oxidation was high for both groups (18 vs. 21% for VM and NP, respectively, P = 0.055). The addition of AAA to VM induced a 30% decline in lysine oxidation compared with baseline (P < 0.01). Similarly, SAA added to NP lowered lysine oxidation by approximately 30% (P < 0.01). The application of the IAAO technique facilitates rapid evaluation of the amino acids that are limiting to protein synthesis in parenteral solutions.

  14. Platelet Arachidonic Acid Deficiency May Contribute to Abnormal Platelet Function During Parenteral Fish Oil Monotherapy in a Piglet Model.

    PubMed

    Turner, Justine M; Field, Catherine J; Goruk, Sue; Wizzard, Pamela; Dicken, Bryan J; Bruce, Aisha; Wales, Paul W

    2016-05-01

    Fish oil monotherapy has been an advance for treating intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). However, such patients are at risk of bleeding complications from liver disease and because fish oil can inhibit thrombosis. We have previously reported abnormal platelet function in neonatal piglets given fish oil monotherapy during parenteral nutrition (PN). The purpose of this study was to determine if abnormal fatty acid composition of the platelets could explain the prior observed antiplatelet effect. Neonatal piglets were assigned to 2 treatments: PN with fish oil monotherapy (FO; n = 4) or PN with soy oil (SO; n = 5). On day 14, plasma was collected and platelets isolated by centrifuging. The fatty acid content in plasma and platelet plug were measured using gas liquid chromatography and compared with controls (CON; n = 5). The arachidonic acid (AA) content in the FO group was on average half that of the SO group, in both the platelets (FO, 3.5% vs SO, 7.6%; P = .021; CON, 4.5%-11%) and the plasma (FO, 3.8% vs SO, 9.2%; P = .002; CON, 6.1%-9.5%). No bleeding complications were observed for any piglets during PN treatment. Using platelet mapping, we have previously shown that neonatal piglets given fish oil monotherapy have abnormal platelet function in the AA pathway. This report demonstrates that such an abnormality can be explained by platelet AA deficiency. Platelet mapping and platelet fatty acid analysis should be undertaken in human infants treated with fish oil monotherapy during PN. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  15. A Learning Center Approach to Infant Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Polly K.; Taylor, Michaell K.

    Following a prefatory description of infant development and high-quality infant day care centers, this paper focuses on the construction of learning centers for infants and toddlers in day care. Issues for consideration are specified, and 18 different care/learning centers and 6 work sstations for parents/staff are briefly described. In addition…

  16. Intestinal apolipoprotein synthesis in the newborn piglet.

    PubMed

    Black, D D; Rohwer-Nutter, P L

    1991-01-01

    To determine the effects of dietary and biliary lipid absorption on intestinal apo B-48 and apo A-I synthesis in the newborn piglet, 2-d-old female piglets were prepared with a duodenal infusion catheter. After recovery, animals were given either low triglyceride (Vivonex; VIV group) or high triglyceride (Intralipid; FAT group) diets by continuous intraduodenal infusion for 24 h. A bile-diverted group was also studied. Segments of proximal jejunum and distal ileum were then pulse-radiolabeled in vivo with 3H-leucine. Mucosal apo B-48 and apo A-I were immunoprecipitated, and apoprotein synthesis was expressed as percentage of total protein synthesis. Mucosal apoprotein content (ng apoprotein/microgram total protein) was measured by competitive ELISA assays. In jejunum and ileum, apo B-48 synthesis was not different in the three groups. However, apo B content increased 2.4-fold in jejunum and 1.7-fold in ileum in the FAT group compared with the VIV group. Immunoblotting revealed the majority of jejunal apo B to be apo B-48, not apo B-100 from contaminating plasma lipoproteins, in all three experimental groups. Bile-diverted animals had decreased jejunal apo B content compared with the VIV group. Jejunal apo A-I synthesis and content were approximately 2-fold higher in FAT animals compared with the VIV group. Although ileal apo A-I synthesis was also 2-fold higher in the FAT group, apo A-I content was not different from the VIV group. Neither jejunal nor ileal apo A-I synthesis was significantly affected by bile diversion, even though jejunal apo A-I content was decreased by over two thirds compared with the VIV animals. In the newborn piglet, intestinal synthesis of apo B-48 and apo A-I is differentially regulated by luminal lipid absorption. Although fat feeding and bile diversion regulate mucosal apo B-48 content, synthesis is unchanged, indicating a posttranslational regulatory mechanism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Comparison of near-infrared spectroscopy with CT cerebral blood flow measurements in newborn piglets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Derek W.; Picot, Paul A.; Springett, Roger; Delpy, David T.; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2001-05-01

    Severely premature infants are often at high risk of cerebral hemorrhage or ischemic injury due to their inability to properly regulate blood flow to the brain. If blood flow is too high, the infant is at risk of cerebral hemorrhage, while too little blood flow can result in ischemic injury. The purpose of this research is to design and develop a means of non-invasively measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Such a device would greatly aid the diagnosis and monitoring of afflicted infants. Previous attempts to measure CBF with NIRS have achieved limited success. In this study we acquired high signal-to-noise NIR spectrum from 600 to 980 nm with a cooled CCD spectrometer. This spectrometer enables the differential path length factor (DPF) to be estimated with accuracy using a second derivative technique described by Matcher et al. The validity of our new approach is determined via direct comparison with a previously validated computed tomography (CT) method. Three newborn piglets were studied. CBF measurements were performed at various partial arterial CO2 tensions (PaCO2) using both the NIRS and CT methods. The results of the two methods correlate well with a relationship of CBFCT equals -4.30 + 1.05 CBFNIRS (r2 equals 0.96).

  18. Postnatal Leptin Promotes Organ Maturation and Development in IUGR Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Attig, Linda; Brisard, Daphné; Larcher, Thibaut; Mickiewicz, Michal; Guilloteau, Paul; Boukthir, Samir; Niamba, Claude-Narcisse; Gertler, Arieh; Djiane, Jean; Monniaux, Danielle; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa

    2013-01-01

    Babies with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for experiencing negative neonatal outcomes due to their general developmental delay. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a short postnatal leptin supply on the growth, structure, and functionality of several organs at weaning. IUGR piglets were injected from day 0 to day 5 with either 0.5 mg/kg/d leptin (IUGRLep) or saline (IUGRSal) and euthanized at day 21. Their organs were collected, weighed, and sampled for histological, biochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses. Leptin induced an increase in body weight and the relative weights of the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, and small intestine without any changes in triglycerides, glucose and cholesterol levels. Notable structural and functional changes occurred in the ovaries, pancreas, and secondary lymphoid organs. The ovaries of IUGRLep piglets contained less oogonia but more oocytes enclosed in primordial and growing follicles than the ovaries of IUGRSal piglets, and FOXO3A staining grade was higher in the germ cells of IUGRLep piglets. Within the exocrine parenchyma of the pancreas, IUGRLep piglets presented a high rate of apoptotic cells associated with a higher trypsin activity. In the spleen and the Peyer’s patches, B lymphocyte follicles were much larger in IUGRLep piglets than in IUGRSal piglets. Moreover, IUGRLep piglets showed numerous CD79+cells in well-differentiated follicle structures, suggesting a more mature immune system. This study highlights a new role for leptin in general developmental processes and may provide new insight into IUGR pathology. PMID:23741353

  19. Modeling Pediatric Brain Trauma: Piglet Model of Controlled Cortical Impact.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Jennifer C Munoz; Keeley, Kristen; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Dodge, Carter P

    2016-01-01

    The brain has different responses to traumatic injury as a function of its developmental stage. As a model of injury to the immature brain, the piglet shares numerous similarities in regards to morphology and neurodevelopmental sequence compared to humans. This chapter describes a piglet scaled focal contusion model of traumatic brain injury that accounts for the changes in mass and morphology of the brain as it matures, facilitating the study of age-dependent differences in response to a comparable mechanical trauma.

  20. A 3-week dietary bioequivalence study in preweaning farm piglets of two sources of docosahexaenoic acid produced from two different organisms.

    PubMed

    Fedorova-Dahms, Irina; Thorsrud, Bjorn A; Bailey, Eileen; Salem, Norman

    2014-03-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are components of human breast milk and commonly added to infant formula. The first DHA-containing algal oil for infant formulas was DHASCO® produced from the microalgae Crypthecodinium cohnii. Recently, new DHA-rich oil was obtained from the microalgae Schizochytrium sp., herein named DHASCO-B. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the bioequivalence of DHASCO-B to DHASCO when administered in a blend with ARA oil and the potential effects after 3weeks' administration in milk replacer formula to preweaning farm piglets. DHASCO-B and DHASCO were added to formula at concentrations 0.32% and 0.96% DHA (% of total fatty acids). There were no test article-related effects of any diet on piglet growth and development (clinical observations, body weight, food consumption), or clinical pathology parameters (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation and urinalysis). In addition, there were no adverse effects at terminal necropsy (macro- and microscopic pathology evaluations). DHA content in plasma, RBC, heart, liver and brain showed dose-related accumulation and confirmed no differences between corresponding DHASCO-B and DHASCO groups. Therefore, dietary exposure to DHASCO-B and DHASCO was well tolerated by the preweaning piglets during the 3-week dosing period right after birth and DHASCO-B and DHASCO were bioequivalent.

  1. Intestinal Resection and Anastomosis in Neonatal Gnotobiotic Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Kristina S; Ayres, Jill H; Zhao, Mojun; Butler, John E; Francis, David H

    2011-01-01

    We describe a surgical method for ileal resection and anastomosis in newborn germfree piglets that was undertaken to establish a model that can be used for immunologic research and other applications. A preliminary experiment indicated that neonatal piglets with resection of approximately 60 cm of their ileum (removal of approximately 90% of the continuous ileal Peyer patches; group A) and those in which the ileum was transected (group B) could be maintained germfree for 35 d, colonized with defined gut flora, and maintained in a clean room until 70 d of age. In the final study, 12 piglets (4 each for groups A and B and 4 untreated controls), were monitored for postoperative feeding behavior, malaise, evidence for contamination with pathogenic bacteria, and weight gain. All surgical animals were free from incidental contamination from pathogens and environmental organisms with atypical colony types for 35 d. Two piglets in group B died postoperatively (1 during the preliminary experiment and 1 during the final study). Control (group C) piglets gained significantly more weight than did those in group A. These studies demonstrated that surgical resection of the ileal Peyer patches under germfree conditions can be accomplished successfully without compromising piglet health or introducing pathogens and with only a modest reduction in weight gain. PMID:21640032

  2. The pig as a model for premature infants - the importance of immunoglobulin supplementation for growth and development.

    PubMed

    Socha-Banasiak, A; Pierzynowski, S; Woliński, J; Grujic, D; Boryczka, M; Grzesiak, P; Szczurek, P; Czkwianianc, E; Westrom, B; Goncharova, K

    2017-01-01

    Preterm human neonates, contrary to preterm piglets, obtain immunoglobulins from their mothers via the placenta during intrauterine development. However, one should note that the majority of trans-placental transfer of immunoglobulins in humans takes place during the last trimester of pregnancy. It is also known that the feeding of limited amounts of colostrum or systemic infusion of small amounts of serum improves the survival of preterm and full-term piglets. Full-term piglets deprived of their mother’s immunoglobulins exhibit strong apathy and develop watery diarrhoea, often resulting in death. The aim of the current study was to determine if provision of immunoglobulins using different approaches would be beneficial for survival outcomes. To reach the immunological sufficient level we infused immunoglobulins intravenously in amount mimicking the blood level in piglets fed with sow colostrum. Intravenous infusion of immunoglobulins in both preterm and full-term newborn piglets fully ensured their survival, growth and blood immunoglobulin G and protein levels similar to those observed in piglets fed colostrum. Piglets completely deprived of immunoglobulins exhibited significantly lower blood levels of immunoglobulins and protein compared to colostrum-fed animals. Piglets infused with only serum exhibited significantly lower blood immunoglobulin G level compared to those infused with immunoglobulins. In conclusion, based on the data obtained, we suggest that passive immune support provided by colostrum intake or early systemic infusion of Ig’s in sufficient amounts is key to ensuring the general well-being of preterm and full-term new born piglets, used as an animal model for the human infant.

  3. Infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Infant botulism is a rare disease that affects infant less than 12 months of age. The illness results from absorption of botulinum toxin produced in situ by neurotoxigenic clostridia that can temporarily colonize the intestinal tract of infants. To date, all inhabited continents except Africa have reported cases of infant botulism. Recognition of cases seem directly related to physician awareness and clinical suspicion. This review summarizes microbiological, clinical and epidemiological features of infant botulism.

  4. The use of toltrazuril for the prevention of coccidiosis in piglets before weaning.

    PubMed

    Driesen, S J; Fahy, V A; Carland, P G

    1995-04-01

    To determine the efficacy of toltrazuril as a prophylactic treatment for coccidiosis in piglets caused by Isospora suis (I suis), a single 1.0 mL dose of toltrazuril was administered orally to 1056 piglets between 3 and 6 days of age, in 5 piggeries. Prophylactic treatment of piglets reduced the occurrence of coccidiosis in litters from 71% to 22%. The number of antibacterial treatments given and the number of piglets affected per litter were also significantly reduced, resulting in some improvement in growth rates to weaning. The severity of diarrhoea was significantly reduced, as was the amount of oocyst excretion. The number of days that piglets excreted oocysts in the faeces was reduced from 4.9 days to 2.5 days. The detection of I suis in piglets with diarrhoea was reduced from 84% in the untreated piglets to 6% in the piglets given the prophylactic treatment.

  5. Infant Colic

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Amy A.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence for an association between infant colic and migraine. Infant colic, or excessive crying in an otherwise healthy and well-fed infant, affects approximately 5–19% of infants. Multiple case-control studies, a cross-sectional study, and a prospective cohort study have all found an association between infant colic and migraine. While infant colic is often assumed to have a gastrointestinal cause, several treatment trials aimed at gastrointestinal etiologies have been negative. Teaching parents how best to respond to inconsolable crying may be helpful and important for preventing shaken baby syndrome. Given accumulating evidence for a connection between infant colic and pediatric migraine, future studies should examine migraine-oriented treatments for infant colic. Infant colic should be moved into the main body of International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III beta) as one of the “Episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine”. PMID:27017027

  6. Intrauterine growth restricted piglets defined by their head shape ingest insufficient amounts of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Amdi, C; Krogh, U; Flummer, C; Oksbjerg, N; Hansen, C F; Theil, P K

    2013-12-01

    The increasing litter sizes of modern pig breeds have led to a significant number of piglets that are born undersized ("small" piglets) and some have been exposed to different degrees of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the physiology and capability to ingest colostrum of these small piglets, suffering from various degrees of IUGR, to see if their IUGR score could be a useful tool for easy identification of piglets in need of intervention in the colostrum period. Piglets were classified at birth based on head morphology. Piglets were classified either "normal," "mildly IUGR" (m-IUGR), or "severe IUGR" (s-IUGR), based on head morphology. Blood samples were collected at birth and at 24 h, and colostrum intake during two 12-h periods and blood metabolites at 0 and 24 h were measured. At 24 h, piglets weighing <900 g at birth and the median piglet in birth order were sacrificed, and organ weights and hepatic glycogen were measured. Overall, there was an influence of the piglets' classification on most characteristics, with normal piglets having a greater colostrum intake between 0 and 12 h (P < 0.001) and between 12 and 24 h (P < 0.05), and higher birth weight, crown rump length, body mass index, and ponderal index (P < 0.001), and a tendency toward a higher vitality score (P < 0.069) than s-IUGR piglets. There was a time × IUGR interaction, with plasma glucose levels being lowered (P < 0.001) and lactate levels elevated (P < 0.001) in s-IUGR piglets at 24 h compared with normal and m-IUGR piglets. Some differences were found in electrolytes; sodium plasma concentrations were greatest for normal piglets (P < 0.05) and highest at 0 h (P < 0.05). At 24 h of age, s-IUGR piglets had a higher heart (P < 0.001) and brain percentage (P < 0.001), and a lower liver percentage (P < 0.001) relative to body weight, compared with normal piglets. In addition, s-IUGR piglets had less hepatic glycogen than m-IUGR piglets and normal

  7. Receptor-mediated binding of milk lactoferrin to nursing piglet enterocytes: a model for studies on absorption of lactoferrin-bound iron.

    PubMed

    Gíslason, J; Douglas, G C; Hutchens, T W; Lönnerdal, B

    1995-07-01

    Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein that is abundant in milk of some species, has been suggested to play a key role in the absorption of iron in human infants. This hypothesis is based on the dominant role of lactoferrin as an iron-binding component in human milk and on the occurrence of lactoferrin receptors in brush-border membranes in infants' intestines. The piglet may be a useful model to evaluate the biological activity of lactoferrin because we have previously found the presence of a lactoferrin receptor in brush-border membranes from suckling piglets. In this study, viable enterocytes were isolated from 6- to 20-day-old suckling piglets. Binding studies were performed at 4 degrees C using 125I-labeled porcine lactoferrin. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium binding data showed an apparent binding constant (Kd) of 2 x 10(-6) M (SD = 0.6 x 10(-6)). This affinity is in close agreement with previous results obtained using isolated brush-border membrane vesicles. Bovine lactoferrin inhibited the binding of porcine lactoferrin. Porcine transferrin, however, did not affect porcine lactoferrin binding significantly. Thus, lactoferrin binding is highly specific. When enterocytes were incubated with 125I-labeled lactoferrin at 37 degrees C, the amount of cell-associated radioactivity exceeded the surface binding capacity of the cells by almost fivefold. This finding agrees with the continuous binding and subsequent internalization of 125I-labeled lactoferrin. The isolated piglet enterocyte seems to provide a useful model for further studies of the mechanism of receptor-mediated absorption of lactoferrin.

  8. Determination of piglet location in farrowing crates based on depth and digital images

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding and properly managing behavioral responses of prewean piglets to the farrowing environment can improve well-being and pre-weaning performance of the piglets. This paper aims to quantify piglet location in the farrowing crate as affected by the lactating sow’s lying posture. Each farrow...

  9. Carrageenan analysis. Part 1: Characterisation of the carrageenan test material and stability in swine-adapted infant formula.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, William R; Davis, Steven R; Hroncich, Maggie M; Vurma, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    A method was developed and validated in support of a 28-day feeding study of swine-adapted infant formula stabilised with carrageenan administered to neonatal piglets. Carrageenan concentrations in the test formulations were 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 mg kg(-1) formula. Extraction of carrageenan from swine-adapted infant formula was achieved by breaking carrageenan-protein cross-linkages using saturated sodium chloride, followed by separation of the non-gelling carrageenan fraction via centrifugation. The extraction of carrageenan from formula was successful with respect to consistent recovery of the non-gelling carrageenan fraction from both test and control formula samples. Molecular weight analysis (Mw) of the recovered carrageenan fractions from the test and control formula samples confirmed that the carrageenan used to manufacture the formula was not degraded during the infant formula production process and subsequent storage for 4 months covering the 28-day piglet dietary feeding study. Carrageenan has excellent stability in infant formulations.

  10. The Assessment of Facial Expressions in Piglets Undergoing Tail Docking and Castration: Toward the Development of the Piglet Grimace Scale.

    PubMed

    Di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Brierley, Victoria L M H; Scollo, Annalisa; Gottardo, Flaviana; Malcolm, Emma M; Edwards, Sandra A; Leach, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    Many piglets are exposed to potentially painful husbandry procedures within the first week of life, including tail docking and castration, without the provision of either anesthesia or analgesia. The assessment methods used to evaluate pain experienced by piglets are often affected by low specificity and practical limitations, prompting the investigation of alternative methodologies. The assessment of changes in facial expression following a painful event has been successfully applied to several species. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the utility of a Grimace Scale applied to neonatal pigs to evaluate pain evoked by tail docking and castration. Eight female piglets, Sus scrofa domesticus (Landrace/Large White X synthetic sire line) underwent tail docking and 15 male piglets (75% Large White and 25% Belgian Landrace) were exposed to the castration procedure. Clear images of the faces of the piglets were collected immediately pre- and post-procedure. The images were used by experienced observers to identify facial action units (FAUs) which changed in individuals over this period, and a scoring scale was depicted in a training manual. A set of randomly selected images were then combined in a scorebook, which was evaluated after training by 30 scorers, blind to the treatment. The scale for most FAU was used with a high level of consistency across all observers. Tail docking induced a significant change (P < 0.05) in free moving piglets only in the "orbital tightening" FAU, whereas no change in any unit was observed in castrated piglets, which were restrained at the time of assessment. In this initial stage of development, orbital tightening seems to have the potential to be applied to investigate painful conditions in neonatal pigs. Nonetheless, more studies are needed to assess its full effectiveness and to evaluate the influence of possible confounds (e.g., handling stress) on the observed changes in FAUs.

  11. The Assessment of Facial Expressions in Piglets Undergoing Tail Docking and Castration: Toward the Development of the Piglet Grimace Scale

    PubMed Central

    Di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Brierley, Victoria L. M. H.; Scollo, Annalisa; Gottardo, Flaviana; Malcolm, Emma M.; Edwards, Sandra A.; Leach, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Many piglets are exposed to potentially painful husbandry procedures within the first week of life, including tail docking and castration, without the provision of either anesthesia or analgesia. The assessment methods used to evaluate pain experienced by piglets are often affected by low specificity and practical limitations, prompting the investigation of alternative methodologies. The assessment of changes in facial expression following a painful event has been successfully applied to several species. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the utility of a Grimace Scale applied to neonatal pigs to evaluate pain evoked by tail docking and castration. Eight female piglets, Sus scrofa domesticus (Landrace/Large White X synthetic sire line) underwent tail docking and 15 male piglets (75% Large White and 25% Belgian Landrace) were exposed to the castration procedure. Clear images of the faces of the piglets were collected immediately pre- and post-procedure. The images were used by experienced observers to identify facial action units (FAUs) which changed in individuals over this period, and a scoring scale was depicted in a training manual. A set of randomly selected images were then combined in a scorebook, which was evaluated after training by 30 scorers, blind to the treatment. The scale for most FAU was used with a high level of consistency across all observers. Tail docking induced a significant change (P < 0.05) in free moving piglets only in the “orbital tightening” FAU, whereas no change in any unit was observed in castrated piglets, which were restrained at the time of assessment. In this initial stage of development, orbital tightening seems to have the potential to be applied to investigate painful conditions in neonatal pigs. Nonetheless, more studies are needed to assess its full effectiveness and to evaluate the influence of possible confounds (e.g., handling stress) on the observed changes in FAUs. PMID:27896270

  12. Fentanyl bolus induces muscle tremors in sevoflurane-anaesthetized piglets.

    PubMed

    Ringer, S K; Spielmann, N; Weiss, M; Mauch, J Y

    2016-08-01

    Intravenous fentanyl (10 mcg/kg) or saline (control) was randomly administered to 10 healthy sevoflurane-mono-anaesthetized piglets. Trembling was assessed by two blinded observers using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a simple ordinal scale at baseline and 5 min (T5) after drug administration. If no trembling was observed at that time point, the opposite treatment was administered and piglets were re-evaluated after another 5 min (T10). Four out of five piglets showed trembling after fentanyl (T5), while none given saline showed any trembling. With fentanyl the VAS scores were significantly higher at T5 compared either with baseline or with the control treatment. Control animals received fentanyl after the 5 min evaluation and all piglets showed clear trembling afterwards. The median time after fentanyl administration until first muscle tremors was 51 (20-840) s. In summary, nine out of 10 sevoflurane-anaesthetized piglets showed muscle tremors after intravenous fentanyl. Tremors subsided over time and no specific treatment was necessary.

  13. Effects of weaning on intestinal crypt epithelial cells in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huansheng; Xiong, Xia; Wang, Xiaocheng; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells in the crypt proliferate in piglets in response to weaning. However, the underlying mechanism has been unclear. We examined 40 piglets from eight litters (five piglets per litter) that were weaned at the age of 14 d, and one piglet from each litter was randomly selected for closer investigation. Based on the distended intestinal sac method, we isolated crypt epithelial cells from the mid-jejunum on Days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-weaning. Protein expression was analyzed using either isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification or western blotting. Proteins related to the cell cycle, organization of the cellular macromolecular complex subunit, localization of cellular macromolecules, Golgi vesicle transport, fatty acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and translational initiation were mainly down-regulated, while those involved in glycolysis, cell cycle arrest, protein catabolism, and cellular amino acid metabolism were up-regulated. The amount of proteins active in the mTOR signaling pathway was generally decreased over time. These results indicate that weaning influences energy metabolism, cellular macromolecule organization and localization, and protein metabolism, thereby affecting the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells in weaned piglets. Moreover, those cellular processes are possibly controlled by that signaling pathway. PMID:27830738

  14. Hyperglycemia - infants

    MedlinePlus

    High blood sugar - infants; High blood glucose level - infants ... have a low insulin level that results in high blood sugar. ... hyperglycemia often have no symptoms. Sometimes, babies with high blood sugar will produce large amounts of urine ...

  15. Infant Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Â Top of Page Infant Mortality Rates by Race and Ethnicity, 2015 Â *Source: Table 1 of ... 1.27MB] . In 2015, infant mortality rates by race and ethnicity were as follows: Non-Hispanic black ...

  16. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets. XXIII: fetal piglets infected with a vaccine strain of PRRS virus display the same immune dysregulation seen in isolator piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Ig levels and antibody repertoire diversification in fetal piglets infected with an attenuated Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) were measured. Serum Ig levels were greatly elevated in PRRSV-infected fetuses; IgG was elevated >10-fold, IgM > 8-fold and IgA >2-fold comp...

  17. [Infant botulism].

    PubMed

    Falk, Absalom; Afriat, Amichay; Hubary, Yechiel; Herzog, Lior; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2014-01-01

    Infant botulism is a paralytic syndrome which manifests as a result of ingesting spores of the toxin secreting bacterium Clostridium botulinum by infants. As opposed to botulism in adults, treating infant botulism with horse antiserum was not approved due to several safety issues. This restriction has led to the development of Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV; sells under BabyBIG). In this article we review infant botulism and the advantages of treating it with BIG-IV.

  18. Air-displacement plethysmography for determining body composition in neonates: validation using live piglets.

    PubMed

    Frondas-Chauty, Anne; Louveau, Isabelle; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Darmaun, Dominique

    2012-07-01

    Air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) was developed as a noninvasive tool to assess body composition, i.e., the proportion of fat mass (%FM) and lean body mass. The results of previous studies comparing ADP with labeled water dilution in infants and with chemical analysis in phantoms have validated the ADP approach indirectly. We assessed the precision and accuracy of measurements of % FM proportions in live animals, using ADP in comparison with biochemical analyses. Three groups of 12 piglets each underwent four consecutive body composition assessments at 2, 7, and 21 d and were euthanized to determine whole-body lipid content by direct chemical analysis. The average body weights were 1,490, 2,210, and 5,610 g at d2, d7, and d21, respectively. The mean %FM values determined by biochemical analysis and ADP were 8.63 ± 4.08% and 8.01 ± 4.03%, respectively. Linear regression and Bland-Altman analyses indicated good agreement for %FM. The root mean square coefficient of variation (RMS-CV) for ADP was 17.9%, with a better precision in the higher fat mass range. Despite its relatively poor precision in the low range of %FM, ADP measures fat mass with reasonable precision and accuracy in the range of body weight encountered in low-birth-weight infants.

  19. Evaluation of Bioequivalency and Toxicological Effects of Three Sources of Arachidonic Acid (ARA) in Domestic Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Tyburczy, Cynthia; Brenna, Margaret E.; DeMari, Joseph A.; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Blank, Bryant S.; Valentine, Helen; McDonough, Sean P.; Banavara, Dattatreya; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A.; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are routinely added to infant formula to support growth and development. We evaluated the bioequivalence and safety of three ARA-rich oils for potential use in infant formula using the neonatal pig model. The primary outcome for bioequivalence was brain accretion of ARA and DHA. Days 3 to 22 of age, domestic pigs fed one of three formulas, each containing ARA at ~0.64% and DHA at ~0.34% total fatty acids (FA). Control diet ARA was provided by ARASCO® and all diets had DHA from DHASCO® (Martek Biosciences Corp., Columbia, MD). The experimental diets a1 and a2 provided ARA from Refined Arachidonic acid-rich Oil (RAO; Cargill, Inc., Wuhan, China) and SUNTGA40S (Nissui, Nippon Suisan Kaisha, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), respectively. Formula intake and growth were similar across all diets, and ARA was bioequivalent across treatments in the brain, retina, heart, liver and day 21 RBC. DHA levels in the brain, retina and heart were unaffected by diet. Liver sections, clinical chemistry, and hematological parameters were normal. We conclude that RAO and SUNTGA40S, when added to formula to supply ~0.64% ARA are safe and nutritionally bioequivalent to ARASCO in domestic piglets. PMID:21722692

  20. The subventricular zone in the immature piglet brain: anatomy and exodus of neuroblasts into white matter after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Costine, Beth A.; Missios, Symeon; Taylor, Sabrina R.; McGuone, Declan; Smith, Colin M.; Dodge, Carter P.; Harris, Brent T.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine

    2015-01-01

    % of neuroblasts in the white matter were born in the 2 days following injury. These data show that the SVZ in the piglet shares many anatomical similarities with the SVZ in the human infant, and that TBI had only modest effects on the SVZ and the number of neuroblasts in the white matter. Piglets at an equivalent developmental stage to human infants were equipped with the largest SVZ and a tremendous number of neuroblasts in the white matter, which may be sufficient in lesion repair without dramatic stimulation of neurogenic machinery. It has yet to be determined if neurogenesis and migrating neuroblasts play a role in repair after TBI and/or if alteration of normal migration during active postnatal population of brain regions is beneficial in species with gyrencephalic brains. PMID:25678047

  1. The subventricular zone in the immature piglet brain: anatomy and exodus of neuroblasts into white matter after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Costine, Beth A; Missios, Symeon; Taylor, Sabrina R; McGuone, Declan; Smith, Colin M; Dodge, Carter P; Harris, Brent T; Duhaime, Ann-Christine

    2015-01-01

    , less than 1% of neuroblasts in the white matter were born in the 2 days following injury. These data show that the SVZ in the piglet shares many anatomical similarities with the SVZ in the human infant, and that TBI had only modest effects on the SVZ and the number of neuroblasts in the white matter. Piglets at an equivalent developmental stage to human infants were equipped with the largest SVZ and a tremendous number of neuroblasts in the white matter, which may be sufficient in lesion repair without the dramatic stimulation of neurogenic machinery. It has yet to be determined whether neurogenesis and migrating neuroblasts play a role in repair after TBI and/or whether an alteration of normal migration during active postnatal population of brain regions is beneficial in species with gyrencephalic brains. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Dopamine therapy does not affect cerebral autoregulation during hypotension in newborn piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Gitte Holst; Greisen, Gorm

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypotensive neonates who have been treated with dopamine have poorer neurodevelopmental outcome than those who have not been treated with dopamine. We speculate that dopamine stimulates adrenoceptors on cerebral arteries causing cerebral vasoconstriction. This vasoconstriction might lead to a rightward shift of the cerebral autoregulatory curve; consequently, infants treated with dopamine would have a higher risk of low cerebral blood flow at a blood pressure that is otherwise considered “safe”. Methods In anaesthetized piglets, perfusion of the brain, monitored with laser-doppler flowmetry, and cerebral venous saturation was measured at different levels of hypotension. Each piglet was studied in two phases: a phase with stepwise decreases in MAP and a phase with stepwise increases in MAP. We randomized the order of the two phases, whether dopamine was given in the first or second phase, and the infusion rate of dopamine (10, 25, or 40 μg/kg/min). In/deflation of a balloon catheter, placed in vena cava, induced different levels of hypotension. At each level of hypotension, fluctuations in MAP were induced by in/deflations of a balloon catheter in descending aorta. Results During measurements, PaCO2 and arterial saturation were stable. MAP levels ranged between 14 and 82 mmHg. Cerebral autoregulation (CA) capacity was calculated as the ratio between %-change in cerebrovascular resistance and %-change in MAP induced by the in/deflation of the arterial balloon. A breakpoint in CA capacity was identified at a MAP of 38±18 mmHg without dopamine and at 44±18, 31±14, and 24±14 mmHg with dopamine infusion rates of 10, 25, and 40 μg/kg/min (p = 0.057). Neither the index of steady-state cerebral perfusion nor cerebral venous saturation were affected by dopamine infusion. Conclusion Dopamine infusion tended to improve CA capacity at low blood pressures while an index of steady-state cerebral blood flow and cerebral venous saturation were unaffected by

  3. Dopamine therapy does not affect cerebral autoregulation during hypotension in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Vibeke Ramsgaard; Rasmussen, Martin Bo; Hahn, Gitte Holst; Greisen, Gorm

    2017-01-01

    Hypotensive neonates who have been treated with dopamine have poorer neurodevelopmental outcome than those who have not been treated with dopamine. We speculate that dopamine stimulates adrenoceptors on cerebral arteries causing cerebral vasoconstriction. This vasoconstriction might lead to a rightward shift of the cerebral autoregulatory curve; consequently, infants treated with dopamine would have a higher risk of low cerebral blood flow at a blood pressure that is otherwise considered "safe". In anaesthetized piglets, perfusion of the brain, monitored with laser-doppler flowmetry, and cerebral venous saturation was measured at different levels of hypotension. Each piglet was studied in two phases: a phase with stepwise decreases in MAP and a phase with stepwise increases in MAP. We randomized the order of the two phases, whether dopamine was given in the first or second phase, and the infusion rate of dopamine (10, 25, or 40 μg/kg/min). In/deflation of a balloon catheter, placed in vena cava, induced different levels of hypotension. At each level of hypotension, fluctuations in MAP were induced by in/deflations of a balloon catheter in descending aorta. During measurements, PaCO2 and arterial saturation were stable. MAP levels ranged between 14 and 82 mmHg. Cerebral autoregulation (CA) capacity was calculated as the ratio between %-change in cerebrovascular resistance and %-change in MAP induced by the in/deflation of the arterial balloon. A breakpoint in CA capacity was identified at a MAP of 38±18 mmHg without dopamine and at 44±18, 31±14, and 24±14 mmHg with dopamine infusion rates of 10, 25, and 40 μg/kg/min (p = 0.057). Neither the index of steady-state cerebral perfusion nor cerebral venous saturation were affected by dopamine infusion. Dopamine infusion tended to improve CA capacity at low blood pressures while an index of steady-state cerebral blood flow and cerebral venous saturation were unaffected by dopamine infusion. Thus, dopamine does not

  4. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infection Induced the Unbalance of Gut Microbiota in Piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuyun; Zhao, Lele; Zhai, Zhengxiao; Zhao, Wenjing; Ding, Jinmei; Dai, Ronghua; Sun, Tao; Meng, He

    2015-12-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a devastating disease in livestock industry. Most of the previous studies related to the PED were focused on the pathology and etiology of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). A little was known regarding the status of gut microbiota after piglets infected by PEDV. In this study, aided by metagenome sequencing technology, gut microbiota profiles in feces of viral diarrhea (VD) and viral control (VC) piglets were investigated. The results showed that the abundance of four dominant phyla (Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Proteobacteria) in feces was affected greatly by porcine epidemic diarrhea. Especially, the abundance of Fusobacteria was higher in VD piglets (36%) than in VC piglets (5%). On the contrary, the Verrucomicrobia was detected in lower distribution proportion in VD piglets (around 0%) than in VC piglets (20%). Furthermore, 25 genera were significantly different between VC and VD piglets at the genus level. Among the 25 genera, Leptotrichia belonging to Fusobacteria was remarkably lower in VC piglets than in VD piglets. Akkermansia belonging to Verrucomicrobia was higher in VC piglets than in VD piglets. Our findings implicated that the gut microbiota associated with PED significantly provided an insight into the pathology and physiology of PED.

  5. Short-term neurophysiologic consequences of intrapartum asphyxia in piglets born by spontaneous parturition.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Gregorio, H; Mota-Rojas, D; Alonso-Spilsbury, M; Olmos-Hernandez, A; Ramirez-Necoechea, R; Velazquez-Armenta, E Y; Nava-Ocampo, A A; Hernandez-Gonzalez, R; Trujillo-Ortega, M E; Villanueva-Garcia, D

    2008-09-01

    Piglets appear to be neurologically sensitive to intrapartum asphyxia. Our aim was to investigate the short-term neurophysiologic consequences of intrapartum asphyxia in piglets. We studied 10 piglets suffering intrapartum asphyxia and 10 control piglets. Glucose and blood gas levels, tympanic membrane temperature, and body weight were measured within the first 2 min after birth. Animals were followed up for a 5-day period. As surrogated markers of piglets' neurological function, a viability score and the time elapsed from birth to the first contact with the maternal udder were recorded. In the control group, temperature and blood pH levels at birth were significantly higher (p < or = .001), whereas calcium, lactate and PCO2 levels were statistically lower (p < or = .05) than in the piglets experiencing intrapartum asphyxia. Lower temperature and blood pH levels as well as higher blood PCO2 and lactate levels were observed in piglets with lower viability scores and in piglets with prolonged times until first udder contact. At the end of the study, asphyxiated piglets weighed on average 200 g less (p = .023) than control piglets. In conclusion, intrapartum asphyxia in spontaneously born piglets was associated with signs of acute neurological dysfunction and lower weight gain, supporting the hypothesis that they may be used as a naturalistic model for the study of asphyxia in newborns.

  6. Discordant radiologic and histological dimensions of the zone of provisional calcification in fetal piglets.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Andy; McDonald, Anna G; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Stamoulis, Catherine; Kleinman, Paul K

    2013-12-01

    Studies have shown that the fracture plane of the classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) of infant abuse occurs in the region of the primary spongiosa, encompassing a radiodense fracture fragment customarily referred to as the "zone of provisional calcification" or ZPC. However, the zone of provisional calcification is defined differently in the pathology and the imaging literature, potentially impeding efforts to understand the fundamental morphological features of the classic metaphyseal lesion. We systematically correlated micro-CT data with histology in piglets to explore the differing definitions of the zone of provisional calcification and to elucidate the anatomical basis for divergent definitions. The distal tibias of five normal fetal piglets were studied postmortem. The specimens were resected and imaged with digital radiography (50 μm resolution) and micro-CT (45 μm(3) isotropic resolution). Image processing techniques were applied to the micro-CT data for visualization and data analysis. The resected tissue specimens were then processed routinely and the light microscopic features were correlated with the imaging findings. The longitudinal dimension of the radiologic zone of provisional calcification is greater than the histological ZPC, and these dimensions are statistically distinct (P < 0.0002). The radiologic zone of provisional calcification consists of two adjoining mineralized discoid regions that span the chondro-osseous junction-a thick discoid region that encompasses the densest region of the primary spongiosa, and a thin discoid region (corresponding to the histological ZPC) that is situated in the base of the physis adjacent to the metaphysis. The correlation of the normal histology and micro-CT appearance of this dynamic and complex region provides an anatomical foundation upon which a deeper appreciation of the morphology of the classic metaphyseal lesion can be built.

  7. Dietary supplementation of Bifidobacterium longum strain AH1206 increases its cecal abundance and elevates intestinal interleukin-10 expression in the neonatal piglet.

    PubMed

    Herfel, Tina M; Jacobi, Sheila K; Lin, Xi; Jouni, Zeina E; Chichlowski, Maciej; Stahl, Chad H; Odle, Jack

    2013-10-01

    Intestinal microbiota of infants differ in response to gestational age, delivery mode and feeding regimen. Dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria is one method of promoting healthy populations. We examined the impact of a novel probiotic strain of Bifidobacterium longum (AH1206) on the health, growth and development of neonatal pigs as a model for infants. Day-old pigs were fed milk-based formula containing AH1206 at 0, 10⁹, or 10¹¹ CFU/d for 18 d (n=10/treatment). Differences were not detected in growth, organ weights or body temperatures (P>0.1); however pigs fed the high dose showed a small (2%) reduction in feed intake. Bacterial translocation was not affected as indicated by total anaerobic and aerobic counts (CFU) in samples of spleen, liver and mesenteric lymph nodes (P>0.1). Feeding AH1206 had no effects on fecal consistency, but increased the density of B. longum in the cecum. Ileal TNF expression tended to increase (P=0.08) while IL-10 expression increased linearly (P=0.01) with supplementation. Based upon findings in the suckling piglet model, we suggest that dietary supplementation with B. longum (AH1206) may be safe for human infants based on a lack of growth, development or deleterious immune-related effects observed in piglets.

  8. Utilization of milk fatty acids by the suckling Iberian piglets.

    PubMed

    Aguinaga, M A; Haro, A; Lara, L; Gómez-Carballar, F; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2016-11-01

    A total of 16 pure-bred Iberian (IB) sows, all of them suckling six piglets, were used, eight of them in each of the two consecutive trials (1 and 2). Daily milk yield and composition were determined weekly over a 34-day lactation period. Within each litter, one piglet at birth and four piglets on day 35 of life were slaughtered. Milk intake per piglet tended to be greater in trial 2 (832 v. 893 g/day; P=0.066), but piglets grew at 168±3.3 g/day, irrespective of the trial. In the IB sow milk, the linoleic (LA) : linolenic (LNA) acid ratio averaged 14.6 and 15.2 in trial 1 and trial 2, respectively. A fivefold increase in piglet body fat content was observed over lactation (P<0.001). Most of this fat (81.4%) was present in the carcass. After 34 days of lactation, whole-body relative content of palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids were very close to those in the milk consumed, suggesting direct deposition. Daily deposition of LA derivatives and of LNA and its derivatives was found to be extremely low (<0.02 g, on average). Moreover, some of the arachidonic acid (ARA) in tissues of the IB piglet at birth disappeared throughout the lactating period. An overall fractional deposition for total fatty acids (FA) was 0.409. Fractional oxidation (disappearance) rates were 0.939 and 0.926 for n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated FA. The overall rate of disappearance for the major non-essential FA (myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids), estimated as 1-the overall fractional deposition rate, was 0.546. It is concluded that the high degree of FA unsaturation, high oxidation rate of LA and LNA, and poor synthesis of ARA from LA and of docosahexaenoic acid from LNA found in the suckling piglet might increase the energy cost of whole-body fat accretion, a contributor to the observed low efficiency of use of milk energy for growth.

  9. [Experiences with pain control during piglet castration in Switzerland Part 1: Inhalation anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Enz, A; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Bettschart, R; Fuschini, E; Bürgi, E; Sidler, X

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were a description of the practical implementation of the painless castration under inhalational anaesthesia with an objective assessment of animal welfare, workplace safety and time exposure. 600 questionnaires were sent to farmers all over Switzerland and 100 farms were visited during castration under inhalation anaesthesia. 44 % of the visited farmers administered analgetics during anaesthesia or less than 10 minutes before castration. 14 % of the piglets were insufficiently anaesthetised (moving or vocalising) and 18 % showed stronger bleeding tendency after castration. The mortality rate was less than 0.1 %. 22 % of the swine farmers reported headache or dizziness during or after castration work. The Isoflurane level on 2 farms was above the Swiss safety limits. The time needed for castration was with 4.3 minutes clearly above the time necessary without anaesthesia. The additional financial costs and time are at the moment not adequately compensated to the farmers.

  10. Weanling piglet cerebellum: a surrogate for tolerance to MRT (microbeam radiation therapy) in pediatric neuro-oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Blattmann, Hans; Di Michiel, Marco; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Guzman, Raphael; Zimmermann, Werner; Birrer, Stephan; Bley, Tim; Kircher, Patrick; Stettler, Regina; Fatzer, Rosmarie; Jaggy, Andre; Smilowitz, Henry; Brauer, Elke; Bravin, Alberto; Le Duc, Geraldine; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Thomlinson, William C.; Stepanek, Jiri; Wagner, Hans-Peter

    2001-12-01

    The cerebellum of the weanling piglet (Yorkshire) was used as a surrogate for the radiosensitive human infant cerebellum in a Swiss-led program of experimental microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) at the ESRF. Five weanlings in a 47 day old litter of seven, and eight weanlings in a 40 day old litter of eleven were irradiated in November, 1999 and June, 2000, respectively. A 1.5 cm-wide x 1.5 xm-high array of equally space approximately equals 20-30 micrometers wide, upright microbeams spaced at 210 micrometers intervals was propagated horizontally, left to right, through the cerebella of the prone, anesthetized piglets. Skin-entrance intra-microbeam peak adsorbed doses were uniform, either 150, 300, 425, or 600 gray (Gy). Peak and inter-microbeam (valley) absorbed doses in the cerebellum were computed with the PSI version of the Monte Carlo code GEANT and benchmarked using Gafchromic and radiochromic film microdosimetry. For approximately equals 66 weeks [first litter; until euthanasia], or approximately equals 57 weeks [second litter; until July 30, 2001] after irradiation, the littermates were developmentally, behaviorally, neurologically and radiologically normal as observed and tested by experienced farmers and veterinary scientists unaware of which piglets were irradiated or sham-irradiated. Morever, MRT implemented at the ESRF with a similar array of microbeams and a uniform skin-entrance peak dose of 625 Gy, followed by immunoprophylaxis, was shown to be palliative or curative in young adult rats bearing intracerebral gliosarcomas. These observations give further credence to MRT's potential as an adjunct therapy for brain tumors in infancy, when seamless therapeutic irradiation of the brain is hazardous.

  11. IgY antibodies protect against human Rotavirus induced diarrhea in the neonatal gnotobiotic piglet disease model.

    PubMed

    Vega, Celina G; Bok, Marina; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Fernández, Fernando M; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Parreño, Viviana G; Saif, Linda J

    2012-01-01

    Group A Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe, dehydrating diarrhea in children worldwide. The aim of the present work was to evaluate protection against rotavirus (RV) diarrhea conferred by the prophylactic administration of specific IgY antibodies (Ab) to gnotobiotic piglets experimentally inoculated with virulent Wa G1P[8] human rotavirus (HRV). Chicken egg yolk IgY Ab generated from Wa HRV hyperimmunized hens specifically recognized (ELISA) and neutralized Wa HRV in vitro. Supplementation of the RV Ab free cow milk diet with Wa HRV-specific egg yolk IgY Ab at a final ELISA Ab titer of 4096 (virus neutralization -VN- titer = 256) for 9 days conferred full protection against Wa HRV associated diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. This protection was dose-dependent. The oral administration of semi-purified passive IgY Abs from chickens did not affect the isotype profile of the pig Ab secreting cell (ASC) responses to Wa HRV infection, but it was associated with significantly fewer numbers of HRV-specific IgA ASC in the duodenum. We further analyzed the pigś immune responses to the passive IgY treatment. The oral administration of IgY Abs induced IgG Ab responses to chicken IgY in serum and local IgA and IgG Ab responses to IgY in the intestinal contents of neonatal piglets in a dose dependent manner. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that IgY Abs administered orally as a milk supplement passively protect neonatal pigs against an enteric viral pathogen (HRV). Piglets are an animal model with a gastrointestinal physiology and an immune system that closely mimic human infants. This strategy can be scaled-up to inexpensively produce large amounts of polyclonal IgY Abs from egg yolks to be applied as a preventive and therapeutic passive Ab treatment to control RV diarrhea.

  12. Magnesium sulfate after transient hypoxia-ischemia fails to prevent delayed cerebral energy failure in the newborn piglet.

    PubMed

    Penrice, J; Amess, P N; Punwani, S; Wylezinska, M; Tyszczuk, L; D'Souza, P; Edwards, A D; Cady, E B; Wyatt, J S; Reynolds, E O

    1997-03-01

    Severely birth-asphyxiated human infants develop delayed ("secondary") cerebral energy failure, which carries a poor prognosis, during the first few days of life. This study tested the hypothesis that i.v. magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) after severe transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia decreases the severity of delayed energy failure in the newborn piglet. Twelve piglets underwent temporary occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hypoxemia. Resuscitation was started when cerebral [phosphocreatine (PCr)]/[inorganic phosphate (Pi)], as determined by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy, had fallen virtually to zero, and nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) had fallen below a third of baseline. The piglets were randomized to receive, blind, either: 1) three i.v. infusions of 12.5% MgSO4 heptahydrate solution: 400 mg.kg-1 MgSO4.7H2O starting 1 h after resuscitation, and 200 mg.kg-1 12 and 24 h later (n = 6); or 2) three infusions of placebo, 0.9% NaCl (n = 6). Phosphorus and proton spectroscopy were continued until 48 h after resuscitation, and values were compared between the two groups. Mean plasma magnesium levels, 1 h after each of the three doses of MgSO4, were 2.1, 2.0, and 1.9 mmol.L-1, respectively. The severity of the primary insult, determined by the time-integral of depletion of cerebral [NTP]/[exchangeable phosphate pool (EPP)], was similar in the MgSO4-treated and placebo groups. After resuscitation, there was no difference in the progression or severity of delayed energy failure between the two groups, as judged by cerebral [PCr]/[Pi], [NTP]/[EPP], or lactate/creatine and N-acetylaspartate/creatine peak-area ratios. We conclude that MgSO4 did not decrease the severity of delayed cerebral energy failure.

  13. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jada L; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L; Theodorou, Christina S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian mothers' perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 American Indian mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of American Indian culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that health care providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports American Indian mothers and their premature infants.

  14. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L.; Theodorou, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian (AI) mothers’ perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 AI mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of AI culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that healthcare providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports AI mothers and their premature infants. PMID:25721716

  15. Optimizing Production of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Piglet Feces as Feed Additives for Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chen, Hsi-Chia; Chen, Kun-Nan; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Ya-Ting; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii x-1d-2 and Lactobacillus mucosae x-4w-1, originally isolated from piglet feces, have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activities, antibiotic resistances and interleukin-6 induction ability in RAW 267.4 macrophages in our previous study. These characteristics make L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 good candidates for application in feed probiotics. In this study, soybeal meal, molasses and sodium acetate were selected to optimize the growth medium for cultivation of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1. These two strains were then freeze-dried and mixed into the basal diet to feed the weaned piglets. The effects of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 on the growth performance and fecal microflora of weaned piglets were investigated. The results showed that the bacterial numbers of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 reached a maximum of 8.90 and 9.30 log CFU/mL, respectively, when growing in optimal medium consisting of 5.5% (wt/vol) soybean meal, 1.0% (wt/vol) molasses and 1.0% (wt/vol) sodium acetate. The medium cost was 96% lower than the commercial de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium. In a further feeding study, the weaned piglets fed basal diet supplemented with freeze-dried probiotic cultures exhibited higher (p<0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, and gain/feed ratio than weaned piglets fed basal diet. Probiotic feeding also increased the numbers of lactobacilli and decreased the numbers of E. coli in the feces of weaned piglets. This study demonstrates that L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 have high potential to be used as feed additives in the pig industry.

  16. Optimizing Production of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Piglet Feces as Feed Additives for Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chen, Hsi-Chia; Chen, Kun-Nan; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Ya-Ting; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii x-1d-2 and Lactobacillus mucosae x-4w-1, originally isolated from piglet feces, have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activities, antibiotic resistances and interleukin-6 induction ability in RAW 267.4 macrophages in our previous study. These characteristics make L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 good candidates for application in feed probiotics. In this study, soybeal meal, molasses and sodium acetate were selected to optimize the growth medium for cultivation of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1. These two strains were then freeze-dried and mixed into the basal diet to feed the weaned piglets. The effects of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 on the growth performance and fecal microflora of weaned piglets were investigated. The results showed that the bacterial numbers of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 reached a maximum of 8.90 and 9.30 log CFU/mL, respectively, when growing in optimal medium consisting of 5.5% (wt/vol) soybean meal, 1.0% (wt/vol) molasses and 1.0% (wt/vol) sodium acetate. The medium cost was 96% lower than the commercial de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium. In a further feeding study, the weaned piglets fed basal diet supplemented with freeze-dried probiotic cultures exhibited higher (p<0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, and gain/feed ratio than weaned piglets fed basal diet. Probiotic feeding also increased the numbers of lactobacilli and decreased the numbers of E. coli in the feces of weaned piglets. This study demonstrates that L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 have high potential to be used as feed additives in the pig industry. PMID:26104525

  17. Fatty acid-induced injury in developing piglet intestine: effect of degree of saturation and carbon chain length.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, O R; Tso, P; Crissinger, K D

    1993-06-01

    Luminal perfusion with the long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oleate in concentrations similar to that found in premature infant formula produces a dose- and age-dependent mucosal injury in developing intestine. To investigate whether this lipid-induced phenomenon is a function of the degree of saturation and/or chain length of the fatty acid, 51Cr-EDTA plasma-to-lumen clearance was measured in jejunum and ileum of 1-d-, 3-d-, 2-wk-, and 1-mo-old piglets after perfusion with 5-mM solutions of different medium-chain saturated fatty acids and saturated and unsaturated LCFA. Mono- and polyunsaturated LCFA produced significant increases in jejunal permeability. In general, this effect was greater in piglets < or = 2 wk old compared with 1-mo-old animals, but no differences were observed among the unsaturated LCFA within an age group. In contrast, the alterations in mucosal permeability induced by medium-chain fatty acids were overall more attenuated than those induced by LCFA. Our results suggest that developing intestine is vulnerable to the injurious effect of dietary fatty acids and that the lipid-induced changes in mucosal permeability appear to be a function of the fatty acid chain length. The degree of saturation of the fatty acid does not alter its cytotoxic effects.

  18. The Effect of Intramural Botulinum Toxin Injections on the Elongation of the Piglet Oesophagus Is Time Dependent.

    PubMed

    Dibbern, Christian Bakholdt; Rose, Morten; Ellebæk, Mark Bremholm; Qvist, Niels

    2017-02-01

    Introduction One in 4,000 infants is born with oesophageal atresia. Approximately 15% of these have a long gap oesophageal atresia, where primary anastomosis is difficult or impossible. Previous studies have shown an effect of intramural botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injections on the elongation and max load of the esophagus 1 hour after injection. We hypothesized that a longer waiting period of 2 hours could increase this effect. Methods Forty-five piglets were randomized into three groups. Two treatment groups received 2 units/kg of BTX-A and one group received saline. After 1 or 2 hours, a segment of the esophagus was harvested and put in a stretch-tension device to assess elongation and max load. Results Elongation from preload to max load and percentage elongation in the BTX-A 2h group (17.09 mm, 46.46%) was significantly higher compared with the BTX-A 1h group (13.59 mm, 40.16%) and the placebo group (13.77 mm, 39.92%). Conclusion Elongation of the piglet esophagus was significantly improved with a 2-hour waiting period after BTX-A injection. Injections with BTX-A could be useful in oesophageal atresia, where primary anastomosis is not possible. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Gas alternatives to carbon dioxide for euthanasia: A piglet perspective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The search for alternative methods to euthanize piglets is critical to address the public’s concern that current methods are not acceptable. Scientific evidence support that blunt force trauma is humane when carried out correctly, but most people find it visually difficult to accept. The use of carb...

  20. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi enhanced systemic immune response in piglets.

    PubMed

    Schierack, Peter; Wieler, Lothar H; Taras, David; Herwig, Volker; Tachu, Babila; Hlinak, Andreas; Schmidt, Michael F G; Scharek, Lydia

    2007-07-15

    Probiotic bacteria have been suggested to stimulate the host immune system. In this study we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on the systemic immunity of piglets. A pool of 70 piglets was divided into a probiotic or control group. We determined the ratios of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets and measured proliferative responses and cytokine production of PBMCs and effects on vaccination responses. Blood samples of probiotic-treated piglets showed a significantly lower frequency of CD8(high)/CD3+ T cells and CD8(low)/CD3+ T cells and a significant higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio. IL-4 and IFN-gamma production of polyclonally stimulated PBMCs was on average higher in the probiotic group. Specific proliferative responses of PBMCs to Influenza vaccination antigens were significantly higher and antibody titers against H3N2 Influenza and Mycoplasma vaccination antigens were on average higher in the probiotic group. In conclusion, B. cereus var. toyoi therefore alters the immune status of piglets as indicated by changes in the ratios as well as functionalities of systemic immune cell populations.

  1. Gas alternatives to carbon dioxide for euthanasia: A piglet perspective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The identification and validation of a humane method to euthanize piglets is critical to address concern that current methods are not acceptable. This research sought to: 1) identify a method of scientifically determining if pigs find a specific euthanasia method aversive, and 2) develop an innovati...

  2. Slow growing pre weaning piglets have altered adipokine gene expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pigs were selected from seven litters were monitored for growth rate from day 1 to 21. Samples of subcutaneous (SQ) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissues were collected at day 21 of age from the fastest and slowest growing piglets within the litter. Total RNA was extracted and reverse transcription a...

  3. Oleic acid-induced mucosal injury in developing piglet intestine.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, O R; Henninger, K; Fowler, M; Tso, P; Crissinger, K D

    1993-03-01

    A role for luminal nutrients, in particular products of lipid digestion, in the pathogenesis of mucosal injury to developing intestine has been postulated. We evaluated changes in mucosal permeability and light and electron microscopic histology induced by luminal perfusion with the long-chain fatty acid oleate in developing piglet intestine as a function of age and concentration of the fatty acid. 51Cr-labeled EDTA plasma-to-lumen clearance was measured in jejunum and ileum of 1-day-, 3-day-, 2-wk-, and 1-mo-old piglets during sequential perfusion with saline control (20 min); 0, 1, 5, and 10 mM oleic acid/10 mM taurocholate in saline (20 min); and normal saline (60 min). The jejunum of piglets < or = 2 wk showed significantly greater increases in mucosal permeability compared with 1-mo-old animals after perfusion with oleic acid. This effect was dependent on the luminal concentration of the fatty acid and was associated with mucosal injury evident under light and electron microscopy. In contrast, the overall response in ileum was more attenuated compared with jejunum. Thus oleic acid, a common dietary fatty acid, induces dose- and age-dependent injury in developing piglet intestine. Investigation of the mechanisms of this injury may provide the basis for dietary modifications directed at decreasing the risk of mucosal injury during enteral feeding in neonatal intestine.

  4. Congenital urethral stenosis in a male miniature piglet

    PubMed Central

    Pouleur-Larrat, Bénédicte; Maccolini, Edouard; Carmel, Eric Norman; Hélie, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    A 2-month-old male miniature pig showed progressive abdominal pain, pollakiuria, and stranguria that progressed to complete urinary obstruction. Postmortem examination revealed idiopathic urethral stenosis at the level of the recess, of probable congenital origin. Urinary tract malformations should be included in the differential diagnosis of miniature piglets with urinary disorders. PMID:24891635

  5. Changes in body composition of neonatal piglets during growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During studies of neonatal piglet growth it is important to be able to accurately assess changes in body composition. Previous studies have demonstrated that quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) provides precise and accurate measurements of total body fat mass, lean mass and total body water in non...

  6. Effect of a high fat supplement in late gestation and lactation on piglet survival and performance.

    PubMed

    Cieslak, D G; Leibbrandt, V D; Benevenga, N J

    1983-10-01

    The effect of 15% lipid addition to perinatal sow's diet on piglet survival and performance was investigated with 85 litters over four farrowing seasons. Sows received either control or fat supplemented diets from d 109 of gestation through d 21 of lactation. Substitution of a casein-encapsulated white grease product for corn (i.e., an increase in diet fat by 15%) increased (P less than .05) piglet weight gain (230 vs 214 g/d) and piglet survival 84.9 vs 79.1% of live born pigs to 21 d of age. Piglet survival data, analyzed by logistic regression, indicated that a 15% increase in dietary fat increased the odds of piglet survival at all birth weights. However, the probability of piglet survival was most enhanced at birth weights between 700 and 1,100 g. Over this weight range, the survival rate of piglets from sows receiving the supplement was increased by 10 percentage units. Feeding a high fat supplement increased piglet survival during the first 3 d of life and again at d 9. The results of this experiment suggest a unique effect of including a high fat supplement late in gestation on piglet survival during the first several days of life. Logistic regression was shown to be an appropriate and useful technique for analysis of factors affecting piglet survival.

  7. The behaviour and welfare of sows and piglets in farrowing crates or lactation pens.

    PubMed

    Singh, C; Verdon, M; Cronin, G M; Hemsworth, P H

    2017-07-01

    Temporary confinement during parturition and early postpartum may provide an intermediary step preceding loose housing that offers improvement in sow and piglet welfare. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the implications of replacing farrowing crates (FCs) with an alternative housing system from 3 days postpartum until weaning. In each experiment sows farrowed in FCs and were randomly allocated at day 3 of lactation to either a FC or a pen with increased floor space (lactation pen (LP)) until weaning. In experiment 1, piglet growth and sow and piglet skin injuries were recorded for 32 sows and 128 focal piglets in these litters. Behaviour around nursing and piglet behavioural time budgets were also recorded for 24 of these litters (96 focal piglets for time budgets). In experiment 2, measures of skin injury and behavioural time budgets were conducted on 28 sows and 112 focal piglets. The behavioural response of sows to piglet vocalisation (maternal responsiveness test (MRT)) was also assessed. In experiment 3, piglet mortality from day 3 of lactation until weaning was recorded in 672 litters over 12 months. While housing did not affect piglet weight gain in experiment 1, or piglet skin injuries in experiments 1 or 2, sows in both experiments sustained more injuries in LP than FC (experiment 1, 2.9 v. 1.4; experiment 2, 2.5 v. 0.8 lesions/sow; P0.05). Thus, housing sows and litters in LP from day 3 of lactation minimises piglet mortality while improving maternal behaviour in sows and social behaviour in piglets.

  8. Pathogenesis of Korean Sapelovirus A in piglets and chicks

    PubMed Central

    Son, Kyu-Yeol; Bak, Geon-Yong; Park, Jun-Gyu; Hosmillo, Myra; Seo, Ja-Young; Kim, Ji-Yun; Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Soliman, Mahmoud; Baek, Yeong-Bin; Cho, Eun-Hyo; Lee, Ju-Hwan; Kwon, Joseph; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Sapelovirus A (SV-A), formerly known as porcine sapelovirus as a member of a new genus Sapelovirus, is known to cause enteritis, pneumonia, polioencephalomyelitis and reproductive disorders in pigs. We have recently identified α2,3-linked sialic acid on GD1a ganglioside as a functional SV-A receptor rich in the cells of pigs and chickens. However, the role of GD1a in viral pathogenesis remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated that a Korean SV-A strain could induce diarrhoea and intestinal pathology in piglets but not in chicks. Moreover, this Korean SV-A strain had mild extra-intestinal tropisms appearing as mild, non-suppurative myelitis, encephalitis and pneumonia in piglets, but not in chicks. By real-time reverse transcription (RT) PCR, higher viral RNA levels were detected in faecal samples than in sera or extra-intestinal organs from virus-inoculated piglets. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that high viral antigens were detected in the epithelial cells of intestines from virus-inoculated piglets but not from chicks. This Korean SV-A strain could bind the cultured cell lines originated from various species, but replication occurred only in cells of porcine origin. These data indicated that this Korean SV-A strain could replicate and induce pathology in piglets but not in chicks, suggesting that additional porcine-specific factors are required for virus entry and replication. In addition, this Korean SV-A strain is enteropathogenic, but could spread to the bloodstream from the gut and disseminate to extra-intestinal organs and tissues. These results will contribute to our understanding of SV-A pathogenesis so that efficient anti-sapelovirus drugs and vaccines could be developed in the future. PMID:27487773

  9. Piglets' surface temperature change at different weights at birth.

    PubMed

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva Dos Santos, Rita

    2014-03-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets' weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets' surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (-0.824 and -0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet's surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight.

  10. Characterization of intestinal collateral blood flow in the developing piglet.

    PubMed

    Crissinger, K D; Granger, D N

    1988-10-01

    Interest in the pathogenesis of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis has prompted study of the intestinal circulation in developing animals. It is conceivable that poorly developed collateral channels may predispose the neonatal intestine to ischemic insults. We therefore characterized intestinal collateral blood flow in anesthetized and ventilated 1-day and 1-month-old piglets. Intestinal blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres (15 micron diameter) before and after either 1) total occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) or 2) occlusion of a distal (jejunoileal) branch of the SMA. After total SMA occlusion in 1-day and 1-month-old piglets, perfusion of the intestine via collaterals from the celiac and inferior mesenteric arteries was not evident. Jejunal, ileal, and colonic (except rectal) blood flows fell to zero 30 min after ligation of the SMA. Ligation of a distal branch of the SMA in 1-month-old animals significantly reduced total wall (by 25%) and mucosal/submucosal (by 25%) blood flows in the occluded segment. Similar experiments in 1-day-old piglets produced significantly greater reduction in total (70%) and mucosa/submucosa (70%) blood flows. Muscle/serosa blood flows in both groups were not significantly different from control values. In conclusion, collateral perfusion of the intestine via the celiac and inferior mesenteric arteries is insignificant during acute SMA occlusion in the developing piglet. Although there is significant collateral blood flow within the SMA vascular network, perfusion between adjacent gut segments is less effective in preventing intestinal ischemia after occlusion of a branch of the SMA in neonates than in 1-month-old piglets.

  11. Gut Microbial Gene Expression in Mother-Fed and Formula-Fed Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Poroyko, Valeriy; White, James Robert; Wang, Mei; Donovan, Sharon; Alverdy, John; Liu, Donald C.; Morowitz, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Effects of diet on the structure and function of gut microbial communities in newborn infants are poorly understood. High-resolution molecular studies are needed to definitively ascertain whether gut microbial communities are distinct in milk-fed and formula-fed infants. Methodology/Principal Findings Pyrosequencing-based whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to evaluate community wide gut microbial gene expression in 21 day old neonatal piglets fed either with sow's milk (mother fed, MF; n = 4) or with artificial formula (formula fed, FF; n = 4). Microbial DNA and RNA were harvested from cecal contents for each animal. cDNA libraries and 16S rDNA amplicons were sequenced on the Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium system. Communities were similar at the level of phylum but were dissimilar at the level of genus; Prevotella was the dominant genus within MF samples and Bacteroides was most abundant within FF samples. Screened cDNA sequences were assigned functional annotations by the MG-RAST annotation pipeline and based upon best-BLASTX-hits to the NCBI COG database. Patterns of gene expression were very similar in MF and FF animals. All samples were enriched with transcripts encoding enzymes for carbohydrate and protein metabolism, as well as proteins involved in stress response, binding to host epithelium, and lipopolysaccharide metabolism. Carbohydrate utilization transcripts were generally similar in both groups. The abundance of enzymes involved in several pathways related to amino acid metabolism (e.g., arginine metabolism) and oxidative stress response differed in MF and FF animals. Conclusions/Significance Abundant transcripts identified in this study likely contribute to a core microbial metatranscriptome in the distal intestine. Although microbial community gene expression was generally similar in the cecal contents of MF and FF neonatal piglets, several differentially abundant gene clusters were identified. Further

  12. Pulmonary microRNA expression profiling in an immature piglet model of cardiopulmonary bypass-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlei; Ma, Kai; Zhang, Sen; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jinping; Wang, Xu; Li, Shoujun

    2015-04-01

    After surgery performed under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), severe lung injury often occurs in infants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potentially involved in diverse pathophysiological processes via regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate differentially expressed miRNAs and their potential target genes in immature piglet lungs in response to CPB. Fourteen piglets aged 18.6 ± 0.5 days were equally divided into two groups that underwent sham sternotomy or CPB. The duration of aortic cross-clamping was 2 h, followed by 2 h reperfusion. Lung injury was evaluated by lung function indices, levels of cytokines, and histological changes. We applied miRNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis to determine miRNA expression. Meanwhile, qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for validation of predicted mRNA targets. The deterioration of lung function and histopathological changes revealed the piglets' lungs were greatly impaired due to CPB. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, and interleukin 10 increased in the lung tissue after CPB. Using miRNA microarray, statistically significant differences were found in the levels of 16 miRNAs in the CPB group. Up-regulation of miR-21 was verified by PCR. We also observed down-regulation in the levels of miR-127, miR-145, and miR-204, which were correlated with increases in the expression of the products of their potential target genes PIK3CG, PTGS2, ACE, and IL6R in the CPB group, suggesting a potential role for miRNA in the regulation of inflammatory response. Our results show that CPB induces severe lung injury and dynamic changes in miRNA expression in piglet lungs. Moreover, the changes in miRNA levels and target gene expression may provide a basis for understanding the pathogenesis of CPB-induced injury to immature lungs.

  13. The effects of iron supplementation in preweaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Loh, T; Leong, K; Too, H; Mah, C; Choo, P

    2001-03-01

    The trial was carried out at a commercial pig farm in Bukit Pelanduk, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy of supplemental iron in drinking water and iron in paste form in comparison with the iron dextran injection. A total of 12 litters were used divided into three treatments : iron dextran injection (ID), Fedexx" - iron in paste form (IP) and Opti-iron" - iron in drinking water (IW). Hemoglobin level and growth performance parameters were monitored weekly over a period of 28 days. ID piglets had significantly higher (p < 0.05) body weight and weekly weight gain compared with IW piglets at 21 and 28 days of age whereas no significant different (p > 0.05) results were found between IP and IW piglets. Hemoglobin level from days 0 to 28 showed statistical difference (p > 0.05) between piglets in IP and IW groups. Mild anemia was found in IP piglets but not for ID and IW piglets compared with normal value (> 9 g/dL). Hemoglobin (Hb) levels were positively correlated (p < 0.05, r = .47) with body weight at 28 days of age. In conclusion, pigs supplemented with iron in paste form and drinking water had poorer growth performance than iron dextran injection piglets. Piglets given iron in paste form had mild anemia. It is advisable to give multiple doses of oral iron to piglets in order to prevent iron deficiency anemia. During the first 4 weeks of life, the body weights of the piglets increased by up to 5-fold. The dietary requirement for iron during this period is 7 mg per day but only 1 mg per day can be supplied by the sow's milk (Cunha, 1977; Miller and Ullrey, 1997; Roberts, 1998). The need to provide the piglets with an adequate amount of iron before weaning is therefore imperative because sow's milk alone will not meet the iron requirements of rapid growth and expanding blood volume (Hannan, 1971). Several different methods can be used to offer iron to preweaning piglets. The most common administration method for iron in

  14. Contributions of the maternal uterine environment and piglet genotype on weaning survivability potential: I. Development of neonatal piglets after reciprocal embryo transfers between Meishan and White crossbred gilts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In commercial pigs, the greatest susceptibility for preweaning mortality occurs in low birth weight piglets. However, despite their overall decreased birth weight, Meishan (MS) piglets have lower preweaning mortality rates compared with contemporary Western breeds. The objective of the current stu...

  15. Effect of drinker type on water intake and waste in newly weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Torrey, S; Toth Tamminga, E L M; Widowski, T M

    2008-06-01

    During the first few days after weaning, pigs often experience BW loss as they adapt to eating solid food. During this time period, they are also known to drink excessively and develop abnormal oral behavior such as belly nosing. The excessive drinking may stem from the piglets' attempt to satiate hunger through gut fill from a familiar ingestive source. Gut fill through water intake may affect the establishment of feeding behavior. Using drinker devices other than the standard nipple drinker may ease the piglets' transition at weaning by facilitating the initiation of feeding and preventing the development of behavioral problems such as excessive drinking and belly nosing. In this experiment, we examined the effect of drinker type on water and food intake, growth rates, and belly nosing in newly weaned piglets. Eighteen pens of 15 piglets each (270 piglets total) were weaned at 18.1 +/- 0.1 d of age and housed in pens containing 1 of 3 drinker devices (standard nipple, push-lever bowl, and float bowl). Piglets' water and feed intake, water use, BW, and behavior were examined on a pen basis through 2 wk after weaning. Piglets with nipple drinkers wasted more water than the other piglets (P < 0.001; float, 295 +/- 70 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); nipple, 1,114 +/- 63 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); and push-lever, 186 +/- 63 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1)), whereas piglets with float bowls consumed less water than the other piglets (P < 0.001; float, 475 +/- 81 mL . pig(-1) x d(-1); nipple, 870 +/- 76 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); push-lever, 774 +/- 76 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1)). Drinker type affected feeding behavior (P = 0.02); piglets with push-lever bowls spent less time at the feeder than the other piglets, although no difference was detected for feed intake (P = 0.64) or overall ADG (P = 0.16). Piglets with push-lever bowls also tended to perform less piglet-directed nosing behavior than piglets with the float bowl (P = 0.04). Piglets appear to use more water during the first 2 d after weaning with

  16. The effect of immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide on an experimental porcine enterovirus infection in piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Derbyshire, J B

    1983-01-01

    Eleven specific pathogen-free, five week old piglets were infected orally with the T80 strain of porcine enterovirus type 2. Three days after infection, five of the piglets were treated with cyclophosphamide, together with two of four uninfected control piglets. The treated, infected piglets developed severe diarrhea, and one showed signs of encephalomyelitis. These piglets showed no virological evidence of recovery from the infection, since the virus persisted throughout the intestinal tract, and they failed to mount a serological response. It was concluded that immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide impaired the normal recovery mechanisms in this infection, providing further evidence that the humoral immune response is an important defence mechanism against porcine enterovirus infection in piglets. PMID:6224548

  17. Impairment of the peripheral lymphoid compartment in iron-deficient piglets.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, M; Drabek, J; Krejci, J; Rehakova, Z; Faldyna, M

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neonatal iron deficiency on immune functions in young piglets. While control piglets were not given any iron preparation until the age of 21 days, another group of piglets was given 200 mg of Fe(3+)-dextran i.m. on day 3. Red blood cell parameters in the former, iron-deficient group were characteristic of hypochromic anaemia. In addition, the total leucocyte count (P < 0.01), relative and absolute neutrophil count (P < 0.01) and absolute lymphocyte count (P < 0.05) in peripheral blood were found significantly lower in iron-deficient piglets than in their iron-supplemented counterparts. Lymphocyte activity as measured by in vitro lymphocyte transformation test was impaired in iron-deficient piglets. A statistically significant decrease in circulating B-lymphocyte numbers was found in non-supplemented animals. Iron deficiency apparently negatively influenced the immunocompetence in piglets.

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB in the piglet brainstem after post-natal nicotine and intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Samantha; Machaalani, Rita; Waters, Karen A

    2008-09-26

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB play a significant role in the regulation of cell growth, survival and death during central nervous system development. The expression of BDNF and TrkB is affected by noxious insults. Two insults during the early post-natal period that are of interest to our laboratory are exposure to nicotine and to intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH). Piglet models were used to mimic the conditions associated with the risk factors for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) including post-natal cigarette smoke exposure (nicotine model) and prone sleeping where the infant is subjected to re-breathing of expired gases (IHH model). We aimed to determine the effects of nicotine and IHH, alone or in combination, on pro- and rhBDNF and TrkB expression in the developing piglet brainstem. Four piglet groups were studied, with equal gender ratios in each: control (n=14), nicotine (n=14), IHH (n=10) and nic+IHH (n=14). Applying immunohistochemistry, and studying six nuclei of the caudal medulla, we found that compared to controls, TrkB was the only protein significantly decreased after nicotine and nic+IHH exposure regardless of gender. For pro-BDNF and rhBDNF however, observed changes were more evident in males than females exposed to nicotine and nic+IHH. The implications of these findings are that a prior nicotine exposure makes the developing brainstem susceptible to greater changes in the neurotrophic effects of BDNF and its receptor TrkB in the face of a hypoxic insult, and that the effects are greater in males than females.

  19. Effects of intermittent suckling on body composition of Iberian piglets weaned at 35 days of age.

    PubMed

    Castellano, R; Aguinaga, M A; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F; Haro, A; Seiquer, I

    2014-05-01

    Piglet body composition at weaning could be a determinant for pig's viability and may be influenced by factors such as the nutritional management followed during suckling. An experiment was conducted to study whether intermittent suckling (IS) affects body composition at weaning and nutrient and energy retention during a 34-day lactation period in Iberian piglets. Litters were subjected to conventional suckling (CS) or IS (n=10 litters of six piglets per treatment) in two trials. All piglets had ad libitum access to creep feed from day 15 onwards. In IS, piglets were progressively separated from the sow for 6, 8 and 10 h daily during the last week of lactation, whereas in CS piglets had continuous access to their dams. Creep feed intake in litters and BW development of individual piglets were measured throughout the 34-day lactation. Within each litter, both at birth and at weaning (day 35), one piglet was used to assess nutrient retention and body composition by the comparative slaughter approach. During days 29 to 35 of the experiment, daily creep feed intake was greater in IS piglets (IS 124, CS 67 g/piglet, P=0.040), and average daily gain differed significantly between groups (IS 190, CS 150 g/day, P=0.010). BW at weaning was higher in the IS than in the CS piglets (IS 8.19, CS 7.48 kg, P=0.011). Empty-body fat and energy content at weaning were higher in the IS compared with CS litters, as well as fat content in the carcass (P=0.04). The IS treatment did not affect empty-body protein deposition, but significantly increased daily retention of fat, energy, ash and calcium, compared with CS litters (P<0.05). Thus, IS in Iberian piglets seems to enhance feed intake, growth rate and retention of some body components, which may contribute to a higher body fat content at weaning and facilitate the weaning process.

  20. Structure and Function of the Fecal Microbiota in Diarrheic Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiaoli; Huang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Shengguo; Sun, Wenyang; Yan, Zunqiang; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Shenggui; Huang, Wangzhou; Zhang, Shengwei; Liu, Lixia; Gun, Shuangbao

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhea is a leading cause of increased mortality in neonatal and young piglets. Aberration of the gut microbiota is one important factor in the etiology of piglet diarrhea. However, information regarding the structure and function of the gut microbiome in diarrheic neonatal piglets is limited. To investigate the composition and functional potential of the fecal microbiota in neonatal piglets, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on 20 fecal samples from diarrheic piglets and healthy controls, and metagenomics sequencing on a subset of six samples. We found striking compositional and functional differences in fecal microbiota between diarrheic and healthy piglets. Neonatal piglet diarrhea was associated with increases in the relative abundance of Prevotella, Sutterella, and Campylobacter, as well as Fusobacteriaceae. The increased relative abundance of Prevotella was correlated with the reduction in Escherichia coli and the majority of beneficial bacteria that belonging to the Firmicutes phylum (e.g., Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Blautia) in diarrheic piglets. The differentially functional gene abundances in diarrheic piglets were an increase in bacterial ribosome, and contributed primarily by the genera Prevotella, this indicates a growth advantage of the Prevotella in diarrheic conditions. Additional functional gene sets were associated with the reduction of polyamine transport, monosaccharide and sugar-specific PTS transport, amino acid transport, and two-component regulatory system. These profiles likely impact the ability to transport and uptake nutrients, as well as the ability to fight microbial infections in the piglet gut ecosystem. This work identifies a potential role for Prevotella in the community-wide microbial aberration and dysfunction that underpins the pathogenesis of piglet diarrhea. Identification of these microbial and functional signatures may provide biomarkers of neonatal piglet diarrhea. PMID:28392784

  1. Structure and Function of the Fecal Microbiota in Diarrheic Neonatal Piglets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiaoli; Huang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Shengguo; Sun, Wenyang; Yan, Zunqiang; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Shenggui; Huang, Wangzhou; Zhang, Shengwei; Liu, Lixia; Gun, Shuangbao

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhea is a leading cause of increased mortality in neonatal and young piglets. Aberration of the gut microbiota is one important factor in the etiology of piglet diarrhea. However, information regarding the structure and function of the gut microbiome in diarrheic neonatal piglets is limited. To investigate the composition and functional potential of the fecal microbiota in neonatal piglets, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on 20 fecal samples from diarrheic piglets and healthy controls, and metagenomics sequencing on a subset of six samples. We found striking compositional and functional differences in fecal microbiota between diarrheic and healthy piglets. Neonatal piglet diarrhea was associated with increases in the relative abundance of Prevotella, Sutterella, and Campylobacter, as well as Fusobacteriaceae. The increased relative abundance of Prevotella was correlated with the reduction in Escherichia coli and the majority of beneficial bacteria that belonging to the Firmicutes phylum (e.g., Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Blautia) in diarrheic piglets. The differentially functional gene abundances in diarrheic piglets were an increase in bacterial ribosome, and contributed primarily by the genera Prevotella, this indicates a growth advantage of the Prevotella in diarrheic conditions. Additional functional gene sets were associated with the reduction of polyamine transport, monosaccharide and sugar-specific PTS transport, amino acid transport, and two-component regulatory system. These profiles likely impact the ability to transport and uptake nutrients, as well as the ability to fight microbial infections in the piglet gut ecosystem. This work identifies a potential role for Prevotella in the community-wide microbial aberration and dysfunction that underpins the pathogenesis of piglet diarrhea. Identification of these microbial and functional signatures may provide biomarkers of neonatal piglet diarrhea.

  2. Mode of delivery and early nutrition modulate microbial colonization and fermentation products in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Radlowski, Emily C; Monaco, Marcia H; Fahey, George C; Gaskins, H Rex; Donovan, Sharon M

    2013-06-01

    Colonization of the intestinal microbiota after birth plays an important role in development of the neonatal gastrointestinal and immune systems. Two key environmental factors that influence the colonization pattern are delivery mode and nutrition. In this study, the impact of delivery mode and nutrition on microbial colonization and metabolic activity was investigated in the pig model. Vaginally (VD) or caesarean- (CD) delivered piglets were sow-reared (SR) or fed formula alone (FF) or with 4 g/L prebiotics [1:1 ratio of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) and polydextrose (PDX); FP]. Intestinal contents were collected on d 7 and 14. SR piglets harbored different microbial populations from FF and FP piglets in ileum and ascending colon (AC). On d 7, FF piglets had a greater abundance of Clostridium XIVa in AC, but lower total bacteria, Clostridium XIVa, and Lactobacillus spp. in ileum and Fecalibacterium prausnitzii in AC compared with FP piglets. On d 14, total bacteria were more abundant in FP than FF piglets. Butyrate, isobutyrate, valerate, and isovalerate concentrations in AC were greater in SR piglets compared with FF or FP piglets. At both sampling days, acetate concentrations in AC were similar between the SR and FF groups, whereas propionate was higher in the SR compared with FF group. Delivery mode also significantly affected microbial populations. Bacterial densities differed in AC for Bacteroides-Prevotella at d 7 and Clostridium XIVa at d 14, being higher in VD piglets. Correspondingly, VD piglets had higher propionate in ileum and propionate and butyrate in AC compared with CD piglets. Our results indicate that both delivery mode and nutrition affect microbial composition and metabolic activity. Supplementation of scFOS/PDX to formula modulates microbial colonization and produces a SCFA pattern closer to that of SR piglets.

  3. Health, nutrition, and cost outcomes of human milk feedings for very low birthweight infants.

    PubMed

    Meier, Paula P; Bode, Lars

    2013-11-01

    This symposium examined the impact of human milk (HM) from the infant's own mother on health, nutrition, and cost outcomes in very low birthweight (VLBW; <1500 g birthweight) infants. The 4 symposium speakers presented original research and summarized existing evidence about these primary outcomes. The conclusions from the symposium suggest that: 1) HM feedings for VLBW infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) reduce the risks and the associated costs of late onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC); 2) the gut microbiota of the VLBW infant is influenced by multiple factors, some of which are modifiable, and that the milk microbiota affects the developing gut microbiota in a positive manner; 3) the clinical realties of feeding HM in the NICU that compromise safety and efficacy of HM can be addressed with evidence-based clinical practices; and 4) piglets can serve as a model for the premature infant to assess the impact of HM and formula additives on intestinal development.

  4. Changes in orexinergic immunoreactivity of the piglet hypothalamus and pons after exposure to chronic postnatal nicotine and intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Nicholas J; Russell, Benjamin; Du, Man K; Waters, Karen A; Machaalani, Rita

    2016-06-01

    We recently showed that orexin expression in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants was reduced by 21% in the hypothalamus and by 40-50% in the pons as compared with controls. Orexin maintains wakefulness/sleeping states, arousal, and rapid eye movement sleep, abnormalities of which have been reported in SIDS. This study examined the effects of two prominent risk factors for SIDS, intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH) (prone-sleeping) and chronic nicotine exposure (cigarette-smoking), on orexin A (OxA) and orexin B (OxB) expression in piglets. Piglets were randomly assigned to five groups: saline control (n = 7), air control (n = 7), nicotine [2 mg/kg per day (14 days)] (n = 7), IHH (6 min of 7% O2 /8% CO2 alternating with 6-min periods of breathing air, for four cycles) (n = 7), and the combination of nicotine and IHH (N + IHH) (n = 7). OxA/OxB expression was quantified in the central tuberal hypothalamus [dorsal medial hypothalamus (DMH), perifornical area (PeF), and lateral hypothalamus], and the dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus of the pons. Nicotine and N + IHH exposures significantly increased: (i) orexin expression in the hypothalamus and pons; and (ii) the total number of neurons in the DMH and PeF. IHH decreased orexin expression in the hypothalamus and pons without changing neuronal numbers. Linear relationships existed between the percentage of orexin-positive neurons and the area of pontine orexin immunoreactivity of control and exposure piglets. These results demonstrate that postnatal nicotine exposure increases the proportion of orexin-positive neurons in the hypothalamus and fibre expression in the pons, and that IHH exposure does not prevent the nicotine-induced increase. Thus, although both nicotine and IHH are risk factors for SIDS, it appears they have opposing effects on OxA and OxB expression, with the IHH exposure closely mimicking what we recently found in SIDS. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John

  5. Adaptation of Piglets Using Different Methods of Stress Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bekenev, Vitaly; Garcia, Arlene; Hasnulin, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Stressful events play a major negative role in the modern technology of weaned piglets. These events include but are not limited to weaning itself, lack of maternal milk, loss of maternal bonding, mixing of different litters, transportation to growing-finishing farms, and housing conditions. Various additives (phenazepam, aminazine, vitamins E and C, the extract Eleutherococcus senticosus, and ultraviolet irradiation) at different doses and combinations with or without ultraviolet irradiation were used to evaluate their effect on the viability and growth rate of piglets after weaning. Content of lipids in the blood and liver, antioxidant activity (AOA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) significantly decreased or increased with the use of the additives. Feeding a mixture of additives increased survival rate, average daily gain, and live weight at the end of the experiment. Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability and growth rate of piglets after weaning, the content of lipids in the blood and liver, antioxidant activity (AOA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) when various additives are used in feed. The experiments were performed on two crosses of piglets obtained from Large White breed sows and Landrace breed boars. Twenty to 28 animals were randomly assigned per group. The following additives were tested: the benzodiazepine phenazepam, the neuroleptic aminazine, vitamins E and C, and the extract Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae). Different doses and combinations of the additives against ultraviolet irradiation were used. The addition of these substances improved the growth rate and viability of piglets. AOA increased under the influence of all factors studied, especially with the addition of extract of Eleutherococcus in feed in combination with aminazine and UV-irradiation (p < 0.01). However, the addition of Eleutherococcus extract and aminazine intensified LPO (p < 0.01), but use of UV irradiation helped to decrease LPO values

  6. A piglet model for studying Candida albicans colonization of the human oro-gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Coleman, David A; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Miller, Michael J; Hoyer, Lois L

    2014-08-01

    Pigs from a variety of sources were surveyed for oro-gastrointestinal (oro-GIT) carriage of Candida albicans. Candida albicans-positive animals were readily located, but we also identified C. albicans-free pigs. We hypothesized that pigs could be stably colonized with a C. albicans strain of choice, simply by feeding yeast cells. Piglets were farrowed routinely and remained with the sow for 4 days to acquire a normal microbiota. Piglets were then placed in an artificial rearing environment and fed sow milk replacer. Piglets were inoculated orally with one of three different C. albicans strains. Piglets were weighed daily, and culture swabs were collected to detect C. albicans orally, rectally and in the piglet's environment. Stable C. albicans colonization over the course of the study did not affect piglet growth. Necropsy revealed mucosally associated C. albicans throughout the oro-GIT with the highest abundance in the esophagus. Uninoculated control piglets remained C. albicans-negative. These data establish the piglet as a model to study C. albicans colonization of the human oro-GIT. Similarities between oro-GIT colonization in humans and pigs, as well as the ease of working with the piglet model, suggest its adaptability for use among investigators interested in understanding C. albicans-host commensal interactions.

  7. The association between immunoglobulin G in sow colostrum and piglet plasma.

    PubMed

    Kielland, C; Rootwelt, V; Reksen, O; Framstad, T

    2015-09-01

    Colostrum provides newborn piglets with energy and passive immunity and is essential for survival of the piglets. The plasma concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in piglets is dependent on several factors, most importantly the concentration of IgG in sow colostrum (colostrum IgG). The main aims of this study were to investigate the variation in concentration of colostrum IgG between herds and the individual sows within herd and to investigate factors associated with plasma IgG concentrations in piglets (piglet IgG). From 4 herds (A to D), 876 piglets from 62 sows were included in the study. Colostrum was sampled from sows immediately after expulsion of the first piglet and before the first suckling (t1), midway through farrowing (just after the sixth piglet was born; t2), and after the last piglet was born (t3). At d 1, 0.5 mL blood from piglets was collected in tubes containing EDTA, and IgG concentrations were analyzed. Mean colostrum IgG concentration across all herds was 53.9 g/L. Herd A had mean colostrum IgG of 38.3 g/L, whereas the other 3 herds (B,C, and D) had mean colostrum IgG of 47.4, 60.4, and 67.8 g/L, respectively. Colostrum IgG at t1, t2, and t3 across all herds was 56.2, 53.7, and 42.5 g/L, respectively. Mean concentration of piglet IgG across all samplings was 21.7 g/L. Multilevel linear regression analysis was performed with piglet IgG (g/L) as outcome. In this model, the herd effect accounted for 9% of the total variance and 34% of the variance resided at sow level. Piglet IgG was associated with herd, birth order (), body mass index (BMI) > 17 (kg/m), and colostrum IgG at t1 (g/L) with an overall -value < 0.01. Herd D had the highest predicted mean level of piglet IgG. The main model predicted that piglet IgG decreased linearly by 0.4 g/L with each piglet born ( < 0.01). The model also predicted an increase by 0.1 g/L for each gram per liter extra colostrum IgG in colostrum ( = 0.03). Piglets with a BMI above 17 kg/m had a greater piglet Ig

  8. Assessment of phospholipid synthesis related biomarkers for perinatal asphyxia: a piglet study

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Illana, Ángel; Solberg, Rønnaug; Lliso, Isabel; Pankratov, Leonid; Quintás, Guillermo; Saugstad, Ola Didrik; Vento, Máximo; Kuligowski, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The prompt and reliable identification of infants at risk of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy secondary to perinatal asphyxia in the first critical hours is important for clinical decision-making and yet still remains a challenge. This work strives for the evaluation of a panel of metabolic biomarkers that have been associated with the hypoxic-ischemic insult in the perinatal period. Plasma and urine samples from a consolidated newborn piglet model of hypoxia and withdrawn before and at different time points after a hypoxic insult were analyzed and compared to a control group. Time-dependent metabolic biomarker profiles were studied and observed patterns were similar to those of lactate levels, which are currently considered the gold standard for assessing hypoxia. Class prediction performance could be improved by the use of a combination of the whole panel of determined metabolites in plasma as compared to lactate values. Using a multivariate model including lactate together with the studied metabolic biomarkers allowed to improve the prediction performance of duration of hypoxia time, which correlates with the degree of brain damage. The present study evidences the usefulness of choline and related metabolites for improving the early assessment of the severity of the hypoxic insult. PMID:28071721

  9. Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Eucker, Stephanie A.; Durduran, Turgut; Yu, Guoqiang; Ralston, Jill; Friess, Stuart H.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Margulies, Susan S.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2009-05-01

    We used a nonimpact inertial rotational model of a closed head injury in neonatal piglets to simulate the conditions following traumatic brain injury in infants. Diffuse optical techniques, including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), were used to measure cerebral blood oxygenation and blood flow continuously and noninvasively before injury and up to 6 h after the injury. The DCS measurements of relative cerebral blood flow were validated against the fluorescent microsphere method. A strong linear correlation was observed between the two techniques (R=0.89, p<0.00001). Injury-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes were quantified, and significant changes were found in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations, total hemoglobin concentration, blood oxygen saturation, and cerebral blood flow after the injury. The diffuse optical measurements were robust and also correlated well with recordings of vital physiological parameters over the 6-h monitoring period, such as mean arterial blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, and heart rate. Finally, the diffuse optical techniques demonstrated sensitivity to dynamic physiological events, such as apnea, cardiac arrest, and hypertonic saline infusion. In total, the investigation corraborates potential of the optical methods for bedside monitoring of pediatric and adult human patients in the neurointensive care unit.

  10. Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chao; Eucker, Stephanie A.; Durduran, Turgut; Yu, Guoqiang; Ralston, Jill; Friess, Stuart H.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Margulies, Susan S.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2011-01-01

    We used a nonimpact inertial rotational model of a closed head injury in neonatal piglets to simulate the conditions following traumatic brain injury in infants. Diffuse optical techniques, including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), were used to measure cerebral blood oxygenation and blood flow continuously and noninvasively before injury and up to 6 h after the injury. The DCS measurements of relative cerebral blood flow were validated against the fluorescent microsphere method. A strong linear correlation was observed between the two techniques (R = 0.89, p < 0.00001). Injury-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes were quantified, and significant changes were found in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations, total hemoglobin concentration, blood oxygen saturation, and cerebral blood flow after the injury. The diffuse optical measurements were robust and also correlated well with recordings of vital physiological parameters over the 6-h monitoring period, such as mean arterial blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, and heart rate. Finally, the diffuse optical techniques demonstrated sensitivity to dynamic physiological events, such as apnea, cardiac arrest, and hypertonic saline infusion. In total, the investigation corraborates potential of the optical methods for bedside monitoring of pediatric and adult human patients in the neurointensive care unit. PMID:19566308

  11. Plasma metabolite score correlates with Hypoxia time in a newly born piglet model for asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Julia; Solberg, Rønnaug; Sánchez-Illana, Ángel; Pankratov, Leonid; Parra-Llorca, Anna; Quintás, Guillermo; Saugstad, Ola Didrik; Vento, Máximo

    2017-02-07

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) secondary to perinatal asphyxia is a leading cause of mortality and acquired long-term neurologic co-morbidities in the neonate. The most successful intervention for the treatment of moderate to severe HIE is moderate whole body hypothermia initiated within 6h from birth. The objective and prompt identification of infants who are at risk of developing moderate to severe HIE in the critical first hours still remains a challenge. This work proposes a metabolite score calculated based on the relative intensities of three metabolites (choline, 6,8-dihydroxypurine and hypoxanthine) that showed maximum correlation with hypoxia time in a consolidated piglet model for neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. The metabolite score's performance as a biomarker for perinatal hypoxia and its usefulness for clinical grading and decision making have been assessed and compared to the performance of lactate which is currently considered the gold standard. For plasma samples withdrawn before and directly after a hypoxic insult, the metabolite score performed similar to lactate. However, it provided an enhanced predictive capacity at 2h after resuscitation. The present study evidences the usefulness of the metabolite score for improving the early assessment of the severity of the hypoxic insult based on serial determinations in a minimally invasive biofluid. The applicability of the metabolite score for clinical diagnosis and patient stratification for hypothermia treatment has to be confirmed in multicenter trials involving newborns suffering from HIE.

  12. Parvovirus-like particles associated with diarrhea in unweaned piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Dea, S; Elazhary, M A; Martineau, G P; Vaillancourt, J

    1985-01-01

    Numerous parvovirus-like particles, 18 to 26 nm in diameter, were detected by electron microscopy in the intestinal contents of two to three week old piglets with mild to severe diarrhea, in six Quebec pig herds. Hemagglutination of guinea pig and African green monkey red blood cells was obtained with clarified intestinal contents. Two isolates were found to be antigenically related to porcine and canine parvoviruses, while another differed from the porcine parvovirus using the hemagglutination-inhibition test. Three isolates could be cultivated in cell cultures as demonstrated by the development of a cytopathic effect, hemagglutination activity, immunofluorescence and identification of the virions in the cell culture fluids by electron microscopy. The possibility of a primary etiological role for these parvoviruses in diarrhea of unweaned piglets is discussed. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2412678

  13. Reno-protective effects of epigallocatechingallate in a small piglet model of extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Twal, Miriam; Kiefer, Philipp; Salameh, Aida; Schnabel, Juliane; Ossmann, Susann; von Salisch, Sandy; Krämer, Klaus; Sobiraj, Axel; Kostelka, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Dhein, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass still often is a necessary tool in cardiac surgery in particular in the correction of congenital heart defects in small infants. Nevertheless, among the complications linked to extracorporeal circulation (ECC) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in both infants and adults one of the most serious problems is renal impairment. Since this might be caused by ischemia/reperfusion injury and accumulation of free radicals, we used (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a derivate from green tea, which is known to possess antioxidant, antiapoptotic and NO-scavenging properties in order to find out whether EGCG may protect the kidney. 23 four-week-old Angler Sattelschwein-piglets (8-15 kg) were divided into three groups: control-group (n=7), ECC-group (n=10), EGCG-group (n=6). The ECC- and EGCG-group were thoracotomized and underwent CPB for 120 min followed by a 90-min recovery-time. The EGCG-group received 10 mg/kg EGCG before and after CPB. Histology revealed that CPB led to widening of Bowman's capsule, and to vacuolization of proximal tubular cells (p<0.05) which could be prevented by EGCG (p<0.05). Using immunohistology, we found significant nuclear translocation of hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-alpha (HIF-1-alpha) and increased nitrotyrosine formation in the ECC-group. Both were significantly (p<0.05) inhibited by EGCG. ECC-induced loss of energy-rich phosphates was prevented by EGCG. In blood samples we found that CPB resulted in increases in creatinine and urea (in serum) and led to loss of total protein (p<0.05), which all was not present in EGCG-treated animals. We conclude that CPB causes damage in the kidney which can be attenuated by EGCG. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Piglet Model of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kyng, Kasper J.; Skajaa, Torjus; Kerrn-Jespersen, Sigrid; Andreassen, Christer S.; Bennedsgaard, Kristine; Henriksen, Tine B.

    2015-01-01

    Birth asphyxia, which causes hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), accounts for 0.66 million deaths worldwide each year, about a quarter of the world’s 2.9 million neonatal deaths. Animal models of HIE have contributed to the understanding of the pathophysiology in HIE, and have highlighted the dynamic process that occur in brain injury due to perinatal asphyxia. Thus, animal studies have suggested a time-window for post-insult treatment strategies. Hypothermia has been tested as a treatment for HIE in pdiglet models and subsequently proven effective in clinical trials. Variations of the model have been applied in the study of adjunctive neuroprotective methods and piglet studies of xenon and melatonin have led to clinical phase I and II trials1,2. The piglet HIE model is further used for neonatal resuscitation- and hemodynamic studies as well as in investigations of cerebral hypoxia on a cellular level. However, it is a technically challenging model and variations in the protocol may result in either too mild or too severe brain injury. In this article, we demonstrate the technical procedures necessary for establishing a stable piglet model of neonatal HIE. First, the newborn piglet (< 24 hr old, median weight 1500 g) is anesthetized, intubated, and monitored in a setup comparable to that found in a neonatal intensive care unit. Global hypoxia-ischemia is induced by lowering the inspiratory oxygen fraction to achieve global hypoxia, ischemia through hypotension and a flat trace amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) indicative of cerebral hypoxia. Survival is promoted by adjusting oxygenation according to the aEEG response and blood pressure. Brain injury is quantified by histopathology and magnetic resonance imaging after 72 hr. PMID:26068784

  15. Intestinal apolipoprotein A-IV gene expression in the piglet.

    PubMed

    Black, D D; Rohwer-Nutter, P L; Davidson, N O

    1990-03-01

    Fetal, newborn, and suckling piglets were used to study the intestinal expression of the apoA-IV gene in the immature mammal. Swine apoA-IV (42 kD) was isolated from fat-fed piglet lipoprotein-deficient plasma by adsorption to Intralipid followed by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and electroelution. Rabbit anti-swine apoA-IV antibodies were raised, and apoA-IV was immunoprecipitated from small intestinal homogenates after in vivo radiolabeling with [3H]leucine. ApoA-IV synthesis was expressed as a percentage of total protein synthesis from trichloroacetic acid-precipitable counts. Fetal (40 day gestation) whole small intestine synthesis was 2.1%. Postnatally, 2-day-old newborn piglets given high triglyceride and low triglyceride duodenal infusions, as well as bile diversion, were studied. Synthesis rates in jejunal mucosa in all groups were comparable to the fetal whole intestinal value except in the jejunum of the high-triglyceride group, where synthesis was increased sevenfold. In 1- to 2-week-old fasting, cream-fed, and bile-diverted piglets synthesis was again unchanged except in the fat-fed jejunum, where synthesis doubled. Ileal synthesis rates in newborn and suckling animals were lower than jejunal rates and did not increase with lipid absorption or decrease with bile diversion. Northern blot hybridization of intestinal RNA samples from the newborn groups with an authentic cross-hybridizing human apoA-IV cDNA probe revealed a 1.8 kb signal which was strongest in the high-triglyceride jejunal samples. Slot blot hybridization showed eightfold increased apoA-IV mRNA levels in high-triglyceride jejunal samples as compared to low-triglyceride and bile-diverted jejunum with no differences in beta actin mRNA abundance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Lactulose Feeding Lowers Cecal Densities of Clostridia in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Kien, C. Lawrence; Blauwiekel, Ruth; Williams, Carol H.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Buddington, Randal K.

    2007-01-01

    Background In order to understand the consequences of persistent enteral feeding in patients with carbohydrate malabsorption, we fed piglets lactulose in sufficient dosage to produce osmotic diarrhea or inulin, using a conventional dose, to determine if this prebiotic can modulate the effects of lactulose. Feeding lactulose increases cecal luminal synthesis of butyrate, with inulin having an intermediate effect. Because clostridia may be a major source of colonic butyrate production, we hypothesized that feeding piglets lactulose or inulin would increase cecal densities of clostridia. Methods Piglets were assigned to 3 formula study groups for 6 days: (1) control, fed only sow milk replacer (n = 12); (2) inulin, inulin supplement (3 g/L; n = 11); and (3) lactulose, lactulose supplement (66.7 g/L; n = 6). Cecal fluid for bacteriological studies was sampled intraoperatively. Results The wet/dry ratio of the cecal contents (mean ± SEM) was 8.2 ± 0.5, 6.2 ± 0.5, and 18.8 ± 5.5, respectively, in the control, inulin, and lactulose groups (p = .049, Kruskal-Wallis). There were no differences among the diet groups for cecal densities (106 colony-forming units [CFU]/g dry wt cecal contents) of total anaerobes, total aerobes, bifidobacteria, or lactobacilli. Densities of clostridia were markedly reduced in the lactulose group (1.14 ± 0.41) vs the control (18.39 ± 4.44; p = .001) or inulin groups (8.87 ± 2.20; p = .04). Conclusions In piglets, feeding lactulose at a dose known to cause diarrhea reduces cecal densities of clostridia. PMID:17463144

  17. Insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides in diets for weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, R; van der Aar, P; Molist, F

    2012-12-01

    To examine the effect of inclusion insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides (iNSP) in weaned diets on postweaning piglet performance, intestinal activity, and microbial composition 2 experiments were designed. In Exp. 1, 180 piglets were weaned at 28 d of age and divided over 3 treatments: positive control (PC; highly digestible protein), negative control (NC; standard cereal-based diet), and an experimental diet {iNSP; standard + 15% iNSP [wheat straw and oat (Avena sativa) hull]}. Diets were fed during 14 d after weaning. The ADFI, ADG, and G:F were determined. The inclusion of iNSP increased (P < 0.001) ADFI and G:F during days 0 to 14 after weaning and increased the ADG (P = 0.008) during days 0 to 7 after weaning compared with the NC diet. In Exp. 2, 36 piglets were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. On days 5 and 14 after weaning, 18 piglets were euthanized to determine enzyme activity, intestinal morphology, and microbial population in the ileum and colon and organ weight. The iNSP diet reduced the concentration of Escherichia coli bacteria in the ileum (P = 0.021) and in the colon (P = 0.002) digesta and tended to increase (P = 0.060) the amylase activity. The iNSP diet stimulated the physical adaptation of the gastrointestinal tract because stomach weight as percentage of BW was heavier (P = 0.004) than for the NC diet. In conclusion, the consumption of diets with higher iNSP content in the early weaning period affects the microbial colonization without reducing enzyme activity or animal performance compared with a standard weaned pig diet.

  18. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... infant is a baby born before 37 completed weeks of gestation (more than 3 weeks before the due date). ... one of the following: Premature (less than 37 weeks gestation) Full term (37 to 42 weeks gestation) ...

  19. Infant Constipation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Diapers & Clothing > Infant Constipation Ages & Stages Listen ...

  20. [Infant nutrition].

    PubMed

    Salle, Bernard

    2009-02-01

    Nutritional quality during the first weeks of life can influence health during both infancy and adulthood. Exclusive long-term breast feeding is strongly recommended, particularly for infants at risk of allergy. It protects against gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, and has been shown to enhance cognitive and intellectual development. Breast-feeding is also associated with a lower risk of obesity and type 1 diabetes in infants and of cardiovascular disease in adults. Breast-feeding is rarely contraindicated. Multiple European and French guidelines and regulations govern the composition of infant formulas, which may be given during the first year of life when breast-feeding is unavailable. Hypoallergenic and soy-based formulas are not recommended for healthy infants.

  1. CPR: Infant

    MedlinePlus

    Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course ...

  2. Infant Jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment6. Questions7. Other Organizations8. Citations OverviewWhat is jaundice?Infant jaundice (say: “john-diss”) is when a baby’s skin, eyes, and mouth turn a yellow color. Jaundice is ...

  3. Serological profiles in nursery piglets colonized with Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    At present, the immune response of pigs in relation to Staphylococcus aureus carriage is poorly understood. This study was aimed at investigating the dynamics of the anti-staphylococcal humoral immune response in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA)-positive piglets and at assessing the effect of the experimental introduction of a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST) 398 strain. Therefore, serum samples were collected at different times from 31 weaned piglets originating from four different sows. Twenty-four out of the 31 piglets were challenged with MRSA ST398. The serum samples were analyzed for IgG antibodies to 39 S. aureus antigens, using a multiplex bead-based assay (xMAP technology, Luminex Corporation). Though antibody responses showed broad inter-individual variability, serological results appeared to be clustered by litter of origin. For most antigens, an age-related response was observed with an apparent increase in antibody titers directed against staphylococcal microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM), which have been shown to play a role in S. aureus colonization. In most animals, antibody titers directed against staphylococcal toxins or immune-modulating proteins decreased with age, possibly reflecting the absence of bacterial invasion. The introduction of MRSA ST398 did not elicit a significant humoral immune reaction. This study describes, for the first time, the humoral immune response in weaned pigs colonized with S. aureus. PMID:23339425

  4. Expiratory abdominal muscle activity during ventilatory chemostimulation in piglets.

    PubMed

    Watchko, J F; O'Day, T L; Brozanski, B S; Guthrie, R D

    1990-04-01

    We examined abdominal muscle minute electromyographic (EMG) activity (peak moving time average EMG x respiratory rate) during eupnea, hyperoxic hypercapnia (8% CO2-40% O2-balance N2), and hypoxia (13% O2) in 12 anesthetized (0.5% halothane) newborn piglets. In addition, we assessed the role of vagal afferent pathways in the abdominal muscles' response to ventilatory chemostimulation by examining abdominal EMG activity (EMGab) before and after bilateral cervical vagotomy in five animals. Phasic expiratory EMGab was observed in 11 of 12 piglets during eupnea. Hypercapnia was associated with a sustained augmentation of minute EMGab (444 +/- 208% control). In contrast, hypoxia consistently augmented (1 min, 193 +/- 33% control) then diminished (5 min, 126 +/- 39% control) minute EMGab. Vagotomy resulted in a decline in peak moving time average EMGab by approximately one-half (48 +/- 18% control); the abdominal muscles' response to ventilatory chemostimulation, however, was qualitatively unchanged. We conclude that 1) expiration during eupnea in anesthetized newborn piglets is associated with phasic EMGab; 2) both hypercapnia and hypoxia augment minute EMGab; however, only hypercapnia is associated with sustained augmentation; and 3) although vagal afferents have a role in modulating the base-line level of EMGab, other extravagal mechanisms appear to determine the pattern of EMGab in response to ventilatory chemostimulation.

  5. Effects of sevoflurane on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in anaesthetized piglets.

    PubMed

    Kerbaul, F; Bellezza, M; Guidon, C; Roussel, L; Imbert, M; Carpentier, J P; Auffray, J P

    2000-09-01

    In vitro, halogenated agents reduce the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to alveolar hypoxia in isolated perfused lungs. However, studies in intact animals have been less convincing. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of sevoflurane on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in anaesthetized piglets using the pressure/cardiac index relationship (P/Q). Ten large white piglets were anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated, alternately in hyperoxia (FIO2 = 0.4) and hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.12). Multipoint plots of pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) or differences between PAP and left atrial pressure (LAP) against Q were generated by gradual inflation of a balloon introduced into the inferior vena cava. P/Q relationships were established in hyperoxia and hypoxia at baseline, and then with sevoflurane. In hypoxia, pressure gradients (PAP-LAP) increased at every level of Q, thus demonstrating active pulmonary vasoconstriction. Sevoflurane at 1 MAC did not affect these P/Q relationships in hyperoxia or hypoxia as compared with baseline. Sevoflurane at a clinically relevant concentration (1 MAC) has no significant effect on HPV in anaesthetized piglets.

  6. Case-control study of pathogens involved in piglet diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Vera L A; Bersano, Josete G; Carvalho, Aline F; Catroxo, Márcia H B; Chiebao, Daniela P; Gregori, Fábio; Miyashiro, Simone; Nassar, Alessandra F C; Oliveira, Trícia M F S; Ogata, Renato A; Scarcelli, Eliana P; Tonietti, Paloma O

    2016-01-11

    Diarrhea in piglets directly affects commercial swine production. The disease results from the interaction of pathogens with the host immune system and is also affected by management procedures. Several pathogenic agents such as Campylobacter spp., Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., group A rotavirus (RV-A), coronaviruses (transmissible gastroenteritis virus; porcine epidemic diarrhea virus), as well as nematode and protozoan parasites, can be associated with disease cases. All bacterial, viral, protozoan, and parasitic agents here investigated, with the exception of Salmonella spp. as well as both coronaviruses, were detected in varying proportions in piglet fecal samples, and positive animals were equally distributed between case and control groups. A statistically significant difference between case and control groups was found only for Cystoisospora suis (p = 0.034) and Eimeria spp. (p = 0.047). When co-infections were evaluated, a statistically significant difference was found only for C. perfringens β2 and C. suis (p = 0.014). The presence of pathogens in piglets alone does not determine the occurrence of diarrhea episodes. Thus, the indiscriminate use of antibiotic and anthelminthic medication should be re-evaluated. This study also reinforces the importance of laboratory diagnosis and correct interpretation of results as well as the relevance of control and prophylactic measures.

  7. The Intestinal Eukaryotic Virome in Healthy and Diarrhoeic Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hayer, Juliette; Berg, Mikael; Jacobson, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal porcine diarrhoea of uncertain aetiology has been reported from a number of European countries. The aim of the present study was to use viral metagenomics to examine a potential viral involvement in this diarrhoea and to describe the intestinal virome with focus on eukaryotic viruses. Samples from the distal jejunum of 50 diarrhoeic and 19 healthy piglets from 10 affected herds were analysed. The viral fraction of the samples was isolated and nucleic acids (RNA and DNA fractions) were subjected to sequence independent amplification. Samples from diarrhoeic piglets from the same herds were pooled whereas samples from healthy piglets were analysed individually. In total, 29 clinical samples, plus two negative controls and one positive control consisting of a mock metagenome were sequenced using the Ion Torrent platform. The resulting sequence data was subjected to taxonomic classification using Kraken, Diamond and HMMER. In the healthy specimens, eight different mammalian virus families were detected (Adenoviridae, Anelloviridae, Astroviridae, Caliciviridae, Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, and Reoviridae) compared to four in the pooled diarrhoeic samples (Anelloviridae, Circoviridae, Picornaviridae, and Reoviridae). It was not possible to associate a particular virus family with the investigated diarrhoea. In conclusion, this study does not support the hypothesis that the investigated diarrhoea was caused by known mammalian viruses. The results do, however, indicate that known mammalian viruses were present in the intestine as early as 24–48 hours after birth, indicating immediate infection post-partum or possibly transplacental infection. PMID:26982708

  8. Adrenergic receptor subtypes in the cerebral circulation of newborn piglets

    SciTech Connect

    Wagerle, L.C.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptor subtype mediating cerebral vasoconstriction during sympathetic nerve stimulation in the newborn piglet. The effect of ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonists prazosin and yohimbine on the cerebrovascular response to unilateral electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 15 V) of the superior cervical sympathetic trunk was studied in 25 newborn piglets. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with tracer microspheres. Sympathetic stimulation decreased blood flow to the ipsilateral cerebrum hippocampus, choroid plexus, and masseter muscle. ..cap alpha../sub 1/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin inhibited the sympathetic vasoconstriction in the cerebrum, hippocampus, and masseter muscle and abolished it in the choroid plexus. ..cap alpha../sub s/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with yohimbine had no effect. Following the higher dose of yohimbine, however, blood flow to all brain regions was increased by approximately two-fold, possibly due to enhanced cerebral metabolism. These data demonstrate that vascular ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors mediate vasoconstriction to neuroadrenergic stimulation in cerebral resistance vessels in the newborn piglet.

  9. Clostridium difficile Genotypes in Piglet Populations in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Heinrich; Schmoock, Gernot; Baier, Sylvia; Harlizius, Jürgen; Nienhoff, Hendrik; Brase, Katja; Zimmermann, Stefan; Seyboldt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile was isolated from 147 of 201 (73%) rectal swabs of piglets from 15 farms of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia. In 14 farms, 14 to 100% (mean, 78%) of the animals tested were culture positive. The rate of isolation was 68% postpartum, increased to 94% in animals 2 to 14 days of age, and declined to 0% for animals 49 days of age and older. There was no link between isolation and antibiotic treatment or diarrhea of piglets. Strains were assigned to 10 PCR ribotypes, and up to 4 PCR ribotypes were found to be present at the same time on a farm. The closely related PCR ribotypes 078 (55%) and 126 (20%) were most frequently recovered and were present in 13 of the 14 positive farms. The comparison of multilocus VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) analysis (MLVA) data from this study and previously published data on human, porcine, and bovine PCR ribotype 078 isolates from 5 European countries revealed genetic differences between strains of different geographic origin and confirmed the relatedness of human and porcine C. difficile isolates. This study demonstrated that the human-pathogenic PCR ribotypes 078 and 126 are predominant in piglets in Germany. The results suggest that presence of C. difficile is correlated with animal age but not with antibiotic treatment or clinical disease. MLVA indicated that strains of the same geographical origin are often genetically related and corroborated the hypothesis of a close epidemiological connection between human and porcine C. difficile isolates. PMID:24025903

  10. [Infant botulism].

    PubMed

    López Laso, E; Pérez Navero, J L; Rumbao Aguirre, J; Mateos González, M E; Méndez García, M; Cárdenas Aranzana, M J; Ibarra de la Rosa, I

    2008-05-01

    We report a case of botulism in a 40 day old infant. The patient presented a descending flaccid paralysis requiring mechanical ventilation for 12 days. She is the first European patient treated with Human Botulism Immune Globulin. A few weeks later a second case of infant botulism was detected in our geographical region in Southern Spain. We emphasise the importance of an early diagnosis and treatment with Human Botulism Immune Globulin to decrease morbidity.

  11. Plasma metabolomics indicates metabolic perturbations in low birth weight piglets supplemented with arginine.

    PubMed

    Getty, C M; Almeida, F N; Baratta, A A; Dilger, R N

    2015-12-01

    Large profit losses in the swine industry can be attributed to morbidity and mortality of piglets before weaning, especially in the low birth weight (LBW) piglet. Recent evidence suggests sow's milk contains insufficient concentrations of Arg to support optimal growth and health of piglets. Therefore, our objective was to assess global metabolomic profiles and the potential for Arg supplementation to promote growth of LBW (≤0.9 kg BW) and average birth weight (ABW; 1.3 to 1.5 kg BW) piglets. Piglets were selected in littermate pairs at processing to receive either Arg or an isonitrogenous control (Ala) and weighed daily to assess growth rate, and blood was collected at approximately 16 d of age for metabolomics analysis. In terms of growth, LBW and ABW piglets supplemented with Arg weighed 22.3 and 12.7% less, respectively, at d 16 compared with Ala-supplemented piglets of the same birth weight group. Overall, differences ( < 0.05) were observed among treatments for metabolic pathways involving energy (i.e., tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates), AA, nucleotides, and fatty acids. Increased nucleotide turnover, indicative of an increase in DNA damage and cell death, was particularly noted in the LBW piglet. However, Arg supplementation reduced these effects to levels comparable to those observed in ABW piglets. Moreover, changes in glucose metabolism suggested a compromised ability to extract energy from dietary sources may have occurred in the LBW piglet, but these effects were partially recovered by Arg supplementation. We conclude that a reduction in the growth potential of LBW piglets may be associated with alterations in multiple metabolic pathways, and further reduction due to Arg supplementation may have resulted from perturbations in multiple metabolic pathways.

  12. Sildenafil and an early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Binns-Loveman, Karen M; Kaplowitz, Mark R; Fike, Candice D

    2005-07-01

    Devising therapies that might prevent the onset or progression of pulmonary hypertension in newborns has received little attention. Our major objective was to determine whether sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, prevents the development of an early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn pigs. Another objective was to determine whether sildenafil causes pulmonary vasodilation without systemic vasodilation in piglets with chronic pulmonary hypertension. Piglets were raised in room air (control, n = 5) or 10-11% O(2) (hypoxic, n = 17) for 3 days. Some piglets (n = 4) received oral sildenafil, 12 mg/kg/day, throughout exposure to hypoxia. All piglets were anesthetized and catheterized, and pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa), pulmonary wedge pressure (Pw), aortic pressure (Ao), and cardiac output (CO) were measured. Then for some piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 days, a single oral sildenafil dose (3 mg/kg, n = 6) or placebo (n = 5) was given, and hemodynamic measurements were repeated. For piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 days, mean Ppa and calculated PVR were elevated above respective values in control piglets. Mean Ppa and PVR did not differ between piglets that received sildenafil throughout exposure to hypoxia and those that did not. For piglets with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension that received a single oral dose of sildenafil, mean Ppa and PVR decreased, while mean Pw, CO, mean Ao, and systemic vascular resistance remained the same. All hemodynamic measurements were unchanged after placebo. Oral sildenafil did not influence the early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets. However, a single oral dose of sildenafil caused pulmonary vasodilation, without systemic vasodilation, in piglets with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, which may have therapeutic implications.

  13. Effect of straw enriched environment on behaviors of nursery piglets reared in the farrowing pens.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guoan; Sun, Guopeng; Li, Xiang; Liu, Honggui; Huang, Dapeng; Wei, Chunbo; Bao, Jun

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the effects of straw enriched environment on behaviors of nursery piglets reared in the farrowing pens. Fourteen litters (Large White x Landrace) weaned at 35 days of age were reared in the modified farrowing pens, flatdecks (F) or straw enriched pens (P), until 70 days of age. The behavior was observed from 7 to 10 weeks of age. Results showed that straw enriched pens significantly increased walking, total exploring and active behavior, reduced lying and exploring behavior direct to pen, but not that direct to penmates. Meanwhile, in wk8-wk10, the number of fighting piglets in P was significantly more than that in F. With increasing age, piglets exploring in total or direct to pen, and active piglets decreased gradually in F. In P, piglets exploring in total or that direct to straw decreased, and reached a trough in wk9, then rose up. Lying piglets in F increased with age while that in P increased only at 9 or 10 weeks of age. Walking piglets decreased significantly with age in both environments. The number of fighting piglets in F was a maximum in wk7 while it in P was fewer in wk7 or wk8. Furthermore, the activity of piglets in F was at peak during 08:00-10:00 hr and reached a trough during 11:00-13:00 hr. In P, refreshed straw kept piglets at a more active state during morning, shortened the activities trough at noon, and showed high activity in the afternoon. In conclusion, present straw enriched pen can prevent fighting, increase total exploring, reduce exploring direct to pen, and even affect the rhythm of behavior. It is applicable for improving welfare of nursery piglets.

  14. Piglet growth and blood components during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfer between Meishan and White crossbred gilts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sow productivity has a significant economic impact on the swine industry and is influenced by a number of factors including preweaning piglet mortality. In Western breeds, low birth weight piglets exhibit the greatest susceptibility to preweaning mortality. In contrast, Meishan (MS) piglets have dec...

  15. Laboratory detection of Clostridium difficile in piglets in Australia.

    PubMed

    Knight, Daniel R; Squire, Michele M; Riley, Thomas V

    2014-11-01

    Clostridium difficile is a well-known enteric pathogen of humans and the causative agent of high-morbidity enteritis in piglets aged 1 to 7 days. C. difficile prevalence in Australian piglets is as high as 70%. The current diagnostic assays have been validated only for human infections, and there are no published studies assessing their performance in Australian piglets. We evaluated the suitability of five assays for detecting C. difficile in 157 specimens of piglet feces. The assays included a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LMIA)-PCR for tcdA (illumigene C. difficile; Meridian), a real-time PCR for tcdB (GeneOhm Cdiff; Becton Dickinson), two-component enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) (EIA-GDH) and TcdA/TcdB (EIA-TcdA/TcdB) (C. diff Quik Chek; Alere), and direct culture (DC) (C. difficile chromID agar; bioMérieux). The assays for detection of the organism were compared against enrichment culture (EC), and assays for detection of toxins/toxin genes were compared against EC followed by PCR for toxin genes (toxigenic EC [TEC]). The recovery of C. difficile by EC was 39.5% (n = 62/157), and TEC revealed that 58.1% (n = 36/62) of isolates were positive for at least one toxin gene (tcdA/tcdB). Compared with those for EC/TEC, the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values were, respectively, as follows: DC, 91.9, 100.0, 100.0, and 95.0%; EIA-GDH, 41.9, 92.6, 78.8, and 71.0%; EIA-TcdA/TcdB, 5.6, 99.2, 66.7, and 77.9%; real-time PCR, 42.9, 96.7, 78.9, and 85.4% and LMIA-PCR, 25.0, 95.9, 64.3, and 81.1%. The performance of the molecular methods was poor, suggesting that the current commercially available assays for diagnosis of C. difficile in humans are not suitable for use in piglets. C. difficile recovery by the DC provides a cost-effective alternative. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Dietary Isomers of Sialyllactose Increase Ganglioside Sialic Acid Concentrations in the Corpus Callosum and Cerebellum and Modulate the Colonic Microbiota of Formula-Fed Piglets.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Sheila K; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Li, Dongpei; Dasgupta, Somsankar; Yu, Robert K; Berg, Brian M; Chichlowski, Maciej; Odle, Jack

    2016-02-01

    Sialyllactose is a key human milk oligosaccharide and consists of sialic acid (SA) bound to a lactose molecule. Breastfed infants have increased accumulation of ganglioside-bound SA compared with formula-fed infants. This study aimed to determine whether different isomers of sialyllactose enrich brain SA and modulate the microbiome of developing neonatal piglets. Day-old pigs were randomly allocated to 6 diets (control, 2 or 4 g 3'-sialyllactose/L, 2 or 4 g 6'-sialyllactose/L, or 2 g polydextrose/L + 2 g galacto-oligosaccharides/L; n = 9) and fed 3 times/d for 21 d. Pigs were killed, and the left hemisphere of the brain was dissected into cerebrum, cerebellum, corpus callosum, and hippocampus regions. SA was determined by using a modified periodic acid-resorcinol reaction. Microbial composition of the intestinal digesta was analyzed with the use of 16S ribosomal DNA Illumina sequencing. Dietary sialyllactose did not affect feed intake, growth, or fecal consistency. Ganglioside-bound SA in the corpus callosum of pigs fed 2 g 3'-sialyllactose or 6'-sialyllactose/L increased by 15% in comparison with control pigs. Similarly, ganglioside-bound SA in the cerebellum of pigs fed 4 g 3'-sialyllactose/L increased by 10% in comparison with control pigs. Significant (P < 0.05, Adonis Test) microbiome differences were observed in the proximal and distal colons of piglets fed control compared with 4-g 6'-sialyllactose/L formulas. Differences were attributed to an increase in bacterial taxa belonging to species Collinsella aerofaciens (phylum Actinobacteria), genera Ruminococcus and Faecalibacterium (phylum Firmicutes), and genus Prevotella (phylum Bacteroidetes) (Wald test, P < 0.05, DeSeq2) compared with piglets fed the control diet. Taxa belonging to families Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcaceae (phylum Proteobacteria), as well as taxa belonging to family Lachnospiraceae and order Lactobacillales (phylum Firmicutes), were 2.3- and 4-fold lower, respectively, in 6

  17. The Maturing Development of Gut Microbiota in Commercial Piglets during the Weaning Transition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Limei; Xu, Yuesong; Chen, Xiaoyu; Fang, Chao; Zhao, Liping; Chen, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Early weaned piglets are vulnerable to diarrhea because of weaning stress and immaturity of intestinal tract. Compelling evidence suggests that gut microbiota is vital to host health. However, it is not well understood on the composition and succession of piglet gut microbiota during the weaning transition. In our two trials, total 17 commercial piglets were studied in a pig farm in Jiangxi Province, China. Fresh feces were collected for four times (10 days before weaned, weaned day, 10 days after weaned, 21 days after weaned) by rectal massage. Fecal bacterial composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 regions sequencing by Illumina Miseq platform. The results showed that the gut microbiota of piglets shifted quickly after weaned and reached relatively stable level in 10 days after weaned. The alpha diversity increased significantly with the age of piglets. The microbiota of suckling piglets was mainly represented by Fusobacterium, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Escherichia/Shigella, and Megasphaera. This pattern contrasted with that of Clostridium sensu stricto, Roseburia, Paraprevotella, Clostridium XIVa, and Blautia, which were major representative genera after weaned. In summary, we delineated the development of piglet gut microbiota during the weaning transition. This study helps us understand the maturing development of gut microbiota in commercial piglets.

  18. Calling by Domestic Piglets during Simulated Crushing and Isolation: A Signal of Need?

    PubMed Central

    Illmann, Gudrun; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Špinka, Marek; Tallet, Céline

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether piglet distress vocalizations vary with age, body weight and health status, according to the predictions of the honest signalling of need evolutionary model. Vocalizations were recorded during manual squeezing (a simulation of being crushed by mother sow) and during isolation on Days 1 and 7 after birth in piglets from 15 litters. We predicted that during squeezing, younger, lighter and sick piglets would call more intensely because they are in higher risk of dying during crushing and therefore they benefit more from the sow’s reaction to intensive vocalization. For isolation, we predicted that lighter and younger piglets would call more because they are more vulnerable to adverse effects of the separation. Calls were analyzed in their time and frequency domain. The rate of calling, call duration, proportion of high-pitched calls and eight acoustic parameters characterizing frequency distribution and tonality were used as indicators of acoustic signalling intensity. Piglets that experienced “squeezing” on Day 1 produced more intense acoustic distress signalling than on Day 7. Lighter piglets called more during squeezing than heavier piglets. Health status did not significantly affect any of the indicators of intensity of vocalization during squeezing. In isolation, none of the parameters of vocalization intensity were affected either by the age or by the weight of the piglets. In summary, the model of honest signalling of need was confirmed in the squeezed situation, but not in the isolation situation. PMID:24349527

  19. Place and direction learning in a spatial T-maze task by neonatal piglets

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Monica R. P.; Dilger, Ryan N.; Johnson, Rodney W.

    2013-01-01

    Pigs are a valuable animal model for studying neurodevelopment in humans due to similarities in brain structure and growth. The development and validation of behavioral tests to assess learning and memory in neonatal piglets are needed. The present study evaluated the capability of 2-wk old piglets to acquire a novel place and direction learning spatial T-maze task. Validity of the task was assessed by the administration of scopolamine, an anti-cholinergic drug that acts on the hippocampus and other related structures, to impair spatial memory. During acquisition, piglets were trained to locate a milk reward in a constant place in space, as well as direction (east or west), in a plus-shaped maze using extra-maze visual cues. Following acquisition, reward location was reversed and piglets were re-tested to assess learning and working memory. The performance of control piglets in the maze improved over time (P < 0.0001), reaching performance criterion (80% correct) on day 5 of acquisition. Correct choices decreased in the reversal phase (P < 0.0001), but improved over time. In a separate study, piglets were injected daily with either phosphate buffered saline (PBS; control) or scopolamine prior to testing. Piglets administered scopolamine showed impaired performance in the maze compared to controls (P = 0.03), failing to reach performance criterion after 6 days of acquisition testing. Collectively, these data demonstrate that neonatal piglets can be tested in a spatial T-maze task to assess hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. PMID:22526690

  20. Viral metagenomics analysis demonstrates the diversity of viral flora in piglet diarrhoeic faeces in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Tang, Cheng; Yue, Hua; Ren, Yupeng; Song, Zhigang

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the diversity of viral flora, we used metagenomics to study the viral communities in a pooled faecal sample of 27 diarrhoeic piglets from intensive commercial farms in China. The 15 distinct mammalian viruses identified in the pooled diarrhoeic sample were, in order of abundance of nucleic acid sequence, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), sapovirus, porcine bocavirus-4 (PBoV-4), sapelovirus, torovirus, coronavirus, PBoV-2, stool-associated single-stranded DNA virus (poSCV), astrovirus (AstV), kobuvirus, posavirus-1, porcine enterovirus-9 (PEV-9), porcine circovirus-like (po-circo-like) virus, picobirnavirus (PBV) and Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV-2). The prevalence rate of each virus was verified from diarrhoeic and healthy piglets by PCR assay. A mean of 5.5 different viruses were shed in diarrhoeic piglets, and one piglet was in fact co-infected with 11 different viruses. By contrast, healthy piglets shed a mean of 3.2 different viruses. Compared with samples from healthy piglets, the co-infection of PEDV and PBoV had a high prevalence rate in diarrhoea samples, suggesting a correlation with the appearance of diarrhoea in piglets. Furthermore, we report here for the first time the presence of several recently described viruses in China, and the identification of novel genotypes. Therefore, our investigation results provide an unbiased survey of viral communities and prevalence in faecal samples of piglets.

  1. The effects of non-uniform environmental conditions on piglet crushing and maternal behavior of sows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crushing is one of the main causes of piglet death in swine farrowing systems. Studies have shown a wide variability of piglet mortality rate among distinct litters, which has been associated with maternal ability of sows. In an effort to understand factors that affect sow maternal ability, this stu...

  2. Oral "N"-Carbamylglutamate supplementation increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the potential mechanisms by which oral supplementation of “N”-carbamylglutamate (NCG), an analogue of endogenous “N“-acetylglutamate (an activator of arginine synthesis) increases growth rate in sow-reared piglets. Two piglets of equal body weight (BW) and of the same gender...

  3. Duration of maternally derived antibodies in Toxoplasma gondii naturally infected piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A longitudinal study was performed to analyze the dynamics of T. gondii antibodies in naturally infected piglets from 1 to 25 weeks of age. Seventy three piglets from 20 seronegative sows (modified agglutination test, MAT <1:25) and 20 naturally infected T. gondii seropositive sows (MAT>/=1:25) were...

  4. The Maturing Development of Gut Microbiota in Commercial Piglets during the Weaning Transition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Limei; Xu, Yuesong; Chen, Xiaoyu; Fang, Chao; Zhao, Liping; Chen, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Early weaned piglets are vulnerable to diarrhea because of weaning stress and immaturity of intestinal tract. Compelling evidence suggests that gut microbiota is vital to host health. However, it is not well understood on the composition and succession of piglet gut microbiota during the weaning transition. In our two trials, total 17 commercial piglets were studied in a pig farm in Jiangxi Province, China. Fresh feces were collected for four times (10 days before weaned, weaned day, 10 days after weaned, 21 days after weaned) by rectal massage. Fecal bacterial composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene V3–V4 regions sequencing by Illumina Miseq platform. The results showed that the gut microbiota of piglets shifted quickly after weaned and reached relatively stable level in 10 days after weaned. The alpha diversity increased significantly with the age of piglets. The microbiota of suckling piglets was mainly represented by Fusobacterium, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Escherichia/Shigella, and Megasphaera. This pattern contrasted with that of Clostridium sensu stricto, Roseburia, Paraprevotella, Clostridium XIVa, and Blautia, which were major representative genera after weaned. In summary, we delineated the development of piglet gut microbiota during the weaning transition. This study helps us understand the maturing development of gut microbiota in commercial piglets. PMID:28928724

  5. Porcine colostrum and milk stimulate visceral organ and skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Burrin, D G; Shulman, R J; Reeds, P J; Davis, T A; Gravitt, K R

    1992-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the relative contributions of protein synthesis and protein absorption in the rapid accretion of gastrointestinal protein in suckling piglets during the early neonatal period. We measured the rates of tissue protein synthesis using a flooding dose of L-[4-3H]phenylalanine in various visceral and peripheral tissues of neonatal piglets fed water, mature milk or colostrum for 6 h. The jejunal and ileal protein synthesis rates in piglets fed either colostrum or milk were three- to fourfold higher than in piglets fed water. The increased jejunal and ileal protein synthesis could not, however, account for the differences in protein mass between the colostrum-fed and water-fed groups. The relative abundance of IgG, a major porcine colostral protein, in jejunal tissue was markedly higher in piglets fed colostrum than in piglets fed either milk or water. The fractional protein synthesis rates in liver, kidney, spleen and skeletal muscle and the absolute protein synthesis rates in liver and spleen were also greater in piglets fed colostrum than in those fed milk or water. Increased endogenous protein synthesis made only a minor contribution to the increased intestinal protein accretion in neonatal piglets fed colostrum. A much larger proportion of this increase seemed to be a result of absorption and retention of ingested immunoglobulins.

  6. Homeopathy as replacement to antibiotics in the case of Escherichia coli diarrhoea in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Camerlink, I; Ellinger, L; Bakker, E J; Lantinga, E A

    2010-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in the livestock sector is increasing to such an extent that it threatens negative consequences for human health, animal health and the environment. Homeopathy might be an alternative to antibiotics. It has therefore been tested in a randomised placebo-controlled trial to prevent Escherichia coli diarrhoea in neonatal piglets. On a commercial pig farm 52 sows of different parities, in their last month of gestation, were treated twice a week with either the homeopathic agent Coli 30K or placebo. The 525 piglets born from these sows were scored for occurrence and duration of diarrhoea. Piglets of the homeopathic treated group had significantly less E. coli diarrhoea than piglets in the placebo group (P<.0001). Especially piglets from first parity sows gave a good response to treatment with Coli 30K. The diarrhoea seemed to be less severe in the homeopathically treated litters, there was less transmission and duration appeared shorter. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Beta-lactoglobulin as a potential modulator of intestinal activity and morphology in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Leonard F; Alston-Mills, Brenda

    2006-06-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of the whey protein beta-lactoglobulin (blg) on the intestinal development and intestinal morphology in neonatal piglets. Two trials (5 and 28 days) were conducted on piglets in three separate groups. One group served as a control group while the remaining two were experimental groups based on diets. The two experimental diets were a bovine colostrum powder, one with supplementation with blg and the other without. The control group remained suckling on a sow. All groups were weaned on day 20 and placed onto a solid commercial piglet diet. Enzymatic activity, total DNA synthesis, crypt depth, and villus height were all parameters used to evaluate the effect of blg. Piglets fed a diet supplement with blg had the greatest total DNA after 5 days. Sow-reared piglets had the greatest intestinal morphology development with regards to villus height. No significant differences were found in enzymatic activity between treatments.

  8. Passive immunisation of post-weaned piglets using hyperimmune serum against experimental Haemophilus parasuis infection.

    PubMed

    Nedbalcova, K; Kucerova, Z; Krejci, J; Tesarik, R; Gopfert, E; Kummer, V; Leva, L; Kudlackova, H; Ondriasova, R; Faldyna, M

    2011-10-01

    The protective role of hyperimmune serum in the prevention of Haemophilus parasuis infections in post-weaned piglets was assessed by experimental challenge. The hyperimmune serum was obtained from a pig vaccinated with a commercial vaccine against Glässer's disease. Thirty-eight weaned piglets were divided into four groups: three groups were immunised intramuscularly with 10 ml of hyperimmune serum and one group consisted of unimmunised control animals. All piglets were subsequently infected intraperitoneally with H. parasuis serotype 5 at different times after immunisation. The use of hyperimmune serum provided the piglets with partial protection against experimental infection. The levels of protection indirectly depend on time between serum inoculation and challenge infection. The best protection of piglets against experimental infection was obtained in the group immunised 1 week before inoculation; the same group in which the highest levels of antibodies were detected at the time of challenge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Infant feeding].

    PubMed

    Robert, M

    2012-09-01

    Infants are vulnerable: their growth and their development depend largely on their nutritional status. It is important to propose for them an optimal food. The human milk is unquestionably the best choice for the infant. When breastfeeding is not possible, the choice of the milk is made among hundreds of formulas for infants. They are regulated by a European directive. The healthcare professionals have to recommend as often as possible an infant formula: low protein content, predominance of whey proteins, enrichment with long chain fatty acids, lactose, addition of pre- or probiotics. The formulas for specific indications will be recommended in case of particular situations after verification that the complaints (constipation, regurgitations, stomach pains) cannot be corrected by simple dietary measures (increasing of the intakes of meals with a concomitant reduction of the volume of the meals). The food diversification is recommended between 17 and 26 weeks according to the neuromuscular capacities of the infant. These meals must be presented with a spoon to assure a sufficient nutritional intake. In Belgium, the use is to begin with fruits. One should avoid adding biscuits or sugar. The meal of vegetables will be introduced a little later. It should consist of starchy foods, vegetables with some fat to which the meat will be added. Numerous foods (biscuits, croissants and similar products, chips) should never be part of the ordinary menu, but should be reserved for particular occasions. The education of the children should begin from this age on.

  10. Cervical accelerometry in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Eric W; Vice, Frank L; Bosma, James F; Gewolb, Ira H

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method to use digital signal processing (DSP) technology to describe quantitatively and statistically swallow-associated sounds in preterm infants and to use this method to analyze changes as infants mature. Twelve recordings of accelerometric and physiological data on bottle-feeding preterm infants between 32 and 39 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) were analyzed. Cervical auscultation was performed using an accelerometer attached over the larynx. Acoustic data were recorded and graphically displayed using DSP software. Initial discrete sounds (IDSs) were identified and used to construct an average waveform from which a 'variance index' (VI) was calculated for each infant. The shape of the IDS waveforms became progressively more uniform with advancing PMA, as indicated by a significant inverse correlation between VI and PMA (r=0.739; p=0.006). DSP technology facilitated the development of a new method to quantitatively analyze feeding in preterm infants. This method provides an elegant tool to track maturation of infant feeding and assessing feeding readiness. This technique makes the interpretation of cervical auscultation data less subjective by replacing the verbal description of the sounds of feeding with quantitative numeric values. It is anticipated that this method can be automated to facilitate further the analysis of cervical accelerometry data.

  11. Weaning Markedly Affects Transcriptome Profiles and Peyer’s Patch Development in Piglet Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Ryo; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nakatani, Masako; Okutani, Mie; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Ogawa, Shohei; Harayama, Tomoko; Nagino, Takayuki; Hatanaka, Hironori; Fukuta, Kikuto; Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A.; Ushida, Kazunari; Kelly, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome analyses were conducted on the ileal mucosa of 14- to 35-day-old piglets to investigate postnatal gut development during suckling and postweaning. The transcriptome profiles of 14-day-old suckling piglets showed a considerably higher number of differentially expressed genes than did those of 21-, 28-, and 35-day olds, indicating an intensive gut development during the first 14–21 postnatal days. In addition, the analysis of biological pathways indicated that Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was the most significantly affected pathway in suckling piglets between 14 and 21 days of age. Weaning negatively affected pathways associated with acquired immunity, but positively affected those associated with innate immunity. Interestingly, pathway Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was found positively affected when comparing 14- and 21-day-old suckling piglets, but negatively affected in 28-day-old piglets weaned at 21 days of age, when compared with 28-day-old suckling piglets. Genes CXCL13, SLA-DOA (MHC class II), ICAM1, VAV1, and VCAM1 were involved in the pathway Chemotaxis Leukocyte chemotaxis and they were found to significantly change between 14- and 21-day-old suckling piglets and between groups of suckling and weaned piglets. The expression of these genes significantly declined after weaning at 14, 21, and 28 days of age. This decline indicated that CXCL13, SLA-DOA, ICAM1, VAV1, and VCAM1 may be involved in the development of Peyer’s patches (PP) because lower gene expression clearly corresponded with smaller areas of PP in the ileal mucosa of piglets. Moreover, weaning piglets prior to a period of intensive gut development, i.e., 14 days of age, caused significant adverse effects on the size of PP, which were not reverted even 14 days postweaning. PMID:26697021

  12. Validation of a new in vitro dynamic system to simulate infant digestion.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Olivia; Cattenoz, Thomas; Guillemin, Hervé; Souchon, Isabelle; Deglaire, Amélie; Dupont, Didier; Picque, Daniel

    2014-02-15

    Understanding the mechanisms of infant formula disintegration in the infant gastrointestinal tract is a key step for developing new formulas with health benefits for the neonate. For ethical reasons, the access to in vivo data obtained on infants is limited. The use of animal models can be an alternative but these experiments are labour intensive, expensive and results obtained show high inter-individual variability, making their interpretation difficult. The aim of this work was to develop a simple in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal digestion system, for studying infant formula digestion, and to validate it by comparing the kinetics of proteolysis obtained in vitro with in vivo data collected from piglets. Results showed a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo data and confirmed the rapid hydrolysis of caseins in gastric conditions, whereas whey proteins appeared more resistant to digestion.

  13. Factors affecting duration of the expulsive stage of parturition and piglet birth intervals in sows with uncomplicated, spontaneous farrowings.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, A J; van Rens, B T T M; van der Lende, T; Taverne, M A M

    2005-10-15

    Modern pig farming is still confronted with high perinatal piglet losses which are mainly contributed to factors associated with the progress of piglet expulsion. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify sow- and piglet factors affecting the duration of the expulsive stage of farrowing and piglet birth intervals in spontaneous farrowing sows originating from five different breeds. In total 211 litters were investigated. Breed affected duration of the expulsive stage significantly: the shortest duration was found in Large White x Meishan F2 crossbred litters and the longest duration in Dutch Landrace litters. No effect of parity on the duration of the expulsive stage was found. An increase in littersize (P<0.01), an increase in number of stillborn piglets per litter (P<0.05) and a decrease of gestation length (P<0.05, independently of littersize) all resulted in an increased duration of the expulsive stage of farrowing. A curvilinear relationship between birth interval and rank (relative position in the birth order) of the piglets was found. Besides that, piglet birth intervals increased with an increasing birth weight (P<0.001). Stillborn (P<0.01) and posteriorly presented (P<0.05) piglets were delivered after significantly longer birth intervals than liveborn and anteriorly presented piglets. The results on sow- and piglet factors affecting duration of the expulsive stage and piglet birth intervals obtained in this study contribute to an increased insight into (patho) physiological aspects of perinatal mortality in pigs.

  14. Dietary N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation Boosts Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Escherichia coli Challenged Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengrui; Zeng, Xiangfang; Yang, Fengjuan; Huang, Zhimin; Liu, Hong; Ma, Xi; Qiao, Shiyan

    2013-01-01

    N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) has been shown to enhance performance in neonatal piglets. However, few studies have demonstrated the effect of NCG on the intestinal mucosal barrier. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary NCG supplementation on intestinal mucosal immunity in neonatal piglets after an Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge. New-born piglets (4 d old) were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (n = 7), including (I) sham challenge, (II) sham challenge +50 mg/kg NCG, (III) E. coli challenge, and (IV) E. coli challenge +50 mg/kg NCG. On d 8, pigs in the E. coli challenge groups (III and IV) were orally challenged with 5 mL of E. coli K88 (108 CFU/mL), whereas pigs in the sham challenge groups (I and II) were orally dosed with an equal volume of water. On d 13, all piglets were sacrificed, and samples were collected and examined. The results show that average daily gain in the E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV) was decreased (PE.coli<0.05). However, it tended to be higher in the NCG treated piglets (II and IV). Ileum secretory IgA, as well as IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in ileal homogenates, were increased in E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV). Similarly, ileum SIgA and IL-10 levels, and CD4+ percentage in NCG treated piglets (II and IV) were higher than no-NCG treated piglets (PNCG<0.05). However, the IL-2 level was only decreased in the piglets of E. coli challenge + NCG group (IV) compared with E. coli challenge group (III) (P<0.05). No change in the IL-2 level of the sham challenged piglets (III) was observed. In conclusion, dietary NCG supplementation has some beneficial effects on intestinal mucosal immunity in E. coli challenged piglets, which might be associated with stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine synthesis. Our findings have an important implication that NCG may be used to reduce diarrhea in neonatal piglets. PMID:23840434

  15. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Alexandra Ferreira da Silva; Nääs, Irenilza de Alencar; Oliveira, Stanley R. M.; Violaro, Fabio; de Almeida, Andréia C. M.; Neves, Diego Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This research aimed to analyze the possibility of assessing piglets’ welfare using the records of their vocalization. The trial was done in a pig commercial farm, and we recorded the vocal signals from piglets in several stressful exposure situations. Data mining techniques were applied to the processed signals in order to obtain a stress classification using the recorded data. We found that, using the piglets’ vocalization, it was possible to identify the most frequent stressful conditions at the farrowing phase, namely: pain, cold and hunger. Abstract Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline), feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger), with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets. PMID:26479541

  16. Therapeutic effects of glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Miaomiao; Xiao, Hao; Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Tan, Bie; Liu, Gang; Li, Lili; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Xiong, Xia; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common food contaminants, primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract to affect animal and human health. This study was conducted to examine the protective function of glutamic acid on intestinal injury and oxidative stress caused by DON in piglets. Twenty-eight piglets were assigned randomly into 4 dietary treatments (7 pigs/treatment): 1) uncontaminated control diet (NC), 2) NC+DON at 4 mg/kg (DON), 3) NC+2% glutamic acid (GLU), and 4) NC+2% glutamic acid + DON at 4 mg/kg (DG). At day 15, 30 and 37, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of CAT (catalase), T-AOC (total antioxidant capacity), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), NO (nitric oxide), MDA (maleic dialdehyde), DAO (diamine oxidase) and D-lactate. Intestinal morphology, and the activation of Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway, as well as the concentrations of H2O2, MDA, and DAO in kidney, liver and small intestine, were analyzed at day 37. Results showed that DON significantly (P<0.05) induced oxidative stress in piglets, while this stress was remarkably reduced with glutamic acid supplementation according to the change of oxidative parameters in blood and tissues. Meanwhile, DON caused obvious intestinal injury from microscopic observations and permeability indicators, which was alleviated by glutamic acid supplementation. Moreover, the inhibition of DON on Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway was reduced by glutamic acid supplementation. Collectively, these data suggest that glutamic acid may be a useful nutritional regulator for DON-induced damage manifested as oxidative stress, intestinal injury and signaling inhibition.

  17. Therapeutic Effects of Glutamic Acid in Piglets Challenged with Deoxynivalenol

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Tan, Bie; Liu, Gang; Li, Lili; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Xiong, Xia; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common food contaminants, primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract to affect animal and human health. This study was conducted to examine the protective function of glutamic acid on intestinal injury and oxidative stress caused by DON in piglets. Twenty-eight piglets were assigned randomly into 4 dietary treatments (7 pigs/treatment): 1) uncontaminated control diet (NC), 2) NC+DON at 4 mg/kg (DON), 3) NC+2% glutamic acid (GLU), and 4) NC+2% glutamic acid + DON at 4 mg/kg (DG). At day 15, 30 and 37, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of CAT (catalase), T-AOC (total antioxidant capacity), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), NO (nitric oxide), MDA (maleic dialdehyde), DAO (diamine oxidase) and D-lactate. Intestinal morphology, and the activation of Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway, as well as the concentrations of H2O2, MDA, and DAO in kidney, liver and small intestine, were analyzed at day 37. Results showed that DON significantly (P<0.05) induced oxidative stress in piglets, while this stress was remarkably reduced with glutamic acid supplementation according to the change of oxidative parameters in blood and tissues. Meanwhile, DON caused obvious intestinal injury from microscopic observations and permeability indicators, which was alleviated by glutamic acid supplementation. Moreover, the inhibition of DON on Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway was reduced by glutamic acid supplementation. Collectively, these data suggest that glutamic acid may be a useful nutritional regulator for DON-induced damage manifested as oxidative stress, intestinal injury and signaling inhibition. PMID:24984001

  18. A novel method for transuterine identification of piglets.

    PubMed

    Birck, M M; Iburg, T; Schmidt, M; Sangild, P T; Hansen, A K

    2008-07-01

    Implantable microchips provide a secure, permanent and unique identification of individual animals. When performing fetal intervention studies in experimental animal models easy and secure identification of fetuses is desirable, as having test and control groups within the same uterus reduces the total number of animals used in a study. The aims of this study were: (1) to establish a protocol to identify porcine fetuses in utero by microchip implantation and (2) to assess postnatally whether clinical or pathological reactions to the implant occurred. Two Danish Landrace/Danish Large White crossbred sows at day 100 of gestation were used. The sows were sedated with azaperone and induced with propofol intravenously. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane and oxygen. Antibiotics were administered intramuscularly (i.m.) at induction and analgesia was given pre-, intra- and postoperatively. A laparotomy was performed and the uterus exteriorized. The rump of the first fetus was recognized through the uterine wall and the thigh muscle of the fetus was fixed between the thumb and the forefinger. The microchip was then implanted into the fetus at an angle of 45 degrees i.m. in the lateral hindleg using an insertion device with a 12G needle. The same procedure was done in every fetus. The uterus was returned to the abdomen and the abdominal wall closed. The sows gave birth to 24 liveborn piglets and one stillborn. None of the liveborn piglets were limping at the time of birth and no visible cutaneous or palpable reactions on the hindlegs were observed. Following euthanasia, the microchip was easily localized and no macroscopic reactions at the implantation site were seen. None of the piglets had more than one microchip implanted. Histology showed a chronic mild foreign body granulomatous inflammatory response with peripheral eosinophils surrounding the microchip. No inflammation was evident in the adjacent muscles. It is concluded that transuterine identification of

  19. A longitudinal study of unweaned piglets raised by smallholder farmers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    More, Simon J; Lee, Jenny-Ann L M; Lañada, Eugene B; Taveros, Alberto A; Cotiw-an, Basito S

    2005-08-12

    We conducted a longitudinal study to obtain detailed baseline information about the health and productivity of unweaned piglets raised by smallholder pig raisers in the Philippines, and to identify constraints and opportunities to smallholder-piglet production. At two sites in the Philippines, we collected data about 242 litters from 173 sows in 102 herds during on-farm visits over 12-18 months. Preweaning mortality at the northern and southern sites was 17 and 9%, respectively. Of the piglet deaths at the northern site, 49% occurred within 24h of birth. Pig raisers used few of the recognised interventions known to reduce neonatal piglet mortality, although >50% of litters were given iron injections at the northern site and kept in a farrowing pen with a barrier at the southern site. Creep feeding was more common at the northern site but the nutritive value of the feeds given to piglets was low. We used repeated-measures and time-to-event analyses. Our results suggest that targeted extension (addressing, in particular, management issues relating to neonatal piglets) can contribute to increased productivity of unweaned piglets.

  20. [Effects of different anemia prevention forms on the blood parameters of the suckling piglet].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, W

    1995-01-01

    The results of this trials confirmed the earlier experience that suckling piglets kept indoors, without iron supplementation, develop iron deficiency after 14 days postpartum. Piglets kept outdoors did not develop iron deficiency because of the daily iron supplementation from the ground. Principally, a single dose of iron either parenteral (injection) or oral (iron paste) would supply the iron requirements of the suckling piglets. However, iron injection provided even results than that of the oral supply where some piglets treated orally, developed anemia because oral treatment runs a greater risk of misapplication. Best results were obtained by use of an iron form which can be scattered on the ground during the whole period of suckling. The piglets would receive their iron requirement freely during this period. Another form of iron-electrolyte solution can be supplied through the drinking automate. However, the results were unfavorable and the piglets developed symptoms of anemia. This could be attributed to the fact that the piglets do not require extra fluids during the suckling period, when they receive enough dam milk.

  1. [Comparison of the efficacy of two different iron supplements for anemia prevention in piglets].

    PubMed

    Vermeer, J E M; Kuijpers, A H C; Elbers, A R W

    2002-02-15

    In a randomized, confirmatory study performed between July and October 2000 the efficacy of two iron products in preventing iron deficiency anaemia was compared. A total of 102 newborn piglets from ten litters were treated intramuscularly with 200 mg iron as iron dextran per ml, or 200 mg iron as gleptoferron per ml. For true comparison, piglets within a litter of a sow were subdivided into pairs on the basis of birth weight (one pair of the two heaviest piglets, et cetera). Within a pair, treatment with the iron supplements was randomly allocated. One group of piglets was injected at an age of 1 day (experiment 1) and the other group of piglets was injected at an age of 3 days (experiment 2). The piglets were weighed and blood samples were taken at an age of 18 days (experiment 1) or at an age of 19 days (experiment 2). Average daily weight gain and haemoglobin concentrations of both treatment groups were compared. Both products were very effective in preventing anaemia. No significant differences could be found between the two formulations. It can be concluded that iron-dextran and gleptoferron can be used with similar effect for anaemia prevention in piglets.

  2. Pain behaviour after castration of piglets; effect of pain relief with lidocaine and/or meloxicam.

    PubMed

    Kluivers-Poodt, M; Zonderland, J J; Verbraak, J; Lambooij, E; Hellebrekers, L J

    2013-07-01

    Behavioural responses and the effect of lidocaine and meloxicam on behaviour of piglets after castration were studied. A total of 144 piglets of 2 to 5 days of age were allocated to one of six treatments: castration (CAST), castration with lidocaine (LIDO), castration with meloxicam (MELO), castration with lidocaine and meloxicam (L + M), handling (SHAM) and no handling (NONE). Behaviour was observed for 5 days after the procedure, growth until weaning was recorded and characteristics of the castration wound noted. MELO piglets showed significantly (P < 0.05) more no pain-related behaviour than CAST and LIDO at the afternoon after castration, and were not significantly different from SHAM and NONE. LIDO piglets showed an increase (P < 0.001) in tail wagging, lasting for 3 days. This increase was not seen in L + M piglets. The occurrence of several behaviours changed with age, independent of treatment. A treatment effect on growth was not found. Wound healing was rapid in all treatments, but thickening of the heal was observed in several piglets, suggesting perturbation in the cicatrization process. Our study showed a pain-relieving effect of meloxicam after castration. Local anaesthesia resulted in piglets performing more tail wagging during the first few days after castration, which was prevented by administering meloxicam in combination with local anaesthesia.

  3. Whole Blood Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Gene Expression Differences between Dapulian and Landrace Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dandan; Li, Chuanhao; Wang, Yandong

    2016-01-01

    There is little genomic information regarding gene expression differences at the whole blood transcriptome level of different pig breeds at the neonatal stage. To solve this, we characterized differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the whole blood of Dapulian (DPL) and Landrace piglets using RNA-seq (RNA-sequencing) technology. In this study, 83 DEGs were identified between the two breeds. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses identified immune response and metabolism as the most commonly enriched terms and pathways in the DEGs. Genes related to immunity and lipid metabolism were more highly expressed in the DPL piglets, while genes related to body growth were more highly expressed in the Landrace piglets. Additionally, the DPL piglets had twofold more single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alternative splicing (AS) than the Landrace piglets. These results expand our knowledge of the genes transcribed in the piglet whole blood of two breeds and provide a basis for future research of the molecular mechanisms underlying the piglet differences. PMID:28105431

  4. Atypical Porcine Pestivirus: A Possible Cause of Congenital Tremor Type A-II in Newborn Piglets

    PubMed Central

    de Groof, Ad; Deijs, Martin; Guelen, Lars; van Grinsven, Lotte; van Os-Galdos, Laura; Vogels, Wannes; Derks, Carmen; Cruijsen, Toine; Geurts, Victor; Vrijenhoek, Mieke; Suijskens, Janneke; van Doorn, Peter; van Leengoed, Leo; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Congenital tremor type A-II in piglets has been regarded as a transmissible disease since the 1970s, possibly caused by a very recently-described virus: atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, we describe several strains of APPV in piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremor (10 of 10 farms tested). Piglets on a farm with no history of congenital tremor were PCR-negative for the virus. To demonstrate a causal relationship between APPV and disease, three gilts were inoculated via intramuscular injection at day 32 of pregnancy. In two of the three litters, vertical transmission of the virus occurred. Clinical signs of congenital tremor were observed in APPV-infected newborns, yet also two asymptomatic carriers were among the offspring. Piglets of one litter were PCR-negative for the virus, and these piglets were all without congenital tremors. Long-term follow up of farm piglets born with congenital tremors showed that the initially high viremia in serum declines at five months of age, but shedding of the virus in feces continues, which explains why the virus remains present at affected farms and causes new outbreaks. We conclude that trans-placental transmission of APPV and subsequent infection of the fetuses is a very likely cause of congenital tremor type A-II in piglets. PMID:27782037

  5. Atypical Porcine Pestivirus: A Possible Cause of Congenital Tremor Type A-II in Newborn Piglets.

    PubMed

    de Groof, Ad; Deijs, Martin; Guelen, Lars; van Grinsven, Lotte; van Os-Galdos, Laura; Vogels, Wannes; Derks, Carmen; Cruijsen, Toine; Geurts, Victor; Vrijenhoek, Mieke; Suijskens, Janneke; van Doorn, Peter; van Leengoed, Leo; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2016-10-04

    Congenital tremor type A-II in piglets has been regarded as a transmissible disease since the 1970s, possibly caused by a very recently-described virus: atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, we describe several strains of APPV in piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremor (10 of 10 farms tested). Piglets on a farm with no history of congenital tremor were PCR-negative for the virus. To demonstrate a causal relationship between APPV and disease, three gilts were inoculated via intramuscular injection at day 32 of pregnancy. In two of the three litters, vertical transmission of the virus occurred. Clinical signs of congenital tremor were observed in APPV-infected newborns, yet also two asymptomatic carriers were among the offspring. Piglets of one litter were PCR-negative for the virus, and these piglets were all without congenital tremors. Long-term follow up of farm piglets born with congenital tremors showed that the initially high viremia in serum declines at five months of age, but shedding of the virus in feces continues, which explains why the virus remains present at affected farms and causes new outbreaks. We conclude that trans-placental transmission of APPV and subsequent infection of the fetuses is a very likely cause of congenital tremor type A-II in piglets.

  6. Whole Blood Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Gene Expression Differences between Dapulian and Landrace Piglets.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiaqing; Yang, Dandan; Chen, Wei; Li, Chuanhao; Wang, Yandong; Zeng, Yongqing; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    There is little genomic information regarding gene expression differences at the whole blood transcriptome level of different pig breeds at the neonatal stage. To solve this, we characterized differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the whole blood of Dapulian (DPL) and Landrace piglets using RNA-seq (RNA-sequencing) technology. In this study, 83 DEGs were identified between the two breeds. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses identified immune response and metabolism as the most commonly enriched terms and pathways in the DEGs. Genes related to immunity and lipid metabolism were more highly expressed in the DPL piglets, while genes related to body growth were more highly expressed in the Landrace piglets. Additionally, the DPL piglets had twofold more single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alternative splicing (AS) than the Landrace piglets. These results expand our knowledge of the genes transcribed in the piglet whole blood of two breeds and provide a basis for future research of the molecular mechanisms underlying the piglet differences.

  7. Use of recombinant porcine β-defensin 2 as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zixin; Wang, Anru; Xie, Linqi; Song, Weiping; Wang, Jie; Yin, Zhe; Zhou, Dongsheng; Li, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) in piglets is associated with colonization of the intestine with bacterial pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the use of recombinant porcine β-defensin 2 (rpBD2) as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets. The crude extract from the culture supernatant of rpBD2-expressing Pichia pastoris was used as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets. Dietary treatments included a positive control (basal diet + antibiotics, designated PC) and three different rpBD2 treatments without antibiotics (basal diet supplemented with 1, 5, or 15 g of crude rpBD2/kg basal diet, designated 1PD, 5PD, and 15PD, respectively). Of all the treatments, 5PD had the greatest impact on the weaned piglets. It increased their body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake, and intestinal villus height in the duodenum and jejunum, and reduced the incidence of PWD. The diversity of the cecal digesta and mucosa microflora was compared between the weaned piglets in the PC and 5PD groups. Piglets treated with 5PD had lower diversity indices and fewer bacterial pathogens in their cecal digesta and mucosa than the PC group. Our results demonstrate that crude rpBD2 could provide an alternative to the traditional antibiotic feed additives given to weaned piglets. PMID:27225034

  8. Dietary inulin affects the intestinal microbiota in sows and their suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Paßlack, Nadine; Vahjen, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-03-07

    Several studies have focused on the effects of dietary inulin on the intestinal microbiota of weaned piglets. In the present study, inulin was added to a diet for gestating and lactating sows, expecting not only effects on the faecal microbiota of sows, but also on the bacterial cell numbers in the gastrointestinal tract of their piglets during the suckling period. Sows were fed a diet without (n = 11) or with (n = 10) 3% inulin, and selected bacterial groups were determined in their faeces ante and post partum. Suckling piglets, 8 per group, were euthanised on day 10 after birth to analyse digesta samples of the gastrointestinal tract. Dietary inulin increased the cell numbers of enterococci, both, in the faeces of the sows during gestation and lactation, and in the caecum of the piglets (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, higher cell numbers of eubacteria (stomach) and C. leptum (caecum), but lower cell numbers of enterobacteria and L. amylovorus (stomach) were detected in the digesta of the piglets in the inulin group (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, inulin seems to have the potential to influence the gastrointestinal microbiota of suckling piglets through the diet of their mother, showing the importance of the mother-piglet couple for the microbial development. Early modulation of the intestinal microbiota could be especially interesting with regard to the critical weaning time.

  9. Descriptive statistics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications.

  10. The Dynamic Still-Face Effect: Do Infants Decrease Bidding over Time when Parents Are Not Responsive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Haltigan, John D.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    The still-face paradigm (SFP) was designed to assess infant expectations that parents will respond to infant communicative signals. During the still-face (SF) episode, the parent ceases interaction and maintains a neutral expression. Original, qualitative descriptions of infant behavior suggested changes within the SF episode: infants decrease…

  11. Does Circulating Antibody Play a Role in the Protection of Piglets against Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus?

    PubMed Central

    Poonsuk, Korakrit; Giménez-Lirola, Luis Gabriel; Zhang, Jianqiang; Arruda, Paolo; Chen, Qi; Correa da Silva Carrion, Lucas; Magtoto, Ronaldo; Pineyro, Pablo; Sarmento, Luciana; Wang, Chong; Sun, Yaxuan; Madson, Darin; Johnson, John; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Main, Rodger

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of circulating antibody to the protection of naïve piglets against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was evaluated using a passive antibody transfer model. Piglets (n = 62) derived from 6 sows were assigned to one of 6 different treatments using a randomized block design which provided for allocation of all treatments to all sows' litters. Each treatment was designed to achieve a different level of circulating anti-PEDV antibody via intraperitoneally administration of concentrated serum antibody. Piglets were orally inoculated with PEDV (USA/IN/2013/19338E, 1 x 103 TCID50 per piglet) 24 hours later and then monitored for 14 days. Piglets remained with their dam throughout the experiment. Sow milk samples, piglet fecal samples, and data on piglet clinical signs, body weight, and body temperature were collected daily. Fecal samples were tested by PEDV real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Serum, colostrum, and milk were tested for PEDV IgG, IgA, and virus-neutralizing antibody. The data were evaluated for the effects of systemic PEDV antibody levels on growth, body temperature, fecal shedding, survival, and antibody response. The analysis showed that circulating antibody partially ameliorated the effect of PEDV infection. Specifically, antibody-positive groups returned to normal body temperature faster and demonstrated a higher rate of survivability than piglets without PEDV antibody. When combined with previous literature on PEDV, it can be concluded that both systemic antibodies and maternal secretory IgA in milk contribute to the protection of the neonatal pig against PEDV infections. Overall, the results of this experiment suggested that passively administered circulating antibodies contributed to the protection of neonatal piglets against PEDV infection. PMID:27050556

  12. Piglets Born from Sows Fed High Fibre Diets during Pregnancy Are Less Aggressive Prior to Weaning

    PubMed Central

    Morrone, Beatrice; Mazza Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive interactions, and their consequences, are the most important causes of poor welfare in piglets. Aggressive behaviour can be modulated by the prenatal and neonatal environment in several species. Commercially kept pregnant sows are often subjected to food restriction, which can compromise their welfare. Limited information is available on the consequences of sow hunger during pregnancy on welfare outcomes for their piglets. High fibre diets can mitigate the feeling of hunger and, consequently, it may improve welfare and productivity measures. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of feeding pregnant gilts with high fibre diets (HFD) on agonistic behaviour, as manifested by skin lesions, and indicators of fear in their piglets at weaning. Twenty-two pregnant gilts were fed either HFD, 12.86% of crude fibre, 2.4 kg per day (N = 14), or low fibre diet (LFD), 2.53% of crude fibre, 2.0 kg per day (N = 8). During lactation, both treatments received the same diet, ad libitum. We investigated the impact of HFD on behaviour and performance measures (birth weight, average daily gain, weaning weight, see S3 File) in the offspring. Skin lesions were evaluated before and after weaning in 156 piglets (100 HFD and 56 LFD), and 142 piglets were subjected to an open field test and a novel object test (87 HFD and 55 LFD). We found no treatment effect on the performance measures. Piglets born from gilts that received HFD had fewer skin lesions before weaning (D28) than the offspring of LFD gilts, while no difference was found during days 29 and 30. In the open field and novel object tests, there was no treatment effect on the behaviour of piglets. The improved skin health at weaning in piglets of sows fed HFD suggests less agonistic interactions amongst these littermates than in piglets of sows fed LFD. PMID:27907173

  13. Maternal supplementation of seaweed-derived polysaccharides improves intestinal health and immune status of suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Heim, G; O'Doherty, J V; O'Shea, C J; Doyle, D N; Egan, A M; Thornton, K; Sweeney, T

    2015-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effect of maternal dietary supplementation of seaweed-derived polysaccharides (SDP) (-SDP v. +SDP, n   20) from day 83 of gestation until weaning (day 28) on selected sow faeces and piglet digesta microbiota populations, piglet small-intestinal morphology, and intestinal nutrient transporter and inflammatory cytokine gene expression at birth, 48 h after birth and weaning. The effect of maternal dietary treatment on the piglet gene expression profile of inflammatory cytokines in the colon following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was also investigated. Dietary SDP reduced sow faecal Enterobacteriaceae gene numbers at parturition. Small-intestinal morphology, nutrient transporter and cytokine gene expression in newborn piglets did not differ between maternal dietary treatments (P > 0·10). At 48 h after birth, sodium-glucose-linked transporter 1 gene expression was down-regulated in the ileum of piglets suckling the SDP-supplemented sows compared with those suckling the basal sows (P = 0·050). There was a SDP × LPS challenge interaction on IL-1 and IL-6 gene expression in the colon of piglets (P < 0·05). The gene expression of IL-1 and IL-6 was down-regulated in the LPS-challenged colon of piglets suckling the SDP sows compared with those suckling the basal sows (P < 0·05). However, there was no difference in IL-1 and IL-6 gene expression in the unchallenged colon between treatment groups. At weaning, piglets suckling the SDP-supplemented sows had increased villus height in the jejunum and ileum compared with those suckling the basal-fed sows (P < 0·05). In conclusion, maternal dietary SDP supplementation enhanced the immune response of suckling piglets and improved gut morphology, making them more immune competent to deal with post-weaning adversities.

  14. Oral N-carbamylglutamate supplementation increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of piglets.

    PubMed

    Frank, Jason W; Escobar, Jeffery; Nguyen, Hanh V; Jobgen, Scott C; Jobgen, Wenjuan S; Davis, Teresa A; Wu, Guoyao

    2007-02-01

    This study investigated the potential mechanisms by which oral supplementation of N-carbamylglutamate (NCG), an analogue of endogenous N-acetylglutamate (an activator of arginine synthesis) increases growth rate in sow-reared piglets. Two piglets of equal body weight (BW) and of the same gender from each lactating sow were allotted to receive oral administration of 0 (control) or 50 mg of NCG/kg BW every 12 h for 7 d. Piglets (n=32; BW=3 kg) were studied in the food-deprived or fed state following the 7 d of treatment. Overnight food-deprived piglets were given NCG or water (control) at time 0 and 60 min. Piglets studied in the fed state were gavage-fed sow's milk with their respective NCG treatment at 0 and 60 min. At 60 min, the piglets were administered a flooding dose of [3H]phenylalanine and killed at 90 min to measure tissue protein synthesis. Piglets treated with NCG gained 28% more weight than control pigs (P<0.001) over the 7-d period. Fed pigs had greater rates of protein synthesis in longissimus dorsi and gastrocnemius muscles and duodenum compared with food-deprived pigs (P<0.001). Absolute protein synthesis rates in longissimus dorsi (P=0.050) and gastrocnemius (P=0.068) muscles were 30 and 21% greater, respectively, in NCG-treated compared with control pigs. Piglets supplemented with NCG also had greater plasma concentrations of arginine and somatotropin than control pigs (P<0.001). The results suggest that oral NCG supplementation increases plasma arginine and somatotropin levels, leading to an increase in growth rate and muscle protein synthesis in nursing piglets.

  15. Intestinal development and growth performance of early-weaned piglets fed a low-threonine diet.

    PubMed

    Hamard, A; Sève, B; Le Floc'h, N

    2007-09-01

    High dietary threonine extraction by the digestive tract suggests that threonine contributes to maintain gut integrity. The aims of this study were to investigate the intestine development and the growth performance of early-weaned piglets pair-fed either a control well-balanced (C: 9.3 g threonine/kg diet) or a low-threonine diet (LT: 6.5 g threonine/kg diet) for 2 weeks. As expected, LT piglets presented lower plasma free threonine compared with C piglets (118 v. 356 ± 12 μmol/l, P < 0.001). Dietary threonine supply altered neither growth performance nor growth of the intestine and of the other portal-drained viscera (stomach, spleen and pancreas). Nevertheless, villus height was reduced in the ileum of the LT piglets compared with C piglets (446 v. 714 ± 74 μm, P < 0.05). This was also associated with a decrease in crypt width (P < 0.05) and villus height-to-crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05). Whereas maltase and lactase activities did not change between the two groups, aminopeptidase nitrogen activity was decreased in the ileum of LT piglets (269 v. 374 ± 27 IU/mg protein, P < 0.05). The number of mucin-containing goblet cells was not modified in the ileum and in the proximal part of the large intestine of the LT piglets compared with the C piglets. In conclusion, despite no alteration of intestinal growth, villus hypotrophy associated with a reduction of aminopeptidase nitrogen activity suggest an alteration of the structure of the ileum in early-weaned piglets fed a diet supplying inadequate dietary threonine.

  16. The U.S. infant formula industry: is direct-to-consumer advertising unethical or inevitable?

    PubMed

    Cutler, Bob D; Wright, Robert F

    2002-01-01

    Throughout their history, U.S. based infant formula companies have promoted their products as though they required a prescription. This form of marketing is called "ethical" promotion, which focuses on gaining a physician to parent recommendation for a brand of infant formula. Until Nestle's entry into the U.S. infant formula market in 1988, there was little direct-to-consumer promotion of infant formula. This article provides a background on the history of infant formula practices in the United States and then focuses on a descriptive model to explain how mothers' make their infant formula selection. Finally, we offer suggestions for the "ethical" marketers of infant formula.

  17. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof by...

  18. Drying and warming immediately after birth may reduce piglet mortality in loose-housed sows.

    PubMed

    Andersen, I L; Haukvik, I A; Bøe, K E

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of placing newborn piglets under the heat lamp or both drying and placing them under the heat lamp on piglet mortality. Sixty-seven healthy (Landrace × Yorkshire) sows were divided equally into three different experimental groups: a control group where the farrowings occurred without supervision from the farmer (C; n = 23 litters), another group where the piglets were placed under the heat lamp in the creep area immediately after birth (HL; n = 22 litters) and a third group where the piglets were dried with straw and paper towels followed by placing them under the heat lamp in the creep area immediately after birth (DHL; n = 22 litters). The sows were individually loose-housed in farrowing pens during farrowing and lactation. The piglets were not closed inside the creep area, but were free to move around in the pen. The routines in the experimental groups required the stock person to attend the farrowings from the onset of birth of the first piglet until the last piglet was born. All the dead piglets were weighed and subjected to a post mortem examination at the farm to ascertain the causes of death. Postnatal mortality (% of live born) was significantly lower in the HL and DHL groups than in the control group (P < 0.0001). This was significant concerning all causes of mortality. Compared to the control group, crushing occurred in significantly fewer litters when the piglets were both dried and placed under the heat lamp (P < 0.05). In the DHL treatment, crushing of one or more piglets by the sow occurred in only 13.6% of the litters, whereas this was increased to 34.8% in the HL and to 47.9% in the control group, respectively. All causes of death, except the proportion of stillborn piglets, increased significantly with increasing litter size. Because of the relatively large potential that these rather simple routines may have to improve piglet survival, different types of management or human

  19. Amprolium and Furazolidone as Preventive Treatment for Intestinal Coccidiosis of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Christiane; Morin, Michel

    1987-01-01

    Two coccidiostats, amprolium and furazolidone, were used as preventive treatments for intestinal coccidiosis in three-day-old piglets experimentally infected with 50,000 sporulated oocysts of Isospora suis. All infected piglets, treated or not, displayed clinical signs compatible with coccidiosis. Diarrhea and anorexia appeared around five days postinoculation in the non-treated and in the amprolium-treated groups; these signs were delayed to days 7 and 8 postinoculation in the furazolidone-treated group. The treatments did not prevent growth retardation. Amprolium seemed to reduce oocyst shedding whereas furazolidone had no effect. Villous atrophy was present in all infected piglets. PMID:17422910

  20. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Rafael A; Lin, Xi; Campbell, Joy M; Moeser, Adam J; Odle, Jack

    2012-12-23

    Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Sow parity had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on sow colostral IgG concentration, being 5% higher in multiparous females. Sow colostral IgG concentration explained 6% and piglet birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P < 0.05); however, birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P < 0.05) and quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on % survival. Piglets with 1,000 mg/dl serum IgG or less (n=24) had a 67% survival; whereas, piglets with IgG concentrations between 2250 to 2500 mg/dl (n=247) had a 91% survival. Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P < 0.05). Piglets weighing 0.9 kg (n = 107) at birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning.

  1. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Results Sow parity had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on sow colostral IgG concentration, being 5% higher in multiparous females. Sow colostral IgG concentration explained 6% and piglet birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P < 0.05); however, birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P < 0.05) and quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on % survival. Piglets with 1,000 mg/dl serum IgG or less (n=24) had a 67% survival; whereas, piglets with IgG concentrations between 2250 to 2500 mg/dl (n=247) had a 91% survival. Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P < 0.05). Piglets weighing 0.9 kg (n = 107) at birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. Conclusion We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning. PMID:23259926

  2. Salmonella Typhimurium exploits inflammation to its own advantage in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Chirullo, Barbara; Pesciaroli, Michele; Drumo, Rosanna; Ruggeri, Jessica; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Pistoia, Claudia; Petrucci, Paola; Martinelli, Nicola; Cucco, Lucilla; Moscati, Livia; Amadori, Massimo; Magistrali, Chiara F.; Alborali, Giovanni L.; Pasquali, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is responsible for foodborne zoonotic infections that, in humans, induce self-limiting gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the wild-type strain S. Typhimurium (STM14028) is able to exploit inflammation fostering an active infection. Due to the similarity between human and porcine diseases induced by S. Typhimurium, we used piglets as a model for salmonellosis and gastrointestinal research. This study showed that STM14028 is able to efficiently colonize in vitro porcine mono-macrophages and intestinal columnar epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells, and that the colonization significantly increases with LPS pre-treatment. This increase was then reversed by inhibiting the LPS stimulation through LPS antagonist, confirming an active role of LPS stimulation in STM14028-intracellular colonization. Moreover, LPS in vivo treatment increased cytokines blood level and body temperature at 4 h post infection, which is consistent with an acute inflammatory stimulus, capable to influence the colonization of STM14028 in different organs and tissues. The present study proves for the first time that in acute enteric salmonellosis, S. Typhimurium exploits inflammation for its benefit in piglets. PMID:26441914

  3. Interactive Behaviors of Ethnic Minority Mothers and their Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Landerman, Lawrence R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the interactive behaviors of American Indian mothers and their premature infants with those of African American mothers and their premature infants. Design Descriptive, comparative study. Setting Three neonatal intensive care units and two pediatric clinics in the southeast. Participants Seventy-seven mother-infant dyads: 17 American Indian mother-infant dyads and 60 African American mother-infant dyads. Methods Videotapes of mother-infant interactions and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were used to assess the interactions of the mothers and their premature infants at six months corrected age. Results American Indian mothers looked more, gestured more, and were more often the primary caregivers to their infants than the African American mothers. American Indian infants expressed more positive affect and gestured more to their mothers, whereas African American infants engaged in more non-negative vocalization toward their mothers. African American mothers scored higher on the HOME subscales of provision of appropriate play materials and parental involvement with the infant. American Indian mothers scored higher on the opportunities for variety in daily living subscale. Conclusion Although many of the interactive behaviors of American Indian and African American mother-infant dyads were similar, some differences did occur. Clinicians need to be aware of the cultural differences in mother-infant interactions. To optimize child developmental outcomes, nurses need to support mothers in their continuation or adoption of positive interactive behaviors. PMID:23682698

  4. Interactive behaviors of ethnic minority mothers and their premature infants.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jada L; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Landerman, Lawrence R

    2013-01-01

    To compare the interactive behaviors of American Indian mothers and their premature infants with those of African American mothers and their premature infants. Descriptive, comparative study. Three neonatal intensive care units and two pediatric clinics in the southeast. Seventy-seven mother/infant dyads: 17 American Indian mother/infant dyads and 60 African American mother/infant dyads. Videotapes of mother/infant interactions and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were used to assess the interactions of the mothers and their premature infants at 6 months corrected age. American Indian mothers looked more, gestured more, and were more often the primary caregivers to their infants than the African American mothers. American Indian infants expressed more positive affect and gestured more to their mothers, whereas African American infants engaged in more non-negative vocalization toward their mothers. African American mothers scored higher on the HOME subscales of provision of appropriate play materials and parental involvement with the infant. American Indian mothers scored higher on the opportunities for variety in daily living subscale. Although many of the interactive behaviors of American Indian and African American mother/infant dyads were similar, some differences did occur. Clinicians need to be aware of the cultural differences in mother/infant interactions. To optimize child developmental outcomes, nurses need to support mothers in their continuation or adoption of positive interactive behaviors. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  5. Therapeutic touch with preterm infants: composing a treatment.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic touch (TT), a complementary therapy, has been shown to decrease stress, anxiety, and pain in adults and children, as well as improve mobility in patients with arthritis and fibromyalgia. However, less has been reported about the effectiveness of this therapy with infants, particularly preterm infants. The aims of this research study were to explore the nature of the use of TT with preterm infants and describe a TT treatment process for this vulnerable population. Narrative inquiry and qualitative descriptive methods were used to discover knowledge about how TT is used with preterm infants. Telephone/in-person interviews and written narratives provided the data describing nurses' use of TT with preterm infants. The participants were registered nurses who practiced TT with preterm infants for varying years of experience. The participants described the responses of infants, 25 to 37 weeks postgestational age, whom they treated with TT. The infants' responses to TT included reduced heart and respiratory rates, enhanced ability to rest, improved coordination in sucking, swallowing, and breathing, and a greater ability to engage with the environment. The practitioners described the phases and elements of TT for preterm infants, which revealed unique patterns, for example, the treatment phase included the elements of smoothing and containing. The description that emerged from the practitioners' narratives of the TT treatment process for preterm infants provides preliminary data for the systematic use and evaluation of TT as an adjunct to facilitating preterm infants' physiological, behavioral, energy field development, and well-being.

  6. Validation of a new body composition method for infant and children using piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current study was undertaken to validate the first quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance instrument designed and built to assess body composition from birth through adulthood (up to 50 kg). A total of 50 pigs weighing between 3.0 and 49.1 kg were studied. Each piglet’s body composition was ass...

  7. Minimal enteral nutrition to improve adaptation after intestinal resection in piglets and infants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Minimal enteral nutrition (MEN) may induce a diet-dependent stimulation of gut adaptation following intestinal resection. Bovine colostrum is rich in growth factors, and we hypothesized that MEN with colostrum would stimulate intestinal adaptation, compared with formula, and would be well tolerated ...

  8. Does the newly weaned piglet select a zinc oxide supplemented feed, when given the choice?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, F H; Forbes, J M; Miller, H M

    2010-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine whether weaned piglets would display preference for a food containing a pharmacological level of zinc oxide (ZnO). A total of 60 piglets were weaned at 7.8 kg ± 0.14 (s.e.m.) and 27.8 ± 0.11 days of age into eight mixed sex groups of seven or eight piglets per pen. Groups were balanced for litter origin, weaning weight and sex. Piglet feeding behaviour was constantly recorded by a multi-spaced feeding behaviour recording system (Leeds University Feeding Behaviour System) in each pen. Each pen of pigs was offered ad libitum access to two different foods (16.2 MJ digestible energy, 16 g lysine/kg), which differed only in the level of ZnO supplementation: unsupplemented (U) or supplemented (Z; ZnO 3100 mg/kg). Both foods contained a basal level of zinc (100 mg/kg). Feeding time was recorded for each individual at each trough. Piglets were weighed at weaning and at 7 and 13 days thereafter. The experiment ran for 13 days. Any piglet observed with post-weaning scour (Y) was recorded and treated appropriately whereas healthy piglets were categorised as N (no scour). Preference for a food was defined as being significantly different from 50% of total feed intake or time spent feeding. There was no difference between piglet numbers selecting each food as their first meal. However, within the first 24 h, piglets preferred (P < 0.001) food U, spending only 36.3% (32.2 to 40.5; 95% confidence interval) of feeding time at food Z. Throughout the experiment, piglets showed aversion (P < 0.001) to food Z, consumption being 8.9% (5.1 to 13.6) and 15.7% (8.9 to 23.9) of total intake in weeks 1 and 2, respectively. Individual piglets showed their preference for food U with only 16.6% (14.6 to 18.5) and 21.8% (19.6 to 24.0) of feeding time spent on food Z in weeks 1 and 2, respectively. Scouring piglets did not show any difference in feeding behaviour from healthy piglets in either week. Average piglet gain (of all piglets) was low, at 0.039

  9. Learning in Premature Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Evelyn B.; Ingersoll, Evan W.

    1993-01-01

    Examined instrumental learning in premature infants by providing 45 infants at 33 weeks conceptual age with either a teddy bear that "breathed" quietly at the infant's respiration rate (BB) or a nonbreathing bear (NBB). Over a two-week period, infants provided with the BB decreased their latency to contact the bear; infants exposed to the NBB…

  10. Materials for Infant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Bettye J.; And Others

    This manual, which discusses materials that promote infant growth and development, is part of an approach to working with low-income mothers and infants in their homes to increase the educability of the infants. There is a brief discussion of infant development and the Demonstration and Research Center for Early Education Infant Study (DARCEE)…

  11. Specific and non-specific immunity of piglets from sows fed diets containing specific fatty acids in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Benzoni, G; Foresti, F; Archetti, I L; Coceva, G; Guyonvarch, A; Alborali, L

    2013-10-01

    The transfer of passive immunity from sows to piglets is important and it is the first immune protection of the new born piglet. Improving sows immunity by adding immuno-stimulating product in sows diet can positively affect colostrum composition and transfer of immune molecules to piglets. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the benefit of a different solution, made of specific fatty acids from marine origin that have been used in human medicine for decades, for sows and piglets. Two trials were conducted in commercial farm, involving 240 sows at different periods of the year. Sows were divided in a control group, without supplementation, and a test group, supplemented with the feed additive from the 90th day of gestation to weaning. Sows body condition, piglets viability and growth were recorded. Milk immunoglobulin content was measured, as well as Aujeszky antibodies in sows and piglets blood as marker of specific immunity, and blood bactericidal activity, complement activity and lysozyme as markers of non specific immunity. No effect of the product was observed on piglets zootechnical criteria and specific immunity parameters but significant improvement of piglet non specific immunity, was observed. No difference was observed neither in the piglets blood PRRSV and PCV2 antibodies and viruses nor in Aujeszky antibodies. Blood complement activity seems to be an accurate indicator of immuno-stimulating additive efficiency. Giving alkyl-glycerol fatty acids to sows in late gestation and lactation can improve the passive immunity transfer to piglets.

  12. The effect of intramuscular administration of colistin on the development and course of experimentally induced oedema disease in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, Lucie; Hamrik, Jaroslav; Kulich, Pavel; Kummer, Vladimir; Maskova, Jarmila; Alexa, Pavel

    2008-04-01

    Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) strains that produce Shiga toxin Stx2e cause oedema disease in weaned piglets. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of Stx2e released in mesenteric lymph nodes on disease pathogenesis. Colistin and ampicillin were intramuscularly administered to piglets of the experimental group simultaneously challenged with STEC strain, type O139:F18ab, Stx2e+. Piglets of the control group were challenged with STEC only. The strain was naturally resistant to ampicillin and susceptible to colistin. After the challenge, colonisation of the intestines was observed in both antibiotic-treated piglets and control piglets without antibiotic treatment. Histochemistry and scanning electron microscopy revealed sporadic colonisation of the small intestine in the piglets. STEC was detected in the mesenteric lymph nodes of untreated piglets. The clinical manifestations of oedema disease were observed in both groups. In the antibiotic-treated group (11 piglets), oedema disease developed in 10 piglets, eight of which died or were euthanized ante finem. In the untreated group (11 piglets), oedema disease developed in five piglets, four of which died or were euthanized ante finem. We therefore propose that the STEC lysed by colistin suddenly released the toxin from bacterial cells immediately after their passage through the intestinal wall. That could explain a more severe course of oedema disease in the treated piglets. Even though high amounts of STEC were present in the lymph nodes of untreated piglets, the toxin was not released abruptly because the bacterial cells were not damaged.

  13. Impaired translation initiation activation and reduced protein synthesis in weaned piglets fed a low-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dun; Yao, Kang; Chu, Wuying; Li, Tiejun; Huang, Ruiling; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jianshe; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-07-01

    Weanling mammals (including infants) often experience intestinal dysfunction when fed a high-protein diet. Recent work with the piglet (an animal model for studying human infant nutrition) shows that reducing protein intake can improve gut function during weaning but compromises the provision of essential amino acids (EAA) for muscle growth. The present study was conducted with weaned pigs to test the hypothesis that supplementing deficient EAA (Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Leu, Ile and Val) to a low-protein diet may maintain the activation of translation initiation factors and adequate protein synthesis in tissues. Pigs were weaned at 21 days of age and fed diets containing 20.7, 16.7 or 12.7% crude protein (CP), with the low-CP diets supplemented with EAA to achieve the levels in the high-CP diet. On Day 14 of the trial, tissue protein synthesis was determined using the phenylalanine flooding dose method. Reducing dietary CP levels decreased protein synthesis in pancreas, liver, kidney and longissimus muscle. A low-CP diet reduced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) in skeletal muscle and liver while increasing the formation of an inactive eIF4E.4E-BP1 complex in muscle. Dietary protein deficiency also decreased the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the formation of an active eIF4E.eIF4G complex in liver. These results demonstrate for the first time that chronic feeding of a low-CP diet suppresses protein synthesis in animals partly by inhibiting mTOR signaling. Additionally, our findings indicate that supplementing deficient EAA to low-protein diets is not highly effective in restoring protein synthesis or whole-body growth in piglets. We suggest that conditionally essential amino acids (e.g., glutamine and arginine) may be required to maintain the activation of translation initiation factors and optimal protein synthesis in neonates.

  14. Negligible changes in piglet serum clinical indicators or organ weights due to dietary single-cell long-chain polyunsaturated oils.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng-Chuan; Chao, A; Kirwan, R; Tschanz, C; Peralta, J M; Diersen-Schade, D A; Cha, S; Brenna, J T

    2002-04-01

    Single-cell oils are currently included in human infant formula as sources of the long-chain polyunsaturates (LCP) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) in many countries, but have not yet been approved for use in the USA. We prepared four bovine-milk-based formulas with AA/DHA=0, 34/17, 68/34 and 170/85 (mg per 100 kcal formula) provided by two commercial single-cell oils. These levels correspond approximately to 0, 1, 2 and 5 times the concentrations used in infant formulas and, due to greater consumption of formula per unit body weight, resulted in daily consumption of approximately 0, 3, 6 and 16 times those anticipated for human infants. All other dietary fat (47% of calories) was provided by a vegetable oil blend used in commercial human infant formulas. Domestic piglets were allowed to nurse with the sow for 24 h after parturition, then removed to individual cages and maintained on one of the four diets. At 30 days of age the piglets were sacrificed, and serum collected and organs weighed. With litters treated as a blocked variable, no significant differences among groups were found by analysis of variance for the following serum assays: alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and total protein. No significant differences were found for hematocrit or body weight. No significant differences were found among groups for weights of liver, brain, heart, lung, spleen, kidneys or lung, analyzed as absolute weight and as a fraction of body weight. Hematoxylin/eosin liver sections examined by light microscopy showed no abnormalities as evaluated by an independent pathologist. DHA content in liver and heart and AA content in heart showed significant dose-related accumulation (P<0.05) and confirmed enhanced tissue accretion of DHA and AA from both oils. We conclude that single-cell oils in formula consumed for 1 month in

  15. Development of a Piglet Grimace Scale to Evaluate Piglet Pain Using Facial Expressions Following Castration and Tail Docking: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Viscardi, Abbie V.; Hunniford, Michelle; Lawlis, Penny; Leach, Matthew; Turner, Patricia V.

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are increasingly being used to assess pain in non-human species, including rodents, horses, and lambs. The development of these species-specific grimace scales has allowed for more rapid pain detection, which can lead to better animal welfare if intervention promptly occurs. For grimace scales to ever be used as a stand-alone measure of pain, it is important they correlate with established pain assessment tools, such as behavioral analysis. This preliminary study aimed to determine whether piglets exhibit pain grimacing and if these facial expressions correlate with their behavior. It also assessed and compared the behavior of boar piglets given an analgesic and topical anesthetic prior to surgical castration and tail docking to piglets that did not receive anything for pain relief. Five-day-old male Yorkshire piglets (n = 19) from four pens were randomly assigned, within their pen, to one of five possible treatments: meloxicam (0.4 mg/kg, intramuscularly) + EMLA® cream, meloxicam (0.4 mg/kg, intramuscularly) + non-medicated cream, saline (intramuscularly) + EMLA® cream, saline (intramuscularly) + non-medicated cream, or no treatment prior to surgical castration and tail docking. Piglet behaviors were video recorded for 8 h immediately after castration, as well as for 1 h at 24 h pre- and post-castration. Their individual behaviors were scored continuously for the first 15 min of every hour of video collected. Facial images were also captured across all time points. A Piglet Grimace Scale (PGS) was developed and used by two observers blinded to treatment, time, and procedure to score over 600 piglet faces. All piglets displayed significant behavioral changes up to 7 h post-castration when compared to baseline, and the use of meloxicam and EMLA® cream was not associated with a reduction in painful behaviors. Significantly higher PGS scores were noted at 0, 3, 4, and 5 h post-castration when compared to PGS

  16. [The content of ascorbic acids in different tissues of cattle, normally developed piglets, splay-legged piglets, adult swine and dogs].

    PubMed

    Kolb, E; Wahren, M; Dobeleit, G; Gründel, G

    1989-05-01

    The following ascorbic acid levels were recorded from different organs of cattle, with all values quoted being related to mg/100 g fresh matter: 150 +/- 20 in pituitary gland, 170 +/- 40 in left adrenal gland, 45.5 +/- 12.5 in spleen, 38.1 +/- 7.3 in liver, 30.0 +/- 8.5 in cerebrum, 23.2 +/- 7.2 in cerebellum, 16.4 +/- 6.1 in kidney, 11.0 +/- 2.9 in heart, and 9.1 +/- 2.1 in M. longissimus dorsi. The ascorbic acid level in blood plasma of normally developed piglets was 6.5 +/- 2.7 mg/dl and was thus higher with significance (p less than 0.01) than that recorded from splayleg piglets which was 2.3 +/- 0.96 mg/dl. The levels in the M. semimembranosus and M. semitendinosus in piglets of moderate birth weight were higher, as well (p less than 0.05). The liver level in pigs for slaughter was 30.8 +/- 9.0 mg/100 g lower than that in piglets. Piglets exhibited genetically founded differences in their capability of biosynthesis of ascorbic acid. The highest ascorbic acid level in dog was recorded from the pituitary and adrenal glands, values being 135.5 +/- 7.5 mg/100 g fresh matter or 90.3 +/- 37.8 mg/100 g. Their liver level was 27.9 +/- 11.9 mg/100 g.

  17. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Infant Botulism KidsHealth > For Parents > Infant Botulism A A A ... babies younger than 1 year old. About Infant Botulism This illness usually affects babies who are between ...

  18. [Importance of oral iron supplementation in piglets in the first hours of life].

    PubMed

    Iben, B

    1998-02-01

    An early supply of iron is essential for newborn piglets due to the predisposition to anaemia in neonates of this species. The present study shows that iron can be given orally if a suitable preparation is used. After oral administration of iron within the first six hours of life, hemoglobin and packed cell volume are higher on the 10th day of life compared to the second. Also, the percentage of anaemia is significantly lower in piglets with oral iron supplementation than in piglets given iron injections on the third day of life. The oral iron preparation investigated in this study is therefore superior to other preparations. However, a second dose of iron on the 10th day of life is necessary independent from mode of administration of the first iron dose. The second dose is always given via injection due to insufficient intestinal absorption of iron in the 10-day-old piglet.

  19. Control of genioglossal muscle activity in the anesthetized piglet: the role of vagal afferents.

    PubMed

    Watchko, J F; O'Day, T L; Brozanski, B S; Vazquez, R L; Guthrie, R D

    1992-01-01

    We examined genioglossal muscle electromyogram activity during room air breathing and hyperoxic hypercapnia in 10 anesthetized (halothane) newborn piglets before and after bilateral midcervical vagotomy. With vagal afferents intact, genioglossal activity was absent during room air breathing in 10/10 study animals and was recruited in only 4/10 piglets during carbon dioxide breathing. After vagotomy, genioglossal activity remained absent in 9/10 study animals during room air breathing but was recruited in 10/10 piglets during the hypercapnic gas exposure at arterial CO2 tensions comparable to prevagotomy levels. We conclude that vagal afferent feedback modulates genioglossal activity in anesthetized newborn piglets and exerts an inhibitory influence on the activity of this muscle during hyperpnea induced by carbon dioxide breathing.

  20. Exudative epidermitis of piglets caused by non-toxigenic Staphylococcus sciuri.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lixin; He, Kongwang; Ni, Yanxiu; Yu, Zhengyu; Mao, Aihua

    2017-02-01

    Infections with strains of Staphylococcus sciuri are a potential threat to animal and public health, and a cause for considerable concern. We isolated and identified S. sciuri as a pathogen from an acute outbreak of exudative epidermitis in piglets for further genetic identification using experimental infections. The results of this study showed that S. sciuri strain NJ1306 reproduced exudative epidermitis in experimentally infected 5-day-old piglets. The isolated bacteria also caused sudden death in BALB/c mice following intraperitoneal injection with 5×10(8) CFU of the isolate. The data indicated that strain NJ1306 of S. sciuri was pathogenic to piglets and mice, and the study provided the first known report of clinical lung lesions and endocarditis in piglets due to S. sciuri.

  1. Anaphoric Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The study of definite descriptions has been a central part of research in linguistics and philosophy of language since Russell's seminal work "On Denoting" (Russell 1905). In that work Russell quickly dispatches analyses of denoting expressions with forms like "no man," "some man," "a man," and "every…

  2. Anaphoric Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The study of definite descriptions has been a central part of research in linguistics and philosophy of language since Russell's seminal work "On Denoting" (Russell 1905). In that work Russell quickly dispatches analyses of denoting expressions with forms like "no man," "some man," "a man," and "every…

  3. Social support modulates splenocyte glucocorticoid sensitivity in piglets exposed to social deprivation stress.

    PubMed

    Tuchscherer, Margret; Kanitz, Ellen; Puppe, Birger; Hameister, Theresa; Tuchscherer, Armin

    2014-05-28

    There is growing evidence that positive social interactions can attenuate the effects of stressful life experiences. However, little is known about the benefits of social partners on stress responses in farm animals. Therefore, in this study we examined the effects of social support on the endocrine and immune stress responses to a single 4h social deprivation in domestic piglets at 7, 21 or 35days of age. The piglets were socially deprived of their mother and littermates. They were left alone (DA) or in the presence of a familiar (DF) or unfamiliar (DU) age-matched piglet. Non-socially deprived piglets served as a control. DA piglets displayed elevated plasma cortisol levels, higher lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated proliferation of splenocytes and increased TNF-α and IL-6 production in splenocyte cultures than the control piglets. There were no significant buffering effects of social partners on stress-induced plasma cortisol levels and splenocyte proliferation in response to LPS. However, the presence of an age-matched conspecific diminished the IL-6 production by splenocytes in younger, socially deprived piglets, and it reduced the TNF-α release in the older piglets. Compared to the controls, LPS-stimulated splenocytes from DA piglets were more resistant to the inhibitory effects of cortisol, which was demonstrated by a higher proliferative response and increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The dose-dependent cortisol resistance was attenuated by the presence of a familiar or an unfamiliar conspecific at each of the three age categories. Indeed, in the present study, the familiarity level of the social partners did not seem to play a role in the alleviation of social stress-induced inflammatory activity and splenocyte cortisol resistance. In addition, the buffering effect of social support provided by an age-matched conspecific was more pronounced in older piglets. Conclusively, these findings suggest that social support is an important factor

  4. Evaluation of immunoglobulin G absorption from colostrum supplements gavaged to newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J; Jacobi, S; Liu, Y; Robertson, K Hard; Drayton, J; Medina, I; Polo, J; Crenshaw, J; Odle, J

    2012-12-01

    Absorption of energy and IgG at birth from colostrum may improve survival and immune competency of newborn piglets. Adequate intake of colostrum may be difficult for piglets due to low birth weight, birth order, or viability. This study was designed to evaluate orally fed colostrum supplements with different energy sources and IgG from porcine plasma on piglet serum IgG content and absorption of IgG compared to pooled sow colostrum. Ninety-six newborn piglets from 12 sows with an average birth weight of 1,288 g were used. Eight piglets were removed from each sow immediately at birth, prior to suckling, and randomly allotted to receive either pooled sow colostrum or 1 of 3 colostrum supplements (A, B, and C) fed at 2 dosing schemes. Piglets received their allotted treatment as either one 30-mL dose at 0 h or three 10-mL doses at 0, 2, and 4 h. Piglets received ad libitum access to water at 2-h intervals after receiving their last treatment dose. Twelve hours after the first dose, piglets were weighed and 4 mL of blood was collected. Plasma IgG content, apparent efficiency of absorption, hematocrit, protein, and glucose were determined. Birth weight and final BW did not differ between treatments; however, pigs fed sow colostrum lost more weight (-72 g) than pigs fed colostrum supplements (-40 g; P < 0.001). Differences in hematocrit or serum glucose were not detected. Serum protein was higher (P < 0.05) in piglets fed colostrum supplements than in pigs fed sow colostrum. Serum IgG content did not differ among treatments. Apparent efficiency of IgG absorption was greatest for sow colostrum followed by colostrum supplements B, A, and C (28.5, 27.6, 25.5, and 24.7%, respectively). The single and multiple dose regimes delivered comparable serum IgG whereas the single dose yielded better piglet hydration as noted by less weight loss. In conclusion, all colostrum supplements were comparable in delivering absorbable IgG to the neonatal piglet.

  5. Plasma cortisol response to ACTH challenge in hypoxic newborn piglets resuscitated with 21% and 100% oxygen.

    PubMed

    Chapados, Isabelle; Chik, Constance L; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2010-05-01

    Although the use of supplemental oxygen to resuscitate asphyxiated neonates remains controversial, the effects of hypoxia and reoxygenation (room air versus pure oxygen) on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis are unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia and reoxygenation with either 21% or 100% oxygen on plasma cortisol before and after an adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) challenge in newborn piglets. Thirty-five piglets (aged 1-3 days, weighing 1.5-2.4 kg) were instrumented to measure heart rate, MAP, and cardiac output. After 2 h of normocapnic hypoxia (PaO2, 20-30 mmHg; pH, <6.95), piglets were resuscitated with 21% or 100% oxygen for 1 h and then 21% oxygen for 3 h. Sham-operated piglets had no hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R). Serial plasma cortisol levels were determined after a blinded randomized administration of ACTH (4 microg/kg, i.v.) or saline at 2 h reoxygenation. The expression of steroidogenic factor 1 in the adrenals was studied. Cardiac output decreased with hypoxia and recovered with resuscitation. Piglets developed hypotension similarly in 21% and 100% H-R groups during reoxygenation (versus sham-operated group, P < 0.05). Both H-R groups had increased plasma cortisol levels (versus sham-operated group, P < 0.05) at 2 h of reoxygenation after hypoxia, with a further increase in levels in 21% H-R piglets at 4 h reoxygenation (versus 100% H-R piglets, P < 0.05). The response to ACTH was delayed in H-R groups, with the maximum increase at 120 min post-ACTH administration (versus 30-60 min post-ACTH for sham-operated piglets). Plasma cortisol levels increased significantly post-ACTH administration in 21% H-R and sham-operated piglets (115% +/-50% and 126% +/- 25% at 120 min, respectively, P < 0.05 vs. pre-ACTH baselines) but not in 100% H-R piglets (51% +/-14%), which had a lower expression of steroidogenic factor 1 than the other groups. Although the clinical significance of high cortisol levels and cortisol response to ACTH in H-R newborn

  6. Sow and piglet factors determining variation of colostrum intake between and within litters.

    PubMed

    Declerck, I; Sarrazin, S; Dewulf, J; Maes, D

    2017-08-01

    Colostrum intake has a short- and long-term beneficial impact on piglet performance and mortality. Sows' colostrum production and piglets' colostrum intake are limited and highly variable. The present study investigated sow and piglet factors explaining the variation of colostrum intake between and within litters. The CV for colostrum intake and birth weight (BWb) of all piglets within a litter was calculated to evaluate the variation of colostrum intake and BWb within a litter (colostrum and litter BWb heterogeneity, respectively). A total of 1937 live-born piglets from 135 litters from 10 commercial herds were included. Colostrum intake per piglet averaged 371±144 g and was affected by breed (P=0.02). It was lower when oxytocin was administered to the sow during parturition (P=0.001) and with increased litter size (P<0.001). It was higher when the interval between birth and first suckling decreased (t FS, P<0.001). Colostrum intake was positively influenced by BWb (P<0.001) and this association was more pronounced in piglets from Topigs (P=0.03) and Hypor (P=0.03) sows compared with piglets from Danbred sow breeds. The positive relationship between colostrum intake and BWb was more pronounced when t FS lasted longer (P=0.009). Heterogeneity in colostrum intake averaged 31±11%, it increased when oxytocin was applied during farrowing (P=0.004) and when stillbirth occurred (P=0.006). Colostrum heterogeneity was positively associated with litter size (P<0.001) and litter BWb heterogeneity (P=0.01). The positive relationship between colostrum and litter BWb heterogeneity was more pronounced when oxytocin was applied during farrowing (P=0.04). The present study demonstrated that oxytocin should be used cautiously in sows during farrowing. Farrowing and colostrum management should prevent or counteract the adverse influences of stillbirth, large and heterogeneous litters on colostrum intake and colostrum heterogeneity. The study also confirmed the expected association

  7. Does the environmental background (intensive v. outdoor systems) influence the behaviour of piglets at weaning?

    PubMed

    Lau, Y Y W; Pluske, J R; Fleming, P A

    2015-08-01

    Under intensive pig husbandry, outdoor systems offer a more complex physical and social environment compared with indoor systems (farrowing sheds). As the rearing environment affects behavioural development, it can, therefore, influence behavioural responses of pigs to stressful environments in later stages of production. We tested how the rearing environment influenced behavioural responses to a novel arena test in piglets on the day that they were weaned and mixed into large groups. We recorded video footage and compared the behavioural responses of 30 outdoor-raised and 30 farrowing shed-raised piglets tested in an experimental arena and sequentially exposed to four challenges (each for 5 min) on the day of weaning. Quantitative and qualitative behavioural measures were recorded using time budgets and scoring demeanour or 'qualitative behavioural expression' (using Qualitative Behavioural Assessment (QBA)). When held in isolation (challenge 1), both groups were scored as more 'scared/worried', while outdoor-raised piglets spent more time eating and jumping against the arena walls. Both groups interacted with a plastic ball (challenge 2: exposure to a novel object) during which they were scored as more 'playful/curious' than other challenges. When a food bowl was introduced (challenge 3), farrowing shed-raised piglets were more interested in playing with the food bowl itself, whereas outdoor-raised piglets spent more time eating the feed. Finally, there were no significant differences in social behaviour (challenge 4: introduction of another piglet) between the two groups in terms of the latency to contact each other, amount of time recorded engaged in aggressive/non-aggressive social interactions or QBA scores. Although piglets spent 30% of their time interacting with the other piglet, and half of this time (47%) was engaged in negative interactions (pushing, biting), the levels of aggression were not different between the two groups. Overall, outdoor

  8. Development of the Prosodic Features of Infants' Vocalizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Harlan; Sheppard, William

    Traditional research methods of recording infant verbal behavior, namely, descriptions by a single observer transcribing the utterances of a single infant in a naturalistic setting, have been inadequate to provide data necessary for modern linguistic analyses. The Center for Research on Language and Language Behavior has undertaken to correct this…

  9. Social Approaches to Infant Feeding in Urban African Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children in the Tropics, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This case study examines solutions to infant malnutrition in Africa from an interdisciplinary perspective, identifying factors that directly or indirectly influence practices involved in feeding infants from birth to age 3 in Maradi, Niger. The study begins by providing a conceptual framework and description of the approach used in the analysis,…

  10. Upregulation of vascular calcium channels in neonatal piglets with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hirenallur-S., Dinesh K.; Haworth, Steven T.; Leming, Jeaninne T.; Chang, James; Hernandez, Guillermo; Gordon, John B.; Rusch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of voltage-gated, L-type Ca2+ (CaL) channels by clinical calcium channel blockers provides symptomatic improvement to some pediatric patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The present study investigated whether abnormalities of vascular CaL channels contribute to the pathogenesis of neonatal PAH using a newborn piglet model of hypoxia-induced PAH. Neonatal piglets exposed to chronic hypoxia (CH) developed PAH by 21 days, which was evident as a 2.1-fold increase in pulmonary vascular resistance in vivo compared with piglets raised in normoxia (N). Transpulmonary pressures (ΔPtp) in the corresponding isolated perfused lungs were 20.5 ± 2.1 mmHg (CH) and 11.6 ± 0.8 mmHg (N). Nifedipine reduced the elevated ΔPtp in isolated lungs of CH piglets by 6.4 ± 1.3 mmHg but only reduced ΔPtp in lungs of N piglets by 1.9 ± 0.2 mmHg. Small pulmonary arteries from CH piglets also demonstrated accentuated Ca2+-dependent contraction, and Ca2+ channel current was 3.94-fold higher in the resident vascular muscle cells. Finally, although the level of mRNA encoding the pore-forming α1C-subunit of the CaL channel was similar between small pulmonary arteries from N and CH piglets, a profound and persistent upregulation of the vascular α1C protein was detected by 10 days in CH piglets at a time when pulmonary vascular resistance was only mildly elevated. Thus chronic hypoxia in the neonate is associated with the anomalous upregulation of CaL channels in small pulmonary arteries in vivo and the resulting abnormal Ca2+-dependent resistance may contribute to the pathogenesis of PAH. PMID:18776054

  11. Fermented wheat in liquid diets: effects on gastrointestinal characteristics in weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Scholten, R H J; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; den Hartog, L A; Balk, M; Schrama, J W; Verstegen, M W A

    2002-05-01

    Effects of adding fermented wheat to liquid diets on gastrointestinal characteristics in weanling piglets were studied. Gastrointestinal characteristics of 40 28-d-old weanling piglets were measured at the day of weaning (d 0) and at d 4 and 8 after weaning. Piglets were group-housed and fed twice daily. Feeding level was based on the average metabolic BW of piglets per group. Groups were fed a liquid diet with either 45% unfermented wheat (FERM_0) or 45% fermented wheat (FERM_45). The other 55% of the diet was identical. To ferment wheat, water at 30 degrees C was added to milled wheat in a 1:2.2 ratio. The pH and contents of lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid were measured in the digesta of the stomach, three parts of the small intestine, cecum, and large intestine. In addition, changes in microbial populations in the digesta were studied during the period after weaning. Moreover, villus height, crypt depth, and villus shape were studied in the small intestine. Piglets fed FERM_45 showed lower gastric pH (P < 0.05) at d 4 and higher gastric lactic acid content (P < 0.001) at both d 4 and 8. Piglets fed FERM_45 showed in the first part of the small intestine higher villus height (P < 0.01) at d 8 and higher villus:crypt ratio (P < 0.001) at both d 4 and 8. Villus shape tended (P < 0.10) to be favorable for piglets fed FERM_45. The present study indicates that feeding a partly fermented liquid diet to weanling piglets may be a concept to prevent undesirable changes in mucosal architecture after weaning.

  12. Stock Photographs Do Not Comply With Infant Safe Sleep Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Goodstein, Michael H; Lagon, Elena; Bell, Theodore; Joyner, Brandi L; Moon, Rachel Y

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated images in popular stock photography websites for adherence with American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for safe infant sleep practices. Three top stock photo websites were used to collect photographs generated from key phrases. All images depicting an infant sleep environment were analyzed for consistency with AAP guidelines. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and z test of proportions, were conducted. A total of 1233 of 1947 stock photographs showed sleeping infants on a flat surface. In all, 627 (50.8%) photographs showed the infant in the supine position and 79 (5%) of all infant sleep environments were adherent with AAP recommendations. Bedding inconsistent with safe sleep recommendations was identified in 1133 images (71.3%), with blankets noted in 49.5%. Images depicting sleeping infants on stock photography sites do not routinely adhere to AAP recommendations. Media messages inconsistent with health care messages create confusion and misinformation about infant sleep safety and may lead inadvertently to unsafe practices.

  13. Urinary catheter - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  14. Characteristics of Mother-Infant Communicative Interaction: Relations to the Ratings of Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paavola, Leila; Kemppinen, Kaarina; Kunnari, Sari; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Ebeling, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    The present article reports a study of communicative behaviour among mothers and infants who were grouped according to the ratings of sensitivity and co-operation, respectively. The participants were 27 Finnish-speaking mothers and their 10-month-old first-born infants (13 boys and 14 girls). The study is descriptive by nature, and the data were…

  15. Effects of polymeric formula vs elemental formula in neonatal piglets with short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hua, Zheng; Turner, Justine M; Mager, Diana R; Sigalet, David L; Wizzard, Pamela R; Nation, Patrick N; Ball, Ron O; Pencharz, Paul B; Wales, Paul W

    2014-05-01

    Intestinal adaptation is important for recovery in short bowel syndrome (SBS). This process is dependent on the presence of enteral nutrition (EN) and trophic factors, such as glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). In clinical practice, elemental formula is often used to feed neonates with SBS, whereas animal studies suggest polymeric formula promotes better intestinal adaptation. In neonatal piglet models of SBS, with or without ileum, we compared the elemental with the polymeric formula, including the effect on endogenous GLP-2. Forty-eight piglets underwent 75% mid-intestinal resection with jejunoileal anastomosis, 75% distal-intestinal resection with jejunocolic anastomosis (JC), or sham without resection. Parenteral nutrition (PN) started postoperatively, tapering as EN was increased, according to clinical criteria, based on diarrhea and weight. Within groups, piglets were randomized to an isocaloric/isonitrogenous elemental (amino acid) or polymeric (intact protein) diet. Plasma GLP-2 and histology for adaptation were measured at 14 days. Within both SBS and control groups, no difference in adaptation was observed according to diet. A difference was observed only within the JC piglet group with regard to clinical outcomes. In these piglets, compared with elemental formula, the polymeric formula was associated with more diarrhea ( P = .023) and longer duration of PN support (P = .047). An overall benefit of the polymeric formula over the elemental formula on gut adaptation was not observed. Furthermore, SBS piglets without ileum had less ability to tolerate polymeric formula, contributing to more days of PN support.

  16. [Experiences with pain control during piglet castration in Switzerland Part 2: Injection anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Enz, A; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Bettschart, R; Fuschini, E; Bürgi, E; Sidler, X

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the practical implementation of the painless castration under injection anaesthesia in Switzerland. 30 swine farms were visited and 60 farmers answered a questionnaire. 34 % of the piglets showed movements during castration under injection anaesthesia and 17 % had excitations during recovery from anaesthesia. After 48 minutes half of the piglets were in sternal position and after 112 minutes half of them showed coordinated movements. The body temperature decreased by 3.1 °C until 60 minutes after castration, especially small piglets reached critical temperature levels. 38 % of the piglets showed strong bleeding after castration. The healing of the wound was good according to 82 % of the farmers. 83 % of the farmers reported piglet losses, especially at the beginning of the anaesthesia period. The anaesthesia may be improved by using butorphanol in addition to the combination of ketamine and azaperone. The recovery of the piglets should be in a warm place without any risk of injury by obstacles or the sow. Increased bleeding can be controlled by using an emasculator.

  17. Variance and covariance components for liability of piglet survival during different periods.

    PubMed

    Su, G; Sorensen, D; Lund, M S

    2008-02-01

    Variance and covariance components for piglet survival in different periods were estimated from individual records of 133 004 Danish Landrace piglets and 89 928 Danish Yorkshire piglets, using a liability threshold model including both direct and maternal additive genetic effects. At the individual piglet level, the estimates of direct heritability in Landrace were 0.035, 0.057 and 0.027, and in Yorkshire the estimates were 0.012, 0.030 and 0.025 for liability of survival at farrowing (SVB), from birth to day 5 (SV5) and from day 6 to weaning (SVW), respectively. The estimates of maternal heritability for SVB, SV5 and SVW were, respectively, 0.057, 0.040 and 0.030 in Landrace, and 0.050, 0.038 and 0.019 in Yorkshire. Both direct and maternal genetic correlations between the three survival traits were low and not significantly different from zero, except for a moderate direct genetic correlation between SVB and SV5 and between SV5 and SVW in Landrace. Direct and maternal genetic correlations between piglet birth weight (BW) and SV5 were moderately high, but the correlations between BW and SVB and between BW and SVW were low and most of them were not significantly different from zero. These results suggest that effective genetic improvement in piglet survival before weaning by selection should be based on both direct and maternal additive genetic effects and treat survival in different periods as different traits.

  18. Salmonella Typhimurium infection primes a nutriprive mechanism in piglets.

    PubMed

    Miarelli, Maria; Drumo, Rosanna; Signorelli, Federica; Marchitelli, Cinzia; Pavone, Silvia; Pesciaroli, Michele; Ruggieri, Jessica; Chirullo, Barbara; Ammendola, Serena; Battistoni, Andrea; Alborali, Giovanni L; Manuali, Elisabetta; Pasquali, Paolo

    2016-04-15

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an important cause of acute food- borne zoonoses worldwide, typically carried by pigs. It is well known that Salmonella has evolved a wide array of strategies enabling it to invade the host, but little information is available on the specific host responses to Salmonella infections. In the present study, we used an in vivo approach (involving piglets infected with a virulent or an attenuated S. Typhimurium strain) coupled to histological and proteomic analysis of the cecum mucosa, to highlight the host pathways activated during S. Typhimurium infection. We confirm the complex host-pathogen interaction. Our data showed that the metabolic and the cytoskeleton organization functions were the most significantly altered. In particular, the modifications of energy metabolic pathway could suggest a "nutriprive" mechanism, in which the host reduce its metabolic and energetic status to limit Salmonella infection. This study could represent a preliminary approach, providing information useful to better understand the host-Salmonella interaction.

  19. Cohort study for the presence of livestock-associated MRSA in piglets: effect of sow status at farrowing and determination of the piglet colonization age.

    PubMed

    Verhegghe, Marijke; Pletinckx, Larissa J; Crombé, Florence; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Butaye, Patrick; Heyndrickx, Marc; Rasschaert, Geertrui

    2013-03-23

    A longitudinal study was performed to determine the age at which piglets become colonized with livestock-associated MRSA and the effect of the sow MRSA status on the colonization status of their offspring. On four farrow-to-finish farms (A-D), nasal swabs were collected during a 6-month period from 12 sows and their offspring per farm. Piglets and sows were sampled throughout the nursery period. Additionally, the piglets were sampled after weaning, before and after moving to the finishing unit and before slaughterhouse transport. The environment of one pen (wall, floor and air) was sampled every time the pigs were sampled. Two MRSA colonization profiles were observed. On farms A and B, the sows' colonization prevalence reached 17% and 33%, respectively. The proportion of positive piglets remained low in the nursing unit (farm A: 0-7%, farm B: 0-36%) and increased at the end of their stay in the growing unit (farm A: 91%, farm B: 69%). On farms C and D, the sows' and piglets' colonization percentages were high from the beginning of the sampling series and finally reached 100%. On all farms, a decrease in colonization was observed towards slaughter age. The colonization age differed between farms. A statistically significant effect of the sow status at farrowing on the piglets' status was observed. The present study indicates that the sow's colonization status is important and should be included in control measures. However, the observed differences in colonization percentages among the farms complicate implementation of control measures on the farm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Neonatal piglet diarrhoea associated with enteroadherent Enterococcus hirae.

    PubMed

    Larsson, J; Lindberg, R; Aspán, A; Grandon, R; Westergren, E; Jacobson, M

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal porcine diarrhoea of uncertain aetiology is an increasing problem in several countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the unexpected finding of enteroadherent cocci in the small intestine of piglets selected for necropsy examination from six herds (18 diarrhoeic piglets and 11 healthy controls). Gross and microscopical lesions were characterized and selected intestinal sections were further examined by immunohistochemistry for expression of active caspase-3. The enteroadherent bacterium was characterized in situ by Gram staining, ultrastructural imaging, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Species identification of enterococci from intestinal cultures was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for one diarrhoeic and one control animal per herd. Gross changes were mild. Microscopically, small intestinal colonization by gram-positive cocci was observed in diarrhoeic animals only and was accompanied by villus atrophy (4/18) and mild epithelial lesions (10/18), including increased apoptosis of enterocytes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed coccoid bacteria adjacent to the epithelium, but without effacement of microvilli. 16S rRNA gene analysis yielded a sequence identical to Enterococcus hirae and FISH identified the enteroadherent bacteria as Enterococcus spp. in all colonized animals. The proportion of bacterial isolates identified as E. hirae by MALDI-TOF MS analysis was significantly higher (P = 0.0138) in diarrhoeic pigs. Species identification was confirmed by species-specific polymerase chain reaction for one E. hirae isolate per herd. These isolates were further tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, which indicated decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin for one isolate (minimum inhibitory concentration >4 mg/l). These findings suggested that neonatal porcine diarrhoea was associated with small intestinal colonization by E

  1. [Descriptive statistics].

    PubMed

    Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Descriptive statistics is the branch of statistics that gives recommendations on how to summarize clearly and simply research data in tables, figures, charts, or graphs. Before performing a descriptive analysis it is paramount to summarize its goal or goals, and to identify the measurement scales of the different variables recorded in the study. Tables or charts aim to provide timely information on the results of an investigation. The graphs show trends and can be histograms, pie charts, "box and whiskers" plots, line graphs, or scatter plots. Images serve as examples to reinforce concepts or facts. The choice of a chart, graph, or image must be based on the study objectives. Usually it is not recommended to use more than seven in an article, also depending on its length.

  2. 49 CFR 572.25 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... General description. (a) The infant dummy is specified in its entirety by means of 5 drawings (No. SA 1001... procedures involved in the manufacturing of this dummy. (b) The drawings, specifications, and construction..., Washington, DC. (d) The structural properties of the dummy are such that the dummy conforms to this part in...

  3. 49 CFR 572.151 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Alpha Version § 572.151 General description. (a) The 12-month-old-infant crash test dummy is described...)). (b) The dummy consists of the component assemblies set out in the following Table A: Table A... dummy are joined in a manner such that, except for contacts existing under static conditions, there...

  4. Roles of Probiotic Lactobacilli Inclusion in Helping Piglets Establish Healthy Intestinal Inter-environment for Pathogen Defense.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiajun; Qian, Kun; Wang, Chonglong; Wu, Yijing

    2017-03-30

    The gastrointestinal tract of pigs is densely populated with microorganisms that closely interact with the host and with ingested feed. Gut microbiota benefits the host by providing nutrients from dietary substrates and modulating the development and function of the digestive and immune systems. An optimized gastrointestinal microbiome is crucial for pigs' health, and establishment of the microbiome in piglets is especially important for growth and disease resistance. However, the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets is immature and easily influenced by the environment. Supplementing the microbiome of piglets with probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus could help create an optimized microbiome by improving the abundance and number of lactobacilli and other indigenous probiotic bacteria. Dominant indigenous probiotic bacteria could improve piglets' growth and immunity through certain cascade signal transduction pathways. The piglet body provides a permissive habitat and nutrients for bacterial colonization and growth. In return, probiotic bacteria produce prebiotics such as short-chain fatty acids and bacteriocins that benefit piglets by enhancing their growth and reducing their risk of enteric infection by pathogens. A comprehensive understanding of the interactions between piglets and members of their gut microbiota will help develop new dietary interventions that can enhance piglets' growth, protect piglets from enteric diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria, and maximize host feed utilization.

  5. Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores

  6. Metabolomic determinants of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies in premature infants and animals show that carbohydrate malabsorption and gut microbiota colonisation are key elements for triggering necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Our aim was to determine how dietary carbohydrate composition affects the metabolomic profile and whether unique metabolite s...

  7. [Infants in Day Care].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue looks at infant day care models including those emphasizing early intervention with special needs infants. The lead article, "Infants in Day Care: Reflections on Experiences, Expectations and Relationships," by Jeree H. Pawl, stresses the importance of understanding infants' and toddlers' capacities and needs in…

  8. [Infants in Day Care].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue looks at infant day care models including those emphasizing early intervention with special needs infants. The lead article, "Infants in Day Care: Reflections on Experiences, Expectations and Relationships," by Jeree H. Pawl, stresses the importance of understanding infants' and toddlers' capacities and needs in…

  9. Plasma volume replacement with HES 130/0.42 obviates negative side effects of pneumoperitoneum in piglets.

    PubMed

    Osthaus, Wilhelm Alexander; Huber, Dirk; Bäumker, Christoph; Witt, Lars; Metzelder, Martin; Kuebler, Jochen; Sümpelmann, Robert

    2008-10-01

    Evidence-based guidelines on optimal perioperative fluid management in infants have not been established. Recent randomized trials in major abdominal surgery in adults suggest that large volumes of fluid may increase morbidity and hospital stay. Our own clinical experience in infants undergoing laparoscopic surgery is different. So the aim of this study was to compare a crystalloid vs a plasma volume stabilizing fluid management regime during prolonged pneumoperitoneum (PP) in an experimental setting. Fifteen German landrace piglets were randomized to one of the following treatment groups: control (no PP, 5 ml x kg(-1) x h(-1) electrolyte solution); crystalloid (180 min of PP, 5 ml x kg(-1) x h(-1) electrolyte solution); colloid (180 min of PP, single bolus of 5 ml x kg(-1) followed by 5 ml x kg(-1) x h(-1) hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42/6:2). After decompression, monitoring was continued for a further 120 min. During the investigation, the hemodynamic situation including transpulmonary thermodilution and blood gases was monitored periodically. During the study, mean arterial pressure remained within the normal range in colloid-treated animals and controls, but was significantly lower in crystalloid-treated animals after decompression of PP. Cardiac output remained within the normal range in the colloid and control groups, but decreased in the crystalloid-treated animals. In the crystalloid group, the lactate concentrations were higher and base excess was lower than in the colloid and control groups at 240 and 300 min (study end). This study shows that the negative effects of prolonged PP on hemodynamics and acid-base balance can be obviated by a liberal plasma volume stabilization regimen with colloids.

  10. Limited effects of preterm birth and the first enteral nutrition on cerebellum morphology and gene expression in piglets.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Kaalund, Sanne S; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Andersen, Anders D; Pakkenberg, Bente; Rosenørn, Ann; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Thymann, Thomas; Greisen, Gorm O; Sanglid, Per T

    2016-07-01

    Preterm pigs show many signs of immaturity that are characteristic of preterm infants. In preterm infants, the cerebellum grows particularly rapid and hypoplasia and cellular lesions are associated with motor dysfunction and cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that functional brain delays observed in preterm pigs would be paralleled by both structural and molecular differences in the cerebellum relative to term born piglets. Cerebella were collected from term (n = 56) and preterm (90% gestation, n = 112) pigs at 0, 5, and 26 days after birth for stereological volume estimations, large-scale qPCR gene expression analyses (selected neurodevelopmental genes) and western blot protein expression analysis (Sonic Hedgehog pathway). Memory and learning was tested using a T-maze, documenting that preterm pigs showed delayed learning. Preterm pigs also showed reduced volume of both white and gray matter at all three ages but the proportion of white matter increased postnatally, relative to term pigs. Early initiation of enteral nutrition had limited structural or molecular effects. The Sonic Hedgehog pathway was unaffected by preterm birth. Few differences in expression of the selected genes were found, except consistently higher mRNA levels of Midkine, p75, and Neurotrophic factor 3 in the preterm cerebellum postnatally, probably reflecting an adaptive response to preterm birth. Pig cerebellar development appears more affected by postconceptional age than by environmental factors at birth or postnatally. Compensatory mechanisms following preterm birth may include faster white matter growth and increased expression of selected genes for neurotrophic factors and regulation of angiogenesis. While the pig cerebellum is immature in 90% gestation preterm pigs, it appears relatively mature and resilient toward environmental factors.

  11. A piglet with surgically induced exocrine pancreatic insufficiency as an animal model of newborns to study fat digestion.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Kateryna; Pierzynowski, Stefan G; Grujic, Danica; Kirko, Siarhei; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Wang, Jing; Kovalenko, Tetiana; Osadchenko, Iryna; Ushakova, Galyna; Shmigel, Halyna; Fedkiv, Olexandr; Majda, Blanka; Prykhodko, Olena

    2014-12-28

    The maldigestion and malabsorption of fat in infants fed milk formula results due to the minimal production of pancreatic lipase. Thus, to investigate lipid digestion and absorption and mimic the situation in newborns, a young porcine exocrine pancreatic insufficient (EPI) model was adapted and validated in the present study. A total of thirteen EPI pigs, aged 8 weeks old, were randomised into three groups and fed either a milk-based formula or a milk-based formula supplemented with either bacterial or fungal lipase. Digestion and absorption of fat was directly correlated with the addition of lipases as demonstrated by a 30% increase in the coefficient of fat absorption. In comparison to the control group, a 40 and 25% reduction in total fat content and 26 and 45% reduction in n-3 and n-6 fatty acid (FA) content in the stool was observed for lipases 1 and 2, respectively. Improved fat absorption was reflected in the blood levels of lipid parameters. During the experiment, only a very slight gain in body weight was observed in EPI piglets, which can be explained by the absence of pancreatic protease and amylase in the gastrointestinal tract. This is similar to newborn babies that have reduced physiological function of exocrine pancreas. In conclusion, we postulate that the EPI pig model fed with infant formula mimics the growth and lipid digestion and absorption in human neonates and can be used to elucidate further importance of fat and FA in the development and growth of newborns, as well as for testing novel formula compositions.

  12. Bromelain protects piglets from diarrhoea caused by oral challenge with K88 positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, D; Mynott, T

    1998-01-01

    Background—K88 positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88+ ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhoea in young piglets. K88+ ETEC pathogenesis relies on attachment to specific glycoprotein receptors located on the intestinal mucosa. Proteolytic treatment of these receptors in vitro and in vivo prevents attachment of K88+ ETEC to piglet small intestines and may be of clinical use to prevent K88+ ETEC pathogenesis. 
Aims—To determine whether bromelain, a proteolytic extract obtained from pineapple stems, would protect piglets against K88+ ETEC diarrhoea and to confirm and extend earlier findings on the effects of bromelain on K88+ ETEC receptors in vivo. 
Methods—Bromelain (0, 12.5, or 125 mg) was orally administered to just weaned piglets for 10 days. One day following commencement of bromelain treatment, piglets were challenged with K88+ ETEC (5 × 1010 K88ac:0149) for seven days. Intestinal contents from unchallenged piglets were obtained via an intestinal fistula, and tested for their ability to bind K88+ ETEC before and after bromelain treatment. 
Results—Both doses of bromelain were successful in reducing the incidence of K88+ ETEC diarrhoea and protected piglets from life threatening disease. Bromelain treated pigs also had significantly increased weight gain compared with untreated pigs. Bromelain only temporarily inhibited K88+ ETEC receptor activity, with receptor activity being regenerated 30 hours following treatment, consistent with the regeneration of new enterocytes. 
Conclusion—Results show that bromelain can temporarily inactivate ETEC receptors in vivo and protect against ETEC induced diarrhoea. Bromelain may therefore be an effective prophylaxis against ETEC infection. 

 Keywords: enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli; K88 ETEC; ETEC receptors; diarrhoea; bromelain PMID:10189844

  13. Acute effects of rotavirus and malnutrition on intestinal barrier function in neonatal piglets

    PubMed Central

    Jacobi, Sheila K; Moeser, Adam J; Blikslager, Anthony T; Rhoads, J Marc; Corl, Benjamin A; Harrell, Robert J; Odle, Jack

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of protein-energy malnutrition on intestinal barrier function during rotavirus enteritis in a piglet model. METHODS: Newborn piglets were allotted at day 4 of age to the following treatments: (1) full-strength formula (FSF)/noninfected; (2) FSF/rotavirus infected; (3) half-strength formula (HSF)/noninfected; or (4) HSF/rotavirus infected. After one day of adjustment to the feeding rates, pigs were infected with rotavirus and acute effects on growth and diarrhea were monitored for 3 d and jejunal samples were collected for Ussing-chamber analyses. RESULTS: Piglets that were malnourished or infected had lower body weights on days 2 and 3 post-infection (P < 0.05). Three days post-infection, marked diarrhea and weight loss were accompanied by sharp reductions in villus height (59%) and lactase activity (91%) and increased crypt depth (21%) in infected compared with non-infected pigs (P < 0.05). Malnutrition also increased crypt depth (21%) compared to full-fed piglets. Villus:crypt ratio was reduced (67%) with viral infection. There was a trend for reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance with rotavirus infection and malnutrition (P = 0.1). 3H-mannitol flux was significantly increased (50%; P < 0.001) in rotavirus-infected piglets compared to non-infected piglets, but there was no effect of nutritional status. Furthermore, rotavirus infection reduced localization of the tight junction protein, occludin, in the cell membrane and increased localization in the cytosol. CONCLUSION: Overall, malnutrition had no additive effects to rotavirus infection on intestinal barrier function at day 3 post-infection in a neonatal piglet model. PMID:23964143

  14. Acute effects of rotavirus and malnutrition on intestinal barrier function in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Sheila K; Moeser, Adam J; Blikslager, Anthony T; Rhoads, J Marc; Corl, Benjamin A; Harrell, Robert J; Odle, Jack

    2013-08-21

    To investigate the effect of protein-energy malnutrition on intestinal barrier function during rotavirus enteritis in a piglet model. Newborn piglets were allotted at day 4 of age to the following treatments: (1) full-strength formula (FSF)/noninfected; (2) FSF/rotavirus infected; (3) half-strength formula (HSF)/noninfected; or (4) HSF/rotavirus infected. After one day of adjustment to the feeding rates, pigs were infected with rotavirus and acute effects on growth and diarrhea were monitored for 3 d and jejunal samples were collected for Ussing-chamber analyses. Piglets that were malnourished or infected had lower body weights on days 2 and 3 post-infection (P < 0.05). Three days post-infection, marked diarrhea and weight loss were accompanied by sharp reductions in villus height (59%) and lactase activity (91%) and increased crypt depth (21%) in infected compared with non-infected pigs (P < 0.05). Malnutrition also increased crypt depth (21%) compared to full-fed piglets. Villus:crypt ratio was reduced (67%) with viral infection. There was a trend for reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance with rotavirus infection and malnutrition (P = 0.1). (3)H-mannitol flux was significantly increased (50%; P < 0.001) in rotavirus-infected piglets compared to non-infected piglets, but there was no effect of nutritional status. Furthermore, rotavirus infection reduced localization of the tight junction protein, occludin, in the cell membrane and increased localization in the cytosol. Overall, malnutrition had no additive effects to rotavirus infection on intestinal barrier function at day 3 post-infection in a neonatal piglet model.

  15. Labour time required for piglet castration with isoflurane-anaesthesia using shared and stationary inhaler devices.

    PubMed

    Weber, Sabrina; Das, Gürbüz; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Isoflurane-anaesthesia combined with an analgesic represents a welfare-friendly method of pain mitigation for castration of piglets. However, it requires an inhaler device, which is uneconomic for small farms. Sharing a device among farms may be an economical option if the shared use does not increase labour time and the resulting costs. This study aimed to investigate the amount and components of labour time required for piglet castration with isoflurane anaesthesia performed with stationary and shared devices. Piglets (N = 1579) were anaesthetised with isoflurane (using either stationary or shared devices) and castrated.The stationary devices were used in a group (n = 5) of larger farms (84 sows/farm on an average), whereas smaller farms (n = 7; 32 sows/farm on an average) shared one device. Each farm was visited four times and labour time for each process-step was recorded. The complete process included machine set-up, anaesthesia and castration by a practitioner, and preparation, collection and transport of piglets by a farmer. Labour time of the complete process was increased (P = 0.012) on farms sharing a device (266 s/piglet) compared to farms using stationary devices (177 s/ piglet), due to increased time for preparation (P = 0.055), castration (P = 0.026) and packing (P = 0.010) when sharing a device. However, components of the time budget of farms using stationary or shared devices did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Cost arising from time spent by farmers did not differ considerably between the use of stationary (0.28 Euro per piglet) and shared (0.26 Euro) devices. It is concluded that costs arising from the increased labour time due to sharing a device can be considered marginal, since the high expenses originating from purchasing an inhaler device are shared among several farms.

  16. Ghrelin in the gastrointestinal tract and blood circulation of perinatal low and normal weight piglets.

    PubMed

    Willemen, S A; De Vos, M; Huygelen, V; Fransen, E; Tambuyzer, B R; Casteleyn, C; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C

    2013-12-01

    Ghrelin, the 'hunger' hormone, is an endogenous growth hormone secretagogue that exerts a wide range of physiological functions. Its perinatal presence suggests that ghrelin might be involved in growth and metabolism processes during intrauterine and postnatal life. Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) neonates have altered endocrine and metabolic pathways because of malnutrition during foetal development. These changes might include an altered gastrointestinal presence of ghrelin cells (GCs). As ghrelin is mainly secreted by the stomach, this altered presence might be reflected in its serum concentrations. Small-for-gestational age (SGA) pigs appear to be a natural occurring model for IUGR children. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to investigate the presence of gastrointestinal GCs expressing active ghrelin in normal weight (NW) foetal and postnatal piglets compared with their SGA littermates using immunohistochemical analysis in combination with stereological methods. Second, total ghrelin serum concentrations of these piglets were analysed with a porcine radioactive immunoassay. In addition, the growth of the gastric pars fundica in the NW and SGA piglets was analysed stereologically. Corresponding with humans and rats, it was shown that opened- and closed-type immunoreactive GCs are distributed along the entire gastrointestinal tract of the perinatal NW and SGA piglets. However, in contrast to the rat's stomach, the porcine GCs do not disperse from the glandular base to the glandular neck during perinatal development. Furthermore, stereological analysis demonstrated that the NW neonates have a higher amount of gastric cells expressing active ghrelin compared with the SGA piglets that could result in higher milk consumption during the neonatal period. This finding is, however, not reflected in total serum ghrelin levels, which showed no difference between the NW and SGA piglets. Moreover, the stereological volume densities of the fundic layers

  17. Alternative for improving gut microbiota: use of Jerusalem artichoke and probiotics in diet of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Valdovska, A; Jemeljanovs, A; Pilmane, M; Zitare, I; Konosonoka, I H; Lazdins, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Jerusalem artichoke and probiotics on defence activity of intestinal cells of weaning pigs. One hundred eighty piglets (7 weeks old) were fed with basal feed supplemented with Jerusalem artichoke, Lactobacillus reuteri and Pediococcus pentosaceus. After 5 weeks, the piglets were slaughtered and the gastrointestinal contents and intestine samples were taken for analysis. Results demonstrated that in pigs fed basal diet with both probiotics and Jerusalem artichoke (5% of basal diet) (T3 group) had less (P<0.05) faecal Enterobacteriaceae microorganisms and coliforms and had more (P<0,05) faecal Lactobacillus than in pigs from other groups. Increase by 2% of Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli levels were seen only in control piglets (T1 group). E. coli O157 was found at the closing stage in the piglets fed basal diet with only Jerusalem artichoke powder (T2 group), but Salmonella enteritidis - only in T1 group. In jejunum of T2 group piglets, large deterioration of crypts, a moderate inflammation process and plasmocytes were seen, but in jejunum of T3 group piglets - branching of apical surface of villi, moderate degeneration and mitosis of enterocytes were observed. A moderate number of apoptotic cells in T2 group was found mainly in colon inflammation cells and plasmocytes, but for T3 group piglets--both in jejunum enterocytes and migrating cells. Our study indicated that beta-defensin 2 and 3 expression in jejunum and colon segments were incresed in T1 and T2 groups. Findings suggest that feeding with probiotics and Jerusalem artichoke significantly improves the microbial contents, defence and regeneration processes in the intestine of pigs.

  18. Nitrous oxide as a humane method for piglet euthanasia: Behavior and electroencephalography (EEG).

    PubMed

    Rault, Jean-Loup; Kells, Nikki; Johnson, Craig; Dennis, Rachel; Sutherland, Mhairi; Lay, Donald C

    2015-11-01

    The search for humane methods to euthanize piglets is critical to address public concern that current methods are not optimal. Blunt force trauma is considered humane but esthetically objectionable. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is used but criticized as aversive. This research sought to: 1) evaluate the aversiveness of inhaling nitrous oxide (N2O; 'laughing gas') using an approach-avoidance test relying on the piglet's perspective, and 2) validate its humaneness to induce loss of consciousness by electroencephalography (EEG). The gas mixtures tested were N2O and air (90%:10%; '90 N'); N2O, oxygen and air (60%:30%:10%; '60 N'); and CO2 and air (90%:10%; '90 C'). Experiment 1 allowed piglets to walk freely between one chamber filled with air and another prefilled with 60 N or 90 N. All piglets exposed to 60 N lasted for the 10 min test duration whereas all piglets exposed to 90 N had to be removed within 5 min because they fell recumbent and unresponsive and then started to flail. Experiment 2 performed the same test except the gas chamber held N2O prefilled at 25%, 50%, or 75% or CO2 prefilled at 7%, 14%, or 21%. The test was terminated more quickly at higher concentrations due to the piglets' responses. Time spent ataxic was greater in the middle concentration gradients. Flailing behavior tended to correlate with increasing concentrations of CO2 but not N2O. Experiment 3, using the minimal anesthesia model, showed that both 90 N and 90 C induced isoelectric EEG, in 71 and 59 s respectively, but not 60 N within 15 min. The EEG results together with the observed behavioral changes reflect differences in the animal's perceptive experience. The implications for animal welfare are that N2O is much less aversive than CO2, and 90% N2O can euthanize piglets.

  19. Effects of the antimicrobial peptide cecropin AD on performance and intestinal health in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shudan; Zhang, Fengrui; Huang, Zhimin; Liu, Hong; Xie, Chunyuan; Zhang, Jiang; Thacker, Philip A; Qiao, Shiyan

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of the antimicrobial peptide cecropin on performance and intestinal health in piglets. Newly weaned barrows were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n=8), including a corn-soybean basal diet or similar diets supplemented with antibiotics (100 mg/kg kitasamycin plus 800 mg/kg colistin sulfate) or 400 mg/kg cecropin AD. On day 13, all piglets were orally challenged with 10(9)CFU/mL of Escherichia coli K88. On day 19, all piglets were euthanized and sampled. Before challenge, piglets fed antibiotics had greater weight gain, feed efficiency, nitrogen and energy retention than the control (P<0.05). E. coli challenge decreased weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency for the control piglets (P<0.05) but not for the antibiotic or cecropin AD treated piglets. The incidence of diarrhea post-challenge in the antibiotic and cecropin AD treatments decreased compared with the control piglets. The total viable counts of cecal E. coli were lower while the Lactobacilli counts were higher in the antibiotic and cecropin AD treatments compared with the control (P<0.05). Cecropin AD treatment decreased total aerobes while increasing total anaerobes in the ileum (P<0.05). A higher villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum and ileum as well as a deeper crypt depth in the jejunum and higher villus height in the ileum were observed in piglets fed antibiotics or cecropin AD compared with control piglets (P<0.05). Piglets fed the control diet had lower levels of secretory IgA in their jejunum and lower serum IgA, IgG, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 compared with the other treatments (P<0.05). Overall, these data suggest that cecropin AD enhances pig performance through increasing immune status and nitrogen and energy retention as well as reducing intestinal pathogens in weaned piglets.

  20. Effect of age, dose and antibiotic therapy on the development of Clostridium difficile infection in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Paulo H E; Madson, Darin M; Ramirez, Alejandro; Rowe, Eric; Lizer, Joshua T; Songer, J Glenn

    2013-08-01

    Piglet diarrhea is associated with increased pre-weaning mortality, poor growth rates, and variation in weight at weaning. Clostridium difficile is a known cause of enteric disease in neonatal piglets, yet risk factors associated with C. difficile infection in piglets are unknown. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the consistency and severity of lesions in piglets challenged with C. difficile at different bacterial doses (DOSAGE experiment), (2) evaluate the use of antibiotics as a contributing risk factor in 1-day-old piglets (ANTIMICROBIAL experiment), and (3) to provide a clinical and histological evaluation of C. difficile infection in 10-day-old piglets (AGE experiment). One hundred and eleven conventional neonatal pigs were snatch farrowed and divided into experimental groups addressing the objectives. In the DOSAGE experiment, 40 1-day-old piglets were sham inoculated or challenged with varying amounts of C. difficile heat shocked spores and euthanized 72 h post infection. Results indicate a clear trend for disease development as bacterial numbers increase. In the ANTIMICROBIAL experiment, 39 1-day-old piglets were challenged and then treated with one of four different antibiotics after 16 h. No significant difference in disease development was found. Thirty-three 10-day-old piglets were given varying doses of C. difficile in the AGE experiment. Disease and lesions were reproduced in 10-day-old piglets. Combined results indicate that C. difficile dosage appears to be an important factor that influences the appearance and severity of lesions, 10-day-old pigs can develop disease associated with C. difficile, and antibiotic administration following inoculation may not be a major contributor for disease in neonatal piglets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunogenicity of an Autogenous Streptococcus suis Bacterin in Preparturient Sows and Their Piglets in Relation to Protection after Weaning▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Baums, Christoph Georg; Brüggemann, Christian; Kock, Christoph; Beineke, Andreas; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important porcine pathogen causing meningitis and other invasive diseases in piglets of different ages. Application of S. suis serotype 2 bacterins to specific-pathogen-free (SPF) weaning piglets has been demonstrated to protect against the homologous serotype. However, autogenous S. suis bacterins are also applied to sows and suckling piglets in the field. Therefore, comparative evaluation of different bacterin immunization regimes, including sow vaccination, was performed in this study. The main objectives were to determine the immunogenicity of an S. suis bacterin in sows prepartum and its influence on active immunization of piglets. Experimental infection of 6- and 8-week-old weaning piglets was performed to elucidate protective efficacies. Humoral immune responses were investigated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measuring muramidase-released protein (MRP)-specific IgG titers and by opsonophagocytosis assays. Bacterin application elicited high MRP-specific IgG titers in the serum and colostrum of sows, as well as opsonizing antibodies. Piglets from vaccinated sows had significantly higher MRP-specific titers than respective piglets from nonvaccinated sows until 6 weeks postpartum. Vaccination of suckling piglets did not result in high MRP-specific titers nor in induction of opsonizing antibodies. Furthermore, neither vaccination of suckling nor of weaning piglets from immunized sows was associated with a prominent active immune response and protection at 8 weeks postpartum. However, protection was observed in respective 6-week-old weaning piglets, most likely because of protective maternal immunity. In conclusion, this study provides the first results suggesting protective passive maternal immunity for S. suis serotype 2 after bacterin vaccination of sows and a strong inhibitory effect on active immunization of suckling and weaning piglets, leading to highly susceptible growers. PMID:20739502

  2. Growth and reproductive development of male piglets are more vulnerable to mid-gestation maternal stress than that of female piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In many mammalian species, prenatal stress masculinizes female and feminizes male offspring impairing their reproductive capacity. Regrouping gestating sows is a common, stressful production practice, but its impact on the sow’s developing piglets is not fully known. This study examined the effects ...

  3. Increasing the frequency of co-mingling piglets during the lactation period alters the development of social behavior before and after weaning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to determine how increasing the frequency of co-mingling affected piglets' behavior development before and after weaning. Co-mingling once (CM1), piglets interacted with 1 unfamiliar litter Days 10-18 after birth, co-mingling twice (CM2), piglets interacted with 1 unfam...

  4. Contributions…uterine environment and piglet genotype on weaning survivability potential: II. Piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition…blood profiles…lactation…reciprocal embryo transfers…Meishan and White…gilts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crossbreeding studies between Meishan (MS) and Large White (LW) pigs have illustrated that increased piglet growth prior to weaning is attributed to the maternal genotype of LW dams. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of the maternal uterine environment (MUE), piglet geno...

  5. Clinical and Virological Features of Dengue in Vietnamese Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bich Chau, Tran Nguyen; Anders, Katherine L.; Lien, Le Bich; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Minh Hieu, Lu Thi; Tuan, Nguyen Minh; Thuy, Tran Thi; Phuong, Le Thi; Hong Tham, Nguyen Thi; Lanh, Mai Ngoc; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Whitehead, Stephen S.; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Infants account for a small proportion of the overall dengue case burden in endemic countries but can be clinically more difficult to manage. The clinical and laboratory features in infants with dengue have not been extensively characterised. Methodology/Principal Findings This prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study of infants hospitalized with dengue was conducted in Vietnam from November 2004 to December 2007. More than two-thirds of 303 infants enrolled on clinical suspicion of dengue had a serologically confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infection. Almost all were primary dengue infections and 80% of the infants developed DHF/DSS. At the time of presentation and during hospitalization, the clinical signs and symptoms in infants with dengue were difficult to distinguish from those with other febrile illnesses, suggesting that in infants early laboratory confirmation could assist appropriate management. Detection of plasma NS1 antigen was found to be a sensitive marker of acute dengue in infants with primary infection, especially in the first few days of illness. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, these results provide a systematic description of the clinical features of dengue in infants and highlight the value of NS1 detection for diagnosis. PMID:20405057

  6. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants... importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers and components...

  7. Postnatal piglet husbandry practices and well-being: the effects of alternative techniques delivered separately.

    PubMed

    Marchant-Forde, J N; Lay, D C; McMunn, K A; Cheng, H W; Pajor, E A; Marchant-Forde, R M

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate stress responses evoked by 2 alternative methods for performing the following processing procedures: 1) teeth resection-clipping vs. grinding; 2) tail docking-cold vs. hot clipping; 3) identification-ear notch vs. tag; 4) iron administration-injection vs. oral; 5) castration-cords cut vs. torn. Eight to 10 litters of 8-, 2-, and 3-d-old piglets were assigned to each procedure. Within each litter, 2 piglets were assigned to 1 of 4 possible procedures: the 2 alternative methods, a sham procedure, and a sham procedure plus blood sampling. Blood was sampled before processing and at 45 min, 4 h, 48 h, 1 wk, and 2 wk postprocedure and assayed for cortisol and beta-endorphin. Procedures were videotaped and analyzed to evaluate the time taken to perform the procedure and the number of squeals, grunts, and escape attempts. Vocalizations were analyzed to determine mean and peak frequencies and duration. Piglets were weighed before the procedure and at 24 h, 48 h, 1 wk, and 2 wk afterward. Lesions were scored on a scale of 0 to 5 on pigs in the identification, tail docking, and castration treatments at 24 h, 1 wk, and 2 wk postprocedure. For teeth resection, grinding took longer than clipping and resulted in greater cortisol concentration overall, poorer growth rates, and longer vocalizations compared with pigs in the control treatment (P<0.05). For tail docking, hot clipping took longer, and hot-clipped piglets grew slower than cold-clipped piglets (P<0.05). Hot clipping also resulted in longer and higher frequency squealing compared with pigs in the control treatment (P<0.01). For identification, ear notching took longer than tagging, and ear-notched piglets had worse wound scores than tagged piglets (P<0.05). Cortisol concentrations at 4 h also tended to be greater for ear-notched piglets (P<0.10). Ear notching evoked calls with higher peak frequencies than the control treatments. For iron administration, oral delivery took numerically

  8. Pre-linguistic communication skill development in an infant with a diagnosis of galactosaemia.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Fiona M; Coman, David J; Kilcoyne, Sarah; Murdoch, Bruce E; Syrmis, Maryanne

    2014-10-01

    Neonatal screening for galactosaemia (GAL) identifies the condition early, but subsequent biomedical and genetic testing fails to identify which subgroup of infants with GAL are at most risk of the language disorders associated with the condition. This study aims to present preliminary data on an infant with GAL based on assessment of pre-linguistic communication behaviours known to underpin language development. This single case-control study profiles the pre-linguistic skills of a 13-month-old infant with GAL. The Index Infant's performance was descriptively compared to that of a typically developing, suitably matched control infant. The Index Infant was identified as presenting with clinically significant delays on 9 of the 11 pre-linguistic skills assessed. The early identification of risk of developmental language difficulties in the Index Infant allows for the implementation of early intervention using the infant's parents as facilitators of language stimulation. Monitoring of the infant's progress is warranted.

  9. A simple novel measure of passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulin is predictive of preweaning mortality in piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preweaning mortality of piglets represents a significant loss to swine producers. Two factors that contribute to this loss are the timely initiation of lactation by the sow, and the ability of individual piglets to nurse successfully within hours of birth. However, the contribution of these factors ...

  10. Relationships between day one piglet serum immunoglobulin immunocrit and subsequent growth, puberty attainment, litter size, and lactation performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Colostrum affects gut and uterine gland development in the neonatal piglet, suggesting that subsequent growth and reproductive performance may be affected. Measuring immunoglobulin in piglet serum using the immunoglobulin immunocrit on day 1 of age provides a simple inexpensive indication of the amo...

  11. Plasma oxylipin profiling identifies polyunsaturated vicinal diols as responsive to arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake in growing piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The dose-responsiveness of plasma oxylipins to incremental dietary intake of arachidonic (20:4n-6; ARA) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3; DHA) acid was determined in piglets. Piglets randomly received one of six formulas (n=8 per group) from day 3 to 27 postnatally. Diets contained varying ARA and DHA l...

  12. Effects of oral Enterococcus faecium strain DSM 10663 NCIMB 10415 on diarrhoea patterns and performance of sucking piglets.

    PubMed

    Büsing, K; Zeyner, A

    2015-03-01

    Effects of probiotic Enterococcus faecium DMS 10663 NCIMB 10415 on diarrhoea and performance of sucking piglets were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Piglets from treatment group (TG, n=56) and placebo group (PG, n=53) sows were included in the study. Immediately after birth and at day 2 and 3 post natum, each of the TG piglets received 2.8×10(9) colony forming units (cfu) per os. From day 4 until weaning (day 26), 1.26×10(9) cfu E. faecium/piglet were given twice a day via a liquid additive. Piglets already suffering from diarrhoea additionally got a glucose-electrolyte solution enriched with 2.9×10(8) (week 1) and 5.8×10(8) (week 2) cfu E. faecium/day. PG piglets received corresponding placebo preparations. A score was defined to characterise the severity of diarrhoea, including accompanying symptoms. The counts of viable born, stillborn and weaned piglets were similar in TG and PG litters (P>0.05). The probiotic treatment mitigated incidence and severity of diarrhoea (P<0.05) with no impact on diarrhoea length (P>0.05). Probiotic treatment improved daily weight gain (P<0.05) yet with no provable effect on body weight at weaning (P>0.05). The additional supply of E. faecium in piglets suffering from diarrhoea had no further beneficial effect.

  13. Measurement of changes in body composition of piglets from birth to 4 kg using quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During studies of the growth of neonatal piglets it is important to be able to accurately assess changes in body composition. Previous studies have demonstrated that QMR provides accurate measurements of total body fat, lean, and water in non-anesthetized piglets. The purpose of this study was to us...

  14. Bioavailability of Microencapsulated Iron from Fortified Bread Assessed Using Piglet Model

    PubMed Central

    Bryszewska, Malgorzata A.; Laghi, Luca; Zannoni, Augusta; Gianotti, Andrea; Barone, Francesca; Taneyo Saa, Danielle L.; Bacci, Maria L.; Ventrella, Domenico; Forni, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of oral iron supplementation, in the form of fortified breads, on the growth performance, health, iron status parameters, and fecal metabolome of anemic piglets. A study was conducted on 24 hybrid (Large White × Landrace × Duroc) piglets. From day 44, the post-natal 12 piglets were supplemented with 100 g of one of two experimental breads, each fortified with 21 mg of ferrous sulphate, either encapsulated or not. After one week of oral supplementation, hematological parameters (hematocrit value, hemoglobin, and red blood cells) showed statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05). Piglets fed with the fortified breads had higher iron concentrations in the heart, liver, and intestinal mucosa compared to anemic piglets fed with control bread. Gene expression of hepcidin, iron exporter ferroportin (IREG1), and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), together with concentrations of plasma ferritin, showed no significant statistical differences between groups. Both fortified breads could be used as sources of bioavailable iron. The seven-day intervention trial showed microencapsulation to have only a mild effect on the effectiveness of iron supplementation in the form of fortified bread. PMID:28335378

  15. Variability of the immunological state of germfree colostrum-deprived Minnesota miniature piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Setcavage, T M; Kim, Y B

    1976-01-01

    Minnesota miniature piglets obtained by hysterectomy and deprived of colostrum were examined for the presence of immunoglobulin by immunoelectrophoresis, double-gel diffusion, and radial immunodiffusion techniques with specific anti-immunoglobulin chain sera. A large amount of variability existed between different litters of piglets and between different piglets within the same litter, ranging from no detectable immunoglobulin in the serum to very high immunoglobulin levels approaching that of the adult pig. All known classes of porcine immunoglobulin including immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, and immunoglobulin A could be found in the sera from litters where there was extensive placental damage. This contaminating immunoglobulin was shown to have antibody activity to actinophage MSP-2 even when present in very low concentrations. The low level contamination with immunoglobulin G, which was the most frequently encountered type of contaminant, was demonstrated to be similar to sow immunoglobulin G both antigenically and in its molecular size. The data demonstrates that individual piglets must be tested for immunoglobulin content rather than being assumed to be immunologically "virgin" and emphasizes the need for an intact placenta barrier to obtain piglets free from maternal immunoglobulin and devoid of antigenic stimulation. Images PMID:1262064

  16. Molecular detection and characterization of picobirnaviruses in piglets with diarrhea in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wilburn, Lauren; Yodmeeklin, Arpaporn; Kochjan, Pakawat; Saikruang, Wilaiporn; Kumthip, Kattareeya; Khamrin, Pattara; Maneekarn, Niwat

    2017-04-01

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) is a small, bi-segmented, double-stranded RNA virus. Taxonomically, the genus Picobirnavirus belongs to the Picobirnaviridae family. PBV infects a wide range of hosts and causes opportunistic infections, but its role in diarrheal disease remains unclear. To determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of porcine PBVs in Northern Thailand, 380 fecal samples collected from diarrheic and non-diarrheic piglets, raised in 22 pig farms, were tested for the presence of PBV. Reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was performed using primer sets specific to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene. PBV was detected in 86 of 265 (32.5%) diarrheic piglets and in 26 of 115 (22.6%) non-diarrheic piglets. All the PBV strains detected in this study belonged to genogroup I and a high proportion of PBV-positive piglets were co-infected with group A rotavirus (RVA) and bocavirus (BoV). Phylogenetic analysis of representative genogroup I strains revealed remarkably high similarity between strains; these formed a monophyletic cluster with 97-100% sequence identity in the RdRp gene. The strains were also closely related to genogroup I PBV Chinese porcine strain. The findings indicate that PBV infection is common in piglets with and without diarrhea in Northern Thailand.

  17. Comparison of oral versus parenteral iron supplementation on the health and productivity of piglets.

    PubMed

    Maes, D; Steyaert, M; Vanderhaeghe, C; López Rodríguez, A; de Jong, E; Del Pozo Sacristán, R; Vangroenweghe, F; Dewulf, J

    2011-02-19

    The aim of this study was to compare oral iron supplementation in feed with a standard iron injection and assess the impact on the health and productivity of pigs. The reliability of a quick test (HemoCue) for the measurement of blood haemoglobin concentration was also investigated. Three pig herds, with a total of 88 sows and their piglets, were included in the study. Piglets in treatment group O were fed a special iron-rich feed on days 2 to 4, 5 to 7 and 8 to 12 of lactation using a specially designed feeding device. Piglets in group IM received 200 mg of an iron dextran complex intramuscularly at three days of age. Haemoglobin concentrations and performance of the piglets were compared between groups. The mean haemoglobin concentrations in pigs at weaning were 131.4 and 116.4 g/l for pigs in groups O and IM, respectively (P<0.01). Daily weight gain (253.9 v 248.8 g/day) and piglet mortality (11.4 v 12.2 per cent) were slightly better in group O than in group IM (P>0.05).

  18. Effect of thyroid hormone on cardiac function following orthotopic heart transplantation in piglets.

    PubMed

    Kumar, T K Susheel; Mathis, Craig; Sathanandam, Shyam; Zurakowski, David; Subramanian, Saradha; Allen, Jerry; Solimine, Michael; Berrios, Lindsay; Jackson, Scott; Landers, Mark; Sullivan, Ryan; Barnett, Stacey; Rayburn, Mark; Loftis, Christopher; Price, Lauren; Tansey, James B; Hoskoppal, Deepthi; Knott-Craig, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Studies in adult HT have demonstrated improved cardiac function in the recipient following administration of T3 to the donor. The purpose of this experiment was to assess the effects of T3 on the function of the immature donor heart following HT in a piglet model. A total of 32 piglets were divided into 16 donors and 16 recipients. Following creation of brain death, half of the donor piglets were randomized to receive three doses of T3 (0.2 μg/kg) along with hydrocortisone (1 mg/kg). The donor hearts were then transplanted into the recipient piglets on CPB. Duration of survival off CPB, inotrope score, and EF of heart following CPB were evaluated. There were no differences between the two groups in age, weight, pre-brain death EF, T3 levels, and CPB times. Post-CPB survival times were inversely related to the ischemic times in both groups (Pearson r=-0.80, P<.001), and this relationship was not influenced by T3. There was no difference in inotrope score, EF, or biochemical assessment between the two groups. Administration of T3 in combination with hydrocortisone to the brain-dead donor confers no beneficial effect on myocardial function or survival following HT in a piglet model. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Cognitive Enrichment in Piglet Rearing: An Approach to Enhance Animal Welfare and to Reduce Aggressive Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Rauterberg, Sally; Viazzi, Stefano; Oczak, Maciej; Bahr, Claudia; Guarino, Marcella; Vranken, Erik; Berckmans, Daniel; Hartung, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    It is known that pigs raised in enriched environments express less aggressive behaviour. For this reason, a new method of cognitive environmental enrichment was experimented at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany. In the first phase, 78 suckling piglets were trained to learn the link between a sound given by an electronic feeder and a feed reward in the form of chocolate candies during a period of 8 days. In the second phase, the same piglets were used in resident-intruder tests to verify the potential of the feeding system to interrupt aggressive behaviour. The analysis of all training rounds revealed that piglets learned the commands during 8 days of training and the interest of the piglets increased within training days (P < 0.05). In the resident-intruder test, 79.5% of aggressive interactions were broken by feeder activation. In interactions where either the aggressor or the receiver reacted, a high number of fights were stopped (96.7% versus 93.1%) indicating that it was not relevant if the aggressor or the receiver responded to the feeder activation. We conclude that the electronic feeding system has the potential to be used as cognitive enrichment for piglets, being suitable for reducing aggressive behaviour in resident-intruder situations. PMID:24198969

  20. Efficacy of parenteral vaccination against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in seropositive piglets.

    PubMed

    Gamage, Lakshman N A; McIntosh, Kathleen A; Parker, Sarah; Harding, John; Krakowka, Steven; Ellis, John

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated if parenteral administration of a prototype adjuvanted vaccine against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) could override maternally derived antibodies and induce acquired immunity in young piglets. Piglets with high levels of maternal PCV2 antibodies at 1 wk of age were randomly grouped into vaccinates and controls on the basis of body weight and inoculated with the vaccine or a control preparation twice, with an interval of 3 wk. Both groups were challenged 3 wk after the booster vaccination and euthanized 3 wk after challenge. The pigs were evaluated for clinical disease, histologic lesions in sections of gastric and left inguinal lymph nodes stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the amount of PCV2 antigen in the lymph nodes by immunohistochemical study. The PCV2 antibody titers were monitored by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay throughout the experiment. The vaccinates showed significantly less decline (P < 0.05) in PCV2 antibody titers after the booster vaccination. Clinical disease did not develop in any of the piglets. The vaccinates and controls did not differ in either histologic lesions or amount of PCV2 antigen in the lymph nodes. This study demonstrated some evidence of priming of young piglets in the presence of maternal antibodies. Further studies are recommended to determine the optimum concentration of PCV2 antigen and a suitable adjuvant for the vaccine to achieve the full potential of the strategy of inducing acquired immunity in young piglets that have maternally derived antibodies.

  1. Pterins as sensors of response to the application of Fe3+ -dextran in piglets.

    PubMed

    Smutna, Miriam; Svoboda, Martin; Breinekova, Klara

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was to assess the effect of a single administration of Fe(3+)-dextran on immune cell counts and pterin biomolecule production as novel sensors of the piglets' immune system activation, and to determine concentrations of cortisol, a traditional hormonal biosensor of the stress response. Pterins (neopterin and biopterin) in the piglets' blood serum were analyzed by separation using reversed-phase HPLC. A single dose of Fe(3+)-dextran produced a special stress situation in the piglets' organism which manifested itself by an increased production of neopterin (p < 0.05) and biopterin (p < 0.01) in the experimental piglets. Changes in cortisol concentrations and leukocyte counts were influenced by handling stress and were not specifically correlated to iron dextran application. Iron concentrations in the internal environment of the experimental piglets' group were higher by an order of magnitude compared with the controls, and the highest serum concentrations of iron (p < 0.01) were reached 24 h following Fe(3+)-dextran administration. The data presented offer a new perspective on the evaluation of stress situations in the animal organism and, not least importantly, extends the rather modest current list of references on the role of pterins in livestock animals.

  2. Toltrazuril and sulphonamide treatment against naturally Isospora suis infected suckling piglets: is there an actual profit?

    PubMed

    Scala, Antonio; Demontis, Francesca; Varcasia, Antonio; Pipia, Anna Paola; Poglayen, Giovanni; Ferrari, Nicola; Genchi, Marco

    2009-08-26

    A study was carried out to assess the efficacy and the economic profit of prophylactic treatment against Isopsora suis with toltrazuril or with a sulfamethazine/trimethoprim combination in piglets from an intensive pig farm. Thirty-one litters were included in study. Eight litters were treated once with toltrazuril (20 mg/kg b.w.) at 3 days of age (Toltra group); 8 litters were treated with 2 ml/animal of a [corrected] sulphonamide combination (sodium sulfamethazine 250 [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] mg and trimethoprim 50 [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] mg/kg b.w.) for 3 consecutive days starting at 3 days of age (Sulfa group), and 15 litters were untreated (control group). Counts of oocyst per gram on pooled feces sampled from each litter were carried out on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28 and diarrhea was registered daily from pooled samples. Piglets were weighed on Days 1, 7 and 28 and mean weight gain (WG) and daily weight gain (DWG) were evaluated. The economic profit of treatment was evaluated comparing the WG of piglets of each treatment group from the day of birth to Day 28. On Days 14, 21 and 28, toltrazuril showed a better efficacy in controlling fecal oocyst output, diarrhea and weight gain compared with sulphamidic treatment (P<0.001). The budgeting analysis showed a return of economic benefit of euro 0.915 per toltrazuril-treated piglets and an additional cost of euro 1.155 per sulphonamide-treated piglets.

  3. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Impairs Small Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Li; Zhong, Xiang; Ahmad, Hussain; Li, Wei; Wang, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a very common problem in both piglet and human neonate populations. We hypothesized that IUGR neonates have impaired intestinal mucosal immunity from birth. Using neonatal piglets as IUGR models, immune organ weights, the weight and length of the small intestine (SI), intestinal morphology, intraepithelial immune cell numbers, levels of cytokines and immunoglobulins, and the relative gene expression of cytokines in the SI were investigated. IUGR neonatal piglets were observed to have lower absolute immune organ weight and SI length, decreased relative weights of the thymus, spleen, mesenteric lymph node, and thinner but longer SIs. Damaged and jagged villi, shorter microvilli, presence of autophagosomes, swelled mitochondria, and decreased villus surface areas were also found in the SIs of IUGR neonatal piglets. We also found a smaller number of epithelial goblet cells and lymphocytes in the SIs of IUGR neonates. In addition, we detected reduced levels of the cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ and decreased gene expression of cytokines in IUGR neonates. In conclusion, IUGR was shown to impair the mucosal immunity of the SI in neonatal piglets, and the ileum was the major site of impairment. PMID:24710659

  4. Protective effects of sinomenine against LPS-induced inflammation in piglets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haifeng; Jiang, Chunmao; Chen, Xiaolan; He, Kongwang; Hu, Yiyi

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in piglets, the anti-endotoxin and anti-inflammatory effects of sinomenine, an agent commonly found in Chinese herbal medicines. In high-, middle- and low-dose sinomenine groups, piglets were initially challenged with endotoxin (i.e., 1 mg lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/kg) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection and, 3 h later, intramuscularly (IM) with sinomenine at 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg. In a drug control group, piglets were dosed IP with vehicle and 3 h late IM with 10 mg/kg sinomenine while those in an LPS control group were challenged with 1 mg LPS/kg (IP) and then vehicle 3 h later; naïve control piglets were administered normal saline IP and then IM only. At 12, 24, and 48 h post-LPS/vehicle injection, blood samples were collected from the precaval vein of piglets. Clinical signs were recorded during the trial and index levels were analyzed by ELISA kits. The results revealed sinomenine could reduce the incidence/severity of certain LPS-induced toxicities, e.g., cell adhesion, systemic inflammation, and multiple organ dysfunction. Taken together, the data suggested to us that sinomenine might effectively be useful to regulate inflammatory responses as part of future anti-endotoxin therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Positive human contact on the first day of life alters the piglet's behavioural response to humans and husbandry practices.

    PubMed

    Muns, Ramon; Rault, Jean-Loup; Hemsworth, Paul

    2015-11-01

    This experiment examined the effects of positive human contact at suckling on the first day of life on the behavioural and physiological responses of piglets to both humans and routine husbandry procedures. Forty litters from multiparous sows were randomly allocated to one of two treatments: Control (CC, minimal human interaction with day-old piglets) or Positive Contact (PC, human talking and caressing piglets during 6 suckling bouts on their first day of life, day 1). In each litter, 2 males and 2 females were randomly selected and their behavioural responses to tail docking (day 2), and to an experimenter (day 35) were studied. Escape behaviour at tail docking was assessed according to intensity (on a scale from 0 to 4 representing no movement to high intensity movement) and duration (on a scale from 0 to 3 representing no movement to continuous movement). At day 15 of age, a human approach and avoidance test was performed on focal piglets and at day 15, escape behaviour to capture before and after testing was recorded again. Blood samples for cortisol analysis were obtained from the focal piglets 30 min after tail docking and 1 h after weaning. Escape behaviour to tail docking of the PC piglets was of shorter duration than that of the CC piglets (P = 0.05). There was a tendency for the escape behaviour both before and after testing at day 15 to be of a lower intensity (P = 0.11 and P = 0.06, respectively) and a shorter duration (P = 0.06 and P = 0.08, respectively) in the PC piglets. There was a tendency for PC piglets to have higher cortisol concentrations after tail docking than the CC piglets (P = 0.07). Male piglets had higher cortisol concentrations after tail docking and after weaning than female piglets (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03). The results indicate that Positive Contact treatment reduced the duration of escape behaviour of piglets to tail docking. The role of classical conditioning, habituation and developmental changes in the observed effects of the

  6. L-Carnitine supplementation during suckling intensifies the early postnatal skeletal myofiber formation in piglets of low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Lösel, D; Kalbe, C; Rehfeldt, C

    2009-07-01

    Piglets of low birth weight exhibit a reduced total number of skeletal myofibers at birth and throughout life compared with piglets of middle and heavy birth weight, which is associated with impaired (lean) growth and quality of carcass and meat at market weight. We investigated the effect of L-carnitine supplementation to suckling piglets of different birth weights on early postnatal myofiber formation, muscle growth, and body composition. A total of 48 piglets of low (LW) and middle (MDW) birth weight from 9 German Landrace gilts received 400 mg of L-carnitine (carnitine, n = 25) or a placebo (control, n = 23) once daily from d 7 to 27 of age and were slaughtered on d 28 of age (weaning). Carnitine-supplemented piglets deposited less fat as indicated by a reduced proportion of perirenal (P = 0.1) and intramuscular fat (P = 0.05). Circulating glucose concentrations tended to be greater in supplemented LW piglets (P = 0.13). The concentration of carnitine in semitendinosus (STN) muscle was approximately doubled (P < 0.001) by supplementation, with emphasis on the proportion of esterified carnitine. The ratio of lactate dehydrogenase to isocitrate dehydrogenase tended (P = 0.12) to be smaller in STN muscle of supplemented piglets, indicating a more oxidative muscle metabolism. The total number of STN myofibers was increased by 13% (P = 0.02) in supplemented LW piglets, thereby reaching the unchanged level of MDW littermates. In addition, supplemented LW piglets displayed a 2.4-fold mRNA expression of the gene encoding the embryonic isoform of the myosin heavy chain in STN muscle than control piglets (P = 0.05), but there were no differences in the proportion of fibers positively staining for the embryonic myosin isoform. L-carnitine-supplemented piglets exhibited a greater DNA:protein ratio (P = 0.02) in STN muscle, which resulted from a greater DNA concentration (P = 0.04). However, the STN muscle of L-carnitine-supplemented piglets was not less mature as indicated

  7. Nutrient-intake-level-dependent regulation of intestinal development in newborn intrauterine growth-restricted piglets via glucagon-like peptide-2.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Liu, Z; Gao, L; Chen, L; Zhang, H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the intestinal development of newborn intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) piglets subjected to normal nutrient intake (NNI) or restricted nutrient intake (RNI). Newborn normal birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets were allotted to NNI or RNI levels for 4 weeks from day 8 postnatal. IUGR piglets receiving NNI had similar growth performance compared with that of NBW piglets. Small intestine length and villous height were greater in IUGR piglets fed the NNI than that of piglets fed the RNI. Lactase activity was increased in piglets fed the NNI compared with piglets fed the RNI. Absorptive function, represented by active glucose transport by the Ussing chamber method and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of two main intestinal glucose transporters, Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), were greater in IUGR piglets fed the NNI compared with piglets fed the RNI regimen. The apoptotic process, characterized by caspase-3 activity (a sign of activated apoptotic cells) and mRNA expressions of p53 (pro-apoptotic), bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax) (pro-apoptotic) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) (anti-apoptotic), were improved in IUGR piglets fed the NNI regimen. To test the hypothesis that improvements in intestinal development of IUGR piglets fed NNI might be mediated through circulating glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), GLP-2 was injected subcutaneously to IUGR piglets fed the RNI from day 8 to day 15 postnatal. Although the intestinal development of IUGR piglets fed the RNI regimen was suppressed compared with those fed the NNI regimen, an exogenous injection of GLP-2 was able to bring intestinal development to similar levels as NNI-fed IUGR piglets. Collectively, our results demonstrate that IUGR neonates that have NNI levels could improve intestinal function via the regulation of GLP-2.

  8. Nighttime Parenting Strategies and Sleep-Related Risks to Infants

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Lane E.; Ball, Helen L.; McKenna, James J.

    2012-01-01

    A large social science and public health literature addresses infant sleep safety, with implications for infant mortality in the context of accidental deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As part of risk reduction campaigns in the USA, parents are encouraged to place infants supine and to alter infant bedding and elements of the sleep environment, and are discouraged from allowing infants to sleep unsupervised, from bed-sharing either at all or under specific circumstances, or from sofa-sharing. These recommendations are based on findings from large-scale epidemiological studies that generate odds ratios or relative risk statistics for various practices; however, detailed behavioural data on nighttime parenting and infant sleep environments are limited. To address this issue, this paper presents and discusses the implications of four case studies based on overnight observations conducted with first-time mothers and their four-month old infants. These case studies were collected at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame USA between September 2002 and June 2004.Each case study provides a detailed description based on video analysis of sleep-related risks observed while mother-infant dyads spent the night in a sleep lab. The case studies provide examples of mothers engaged in the strategic management of nighttime parenting for whom sleep-related risks to infants arose as a result of these strategies. Although risk reduction guidelines focus on eliminating potentially risky infant sleep practices as if the probability of death from each were equal, the majority of instances in which these occur are unlikely to result in infant mortality. Therefore, we hypothesise that mothers assess potential costs and benefits within margins of risk which are not acknowledged by risk-reduction campaigns. Exploring why mothers might choose to manage sleep and nighttime parenting in ways that appear to increase potential risks to infants may help

  9. Nighttime parenting strategies and sleep-related risks to infants.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Lane E; Ball, Helen L; McKenna, James J

    2013-02-01

    A large social science and public health literature addresses infant sleep safety, with implications for infant mortality in the context of accidental deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As part of risk reduction campaigns in the USA, parents are encouraged to place infants supine and to alter infant bedding and elements of the sleep environment, and are discouraged from allowing infants to sleep unsupervised, from bed-sharing either at all or under specific circumstances, or from sofa-sharing. These recommendations are based on findings from large-scale epidemiological studies that generate odds ratios or relative risk statistics for various practices; however, detailed behavioural data on nighttime parenting and infant sleep environments are limited. To address this issue, this paper presents and discusses the implications of four case studies based on overnight observations conducted with first-time mothers and their four-month old infants. These case studies were collected at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame USA between September 2002 and June 2004. Each case study provides a detailed description based on video analysis of sleep-related risks observed while mother-infant dyads spent the night in a sleep lab. The case studies provide examples of mothers engaged in the strategic management of nighttime parenting for whom sleep-related risks to infants arose as a result of these strategies. Although risk reduction guidelines focus on eliminating potentially risky infant sleep practices as if the probability of death from each were equal, the majority of instances in which these occur are unlikely to result in infant mortality. Therefore, we hypothesise that mothers assess potential costs and benefits within margins of risk which are not acknowledged by risk-reduction campaigns. Exploring why mothers might choose to manage sleep and nighttime parenting in ways that appear to increase potential risks to infants may

  10. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls-the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)-across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal.

  11. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F.; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls—the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)—across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal. PMID:26274816

  12. Prostanoid synthesis in the cerebral blood vessels of asphyxiated piglets.

    PubMed

    Kis, B; Mezei, Z; Forgács, P; Gecse, A; Telegdy, G; Bari, F

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of asphyxia-reventilation and hyperoxia on the cerebral blood perfusion and prostanoid production of the brain arteries and microvessels in piglets. After 10 min of asphyxia, animals were ventilated with room air, or with 100% O2. Following 4 hours of recovery, the brains were perfused, cerebral arteries were removed and microvessels were isolated from the cortex. The microvessels and the arteries were incubated with 1-14C-arachidonic acid, and the 1-14C-prostanoids were then separated by means of overpressure thin-layer chromatography and were quantitatively determined. Under control conditions, the synthesis of dilatory prostanoids dominated the arachidonate cascade both in the microvessels and in the arteries. Asphyxia and reventilation with room air did not modify the prostanoid production. O2 ventilation greatly affected the prostanoid synthesis of the microvessels, with an enhancement of PGD2 up to 247 +/- 27%. In the arteries, the production of PGI2 and of PGE2 was elevated to 272 +/- 15% and to 148 +/- 13%, respectively. These findings indicate that O2 ventilation after asphyxia substantially increases the extent of prostanoid synthesis in the cerebral blood vessels.

  13. Colonization by lactobacilli of piglet small intestinal mucus.

    PubMed

    Rojas, M; Conway, P L

    1996-11-01

    The colonization potential of lactobacilli was investigated using small intestinal mucus extracts from 35-d-old pigs. Mucus-secreting tissue from the small intestine of piglets was gently rinsed to remove contents and then shaken in buffer to release mucus from the surface. Numbers of lactobacilli in different portions of the small intestine of 35-d-old pigs were enumerated. Also, mucus isolated from the small intestine of pigs was investigated for its capacity to support the growth of lactobacilli. Results indicated that Lactobacillus spp. inhabit the mucus layer of the small intestine and can grow and adhere to ileal mucus. From adhesion studies of Lactobacillus fermentum 104R to mucus analysed by Scatchard plot, it is suggested that an associating system showing positive cooperativity is involved. Proteinaceous compounds(s) involved in the adhesion to mucus were detected in the spent culture fluid from the growth of strain 104R. Studies are continuing in order to identify and characterize the adhesion-promoting protein(s). From the data, it is proposed that lactobacilli colonize the mucus layer of the small intestine of pigs.

  14. Handmade Cloned Transgenic Piglets Expressing the Nematode Fat-1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yidi; Dou, Hongwei; Yin, Jingdong; Chen, Yu; Pang, Xinzhi; Vajta, Gabor; Bolund, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Production of transgenic animals via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide, but this application is somewhat limited by its relatively low efficiency. In this study, we used handmade cloning (HMC) established previously to produce transgenic pigs that express the functional nematode fat-1 gene. Codon-optimized mfat-1 was inserted into eukaryotic expression vectors, which were transferred into primary swine donor cells. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select donor clones capable of converting n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts derived from the clones that lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio to approximately 1:1 were transferred surgically into the uteri of recipients for transgenic piglets. By HMC, 37% (n=558) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage after 7 days of culture in vitro, with an average cell number of 81±36 (n=14). Three recipients became pregnant after 408 day-6 blastocysts were transferred into four naturally cycling females, and a total of 14 live offspring were produced. The nematode mfat-1 effectively lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio in muscle and major organs of the transgenic pig. Our results will help to establish a reliable procedure and an efficient option in the production of transgenic animals. PMID:22686479

  15. Fermented liquid feed enhances bacterial diversity in piglet intestine.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Kiyoshi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Aminov, Rustam I; Kobashi, Yuri; Kawashima, Tomoyuki

    2010-02-01

    Because of limitations imposed on the antibiotic use in animal industry, there is a need for alternatives to maintain the efficiency of production. One of them may be the use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) but how it affects gut ecology is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of three diets, standard dry feed (control), dry feed supplemented with antibiotics, and fermented liquid feed (FLF, fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum), on gut bacterial diversity in piglets. The structure of the ileal and caecal communities was estimated by sequencing the SSU rRNA gene libraries. Antibiotic-supplemented feed slightly increased bacterial diversity in the ileum but reduced it in the caecum while in FLF-fed animals bacterial diversity was elevated. The majority of bacterial sequences in the ileum of all three groups belonged to lactobacilli (92-98%). In the caecum the lactobacilli were still dominant in control and antibiotic-fed animals (59% and 64% of total bacterial sequences, respectively) but in FLF-fed animals they fell to 31% with the concomitant increase in the Firmicutes diversity represented by the Dorea, Coprococcus, Roseburia and Faecalibacterium genera. Thus FLF affects the gut ecology in a different way than antibiotics and contributes to the enhanced bacterial diversity in the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. ECMO Maintains Cerebral Blood Flow During Endotoxic Shock in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Batts, Sherreen G.; Uyehara-Lock, Jane H.; Murata, Lee-Ann; Uyehara, Catherine F. T.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrovascular injury while on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be caused by excessive brain perfusion during hypoxemic reperfusion. Previous studies have postulated that the most vulnerable period of time for cerebrovascular injury is during the transfer period to ECMO. Therefore, our objective was to compare brain perfusion and hemodynamics in a piglet endotoxic shock ECMO model. The effect of ECMO flow on microcirculation of different brain regions was compared between 10 control pigs and six pigs (7–10 kg) administered IV endotoxin to achieve a drop in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of at least 30%. Cardiac output (CO), brain oxygen utilization, and microcirculatory blood flow (BF) were compared at baseline and 2 hours after ECMO stabilization. Matching ECMO delivery with baseline CO in control animals increased perfusion (p < 0.05) in all areas of the brain. In contrast, with endotoxin, ECMO returned perfusion closer to baseline levels in all regions of the brain and maintained brain tissue oxygen consumption. Both control and endotoxic pigs showed no evidence of acute neuronal necrosis in histologic cerebral cortical sections examined after 2 hours of ECMO. Results show that during endotoxic shock, transition to ECMO can maintain brain BF equally to all brain regions without causing overperfusion, and does not appear to cause brain tissue histopathologic changes (hemorrhage or necrosis) during the acute stabilization period after ECMO induction. PMID:27442858

  17. Assessment of zinc and copper status in weaned piglets in relation to dietary zinc and copper supply.

    PubMed

    Carlson, D; Beattie, J H; Poulsen, H D

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of weaning and the effect of increasing dietary zinc concentrations on the zinc and copper status of weaned piglets (study 1) and to study the effect of high concentrations of dietary zinc and/or copper on zinc and copper status of weaned piglets (study 2). Study 1 included 54 piglets (six litters of nine piglets). One piglet from every litter was killed 1 day before weaning. The remaining 48 piglets were allocated at weaning (28 days) to four dietary zinc treatments (100, 250, 1000 or 2500 ppm) and subsequently killed 1-2, 5-6 or 14-15 days after weaning. Study 2 included 48 piglets (six litters of eight piglets) allocated to four dietary treatments, consisting of low or high dietary zinc (100 or 2500 ppm) in combination with low or high dietary copper (20 or 175 ppm). All piglets in study 2 were killed 5-7 days after weaning. In both studies, the trace mineral status was assessed by zinc and copper concentrations and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in plasma and mucosal tissue. In study 2, lymphocyte metallothionein (MT) mRNA and intestinal mucosa MT mRNA concentrations were included as zinc status markers. The results showed that the zinc status, measured as zinc in plasma and mucosa, was not affected by weaning of the piglets. Plasma copper concentrations decreased during the first 2 weeks after weaning. High dietary copper concentrations did not affect the concentration of copper in plasma, but increased the concentration of copper in mucosa and the concentration of zinc in plasma. The dietary zinc treatments increased the zinc concentration in plasma as well as the zinc and MT mRNA concentration in mucosa. Lymphocyte MT mRNA concentrations did not reflect the differences in dietary zinc supplementation.

  18. Intravenous versus nebulized ceftazidime in ventilated piglets with and without experimental bronchopneumonia: comparative effects of helium and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Tonnellier, Marc; Ferrari, Fabio; Goldstein, Ivan; Sartorius, Alfonso; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Rouby, Jean-Jacques

    2005-05-01

    Lung deposition of intravenous cephalosporins is low. The lung deposition of equivalent doses of ceftazidime administered either intravenously or by ultrasonic nebulization using either nitrogen-oxygen or helium-oxygen as the carrying gas of the aerosol was compared in ventilated piglets with and without experimental bronchopneumonia. Five piglets with noninfected lungs and 5 piglets with Pseudomonas aeruginosa experimental bronchopneumonia received 33 mg/kg ceftazidime intravenously. Ten piglets with noninfected lungs and 10 others with experimental P. aeruginosa bronchopneumonia received 50 mg/kg ceftazidime by ultrasonic nebulization. In each group, the ventilator was operated in half of the animals with a 65%/35% helium-oxygen or nitrogen-oxygen mixture. Animals were killed, and multiple lung specimens were sampled for measuring ceftazidime lung tissue concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography. As compared with intravenous administration, nebulization of ceftazidime significantly increased lung tissue concentrations (17 +/- 13 vs. 383 +/- 84 microg/g in noninfected piglets and 10 +/- 3 vs. 129 +/- 108 microg/g in piglets with experimental bronchopneumonia; P < 0.001). The use of a 65%/35% helium-oxygen mixture induced a 33% additional increase in lung tissue concentrations in noninfected piglets (576 +/- 141 microg/g; P < 0.001) and no significant change in infected piglets (111 +/- 104 microg/g). Nebulization of ceftazidime induced a 5- to 30-fold increase in lung tissue concentrations as compared with intravenous administration. Using a helium-oxygen mixture as the carrying gas of the aerosol induced a substantial additional increase in lung deposition in noninfected piglets but not in piglets with experimental bronchopneumonia.

  19. Cadmium suppresses the proliferation of piglet Sertoli cells and causes their DNA damage, cell apoptosis and aberrant ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective Very little information is known about the toxic effects of cadmium on somatic cells in mammalian testis. The objective of this study is to explore the toxicity of cadmium on piglet Sertoli cells. Methods Sertoli cells were isolated from piglet testes using a two-step enzyme digestion and followed by differential plating. Piglet Sertoli cells were identified by oil red O staining and Fas ligand (FasL) expression as assayed by immunocytochemistry and expression of transferrin and androgen binding protein by RT-PCR. Sertoli cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum in the absence or presence of various concentrations of cadmium chloride, or treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 and with cadmium chloride exposure. Apoptotic cells in seminiferous tubules of piglets were also performed using TUNEL assay in vivo. Results Cadmium chloride inhibited the proliferation of Piglet Sertoli cells as shown by MTT assay, and it increased malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity. Inhibitor SB202190 alleviated the proliferation inhibition of cadmium on piglet Sertoli cells. Comet assay revealed that cadmium chloride caused DNA damage of Piglet Sertoli cells and resulted in cell apoptosis as assayed by flow cytometry. The in vivo study confirmed that cadmium induced cell apoptosis in seminiferous tubules of piglets. Transmission electronic microscopy showed abnormal and apoptotic ultrastructure in Piglet Sertoli cells treated with cadmium chloride compared to the control. Conclusion cadmium has obvious adverse effects on the proliferation of piglet Sertoli cells and causes their DNA damage, cell apoptosis, and aberrant morphology. This study thus offers novel insights into the toxicology of cadmium on male reproduction. PMID:20712887

  20. An investigation into the association between cpb2-encoding Clostridium perfringens type A and diarrhea in neonatal piglets

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Abdolvahab; Kircanski, Jasmina; DeLay, Josepha; Soltes, Glenn; Songer, J. Glenn; Friendship, Robert; Prescott, John F.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of cpb2-positive type A Clostridium perfringens in neonatal diarrheal illness in pigs, the jejunum and colon of matched normal and diarrheic piglets from 10 farms with a history of neonatal diarrhea were examined grossly and by histopathology, and tested for C. perfringens, for C. perfringens beta2 (CPB2) toxin, as well as for Clostridium difficile toxins, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, rotavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, and coccidia. Clostridium perfringens isolates were tested using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the presence of cpa, consensus and atypical cpb2, and other virulence-associated genes. The numbers of C. perfringens in the intestinal contents were lower in diarrheic piglets (log10 5.4 CFU/g) compared with normal piglets (log10 6.5 CFU/g) (P < 0.05). The consensus cpb2 was present in 93% of isolates in each group, but atypical cpb2 was less common (56% healthy, 32% diarrheic piglets isolates, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of CPB2 toxin in the intestinal contents of normal and diarrheic piglets did not differ significantly. Clostridium difficile toxins and rotavirus were each detected in 7 of the 21 (33%) diarrheic piglets. Rotavirus, C. difficile toxins, Salmonella, or enterotoxigenic E. coli were concurrently recovered in different combinations in 4 diarrheic piglets. The cause of diarrhea in 8 of the 21 (38%) piglets on 6 farms remained unknown. The etiological diagnosis of diarrhea could not be determined in any of the piglets on 2 of the farms. This study demonstrated that the number of cpb2-positive type A C. perfringens in the intestinal contents was not a useful approach for making a diagnosis of type A C. perfringens enteritis in piglets. Further work is required to confirm whether cpb2-carrying type A C. perfringens have a pathogenic role in enteric infection in neonatal swine. PMID:23814355

  1. Proper Timing of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccination of Piglets with Maternally Derived Antibodies Will Maximize Expected Protection Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Aldo; Chénard, Gilles; Stockhofe, Norbert; Eblé, Phaedra L.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated to what extent maternally derived antibodies interfere with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in order to determine the factors that influence the correct vaccination for piglets. Groups of piglets with maternally derived antibodies were vaccinated at different time points following birth, and the antibody titers to FMD virus (FMDV) were measured using virus neutralization tests (VNT). We used 50 piglets from 5 sows that had been vaccinated 3 times intramuscularly in the neck during pregnancy with FMD vaccine containing strains of FMDV serotypes O, A, and Asia-1. Four groups of 10 piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly in the neck at 3, 5, 7, or 9 weeks of age using a monovalent Cedivac-FMD vaccine (serotype A TUR/14/98). One group of 10 piglets with maternally derived antibodies was not vaccinated, and another group of 10 piglets without maternally derived antibodies was vaccinated at 3 weeks of age and served as a control group. Sera samples were collected, and antibody titers were determined using VNT. In our study, the antibody responses of piglets with maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 7 or 9 weeks of age were similar to the responses of piglets without maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 3 weeks of age. The maternally derived antibody levels in piglets depended very strongly on the antibody titer in the sow, so the optimal time for vaccination of piglets will depend on the vaccination scheme and quality of vaccine used in the sows and should, therefore, be monitored and reviewed on regular basis in countries that use FMD prophylactic vaccination. PMID:27446940

  2. Oral administration of putrescine and proline during the suckling period improves epithelial restitution after early weaning in piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Li, G R; Tan, B E; Xiong, X; Kong, X F; Xiao, D F; Xu, L W; Wu, M M; Huang, B; Kim, S W; Yin, Y L

    2015-04-01

    Polyamines are necessary for normal integrity and the restitution after injury of the gastrointestinal epithelium. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oral administration of putrescine and proline during the suckling period on epithelial restitution after early weaning in piglets. Eighteen neonatal piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large Yorkshire) from 3 litters (6 piglets per litter) were assigned to 3 groups, representing oral administration with an equal volume of saline (control), putrescine (5 mg/kg BW), and proline (25 mg/kg BW) twice daily from d 1 to weaning at 14 d of age. Plasma and intestinal samples were obtained 3 d after weaning. The results showed that oral administration of putrescine or proline increased the final BW and ADG of piglets compared with the control (P < 0.05). Proline treatment decreased plasma D-lactate concentration but increased the villus height in the jejunum and ileum, as well as the percentage of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05). The protein expressions for zonula occludens (ZO-1), occludin, and claudin-3 (P < 0.05) but not mRNA were increased in the jejunum of putrescine- and proline-treated piglets compared with those of control piglets. The voltage-gated K+ channel (Kv) 1.1 protein expression in the jejunum of piglets administrated with putrescine and the Kv1.5 mRNA and Kv1.1 protein levels in the ileum of piglets administrated with proline were greater than those in control piglets (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that polyamine or its precursor could improve mucosal proliferation, intestinal morphology, as well as tight junction and potassium channel protein expressions in early-weaned piglets, with implications for epithelial restitution and barrier function after stress injury.

  3. The effect of fatty acid positioning in dietary triacylglycerols and intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone mineral accretion in growing piglets.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Anders D; Ludvig, Stine E; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Pulkkinen, Pasi; Finnilä, Mikko; Mu, Huiling; Thymann, Thomas; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-09-01

    Long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCPUFA) and palmitate (16:0) positioning in the triacylglycerol (TAG) of infant formula may affect calcium-uptake which could affect bone health. We investigated if a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) with a modified TAG structure holding 16:0 predominantly in the sn-2-position compared with a control (CONT) and if increasing n-3LCPUFA intake giving fish oil (FO) compared with sunflower oil (SO) would affect bone parameters in piglets in two sets of controlled 14d-interventions (n=12/group). We assessed this by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical strength. Bone mineral content (BMC) was higher in the FO compared to the SO-group (p=0.03). Despite similar weight gain in HMFS- and CONT-groups, body fat accumulation was higher with HMFS (p<0.001), and BMC, bone area (BA) and cortical BA in femur were lower (p=0.002, p=0.005, and p=0.02, respectively), indicating importance of both n-3LCPUFA and 16:0 TAG-positioning in infant formulas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Descriptive thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, David; Huntsman, Steven

    2006-06-01

    Thermodynamics (in concert with its sister discipline, statistical physics) can be regarded as a data reduction scheme based on partitioning a total system into a subsystem and a bath that weakly interact with each other. Whereas conventionally, the systems investigated require this form of data reduction in order to facilitate prediction, a different problem also occurs, in the context of communication networks, markets, etc. Such “empirically accessible” systems typically overwhelm observers with the sort of information that in the case of (say) a gas is effectively unobtainable. What is required for such complex interacting systems is not prediction (this may be impossible when humans besides the observer are responsible for the interactions) but rather, description as a route to understanding. Still, the need for a thermodynamical data reduction scheme remains. In this paper, we show how an empirical temperature can be computed for finite, empirically accessible systems, and further outline how this construction allows the age-old science of thermodynamics to be fruitfully applied to them.

  5. In Vitro Fermentation of Porcine Milk Oligosaccharides and Galacto-oligosaccharides Using Piglet Fecal Inoculum.

    PubMed

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne H A M; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-03-16

    In this study, the in vitro fermentation by piglet fecal inoculum of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) was investigated to identify possible preferences for individual oligosaccharide structures by piglet microbiota. First, acidic PMOs and GOS with degrees of polymerization 4-7 were depleted within 12 h of fermentation, whereas fucosylated and phosphorylated PMOs were partially resistant to fermentation. GOS structures containing β1-3 and β1-2 linkages were preferably fermented over GOS containing β1-4 and β1-6 linkages. Upon in vitro fermentation, acetate and butyrate were produced as the main organic acids. GOS fermentation by piglet inoculum showed a unique fermentation pattern with respect to preference of GOS size and organic acids production.

  6. Use of anemic piglet to assess bioavailability of iron from oral iron preparations.

    PubMed

    Intoccia, A P; Walkenstein, S S; Wittendorf, R W; Hoppe, R C; Free, S M

    1977-01-01

    Except for methods using long-lived iron isotopes, there are no reliable means for assessing the bioavilability of iron from oral preparations in human subjects. Use of the anemic piglet as an alternative means was studied. When piglets were made anemic on a commercial milk diet and then dosed with solutions of 1, 2, and 5 mg/kg of ferrous sulfate/day, a dose-related recovery of hematocrit and hemoglobin levels resulted. The most sensitive dose range for use in a bioavailability study of iron was between 1 and 2 mg of iron/kg/day when using these parameters. A study carried out using this method indicated that the iron from a delayed-release capsule and from a ferrous sulfate solution was equally bioavailable. Hemoglobin and hematocrit recovery rates of the anemic piglet were shown to be reliable and sensitive indicators of the bioavailability of iron from various iron dosage forms.

  7. Ingestion of iron in sow's faeces by piglets reared in farrowing crates with slotted floors.

    PubMed

    Gleed, P T; Sansom, B F

    1982-01-01

    1. Two sows were housed in farrowing crates with slotted floors and fed daily with approximately 200 microCi 198Au from 3 d before farrowing until their piglets were 21 d old. 2. Th sows' faeces became radioactive but their milk remained free of radioactivity. The piglets' mean (+/- SE) whole-body radioactivity was equivalent to 8.5 +/- 0.9 g (range 3.8-15.5 g) of faeces. This is probably a measure of their daily intake of faeces. 3. The possibility of using this natural coprophagia to prevent piglet anaemia has been demonstrated on two commercial piggeries by feeding the sows a diet containing 2000 mg Fe/kg.

  8. Deferoxamine reduces intracerebral hematoma-induced iron accumulation and neuronal death in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yuxiang; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Xi, Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Our previous studies found that deferoxamine reduces intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain injury in rats. The current study examined whether deferoxamine reduces brain injury in a piglet ICH model. Methods Pigs received an injection of autologous blood into the right frontal lobe. Deferoxamine (50 mg/kg, IM) or vehicle was administered 2 hours after ICH and then every 12 hours up to 7 days. Animals were killed 3 or 7 days later to examine iron accumulation, white matter injury and neuronal death. Results ICH resulted in development of a reddish perihematomal zone, and iron accumulation, ferritin upregulation and neuronal death within that zone. Deferoxamine reduced the perihematomal reddish zone, white matter injury and the number of Perls’, ferritin and Fluoro-Jade C positive cells. Conclusions Iron accumulation occurs in the piglet brain after ICH. Deferoxamine reduces ICH-induced iron buildup and brain injury in piglets. PMID:19372448

  9. A mouse model study for the villous atrophy of the early weaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Inoue, Ryo; Yamada, Kaori; Yajima, Takaji

    2010-02-01

    Early weaning induces villous atrophy in the small intestine of piglets. We evaluated an influence of early weaning at 16 days old in mice for the use of villous atrophy model observed in early-weaned piglets. Five pregnant BALB/c mice were obtained and half of pups were weaned at 16 days old (early-weaned), while the others were allowed to suckle. Their small intestine was collected at 17, 18 and 19 days old in each group. Villous was shorting at 17 and 18 days old, but obscured at 19 days old. The gene expressions of epidermal and platelet-derived growth factor were associated with the villous height. Early weaning induced villous atrophy in the mouse small intestine as well as the piglets.

  10. Effects of toltrazuril on the growth of piglets in herds without clinical isosporosis.

    PubMed

    Maes, Dominiek; Vyt, Philip; Rabaeys, Patrick; Gevaert, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Isospora suis is a widely prevalent and economically important parasite. The antiprotozoal compound, toltrazuril, was given as a single treatment to piglets without clinical signs in 10 herds. The daily weight gain (DWG) and mortality between the treatment date and weaning was compared on each herd in 10 treated and 10 control litters. The faeces of control litters were examined for oocyst excretion. In six herds, no oocysts were detected and treatment had no effect on DWG or mortality. In four pig herds, oocysts were detected and toltrazuril treatment significantly improved DWG by 25 g (P=0.003). Mortality rate was not affected. The partial economic benefit of toltrazuril treatment in positive herds was 0.20 euros per piglet. A single toltrazuril treatment of piglets in herds without clinical signs of isosporosis but with oocysts detected significantly improved DWG and was considered economically justified on each farm.

  11. Cysteamine improves growth performance and gastric ghrelin expression in preweaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Du, G; Shi, Z; Xia, D; Wei, X; Zhang, L; Parvizi, N; Zhao, R

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cysteamine on growth performance of preweaning piglets and gastric expression of ghrelin mRNA in vivo and in vitro. Twelve litters of newborn piglets were allocated randomly to control and treatment groups. From 15 d of age, piglets in the control group were fed basal creep diet, whereas the treatment group received basal diet supplemented with 120 mg cysteamine per kg of diet until weaning on 35 d of age. Body weight gain, creep feed consumption, and diarrhea rates were recorded, and gastric mucosal tissues were collected for quantifying mRNA expression. To evaluate the direct effect of cysteamine on gastric ghrelin expression, primary cultures of gastric mucosal cells isolated from 35-d-old piglets were exposed to cysteamine for 20 h at 0, 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL, respectively. Dietary cysteamine increased (P < 0.05) average daily creep feed consumption and BW gain in preweaning pigs, which was accompanied by reduction in diarrhea rates. At 35 d of age, piglets treated with cysteamine showed increased (P < 0.05) ghrelin and gastrin and decreased (P < 0.05) somatostatin mRNA expression in gastric mucosa. Moreover, dietary cysteamine treatment increased serum concentration of gastrin (P < 0.05). In vitro, cysteamine significantly increased ghrelin mRNA expression in gastric mucosal cells at the concentration of 10 μg/mL. In conclusion, dietary cysteamine is effective in improving the growth performance and health condition of preweaning piglets, which is associated with its stimulatory effects on gastric ghrelin mRNA expression both in vivo and in vitro.

  12. Effects of age and zinc supplementation on transport properties in the jejunum of piglets.

    PubMed

    Gefeller, E M; Martens, H; Aschenbach, J R; Klingspor, S; Twardziok, S; Wrede, P; Pieper, R; Lodemann, U

    2015-06-01

    Zinc is effective in the prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea and in promoting piglet growth. Its effects on the absorption of nutrients and the secretory capacity of the intestinal epithelium are controversial. We investigated the effects of age, dietary pharmacological zinc supplementation and acute zinc exposure in vitro on small-intestinal transport properties of weaned piglets. We further examined whether the effect of zinc on secretory responses depended on the pathway by which chloride secretion is activated. A total of 96 piglets were weaned at 26 days of age and allocated to diets containing three different levels of zinc oxide (50, 150 and 2500 ppm). At the age of 32, 39, 46 and 53 days, piglets were killed, and isolated epithelia from the mid-jejunum were used for intestinal transport studies in conventional Ussing chambers, with 23 μm ZnSO4 being added to the serosal side for testing acute effects. Absorptive transport was stimulated by mucosal addition of d-glucose or l-glutamine. Secretion was activated by serosal addition of prostaglandin E2 , carbachol or by mucosal application of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (Stp ). Jejunal transport properties showed significant age-dependent alterations (p < 0.03). Both absorptive and secretory responses were highest in the youngest piglets (32 d). The dietary zinc supplementation had no significant influence on jejunal absorptive and secretory responses. However, the pre-treatment of epithelia with ZnSO4 in vitro led to a small but significant decrease in both absorptive and secretory capacities (p < 0.05), with an exception for carbachol (p = 0.07). The results showed that, in piglets, chronic supplementation with zinc did not sustainably influence the jejunal transport properties in the post-weaning phase. Because transport properties are influenced by the addition of zinc in vitro, we suggest that possible epithelial effects of zinc depend on the acute presence of this ion.

  13. Effects of meloxicam (Metacam®) on post-farrowing sow behaviour and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Mainau, E; Ruiz-de-la-Torre, J L; Dalmau, A; Salleras, J M; Manteca, X

    2012-03-01

    Farrowing is an intrinsically risky process for both the sow and the piglets that can cause welfare and economic problems. The effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam on post-farrowing behaviour of sows, and the performance of piglets were investigated. A total of 48 sows were randomly allocated at the day of farrowing (day 0) into two homogeneous groups regarding parity, and treated with either meloxicam or saline solution as placebo. For each sow, number of position changes, total time lying and standing or sitting, feed intake and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded during 3 days after farrowing. Piglets were individually weighed at farrowing and at weaning. The number of position changes did not show significant differences between treatments (P = 0.79). Sows spent significantly less time lying during day +3 after farrowing in the meloxicam group than in the placebo group (P = 0.04). Feed intake and RT showed a parity effect (P < 0.001 in both cases); however, no treatment effect was observed (P = 0.67 and P = 0.47, respectively). Pre-weaning mortality rate in piglets was not affected by treatment. In litters from multiparous sows, piglets of low birth weight (defined as percentile 15: BW <1180 g) had an average daily gain significantly higher in the meloxicam group than in the placebo group (196.6 ± 7.2 v. 166.6 ± 9.1 g/day; P = 0.03). Although the administration of meloxicam 90 min after farrowing showed a positive effect on the total time lying of the sows, additional investigations are required to better qualify relevant indicators of pain following farrowing in sows and to specify the analgesic effects of meloxicam on piglet performance.

  14. Development of the small intestine of piglets in response to prenatal elevation of glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Bate, L A; Ireland, W; Connell, B J; Grimmelt, B

    1991-04-01

    The effects of prenatal adrenal stimulation and synthetic glucocorticoid supplementation on development of the gastro-intestinal tract of the piglet were investigated. Twelve pregnant sows were treated with either ACTH infusion, Isoflupredone injection or Saline between days 105 and 112 of gestation. Neonatal pigs were weighed, bled and sacrificed at 0 or at 6 h. Piglets sacrificed at 6 h were fed bovine colostrum. Transverse sections were prepared from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum for measurement of the villus amplification factor (VAF) and basal membrane circumference. Sows in the ACTH group showed an elevation in cortisol in response to infusion; this decreased after infusion and then rose again at parturition. Piglets from both the ACTH and Saline groups had more villus surface area per unit of body weight (BW) than those born to Isoflupredone-treated animals. The BW of the ACTH piglets was lower (P less than 0.05) than those of piglets in the other groups. When the weight of the stomach and the Small Intestine (SI) was expressed as a function of the body weight, the stomach and SI:BW ratio was larger (p less than 0.05) in pigs born to ACTH-treated sows. The circumference of the ileum was larger at 6 h than at 0 h. Control pigs had a higher concentration of bovine IgG at 4 and 6 h (P less than 0.05). Observations of the light microscopic preparations indicated a less organized epithelium in both ACTH and isoflupredone pigs sacrificed at 0 h. Light and EM preparations of ileum from ACTH pigs sacrificed at 6 h, showed an abundance of dark-stained vacuoles, characteristic of IgG-containing structures. These became less evident in piglets from the Isoflupredone group and even less so in the control groups. The consequences of these phenomena in terms of absorptive capacity are discussed.

  15. Comparison of isoflurane and sevoflurane for short-term anesthesia in piglets.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, David S

    2007-03-01

    To compare isoflurane (ISO) and sevoflurane (SEVO) short-term anesthesia in piglets during castration. Prospective, randomized study. A total of 114 male piglets aged 6-10 days, body weight 1.3-5.0 kg. Piglets were randomly selected from multiple litters and randomly assigned to being anesthetized with ISO or SEVO prior to castration. To calculate appropriate doses for induction and maintenance of anesthesia, a square root of time model was used, with calculations based on metabolic size and attainment of 1.3x minimum alveolar concentration. The equipotent target alveolar concentration of ISO was 1.82% and for SEVO 4.03%. After doses were calculated, a table listing piglet weights and agent requirements was produced. Anesthetics were delivered via liquid anesthetic injection into a previously developed rebreathing inhaler that was filled with oxygen prior to use. Piglets were anesthetized, castrated and allowed to recover prior to return to the sow. Times for induction, recovery and total time to standing were recorded, and end-tidal carbon dioxide (Pe'CO2) tensions were measured by capnography immediately after mask removal. Each response variable was analyzed in sas using the Proc Mixed procedure, with piglet weight and days of age as covariates. Castration problems and mortality were assessed relative to unanesthetized littermates. There were no statistically significant differences in age, weight or total anesthetic time between the anesthetics. Induction time was shorter, recovery time longer, and Pe'CO2 lower with ISO. No morbidity or mortality was associated with either group. Isoflurane and SEVO, delivered in a novel inhaler, provided economical, safe, rapid anesthetic induction and maintenance. Optimal conditions were provided for castration and recoveries were brief and smooth. Statistically significant differences in times would be of minor clinical importance. The cost of anesthesia was much less with ISO than with SEVO.

  16. Susceptibility of Escherichia coli from growing piglets receiving antimicrobial feed additives.

    PubMed

    Kim, L M; Gray, Jeffery T; Harmon, Barry G; Jones, Richard D; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J

    2005-01-01

    Concerns regarding an apparent association between the use of antimicrobial feed additives (AFAs) in food animal production and a concomitant increase in antimicrobial drug resistance among zoonotic enteropathogens have provided the impetus to propose cessation of their use. While AFAs have been used in food animal production for nearly 50 years, the future use of AFAs will require an understanding of the effects of different classes of antimicrobials on the antimicrobial resistance of commensal flora. The present study examines the effect of three AFAs (apramycin, carbadox, and chlortetracycline) on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli in growing piglets and on animal performance. Three replicate trials were conducted using growing piglets fed standard diets with and without antimicrobial feed additives (AFAs). Fecal samples were cultured selectively for E. coli at regular intervals from all piglets from birth to market and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of E. coli isolates was performed using a replica-plate screening method and a broth microdilution method. While resistance to tetracycline in E. coli varied widely by sample, group, and trial, a significant increase in the percentage of resistant isolates was observed in piglets receiving AFAs when compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Resistance to apramycin increased in E. coli from piglets fed apramycin when compared to controls (p < 0.0001). However, upon removal of apramycin, resistance in E. coli declined to baseline levels by day 75. Piglets receiving AFAs demonstrated improved feed efficiency during phase 4 (p < 0.001), and higher average daily gains in phases 3 and 4 (p < 0.0001). This study suggests that antimicrobial resistance to AFAs in E. coli is drug-dependent and that some antimicrobials may be suitable for continued use in feeds during specified growth periods without concern for persistence of resistant E. coli populations.

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) Scanning Facilitates Early Identification of Neonatal Cystic Fibrosis Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Antoine; Chevaleyre, Claire; Barc, Celine; Berri, Mustapha; Adriaensen, Hans; Lecompte, François; Villemagne, Thierry; Pezant, Jérémy; Delaunay, Rémi; Moënne-Loccoz, Joseph; Berthon, Patricia; Bähr, Andrea; Wolf, Eckhard; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Attucci, Sylvie; Ramphal, Reuben; Sarradin, Pierre; Buzoni-Gatel, Dominique; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Caballero, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most prevalent autosomal recessive disease in the Caucasian population. A cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout (CFTR-/-) pig that displays most of the features of the human CF disease has been recently developed. However, CFTR-/- pigs presents a 100% prevalence of meconium ileus that leads to death in the first hours after birth, requiring a rapid diagnosis and surgical intervention to relieve intestinal obstruction. Identification of CFTR-/- piglets is usually performed by PCR genotyping, a procedure that lasts between 4 to 6 h. Here, we aimed to develop a procedure for rapid identification of CFTR-/- piglets that will allow placing them under intensive care soon after birth and immediately proceeding with the surgical correction. Methods and Principal Findings Male and female CFTR+/- pigs were crossed and the progeny was examined by computed tomography (CT) scan to detect the presence of meconium ileus and facilitate a rapid post-natal surgical intervention. Genotype was confirmed by PCR. CT scan presented a 94.4% sensitivity to diagnose CFTR-/- piglets. Diagnosis by CT scan reduced the birth-to-surgery time from a minimum of 10 h down to a minimum of 2.5 h and increased the survival of CFTR-/- piglets to a maximum of 13 days post-surgery as opposed to just 66 h after later surgery. Conclusion CT scan imaging of meconium ileus is an accurate method for rapid identification of CFTR-/- piglets. Early CT detection of meconium ileus may help to extend the lifespan of CFTR-/- piglets and, thus, improve experimental research on CF, still an incurable disease. PMID:26600426

  18. Effects of Cannabidiol and Hypothermia on Short-Term Brain Damage in New-Born Piglets after Acute Hypoxia-Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Lafuente, Hector; Pazos, Maria R.; Alvarez, Antonia; Mohammed, Nagat; Santos, Martín; Arizti, Maialen; Alvarez, Francisco J.; Martinez-Orgado, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypothermia is a standard treatment for neonatal encephalopathy, but nearly 50% of treated infants have adverse outcomes. Pharmacological therapies can act through complementary mechanisms with hypothermia improving neuroprotection. Cannabidiol could be a good candidate. Our aim was to test whether immediate treatment with cannabidiol and hypothermia act through complementary brain pathways in hypoxic-ischemic newborn piglets. Hypoxic-ischemic animals were randomly divided into four groups receiving 30 min after the insult: (1) normothermia and vehicle administration; (2) normothermia and cannabidiol administration; (3) hypothermia and vehicle administration; and (4) hypothermia and cannabidiol administration. Six hours after treatment, brains were processed to quantify the number of damaged neurons by Nissl staining. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were obtained and analyzed for lactate, N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. Metabolite ratios were calculated to assess neuronal damage (lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate) and excitotoxicity (glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate). Western blot studies were performed to quantify protein nitrosylation (oxidative stress), content of caspase-3 (apoptosis) and TNFα (inflammation). Individually, the hypothermia and the cannabidiol treatments reduced the glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate ratio, as well as TNFα and oxidized protein levels in newborn piglets subjected to hypoxic-ischemic insult. Also, both therapies reduced the number of necrotic neurons and prevented an increase in lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio. The combined effect of hypothermia and cannabidiol on excitotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and on cell damage, was greater than either hypothermia or cannabidiol alone. The present study demonstrated that cannabidiol and hypothermia act complementarily and show additive effects on the main factors leading to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage if applied shortly after the insult. PMID:27462203

  19. Recombinant monovalent llama-derived antibody fragments (VHH) to rotavirus VP6 protect neonatal gnotobiotic piglets against human rotavirus-induced diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Vega, Celina G; Bok, Marina; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Nuñez, Carmen; Alvarado, Carmen; Lasa, Rodrigo; Escribano, José M; Garaicoechea, Lorena L; Fernandez, Fernando; Bok, Karin; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Saif, Linda J; Parreño, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Group A Rotavirus (RVA) is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children. The aims of the present study were to determine the neutralizing activity of VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH nanoAbs) against different RVA strains in vitro and to evaluate the ability of G6P[1] VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH) to protect against human rotavirus in gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets experimentally inoculated with virulent Wa G1P[8] rotavirus. Supplementation of the daily milk diet with 3B2 VHH clone produced using a baculovirus vector expression system (final ELISA antibody -Ab- titer of 4096; virus neutralization -VN- titer of 256) for 9 days conferred full protection against rotavirus associated diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. The administration of comparable levels of porcine IgG Abs only protected 4 out of 6 of the animals from human RVA diarrhea but significantly reduced virus shedding. In contrast, G6P[1]-VP6 rotavirus-specific IgY Abs purified from eggs of hyperimmunized hens failed to protect piglets against human RVA-induced diarrhea or virus shedding when administering similar quantities of Abs. The oral administration of VHH nanoAb neither interfered with the host's isotype profiles of the Ab secreting cell responses to rotavirus, nor induced detectable host Ab responses to the treatment in serum or intestinal contents. This study shows that the oral administration of rotavirus VP6-VHH nanoAb is a broadly reactive and effective treatment against rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal pigs. Our findings highlight the potential value of a broad neutralizing VP6-specific VHH nanoAb as a treatment that can complement or be used as an alternative to the current strain-specific RVA vaccines. Nanobodies could also be scaled-up to develop pediatric medication or functional food like infant milk formulas that might help treat RVA diarrhea.

  20. Recombinant Monovalent Llama-Derived Antibody Fragments (VHH) to Rotavirus VP6 Protect Neonatal Gnotobiotic Piglets against Human Rotavirus-Induced Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Vlasova, Anastasia N.; Chattha, Kuldeep S.; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Nuñez, Carmen; Alvarado, Carmen; Lasa, Rodrigo; Escribano, José M.; Garaicoechea, Lorena L.; Fernandez, Fernando; Bok, Karin; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Saif, Linda J.; Parreño, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Group A Rotavirus (RVA) is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children. The aims of the present study were to determine the neutralizing activity of VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH nanoAbs) against different RVA strains in vitro and to evaluate the ability of G6P[1] VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH) to protect against human rotavirus in gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets experimentally inoculated with virulent Wa G1P[8] rotavirus. Supplementation of the daily milk diet with 3B2 VHH clone produced using a baculovirus vector expression system (final ELISA antibody -Ab- titer of 4096; virus neutralization -VN- titer of 256) for 9 days conferred full protection against rotavirus associated diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. The administration of comparable levels of porcine IgG Abs only protected 4 out of 6 of the animals from human RVA diarrhea but significantly reduced virus shedding. In contrast, G6P[1]-VP6 rotavirus-specific IgY Abs purified from eggs of hyperimmunized hens failed to protect piglets against human RVA-induced diarrhea or virus shedding when administering similar quantities of Abs. The oral administration of VHH nanoAb neither interfered with the host's isotype profiles of the Ab secreting cell responses to rotavirus, nor induced detectable host Ab responses to the treatment in serum or intestinal contents. This study shows that the oral administration of rotavirus VP6-VHH nanoAb is a broadly reactive and effective treatment against rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal pigs. Our findings highlight the potential value of a broad neutralizing VP6-specific VHH nanoAb as a treatment that can complement or be used as an alternative to the current strain-specific RVA vaccines. Nanobodies could also be scaled-up to develop pediatric medication or functional food like infant milk formulas that might help treat RVA diarrhea. PMID:23658521

  1. Effects of Cannabidiol and Hypothermia on Short-Term Brain Damage in New-Born Piglets after Acute Hypoxia-Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, Hector; Pazos, Maria R; Alvarez, Antonia; Mohammed, Nagat; Santos, Martín; Arizti, Maialen; Alvarez, Francisco J; Martinez-Orgado, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Hypothermia is a standard treatment for neonatal encephalopathy, but nearly 50% of treated infants have adverse outcomes. Pharmacological therapies can act through complementary mechanisms with hypothermia improving neuroprotection. Cannabidiol could be a good candidate. Our aim was to test whether immediate treatment with cannabidiol and hypothermia act through complementary brain pathways in hypoxic-ischemic newborn piglets. Hypoxic-ischemic animals were randomly divided into four groups receiving 30 min after the insult: (1) normothermia and vehicle administration; (2) normothermia and cannabidiol administration; (3) hypothermia and vehicle administration; and (4) hypothermia and cannabidiol administration. Six hours after treatment, brains were processed to quantify the number of damaged neurons by Nissl staining. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were obtained and analyzed for lactate, N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. Metabolite ratios were calculated to assess neuronal damage (lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate) and excitotoxicity (glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate). Western blot studies were performed to quantify protein nitrosylation (oxidative stress), content of caspase-3 (apoptosis) and TNFα (inflammation). Individually, the hypothermia and the cannabidiol treatments reduced the glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate ratio, as well as TNFα and oxidized protein levels in newborn piglets subjected to hypoxic-ischemic insult. Also, both therapies reduced the number of necrotic neurons and prevented an increase in lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio. The combined effect of hypothermia and cannabidiol on excitotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and on cell damage, was greater than either hypothermia or cannabidiol alone. The present study demonstrated that cannabidiol and hypothermia act complementarily and show additive effects on the main factors leading to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage if applied shortly after the insult.

  2. Salvinorin A Pretreatment Preserves Cerebrovascular Autoregulation After Brain Hypoxic/Ischemic Injury via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Su, Diansan; Riley, John; Armstead, William M.; Liu, Renyu

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerebral hypoxia/ischemia during infant congenital heart surgery is not uncommon, and may induce devastating neurologic disabilities persistent over the lifespan. Hypoxia/ischemia-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction is thought to be an important contributor to neurological damage. No pharmacological agents have been found to prevent this. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), including extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, is thought to contribute to ischemic preconditioning. We investigated whether pretreatment with salvinorin A, the only natural non-opioid kappa receptor agonist, could preserve autoregulation of the pial artery via MAPK. Methods The response of the pial artery to hypotension and hypercapnia was monitored in piglets equipped with a closed cranial window before and after hypoxia and ischemia in the presence or absence of U0126, an inhibitor for the protein kinase upstream of ERK, sp600125, an inhibitor of c-JNK or sb203580, an inhibitor of p38. Salvinorin A (10 μg/kg IV) was administered 30 minutes before hypoxia/ischemia in salvinorin-treated animals. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected before and 30 minutes after salvinorin A administration for the measurement of MAPK. Data (n=5) were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results Pial artery dilation to hypercapnia and hypotension was blunted after hypoxia/ischemia, but preserved well by pretreatment with salvinorin A. U0126, but not sp600125 or sb203580, abolished the preservative effects of salvinorin A on cerebral vascular autoregulation to hypotension and hypercapnia. The ratio of pERK/ERK in cerebrospinal fluid increased significantly in salvinorin-treated animals, which was inhibited by U0126. Conclusions Salvinorin A pretreatment preserves autoregulation of the pial artery to hypotension and hypercapnia after hypoxia/ischemia via ERK in a piglet model. PMID:22075021

  3. Infant Reflux: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... barium) from a bottle before the test. Upper endoscopy. A special tube equipped with a camera lens ... be taken for analysis. For infants and children, endoscopy is usually done under general anesthesia. Treatment Infant ...

  4. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. ... 12 months old who are not drinking breast milk . While there are some differences, infant formulas sold ...

  5. Parenting Your Infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... easily. This can lead to choking! Infants Have Personalities Even very tiny infants act in very individual ... a parent, you already know your baby’s unique personality. Think about this personality when you are caring ...

  6. Risk factors associated with the different categories of piglet perinatal mortality in French farms.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, F; Edwards, S A; Robert, F; Kyriazakis, I

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to identify mortality patterns and to establish risk factors associated with different categories of piglet perinatal mortality in French farms. At farm level, the analyses were performed on data from 146 farms that experienced perinatal mortality problems. At piglet level, the analyses were performed on data from 155 farms (7761 piglets). All data were collected over a period of 10 years (2004-14) by a consulting company, using a non-probability sampling at farm level and a random sampling at sow level. Six main categories of mortality, determined by standardised necropsy procedure, represented 84.5% of all the perinatal deaths recorded. These six categories were, in order of significance: Death during farrowing, Non- viable, Early sepsis, Mummified, Crushing and Starvation. At farm level, the percentage of deaths due to starvation was positively correlated to the percentage of deaths due to crushing and the percentage of deaths during farrowing (r>0.30, P<0.05) .The percentage of deaths due to crushing was negatively correlated to the percentage of deaths due to early sepsis (r<-0.30, P<0.05) and positively correlated to the deaths due to acute disease (r>0.30, P<0.05). Patterns of perinatal mortality at farm level were identified using a principal component analysis. Based on these, the farms could be classified, using ascending hierarchical classification, into three different clusters, highlighting issues that underlie farm differences. Risk factors were compared at piglet level for the different categories of death. Compared to other categories of death, deaths during farrowing were significantly fewer during the night than during the day. Compared to other categories of death, the likelihood of non-viable piglets tended to be higher in summer than other seasons. A smaller number of deaths in the litter was also identified for the piglets classified as non-viable or mummified. For the six main categories of perinatal mortality, the piglets which died

  7. Dietary Fat Preference and Effects on Performance of Piglets at Weaning.

    PubMed

    Weng, Ruey-Chee

    2016-10-05

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the interplay of dietary lipid sources and feeding regime in the transition from sow milk to solid food of abruptly weaned piglets. 144 weaned piglets were trained over a 15 day period to experience gradually reducing dietary fat content from 12% to 6% for lard (L), soybean oil (S) and coconut oil (C) and their feeding behavior and diet preference then tested in a behavior observation experiment. Another 324 weaned piglets were used in three consecutive feeding experiments to measure the effect of different dietary fats on performance and feed choice in the four weeks after abrupt weaning. The lipid sources were used as supplements in a 3% crude fat corn/soya basal diet, with 6% of each being included to form diets 9C, 9S and 9L respectively, and their effects on performance measured. Combinations of these diets were then further compared in fixed blends or free choice selection experiments. In experiment 1, piglets pre-trained to experience reducing lipid inclusion showed different subsequent preferences according to lipid source, with a preference for lard at 9%, soybean oil at 3% and coconut oil at 6% inclusion rate (P<0.001). Following abrupt weaning, piglets that were fed with 9C and 9L had similar, heavier body weights at 3rd week of age, than those fed 9L, whilst after 4 weeks those fed 9C had the heaviest body weights (18.13 kg, p=0.006). Piglets fed a fixed 1:1 blend of 9C+9S had a poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR=1.80) than those fed a blend of 9C+9L (FCR=1.4). The 9C and 9L combination groups showed better performance in both fixed blend and free choice feeding regimes. Free choice combination showed higher FCR than their equivalent fixed blends, with the exception of the 9C and 9S groups. In summary, piglets can select and adjust suitable lipid sources. After abrupt weaning, they still have dependence on high oleic acid lipids as found in sow milk. They are also attracted to lipids with high short

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from piglets with or without diarrhea in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Silveira Silva, Rodrigo Otávio; Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; da Costa Cruz Júnior, Eduardo Coulaud; Albefaro, Isabella Silva; de Carvalho Guedes, Roberto Maurício; Faria Lobato, Francisco Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 13 antibiotics against Clostridium perfringens isolated from Brazilian piglets. The collection of isolates was performed in June to October 2010. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin and ceftiofur, whereas most were resistant to tetracycline and lincomycin. Avilamycin and narasin were more effective against isolates from non-diarrheic than from diarrheic piglets. The other antimicrobials were less active in need of high concentrations to inhibit the growth of the C. perfringens type A. These results suggest the need for further studies evaluating molecular factors related to the antimicrobial resistance of C. perfringens. PMID:24031924

  9. Infant sign language program effects on synchronic mother-infant interactions.

    PubMed

    Góngora, Ximena; Farkas, Chamarrita

    2009-04-01

    The effects of an intentional infant sign language program on mother-infant interactions were studied. Design was quasi-experimental, longitudinal, descriptive and comparative. The sample was composed of 14 mother-infant dyads, with the infants being between 5 and 9 months at the beginning of the study. The participants were middle or upper-middle socio-economic status. The interactions were evaluated through observations of free play and analyzed using a Grid to analyze early interactions. The frequency and duration of synchronic interactions were compared across experimental and control groups at 12-14 and 18-20 months of age using non-parametric Mann-Whitney tests. The results suggested significant differences between groups on visual and tactile synchronic interactions, and a tendency for vocal interactions, in the direction of higher frequencies in the experimental group.

  10. Pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency impairs spatial learning and memory in the cognitive holeboard task in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C.; Scholz, Gabi; Berg, Brian M.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in humans, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Early-life iron deficiency can lead to irreversible deficits in learning and memory. The pig represents a promising model animal for studying such deficits, because of its similarities to humans during early development. We investigated the effects of pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency in piglets on growth, blood parameters, cognitive performance, and brain histology later in life. Four to six days after birth, 10 male sibling pairs of piglets were taken from 10 different sows. One piglet of each pair was given a 200 mg iron dextran injection and fed a control milk diet for 28 days (88 mg Fe/kg), whereas the other sibling was given a saline injection and fed an iron deficient (ID) milk diet (21 mg Fe/kg). Due to severely retarded growth of two of the ID piglets, only eight ID piglets were tested behaviorally. After dietary treatment, all piglets were fed a balanced commercial pig diet (190–240 mg Fe/kg). Starting at 7.5 weeks of age, piglets were tested in a spatial cognitive holeboard task. In this task, 4 of 16 holes contain a hidden food reward, allowing measurement of working (short-term) memory and reference (long-term) memory (RM) simultaneously. All piglets received 40–60 acquisition trials, followed by a 16-trial reversal phase. ID piglets showed permanently retarded growth and a strong decrease in blood iron parameters during dietary treatment. After treatment, ID piglets' blood iron values restored to normal levels. In the holeboard task, ID piglets showed impaired RM learning during acquisition and reversal. Iron staining at necropsy at 12 weeks of age showed that ID piglets had fewer iron-containing cells in hippocampal regions CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG). The number of iron-containing cells in CA3 correlated positively with the average RM score during acquisition across all animals. Our results support the hypothesis that early

  11. Pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency impairs spatial learning and memory in the cognitive holeboard task in piglets.

    PubMed

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C; Scholz, Gabi; Berg, Brian M; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in humans, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Early-life iron deficiency can lead to irreversible deficits in learning and memory. The pig represents a promising model animal for studying such deficits, because of its similarities to humans during early development. We investigated the effects of pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency in piglets on growth, blood parameters, cognitive performance, and brain histology later in life. Four to six days after birth, 10 male sibling pairs of piglets were taken from 10 different sows. One piglet of each pair was given a 200 mg iron dextran injection and fed a control milk diet for 28 days (88 mg Fe/kg), whereas the other sibling was given a saline injection and fed an iron deficient (ID) milk diet (21 mg Fe/kg). Due to severely retarded growth of two of the ID piglets, only eight ID piglets were tested behaviorally. After dietary treatment, all piglets were fed a balanced commercial pig diet (190-240 mg Fe/kg). Starting at 7.5 weeks of age, piglets were tested in a spatial cognitive holeboard task. In this task, 4 of 16 holes contain a hidden food reward, allowing measurement of working (short-term) memory and reference (long-term) memory (RM) simultaneously. All piglets received 40-60 acquisition trials, followed by a 16-trial reversal phase. ID piglets showed permanently retarded growth and a strong decrease in blood iron parameters during dietary treatment. After treatment, ID piglets' blood iron values restored to normal levels. In the holeboard task, ID piglets showed impaired RM learning during acquisition and reversal. Iron staining at necropsy at 12 weeks of age showed that ID piglets had fewer iron-containing cells in hippocampal regions CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG). The number of iron-containing cells in CA3 correlated positively with the average RM score during acquisition across all animals. Our results support the hypothesis that early

  12. Exceptional Infant. Volume 1: The Normal Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellmuth, Jerome, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of papers that focus on normal infant development, particularly from the standpoint of learning. Written by leading experts from a member of disciplines, these papers deal with topics such as: the examination and observation of infants, including neurological, neuropsychological, and neurobehavioral aspects;…

  13. Exceptional Infant. Volume 1: The Normal Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellmuth, Jerome, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of papers that focus on normal infant development, particularly from the standpoint of learning. Written by leading experts from a member of disciplines, these papers deal with topics such as: the examination and observation of infants, including neurological, neuropsychological, and neurobehavioral aspects;…

  14. The health implications of soy infant formula.

    PubMed

    Badger, Thomas M; Gilchrist, Janet M; Pivik, R Terry; Andres, Aline; Shankar, Kartik; Chen, Jin-Ran; Ronis, Martin J

    2009-05-01

    Soy formula (SF) has been fed to millions of infants worldwide. It has been shown to promote growth and development as well as milk-based formula (MF). Controversy has developed over the adequacy and safety of SF. Most concerns are based on in vivo and in vitro data that raise the possibility of estrogenic effects of isoflavones contained in SF. There are few studies of children who were fed SF, and thus insufficient data are available to judge if SF feeding results in clinically significant developmental effects and if there are any long-term health consequences (adverse or beneficial). However, the Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center is conducting a prospective longitudinal study comparing growth, development, and health of breastfed children with formula-fed (SF and MF) children from birth through age 6 y. After 5 y of study, children in all 3 groups (n > 300) are growing and developing within normal limits, and there are no indications of adverse effects in the soy-fed children. Neonatal pig studies comparing SF, MF, and breast milk (BM) have shown diet-specific gene expression profiles in various target tissues. Therefore, although SF differed significantly from BM, MF also differed from BM, and SF differed from MF. Nonetheless, these animals grew and developed normally, and SF piglets had several health benefits (eg, increased bone quality) and no observable adverse effects. Thus, to date, our results suggest that SF supports normal growth and may have advantages in promoting bone development.

  15. Severe blastomycosis in infants.

    PubMed

    Pelly, Lorine; Al Juaid, Alaa; Fanella, Sergio

    2014-11-01

    Blastomycosis is a dimorphic fungal infection that can be manifested as pulmonary or extrapulmonary disease. Disease in infants is rare, even in endemic areas. We report a case of severe blastomycosis in a 4-month-old infant, as well as details of 2 other cases from our center and a brief review of infant blastomycosis.

  16. Infant Temperament and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Infants have definite personality characteristics from birth onward. Despite wide variation in infant temperament styles, ranging from easy to difficult, responsive parents and non-parental caregivers can ensure positive emotional-social development. This paper, which reviews various theories and research on personality development in infants and…

  17. Infant feeding: a review.

    PubMed

    Poskitt, E M

    1983-08-01

    Ideas on how infants should be fed have changed dramatically over the past ten years. This has led to some confusion, amongst both the public and those concerned with advising mothers, on safe and acceptable infant feeding practices. A contemporary view of infant feeding and its problems is presented.

  18. Effect of a post-weaning diet supplemented with functional feed additives on ileal transcriptome activity and serum cytokines in piglets challenged with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Bissonnette, N; Jiang, X R; Matte, J J; Guay, F; Talbot, G; Bontempo, V; Gong, J; Wang, Q; Lessard, M

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the potential of a weanling diet supplemented with trace minerals, vitamins, prebiotics, essential oils, antioxidants and bovine colostrum (BC) to modulate the inflammatory response of low-weight (LW) and high-weight (HW) piglets challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). At weaning (20±1 d), litters from 32 sows were assigned to four groups: control diet (CTL), CTL plus dietary supplements (DS) or the antibiotic chlortetracycline (ATB), or DS plus BC in place of plasma proteins in the weanling diet (DS+BC). At 37 d (T0), two LW and two HW piglets were bled to evaluate ex vivo cytokine production by LPS activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In parallel, LW and HW piglets received intraperitoneal LPS and were bled at slaughter at 4h (T4) or 18h (T18) post-injection. Ileal tissues from these piglets and two unchallenged medium weight (MW) piglets per treatment were excised and analyzed by microarray. At T0, cytokine production of LPS-activated PBMCs was not affected by dietary treatments. At T4 after LPS challenge, serum concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were increased in all piglets (P<0.01). Interestingly, the LW piglets had a higher TNF-α level than the HW piglets did (P=0.05). Dietary treatments had no effect on the piglet serum concentration of these cytokines neither at T4 nor at T18. Microarray data and QPCR analysis reveal that several genes were differentially expressed in the LPS-challenged piglets in comparison with the two control MW piglets (P<0.001). However, the dietary treatments had a slight effect on the ileal gene expression of the T4 and T18 LPS-challenged piglets when all piglets were included in the analysis. But when body weight (LW and HW) was considered as a fixed effect, the microarray analysis showed that the expression of 54 genes was differentially modulated by the dietary treatments in the T4 and T18 LPS-challenged LW piglets (P<0.05) while in HW piglets no difference was observed. QPCR

  19. The effect of birth weight and age at tail docking and ear notching on the behavioral and physiological responses of piglets.

    PubMed

    Bovey, K E; Widowski, T M; Dewey, C E; Devillers, N; Farmer, C; Lessard, M; Torrey, S

    2014-04-01

    Selection for high prolificacy has resulted in litters comprising a large number of low-birth-weight (LBW) piglets. Given their presence in over 75% of litters and increased mortality rate, it is clear that a greater understanding of LBW piglet management is required for both animal welfare and productivity. In this study, we compared the effects of tail docking and ear notching LBW and average-birth-weight (ABW) piglets at 1 or 3 d of age on suckling, behavior, passive transfer of immunoglobulins, and growth. Six piglets per litter from 20 litters (n = 120 piglets) were used in a 2 × 2 complete block design. Piglets were weighed at birth and designated as LBW (0.6 to 1.0 kg) or ABW (≥ 1.2 kg) and "processed" (tail docked and ear notched) at either 1 or 3 d of age. Vocalizations were recorded during the procedures. The acute behavioral responses were observed for 10 min after the procedure. Piglets were observed for 6 h after birth and after the procedure to determine their presence at nursing bouts. On d 5, blood samples were collected to determine concentrations of serum immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) and IGF-I. Piglet weights were recorded at birth and on d 5, 14, and 21. During the procedures, LBW piglets produced fewer (P = 0.03) calls than ABW piglets. Piglets from either birth weight category produced a similar number (calls/s; P = 0.29) of high-frequency calls (≥ 1,000 Hz), which are indicative of pain and distress, although the average frequency (Hz) of these calls was greatest (P = 0.05) for ABW piglets processed on d 3. Immediately following the procedures, LBW piglets spent more (P = 0.005) time dog-sitting and less (P = 0.005) time lying than ABW piglets. When observed with the sow, LBW males spent more (P = 0.001) time alone and had the lowest (P = 0.007) attendance at nursing bouts compared with LBW females and all ABW piglets. Concentrations of serum IgA (P = 0.06) and IgG (P = 0.04) and plasma IGF-I (P = 0.003) were lower for LBW than ABW

  20. Acute neurologic disease in Porcine rubulavirus experimentally infected piglets.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Jenifer; Gómez-Núñez, Luis; Lara-Romero, Rocío; Diosdado, Fernando; Martínez-Lara, Atalo; Jasso, Miguel; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Rivera-Benítez, José Francisco

    2017-02-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical disease, humoral response and viral distribution of recent Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates in experimentally infected pigs. Four, 6-piglet (5-days old) groups were employed (G1-84, G2-93, G3-147, and G4-T). Three viral strains were used for the experimental infection: the reference strain LPMV-1984 (Michoacán 1984) and two other strains isolated in 2013, one in Queretaro (Qro/93/2013) and the other in Michoacán (Mich/147/2013). Each strain was genetically characterized by amplification and sequencing of the gene encoding hemagglutinin-neuroamidase (HN). The inoculation was performed through the oronasal and ocular routes, at a dose of 1×10(6)TCID50/ml. Subsequently, the signs were evaluated daily and necropsies were performed on 3 different days post infection (dpi). We recorded all micro- and macroscopic lesions. Organs from the nervous, lymphatic, and respiratory system were analyzed by quantifying the viral RNA load and the presence of the infectious virus. The presence of the viral antigen in organs was evidenced through immunohistochemistry. Seroconversion was evaluated through the use of a hemagglutination inhibition test. In the characterization of gene HN, only three substitutions were identified in strain Mich/147/2013, two in strain LPMV/1984 (fourth passage) and one in strain Qro/93/2013, with respect to reference strain LPMV-84, these changes had not been identified as virulence factors in previously reported strains. Neurological alterations associated with the infection were found in all three experimental groups starting from 3dpi. Groups G1-84 and G3-147 presented the most exacerbated nervous signs. Group G2-93 only presented milder signs including slight motor incoordination, and an increased rectal temperature starting from day 5 post infection (PI). The main histopathological findings were the presence of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate (lymphocytic/monocytic) surrounding the

  1. Growth Performance, Plasma Fatty Acids, Villous Height and Crypt Depth of Preweaning Piglets Fed with Medium Chain Triacylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Chwen, Loh Teck; Foo, Hooi Ling; Thanh, Nguyen Tien; Choe, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT) on growth performance, plasma fatty acids, villus height and crypt depth in preweaning piglets. A total of 150 new born piglets were randomly assigned into one of three treatments: i) Control (no MCT); ii) MCT with milk (MCT+milk); iii) MCT without milk (MCT+fasting). Body weight, plasma fatty acid profiles, villus height and crypt depth were measured. Final BW for the Control and MCT+fasting was lower (p<0.05) than MCT+milk. The piglets fed with MCT regardless of milk provision or fasting had greater medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) than the Control. In contrast, the Control had greater long chain fatty acid (LCFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) than the MCT piglets. The piglets fed with MCT regardless of milk provision or fasting had higher villus height for the duodenum and jejunum after 6 h of feeding. Similar observations were found in piglets fed with MCT after 6 and 8 days of treatment. This study showed that feeding MCT to the piglets before weaning improved growth performance, with a greater concentration of MCT in blood plasma as energy source and a greater height of villus in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. PMID:25049841

  2. Encoding of Situations in the Vocal Repertoire of Piglets (Sus scrofa): A Comparison of Discrete and Graded Classifications

    PubMed Central

    Tallet, Céline; Linhart, Pavel; Policht, Richard; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Šimeček, Petr; Kratinova, Petra; Špinka, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Two important questions in bioacoustics are whether vocal repertoires of animals are graded or discrete and how the vocal expressions are linked to the context of emission. Here we address these questions in an ungulate species. The vocal repertoire of young domestic pigs, Sus scrofa, was quantitatively described based on 1513 calls recorded in 11 situations. We described the acoustic quality of calls with 8 acoustic parameters. Based on these parameters, the k-means clustering method showed a possibility to distinguish either two or five clusters although the call types are rather blurred than strictly discrete. The division of the vocal repertoire of piglets into two call types has previously been used in many experimental studies into pig acoustic communication and the five call types correspond well to previously published partial repertoires in specific situations. Clear links exist between the type of situation, its putative valence, and the vocal expression in that situation. These links can be described adequately both with a set of quantitative acoustic variables and through categorisation into call types. The information about the situation of emission of the calls is encoded through five call types almost as accurately as through the full quantitative description. PMID:23967251

  3. Effects of Lactobacillus casei and Enterococcus faecalis on growth performance, immune function and gut microbiota of suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoqi; Zhu, Qun; Chang, Juan; Yin, Qingqiang; Song, Andong; Li, Zhentian; Wang, Erzhu; Lu, Fushan

    2017-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of orally administrated Lactobacillus casei and Enterococcus faecalis on performance, immune function and gut microbiota of suckling piglets. Neonatal piglets (n = 120) were randomly assigned to 4 groups, with 30 suckling piglets in each group. The piglets were from 15 litters, one male and one female piglet were selected for each group in each litter. The Control group was administrated with normal saline, the other groups with L. casei or E. faecalis or a combination of L. casei and E. faecalis at a ratio of 3:1. Each piglet was orally administrated with 1, 2, 3 and 4 ml probiotics or normal saline at the age of 1, 7, 14 and 21 d, respectively. The piglets were weaned at the age of 21 d. The results showed that compared with the Control group, the average daily gain of piglets administrated with probiotics was significantly increased, and the diarrhoea rate and mortality were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). After supplementation of the combined probiotics, the protease activity in stomach, duodenum and colon was increased and in all supplemented groups, the immunoglobulin A concentration in plasma was significantly higher (p < 0.05). The combined probiotics significantly increased villus length and the expression level of transforming growth factor-β in the jejunum (p < 0.05) but decreased the expression level of the jejunal tumour necrosis factor-α (p < 0.05). In addition, probiotics could regulate gut microbiota and increase microbial similarity coefficients for keeping piglet gut microbiota stable.

  4. Effect of porcine-derived mucosal competitive exclusion culture on antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli from growing piglets.

    PubMed

    Kim, L M; Gray, Jeffery T; Bailey, J Stan; Jones, Richard D; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J

    2005-01-01

    While use of antimicrobial drugs in livestock production has made a significant impact on animal health, welfare, and productivity, interest in suitable alternatives such as pre/probiotics, organic acids, and cultures of normal flora or "competitive exclusion" cultures from young animals has increased significantly in the wake of the antimicrobial resistance issue. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of porcine-derived mucosal competitive exclusion (PCE) culture on both the antimicrobial susceptibility of commensal E. coli and on growth performance in piglets. Two replicate trials were conducted using growing piglets fed standard antimicrobial-free production diets. Piglets in the treatment group were orally dosed with PCE (10(10) cfu/mL) twice within 24 h of birth, at weaning, and 18-24 h post-weaning; control group piglets were dosed with sterile broth as a placebo. Fecal samples from all piglets were cultured for commensal E. coli at dosing times and when feed type was changed. A significantly higher proportion of E. coli from PCE-treated piglets demonstrated resistance to tetracycline (p < 0.0001), and streptomycin (p < 0.0001) when compared to controls. Resistance to streptomycin resistance in E. coli from piglets treated with PCE culture was variable, returning to baseline levels by day 21 (weaning). Piglets treated with the PCE culture demonstrated improved feed efficiencies when compared to control piglets (p < 0.005) during feeding of the starter and first growth diets. The PCE culture used in the present study had previously been shown to effectively exclude Salmonella in pigs. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report characterizing the effect of a competitive exclusion culture on antimicrobial resistance of commensal E. coli.

  5. The effects of live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on postweaning diarrhea, immune response, and growth performance in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Trckova, M; Faldyna, M; Alexa, P; Sramkova Zajacova, Z; Gopfert, E; Kumprechtova, D; Auclair, E; D'Inca, R

    2014-02-01

    The effects of live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain CNCM I-4407, 10(10) cfu/g; Actisaf; Lesaffre Feed Additives, Marcq-en-Baroeul, France) on the severity of diarrhea, immune response, and growth performance in weaned piglets orally challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain O149:K88 were investigated. Live yeast was fed to sows and their piglets in the late gestation, suckling, and postweaning periods. Sows were fed a basal diet without (Control; n = 2) or with (Supplemented; n = 2) 1 g/kg of live yeast from d 94 of gestation and during lactation until weaning of the piglets (d 28). Suckling piglets of the supplemented sows were orally treated with 1 g of live yeast in porridge carrier 3 times a week until weaning. Weaned piglets were fed a basal starter diet without (Control; n = 19) or with (Supplemented; n = 15) 5 g of live yeast/kg feed for 2 wk. Significantly lower daily diarrhea scores (P < 0.05), duration of diarrhea (P < 0.01), and shedding of pathogenic ETEC bacteria (P < 0.05) in feces was detected in the supplemented piglets. Administration of live yeast significantly increased (P < 0.05) IgA levels in the serum of piglets. Evidence indicates that decreased infection-related stress and severity of diarrhea in yeast-fed weaned piglets positively affected their growth capacity in the postweaning period (P < 0.05). The results suggest that dietary supplementation with live yeast S. cerevisiae to sows and piglets in the late gestation, suckling, and postweaning periods can be useful in the reduction of the duration and severity of postweaning diarrhea caused by ETEC.

  6. Professional Nurses' Perceptions of Skills Required for Performing Preterm Infants' Follow-up Assessments.

    PubMed

    Cordewener, Debbie; Lubbe, Welma

    2017-02-14

    Improved perinatal and neonatal care enhances preterm infant survival rates, but the adverse outcomes remain high. Nurses play vitally important roles regarding the follow-up assessments, treatment, and care of preterm infants. This explorative, descriptive study aimed to describe nurses' perceptions of skills required to perform effective preterm infant assessments. Thirteen semistructured interviews were conducted. Identified themes included the role of the professional nurse, the importance of preterm infant assessments, lack of skills and knowledge to conduct quality assessments, formal and continuous development training needs, the absence of assessment tools and physical resources to perform standardized assessments of preterm infants, and the required support and referral systems.

  7. Parenting and infant sleep.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Avi; Tikotzky, Liat; Scher, Anat

    2010-04-01

    Infant sleep undergoes dramatic evolution during the first year of life. This process is driven by underlying biological forces but is highly dependent on environmental cues including parental influences. In this review the links between infant sleep and parental behaviors, cognitions, emotions and relationships as well as psychopathology are examined within the context of a transactional model. Parental behaviors, particularly those related to bedtime interactions and soothing routines, are closely related to infant sleep. Increased parental involvement is associated with more fragmented sleep. Intervention based on modifying parental behaviors and cognitions have direct effect on infant sleep. It appears that parental personality, psychopathology and related cognitions and emotions contribute to parental sleep-related behaviors and ultimately influence infant sleep. However, the links are bidirectional and dynamic so that poor infant sleep may influence parental behaviors and poor infant sleep appears to be a family stressor and a risk factor for maternal depression.

  8. Effect of inflammation stimulation on energy and nutrient utilization in piglets selected for low and high residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Labussière, E; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Thibault, J N; Le Floc'h, N; Noblet, J; van Milgen, J

    2015-10-01

    Selection of animals for improved feed efficiency can affect sustainability of animal production because the most efficient animals may face difficulties coping with challenges. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an inflammatory challenge (using an intravenous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant - CFA) in piglets from two lines of pigs divergently selected during the fattening period for a low (RFI-) or a high (RFI+) residual feed intake (RFI; difference between actual feed intake and theoretical feed requirements). Nitrogen and energy balances (including heat production - HP - and its components: activity-related HP - AHP, thermic effect of feeding, and resting HP) were measured individually in thirteen 20-kg BW castrated male piglets (six and seven from RFI+ and RFI- line, respectively) fed at the same level (1.72 MJ ME/kg BW0.60 per day) from 3 days before to 3 days after CFA injection. Dynamics of dietary U-13C-glucose oxidation were estimated from measurements of 13CO2 production on the day before and 3 days after the CFA injection. Oxidation of dietary nutrients and lipogenesis were calculated based on HP and O2 consumption and CO2 production. The data were analyzed as repeated measurements within piglets in a mixed model. Before CFA injection, RFI- piglets had a lower resting energy expenditure than RFI+ piglets, which tended to increase energy retention because of a higher energy retention as fat. The CFA injection did not affect feed intake from the day following CFA injection onwards but it increased energy retention (P=0.04). Time to recover 50% of 13C from dietary glucose as expired 13CO2 was higher in RFI+ piglets before inducing inflammation but decreased after to the level of RFI- piglets (P<0.01). Oxidation of U-13C-glucose tended to slightly increased in RFI- piglets and to decreased in RFI+ piglets (P=0.10) because of CFA. Additionally, RFI- piglets had a lower respiratory quotient during the 1st day following the CFA

  9. Postnatal piglet husbandry practices and well-being: The effects of alternative techniques delivered separately

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soon after birth, piglets undergo procedures that are a likely source of stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate stress responses evoked by 2 combinations of alternative methods for performing the following processing procedures: 1) teeth resection (TR) – clip vs. grind; 2) identification (ID)...

  10. The Effects of Tail Docking Method on Piglets' Behavioral Responses to a Formalin Pain Test

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Routine piglet production procedures, for example teeth clipping, tail docking and castration, most likely cause pain and are under increasing scrutiny from the animal rights lobby. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of 2 alternative methods of tail-docking on subsequent response...

  11. Prenatally stressed piglets 'shut down' in response to separation, oxytocin modulates some effects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prenatal stress (PNS) effects may enhance offspring’s survival traits. Yet, PNS could be maladaptive for captive animals, causing anxiety and abnormal social development. Oxytocin (OT) reduces anxiety while OT deficiency results in social behavior alteration. We hypothesized that PNS piglets would b...

  12. DIET REGULATES THE DEVELOPMENT OF GUT-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE IN NEONATAL PIGLETS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the immediate postnatal period tissue growth in the pig gastrointestinal tract increases by up to 80%. Controversy exists concerning diet-induced changes to the gut epithelial and immunocytes that occur during weaning. Comparisons of bovine milk protein digestion in 3-week-old piglets and 3-...

  13. Iron bioavailability to piglets from red and white common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyphenols in foods may chelate dietary Fe and lower its bioavailability. Concentrations of phenols are substantially higher in red beans than in white beans. The aim of this study was to compare iron bioavailabilities from red and white beans in a piglet hemoglobin repletion model. Fe deficient cr...

  14. Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

    PubMed

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.

  15. Impact of two different colistin dosing strategies on healthy piglet fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Fleury, M A; Jouy, E; Eono, F; Cariolet, R; Couet, W; Gobin, P; Le Goff, O; Blanquet-Diot, S; Alric, M; Kempf, I

    2016-08-01

    Colistin is often used in piglets but underdosing and overdosing are frequent. The impact of such administrations on fecal microbiota was studied. Piglets were given either underdoses of colistin by oral gavage for five days or overdoses by in-feed medication for 14days. The composition of fecal microbiota was studied by quantitative PCR, 16S rRNA sequencing, culture of Enterobacteriaceae, and quantification of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The mean colistin concentrations during the treatment for underdosed and overdosed groups were 14.4μg/g and 64.9μg/g of feces respectively. Whatever the piglet and the sampling day, the two main phyla were Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, The main families were Lactobacillaceae, Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. The main perturbation was the significant but transitory decrease in the Escherichia coli population during treatment, yet all the E. coli isolates were susceptible to colistin. Moreover, colistin did not affect the production of SCFAs. These results show that under- or overdoses of colistin do not result in any major disturbance of piglet fecal microbiota and rarely select for chromosomal resistance in the dominant E. coli population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitrous oxide as a humane method for piglet euthanasia: behavior and electroencephalography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The search for humane methods to euthanize piglets is critical to address public concern that current methods are not optimal. Blunt force trauma is considered humane but aesthetically objectionable. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is used but criticized as aversive. This research sought to: 1) evaluate the av...

  17. Efficacy of bentonite clay in ameliorating aflatoxicosis in piglets fed aflatoxin contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Thieu, Nguyen Quang; Ogle, Brian; Pettersson, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The efficacy of locally produced bentonite was evaluated with respect to ameliorating the adverse effects of aflatoxins (AF) in piglets fed AF contaminated diets. Forty eight piglets were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 1) 0 g of bentonite and 0 microg AF/kg feed (control); 2) 4 g of bentonite plus 200 microg AF/kg feed (AF + Bento 4); 3) 5 g of bentonite plus 200 microg AF/kg feed (AF + Bento 5) and 4) 0 g of bentonite plus 200 microg AF/kg feed (AFA). Piglets in the AFA treatment had lower overall average daily weight gain (ADG), feed conversion efficiency, albumin (ALB) and total protein (TP) compared to the control diet, while mean serum leukocyte and enzyme activities (glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphate (ALP) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH)) were significant increased. The inclusion of bentonite at 0.4% or 0.5% in the AF contaminated diet restored the lower performance, feed efficiency and abnormal blood profiles of the piglets given AF and no differences between 0.4 and 0.5% inclusion of bentonite. The findings in the present study provide critically needed confirmation that bentonite has the ability to reduce the adverse effects of AF.

  18. The piglet as a model for B cell and immune system development

    PubMed Central

    Butler, J.E.; Lager, K.M.; Splichal, I.; Francis, D.; Kacskovics, I.; Sinkora, M.; Wertz, N.; Sun, J.; Zhao, Y.; Brown, W.R.; DeWald, R.; Dierks, S.; Muyldermans, S.; Lunney, J.K.; McCray, P.B.; Rogers, C.S.; Welsh, M.J.; Navarro, P.; Klobasa, F.; Habe, F.; Ramsoondar, J.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to identify factors responsible for disease in all species depends on the ability to separate those factors which are environmental from those that are intrinsic. This is particularly important for studies on the development of the adaptive immune response of neonates. Studies on laboratory rodents or primates have been ambiguous because neither the effect of environmental nor maternal factors on the newborn can be controlled in mammals that: (i) transmit potential maternal immunoregulatory factors in utero and (ii) are altricial and cannot be reared after birth without their mothers. Employing the newborn piglet model can address each of these concerns. However, it comes at the price of having first to characterize the immune system of swine and its development. This review focuses on the porcine B cell system, especially on the methods used for its characterization in fetal studies and neonatal piglets. Understanding these procedures is important in the interpretation of the data obtained. Studies on neonatal piglets have (a) provided valuable information on the development of the adaptive immune system, (b) lead to important advances in evolutionary biology, (c) aided our understanding of passive immunity and (d) provided opportunities to use swine to address specific issues in veterinary and biomedical research and immunotherapy. This review summarizes the history of the development of the piglet as a model for antibody repertoire development, thus providing a framework to guide future investigators. PMID:19056129

  19. The micro-environment of the sleeping newborn piglet covered by bedclothes: gas exchange and temperature.

    PubMed

    Galland, B C; Peebles, C M; Bolton, D P; Taylor, B J

    1994-04-01

    This study followed the thermal and gaseous micro-environment of the newborn piglet sleeping under two levels of bedding insulation. After 1 h in the piglet's thermal comfort zone, the head of each piglet was covered for 2 h with bedding either 12 mm or 21 mm thick. Body temperature rose rapidly, but the arterial gases showed no change in the direction of asphyxia; with the thicker covering PaO2 was unchanged and PaCO2 fell and pH rose. These changes were despite a small rise in environmental PCO2 and fall in PO2 but were also minimized by the piglet's ability to avoid profound hypocapnia by panting at a very low tidal volume. No significant changes in blood gases occurred with the thinner bedding; the temperature rose markedly but more slowly. It is suggested that human babies submerged under bedclothes for any length of time would be more likely to succumb to the effects of hyperthermia than of asphyxia.

  20. Effect of tannins on growth performance and intestinal ecosystem in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Biagia, Giacomo; Cipollini, Irene; Paulicks, Brigitte R; Roth, Franz X

    2010-04-01

    Tannins are natural polyphenolic compounds that can reduce digestibility of dietary protein but also display antibacterial effects. The present study investigated, in vitro and in vivo, the effect of different levels of tannins (using a chestnut wood extract containing 75% tannins) on growth performance, intestinal microbiota and wall morphology in piglets. During a 24 h in vitro caecal fermentation, the utilisation of tannins at 0.75, 1.5, 3, and 6 g/l significantly reduced total gas production and concentrations of ammonia and volatile fatty acids and increased viable counts of enterococci and coliforms. When fed to piglets at 1.13, 2.25, and 4.5 g/kg, tannins significantly improved feed efficiency and reduced caecal concentrations of ammonia, iso-butyric, and iso-valeric acid. Viable counts of lactobacilli tended to be increased by tannins in the jejunum, while bacterial caecal counts were not affected. Depth of ileal crypts tended to decrease in piglets fed tannins at 2.25 and 4.5 g/kg. The present study showed that feeding weaned piglets with a tannin-rich wood extract can result in improved feed efficiency and reduction of intestinal bacterial proteolytic reactions. The growth-enhancing effect that tannins had on enterococci and coliforms under in vitro conditions deserves further investigation.

  1. Effects of Weaning on Intestinal Upper Villus Epithelial Cells of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaocheng; Tan, Bie; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal upper villus epithelial cells represent the differentiated epithelial cells and play key role in digesting and absorbing lumenal nutrients. Weaning stress commonly results in a decrease in villus height and intestinal dysfunction in piglets. However, no study have been conducted to test the effects of weaning on the physiology and functions of upper villus epithelial cells. A total of 40 piglets from 8 litters were weaned at 14 days of age and one piglet from each litter was killed at 0 d (w0d), 1 d (w1d), 3 d (w3d), 5 d (w5d), and 7 d (w7d) after weaning, respectively. The upper villus epithelial cells in mid-jejunum were isolated using the distended intestinal sac method. The expression of proteins in upper villus epithelial cells was analyzed using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification or Western blotting. The expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism, Golgi vesicle transport, protein amino acid glycosylation, secretion by cell, transmembrane transport, ion transport, nucleotide catabolic process, translational initiation, and epithelial cell differentiation and apoptosis, was mainly reduced during the post-weaning period, and these processes may be regulated by mTOR signaling pathway. These results indicated that weaning inhibited various cellular processes in jejunal upper villus epithelial cells, and provided potential new directions for exploring the effects of weaning on the functions of intestine and improving intestinal functions in weaning piglets. PMID:27022727

  2. A high-temperature passaging attenuated Pseudorabies vaccine protects piglets completely against emerging PRV variant.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chao; Tong, Wu; Zheng, Hao; Liu, Fei; Wu, Jiqiang; Li, Guoxin; Zhou, En-Min; Tong, Guangzhi

    2017-02-13

    Emerging variant of pseudorabies virus (PRV) have evaded the antiviral immunity of commercially available PRV vaccine and have led to PRV outbreaks in Chinese pig farms. Here, we attenuated a PRV variant strain by serial passages in vitro and evaluate the protective efficacy of the attenuated strain as a vaccine candidate. The virulent PRV variant strain JS-2012 was continuously passaged in Vero cells at 40°C and attenuated rapidly. After 90 passages in Vero cells, the passaged virus lost its ability to cause death in 2-week-old piglets. The 120th passage virus was avirulent in the sucking piglets. An attenuated strain, JS-2012-F120 derived from the 120th passage virus by three rounds of plaque cloning grew better than its parent strain JS-2012 in Vero cells and showed notably different cytopathic effects and plaque morphology from JS-2012. PCR combined with sequence analysis showed that JS-2012-F120 contained a 2307-bp deletion covering nucleotide 487 of gE gene to 531 of US2 gene. After inoculation with JS-2012-F120, young piglets were completely protected from challenge with the classical and emerging virulent PRVs. Moreover, the piglets did not develop specific gE antibodies. Thus, JS-2012-F120 appears to be a promising marker vaccine to control PRV variant circulating in Chinese pig farms, and the high-temperature passaging in vitro was an efficient method to attenuated alphaherpesvirus.

  3. Skin Vaccination against Rotavirus Using Microneedles: Proof of Concept in Gnotobiotic Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuhuan; Vlasova, Anastasia; Velasquez, Daniel E.; Saif, Linda J.; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Kochba, Efrat; Levin, Yotam; Jiang, Baoming

    2016-01-01

    Live-attenuated oral rotavirus (RV) vaccines have lower efficacy in low income countries, and additionally are associated with a rare but severe adverse event, intussusception. We have been pursuing the development of an inactivated rotavirus vaccine (IRV) using the human rotavirus strain CDC-9 (G1P[8]) through parenteral immunization and previously demonstrated dose sparing and enhanced immunogenicity of intradermal (ID) unadjuvanted IRV using a coated microneedle patch in comparison with intramuscular (IM) administration in mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune response and protection against RV infection and diarrhea conferred by the administration of the ID unadjuvanted IRV using the microneedle device MicronJet600® in neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets challenged with virulent Wa G1P[8] human RV. Three doses of 5 μg IRV when administered intradermally and 5 μg IRV formulated with aluminum hydroxide [Al(OH)3] when administered intramuscularly induced comparable rotavirus-specific antibody titers of IgA, IgG, IgG avidity index and neutralizing activity in sera of neonatal piglets. Both IRV vaccination regimens protected against RV antigen shedding in stools, and reduced the cumulative diarrhea scores in the piglets. This study demonstrated that the ID and IM administrations of IRV are immunogenic and protective against RV-induced diarrhea in neonatal piglets. Our findings highlight the potential value of an adjuvant sparing effect of the IRV ID delivery route. PMID:27824918

  4. Skin Vaccination against Rotavirus Using Microneedles: Proof of Concept in Gnotobiotic Piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhuan; Vlasova, Anastasia; Velasquez, Daniel E; Saif, Linda J; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Kochba, Efrat; Levin, Yotam; Jiang, Baoming

    2016-01-01

    Live-attenuated oral rotavirus (RV) vaccines have lower efficacy in low income countries, and additionally are associated with a rare but severe adverse event, intussusception. We have been pursuing the development of an inactivated rotavirus vaccine (IRV) using the human rotavirus strain CDC-9 (G1P[8]) through parenteral immunization and previously demonstrated dose sparing and enhanced immunogenicity of intradermal (ID) unadjuvanted IRV using a coated microneedle patch in comparison with intramuscular (IM) administration in mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune response and protection against RV infection and diarrhea conferred by the administration of the ID unadjuvanted IRV using the microneedle device MicronJet600® in neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets challenged with virulent Wa G1P[8] human RV. Three doses of 5 μg IRV when administered intradermally and 5 μg IRV formulated with aluminum hydroxide [Al(OH)3] when administered intramuscularly induced comparable rotavirus-specific antibody titers of IgA, IgG, IgG avidity index and neutralizing activity in sera of neonatal piglets. Both IRV vaccination regimens protected against RV antigen shedding in stools, and reduced the cumulative diarrhea scores in the piglets. This study demonstrated that the ID and IM administrations of IRV are immunogenic and protective against RV-induced diarrhea in neonatal piglets. Our findings highlight the potential value of an adjuvant sparing effect of the IRV ID delivery route.

  5. The control of necrotic enteritis in sucking piglets by means of a Clostridium perfringens toxoid vaccine.

    PubMed

    Springer, S; Selbitz, H J

    1999-07-01

    Necrotic enteritis in sucking piglets constitutes a serious problem in piglet rearing units because of the high morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. The primary causal agent is Clostridium perfringens type C. The beta-toxin plays a decisive role in the pathogenesis of this disease. A toxoid vaccine for use in sows has been developed and studied in field trials. The European Pharmacopoeia Monograph on vaccines for use in animals lays down a method of the efficacy testing based on the immunization of rabbits, the collection of pooled sera and the subsequent assay of anti-toxin antibodies in mice using an appropriate test toxin. The vaccine is regarded as effective if it induces a minimum of 10 IU of beta-anti-toxin per ml of rabbit serum. We have established a range of 17.14-98.23 IU beta-anti-toxin per ml rabbit serum induced by a sample of C. perfringens toxoid vaccine. The vaccine has been used under field conditions in different rearing units at the same time, mostly in the form of emergency vaccinations following the outbreak of disease. The outcome of vaccination was evaluated by recording the total numbers of piglets born alive and the piglet losses. Use of the vaccine, coupled with other measures, resulted in an approximately 30% reduction in the number of losses.

  6. Forsythia suspensa extract alleviates hypersensitivity induced by soybean beta-conglycinin in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yue; Li, Defa; Piao, Xianglan; Piao, Xiangshu

    2010-03-24

    Soybeans are known to stimulate food allergies; however, current therapies are lacking in alleviating hypersensitivity. The present study investigated whether Forsythia suspensa extract could attenuate purified soybean beta-conglycinin-induced anaphylactic reactions in weaned piglets. Eighteen 14-day-old piglets were sensitized and boosted by oral administration of purified beta-conglycinin. Forsythia suspensa extract was supplemented in the diet after the initial sensitization and continued for the remainder of the experiment. Piglets were challenged on day 28, and anaphylactic symptoms, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, plasma histamine and intestinal microbial flora were analyzed. T-cell proliferative responses and cytokine production were also determined. Forsythia suspensa extract alleviated beta-conglycinin-induced anaphylactic symptoms by markedly reducing anaphylactic antibodies, mast cell degranulation, and histamine release while improving intestinal microbial flora. Furthermore, Forsythia suspensa extract significantly suppressed beta-conglycinin-induced T lymphocyte proliferation and IL-4 synthesis. Forsythia suspensa extract protected beta-conglycinin-sensitized piglets from anaphylactic reactions. Forsythia suspensa extract may provide a novel effective therapy for soybean allergy. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Iron Supplementation in Suckling Piglets: How to Correct Iron Deficiency Anemia without Affecting Plasma Hepcidin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Starzyński, Rafał R.; Laarakkers, Coby M. M.; Tjalsma, Harold; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Pieszka, Marek; Styś, Agnieszka; Mickiewicz, Michał; Lipiński, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning), following intramuscular administration of different concentrations of iron dextran to suckling piglets. To better assess the iron status we developed a novel mass spectrometry assay to quantify pig plasma levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin-25. This hormone is predominantly secreted by the liver and acts as a negative regulator of iron absorption and reutilization. The routinely used protocol with high amount of iron resulted in the recovery of piglets from iron deficiency but also in strongly elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels. A similar protocol with reduced amounts of iron improved hematological status of piglets to the same level while plasma hepcidin-25 levels remained low. These data show that plasma hepcidin-25 levels can guide optimal dosing of iron treatment and pave the way for mixed supplementation of piglets starting with intramuscular injection of iron dextran followed by dietary supplementation, which could be efficient under condition of very low plasma hepcidin-25 level. PMID:23737963

  8. Cellular distribution of orally and intramuscularly administered iron dextran in newborn piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Thorén-Tolling, K; Jönsson, L

    1977-01-01

    Histochemical studies were performed on tissues from piglets of different ages treated orally with iron dextran soon after birth. The mucosal cells in the distal region of the small intestine were heavily laden with stainable iron granules during the first three days after the iron administration. The absorptive epithelial cells are desquamated within seven to ten days after birth. Consequently, the number of iron granules gradually diminishes during the first seven days after treatment and no iron granules are demonstrated 12 days after the administration of iron. The iron dextran complex is pinocytosed in newborn piglets and then transported via the lymphatic system. Thus the sinusoidal lining cells of the body and mesenteric lymph nodes are already heavily laden with iron granules 24 hours after oral treatment. This iron store is released only slowing during the first weeks of life. Great amounts of iron granules are demonstrated in the liver and spleen macrophages during the first week after the administration of iron. Due to the rapid utilization of iron in growing piglets these iron stores diminish sharply during the weeks following birth. The distribution of stainable iron in the lymph nodes, liver and spleen seven days after intramuscular injection of iron dextran in newborn piglets was comparable to that for oral administration at that stage of the experiment. Images Fig. 1a-e. Fig. 2a-e. Fig. 3a-d. Fig. 4a-d. Fig. 5a-d. PMID:907907

  9. Iron supplementation in suckling piglets: how to correct iron deficiency anemia without affecting plasma hepcidin levels.

    PubMed

    Starzyński, Rafał R; Laarakkers, Coby M M; Tjalsma, Harold; Swinkels, Dorine W; Pieszka, Marek; Styś, Agnieszka; Mickiewicz, Michał; Lipiński, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning), following intramuscular administration of different concentrations of iron dextran to suckling piglets. To better assess the iron status we developed a novel mass spectrometry assay to quantify pig plasma levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin-25. This hormone is predominantly secreted by the liver and acts as a negative regulator of iron absorption and reutilization. The routinely used protocol with high amount of iron resulted in the recovery of piglets from iron deficiency but also in strongly elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels. A similar protocol with reduced amounts of iron improved hematological status of piglets to the same level while plasma hepcidin-25 levels remained low. These data show that plasma hepcidin-25 levels can guide optimal dosing of iron treatment and pave the way for mixed supplementation of piglets starting with intramuscular injection of iron dextran followed by dietary supplementation, which could be efficient under condition of very low plasma hepcidin-25 level.

  10. Effect of toltrazuril treatment in nursing piglets naturally infected with Isospora suis.

    PubMed

    Skampardonis, Vasilis; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Kostoulas, Polychronis; Leontides, Leonidas

    2010-08-27

    Isospora suis is an important parasitic infection in intensive pig production worldwide, responsible for significant economic losses. In this study the efficacy of toltrazuril treatment against isosporosis was evaluated, under field conditions and throughout the nursing period, in reducing (i) the mean time to onset of diarrhoea and oocyst excretion, (ii) the odds of diarrhoea and, (iii) the odds and level of oocyst excretion, adjusting for the heterogeneity of I. suis infection among litters and across time. In a 300-sow farrow-to-finish commercial operation, twenty-five litters were randomly allocated to receive toltrazuril (thirteen litters) or no treatment (twelve litters). The course of infection was followed in all piglets by coprological examination from day 6 after farrowing until weaning. Parametric shared frailty models, generalised linear mixed models and a two-part random effects model were used in the analyses. Treated piglets had longer mean time to onset of oocyst excretion, lower odds of excreting oocysts and lower mean amount of excreted oocysts on any day during the nursing period. Diarrhoea was less likely to occur in treated piglets. Variance partition coefficients revealed that almost half of the variation in the odds of oocyst excretion and diarrhoea was ascribed to unknown or unmeasured factors that operate at higher than the piglet levels of aggregation. Thus, beyond toltrazuril treatment, control of isosporosis in commercial pig farms can be improved by identification and quantification of these factors. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcriptome profiling of the small intestinal epithelium in germfree versus conventional piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To gain insight into host-microbe interactions in a piglet model, a functional genomics approach was used to address the working hypothesis that transcriptionally regulated genes associated with promoting epithelial barrier function are activated as a defensive response to the intestinal microbiota....

  12. Experimental infection of gnotobiotic piglets with Escherichia coli strains positive for EAST1 and AIDA.

    PubMed

    Zajacova, Zuzana Sramkova; Faldyna, Martin; Kulich, Pavel; Kummer, Vladimir; Maskova, Jarmila; Alexa, Pavel

    2013-03-15

    The virulence factors EAST1 and AIDA are often detected in ETEC/VTEC strains isolated from pigs and their role in diarrhoeal infections is discussed. In order to elucidate the pathogenesis of AIDA, the colonisation patterns of F4 positive and AIDA positive strains were investigated. Two wild-type Escherichia coli strains AIDA/EAST1 and F4/EAST1 isolated from diarrhoeal piglets were used for animal experiment to evaluate the ability of the EAST1 toxin to be involved in induction of diarrhoea. Gnotobiotic piglets were supplemented with normal porcine serum and orally inoculated with the strains. Faecal bacterial shedding of the challenge strains was observed during the experiment. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to detect the colonisation pattern of both challenge strains. Although bacterial isolation demonstrated shedding of the challenge strains until the end of the experiment, diarrhoea did not develop in any piglet. Based on histological examination, piglets were more heavily colonised in the case of infection with E. coli O149/F4/EAST1 strain. Scanning electron microscopy showed bacterial cells of F4/EAST1 E. coli adhering to enterocytes, in contrast to AIDA/EAST1 which were poorly present on the intestinal surface. The EAST1 toxin alone was not able to induce diarrhoea in animals. Therefore our results demonstrate that the function/role of EAST1 and AIDA in colibacillosis of pigs remains to be elucidated.

  13. First report of molecular identification of Cystoisospora suis in piglets with lethal diarrhea in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Takayama, Hideko; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Murata, Misato; Uchiyama, Yuka; Kaji, Masaya; Sasai, Kazumi; Yamaguchi, Ryosaku; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2016-03-01

    Cystoisospora suis is a pathogen that causes diarrhea in pigs and can lead to serious disease. Species identification, especially by histopathological examination, is often difficult because of morphologically similar parasites such as Eimeria species. In this study, we used histopathological, bacteriological, virological, and parasitological methods to identify the cause of the disease in two piglets with severe diarrhea. Villous atrophy, diffuse necrosis, and flattening of mucosal epithelial cells were found in the ilea of examined piglets, and coccidian parasites were found in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. In some merozoites in the meronts, the presence of two nuclei indicated type 1 merozoites, characteristic of C. suis. According to Cystoisospora-specific PCR targeting the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene, the sequences of the products were 98.5% similar to those of C. suis. Escherichia coli (O149 serogroup) exhibiting a virulence factor profile (LT, STb, and EAST1 as toxins and F4 as a colonization factor) was detected in one piglet. No other bacteria or significant enteric viruses were found. Co-infection with C. suis and E. coli could imply aggravation of the disease, although further study is needed to assess the pathogenicity of this interaction. This study is the first to clarify by molecular analysis the sequences of C. suis detected in piglets in Japan.

  14. Weaning Induced Hepatic Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, and Aminotransferases through MAPK Signaling Pathways in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhen; Zhu, Wei; Guo, Qi; Luo, Wenli; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Weina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of weaning on the hepatic redox status, apoptosis, function, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways during the first week after weaning in piglets. A total of 12 litters of piglets were weaned at d 21 and divided into the weaning group (WG) and the control group (CG). Six piglets from each group were slaughtered at d 0 (d 20, referred to weaning), d 1, d 4, and d 7 after weaning. Results showed that weaning significantly increased the concentrations of hepatic free radicals H2O2 and NO, malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), while significantly decreasing the inhibitory hydroxyl ability (IHA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and altered the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD). The apoptosis results showed that weaning increased the concentrations of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. In addition, aspartate aminotransferase transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in liver homogenates increased after weaning. The phosphorylated JNK and ERK1/2 increased, while the activated p38 initially decreased and then increased. Our results suggested that weaning increased the hepatic oxidative stress and aminotransferases and initiated apoptosis, which may be related to the activated MAPK pathways in postweaning piglets. PMID:27807471

  15. Contributions of prostacyclin and nitric oxide to carbon monoxide-induced cerebrovascular dilation in piglets.

    PubMed

    Leffler, C W; Nasjletti, A; Johnson, R A; Fedinec, A L

    2001-04-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous dilator in the newborn cerebral microcirculation. Other dilators include prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO), and interactions among the systems are likely. Experiments on anesthetized piglets with cranial windows address the hypothesis that CO-induced dilation of pial arterioles involves interaction with the prostanoid and NO systems. Topical application of CO or the heme oxygenase substrate heme-L-lysinate (HLL) produced dilation. Indomethacin, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), and either iberiotoxin or tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) were used to inhibit prostanoids, NO, and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (K(Ca)) channels, respectively. Indomethacin, L-NNA, iberiotoxin, or TEA blocked cerebral vasodilation to CO and HLL. Vasodilations to both CO and HLL were returned to indomethacin-treated piglets by topical application of iloprost. Vasodilations to both CO and HLL were returned to L-NNA-treated piglets by sodium nitroprusside but not iloprost. In iberiotoxin- or TEA-treated piglets, dilations to CO and HLL could not be restored by either iloprost or sodium nitroprusside. The dilator actions of CO involve prostacyclin and NO as permissive enablers. The permissive actions of prostacyclin and NO may alter the K(Ca) channel response to CO because neither iloprost nor sodium nitroprusside could restore dilation to CO when these channels were blocked.

  16. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jun; Martínez, Yordan; Bin, Peng; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive), an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin), and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract). The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P < 0.05). The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics. PMID:27525260

  17. Presence of atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) genomes in newborn piglets correlates with congenital tremor

    PubMed Central

    Postel, Alexander; Hansmann, Florian; Baechlein, Christine; Fischer, Nicole; Alawi, Malik; Grundhoff, Adam; Derking, Sarah; Tenhündfeld, Jörg; Pfankuche, Vanessa Maria; Herder, Vanessa; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Wendt, Michael; Becher, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Pestiviruses are highly variable RNA viruses belonging to the continuously growing family Flaviviridae. A genetically very distinct pestivirus was recently discovered in the USA, designated atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, a screening of 369 sera from apparently healthy adult pigs demonstrated the existence of APPV in Germany with an estimated individual prevalence of 2.4% and ~10% at farm level. Additionally, APPV genomes were detected in newborn piglets affected by congenital tremor (CT), but genomes were absent in unaffected piglets. High loads of genomes were identified in glandular epithelial cells, follicular centers of lymphoid organs, the inner granular cell layer of the cerebellum, as well as in the trigeminal and spinal ganglia. Retrospective analysis of cerebellum samples from 2007 demonstrated that APPV can be found in piglets with CT of unsolved aetiology. Determination of the first European APPV complete polyprotein coding sequence revealed 88.2% nucleotide identity to the APPV sequence from the USA. APPV sequences derived from different regions in Germany demonstrated to be highly variable. Taken together, the results of this study strongly suggest that the presence of APPV genomes in newborn piglets correlates with CT, while no association with clinical disease could be observed in viremic adult pigs. PMID:27292119

  18. Alpha (1,2)-fucosyltransferase M307A polymorphism improves piglet survival.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungtae; Nguyen, Dinh Truong; Choi, Minkyung; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Seo, Han Geuk; Dadi, Hailu; Cha, Se-Yeoun; Seo, Kunho; Lee, Yun-Mi; Kim, Jong-Joo; Park, Chankyu

    2013-01-01

    To confirm the beneficial effects of alpha (1,2)-fucosyltransferase (FUT1) M307 (A) on piglet survival on commercial farms, we performed PCR-RFLP analysis of FUT1 M307 in successfully marketed (n = 245) and disease affected/deceased pigs during weaning (n = 252) at a commercial farm. We also evaluated the FUT1 genotypes of 190 healthy pigs from three different genetic backgrounds. The distribution of genotypes differed between the successfully marketed and disease affected/deceased pig groups. The frequency of the A allele, associated with resistance to edema and post-weaning diarrhea, was higher in the post-weaning survival group (0.21) than in the non-survival group (0.16, P < 0.05). The odds ratio for piglet survival between AA and GG genotypes was 1.98; thus, piglet survival for individuals with the AA genotype was almost two-fold greater than for GG individuals. The FUT1 gene polymorphism can be used as an effective marker for selection programs to improve post-weaning piglet survival.

  19. The Development of a Program in Orientation and Mobility for Multi-Handicapped Blind Infants (Peabody Mobility Kit for Infants). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Randall K.; And Others

    The final report provides a detailed description of the development of the Peabody Mobility Kit for Infants, which provides programmed instruction in orientation and mobility for multiply impaired blind infants. It describes the development of the criterion referenced assessment scales and instructional activities, the empirical validation of the…

  20. Hypoxic-preconditioning induces neuroprotection against hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglet brain.

    PubMed

    Ara, Jahan; Fekete, Saskia; Frank, Melissa; Golden, Jeffrey A; Pleasure, David; Valencia, Ignacio

    2011-08-01

    Preconditioning-induced ischemic tolerance has been documented in the newborn brain, however, the signaling mechanisms of this preconditioning require further elucidation. The aims of this study were to develop a hypoxic-preconditioning (PC) model of ischemic tolerance in the newborn piglet, which emulates important clinical similarities to human situation of birth asphyxia, and to characterize some of the molecular mechanisms shown to be implicated in PC-induced neuroprotection in rodent models. One day old piglets were subjected to PC (8% O2/92% N2) for 3 h and 24 h later were exposed to hypoxia-ischemia (HI) produced by a combination of hypoxia (5% FiO2) for a period of 30 min and ischemia induced by a period of hypotension (10 min of reduced mean arterial blood pressure; ≤70% of baseline). Neuropathologic analysis and unbiased stereology, conducted at 24 h, 3 and 7 days of recovery following HI, indicated a substantial reduction in the severity of brain damage in PC piglets compared to non-PC piglets (P<0.05). PC significantly increased the mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and its target gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at 0 h, 6h, 24 h, 3 and 7 days of recovery. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that PC resulted in HIF-1α protein stabilization and accumulation in nuclear extracts of cerebral cortex of newborn piglet brain compared to normoxic controls. Protein levels of VEGF increased in a time-dependent manner in both cortex and hippocampus following PC. Double-immunolabeling indicated that VEGF is mainly expressed in neurons, endothelial cells and astroglia. Our study demonstrates for the first time the protective efficacy of PC against hypoxic-ischemic injury in newborn piglet model, which recapitulates many pathophysiological features of asphyxiated human neonates. Furthermore, as has been shown in rodent models of preconditioning, our results suggest that PC-induced protection in neonatal piglets may involve

  1. Dietary Zinc Oxide Modulates Antioxidant Capacity, Small Intestine Development, and Jejunal Gene Expression in Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cui; Lv, Hang; Chen, Zhuang; Wang, Li; Wu, Xiuju; Chen, Zhongjian; Zhang, Weina; Liang, Rui; Jiang, Zongyong

    2017-02-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) on the antioxidant capacity, small intestine development, and jejunal gene expression in weaned piglets. Ninety-six 21-day-old piglets were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments. Each treatment had eight replicates with four piglets per replicate. The piglets were fed either control diet (control) or control diet supplemented with in-feed antibiotics (300 mg/kg chlortetracycline and 60 mg/kg colistin sulfate) or pharmacological doses of ZnO (3000 mg/kg). The experiment lasted 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected at days 14 and 28, while intestinal samples were harvested at day 28 of the experiment. Dietary high doses of ZnO supplementation significantly increased the body weight (BW) at day 14 and average daily gain (ADG) of days 1 to 14 in weaned piglets, when compared to control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of diarrhea of piglets fed ZnO-supplemented diets, at either days 1 to 14, days 14 to 28, or the overall experimental period, was significantly decreased in comparison with those in other groups (P < 0.05). Supplementation with ZnO increased the villus height of the duodenum and ileum in weaned piglets and decreased the crypt depth of the duodenum, when compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Dietary ZnO supplementation decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration at either day 14 or day 28, but increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) at day 14, when compared to that in the control (P < 0.05). ZnO supplementation upregulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin in the jejunum mucosa of weaned piglets, compared to those in the control (P < 0.05). The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-lβ (IL-1β) mRNA expression in the jejunum mucosa was downregulated in the ZnO-supplemented group, compared with the control (P < 0.05). Both in-feed antibiotics and ZnO supplementation decreased the m

  2. Neonatal piglet traits of importance for survival in crates and indoor pens.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, L J; Berg, P; Jørgensen, G; Andersen, I L

    2011-04-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the same piglet traits contributed to the same causes of neonatal piglet mortality in crates (CT) and pens (PN). Gilts originating from 2 distinct genetic groups that differed in breeding value for piglet survival rate at d 5 (SR5) were used. These were distributed to farrow in either PN or CT as follows: high-SR5 and CT (n = 30); low-SR5 and CT (n = 27); high-SR5 and PN (n = 22); and low-SR5 and PN (n = 24). Data on individual piglets were collected at birth, including interbirth interval; birth order; birth weight; rectal temperature at birth, 2 h after birth, and 24 h after birth; cordal plasma lactate; and latency to first suckle. Based on autopsy, causes of mortality were divided into stillborn, bitten to death, starvation, crushed, disease, and other causes. Potential risk factors of dying were estimated using a GLM with a logit link function. No significant effect (NS) of housing was observed on the odds of a piglet being stillborn (F(1,73) = 0.1, NS), being crushed (F(1,53) = 1.4, NS), or dying of starvation (F(1,53) = 0.3, NS). No significant differences were observed between the 2 genetic groups for any category of mortality. Piglet traits for pre- and postnatal survival were the same for CT and PN. The odds of being stillborn were increased in piglets born late in the birth order (F(1,1061) = 33.5, P < 0.0001), after a long interbirth interval (F(1,1061) = 19.2, P < 0.0001), and with a lighter birth weight (F(1,1061) = 9.2, P = 0.003). The lighter the birth weight of the piglets, the greater were the odds of being crushed (F(1,1050) = 18, P < 0.0001) and dying of starvation (F(1,1050) = 19, P < 0.0001). The lower the rectal temperature 2 h after birth, the greater were the odds of being crushed (F(1,1050) = 4.6, P = 0.03), starving (F(1,1050) = 16.6, P < 0.0001), or dying of diseases (F(1,1050) = 4.9, P = 0.03). Increased cordal plasma lactate increased the odds of dying from starvation (F(1

  3. Outcomes of human milk-fed premature infants.

    PubMed

    Schanler, Richard J

    2011-02-01

    Significant benefits to infant host defense, sensory-neural development, gastrointestinal maturation, and some aspects of nutritional status are observed when premature infants are fed their mothers' own milk. A reduction in infection-related morbidity in human milk-fed premature infants has been reported in nearly a dozen descriptive, and a few quasi-randomized, studies in the past 25 years. Human milk-fed infants also have decreased rates of rehospitalization for illness after discharge. Studies on neurodevelopmental outcomes have reported significantly positive effects for human milk intake in the neonatal period and long-term mental and motor development, intelligence quotient, and visual acuity through adolescence. Body composition in adolescence also is associated with human milk intake in the neonatal intensive care unit. Finally, human milk intake is less associated with the development of the metabolic syndrome than infant formula feeding.

  4. Infant-Infant Interaction in a Daycare Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durfee, Joan T.; Lee, Lee C.

    The Infant-Infant Contact Code, developed to observe the social behavior in infants, is described. Results from using this scale with nine infants under nine months indicated that contacts between infants are complex in nature, that there are developmental changes in models of encounter, and that babies take different roles in relation to the…

  5. Welfare implications of invasive piglet husbandry procedures, methods of alleviation and alternatives: a review.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A

    2015-01-01

    Iron administration, teeth clipping, tail docking and castration are common invasive husbandry procedures performed on piglets on commercial farms, generally within the first week of life. These procedures are performed to prevent potential health and welfare problems of piglets and/or the sow, or, with respect to castration, to enhance meat quality. The objectives of this review were firstly, to provide the rationale and scientific evidence for performing these procedures, secondly, to describe the welfare implications of these procedures, and lastly, to describe mitigation strategies or alternatives that can be used to eliminate or reduce the pain caused by these procedures. Administering supplementary iron is necessary to prevent anaemia in piglets and the procedure has a low welfare impact. The stated benefits of teeth clipping to prevent udder lesions do not appear to outweigh the risk from injury and infection in piglets following the procedure. Tail docking reduces the prevalence of tail biting, but does not eliminate this behaviour and the practice of tail docking can cause acute pain. Castration is primarily performed to reduce the occurrence of boar taint, but alternatives are now available that negate the need to perform this procedure. Teeth clipping, tail docking and castration all cause behavioural and physiological changes indicative of acute pain and can have potentially long-term negative consequences such as causing abscesses, lesions and the formation of neuromas. Therefore effective pain mitigation strategies (e.g. analgesia, local or general anaesthesia) that markedly alleviate the pain caused by these procedures are necessary to improve the welfare of piglets. Alternatively, if management practices are available that eliminate the need for performing these procedures altogether, then they should be adopted.

  6. Betaine Supplementation in Maternal Diet Modulates the Epigenetic Regulation of Hepatic Gluconeogenic Genes in Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Demin; Jia, Yimin; Song, Haogang; Sui, Shiyan; Lu, Jingyu; Jiang, Zheng; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, gestational sows were fed control or betaine-supplemented diets (3 g/kg) throughout the pregnancy, and the newborn piglets were used to elucidate whether maternal dietary betaine affected offspring hepatic gluconeogenic genes through epigenetic mechanisms. Neonatal piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows had significantly higher serum and hepatic betaine contents, together with significantly greater expression of methionine metabolic enzymes in the liver. Interestingly, significantly higher serum concentrations of lactic acid and glucogenic amino acids, including serine, glutamate, methionine and histidine, were detected in the piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows, which were coincident with higher hepatic glycogen content and PEPCK1 enzyme activity, as well as greater protein expression of gluconeogenic enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase (PC), cytoplasmic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK1), mitochondrional phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK2) and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (FBP1). Moreover, maternal betaine significantly changed the methylation status of both CpGs and histones on the promoter of gluconeogenic genes. The lower PEPCK1 mRNA was associated with DNA hypermethylation and more enriched repression histone mark H3K27me3, while the up-regulated PEPCK2 and FBP1 mRNA was associated with DNA hypomethylation and more enriched activation histone mark H3K4me3. Furthermore, the expression of two miRNAs predicted to target PC and 6 miRNAs predicted to target PEPCK1 was dramatically suppressed in the liver of piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows. Our results provide the first evidence that maternal betaine supplementation affects hepatic gluconeogenic genes expression in newborn piglets through enhanced hepatic methionine metabolism and epigenetic regulations, which involve DNA and histone methylations, and possibly miRNAs-mediated post-transcriptional mechanism. PMID:25153319

  7. Human milk oligosaccharides shorten rotavirus-induced diarrhea and modulate piglet mucosal immunity and colonic microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Monaco, Marcia H; Wang, Mei; Comstock, Sarah S; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Fahey Jr, George C; Miller, Michael J; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Donovan, Sharon M

    2014-01-01

    The impact of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) on mucosal immunity, gut microbiota and response to rotavirus (RV) infection was investigated in the piglet model. Newborn piglets were fed with formula alone (FF) or formula supplemented with 4 g l−1 HMO (HMO) or a prebiotic mixture of 9:1 short-chain galactooligosaccharides (3.6 g l−1) and long-chain fructooligosaccharides (0.4 g l−1) (PRE) (n=19–21 per group) for 15 days. Piglets (n=7–8) in each dietary group were orally infected with porcine rotavirus (RV) OSU strain on d10, and stool consistency was assessed daily. Blood, small intestine and colonic contents were collected at day 15. Serum RV-specific antibody concentrations, intestinal histomorphology, RV non-structural protein-4 (NSP4) and cytokine mRNA expression were assessed. Colonic content pH, dry matter (DM) and short-chain fatty acid concentrations were measured. Ascending colonic microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene v1-3 region pyrosequencing. HMO- and PRE-fed groups had shorter duration of diarrhea than FF piglets. Infection changed intestinal histomorphology, increased serum RV-specific antibody response and intestinal RV NSP4 expression, and modulated ileal cytokine expression. HMO enhanced T helper type 1 (interferon-gamma) and anti-inflammatory (interleukin-10) cytokines in the ileum, while prebiotics promoted RV-specific immunoglobulin M response to the infection. RV infection and HMO supplementation altered intraluminal environment and gut microbiota. HMO increased pH and lowered DM of colonic contents and enhanced the abundance of unclassified Lachnospiraceae, which contains numerous butyrate-producing bacteria. In conclusion, HMO and prebiotics did not prevent the onset of RV infection but reduced the duration of RV-induced diarrhea in piglets, in part, by modulating colonic microbiota and immune response to RV infection. PMID:24522264

  8. Orally fed seeds producing designer IgAs protect weaned piglets against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection

    PubMed Central

    Virdi, Vikram; Coddens, Annelies; De Buck, Sylvie; Millet, Sam; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Cox, Eric; De Greve, Henri; Depicker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Oral feed-based passive immunization can be a promising strategy to prolong maternal lactogenic immunity against postweaning infections. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-caused postweaning diarrhea in piglets is one such infection that may be prevented by oral passive immunization and might avert recurrent economic losses to the pig farming industry. As a proof of principle, we designed anti-ETEC antibodies by fusing variable domains of llama heavy chain-only antibodies (VHHs) against ETEC to the Fc part of a porcine immunoglobulin (IgG or IgA) and expressed them in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. In this way, four VHH-IgG and four VHH-IgA antibodies were produced to levels of about 3% and 0.2% of seed weight, respectively. Cotransformation of VHH-IgA with the porcine joining chain and secretory component led to the production of light-chain devoid, assembled multivalent dimeric, and secretory IgA-like antibodies. In vitro analysis of all of the antibody-producing seed extracts showed inhibition of bacterial binding to porcine gut villous enterocytes. However, in the piglet feed-challenge experiment, only the piglets receiving feed containing the VHH-IgA–based antibodies (dose 20 mg/d per pig) were protected. Piglets receiving the VHH-IgA–based antibodies in the feed showed a progressive decline in shedding of bacteria, significantly lower immune responses corroborating reduced exposure to the ETEC pathogen, and a significantly higher weight gain compared with the piglets receiving VHH-IgG producing (dose 80 mg/d per pig) or wild-type seeds. These results stress the importance of the antibody format in oral passive immunization and encourage future expression of these antibodies in crop seeds. PMID:23801763

  9. Human milk oligosaccharides shorten rotavirus-induced diarrhea and modulate piglet mucosal immunity and colonic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Monaco, Marcia H; Wang, Mei; Comstock, Sarah S; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Fahey, George C; Miller, Michael J; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Donovan, Sharon M

    2014-08-01

    The impact of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) on mucosal immunity, gut microbiota and response to rotavirus (RV) infection was investigated in the piglet model. Newborn piglets were fed with formula alone (FF) or formula supplemented with 4 g l(-1) HMO (HMO) or a prebiotic mixture of 9:1 short-chain galactooligosaccharides (3.6 g l(-1)) and long-chain fructooligosaccharides (0.4 g l(-1)) (PRE) (n=19-21 per group) for 15 days. Piglets (n=7-8) in each dietary group were orally infected with porcine rotavirus (RV) OSU strain on d10, and stool consistency was assessed daily. Blood, small intestine and colonic contents were collected at day 15. Serum RV-specific antibody concentrations, intestinal histomorphology, RV non-structural protein-4 (NSP4) and cytokine mRNA expression were assessed. Colonic content pH, dry matter (DM) and short-chain fatty acid concentrations were measured. Ascending colonic microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene v1-3 region pyrosequencing. HMO- and PRE-fed groups had shorter duration of diarrhea than FF piglets. Infection changed intestinal histomorphology, increased serum RV-specific antibody response and intestinal RV NSP4 expression, and modulated ileal cytokine expression. HMO enhanced T helper type 1 (interferon-gamma) and anti-inflammatory (interleukin-10) cytokines in the ileum, while prebiotics promoted RV-specific immunoglobulin M response to the infection. RV infection and HMO supplementation altered intraluminal environment and gut microbiota. HMO increased pH and lowered DM of colonic contents and enhanced the abundance of unclassified Lachnospiraceae, which contains numerous butyrate-producing bacteria. In conclusion, HMO and prebiotics did not prevent the onset of RV infection but reduced the duration of RV-induced diarrhea in piglets, in part, by modulating colonic microbiota and immune response to RV infection.

  10. Testing Eurasian wild boar piglets for serum antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Che' Amat, A; González-Barrio, D; Ortiz, J A; Díez-Delgado, I; Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Bezos, J; Romero, B; Armenteros, J A; Lyashchenko, K P; Venteo, A; Rueda, P; Gortázar, C

    2015-09-01

    Animal tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC), is often reported in the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Tests detecting antibodies against MTC antigens are valuable tools for TB monitoring and control in suids. However, only limited knowledge exists on serology test performance in 2-6 month-old piglets. In this age-class, recent infections might cause lower antibody levels and lower test sensitivity. We examined 126 wild boar piglets from a TB-endemic site using 6 antibody detection tests in order to assess test performance. Bacterial culture (n=53) yielded a M. bovis infection prevalence of 33.9%, while serum antibody prevalence estimated by different tests ranged from 19% to 38%, reaching sensitivities between 15.4% and 46.2% for plate ELISAs and between 61.5% and 69.2% for rapid immunochromatographic tests based on dual path platform (DPP) technology. The Cohen kappa coefficient of agreement between DPP WTB (Wildlife TB) assay and culture results was moderate (0.45) and all other serological tests used had poor to fair agreements. This survey revealed the ability of several tests for detecting serum antibodies against the MTC antigens in 2-6 month-old naturally infected wild boar piglets. The best performance was demonstrated for DPP tests. The results confirmed our initial hypothesis of a lower sensitivity of serology for detecting M. bovis-infected piglets, as compared to older wild boar. Certain tests, notably the rapid animal-side tests, can contribute to TB control strategies by enabling the setup of test and cull schemes or improving pre-movement testing. However, sub-optimal test performance in piglets as compared to that in older wild boar should be taken into account.

  11. Influence of the probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on the intestinal immunity of piglets.

    PubMed

    Scharek, L; Altherr, B J; Tölke, C; Schmidt, M F G

    2007-12-15

    In a feeding trial, sows and piglets were fed with the probiotic bacterium Bacillus cereus var. toyoi as a feed additive, and the effects on immune cell populations were examined. The development of the gut immune system was determined for piglets at the ages of 14, 28, 35 and 56 days post partum. Tissue samples of the Jejunum and the continuous Peyer's patch were used for enumeration of intraepithelial lymphocyte populations by fluorescence activated flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Both independent methods of investigation led to similar results: the population of intraepithelial CD8+ T cells was significantly enhanced in the probiotic group piglets (p< or =0.05), and the numbers of gammadelta T cells tended to be higher in the intestinal epithelium (p<0.1) at the time of weaning (day 28). Lamina propria lymphocytes were also influenced by the treatment. Application of B. cereus var. toyoi resulted in significantly more CD25+ lymphocytes and gammadelta T cells in the probiotic group post-weaning. The occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli serogroups was also less frequent in the feces of piglets from the probiotic group. The finding that the CD8+ T cell population in the intestinal mucosa showed changes on day 28 indicated that the influence of B. cereus var. toyoi supplementation on the intestinal immune system started before weaning, an observation supported by changes in the intestinal microflora observed during the suckling-period. The results suggest that feeding of B. cereus var. toyoi to sows may result in beneficial effects on piglet health status independent of their feed supplementation.

  12. Production of piglets from in vitro-produced embryos following non-surgical transfer.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Koji; Noguchi, Michiko; Suzuki, Chie

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance procedures for producing piglets derived from in vitro-produced (IVP) pig embryos by non-surgical embryo transfer (ET). The effects of insertion length for the catheter, asynchrony between the age of donor IVP blastocysts and the recipient estrous cycle, and volume of transfer medium were investigated. The IVP blastocysts at 5 days after in vitro fertilization were placed into porcine zygote medium (PZM)-5 supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (PZM+FBS) in a 0.25 mL plastic straw (21-40 blastocysts per straw) and then transferred into one uterine horn of recipients using the Takumi(®) catheter for deep intrauterine insertion. Successful production of piglets derived from IVP embryos was achieved following non-surgical ET when the catheter was inserted at more than 30 cm anterior to the spiral guide spirette. The efficiency of piglet production (percentage number of piglet(s) born based on the number of embryos transferred) was greater (P<0.05) in recipients whose estrous cycle was asynchronous to that of donors with a 1-day delay (8.3%) than in those with a 2-day (1.5%) or 3-day (0.9%) delay, while pregnancy and farrowing rates (10-40%) did not differ among treatments. When blastocysts were transferred into recipients with 1.0 or 2.5 mL PZM+FBS, there were no significant differences in farrowing rate (30-40%) or average litter size (4.5-6.7) between treatments. The results of the present study indicate that the insertion length of the deep intrauterine catheter and the degree of asynchrony between donor embryos and recipient estrous cycle influenced on pregnancy and birth outcome following non-surgical transfer of IVP blastocysts.

  13. Role of superoxide anion on basal and stimulated nitric oxide activity in neonatal piglet pulmonary vessels.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Kessels, Carolina G A; Fischer, Marc A J; Bast, Aalt; de Mey, Jo G R; Blanco, Carlos E

    2003-09-01

    The superoxide anion (O2*-) appears to be an important modulator of nitric oxide bioavailability. Enzymatic scavenging of O2*- is carried out by superoxide dismutase (SOD). The present study was designed to characterize the developmental changes on pulmonary vascular reactivity induced by 1) exogenous Cu/Zn SOD, 2) several putative SOD mimetics, and 3) endogenous SOD inhibition. We also analyzed age-related changes on pulmonary SOD activity and vascular O2*- levels. SOD (1-300 U/mL) produced endothelium-dependent relaxation of U46619-contracted intrapulmonary arteries (fourth branch) and veins from 12- to 24-h-old and 2-wk-old piglets. SOD-induced relaxation was greater in pulmonary arteries and was abolished by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. SOD induced a greater pulmonary artery relaxation in the 2-wk-old than in the 12- to 24-h-old piglet. SOD (100 U/mL) did not modify acetylcholine-induced relaxation in pulmonary arteries. In contrast, endogenous SOD inhibition by diethyldithiocarbamate (3 mM) impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation in pulmonary arteries from newborn but not from 2-wk-old piglets. Total SOD activity in lung tissue did not change with postnatal age. With the use of dihydroethidium, an oxidant-sensitive fluorescent probe, we did not find significant age- or vessel-related differences in O2*- presence. From the putative SOD mimetics tested, only the metal salts MnCl2 and CuSO4 reproduced the vascular effects of SOD. In summary, SOD produces endothelium-dependent pulmonary vascular relaxation by protecting nitric oxide from destruction by O2*-. This effect was less marked in newborns than in 2-wk-old piglets. In contrast, pulmonary arteries from newborn piglets are more sensitive to the inhibition of endogenous SOD.

  14. Dietary L-leucine supplementation enhances intestinal development in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuli; Wu, Zhenlong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Sun, Kaiji; Ji, Yun; Wang, Bin; Jiao, Ning; He, Beibei; Wang, Weiwei; Dai, Zhaolai; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-08-01

    L-Leucine is a signaling amino acid in animal metabolism. It is unknown whether supplementing L-leucine to breast-fed neonates may enhance their small-intestinal development. This hypothesis was tested with a piglet model. Seven-day-old sow-reared pigs with an average birth weight of 1.45 kg were assigned randomly to the control or leucine group (n = 30/group). Piglets in the leucine group were orally administrated with 1.4 g L-leucine/kg body weight, whereas piglets in the control group received isonitrogenous L-alanine, twice daily for 14 days. The supplemental L-leucine amounted to 200 % of L-leucine intake from sow's milk by 7-day-old pigs. At the end of the 2-week experiment, tissue samples were collected for determining intestinal morphology, expression of genes for intestinal leucine transporters (real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis), and plasma metabolites and hormones. L-leucine administration increased (P < 0.05) villus height in the duodenum, an elevated ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the duodenum and ileum, plasma concentrations of leucine, glutamine and asparagine, as well as body-weight gains. mRNA levels for L-leucine transporters (SLC6A14, SLC6A19 and SLC7A9) and the abundance of the ATB(0,+) protein were increased (P < 0.05) but those for SLC7A7 mRNA and the LAT2 protein were decreased (P < 0.05) in the jejunum of leucine-supplemented piglets, compared with the control. Plasma concentrations of ammonia, urea, triglycerides, and growth-related hormones did not differ between the control and leucine groups. Collectively, these results indicate that L-leucine supplementation improves intestinal development and whole-body growth in suckling piglets with a normal birth weight.

  15. Effects of soybean agglutinin on intestinal barrier permeability and tight junction protein expression in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Qin, Guixin; Sun, Zewei; Che, Dongsheng; Bao, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    This study was developed to provide further information on the intestinal barrier permeability and the tight junction protein expression in weaned piglets fed with different levels of soybean agglutinin (SBA). Twenty-five weaned crossbred barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected and randomly allotted to five groups, each group with five replicates. The piglets in the control group were not fed with leguminous products. 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2% SBA was added to the control diet to form four experimental diets, respectively. After the experimental period of 7 days (for each group), all the piglets were anesthetized with excess procaine and slaughtered. The d-lactic acid in plasma and the Ileal mucosa diamine oxidase (DAO) was analyzed to observe the change in the intestinal permeability. The tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 in the jejunum tissue distribution and relative expression were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. The results illustrated that a high dose of SBA (0.1-0.2%) could increase the intestinal permeability and reduce piglet intestinal epithelial tight junction protein occludin or ZO-1 expression, while low dose of SBA (0.05% of total diet) had no significant affects. The contents of DAO, d-lactic acid, occludin or ZO-1, had a linear relationship with the SBA levels (0-0.2%) in diets. The high dose SBA (0.1-0.2%) could increase the intestinal permeability and reduce piglet intestinal epithelial tight junction protein occludin or ZO-1 expression, while low dose of SBA (0.05% of total diet) had no affects.

  16. Effect of CLA on performance and immune response of weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Moraes, M L; Ribeiro, A M L; Kessler, A M; Ledur, V S; Fischer, M M; Bockor, L; Cibulski, S P; Gava, D

    2012-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of CLA on the immune response and performance of piglets when subjected to an immune challenge. A total of 32 weanling pigs (17 to 23 d of age) with an initial BW of 8.9 kg were allotted to a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. There were 3 levels of dietary CLA (0%, 1%, and 2%) and 2 levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (unchallenged and challenged). Challenged pigs were challenged on d 7 and 21. On d 4 and 18, all pigs were inoculated with BSA for assessment of IgG production. There was no difference in growth performance among piglets receiving different CLA supplementation levels. However, LPS-challenged piglets had poorer BW (P < 0.05), ADFI (P < 0.01), and ADG (P < 0.001) compared with the control group at d 35 postweaning. Lipopolysaccharide-challenged piglets also had increased respiratory rate (P < 0.001) and rectal temperature (P < 0.001), and decreased plasma proteins, hematocrit, and white blood cell counts (P < 0.05). Production of IgG against BSA was increased in the 1% CLA supplementation group (P < 0.001), indicating that CLA has an immunomodulatory effect. Supplementation with CLA did not affect lymphocyte proliferation, percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, plasma proteins, red and white blood cell count, respiratory rate, or rectal temperature after LPS challenge. Although CLA supplementation did not influence growth performance or certain immune system measurements, the increased IgG titers with 1% CLA dietary supplementation indicate that it has a beneficial effect on the humoral immune system of weaned piglets.

  17. Maternal Short-Chain Fructooligosaccharide Supplementation Influences Intestinal Immune System Maturation in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Le Bourgot, Cindy; Ferret-Bernard, Stéphanie; Le Normand, Laurence; Savary, Gérard; Menendez-Aparicio, Enrique; Blat, Sophie; Appert-Bossard, Emmanuelle; Respondek, Frédérique; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Peripartum nutrition is crucial for developing the immune system of neonates. We hypothesized that maternal short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS) supplementation could accelerate the development of intestinal immunity in offspring. Thirty-four sows received a standard or a scFOS supplemented diet (10 g scFOS/d) for the last 4 weeks of gestation and the 4 weeks of lactation. Colostrum and milk immunoglobulins (Ig) and TGFβ1 concentrations were evaluated on the day of delivery and at d 6 and d 21 postpartum. Piglet intestinal structure, the immunologic features of jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph node cells were analysed at postnatal d 21. Short-chain fatty acid concentrations were measured over time in the intestinal contents of suckling and weaned piglets. Colostral IgA (P<0.05) significantly increased because of scFOS and TGFβ1 concentrations tended to improve (P<0.1). IFNγ secretion by stimulated Peyer's patch and mesenteric lymph node cells, and secretory IgA production by unstimulated Peyer's patch cells were increased (P<0.05) in postnatal d 21 scFOS piglets. These differences were associated with a higher proportion of activated CD25+CD4α+ T cells among the CD4+ helper T lymphocytes (P<0.05) as assessed by flow cytometry. IFNγ secretion was positively correlated with the population of activated T lymphocytes (P<0.05). Total short-chain fatty acids were unchanged between groups during lactation but were higher in caecal contents of d 90 scFOS piglets (P<0.05); specifically propionate, butyrate and valerate. In conclusion, we demonstrated that maternal scFOS supplementation modified the intestinal immune functions in piglets in association with increased colostral immunity. Such results underline the key role of maternal nutrition in supporting the postnatal development of mucosal immunity. PMID:25238157

  18. Plasma metabolomic profiles and immune responses of piglets after weaning and challenge with E. coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The processes of weaning and exposure to pathogenic bacteria induce stress responses, which may alter the metabolism. In this study, we investigated the changes in plasma metabolites and immune responses in piglets in response to the stress induced by weaning and Escherichia coli challenge. Results Fecal dry matter decreased (P = 0.003) and nearly half (44.4%) the piglets developed diarrhea on day 2 and 3 postweaning. The concentration of plasma immunoglobulin A was higher (P < 0.001) on day 11 postweaning than on day 0 or 4 postweaning. The levels of white blood cells increased continuously (P < 0.001) from day 0 to day 11 postweaning. Differences in the percentages of neutrophils (P = 0.029) and lymphocytes (P = 0.022) were seen, but the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio did not differ in the period after weaning. A clear separation of the metabolomic profile data for day 0 and day 4 postweaning was observed with a principal components analysis (PCA) scores plot, and the data for day 11 were located between those for day 0 and day 4 postweaning. The plasma levels of proline, taurine, and carnitine were higher, whereas those of betaine, creatine, L-arginine and acetylcarnitine were lower on day 4 postweaning than on day 0. Levels of lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine were either higher or lower after weaning, depending on the chain lengths or characters of these metabolites. Conclusions Our results show a clear separation in the plasma metabolomic profiles of piglets that corresponded to the fecal responses to stress on the piglets induced by weaning or exposure to a pathogen (E. coli). These plasma metabolite profiles suggest that the challenges induced proinflammatory responses in the piglets, resulting in postweaning diarrhea, which was associated with higher concentrations of IgA in the plasma. PMID:24624922

  19. Fenugreek seed affects intestinal microbiota and immunological variables in piglets after weaning.

    PubMed

    Zentek, Jürgen; Gärtner, Stefanie; Tedin, Lydia; Männer, Klaus; Mader, Anneluise; Vahjen, Wilfried

    2013-03-14

    Fenugreek seed has been shown to affect the intestinal microbiota and immunological responses in animals. A feeding trial with male castrated piglets was performed over 28 d without or with the addition of 1·5 g fenugreek seeds/kg complete diet in ten and eleven piglets, weaned at 21 d. In the intestinal tract, pH, lactate and SCFA were measured as major bacterial metabolites. Immune cell phenotypes, phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen, concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin M were measured by flow cytometry. Health status and performance of the piglets were not affected by fenugreek. The pH in the caecum and colon were reduced compared with the control (P< 0·05). Higher concentrations of l-lactic acid were recorded in the small-intestinal digesta (average concentrations from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum; P< 0·05), while the concentrations of SCFA remained unchanged except an increase in n-butyric acid in colon contents (P< 0·05). The piglets fed the fenugreek diet had higher Lactobacillus and clostridium cluster I concentrations and lower Escherichia, Hafnia and Shigella concentrations in the small intestine. The addition of fenugreek increased the relative concentration of the γδ T-cell population (TCR1+CD8α-) in the blood with a simultaneous reduction of antigen-presenting cells (MHCII+CD5-) (P< 0·05). Proliferation rate and phagocytosis activity of monocytes were not affected by the additive. In conclusion, fenugreek seeds might be interesting as a feed ingredient for young piglets due to their effects on the intestinal microbiota and immunological variables. The impact on performance and animal health has to be further evaluated.

  20. Betaine supplementation in maternal diet modulates the epigenetic regulation of hepatic gluconeogenic genes in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Cai, Demin; Jia, Yimin; Song, Haogang; Sui, Shiyan; Lu, Jingyu; Jiang, Zheng; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, gestational sows were fed control or betaine-supplemented diets (3 g/kg) throughout the pregnancy, and the newborn piglets were used to elucidate whether maternal dietary betaine affected offspring hepatic gluconeogenic genes through epigenetic mechanisms. Neonatal piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows had significantly higher serum and hepatic betaine contents, together with significantly greater expression of methionine metabolic enzymes in the liver. Interestingly, significantly higher serum concentrations of lactic acid and glucogenic amino acids, including serine, glutamate, methionine and histidine, were detected in the piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows, which were coincident with higher hepatic glycogen content and PEPCK1 enzyme activity, as well as greater protein expression of gluconeogenic enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase (PC), cytoplasmic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK1), mitochondrional phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK2) and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (FBP1). Moreover, maternal betaine significantly changed the methylation status of both CpGs and histones on the promoter of gluconeogenic genes. The lower PEPCK1 mRNA was associated with DNA hypermethylation and more enriched repression histone mark H3K27me3, while the up-regulated PEPCK2 and FBP1 mRNA was associated with DNA hypomethylation and more enriched activation histone mark H3K4me3. Furthermore, the expression of two miRNAs predicted to target PC and 6 miRNAs predicted to target PEPCK1 was dramatically suppressed in the liver of piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows. Our results provide the first evidence that maternal betaine supplementation affects hepatic gluconeogenic genes expression in newborn piglets through enhanced hepatic methionine metabolism and epigenetic regulations, which involve DNA and histone methylations, and possibly miRNAs-mediated post-transcriptional mechanism.

  1. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets. XXIV. Hypothesis: The ileal Peyer patches (IPP) are the major source of primary, undiversified IgA antibodies in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Butler, John E; Santiago-Mateo, Kristina; Wertz, Nancy; Sun, Xiuzhu; Sinkora, Marek; Francis, David L

    2016-12-01

    The ileal Peyers patches (IPP) of newborn germfree (GF) piglets were isolated into blind loops and the piglets colonized with a defined probiotic microflora. After 5 weeks, IgA levels in the intestinal lavage (IL) of loop piglets remained at GF levels and IgM comprised ∼70% while in controls, IgA levels were elevated 5-fold and comprised ∼70% of total Igs. Loop piglets also had reduced serum IgA levels suggesting the source of serum IgA had been interrupted. The isotype profile for loop contents was intermediate between that in the IL of GF and probiotic controls. Surprisingly, colonization alone did not result in repertoire diversification in the IPP. Rather, colonization promoted pronounced proliferation of fully switched IgA(+)IgM(-) B cells in the IPP that supply early, non-diversified "natural" SIgA antibodies to the gut lumen and a primary IgA response in serum.

  2. Effect of birth weight and colostrum intake on mortality and performance of piglets after cross-fostering in sows of different parities.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, C V; Sbardella, P E; Bernardi, M L; Coutinho, M L; Vaz, I S; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of colostrum intake on mortality and growth performance of piglets until 42 days of age, taking i