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Sample records for infarction biochemical risk

  1. Uterine infarction in a patient with uterine adenomyosis following biochemical pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Yeon; Hwang, Kyu-Ri; Won, Kyu-Hee; Lee, Da-Yong; Jeon, Hye-Won; Moon, Min-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    Adenomyosis is a common gynecological disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma deep within the myometrium associated with myometrial hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Focal uterine infarction after IVF-ET in a patient with adenomyosis following biochemical pregnancy has not been previously reported, although it occurs after uterine artery embolization in order to control symptoms caused by fibroids or adenomyosis. We report a case of a nulliparous woman who had uterine adenomyosis presenting with fever, pelvic pain and biochemical abortion after undergoing an IVF-ET procedure and the detection of a slightly elevated serum hCG. Focal uterine infarction was suspected after a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated preserved myometrium between the endometrial cavity and inner margin of the necrotic myometrium. This case demonstrates that focal uterine infarction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding and infectious signs in women experiencing biochemical abortion after an IVF-ET procedure.

  2. Uterine infarction in a patient with uterine adenomyosis following biochemical pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Yeon; Won, Kyu-Hee; Lee, Da-Yong; Jeon, Hye-Won; Moon, Min-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Adenomyosis is a common gynecological disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma deep within the myometrium associated with myometrial hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Focal uterine infarction after IVF-ET in a patient with adenomyosis following biochemical pregnancy has not been previously reported, although it occurs after uterine artery embolization in order to control symptoms caused by fibroids or adenomyosis. We report a case of a nulliparous woman who had uterine adenomyosis presenting with fever, pelvic pain and biochemical abortion after undergoing an IVF-ET procedure and the detection of a slightly elevated serum hCG. Focal uterine infarction was suspected after a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated preserved myometrium between the endometrial cavity and inner margin of the necrotic myometrium. This case demonstrates that focal uterine infarction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding and infectious signs in women experiencing biochemical abortion after an IVF-ET procedure. PMID:25599041

  3. Risk stratification after myocardial infarction. Clinical overview

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, R.A. )

    1991-09-01

    Many patients with an acute myocardial infarction can be stratified into subgroups that are at high risk for morbidity and mortality on the basis of clinical characteristics that indicate recurrent myocardial ischemia, persistent left ventricular dysfunction, and/or recurrent cardiac arrhythmias. In patients with uncomplicated myocardial infarction the assessment of symptoms, physical findings, and ECG changes during predischarge exercise testing often identifies patients at increased risk for further cardiac events. Because of the suboptimum sensitivity and specificity of the exercise ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia, myocardial perfusion imaging with 201Tl and/or assessment of global and segmental ventricular function by two-dimensional echocardiography or radionuclide cineangiography during or immediately after exercise are often added to the predischarge risk stratification.

  4. [The role of biochemical markers of myocardial damage in clinical practice: the diagnosis of infarct and risk stratification. The Intersociety Interdisciplinary Study Group of the ANMCO-SIBioC-SIMeL, Markers of Muocardial Lesions. L'Associazione Nazionale Medici Cardiologi Ospedalieri-Società Italiana di Biochimica Clinica-Società Italiana di Medicina di Laboratorio].

    PubMed

    Ottani, F; Galvani, M; Panteghini, M; Dolci, A; Plebani, M; Tubaro, M; Zaninotto, M

    2000-01-01

    For many years creatine kinase (CK) and CK-MB isoenzymes were used together with the ECG to confirm the presence of myocardial infarction. During the last decade newer cardiac markers have been introduced and immunological test systems developed for their quantification. Among these new markers, a prominent role has emerged for cardiac troponins (T or I). These technological advanced assays have shown greater sensitivity compared to "conventional cardiac enzymes;, thereby identifying patients with small--at times, microscopic--infarcts who would not have met defining criteria for myocardial infarction in an earlier era. Another major advantage shown by both cardiac troponins with respect to "conventional cardiac enzymes" is their ability to predict clinical outcome over a short- or long-term follow-up in patients with acute coronary syndromes, and this appears to be particularly relevant in patients with micronecrosis, who constitute a high-risk subgroup of unstable angina patients. Recently, myoglobin has also been widely applied as a marker. Although lacking in myocardial specificity, it is the earliest marker to show an increase after coronary occlusion. Thus, the combined use of myoglobin and a cardiospecific structural protein such as troponin T or I may prove an attractive strategy for biochemical testing in chest pain patients. With the routine use of these novel cardiac markers, fascinating opportunities are now open in the field of diagnostic classification (making the World Health Organization definition of myocardial infarction obsolete) and risk stratification in chest pain patients; opportunities that were unforeseen in the era of cardiac enzymes. However, the use of these markers has also posed some important questions on: a) the best and most cost-effective diagnostic strategy in chest pain patients; b) the remaining role of cardiac enzymes; c) the therapeutic consequences of a positive test result.

  5. Tomato lycopene attenuates myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol: Electrocardiographic, biochemical and anti-apoptotic study

    PubMed Central

    Aman, Upaganlawar; Vaibhav, Patel; Balaraman, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the protective effects of lycopene on electrocardiographic, hemodynamic, biochemical and apoptotic changes in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction. Methods Myocardial infarction was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (200 mg/kg) for two consecutive days at an interval of 24 h. Rats were treated with lycopene (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for a period of 30 days and isoproterenol (ISO) was injected on the 29th and 30th day. At the end of experiment i.e. on the 31st day electrocardiographic, hemodynamic, biochemical and apoptotic changes were monitored from control and experimental groups. Results ISO injected rats showed a significant alteration in electrocardiograph pattern and hemodynamic changes (i.e. systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure). It also showed significant increase in C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, nitrite levels and Caspase-3 protease activity. In addition, it also exhibited alteration in the levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Ca2+), vitamin E, uric acid and serum protein. Gel electrophoresis of ISO injected rats showed increase in DNA fragmentation. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining of the heart section shows increase area of infarction in ISO injected rats. Pre-co-treatment with lycopene significantly prevented the ISO induced alteration in ECG, haemodynamic, biochemical and apoptotic changes. Conclusions The present result shows that treatment of lycopene in ISO injected rats significantly attenuates induced myocardial infarction. PMID:23569928

  6. Pizza and risk of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gallus, S; Tavani, A; La Vecchia, C

    2004-11-01

    Pizza eating has been favourably related to the risk of cardiovascular disease, but the data are limited. To evaluate the potential role of pizza consumption on the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we considered data from an Italian study. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study on 507 cases of nonfatal AMI and 478 controls in Milan, Italy, between 1995 and 1999. The multivariate odds ratios were 0.78 for occasional, 0.62 for regular and 0.44 for frequent eaters. The estimates were similar across strata of age, sex, smoking and other major covariates. Some of the ingredients of pizza have been shown to have a favourable influence on the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, there is no single explanation for the present findings. Pizza may in fact represent a general indicator of Italian diet, that has been shown to have potential cardiovascular benefits.

  7. Litsea Deccanensis Ameliorates Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats: Evidence from Biochemical and Histological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Bharath P; Kannan, Mari M; Quine, Darlin S

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of methanolic extract of Litsea deccanensis (MELD) against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats by studying cardiac markers, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, and histological changes. Male Wistar rats were treated orally with MELD (100 and 200 mg/kg) daily for a period of 21 days. After 21 days of pretreatment, isoproterenol (100 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days to induce myocardial infarction. Isoproterenol-induced rats showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in the levels of serum creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and lipid hydro peroxides. The serum lipid levels were altered in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The histopathological findings of the myocardial tissue evidenced myocardial damage in isoproterenol-induced rats. The oral pretreatment with MELD restored the pathological alterations in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The MELD pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of biochemical markers, lipid peroxidation and regulated the lipid profile of the antioxidant system in the isoproterenol-induced rats. An inhibited myocardial necrosis was evidenced by the histopathological findings in MELD pretreated isoproterenol-induced rats. Our study shows that oral pretreatment with MELD prevents isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress in myocardial infarction. The presence of phenolic acid and flavonoid contents were confirmed by preliminary phytochemical tests. The reducing power and free radical scavenging activities of the MELD may be the possible reason for it pharmacological actions. PMID:22224035

  8. Litsea deccanensis ameliorates myocardial infarction in wistar rats: evidence from biochemical and histological studies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bharath P; Kannan, Mari M; Quine, Darlin S

    2011-10-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of methanolic extract of Litsea deccanensis (MELD) against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats by studying cardiac markers, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, and histological changes. Male Wistar rats were treated orally with MELD (100 and 200 mg/kg) daily for a period of 21 days. After 21 days of pretreatment, isoproterenol (100 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days to induce myocardial infarction. Isoproterenol-induced rats showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in the levels of serum creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and lipid hydro peroxides. The serum lipid levels were altered in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The histopathological findings of the myocardial tissue evidenced myocardial damage in isoproterenol-induced rats. The oral pretreatment with MELD restored the pathological alterations in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The MELD pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of biochemical markers, lipid peroxidation and regulated the lipid profile of the antioxidant system in the isoproterenol-induced rats. An inhibited myocardial necrosis was evidenced by the histopathological findings in MELD pretreated isoproterenol-induced rats. Our study shows that oral pretreatment with MELD prevents isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress in myocardial infarction. The presence of phenolic acid and flavonoid contents were confirmed by preliminary phytochemical tests. The reducing power and free radical scavenging activities of the MELD may be the possible reason for it pharmacological actions.

  9. [Association between biochemical markers and left ventricular dysfunction in the ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    de Abreu, Maximiliano; Mariani, Javier; Guridi, Cristian; González-Villa-Monte, Gabriel; Gastaldello, Natalio; Potito, Mauricio; Reyes, Graciela; Antonietti, Laura; Tajer, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The association between biochemical markers and left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with myocardial infarction was not completely studied. Our goal is to study the association between biochemical markers and left ventricular dysfunction in patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. With an observational and prospective design we included patients with less than 24h ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Leukocytes, glucose, B-type natriuretic peptide and T troponin were measured at admission, and creatine-phosphokinase and creatine-phosphokinase-MB were measured at admission and serially, and correlated with the ejection fraction estimated by echocardiography. A total of 108 patients were included. The median left ventricular ejection fraction was 48% (interquartile range 41-57). Simple linear regression analysis showed that B-type natriuretic peptide (P=.005), peak creatine-phosphokinase-MB (P=.01), leukocyte count (P=.001) and glucose (P=.033) were inversely and significantly associated with the left ventricular ejection fraction. The other parameters showed no association. B-type natriuretic peptide (P=.01) and peak creatine-phosphokinase-MB (P=.02) were the only two variables significantly associated with the left ventricular ejection fraction in the multiple linear regression analysis. Both markers were significantly associated with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 50%, independently of other clinical variables. B-type natriuretic peptide and peak creatine-phosphokinase-MB showed significant association with left ventricular ejection fraction in the acute phase of ST elevation acute myocardial infarction. This association was independent of the presence of other biochemical markers and clinical variables related to ventricular dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Low High-Density Lipoprotein and Risk of Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A; Hu, P P

    2015-01-01

    Low HDL is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction. This paper reviews our current understanding of HDL, HDL structure and function, HDL subclasses, the relationship of low HDL with myocardial infarction, HDL targeted therapy, and clinical trials and studies. Furthermore potential new agents, such as alirocumab (praluent) and evolocumab (repatha) are discussed.

  11. Risk stratification after acute myocardial infarction: which studies are best?

    PubMed

    Figueredo, V M

    1996-04-01

    The prognosis for a patient who has survived an acute myocardial infarction depends on three general prognostic factors: (1) residual left ventricular function, (2) remaining viable myocardium at risk (residual ischemia), and (3) presence of substrate for the development of malignant arrhythmias. Multiple clinical and historical factors predict the presence of one or more of these prognostic indicators. Electrocardiographic exercise treadmill testing needs to be done in all patients with uncomplicated infarctions. Guidelines of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force are recommended for risk stratification in most patients after acute myocardial infarction.

  12. Infection and inflammation as risk factors for myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, M S; Mattila, K; Valtonen, V

    1993-12-01

    Recent studies have illustrated that in addition to the well known risk factors, such as lipoproteins, smoking, hypertension, there are others that cause atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Our knowledge of atherosclerotic lesions has increased. We now know that atherosclerotic changes are due to inflammatory cell infiltration as well as to increases in migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. Endothelial cells play a major role in the pathology of vascular changes. In recent years a new risk factor for coronary artery disease has been discovered: chlamydia pneumonial infections. Herpes class viruses have also been associated with pathology of atherosclerotic lesions. Studies show that dental status and bacterial infections are also related to the risk of myocardial infarction. This review discusses the possible mechanisms of infection and inflammation and whether they are major or modifying risk factors for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction.

  13. Nitroglycerin Use in Myocardial Infarction Patients: Risks and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Julio C.B.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2012-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction and its sequelae are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nitroglycerin remains a first-line treatment for angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction. Nitroglycerin achieves its benefit by giving rise to nitric oxide, which causes vasodilation and increases blood flow to the myocardium. However, continuous delivery of nitroglycerin results in tolerance, limiting the use of this drug. Nitroglycerin tolerance is due, at least in part, to inactivation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), an enzyme that converts nitroglycerin to the vasodilator, nitric oxide. We have recently found that, in addition to nitroglycerin’s effect on the vasculature, sustained treatment with nitroglycerin negatively affects cardiomyocyte viability following ischemia, thus resulting in increased infarct size in a myocardial infarction model in animals. Co-administration of Alda-1, an activator of ALDH2, with nitroglycerin improves metabolism of reactive aldehyde adducts and prevents the nitroglycerin-induced increase in cardiac dysfunction following myocardial infarction. In this review, we describe the molecular mechanisms associated with the benefits and risks of nitroglycerin administration in myocardial infarction. (167 of 200). PMID:22040938

  14. Risk profile in women with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Târlea, Mihaela; Deleanu, D; Bucşa, A; Zarma, L; Croitoru, M; Platon, P; Ginghină, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The studies in the literature of the past years have noticed the particular characteristics of the ischemic heart disease in women, who seem to be lacking early diagnosis and invasive treatment of coronary heart disease. They especially emphasize that the evolution, complications and mortality in myocardial infarction in women are more severe. The evaluation of clinical, investigational and therapeutic aspects in a lot of women with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) versus a lot of men with the same pathology, hospitalised in the same period. 78 women hospitalised in the Emergency Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases between 1st January 1999 and 30th October 2001 with acute myocardial infarction. 109 men hospitalised in the Emergency Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases with acute myocardial infarction in the same period. acute myocardial infarction, coronary angiography +/=left ventriculography. The lot of study and the witness lot were divided into 3 subgroups based on the severity of coronary lesions: Group I: left main stenoses, Group II: stenoses >60% on the other epicardial coronary vessels, Group III: stenoses <60% on the other epicardial coronary vessels. The risk factors, clinical data, cardiac performance indices and medical and invasive treatment were compared between the two groups. The women hospitalised with AMI were older than men, had more diabetes and hypertension as main risk factors than men, with the exception of smoking, had more frequent heart failure and diastolic dysfunction of left ventricle. The favorite invasive treatment in women was the angioplasty with application of stent and in men--coronary bypass.

  15. Basilar artery bending length, vascular risk factors, and pontine infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dao-Pei; Zhang, Shu-Ling; Zhang, Jie-Wen; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Fu, Sheng-Qi; Yu, Meng; Ren, Ya-Fang; Ji, Peng

    2014-03-15

    Patients exhibiting basilar artery (BA) curvature (not dolichoectasia) are at an increased risk of posterior circulation ischemic stroke. In this study, pontine infarction patients were analyzed to assess the effect of BA bending length (BL) together with other vascular factors on pontine stroke risk. Acute pontine infarction patients were divided into BA bending and non-BA bending groups by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Patients with BA bending who reported symptoms of dizziness or vertigo but who had not suffered brain infarction constituted the control group. The diameter of the vertebral artery (VA) and BL were measured using MRA. Based on the bilateral VA diameter data in vertebral artery-dominant (VAD) patients, the study participants were divided into three classes for VA diameter: class one, 0.30-0.80 mm (20 cases); class two, 0.81-1.37 mm (20 cases); and class three, 1.38-3.24 mm (20 cases). The measured BL in VAD cases allowed division of patients into three levels for BL: level one, 1.02-2.68 mm (21 cases); level two, 2.69-3.76 mm (20 cases); and level three, 3.77-7.25 mm (19 cases). Vascular risk factors were compared among the three groups. Correlations of BL and VA diameter differences were studied, and multivariate analysis was applied to search for predictors of ischemic stroke in BA bending patients. Among BA bending, non-BA bending, and control groups, VA dominance (VAD) proved to be a significant differentiator. For all three groups, a patient age of ≥ 65 years, the occurrence of hypertension, smoking, high homocysteine levels, high cholesterol, and a history of type 2 diabetes, were all statistically significant factors (P<0.05). After adjusting for other relevant factors, multivariate analysis shows that BL of level 3 was an independent risk factor for pontine infarction (OR=2.74; 95% CI, 1.27 to 4.48). Both BL and diameter differences between the VAs were positively correlated with risk with statistical significance (r=0.769, P<0

  16. The Role of Unknown Risk Factors in Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rafighdoust Abbas; Asadollah, Mirzaee; Hossien, Rafigdoust Amir

    2010-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis of coronary arteries is the most common cause of myocardial infarction (MI), which is initiated from childhood and progresses gradually by aging. Several risk factors influence its progress, and are categorized as classic, traditional and novel factors. The role of unknown risk factors is becoming increasingly more significant recently. The aim of this study is to underscore the novel risk factors despite the importance of classic factors and consider these factors for future studies. Methods This is a prospective study on 180 myocardial infarction cases, conducted in the cardiology ward and CCU of Imam-Reza hospital (Mashad-IRAN). A number of risk factors identified and evaluated in these patients included: hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, activity, stress, hair of external ear canal and ear lobe crease, age, and sex. Then patients without any risk factor or with one or two risk factors were distinguished. Results The majority of our patients were old men in the age range of 60 - 69 years. Amongst all patients 42.2% were smokers, 68.3% were type A personality group, 19% were active, 81% were physically inactive, 37.2% had hairy ear canal, 35% had hypertension, 21.1% were diabetic, 14.4% had hyperlipidemia and 30% had positive family history of myocardial infarction. Of great interest was the fact that of the patients whose case was studied, many did not have any risk factor or in some cases had only one. Conclusions In regard of increasing rate of cardiovascular diseases and myocardial infarction even amongst the young population, and because of considerable need to improve vascular risk detection, much research over the past decade has focused on identification of novel atherosclerotic risk factors, and some of these new risk factors are identified and some may be unknown. Amongst the new risk factors, inflammation has an important role, other risk factors that must be assessed are homocysteine, serum amyloid, and

  17. Coupled Hemodynamic-Biochemical Modeling of Thrombus Formation in Infarcted Left Ventricles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung Hee; Vedula, Vijay; George, Richard; Mittal, Rajat

    2013-11-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) and left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction have higher rates of thromboembolic events including embolic stroke and peripheral arterial thrombi. A common cause of arterial emboli in HF patients is myocardial infarction (MI) and subsequent left ventricular thrombus (LVT) formation. Stagnation of blood and endocardial injury are hypothesized to promote the development of LVT. The identification of high risk patients and the pharmacologic prevention of LVT formation are the keys to preventing embolic events. Stratification of patients at risk for LVT formation is currently limited, and primarily based on global assessment of ventricular function and image based assessment of ventricular wall motion. In this study, we explore a method to predict LVT risk using a multi-physics computational model. The blood flow in the left ventricle is simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation using an immersed boundary method and this is coupled to a convection-diffusion-reaction equation based model of platelet activation and coagulation. The results are then correlated with the other hemodynamic metrics such as wall shear stress and residence time to develop quantitative metrics for the LVT risk prediction. Supported by NSF CDI-Type II grant IOS-1124804, Computational resource by XSEDE NSF grant TG-CTS100002.

  18. Dysfunctional nitric oxide signalling increases risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Jeanette; Stark, Klaus; Esslinger, Ulrike B; Rumpf, Philipp Moritz; Koesling, Doris; de Wit, Cor; Kaiser, Frank J; Braunholz, Diana; Medack, Anja; Fischer, Marcus; Zimmermann, Martina E; Tennstedt, Stephanie; Graf, Elisabeth; Eck, Sebastian; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Nahrstaedt, Janja; Willenborg, Christina; Bruse, Petra; Brænne, Ingrid; Nöthen, Markus M; Hofmann, Per; Braund, Peter S; Mergia, Evanthia; Reinhard, Wibke; Burgdorf, Christof; Schreiber, Stefan; Balmforth, Anthony J; Hall, Alistair S; Bertram, Lars; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Li, Shu-Chen; März, Winfried; Reilly, Muredach; Kathiresan, Sekar; McPherson, Ruth; Walter, Ulrich; Ott, Jurg; Samani, Nilesh J; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Hengstenberg, Christian; Schunkert, Heribert

    2013-12-19

    Myocardial infarction, a leading cause of death in the Western world, usually occurs when the fibrous cap overlying an atherosclerotic plaque in a coronary artery ruptures. The resulting exposure of blood to the atherosclerotic material then triggers thrombus formation, which occludes the artery. The importance of genetic predisposition to coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction is best documented by the predictive value of a positive family history. Next-generation sequencing in families with several affected individuals has revolutionized mutation identification. Here we report the segregation of two private, heterozygous mutations in two functionally related genes, GUCY1A3 (p.Leu163Phefs*24) and CCT7 (p.Ser525Leu), in an extended myocardial infarction family. GUCY1A3 encodes the α1 subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase (α1-sGC), and CCT7 encodes CCTη, a member of the tailless complex polypeptide 1 ring complex, which, among other functions, stabilizes soluble guanylyl cyclase. After stimulation with nitric oxide, soluble guanylyl cyclase generates cGMP, which induces vasodilation and inhibits platelet activation. We demonstrate in vitro that mutations in both GUCY1A3 and CCT7 severely reduce α1-sGC as well as β1-sGC protein content, and impair soluble guanylyl cyclase activity. Moreover, platelets from digenic mutation carriers contained less soluble guanylyl cyclase protein and consequently displayed reduced nitric-oxide-induced cGMP formation. Mice deficient in α1-sGC protein displayed accelerated thrombus formation in the microcirculation after local trauma. Starting with a severely affected family, we have identified a link between impaired soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-dependent nitric oxide signalling and myocardial infarction risk, possibly through accelerated thrombus formation. Reversing this defect may provide a new therapeutic target for reducing the risk of myocardial infarction.

  19. Cardiac risk stratification for postmyocardial infarction dental patients.

    PubMed

    Roberts, H W; Mitnitsky, E F

    2001-06-01

    Traditional dental management guidelines of myocardial infarction survivors mandate a 6-month waiting period before elective treatment can be considered. Technological advances in cardiac disease diagnosis, management, and revascularization treatment may make this older mandatory 6-month waiting period obsolete. The purposes of this literature review are to provide an overview of the historical development of cardiac risk stratification and discuss current developments and guidelines in cardiac risk assessment. We hope that this review and update will stimulate the development of updated dental guidelines for treating the cardiac patient.

  20. Work-related risk factors of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Szyjkowska, Agata; Viebig, Piotr; Wranicz, Jerzy K; Kurpesa, Małgorzata; Dziuba, Michał; Trzos, Ewa; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out which occupational factors account for the risk of the myocardial infarction. A questionnaire survey was performed during the period of one calendar year in all patients (1053 subjects, 692 men and 361 women) hospitalized at the Medical University of Łódź because of the first myocardial infarction. The questionnaire was prepared especially for the purpose of this study and consisted of two parts. The first part comprised: demographic data, health status at admittance, traditional risk factors for the ischaemic heart disease and was filled-in by physicians. Part II was done by occupational hygiene specialists and referred to education, job title and characteristics, employment data, self assessment of work-related and general stress, fatigue, socio-economic status, physical activity, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, dietary habits. Mean age in the study group was 59.9 ± 10.4 years (26-85 years), 58.7 ± 10.0 (26-84 years) for men and 62.3 ± 10.7 (32-85 years) for women, employment duration was 32.9±8.8 (4-65 years), for men 34.0 ± 8.6 (5-65 years), for women 30.7 ± 8.8 (4-60 years. Most of myocardial infarction cases both in the group of men and women were noted in the age interval 56-60 years, 22.3% vs. 17.4%, respectively. The majority of examined men were farmers, low and middle management and self-employed workers. Among women prevailed clerks, seamstresses and farmers. The most frequent occupational risk factors were: work-related stress, experienced by 54.2% of the examined subjects, occupational noise (45,5%), dust (41,7%) and various chemical factors (33%). A majority of the study group (76.5% women and 54.4% men) linked the cardiac infarction with stress, while 39.1% men vs. 16.5% women correlated it with physical effort. Our studies indicate that, among a wide spectrum of occupational factors, stress, noise and fine particulate dust are major contributors to the increased risk of myocardial infarction.

  1. Hemodynamic profile of patients with acute myocardial infarction at risk of infarct expansion.

    PubMed

    Piérard, L A; Albert, A; Gilis, F; Sprynger, M; Carlier, J; Kulbertus, H E

    1987-07-01

    To identify patients at risk of cardiac expansion during hospital stay for a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 41 patients underwent right-sided cardiac catheterization soon after admission and serial 2-dimensional echocardiography on days 1, 3 or 4 and between days 7 and 10. Infarct expansion was recognized by echocardiography in 11 patients (27%), most often on the second recording (day 3 or 4). Age, sex, time from onset of pain to catheterization, peak levels of creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme, heart rate, mean pulmonary artery wedge pressure and left ventricular stroke work index were similar in the 2 groups. Patients in whom infarct expansion developed had a higher incidence of previous systemic hypertension (73% vs 27%, p less than 0.01) and anterior AMI (91% vs 30%, p less than 0.001) and a higher mortality rate at 1 year (73 vs 7%, p less than 0.001) than those who did not. They also had higher systolic (139 +/- 24 vs 126 +/- 18 mm Hg, p less than 0.05) and diastolic (91 +/- 14 vs 75 +/- 13 mm Hg, p less than 0.001) arterial pressures, lower stroke volume index (31 +/- 10 vs 40 +/- 10 ml/m2, p less than 0.01) and much higher systemic vascular resistance (SVR) values (1,713 +/- 380 vs 1,253 +/- 264 dynes s cm-5, p less than 0.0001). In the subgroups of patients with anterior AMI, differences were significant for diastolic arterial pressure, stroke volume index, SVR and mortality.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Multiple Risk Factors of Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Myocardial Infarction Patients

    PubMed Central

    Harisharan; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Dangal, Nidhu Ram; Surapaneni, Krishna Mohan; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most critical medical emergency and contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Myocardial infarction is the most common form of coronary heart disease and leading cause of premature death. Past century has seen substantial advancement in the field of medical sciences but still mortality trends due to myocardial infarction is increasing in developing countries including India. We have conducted this study to compare the Sociodemographic characteristics of alcoholic and non alcoholic MI patients admitted in coronary care unit of Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. Methods: An exploratory cross sectional study was performed by enrolling a convenient sample of 100 Myocardial Infarction patients. Information about Sociodemographic characteristics, past medical history, alcohol and tobacco intake, physical activity, psychological stress and biochemical measurements was gathered. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 46 (SD=6) years and majority of them were male i.e. 82%. 100% married and 89% literate, there were 24% past and 22% present alcoholics. Consumption of alcohol on a monthly, weekly and daily basis was 8%, 11% and 5% respectively. Preference to brandy was 67%, rum was 21% and that the beer was 12%. Current smoker were 20% and former were 11%. 93% and 52% respondents were under medication of beta blocker and angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors respectively. Conclusion: Worldwide, MI is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity and hence early diagnosis and management is most essential. Results from our study revealed that, participants had sedentary lifestyles where risk factors of MI such as alcohol consumption, and smoking does existed. PMID:26234988

  3. Multiple Risk Factors of Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Myocardial Infarction Patients.

    PubMed

    Harisharan; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Dangal, Nidhu Ram; Surapaneni, Krishna Mohan; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-05-17

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most critical medical emergency and contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Myocardial infarction is the most common form of coronary heart disease and leading cause of premature death. Past century has seen substantial advancement in the field of medical sciences but still mortality trends due to myocardial infarction is increasing in developing countries including India. We have conducted this study to compare the Sociodemographic characteristics of alcoholic and non alcoholic MI patients admitted in coronary care unit of Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. An exploratory cross sectional study was performed by enrolling a convenient sample of 100 Myocardial Infarction patients. Information about Sociodemographic characteristics, past medical history, alcohol and tobacco intake, physical activity, psychological stress and biochemical measurements was gathered. The mean age of the respondents was 46 (SD=6) years and majority of them were male i.e. 82%. 100% married and 89% literate, there were 24% past and 22% present alcoholics. Consumption of alcohol on a monthly, weekly and daily basis was 8%, 11% and 5% respectively. Preference to brandy was 67%, rum was 21% and that the beer was 12%. Current smoker were 20% and former were 11%. 93% and 52% respondents were under medication of beta blocker and angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors respectively. Worldwide, MI is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity and hence early diagnosis and management is most essential. Results from our study revealed that, participants had sedentary lifestyles where risk factors of MI such as alcohol consumption, and smoking does existed.

  4. Preceding infection as an important risk factor for ischaemic brain infarction in young and middle aged patients

    PubMed Central

    Syrjänen, Jaana; Valtonen, Ville V; Iivanainen, Matti; Kaste, Markku; Huttunen, Jussi K

    1988-01-01

    The role of preceding infection as a risk factor for ischaemic stroke was investigated in a case-control study of 54 consecutive patients under 50 years of age with brain infarction and 54 randomly selected controls from the community matched for sex and age. Information about previous illnesses, smoking, consumption of alcohol, and use of drugs was taken. A blood sample was analysed for standard biochemical variables and serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and fasting blood glucose concentrations determined. Titres of antimicrobial antibodies against various bacteria, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Yersinia, and Salmonella and several viruses were determined. Febrile infection was found in patients during the month before the brain infarction significantly more often than in controls one month before their examination (19 patients v three controls; estimated relative risk 9·0 (95% confidence interval 2·2 to 80·0)). The most common preceding febrile infection was respiratory infection (80%). Infections preceding brain infarction were mostly of bacterial origin based on cultural, serological, and clinical data. In conditional logistic regression analysis for matched pairs the effect of preceding febrile infection remained significant (estimated relative risk 14·5 (95% confidence interval 1·9 to 112·3)) when tested with triglyceride concentration, hypertension, smoking, and preceding intoxication with alcohol. Although causality cannot be inferred from these data and plausible underlying mechanisms remain undetermined, preceding febrile infection may play an important part in the development of brain infarction in young and middle aged patients. PMID:3132245

  5. [Asymptomatic cerebral infarctions: risk factors and cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Zhetishev, R R; Mikhaĭlova, N A; Ivashchenko2, R A; Kamchatnov, P R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To study the risk factors of asymptomatic cerebral infarctions (AI) and their effect on cognitive functions. Material and methods. We examined 114 patients, aged from 53 to 88 years, including 58 patients with AI (group 1), 32 women and 26 men (mean age 66.5±7.3 yeas), and 56 patients with chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI) without a history of stroke and transitory ischemic attacks, (group 2), 36 women and 20 men (mean age 64.2±6.6 yeas). Results. Cardiovascular risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation) were more frequent in group 1. The results of neuropsychological testing revealed worse cognitive performance in patients with AI. Conclusions. The results confirmed the negative effect of AI on cognitive functioning and higher risk of CCI progression.

  6. Protective efficacy of ellagic acid on glycoproteins, hematological parameters, biochemical changes, and electrolytes in myocardial infarcted rats.

    PubMed

    Kannan, M Mari; Quine, S Darlin; Sangeetha, T

    2012-07-01

    The cardioprotective property of ellagic acid in rats has been reported previously. The present study reveals the protective role of ellagic acid in biochemical parameters including serum iron, plasma iron binding capacity, uric acid, glycoprotein, and electrolytes along with hematological parameters. Rats were subcutaneously injected with isoproterenol (ISO) (100 mg/kg) for 2 days to induce myocardial infarction. ISO-induced rats showed a significant increase in their levels of serum iron, serum uric acid, and blood glucose, and a significant decrease in their levels of plasma iron binding capacity, serum total protein, albumin/globulin ratio, and heart glycogen, when compared with normal control rats. The altered hematological parameters were also observed in ISO-induced rats when compared with normal control rats. Pretreatment with ellagic acid at doses of 7.5 and 15 mg/kg produced significant beneficial effect by returning all the above-mentioned biochemical and hematological parameters to near normal levels.

  7. Risk Factors for Hemorrhagic Transformation in Patients with Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction

    PubMed Central

    ÖCEK, Levent; GÜNER, Derya; ULUDAĞ, İrem Fatma; TİFTİKÇİOĞLU, Bedile İrem; ZORLU, Yaşar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) can be seen at any time following ischemic stroke. Although HT usually occurs as a complication of antithrombotic, anticoagulant, or thrombolytic treatments, it can also occur spontaneously. We aimed to investigate the occurrence of early HT and its relevant risk factors in patients diagnosed with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction who were not treated with thrombolytic agents. Methods We recruited 171 patients with acute MCA infarction between January 2011 and July 2012 who were not treated with thrombolytic agents and were suitable to our inclusion criteria. Controlled neuroimaging was performed immediately in patients with deterioration, otherwise on day 7 following stroke. All patients were investigated for AIS risk factors and biochemical analyses were performed. Patients with HT in controlled neuroimaging were grouped both clinically (i.e., symptomatic or asymptomatic) and radiologically, according to “European Cooperative Acute Stroke Radiological Study” (ECASS), and risk factors were examined. Results We enrolled 171 patients [94 men (55%) and 77 women (45%)] in the study. HT developed in 37 patients (21.63%). In terms of risk factor analysis, the most frequent etiological factor was atherosclerosis in AIS patients (50.3%). National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were significantly higher both in sHT patients according to asHT patients and in HT patients on day 7 compared with their initial scores. Serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol (TC) levels were significantly lower in patients with HT (p<.001). Conclusion HT is a major complication in AIS that considerably increases the morbidity and mortality. To reduce the occurrence of HT, risk factors for each patient population should be determined. Acute thrombolytic therapy should be used cautiously in high-risk patients, and appropriate alternative therapies should

  8. Increased risk of congestive heart failure among infarctions with nighttime onset.

    PubMed

    Mukamal, K J; Muller, J E; Maclure, M; Sherwood, J B; Mittleman, M A

    2000-09-01

    The onset of acute myocardial infarction varies by time of day, with a peak in the morning and a trough at night. Whether infarct-related complications differ by the timing of the infarction is unknown. In the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study, we performed chart reviews and face-to-face interviews with 3625 patients with acute myocardial infarction. We assessed the time of onset of symptoms, the presence of ventricular tachycardia or congestive heart failure, and peak creatine kinase levels (in 1043 patients). We found significant circadian variation in the risk of congestive heart failure (P =.001). The risk dropped from 17% for infarctions that began between 6 PM and midnight to 10% for infarctions that began between 6 AM and noon. Adjustment for differences in the time from symptom onset to presentation for care and use of thrombolytic agents did not change the results. We found no circadian variation in the risk of ventricular tachycardia or in peak creatine kinase levels. The risk of congestive heart failure is highest among infarctions that begin at night. Further research may clarify whether this reflects differences in the pathophysiologic characteristics of infarction or the quality of medical care provided for daytime and nighttime infarctions.

  9. HIV Infection and the Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Freiberg, Matthew S.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Skanderson, Melissa; Lowy, Elliott; Kraemer, Kevin L.; Butt, Adeel A.; Bidwell Goetz, Matthew; Leaf, David; Oursler, Kris Ann; Rimland, David; Rodriguez Barradas, Maria; Brown, Sheldon; Gibert, Cynthia; McGinnis, Kathy; Crothers, Kristina; Sico, Jason; Crane, Heidi; Warner, Alberta; Gottlieb, Stephen; Gottdiener, John; Tracy, Russell P.; Budoff, Matthew; Watson, Courtney; Armah, Kaku A.; Doebler, Donna; Bryant, Kendall; Justice, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Whether people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared with uninfected people is not clear. Without demographically and behaviorally similar uninfected comparators and without uniformly measured clinical data on risk factors and fatal and nonfatal AMI events, any potential association between HIV status and AMI may be confounded. Objective To investigate whether HIV is associated with an increased risk of AMI after adjustment for all standard Framingham risk factors among a large cohort of HIV-positive and demographically and behaviorally similar (ie, similar prevalence of smoking, alcohol, and cocaine use) uninfected veterans in care. Design and Setting Participants in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Virtual Cohort from April 1, 2003, through December 31, 2009. Participants After eliminating those with baseline cardiovascular disease, we analyzed data on HIV status, age, sex, race/ethnicity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, hepatitis C infection, body mass index, renal disease, anemia, substance use, CD4 cell count, HIV-1 RNA, antiretroviral therapy, and incidence of AMI. Main Outcome Measure Acute myocardial infarction. Results We analyzed data on 82 459 participants. During a median follow-up of 5.9 years, there were 871 AMI events. Across 3 decades of age, the mean (95% CI) AMI events per 1000 person-years was consistently and significantly higher for HIV-positive compared with uninfected veterans: for those aged 40 to 49 years, 2.0 (1.6-2.4) vs 1.5 (1.3-1.7); for those aged 50 to 59 years, 3.9 (3.3-4.5) vs 2.2 (1.9-2.5); and for those aged 60 to 69 years, 5.0 (3.8-6.7) vs 3.3 (2.6-4.2) (P < .05 for all). After adjusting for Framingham risk factors, comorbidities, and substance use, HIV-positive veterans had an increased risk of incident AMI compared with uninfected veterans (hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.27-1.72). An excess risk remained among

  10. Obesity measures and risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Horvei, Lars D; Brækkan, Sigrid K; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for arterial and venous thromboembolism. However, it is not known whether obesity mediates risk through shared mechanisms. In a population-based cohort, we aimed to compare the impact of obesity measures on risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and myocardial infarction (MI), and explore how obesity-related atherosclerotic risk factors influenced these relationships. Measures of body composition including body mass index , waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were registered in 6,708 subjects aged 25-84 years, who participated in the Tromsø Study (1994-1995). Incident VTE- and MI-events were registered until January 1, 2011. There were 288 VTEs and 925 MIs during a median of 15.7 years of follow-up. All obesity measures were related to risk of VTE. In linear models, WC showed the highest risk estimates in both genders. In categorized models (highest versus lowest quintile), WC showed highest risk in men (HR 3.59; 95 % CI 1.82-7.06) and HC in women (HR 2.27; 95 % CI 1.54-4.92). Contrary, WHR and WHtR yielded the highest risk estimates for MI. The HR of MI (highest vs. lowest quintile) for WHR was 2.11 (95 % CI 1.59-2.81) in men and 1.62 (95 % CI 1.13-2.31) in women. The risk estimates for MI were substantially attenuated after adjustment for atherosclerotic risk factors, whereas the estimates for VTE remained unchanged. Our findings suggest that the impact of body fat distribution, and the causal pathway, differs for the association between obesity and arterial and venous thrombosis.

  11. A biochemical, electrocardiographic, electrophoretic, histopathological and in vitro study on the protective effects of (-)epicatechin in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats.

    PubMed

    Prince, Ponnian Stanely Mainzen

    2011-12-05

    (-) Epicatechin rich foods and (-) epicatechin improve cardiovascular function. Consumption of diets rich in flavonoids is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress resulting from increased production of free radicals associated with decreased levels of antioxidants in the myocardium plays a major role in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction. This study aims to evaluate the preventive effects of (-) epicatechin on oxidative stress in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with (-) epicatechin (20mg/kg body weight) daily for 21 days. After pretreatment, isoproterenol (100mg/kg body weight) was injected into the rats at an interval of 24h for two days to induce myocardial infarction. Isoproterenol induced rat's electrocardiogram showed elevated ST segments and significant increase in the activity of serum creatine kinase-MB, level of serum troponin-T and increased intensities of serum lactate dehydrogenase 1 and 2-isoenzymes. The rats also showed significant increased levels of heart lipid peroxidation products and significant decreased activities of heart superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and levels of reduced glutathione. Pretreatment with (-) epicatechin revealed significant protective effects on all the biochemical parameters and electrocardiogram investigated. Histopathology of myocardium confirmed the present findings. The in vitro study on the effects of (-) epicatechin on scavenging free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl revealed the free radical scavenging potential of (-) epicatechin. Thus, (-) epicatechin exerts protective effects against isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress thereby reducing cardiac tissue damage by its free radical scavenging and antioxidant effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Use of allicor to lower the risk of myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Sobenin, I A; Prianishnikov, V V; Kunnova, L M; Rabinovich, E A; Orekhov, A N

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of allicor (a long-action garlic-based preparation) on the risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and sudden death (SD) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifty one CAD patients were included in this double-blind placebo-controlled study. The prognostic risk of MI and SD during ten following years was counted using Cox proportional hazards model based on the results of Munster study. Allicor administered for 12 months was demonstrated to reduce absolute ten-year risk of acute MI and SD 1.5 times in men and 1.3 times in women. The reduction in calculated risk parameters was associated with changes in blood plasma lipid profile, the most significant of which was reduction in the level of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.05) by 32.9 mg/dl in men and 27.3 mg/dl in women. The results of this study demonstrate that allicor is effective for the reduction of multifactor MI and SD risk as a means of secondary CAD prophylaxis.

  13. Risk factors in young patients of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Abdul Wajid Khan; Ayub, Mohammad; Waseem, Tariq; Khan, Rao Shahzad Abdul Tawwab; Hasnain, Syed Sibitul

    2011-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of death throughout the world. CAD has been recognized among younger age group more frequently in recent years. Very limited data is available regarding the prevalence of various risk factors in our younger patients that is why this study was planed. Objectives of the study were to look for the risk factors most prevalent in our young patient of 1st Acute Myocardial Infarction. And to also look for the number of Risk Factors present in each patient. We studied 100 consecutive patients from 16-45 years of age presenting with first acute MI. Twelve risk factors were studied namely, gender, family history of premature CAD, smoking hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, mental stress (type A personality), alcohol, oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), physical activity, and diet. We divided the patients into two groups. Group A with patients 35 years of age or less and group B with patients 36-45 years of age. All risk factors were compared in both the groups. Smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension were statistically different between the two groups. Frequency wise risk factors were lined up as male sex (91%) Diet (66%), Dyslipidemia (62%), smoking (46%), Type A personality(46%), family history (32%), diabetes mellitus (28%), sedentary lifestyle (26%), hypertension (22%), obesity (17%), alcohol (3%), and OCPs (0%) Most of the patients that is 94% had 3 or more risk factors. Smoking, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia are the major modifiable risk factors in our young adults. If a young male who is smoker or a young female who is diabetic, presents in emergency room with chest pain, always suspect coronary artery disease. Other conventional risk factors are also prevalent but alcohol and OCPs are not a major health problem for us.

  14. Association between divorce and risks for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Dupre, Matthew E; George, Linda K; Liu, Guangya; Peterson, Eric D

    2015-05-01

    Divorce is a major life stressor that can have economic, emotional, and physical health consequences. However, the cumulative association between divorce and risks for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown. This study investigated the association between lifetime exposure to divorce and the incidence of AMI in US adults. We used nationally representative data from a prospective cohort of ever-married adults aged 45 to 80 years (n=15,827) who were followed biennially from 1992 to 2010. Approximately 14% of men and 19% of women were divorced at baseline and more than one third of the cohort had ≥1 divorce in their lifetime. In 200,524 person-years of follow-up, 8% (n=1211) of the cohort had an AMI and age-specific rates of AMI were consistently higher in those who were divorced compared with those who were continuously married (P<0.05). Results from competing-risk hazard models showed that AMI risks were significantly higher in women who had 1 divorce (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.55), ≥2 divorces (hazard ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-2.41), and among the remarried (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.70) compared with continuously married women after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Multivariable-adjusted risks were elevated only in men with a history of ≥2 divorces (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.66) compared with continuously married men. Men who remarried had no significant risk for AMI. Interaction terms for sex were not statistically significant. Divorce is a significant risk factor for AMI. The risks associated with multiple divorces are especially high in women and are not reduced with remarriage. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. The Association Between Divorce and Risks for Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Dupre, Matthew E.; George, Linda K.; Liu, Guangya; Peterson, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Divorce is a major life stressor that can have economic, emotional, and physical health consequences. However, the cumulative association between divorce and risks for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown. This study investigated the association between lifetime exposure to divorce and the incidence of AMI in U.S. adults. Methods and Results We used nationally representative data from a prospective cohort of ever-married adults aged 45 to 80 (n=15,827) who were followed biennially from 1992 to 2010. Approximately 14% of men and 19% of women were divorced at baseline and more than one-third of the cohort had at least one divorce in their lifetime. In 200,524 person-years of follow-up, 8% (n=1,211) of the cohort had an AMI and age-specific rates of AMI were consistently higher in those who were divorced relative to those who were continuously married (P<.05). Results from competing-risk hazard models showed that AMI risks were significantly higher in women who had 1 divorce (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55), 2 or more divorces (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.30-2.41), and among the remarried (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07-1.70) compared with continuously married women after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Multivariable-adjusted risks were elevated only in men with a history of 2 or more divorces (HR, 1.30; 95%CI, 1.02-1.66) relative to continuously married men. Men who remarried had no significant risk for AMI. Interaction terms for sex were not statistically significant. Conclusions Divorce is a significant risk factor for AMI. The risks associated with multiple divorces are especially high in women and are not reduced with remarriage. PMID:25872508

  16. Myocardial Infarction Risk Among Fracture Patients Receiving Bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Cory B.; Davis, Lisa A.; Zeringue, Angelique L.; Caplan, Liron; Wehmeier, Kent R.; Scherrer, Jeffrey F.; Xian, Hong; Cunningham, Francesca E.; McDonald, Jay R.; Arnold, Alexis; Eisen, Seth A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if bisphosphonates are associated with reduced risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Patients and Methods A cohort of 14,256 veterans 65 years or older with femoral or vertebral fractures was selected from national administrative databases operated by the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), and were derived from encounters at VA facilities between October 1, 1998, and September 30, 2006. The time-to-first AMI was assessed in relation to bisphosphonate exposure as determined by records from the Pharmacy Benefits Management Database (PBM). Time-to-event analysis was performed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. An adjusted survival analysis curve and a Kaplan-Meier survival curve were analyzed. Results After controlling for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors and medications, bisphosphonate use was associated with an increased risk of incident AMI (HR 1.38; 95% CI, 1.08–1.77; P=0.012). The timing of AMI correlated closely with the timing of bisphosphonate therapy initiation. Conclusion These observations conflict with our hypothesis that bisphosphonates have anti-atherogenic effects, and may alter the risk-benefit ratio of bisphosphonate use for treatment of osteoporosis, especially in elderly men. However, further analysis and confirmation of these findings by prospective clinical trials is required. PMID:24388021

  17. An analysis of risk factors for asymptomatic cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Tomoko; Owada, Kiyoshi; Hoshino, Tatsuo; Nagahara, Hikaru; Shiratori, Keiko

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for asymptomatic cerebral infarction (ACI) in the general Japanese population. A total of 634 subjects (272 men aged 55.4+/-8.8 years and 362 women aged 55.2+/-8.5 years) who visited the Health Management Center at Aoyama Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) from January 2004 through January 2005 for an annual brain dry dock examination were analyzed. We evaluated 21 risk factors for ACI by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Abnormal or potentially abnormal conditions were detected in 258 subjects (40.7% of all subjects who had an annual check-up program for brain disease). The most frequent abnormal finding was ACI, which was observed in 208 subjects. The significant risk factors for ACI, as determined by multivariate logistic analysis, were age (P <0.01), hypertension (P <0.01), and hypertensive vascular changes in the fundus (P <0.05). The hypertensive vascular abnormalities in the fundus might be a risk factor for ACI independent of age and hypertension.

  18. Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Older Men Receiving Testosterone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Baillargeon, Jacques; Urban, Randall J.; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Raji, Mukaila A.; Du, Fei; Lin, Yu-li; Goodwin, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Testosterone therapy for older men has increased substantially over the past decade. Research on the effects of testosterone therapy on cardiovascular outcomes has yielded inconsistent results. Objective To examine the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in a population-based cohort of older men receiving intramuscular testosterone. Method Using a 5% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries, we identified 6355 patients treated with at least 1 injection of testosterone between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2005. We matched this cohort to 19 065 testosterone nonusers at a 1:3 ratio based on a composite MI prognostic score. Patients were followed until December 31, 2005, or until they lost coverage from Medicare, enrolled in a health maintenance organization, experienced a MI, or died. Result In a Cox regression analysis adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, receipt of testosterone therapy was not associated with an increased risk of MI (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.69–1.02). In this analysis, there was an interaction between receipt of testosterone and quartile of risk of MI (P = 0.023). For men in the highest quartile of the MI prognostic score, testosterone therapy was associated with a reduced risk of MI (HR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.53–0.92), whereas there was no difference in risk for the first (HR = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.88–1.67), second (HR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.69–1.30), and third quartiles (HR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.59–1.01). Conclusion Older men who were treated with intramuscular testosterone did not appear to have an increased risk of MI. For men with high MI risk, testosterone use was modestly protective against MI. PMID:24989174

  19. Lipoproteins, atherogenicity, age and risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hensley, W J; Mansfield, C H

    1999-04-01

    To perform basic statistical analysis of laboratory lipoprotein data, i.e. the measures of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL), to assist in their interpretation. In particular, to find any difference in male and female data that might explain the known difference in atherogenic susceptibility between the sexes. The study subjects were patients of doctors in city and country New South Wales. Statistical methodology to find the inter-relations of the lipoproteins was the construction of the matrix of correlation, then by matrix algebra to display the independent trends in the data. The findings have been an atherogenicity function involving LDL and HDL and a risk function of myocardial infarction (MI) involving LDL, HDL and age, confirmed by reference to the age and sex incidence of MI in the Australian population. The principal conclusion is a simple mathematical model of the incidence of MI. The means given for identification of at-risk individuals before symptoms appear, also the means given of lowering whole population risk of MI by health education and lifestyle change with increased longevity for all. These concepts call for a prospective trial.

  20. Thresholds for the electrocardiographic change range of biochemical markers of acute myocardial infarction (GUSTO-IIa data).

    PubMed

    Bahit, Maria Cecilia; Criger, Douglas A; Ohman, E Magnus; Granger, Christopher B; Wagner, Galen S

    2002-08-01

    The definition of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is increasingly dependent on levels of biochemical markers, including troponin. We aimed to determine the levels of biochemical markers associated with definite evolutionary electrocardiographic (ECG) changes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. By examining the database of 855 patients from the troponin substudy of GUSTO-IIa, we selected patients with ST-segment elevation at baseline, evidence of evolution of the QRS, T, and ST-segment waveforms on the predischarge electrocardiogram, and 3 measurements of > or =1 of the following: creatine kinase (CK)-MB, troponin T, or troponin I. We identified 222 patients with evolutionary ECG changes. The median QRS score for this population was 5 points; the fifth percentile was 1. For patients with 3 CK-MB measurements, the fifth percentile as a multiple of the upper limit of normal was 2.1 (upper limit of normal 7.0 ng/ml). For patients with troponin T measurements, the fifth percentile as a multiple of the upper limit of normal was 11.0 (upper limit of normal 0.1 ng/ml). For patients with troponin I measurements, the fifth percentile as a multiple of the upper limit of normal was 3.8 (upper limit of normal 1.5 ng/ml). This study revealed that 95% of the patients with definite ECG evidence of AMI had a more than twofold increase in CK-MB and more than a 3- to 11-fold increase in troponin.

  1. Depression and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Coronary Death

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qing; Kling, Juliana M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Findings regarding the association between depression and risk of coronary heart disease are inconsistent. We aimed to assess the association between depression and risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary death through a meta-analysis. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus databases through August 1, 2015, and manual search of the references of the eligible papers and related review articles. Two investigators independently conducted study selection and data abstraction. Disagreement was resolved by consensus. Confounder-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the Cochran Q statistic and Higgins index. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plot and Egger test. Study quality was appraised with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Among 19 eligible cohort studies including 323,709 participants, 8447 cases of MI and coronary death were reported during follow-up ranging from 4 to 37 years. The pooled adjusted HRs for patients with depression (vs those without) were 1.22 (95% CI, 1.13–1.32) for combined MI and coronary death, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.09–1.57) for MI alone (9 studies), and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.14–1.63) for coronary death alone (8 studies). The increased risk of MI and coronary death associated with depression was consistent using modified inclusion criteria, across most subgroups, and after adjusting for possible publication bias. Depression is associated with a significantly increased risk of MI and coronary death. Effective prevention and treatment of depression may decrease such risk. PMID:26871852

  2. Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors of Cerebral Infarction in 439 Patients Undergoing Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kanaoka, Yuji; Ohki, Takao; Maeda, Koji; Baba, Takeshi; Fujita, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to identify the potential risk factors of cerebral infarction associated with thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR). TEVAR was developed as a less invasive surgical alternative to conventional open repair for thoracic aortic aneurysm treatment. However, outcomes following TEVAR of aortic and distal arch aneurysms remain suboptimal. Cerebral infarction is a major concern during the perioperative period. We included 439 patients who underwent TEVAR of aortic aneurysms at a high-volume teaching hospital between July 2006 and June 2013. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify perioperative cerebral infarction risk factors. Four patients (0.9%) died within 30 days of TEVAR; 17 (3.9%) developed cerebral infarction. In univariate analysis, history of ischemic heart disease and cerebral infarction and concomitant cerebrovascular disease were significantly associated with cerebral infarction. “Shaggy aorta” presence, left subclavian artery coverage, carotid artery debranching, and pull-through wire use were identified as independent risk factors of cerebral infarction. In multivariate analysis, history of ischemic heart disease (odds ratio [OR] 6.49, P = 0.046) and cerebral infarction (OR 43.74, P = 0.031), “shaggy aorta” (OR 30.32, P < 0.001), pull-through wire use during surgery (OR 7.196, P = 0.014), and intraoperative blood loss ≥800 mL (OR 24.31, P = 0.017) were found to be independent risk factors of cerebral infarction. This study identified patient- and procedure-related risk factors of cerebral infarction following TEVAR. These results indicate that patient outcomes could be improved through the identification and management of procedure-related risk factors. PMID:27082585

  3. Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors of Cerebral Infarction in 439 Patients Undergoing Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Kanaoka, Yuji; Ohki, Takao; Maeda, Koji; Baba, Takeshi; Fujita, Tetsuji

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the potential risk factors of cerebral infarction associated with thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR). TEVAR was developed as a less invasive surgical alternative to conventional open repair for thoracic aortic aneurysm treatment. However, outcomes following TEVAR of aortic and distal arch aneurysms remain suboptimal. Cerebral infarction is a major concern during the perioperative period. We included 439 patients who underwent TEVAR of aortic aneurysms at a high-volume teaching hospital between July 2006 and June 2013. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify perioperative cerebral infarction risk factors. Four patients (0.9%) died within 30 days of TEVAR; 17 (3.9%) developed cerebral infarction. In univariate analysis, history of ischemic heart disease and cerebral infarction and concomitant cerebrovascular disease were significantly associated with cerebral infarction. "Shaggy aorta" presence, left subclavian artery coverage, carotid artery debranching, and pull-through wire use were identified as independent risk factors of cerebral infarction. In multivariate analysis, history of ischemic heart disease (odds ratio [OR] 6.49, P = 0.046) and cerebral infarction (OR 43.74, P = 0.031), "shaggy aorta" (OR 30.32, P < 0.001), pull-through wire use during surgery (OR 7.196, P = 0.014), and intraoperative blood loss ≥800 mL (OR 24.31, P = 0.017) were found to be independent risk factors of cerebral infarction. This study identified patient- and procedure-related risk factors of cerebral infarction following TEVAR. These results indicate that patient outcomes could be improved through the identification and management of procedure-related risk factors.

  4. [Myocardial infarction in women: risk factors and clinical features].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, E L; Bondareva, Z G; Kuimov, A D; Nesterenko, E V

    2003-01-01

    The course of myocardial infarction (MI) in women, especially 60 years of age and older, is characterized by such severe complications as cardiorrhexis, hypovolemic cardiogenic shock, asystole, recurrent ventricular fibrillation and electromechanic dissociation responsible for the majority of lethal outcomes. Especially high MI lethality is in women at the age 70-79 years who have also the highest incidence of recurrent macrofocal MI while small-focal MI occurs in women over 80 years of age (80-89) more frequently than in 60-year-olds and younger. Dominating MI risk factors in women were the following: arterial hypertension detected in 81% patients under 60 and 90.8% cases over 60 years; abnormal lipid spectrum of blood including hypercholesterolemia (HCE), hypertriglyceridemia (HTE) and low concentration of HDLP cholesterol. HCE and HTE closely correlated with abdominal obesity irrespectively of age. Early menopause in women under 60 and diabetes mellitus of type 2 in older women, accumulation of two and more factors of risk contribute to development of coronary heart disease and MI, in females.

  5. Cerebral Infarction after Traumatic Brain Injury: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Bae, Dong-Hyeon; Choi, Kyu-Sun; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Chun, Hyoung-Joon; Ko, Yong; Bak, Koang Hum

    2014-10-01

    Post-traumatic cerebral infarction (PTCI) is one of the most severe secondary insults after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and is known to be associated with poor outcome and high mortality rate. We assessed the practical incidence and risk factors for the development of PTCI. We conducted retrospective study on 986 consecutive patients with TBI from the period May 2005 to November 2012 at our institution. The definition of PTCI was made on non-enhanced CT scan based on a well-demarcated or fairly discernible region of low attenuation following specific vascular territory with normal initial CT. Clinical and radiological findings that related to patients' outcome were reviewed and statistically compared. PTCI was observed in 21 (2.1%) patients. Of various parameters, age (p=0.037), initial Glasgow coma scale score (p<0.01), brain herniation (p=0.044), and decompressive craniectomy (p=0.012) were significantly higher in patients with PTCI than patients who do not have PTCI. Duration between accident and PTCI, patterns of TBI and vascular territory of PTCI were not specific. The mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with PTCI than without PTCI. The development of PTCI is rare after TBI, but it usually results in serious outcome and high mortality. Early recognition for risks and aggressive managements is mandatory to prevent PTCI.

  6. Elevated risk of myocardial infarction in very young immigrants from former Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Wiesbauer, Franz; Blessberger, Hermann; Goliasch, Georg; Holy, Erik Walter; Pfaffenberger, Stephan; Tentzeris, Ioannis; Maurer, Gerald; Huber, Kurt; Abdolvahab, Farshid; Sodeck, Gottfried; Exner, Markus; Wojta, Johann; Schillinger, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We performed a hospital based case-control study to assess if the risk of myocardial infarction at a very young age (< or =40 years) was elevated in immigrants from the region of former Yugoslavia. Patients were classified as "exposed" if they or both their parents were born in former Yugoslavia. Consecutive myocardial infarction patients were recruited in the immediate post-infarction period from two Viennese hospitals over a 3.5-year period. Control patients free of myocardial infarction were frequency matched on age, gender, centre, and time in an approximate 1:2 ratio. Logistic regression was used for the assessment of an association between Yugoslavian descent and myocardial infarction. Overall, we recruited 102 myocardial infarction patients and 200 controls. The median age of infarction patients was 37.3 years. Yugoslavian descent was strongly associated with myocardial infarction (crude OR 7.3, 95% CI 3-18). This association was attenuated after multivariate adjustment (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.2-13) but remained statistically significant. Using Miettinen's formula for population attributable risk, we calculated that between 15.3% (adjusted) and 17.8% (unadjusted) of myocardial infarction cases in very young patients could be attributable to immigrants from the studied region. In conclusion, we found that the risk of developing myocardial infarction at a young age is elevated in immigrants from the region of former Yugoslavia and their offspring. Even though residual confounding cannot be ruled out definitively, this risk seems to be independent of established cardiovascular risk factors.

  7. Leptin as an important link between obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in men with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ekmen, Nergis; Helvaci, Aysen; Gunaldi, Meral; Sasani, Hadi; Yildirmak, Sembol Turkmen

    2016-01-01

    The levels of leptin, a major regulator of lipid metabolism, may increase in obesity, and contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome. Leptin is produced by adipose tissue and is a peptide hormone, which has strong association with obesity, elevated cardiovascular risk, and morbidity. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationships between leptin levels, obesity, and cardiovascular risk factors in men with acute myocardial infarction. Twenty-four obese and twenty-three nonobese male patients, who had experienced their first myocardial infarction, were included in the study. Their leptin levels, biochemical parameters, and anthropometric measures were obtained. Mean leptin levels were significantly higher in the obese group compared to the nonobese group (2.53ng/mL versus 1.23ng/mL; p<0.01). Leptin levels correlated positively with anthropometric measurements, triglyceride, fasting glucose, C-reactive protein, and uric acid levels, and negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Findings indicate high leptin levels to be positively correlated with obesity and diastolic blood pressure in male patients with myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between periodontal pathogens and risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Andriankaja, Oelisoa; Trevisan, Maurizio; Falkner, Karen; Dorn, Joan; Hovey, Kathleen; Sarikonda, Sreenivasa; Mendoza, Tania; Genco, Robert

    2011-04-01

    The direct effect of periodontal pathogens on atherosclerotic plaque development has been suggested as a potential mechanism for the observed association between periodontal disease and coronary heart disease, but few studies have tested this theory. (i) To assess the association of periodontal pathogens in periodontal pockets with the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and (ii) to assess whether an increase in the number of periodontal bacterial species increases the risk of MI. A total of 313 cases and 747 controls, consisting of Caucasian men and women from Western New York, aged 35 to 69 years, were recruited for this study. The presence of microorganisms was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, using species-specific polyclonal and monoclonal serodiagnostic reagents. The presence of six periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Tannerella forsythensis (Tf), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Campylobacter recta (Cr), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), and Eubacterium saburreum (Es), and their co-occurrence (0-6) was compared with the odds of having myocardial infarction. Univariate analyses revealed a higher percentage of the presence of each bacterium in cases compared to controls. In multivariate analyses, only Tf and Pi were statistically associated with an increase in the odds of having MI [Odds ratio OR=1.62; 95% CI (1.18-2.22); and 1.40; 95% (1.02-1.92), respectively] after adjusting for age, gender, education, cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, and total pack-years of cigarette smoking. An increase in the number of different periodontal bacteria in pockets was also found to increase the odds of MI [adjusted OR=1.14; 95% CI (1.03-1.26)]. Participants who had three species or more of periodontal pathogens had about 2-fold increase in odds of having nonfatal MI than those who did not have any type of bacterial species [OR=2.01 (1.31-3.08)]. The presence of periodontal pathogens, specifically Tf or Pi, and an increase in total burden

  9. Lipoprotein(a) and risk of myocardial infarction--genetic epidemiologic evidence of causality.

    PubMed

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-04-01

    Elevated levels of lipoprotein(a) are associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction. Our study aimed to test whether genetic data are consistent with this association being causal. Accordingly, we developed a high-throughput realtime PCR assay to genotype for the lipoprotein(a) kringle IV type 2 (KIV-2) repeat polymorphism in the LPA gene in > 40,000 individuals. The LPA KIV-2 genotype associated with plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) (trend p < 0.001), and the LPA KIV-2 genotype associated with risk of myocardial infarction (trend p < 0.001 to 0.03) in a manner consistent with its effect on plasma levels of lipoprotein(a). The association of LPA KIV-2 genotypes raising plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) with increased risk of myocardial infarction strongly supports a causal association of lipoprotein(a) with risk of myocardial infarction.

  10. Acute myocardial infarction: the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease and relation to risk factors.

    PubMed

    Manfroi, Waldomiro Carlos; Peukert, Carolina; Berti, Clarissa Bacha; Noer, Clarissa; Gutierres, Danielle de Avila; Silva, Felipe Theodoro Bezerra Gaspar Carvalho da

    2002-04-01

    To assess the association between cardiovascular risk factors and acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease, correlating them with coronary angiographic findings. We carried out a cross-sectional study of 104 patients with previous acute myocardial infarction, who were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of angina prior to acute myocardial infarction. We assessed the presence of angina preceding acute myocardial infarction and risk factors, such as age >55 years, male sex, smoking, systemic arterial hypertension, lipid profile, diabetes mellitus, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and familial history of ischemic heart disease. On coronary angiography, the severity of coronary heart disease and presence of left ventricular hypertrophy were assessed. Of the 104 patients studied, 72.1% were males, 90.4% were white, 73.1% were older than 55 years, and 53.8% were hypertensive. Acute myocardial infarction was the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease in 49% of the patients. The associated risk factors were systemic arterial hypertension (RR=0.19; 95% CI=0.06-0.59; P=0.04) and left ventricular hypertrophy (RR=0.27; 95% CI=0,.8-0.88; P=0.03). The remaining risk factors were not statistically significant. Prevalence of acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease is high, approximately 50%. Hypertensive individuals more frequently have symptoms preceding acute myocardial infarction, probably due to ventricular hypertrophy associated with high blood pressure levels.

  11. Risk prediction for myocardial infarction via generalized functional regression models.

    PubMed

    Ieva, Francesca; Paganoni, Anna M

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a generalized functional linear regression model for a binary outcome indicating the presence/absence of a cardiac disease with multivariate functional data among the relevant predictors. In particular, the motivating aim is the analysis of electrocardiographic traces of patients whose pre-hospital electrocardiogram (ECG) has been sent to 118 Dispatch Center of Milan (the Italian free-toll number for emergencies) by life support personnel of the basic rescue units. The statistical analysis starts with a preprocessing of ECGs treated as multivariate functional data. The signals are reconstructed from noisy observations. The biological variability is then removed by a nonlinear registration procedure based on landmarks. Thus, in order to perform a data-driven dimensional reduction, a multivariate functional principal component analysis is carried out on the variance-covariance matrix of the reconstructed and registered ECGs and their first derivatives. We use the scores of the Principal Components decomposition as covariates in a generalized linear model to predict the presence of the disease in a new patient. Hence, a new semi-automatic diagnostic procedure is proposed to estimate the risk of infarction (in the case of interest, the probability of being affected by Left Bundle Brunch Block). The performance of this classification method is evaluated and compared with other methods proposed in literature. Finally, the robustness of the procedure is checked via leave-j-out techniques.

  12. Risk factors for myocardial infarction associated with the Chicago snowstorm of jan 13- 15, 1979.

    PubMed

    Glass, R I; Wiesenthal, A M; Zack, M M; Preston, M

    1981-01-09

    Sixty male survivors of acute myocardial infarction in the week after the Chicago blizzard of Jan 15, 1979, were matched by hospital and sex with 60 myocardial infarction survivors from a week without snowfall to determine whether a history of previous heart disease or of cardiac risk factors increased the risk of a postblizzard myocardial infarction. Cases did not differ significantly from control subjects with respect to age, percentage working full time, or percentage with a history of heart disease, hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, obesity, or gout. Hypercholesterolemia was four times as common among cases as among controls.

  13. Influence of cardiovascular risk factors on infarct size and interaction with mechanical ischaemic postconditioning in ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Pichot, Sophie; Mewton, Nathan; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Roubille, Francois; Rioufol, Gilles; Giraud, Céline; Boussaha, Inesse; Lairez, Olivier; Elbaz, Meyer; Piot, Christophe; Angoulvant, Denis; Ovize, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that mechanical postconditioning (PostC) significantly reduces infarct size (IS) in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Our objective was to assess the influence of traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on IS and their interaction with ischaemic PostC in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The study population was constituted from the clinical database pooling of four previously published PostC prospective, multicentre, randomised, open-label controlled trials with identical inclusion criteria. Patients with STEMI, presenting within 12 h of symptoms onset referred for percutaneous coronary intervention, were included. Mechanical ischaemic PostC was performed by four repeated cycles of inflation-deflation of the angioplasty balloon within 1 min of reflow, while the control group underwent no intervention. IS was assessed by measuring total creatine kinase release over 72 h. 173 patients, aged 58±12 years, 76% males, 48% anterior infarct were included (82 in the PostC group, 91 in the control group). IS was significantly reduced in the PostC compared to the control group (71.7±41.6 vs 88.2±54.5×10(3) arbitrary units; p=0.027). After adjustment for abnormally contracting segments, older patients had smaller IS and smokers had larger IS. Gender, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity did not have any significant effect on IS. Multivariate regression analysis showed that none of the traditional risk factors had a significant impact on the cardioprotective effect of mechanical ischaemic PostC. The present analysis suggests that the cardioprotective effect of mechanical PostC is not influenced by traditional CV risk factors that are prevalent in patients with STEMI.

  14. Physicians' perceptions of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score in older adults with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Feder, Shelli L; Schulman-Green, Dena; Geda, Mary; Williams, Kathleen; Dodson, John A; Nanna, Michael G; Allore, Heather G; Murphy, Terrence E; Tinetti, Mary E; Gill, Thomas M; Chaudhry, Sarwat I

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate physician-perceived strengths and limitations of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores for use in older adults with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The TIMI risk scores are risk stratification models developed to estimate mortality risk for patients hospitalized for AMI. However, these models were developed and validated in cohorts underrepresenting older adults (≥75 years). Qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews and the constant comparative method for analysis. Twenty-two physicians completed interviews ranging 10-30 min (mean = 18 min). Median sample age was 37 years, with a median of 11.5 years of clinical experience. TIMI strengths included familiarity, ease of use, and validation. Limitations included a lack of risk factors relevant to older adults and model scope and influence. Physicians report that the TIMI models, while widely used in clinical practice, have limitations when applied to older adults. New risk models are needed to guide AMI treatment in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Physicians’ Perceptions of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Risk Score in Older Adults with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Feder, Shelli L.; Schulman-Green, Dena; Geda, Mary; Williams, Kathleen; Dodson, John A.; Nanna, Michael G.; Allore, Heather G.; Murphy, Terrence E.; Tinetti, Mary E.; Gill, Thomas M.; Chaudhry, Sarwat I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate physician-perceived strengths and limitations of the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores for use in older adults with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Background The TIMI risk scores are risk stratification models developed to estimate mortality risk for patients hospitalized for AMI. However, these models were developed and validated in cohorts underrepresenting older adults (≥75 years). Methods Qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews and the constant comparative method for analysis. Results Twenty-two physicians completed interviews ranging 10–30 minutes (mean = 18 minutes). Median sample age was 37 years, with a median of 11.5 years of clinical experience. TIMI strengths included familiarity, ease of use, and validation. Limitations included a lack of risk factors relevant to older adults and model scope and influence. Conclusions Physicians report that the TIMI models, while widely used in clinical practice, have limitations when applied to older adults. New risk models are needed to guide AMI treatment in this population. PMID:26164651

  16. Number of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors and Mortality in Patients With First Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Canto, John G.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Rogers, William J.; Peterson, Eric D.; Frederick, Paul D.; French, William J.; Gibson, C. Michael; Pollack, Charles V.; Ornato, Joseph P.; Zalenski, Robert J.; Penney, Jan; Tiefenbrunn, Alan J.; Greenland, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Context Few studies have examined the association between the number of coronary heart disease risk factors and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction in community practice. Objective To determine the association between the number of coronary heart disease risk factors in patients with first myocardial infarction and hospital mortality. Design Observational study from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction, 1994-2006. Patients We examined the presence and absence of 5 major traditional coronary heart disease risk factors (hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and family history of coronary heart disease) and hospital mortality among 542 008 patients with first myocardial infarction and without prior cardiovascular disease. Main Outcome Measure All-cause in-hospital mortality. Results A majority (85.6%) of patients who presented with initial myocardial infarction had at least 1 of the 5 coronary heart disease risk factors, and 14.4% had none of the 5 risk factors. Age varied inversely with the number of coronary heart disease risk factors, from a mean age of 71.5 years with 0 risk factors to 56.7 years with 5 risk factors (P for trend <.001). The total number of in-hospital deaths for all causes was 50 788. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality rates were 14.9%, 10.9%, 7.9%, 5.3%, 4.2%, and 3.6% for patients with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 risk factors, respectively. After adjusting for age and other clinical factors, there was an inverse association between the number of coronary heart disease risk factors and hospital mortality adjusted odds ratio (1.54; 95% CI, 1.23-1.94) among individuals with 0 vs 5 risk factors. This association was consistent among several age strata and important patient subgroups. Conclusion Among patients with incident acute myocardial infarction without prior cardiovascular disease, in-hospital mortality was inversely related to the number of coronary heart disease risk factors. PMID:22089719

  17. Biochemical markers of type 2 diabetes as a late complication of myocardial infarction: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Barbarash, Olga; Gruzdeva, Olga; Belik, Ekaterina; Dyleva, Yulia; Karetnikova, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Introduction On average, 19–23% of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is newly diagnosed in a significant number of patients. Both classic carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism may be promising diagnostic markers for insulin resistance in acute coronary syndrome. Material and methods Two hundred patients (130 males and 70 females aged 61.4 ±1.12 years) with ST-segment elevation MI were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups based on manifestations of diabetes: (1) 171 patients without diabetes within 1 year after MI; and (2) 29 patients with manifestations of diabetes. The control group comprised 33 people without diseases of the cardiovascular system and diabetes and was matched by age and gender with patients. Results In patients with an imbalanced adipokine state during the acute phase of MI, we noted an increased concentration of free fatty acids (p > 0.05) and reduced ghrelin levels (p > 0.05) and activation of the proinflammatory and thrombotic potentials of blood plasma. Patients who developed diabetes 1 year after MI showed hospital stays with more pronounced changes in the study parameters. Conclusions The most informative biochemical parameters associated with the development of diabetes at 1 year after MI were adiponectin, retinol protein, ghrelin, tumor necrosis factor α, and plasminogen activator inhibitor. PMID:28261283

  18. QT dispersion and early arrhythmic risk during acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Paventi, S; Bevilacqua, U; Parafati, M A; Di Luzio, E; Rossi, F; Pelliccioni, P R

    1999-03-01

    It has been suggested that QT dispersion (maximal minus minimal QT interval calculated on a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram) could reflect regional variations of ventricular repolarization and could provide a substrate for reentry ventricular arrhythmias. The present study evaluates QT dispersion in patients with acute myocardial infarction, assessing its relation with early severe ventricular arrhythmias and some clinical features. Three hundred three patients with acute myocardial infarction and a control group of 297 healthy subjects were studied. QT and QTc dispersion were determined on the electrocardiogram taken after 12 hours and on days 3 and 10 after symptoms onset and on the electrocardiogram taken in the control group. The average values of QT and QTc dispersions (ms) were as follows: 70.5 +/- 42.5-87 +/- 45.6 (12th hour), 66.7 +/- 37.6-76.8 +/- 43.6 (day 3), 68.8 +/- 42.7-76.8 +/- 42.8 (day 10), versus 43 +/- 13.2-53.9 +/- 16.2 (control group). There were statistically significant differences between QT and QTc dispersion recorded in normal subjects and in each of the three electrocardiograms taken in patients with infarction. A greater QT dispersion was recorded in patients with anterior infarction (78.9 +/- 38.5 vs 64.9 +/- 42.8 in inferior/lateral infarction). In the first 3 days QT dispersion was not different in patients treated and untreated with thrombolysis, whereas on day 10 it was greater in untreated patients (74.9 +/- 45.3 vs 60.5 +/- 37.2). Creatine kinase peak level did not influence QT dispersion. In the first 72 hours of infarction, 37 patients developed ventricular fibrillation or sustained ventricular tachycardia. Higher early values of QT and QTc dispersion were found in patients who developed severe ventricular arrhythmias (107.8 +/- 62 and 124.8 +/- 67.5 ms) than in patients without serious arrhythmias (62.9 +/- 32.2 and 80.1 +/- 37.9 ms). These data suggest that: (1) QT dispersion increased during acute myocardial infarction. (2

  19. Mannitol-facilitated perfusion staining with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) for detection of experimental cerebral infarction and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Yo; Yang, Dianer; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2012-01-15

    A simple method to quantify cerebral infarction has great value for mechanistic and therapeutic studies in experimental stroke research. Immersion staining of unfixed brain slices with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) is a popular method to determine cerebral infarction in preclinical studies. However, it is often difficult to apply immersion TTC-labeling to severely injured or soft newborn brains in rodents. Here we report an in vivo TTC perfusion-labeling method based on osmotic opening of blood-brain-barrier with mannitol-pretreatment. This new method delineates cortical infarction correlated with the boundary of morphological cell injury, differentiates the induction or subcellular redistribution of apoptosis-related factors between viable and damaged areas, and easily determines the size of cerebral infarction in both adult and newborn mice. Using this method, we confirmed that administration of lipopolysaccharide 72 h before hypoxia-ischemia increases the damage in neonatal mouse brains, in contrast to its effect of protective preconditioning in adults. These results demonstrate a fast and inexpensive method that simplifies the task of quantifying cerebral infarction in small or severely injured brains and assists biochemical analysis of experimental cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mannitol-facilitated perfusion staining with 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) for detection of experimental cerebral infarction and biochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Yo; Yang, Dianer; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2011-01-01

    A simple method to quantify cerebral infarction has great value for mechanistic and therapeutic studies in experimental stroke research. Immersion staining of unfixed brain slices with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) is a popular method to determine cerebral infarction in preclinical studies. However, it is often difficult to apply immersion TTC-labeling to severely injured or soft newborn brains in rodents. Here we report an in-vivo TTC perfusion-labeling method based on osmotic opening of blood-brain-barrier with mannitol-pretreatment. This new method delineates cortical infarction correlated with the boundary of morphological cell injury, differentiates the induction or subcellular redistribution of apoptosis-related factors between viable and damaged areas, and easily determines the size of cerebral infarction in both adult and newborn mice. Using this method, we confirmed that administration of lipopolysaccharide 72 h before hypoxia-ischemia increases the damage in neonatal mouse brains, in contrast to its effect of protective preconditioning in adults. These results demonstrate a fast and inexpensive method that simplifies the task of quantifying cerebral infarction in small or severely injured brains and assists biochemical analysis of experimental cerebral ischemia. PMID:21982741

  1. Vitamin C deficiency and risk of myocardial infarction: prospective population study of men from eastern Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Nyyssönen, K.; Parviainen, M. T.; Salonen, R.; Tuomilehto, J.; Salonen, J. T.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between plasma vitamin C concentrations and the risk of acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Prospective population study. SETTING: Eastern Finland. SUBJECTS: 1605 randomly selected men aged 42, 48, 54, or 60 who did not have either symptomatic coronary heart disease or ischaemia on exercise testing at entry to the Kuopio ischaemic heart disease risk factor study in between 1984 and 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of acute myocardial infarctions; fasting plasma vitamin C concentrations at baseline. RESULTS: 70 of the men had a fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction between March 1984 and December 1992.91 men had vitamin C deficiency (plasma ascorbate < 11.4 mumol/l, or 2.0 mg/l), of whom 12 (13.2%) had a myocardial infarction; 1514 men were not deficient in vitamin C, of whom 58 (3.8%) had a myocardial infarction. In a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age, year of examination, and season of the year examined (August to October v rest of the year) men who had vitamin C deficiency had a relative risk of acute myocardial infarction of 3.5 (95% confidence interval 1.8 to 6.7, P = 0.0002) compared with those who were not deficient. In another model adjusted additionally for the strongest risk factors for myocardial infarction and for dietary intakes of tea fibre, carotene, and saturated fats men with a plasma ascorbate concentration < 11.4 mumol/l had a relative risk of 2.5 (1.3 to 5.2, P = 0.0095) compared with men with higher plasma vitamin C concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin C deficiency, as assessed by low plasma ascorbate concentration, is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. PMID:9066474

  2. Independent association of severe vitamin D deficiency as a risk of acute myocardial infarction in Indians.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ambuj; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Tarik, Mohamad; Tandon, Nikhil; Reddy, K Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Association of vitamin D deficiency with coronary heart disease (CHD) has been widely reported. Emerging data has shown high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Indians. However, this association has not been studied in Indians. A case-control study with 120 consecutive cases of first incident acute myocardial infarction (MI) and 120 age and gender matched healthy controls was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The standard clinical and biochemical risk factors for MI were assessed for both cases and controls. Serum 25 (OH) vitamin D assay was performed from stored samples for cases and controls using radioimmunoassay. Vitamin D deficiency [25(OH) D < 30 ng/ml] was highly prevalent in cases and controls (98.3% and 95.8% respectively) with median levels lower in cases (6 ng/ml and 11.1 ng/ml respectively; p < 0.001). The cases were more likely to have diabetes, hypertension and consume tobacco and alcohol. They had higher waist hip ratio, total and LDL cholesterol. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed severe vitamin D deficiency [25(OH) vitamin D < 10 ng/ml] was associated with a risk of MI with an odds ratio of 4.5 (95% CI 2.2-9.2). This study reveals high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among cases of acute MI and controls from India, with levels of 25 (OH)D being significantly lower among cases. Despite rampant hypovitaminosis, severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with acute MI after adjusting for conventional risk factors. This association needs to be tested in larger studies in different regions of the country. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Is type D personality an independent risk factor for recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients?

    PubMed

    Condén, Emelie; Rosenblad, Andreas; Wagner, Philippe; Leppert, Jerzy; Ekselius, Lisa; Åslund, Cecilia

    2017-03-01

    Background Type D personality refers to a combination of simultaneously high levels of negative affectivity and social inhibition. The present study aimed to examine whether type D personality was independently associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients, using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality. Design This was a prospective cohort study. Methods Utilising data from the Västmanland Myocardial Infarction Study, 946 post-acute myocardial infarction patients having data on the DS14 instrument used to measure type D personality were followed-up for recurrent myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality until 9 December 2015. Data were analysed using Cox regression, adjusted for established risk factors. Results In total, 133 (14.1%) patients suffered from type D personality. During a mean follow-up time for recurrent myocardial infarction of 5.7 (3.2) years, 166 (17.5%) patients were affected by recurrent myocardial infarction, of which 26 (15.7%) had type D personality, while during a mean follow-up time for all-cause mortality of 6.3 (2.9) years, 321 (33.9%) patients died, of which 42 (13.1%) had type D personality. After adjusting for established risk factors, type D personality was not significantly associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality. A weak association was found between the social inhibition part of type D personality and a decreased risk of all-cause mortality, but this association was not significant after taking missing data into account in a multiple imputation analysis. Conclusions No support was found for type D personality being independently associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients, using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality.

  4. Prevalence and Prognosis of High-risk Myocardial Infarction Patient Candidates to Extended Antiplatelet Therapy.

    PubMed

    Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto; Grau, María; Sayols-Baixeras, Sergi; Dégano, Irene R

    2016-05-01

    Secondary prevention in myocardial infarction patients is paramount to prevent recurrences. Dual antiplatelet therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of subsequent events up to 1 year and beyond in the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 trial. This study aimed to estimate the annual number of myocardial infarction patients with PEGASUS characteristics in Spain and to analyze short- and long-term outcomes in these patients. The number of myocardial infarction patients was estimated assuming a Poisson distribution. Myocardial infarction incidence and mortality rates obtained from population registries (IBERICA and REGICOR) were properly adjusted. The proportion of myocardial infarction patients with PEGASUS characteristics was estimated with a REGICOR cohort of consecutive patients from 2003-2009 (n=1391). This cohort follow-up was used to compare the occurrence of reinfarction and death at 1 year and at the end of the follow-up (4.7 years) in patients with and without PEGASUS characteristics by Cox regression. The estimated annual number of stable myocardial infarction patients aged ≥ 50 years and without bleeding events was 41 311. Of these, 22 493 had at least 1 PEGASUS characteristic (diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, or chronic kidney disease). At 4.7 years of follow-up, having any PEGASUS characteristic or age ≥ 65 years was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular and all-cause death in adjusted analyses (hazard ratio=3.44 and 2.21, 95% confidence interval, 1.22-9.74 and 1.11-4.42, respectively). In Spain, more than 50% of the stable myocardial infarction patients aged ≥ 50 years are estimated to have at least 1 PEGASUS characteristic, which substantially increases the long-term risk of cardiovascular and all-cause death. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. C-Reactive protein predicts acute myocardial infarction during high-risk noncardiac and vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Martins, Oscar M; Fonseca, Vicente F; Borges, Ivan; Martins, Vaierio; Portal, Vera Lucia; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2011-01-01

    High-sensitivity C-reactive protein predicts cardiovascular events in a wide range of clinical contexts. However, the role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a predictive marker for perioperative acute myocardial infarction during noncardiac surgery is not yet clear. The present study investigated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels as predictors of acute myocardial infarction risk in patients undergoing high-risk noncardiac surgery. This concurrent cohort study included patients aged ≥ 50 years referred for high-risk noncardiac surgery according to American Heart Association/ACC 2002 criteria. Patients with infections were excluded. Electrocardiograms were performed, and biomarkers (Troponin I or T) and/or total creatine phosphokinase and the MB fraction (CPK-T/MB) were evaluated on the first and fourth days after surgery. Patients were followed until discharge. Baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were compared between patients with and without acute myocardial infarction. A total of 101 patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, including 33 vascular procedures (17 aortic and 16 peripheral artery revascularizations), were studied. Sixty of the patients were men, and their mean age was 66 years. Baseline levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were higher in the group with perioperative acute myocardial infarction than in the group with non-acute myocardial infarction patients (mean 48.02 vs. 4.50, p = 0.005). All five acute myocardial infarction cases occurred in vascular surgery patients with high CRP levels. Patients undergoing high-risk noncardiac surgery, especially vascular surgery, and presenting elevated baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels are at increased risk for perioperative acute myocardial infarction.

  6. The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study: a resource for the study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of myocardial infarction in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) is increasing at a greater rate in South Asia than in any other region globally, but there is little direct evidence about its determinants. The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study (PROMIS) is an epidemiological resource to enable reliable study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of CHD in South Asia. By March 2009, PROMIS had recruited over 5,000 cases of first-ever confirmed acute myocardial infarction (MI) and over 5,000 matched controls aged 30–80 years. For each participant, information has been recorded on demographic factors, lifestyle, medical and family history, anthropometry, and a 12-lead electrocardiogram. A range of biological samples has been collected and stored, including DNA, plasma, serum and whole blood. During its next stage, the study aims to expand recruitment to achieve a total of about 20,000 cases and about 20,000 controls, and, in subsets of participants, to enrich the resource by collection of monocytes, establishment of lymphoblastoid cell lines, and by resurveying participants. Measurements in progress include profiling of candidate biochemical factors, assay of 45,000 variants in 2,100 candidate genes, and a genomewide association scan of over 650,000 genetic markers. We have established a large epidemiological resource for CHD in South Asia. In parallel with its further expansion and enrichment, the PROMIS resource will be systematically harvested to help identify and evaluate genetic and other determinants of MI in South Asia. Findings from this study should advance scientific understanding and inform regionally appropriate disease prevention and control strategies. PMID:19404752

  7. The effect of multiple analysers on the biochemical diagnosis of myocardial infarction using a contemporary troponin-I assay.

    PubMed

    Pethick, James; Patel, Prashanth; Davies, Timothy; Thompson, John; Nallagonda, Madhavi; Beech, Alison; Collinson, Paul; Lee, Virginia; Gupta, Pankaj

    2016-11-01

    Background The measurement of cardiac troponin is central for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI). It is recommended that a coefficient of variation of ≤10% is achieved at the diagnostic threshold and significant change between serial measurements reported. Many modern laboratories use multiple analysers linked by automation where samples are randomly assigned to an analyser. It is therefore important to consider the combined effect of all analysers on the analytical performance of troponin measurement. Method The performance of a contemporary troponin-I (cTn-I) assay run on three analysers, linked by an automated track, was undertaken across a range of cTn-I concentrations. The data for the three analysers were aggregated to obtain the combined analytical coefficient of variation (CVA) and reference change values (RCVs). Results The CVA improved with increasing concentration and calculated RCVs ranged from 67.2% (±13 ng/L) to 32% (±160 ng/L) between cTn-I values 20 ng/L and 500 ng/L. Although there were significant differences in cTn-I measurement between analysers around the diagnostic threshold ( P < 0.05), the CVA was 13.6%. Conclusions We demonstrate that there are significant differences between the performances of analysers which can impact the biochemical criteria for the diagnosis of MI. We also show that the RCV varies according to baseline cTn-I values and that reporting a single RCV across the analytical range of cTn-I may not be appropriate.

  8. Sickle cell anemia: intracranial stenosis and silent cerebral infarcts in children with low risk of stroke.

    PubMed

    Arkuszewski, Michal; Krejza, Jaroslaw; Chen, Rong; Ichord, Rebecca; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Bilello, Michel; Zimmerman, Robert; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Melhem, Elias R

    2014-03-01

    Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA), who have mean blood flow velocities <170 cm/s in the terminal internal carotid (tICA) or middle cerebral (MCA) arteries on transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD), are considered to be at low risk of stroke. The prevalence of intracranial stenosis, which raises the risk of stroke, is not known in these children. Here, we estimated the prevalence of stenosis and explored its association with silent cerebral infarcts determined based on Magnetic Resonance (MR) scans. We studied prospectively a cohort of 67 children with SCA without prior clinically overt stroke or TIA (median age 8.8 years; range limits 2.3-13.1 years; 33 females) and with TCD mean velocity <170 cm/s. They underwent MR imaging of the brain and MR angiography of intracranial arteries. In 7 children (10.5%, 95% CI: 4.9-20.3%) we found 10 stenoses, including 4 with isolated left tICA stenosis and 3 with multiple stenoses. We found silent infarcts in 26 children (37.7%, 95% CI: 27.2-49.5%). The median number of infarcts in an affected child was 2 (range limits: 1-9), median volume of infarcts was 171 mm(3) (range limits: 7-1060 mm(3)), and median infarct volume in relation to total brain volume was 0.020% (range limits: 0.001-0.101%). The number and volume of infarcts were significantly higher in children with arterial stenosis (both p=0.023). The prevalence of intracranial arterial stenosis in children with SCA classified as at low risk of stroke by TCD mean velocity <170 cm/s is high. Children with stenosis are at higher risk of brain parenchymal injury as they have more silent cerebral infarcts. Copyright © 2014 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  9. [Identification of patients at risk of malignant arrhythmia in the 1st year after myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Araya-Gómez, V; González-Hermosillo, J A; Casanova Garcés, J M; Colín, L; Kershenovich, S; Iturralde, P

    1994-01-01

    Two hundred twenty two consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction were followed for one year. We evaluated the usefulness of late potentials, the spectral analysis, heart rate variability, infarct-related coronary artery, ejection fraction, arrhythmias during Holter monitoring and other clinical variables as risk markers for developing of ventricular arrhythmias and/or sudden death. Twenty four patients (10.8%) had late arrhythmic events: sudden death in 7, sustained ventricular tachycardia in 15 and unexplained syncope in 2. Late potentials had high sensitivity (94%) and negative predictive value (99%), followed by an occluded related-infarct coronary artery (75% sensitivity and 96% negative predictive value). Complex ventricular arrhythmias during Holter monitoring was the test with the highest specificity (92%). A combination of late potentials plus an occluded infarct-related coronary artery or late potentials plus ejection fraction showed 100% sensitivity with 100% negative predictive value. Of the 16 studied variables, 5 had independent and significative value as a predictor of arrhythmic events, these are, according to the relative risk: late potentials (20.2), ejection fraction less than 40% (12.1), complex arrhythmias during Holter monitoring (7.5), the presence of an occluded infarct-related coronary artery (6.4) and anterior myocardial infarction localization (4.5). We consider, that with a combination of simple methods of assessment, we can select a subgroup of survivors of an acute myocardial infarction at high risk of developing ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death, which also identifies patients with low risk for these complications.

  10. Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease and Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, Thomas M.; Stanislawski, Maggie A.; Grunwald, Gary K.; Bradley, Steven M.; Ho, P. Michael; Tsai, Thomas T.; Patel, Manesh R.; Sandhu, Amneet; Valle, Javier; Magid, David J.; Leon, Benjamin; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Fihn, Stephan D.; Rumsfeld, John S.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Little is known about cardiac adverse events among patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). OBJECTIVE To compare myocardial infarction (MI) and mortality rates between patients with nonobstructive CAD, obstructive CAD, and no apparent CAD in a national cohort. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study of all US veterans undergoing elective coronary angiography for CAD between October 2007 and September 2012 in the Veterans Affairs health care system. Patients with prior CAD events were excluded. EXPOSURES Angiographic CAD extent, defined by degree (no apparent CAD: no stenosis >20%; nonobstructive CAD: ≥1 stenosis ≥20% but no stenosis ≥70%; obstructive CAD: any stenosis ≥70% or left main [LM] stenosis ≥50%) and distribution (1,2, or 3 vessel). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was 1-year hospitalization for nonfatal MI after the index angiography. Secondary outcomes included 1-year all-cause mortality and combined 1-year MI and mortality. RESULTS Among37 674 patients, 8384 patients (22.3%) had nonobstructive CAD and 20 899 patients (55.4%) had obstructive CAD. Within 1 year, 845 patients died and 385 were rehospitalized for MI. Among patients with no apparent CAD, the 1-year MI rate was 0.11% (n = 8, 95% CI, 0.10%–0.20%) and increased progressively by 1-vessel nonobstructive CAD, 0.24% (n = 10, 95% CI, 0.10%–0.40%); 2-vessel nonobstructive CAD, 0.56% (n = 13, 95% CI, 0.30%–1.00%); 3-vessel nonobstructive CAD, 0.59% (n = 6, 95% CI, 0.30%–1.30%); 1-vessel obstructive CAD, 1.18% (n = 101, 95% CI, 1.00%–1.40%); 2-vessel obstructive CAD, 2.18% (n = 110, 95% CI, 1.80%–2.60%); and 3-vessel or LM obstructive CAD, 2.47% (n = 137, 95% CI, 2.10%–2.90%). After adjustment, 1-year MI rates increased with increasing CAD extent. Relative to patients with no apparent CAD, patients with 1-vessel nonobstructive CAD had a hazard ratio (HR) for 1-year MI of 2.0 (95% CI, 0.8–5.1); 2-vessel

  11. Rapid Identification of Myocardial Infarction Risk Associated With Diabetes Medications Using Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Brownstein, John S.; Murphy, Shawn N.; Goldfine, Allison B.; Grant, Richard W.; Sordo, Margarita; Gainer, Vivian; Colecchi, Judith A.; Dubey, Anil; Nathan, David M.; Glaser, John P.; Kohane, Isaac S.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the ability to identify potential association(s) of diabetes medications with myocardial infarction using usual care clinical data obtained from the electronic medical record. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We defined a retrospective cohort of patients (n = 34,253) treated with a sulfonylurea, metformin, rosiglitazone, or pioglitazone in a single academic health care network. All patients were aged >18 years with at least one prescription for one of the medications between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2006. The study outcome was acute myocardial infarction requiring hospitalization. We used a cumulative temporal approach to ascertain the calendar date for earliest identifiable risk associated with rosiglitazone compared with that for other therapies. RESULTS Sulfonylurea, metformin, rosiglitazone, or pioglitazone therapy was prescribed for 11,200, 12,490, 1,879, and 806 patients, respectively. A total of 1,343 myocardial infarctions were identified. After adjustment for potential myocardial infarction risk factors, the relative risk for myocardial infarction with rosiglitazone was 1.3 (95% CI 1.1–1.6) compared with sulfonylurea, 2.2 (1.6–3.1) compared with metformin, and 2.2 (1.5–3.4) compared with pioglitazone. Prospective surveillance using these data would have identified increased risk for myocardial infarction with rosiglitazone compared with metformin within 18 months of its introduction with a risk ratio of 2.1 (95% CI 1.2–3.8). CONCLUSIONS Our results are consistent with a relative adverse cardiovascular risk profile for rosiglitazone. Our use of usual care electronic data sources from a large hospital network represents an innovative approach to rapid safety signal detection that may enable more effective postmarketing drug surveillance. PMID:20009093

  12. Tar yield of cigarettes and risk of acute myocardial infarction. GISSI-EFRIM Investigators.

    PubMed Central

    Negri, E; Franzosi, M G; La Vecchia, C; Santoro, L; Nobili, A; Tognoni, G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To analyse the relation between tar and nicotine yield of cigarettes smoked in the recent past and the risk of myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Multicentre case-control study conducted between September 1988 and June 1989. SETTING--Over 80 coronary care units in various Italian regions. SUBJECTS--916 patients with acute myocardial infarction without history of ischaemic heart disease and 1106 controls admitted to hospital for acute conditions not related to known or suspected risk factors for ischaemic heart disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Relative risk of myocardial infarction according to type of cigarette smoked adjusted for identified potential confounding factors. Brands of cigarettes classified according to yield of tar and nicotine. RESULTS--Patients with acute myocardial infarction were more often smokers and among smokers they tended to smoke more cigarettes. Compared with non-smokers their estimated relative risks were 3.8, 4.3, 3.2, and 3.7 in the four categories of tar yield (< 10, 10-15, > 15-20, and > 20 mg, respectively). No trend in risk across yields was evident when analysis was restricted to smokers and allowance was made for number of cigarettes. Compared with risks in subjects in the lowest category of tar yield the relative risks were 1.2, 0.8, and 1.0 for the subsequent yields. Compared with risks in non-smokers the relative risks ranged from 9.3 to 12.6 below the age of 50 but no trend was observed with increasing yield. CONCLUSIONS--Changing to cigarettes with a lower tar yield is not an effective means of reducing tobacco related morbidity from myocardial infarction. PMID:8329914

  13. Association between family risk of stroke and myocardial infarction with prevalent risk factors and coexisting diseases.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Richard E; Howard, George; Go, Rodney C; Rothwell, Peter M; Tiwari, Hemant K; Feng, Rui; McClure, Leslie A; Prineas, Ronald J; Banerjee, Amitava; Arnett, Donna K

    2012-04-01

    Familial transmission of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) is partially mediated by transmission of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular risk factors. We examined relationships between family risk of stroke and MI with risk factors for these phenotypes. A cross-sectional association between the stratified log-rank family score for stroke and MI with prevalent risk factors was assessed in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Individuals in the fourth quartile of stratified log-rank family scores for stroke were more likely to have prevalent risk factors including hypertension (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.30-1.58), left ventricular hypertrophy (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.16-1.42), diabetes (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.12-1.43), and atrial fibrillation (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.45) compared with individuals in the first quartile. Likewise, individuals in the fourth quartile of stratified log-rank family scores for MI were more likely to have prevalent risk factors including hypertension (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.27-1.94) and diabetes (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12-1.43) than the first quartile. In contrast to stroke, the family risk score for MI was associated with dyslipidemia (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.23-1.55) and overweight/obesity (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.10-1.37). Family risk of stroke and MI is strongly associated with the majority of risk factors associated with each disease. Family history and genetic studies separating nonspecific contributions of intermediate phenotypes from specific contributions to the disease phenotype may lead to a more thorough understanding of transmission for these complex disorders.

  14. Cardioprotective Effects of Lagenaria siceraria Fruit Juice on Isoproterenol-induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats: A Biochemical and Histoarchitecture Study.

    PubMed

    Upaganlawar, A; Balaraman, R

    2011-10-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Lagenaria siceraria fruit juice in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Rats injected with isoproterenol (200 mg/kg, s.c.) showed a significant increase in the levels of serum uric acid, tissue Na(++) and Ca(++) ions and membrane-bound Ca(+2)-ATPase activity. A significant decrease in the levels of serum protein, tissue K(+) ion, vitamin E level, and the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and mg(+2)-ATPase was observed. Isoproterenol injected rats also showed a significant increase in the intensity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme and histopathologic alterations in the heart. Treatment with L. siceraria fruit juice (400 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 30 days and administration of isoproterenol on 29(th) and 30(th) days showed a protective effect on altered biochemical and histopathologic changes. These findings indicate the cardioprotective effect of L. siceraria fruit juice in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.

  15. [The reduction of stroke risk, risk of myocardial infarction and death by healthy diet and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Droste, D W; Keipes, M

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that a healthy diet and regular physical activity improve risk factors for cerebro-cardio-vascular disease and death. However, there is less evidence from prospective randomised controlled trials that they also reduce the actual risk of stroke, myocardial infarction and death. The only evidence from randomised controlled trials is, that a mediterranean diet with nuts and/or native olive oil considerably reduces stroke risk by 47% respectively 31%, however not the risk of myocardial infarction and death. A low-fat diet, a low-salt diet, and the addition of omega-3 fatty acids have no influence. In case of severe obesity with a BMI of > 34-38 kg/m2, weight reduction is the priority, if necessary by means of bariatric surgery. In longitudinal studies mortality (-29%), stroke (-34%), and myocardial infarction (-29%) could thus be reduced. Regular physical activity, whether endurance or more intense activity, leads to weight loss and improved vascular risk factors. An independent impact on stroke, myocardial infarction and mortality has not yet been demonstrated in prospective studies (double-blinding being impossible). Nevertheless, several epidemiological meta-analyses with observation durations of 4 to 28 years using data of up to 880 000 persons, indicate that there is a 2-3 fold risk reduction of cerebro-cardio-vascular death and global mortality in people with regular physical activity versus sedentary behaviour.

  16. Plasma fatty acids, oxylipins, and risk of myocardial infarction: the Singapore Chinese health study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: We aimed to examine the prospective association between plasma fatty acids (FAs), oxylipins and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a Singapore Chinese population. Methods: A nested case-control study with 744 incident AMI cases and 744 matched controls aged 47-83 years was condu...

  17. Peripheral inflammatory biomarkers for myocardial infarction risk: a prospective community-based study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: Most previous studies regarding chronic inflammation and risk of myocardial infarction (MI) have lacked repeated measures of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and/or white blood cell (WBC) count over time. We examined whether cumulative average and longitudinal changes in thes...

  18. Association between oral health and the risk of lacunar infarction in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Akira; Miki, Manabu; Muto, Akinori; Kubokawa, Keita; Migita, Keisuke; Higashi, Yukihito; Yoshinari, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Poor oral health is associated with an increased risk of dementia in the elderly. One possible pathway linking these two phenomena is lacunar infarction, a potential cause of dementia. An association between poor oral health and an increased risk of ischaemic stroke has been recognised through the oral infection-inflammation pathway. However, little is known about whether poor oral health is associated with the progression of lacunar infarction. We examined the association between variables related to oral health and lacunar infarction, as detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of 110 subjects (52 men, 58 women), aged 27-76 years, who visited our periodontology clinic participated in this study. The subjects underwent dental radiography, periodontal examinations and brain MRI. One experienced specialist in cardiovascular disease and one experienced neurosurgeon determined the number of lacunar infarctions on brain MRI. Periodontologists performed clinical periodontal examinations. Variables related to oral health were determined from the radiographs by an oral radiologist. Information on the subjects' lifestyles and disease histories were obtained using a structured questionnaire and confirmed by clinical records. Adjacent categories logit regression analysis with backward elimination was used to determine variables associated with three groups based on the number of lacunar infarctions. Of the 110 subjects, 61 had lacunar infarctions. Nineteen had multiple (≥7) lesions. Aging (p = 0.0004), increased time spent in physical activity per day (p = 0.042), the presence of hypertension (p = 0.006), the absence of hyperlipidaemia (p = 0.045), the presence of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.025) and low alveolar bone height (p = 0.026) were significantly associated with an increased number of lacunar infarctions in the final regression model. The significance of hyperlipidaemia and alveolar bone height disappeared in an unadjusted model. An increased pocket

  19. Acute myocardial infarction: estimation of at-risk and salvaged myocardium at myocardial perfusion SPECT 1 month after infarction.

    PubMed

    Romero-Farina, Guillermo; Aguadé-Bruix, Santiago; Candell-Riera, Jaume; Pizzi, M Nazarena; Pineda, Victor; Figueras, Jaume; Cuberas, Gemma; de León, Gustavo; Castell-Conesa, Joan; García-Dorado, David

    2013-11-01

    To estimate at-risk and salvaged myocardium by using gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The study was approved by the hospital's Ethical Committee on Clinical Trials (trial register number, PR(HG)36/2000), and all patients gave informed consent. Forty patients (mean age, 61.78 years; eight women) with a first AMI underwent two gated SPECT examinations--one before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and one 4-5 weeks after PCI. Myocardium at risk was estimated by assessing the perfusion defect at the first gated SPECT examination, and salvaged myocardium was estimated by assessing the risk area minus necrosis at the second examination. Myocardium at risk was estimated by determining the discordance between the areas of left ventricular (LV) wall motion and perfusion at the second examination. Concordance between tests was analyzed by means of linear regression analysis, the Pearson correlation, the intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis. An improvement in perfusion, wall motion, wall thickening, and LV ejection fraction (P < .001) was observed at 1 month. At 1 month, the area with abnormal wall motion was greater than the area of altered perfusion (35.47 vs 23.1 cm(2); P = .007). The extent of myocardium at risk estimated from this discordance correlated well with myocardium at risk measured at the first gated SPECT examination and with salvaged myocardium between both studies (Pearson correlation: 0.78 and 0.6, respectively). Concordance for correct classification of patients with salvaged myocardium of 50% or greater was 83% (κ = 0.65). Myocardial perfusion gated SPECT performed 1 month after early PCI in a first AMI provides potentially useful information on at-risk and salvaged myocardium. http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13122324/-/DC1. RSNA, 2013

  20. Relation between cardiovascular disease risk markers and brain infarcts detected by magnetic resonance imaging in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Nylander, Ruta; Lind, Lars; Wikström, Johan; Lindahl, Bertil; Venge, Per; Larsson, Anders; Ärnlöv, Johan; Berglund, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Johansson, Lars; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2015-02-01

    Established cardiovascular risk markers, such as hypertension, are associated with increased risk of brain infarcts. The newer markers N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, troponin I, C-reactive protein, and cystatin C may affect the risk of cardiovascular events and potentially, thereby, also stroke. We investigated the association between established and new risk markers for cardiovascular disease and brain infarcts detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at age 75. Four hundred six randomly selected subjects from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors study were examined with MRI of the brain at age 75. Blood samples, measurements, and dedicated questionnaires at age 70 were used for analysis of risk markers. A history of diseases had been obtained at age 70 and 75. MRI was evaluated regarding lacunar and cortical infarcts. Univariate associations between outcomes and risk markers were assessed with logistic regression models. One or more infarcts were seen in 23% of the subjects (20% had only lacunar infarcts, 1% had only cortical infarcts, and 2% had both). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4, 4.7) and obesity (OR 1.3; CI 1.0, 1.8) were significantly associated with increased risk of brain infarction. The newer risk markers were not significantly associated with the brain infarcts. The new markers were not associated with the predominantly lacunar infarcts in our 75-year-old population, why troponin I and NT-proBNP may be associated mainly with cardioembolic infarcts as shown recently. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of a Genetic Risk Score on Myocardial Infarction Risk Across Different Ethnic Populations.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Philip G; Pare, Guillaume; Asma, Senay; Engert, James C; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S

    2016-12-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) risk varies by ethnicity, although the influence of genetic factors remains unclear. Using a genetic risk score (GRS), we examined the association between 25 coronary artery disease (CAD)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms and MI across 6 ethnic groups. We studied 8556 participants in the INTERHEART case-control study from 6 ethnic groups: Europeans, South Asians, Southeast Asians, Arabs, Latin Americans, and Africans. Associations between the GRS and MI were tested in each group by logistic regression and overall by meta-analysis. Overall, the GRS increased the odds of MI by 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.09) per risk allele in the unadjusted model, with little change (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.09) after adjusting for demographic and modifiable factors. In Europeans, South Asians, Southeast Asians, and Arabs, the GRS was significantly associated with MI, with minimal heterogeneity observed. In these groups, a score > 23 risk alleles (highest 4 quintiles) was associated with only a 5% difference in population attributable risk (PAR) (36% to 41%) for MI. The GRS was not significant in Latin Americans or Africans. In the overall cohort, modest changes, beyond clinical factors, in PAR (88% to 91%), concordance statistic (0.73 to 0.74), and continuous net reclassification improvement (12%) were observed with the GRS. A CAD GRS is associated with MI across a multiethnic cohort, with significant and consistent effects across 4 distinct ethnicities. However, it only modestly improves MI risk prediction beyond clinical factors. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A common variant on chromosome 9p21 affects the risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Helgadottir, Anna; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Manolescu, Andrei; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Blondal, Thorarinn; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Baker, Adam; Palsson, Arnar; Masson, Gisli; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Magnusson, Kristinn P; Andersen, Karl; Levey, Allan I; Backman, Valgerdur M; Matthiasdottir, Sigurborg; Jonsdottir, Thorbjorg; Palsson, Stefan; Einarsdottir, Helga; Gunnarsdottir, Steinunn; Gylfason, Arnaldur; Vaccarino, Viola; Hooper, W Craig; Reilly, Muredach P; Granger, Christopher B; Austin, Harland; Rader, Daniel J; Shah, Svati H; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Gulcher, Jeffrey R; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Kong, Augustine; Stefansson, Kari

    2007-06-08

    The global endemic of cardiovascular diseases calls for improved risk assessment and treatment. Here, we describe an association between myocardial infarction (MI) and a common sequence variant on chromosome 9p21. This study included a total of 4587 cases and 12,767 controls. The identified variant, adjacent to the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and CDKN2B, was associated with the disease with high significance. Approximately 21% of individuals in the population are homozygous for this variant, and their estimated risk of suffering myocardial infarction is 1.64 times as great as that of noncarriers. The corresponding risk is 2.02 times as great for early-onset cases. The population attributable risk is 21% for MI in general and 31% for early-onset cases.

  3. MTHFR homozygous mutation and additional risk factors for cerebral infarction in a large Italian family.

    PubMed

    Del Balzo, Francesca; Spalice, Alberto; Perla, Massimo; Properzi, Enrico; Iannetti, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Several cases with cerebral infarctions associated with the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been reported. Given the large number of asymptomatic individuals with the MTHFR mutation, additional risk factors for cerebral infarction should be considered. This study describes a large family with the MTHFR mutation and a combination of heterozygous factor V Leiden mutations and different additional exogenous and endogenous thrombogenic risk factors. Psychomotor retardation and a left fronto-insular infarct associated with the MTHFR mutation together with diminished factor VII and low level of protein C was documented in the first patient. In the second patient, generalized epilepsy and a malacic area in the right nucleus lenticularis was associated with the MTHFR mutation and a low level of protein C. In the third patient, right hemiparesis and a left fronto-temporal porencephalic cyst were documented, together with the MTHFR mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia. An extensive search of additional circumstantial and genetic thrombogenic risk factors should be useful for prophylaxis and prognosis of infants with cerebral infarctions associated with the MTHFR mutation and of their related family members.

  4. Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction: a mendelian randomisation study

    PubMed Central

    Voight, Benjamin F; Peloso, Gina M; Orho-Melander, Marju; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Barbalic, Maja; Jensen, Majken K; Hindy, George; Hólm, Hilma; Ding, Eric L; Johnson, Toby; Schunkert, Heribert; Samani, Nilesh J; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C; Thompson, John F; Li, Mingyao; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Musunuru, Kiran; Pirruccello, James P; Saleheen, Danish; Chen, Li; Stewart, Alexandre FR; Schillert, Arne; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Anand, Sonia; Engert, James C; Morgan, Thomas; Spertus, John; Stoll, Monika; Berger, Klaus; Martinelli, Nicola; Girelli, Domenico; McKeown, Pascal P; Patterson, Christopher C; Epstein, Stephen E; Devaney, Joseph; Burnett, Mary-Susan; Mooser, Vincent; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Nieminen, Markku S; Sinisalo, Juha; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Perola, Markus; Havulinna, Aki; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Ingelsson, Erik; Zeller, Tanja; Wild, Philipp; de Bakker, Paul I W; Klungel, Olaf H; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse; Peters, Bas J M; de Boer, Anthonius; Grobbee, Diederick E; Kamphuisen, Pieter W; Deneer, Vera H M; Elbers, Clara C; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hofker, Marten H; Wijmenga, Cisca; Verschuren, WM Monique; Boer, Jolanda MA; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Rasheed, Asif; Frossard, Philippe; Demissie, Serkalem; Willer, Cristen; Do, Ron; Ordovas, Jose M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L; Daly, Mark J; Guiducci, Candace; Burtt, Noël P; Surti, Aarti; Gonzalez, Elena; Purcell, Shaun; Gabriel, Stacey; Marrugat, Jaume; Peden, John; Erdmann, Jeanette; Diemert, Patrick; Willenborg, Christina; König, Inke R; Fischer, Marcus; Hengstenberg, Christian; Ziegler, Andreas; Buysschaert, Ian; Lambrechts, Diether; Van de Werf, Frans; Fox, Keith A; El Mokhtari, Nour Eddine; Rubin, Diana; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen; Schreiber, Stefan; Schäfer, Arne; Danesh, John; Blankenberg, Stefan; Roberts, Robert; McPherson, Ruth; Watkins, Hugh; Hall, Alistair S; Overvad, Kim; Rimm, Eric; Boerwinkle, Eric; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Cupples, L Adrienne; Reilly, Muredach P; Melander, Olle; Mannucci, Pier M; Ardissino, Diego; Siscovick, David; Elosua, Roberto; Stefansson, Kari; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Salomaa, Veikko; Rader, Daniel J; Peltonen, Leena; Schwartz, Stephen M; Altshuler, David; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background High plasma HDL cholesterol is associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction, but whether this association is causal is unclear. Exploiting the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at meiosis, are independent of non-genetic confounding, and are unmodified by disease processes, mendelian randomisation can be used to test the hypothesis that the association of a plasma biomarker with disease is causal. Methods We performed two mendelian randomisation analyses. First, we used as an instrument a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the endothelial lipase gene (LIPG Asn396Ser) and tested this SNP in 20 studies (20 913 myocardial infarction cases, 95 407 controls). Second, we used as an instrument a genetic score consisting of 14 common SNPs that exclusively associate with HDL cholesterol and tested this score in up to 12 482 cases of myocardial infarction and 41 331 controls. As a positive control, we also tested a genetic score of 13 common SNPs exclusively associated with LDL cholesterol. Findings Carriers of the LIPG 396Ser allele (2·6% frequency) had higher HDL cholesterol (0·14 mmol/L higher, p=8×10−13) but similar levels of other lipid and non-lipid risk factors for myocardial infarction compared with non-carriers. This difference in HDL cholesterol is expected to decrease risk of myocardial infarction by 13% (odds ratio [OR] 0·87, 95% CI 0·84–0·91). However, we noted that the 396Ser allele was not associated with risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0·99, 95% CI 0·88–1·11, p=0·85). From observational epidemiology, an increase of 1 SD in HDL cholesterol was associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0·62, 95% CI 0·58–0·66). However, a 1 SD increase in HDL cholesterol due to genetic score was not associated with risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0·93, 95% CI 0·68–1·26, p=0·63). For LDL cholesterol, the estimate from observational epidemiology (a 1 SD increase in LDL cholesterol

  5. The relationship between neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, platelet to lymphocyte ratio and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score in patients with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction before primary coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ertaş, Faruk; Bilik, Mehmet Zihni; Akıl, Mehmet Ata; Özyurtlu, Ferhat; Aydın, Mesut; Oylumlu, Mustafa; Polat, Nihat; Yüksel, Murat; Yıldız, Abdulkadir; Kaya, Hasan; Akyüz, Abdurrahman; Ayçiçek, Hilal; Özbek, Mehmet; Toprak, Nizamettin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score is calculated as the sum of independent predictors of mortality and ischemic events in ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). Several studies show that the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a prognostic inflammatory marker. In preliminary studies, platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) has been proposed as a pro-thrombotic marker. The relationship between NLR, PLR and TIMI risk score for STEMI has never been studied. Aim To evaluate the association between TIMI-STEMI risk score and NLR, PLR and other biochemical indices in STEMI. Material and methods In this retrospective study, we evaluated 390 patients who presented with STEMI within 12 h of symptom onset. Patients were grouped according to low and high TIMI risk scores. Results We enrolled 390 patients (mean age 61.9 ±13.6 years; 73% were men). The NLR, platelet distribution width (PDW) and uric acid level (UA) were significantly associated with a high TIMI-STEMI risk score (p = 0.016, p = 0.008, p = 0.030, respectively), but PLR was not associated with a high TIMI-STEMI risk score. Left ventricular ejection fraction was an independent predictor of TIMI-STEMI risk score. A cut-off point of TIMI-STEMI score of > 4 predicted in-hospital mortality (sensitivity 75%, specificity 70%, p < 0.001). We found that NLR, PDW, and UA level were associated with TIMI-STEMI risk score. Conclusions Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, PDW and UA level are convenient, inexpensive and reproducible biomarkers for STEMI prognosis before primary angioplasty when these indicators are combined with the TIMI-STEMI risk score. We believe that these significant findings can guide further clinical practice. PMID:26161105

  6. Imminent Cardiac Risk Assessment via Optical Intravascular Biochemical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, D.; Wetzel, L; Wetzel, M; Lodder, R

    2009-01-01

    Heart disease is by far the biggest killer in the United States, and type II diabetes, which affects 8% of the U.S. population, is on the rise. In many cases, the acute coronary syndrome and/or sudden cardiac death occurs without warning. Atherosclerosis has known behavioral, genetic and dietary risk factors. However, our laboratory studies with animal models and human post-mortem tissue using FT-IR microspectroscopy reveal the chemical microstructure within arteries and in the arterial walls themselves. These include spectra obtained from the aortas of ApoE-/- knockout mice on sucrose and normal diets showing lipid deposition in the former case. Also pre-aneurysm chemical images of knockout mouse aorta walls, and spectra of plaque excised from a living human patient are shown for comparison. In keeping with the theme of the SPEC 2008 conference Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Disease this paper describes the background and potential value of a new catheter-based system to provide in vivo biochemical analysis of plaque in human coronary arteries. We report the following: (1) results of FT-IR microspectroscopy on animal models of vascular disease to illustrate the localized chemical distinctions between pathological and normal tissue, (2) current diagnostic techniques used for risk assessment of patients with potential unstable coronary syndromes, and (3) the advantages and limitations of each of these techniques illustrated with patent care histories, related in the first person, by the physician coauthors. Note that the physician comments clarify the contribution of each diagnostic technique to imminent cardiac risk assessment in a clinical setting, leading to the appreciation of what localized intravascular chemical analysis can contribute as an add-on diagnostic tool. The quality of medical imaging has improved dramatically since the turn of the century. Among clinical non-invasive diagnostic tools, laboratory tests of body fluids, EKG, and physical examination are

  7. Antipsychotic drugs and risks of myocardial infarction: a self-controlled case series study.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Ruth; Smeeth, Liam; Anaya-Izquierdo, Karim; Timmis, Adam; Denaxas, Spiros C; Farrington, C Paddy; Whitaker, Heather; Hemingway, Harry; Douglas, Ian

    2015-04-21

    Antipsychotics increase the risk of stroke. Their effect on myocardial infarction remains uncertain because people prescribed and not prescribed antipsychotic drugs differ in their underlying vascular risk making between-person comparisons difficult to interpret. The aim of our study was to investigate this association using the self-controlled case series design that eliminates between-person confounding effects. All the patients with a first recorded myocardial infarction and prescription for an antipsychotic identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project were selected for the self-controlled case series. The incidence ratio of myocardial infarction during risk periods following the initiation of antipsychotic use relative to unexposed periods was estimated within individuals. A classical case-control study was undertaken for comparative purposes comparing antipsychotic exposure among cases and matched controls. We identified 1546 exposed cases for the self-controlled case series and found evidence of an association during the first 30 days after the first prescription of an antipsychotic, for first-generation agents [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-3.99] and second-generation agents (IRR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.18-5.32). Similar results were found for the case-control study for new users of first- (OR: 3.19, 95% CI: 1.9-5.37) and second-generation agents (OR: 2.55, 95% CI: 0.93-7.01) within 30 days of their myocardial infarction. We found an increased risk of myocardial infarction in the period following the initiation of antipsychotics that was not attributable to differences between people prescribed and not prescribed antipsychotics. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  8. Antipsychotic drugs and risks of myocardial infarction: a self-controlled case series study

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, Ruth; Smeeth, Liam; Anaya-Izquierdo, Karim; Timmis, Adam; Denaxas, Spiros C.; Farrington, C. Paddy; Whitaker, Heather; Hemingway, Harry; Douglas, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Aim Antipsychotics increase the risk of stroke. Their effect on myocardial infarction remains uncertain because people prescribed and not prescribed antipsychotic drugs differ in their underlying vascular risk making between-person comparisons difficult to interpret. The aim of our study was to investigate this association using the self-controlled case series design that eliminates between-person confounding effects. Methods and results All the patients with a first recorded myocardial infarction and prescription for an antipsychotic identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project were selected for the self-controlled case series. The incidence ratio of myocardial infarction during risk periods following the initiation of antipsychotic use relative to unexposed periods was estimated within individuals. A classical case–control study was undertaken for comparative purposes comparing antipsychotic exposure among cases and matched controls. We identified 1546 exposed cases for the self-controlled case series and found evidence of an association during the first 30 days after the first prescription of an antipsychotic, for first-generation agents [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0–3.99] and second-generation agents (IRR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.18–5.32). Similar results were found for the case–control study for new users of first- (OR: 3.19, 95% CI: 1.9–5.37) and second-generation agents (OR: 2.55, 95% CI: 0.93–7.01) within 30 days of their myocardial infarction. Conclusion We found an increased risk of myocardial infarction in the period following the initiation of antipsychotics that was not attributable to differences between people prescribed and not prescribed antipsychotics. PMID:25005706

  9. Plasma carotenoids and risk of acute myocardial infarction in The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wang, Renwei; Lee, Yian-Ping; Lee, Bee-Lan; Yu, Mimi C.; Ong, Choon-Nam

    2010-01-01

    Background Modification of low density lipoprotein due to oxidative stress is essential in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. Data of specific carotenoids except β-carotene on cardioprotective effects in humans are limited. Objective and methods This study examined the associations between plasma concentrations of specific carotenoids and incidence of acute myocardial infarction. The study included 280 incident cases of acute myocardial infarction and 560 matched controls nested within the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 Chinese men and women aged 45 to 74 years old enrolled in 1993-1998 in Singapore. Retinol and carotenoids in prediagnostic plasma were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results High levels of plasma β-cryptoxanthin and lutein were associated with decreased risk of acute myocardial infarction after adjustment for multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease. For β-cryptoxanthin, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest (Q5) versus the lowest (Q1) quintile was 0.67 (0.37-1.21) (P for trend = 0.03). For lutein, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for Q2-Q3 and Q4-Q5 versus Q1 were 0.71 (0.45-1.12) and 0.58 (0.35-0.94) respectively (P for trend = 0.03). There was no statistically significant association between other carotenoids or retinol and risk of acute myocardial infarction. Conclusions High plasma levels of β-cryptoxanthin and lutein were associated with decreased risk of acute myocardial infarction. The findings of this study support a cardioprotective role of these two carotenoids in humans. PMID:20227258

  10. Evaluation of the role of opium addiction in acute myocardial infarction as a risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Khosoosi Niaki, Mohammad Reza; Hamid, Mahdizadeh; Farshidi, Fatemeh; Mohammadpour, Mehdi; Salehi Omran, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    Background: More than half of myocardial infracted (MI) patients have no conventional risk factors. Regarding the belief that opium addiction has a protective effect on heart diseases, addiction prevalence has unfortunately increased in recent years. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of opium addiction on patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 118 patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to CCU ward (case group), and 118 patients with no history of MI to other wards (control group) of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Babol, Iran. Opium addiction conventional risk factors were evaluated for both groups, and the data were analyzed using chi-square test and logistic regression model was used to adjust the conventional risk factor effects. Moreover, demographic variables as well as the extent of MI (extensive or non-extensive), and infarction type (ST-elevated or non-ST elevated) also were evaluated. Results: Sixty-seven patients in MI and 6 subjects in control group had a history of opium consumption (p<0.0001, OR=24.5). Blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, and smoking showed a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05), whereas, no significant difference was observed for diabetes and family history. The results of adjusted model report a significant effect of opium consumption with the development of MI (OR=26.3). No significant difference was found in terms of infarction type and the extent between the addicts and non addicts in MI group. Conclusion: The results show that opium addiction is a strong risk factor for myocardial infarction. PMID:24009941

  11. Acute Infarct Extracellular Volume Mapping to Quantify Myocardial Area at Risk and Chronic Infarct Size on Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pankaj; Broadbent, David A; Swoboda, Peter P; Foley, James R J; Fent, Graham J; Musa, Tarique A; Ripley, David P; Erhayiem, Bara; Dobson, Laura E; McDiarmid, Adam K; Haaf, Philip; Kidambi, Ananth; van der Geest, Rob J; Greenwood, John P; Plein, Sven

    2017-07-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging overestimates acute infarct size. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether acute extracellular volume (ECV) maps can reliably quantify myocardial area at risk (AAR) and final infarct size (IS). Fifty patients underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging acutely (24-72 hours) and at convalescence (3 months). The cardiovascular magnetic resonance protocol included cines, T2-weighted imaging, native T1 maps, 15-minute post-contrast T1 maps, and LGE. Optimal AAR and IS ECV thresholds were derived in a validation group of 10 cases (160 segments). Eight hundred segments (16 per patient) were analyzed to quantify AAR/IS by ECV maps (ECV thresholds for AAR is 33% and IS is 46%), T2-weighted imaging, T1 maps, and acute LGE. Follow-up LGE imaging was used as the reference standard for final IS and viability assessment. The AAR derived from ECV maps (threshold of >33) demonstrated good agreement with T2-weighted imaging-derived AAR (bias, 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.6 to 1.3) and AAR derived from native T1 maps (bias=1; 95% CI, -0.37 to 2.4). ECV demonstrated the best linear correlation to final IS at a threshold of >46% (R=0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98; P<0.0001). ECV maps demonstrated better agreement with final IS than acute IS on LGE (ECV maps: bias, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.4-3.4 versus LGE imaging: bias, 10; 95% CI, 7.7-12.4). On multiple variable regression analysis, the number of nonviable segments was independently associated with IS by ECV maps (β=0.86; P<0.0001). ECV maps can reliably quantify AAR and final IS in reperfused acute myocardial infarction. Acute ECV maps were superior to acute LGE in terms of agreement with final IS. IS quantified by ECV maps are independently associated with viability at follow-up. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Association between genetic polymorphisms of interleukins and cerebral infarction risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiantao; Fan, Niannian; Deng, Yili; Zhu, Jie; Mei, Jing; Chen, Yao; Yang, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Interleukins (ILs) are the most typical inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines. Evidences have shown that polymorphisms in ILs are associated with cerebral infarction risk. However, the results remain inconclusive. The present study was to evaluate the role of ILs polymorphisms in cerebral infarction susceptibility. Relevant case-control studies published between January 2000 and December 2015 were searched and retrieved from the electronic databases of Web of Science, PubMed, Embase and the Chinese Biomedical Database. The odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) were employed to calculate the strength of association. A total of 55 articles including 12619 cerebral infarction patients and 14436 controls were screened out. Four ILs (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18) contained nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; IL-1α −899C/T, IL-1β −511C/T and IL-1β +3953C/T; IL-6 −174G/C and −572C/G; IL-10 −819C/T and −1082A/G; IL-18 −607C/A and −137G/C). Our result showed that IL-1α −899C/T and IL-18 −607C/A (under all the genetic models), and IL-6 −572C/G (under the allelic model, heterogeneity model and dominant model) were associated with increased the risk of cerebral infarction (P<0.05). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that IL-6 −174G/C polymorphism (under all the five models) and IL-10 −1082A/G polymorphism (under the allelic model and heterologous model) were significantly associated with increased the cerebral infarction risk in Asians. Other genetic polymorphisms were not related with cerebral infarction susceptibility under any genetic models. In conclusion, IL-1α −899C/T, IL-6 −572C/G and IL-18 −607C/A might be risk factors for cerebral infarction development. Further studies with well-designed and large sample size are still required. PMID:27679860

  13. Value of planar 201Tl imaging in risk stratification of patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D. )

    1991-09-01

    Although exercise ECG testing has been shown to have important prognostic value after acute myocardial infarction, exercise 201Tl scintigraphy offers several potential advantages, including: (1) increased sensitivity for detecting residual myocardial ischemia; (2) the ability to localize ischemia to a specific area or areas subtended by a specific coronary artery; (3) the ability to identify exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction, which is manifested by increased lung uptake or transient left ventricular dilation; and (4) more reliable risk stratification of individual patients. The more optimal prognostic efficiency of 201Tl scintigraphy partially results from the fact that the error rate in falsely classifying patients as low risk is significantly smaller with 201Tl scintigraphy than with stress ECG. Because of these substantial advantages, there seems to be adequate rationale for recommending exercise perfusion imaging rather than exercise ECG alone as the preferred method for evaluating mortality and morbidity risks after acute myocardial infarction.

  14. Accuracy of Area at Risk Quantification by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance According to the Myocardial Infarction Territory.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Friera, Leticia; García-Ruiz, José Manuel; García-Álvarez, Ana; Fernández-Jiménez, Rodrigo; Sánchez-González, Javier; Rossello, Xavier; Gómez-Talavera, Sandra; López-Martín, Gonzalo J; Pizarro, Gonzalo; Fuster, Valentín; Ibáñez, Borja

    2017-05-01

    Area at risk (AAR) quantification is important to evaluate the efficacy of cardioprotective therapies. However, postinfarction AAR assessment could be influenced by the infarcted coronary territory. Our aim was to determine the accuracy of T2-weighted short tau triple-inversion recovery (T2W-STIR) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging for accurate AAR quantification in anterior, lateral, and inferior myocardial infarctions. Acute reperfused myocardial infarction was experimentally induced in 12 pigs, with 40-minute occlusion of the left anterior descending (n = 4), left circumflex (n = 4), and right coronary arteries (n = 4). Perfusion CMR was performed during selective intracoronary gadolinium injection at the coronary occlusion site (in vivo criterion standard) and, additionally, a 7-day CMR, including T2W-STIR sequences, was performed. Finally, all animals were sacrificed and underwent postmortem Evans blue staining (classic criterion standard). The concordance between the CMR-based criterion standard and T2W-STIR to quantify AAR was high for anterior and inferior infarctions (r = 0.73; P = .001; mean error = 0.50%; limits = -12.68%-13.68% and r = 0.87; P = .001; mean error = -1.5%; limits = -8.0%-5.8%, respectively). Conversely, the correlation for the circumflex territories was poor (r = 0.21, P = .37), showing a higher mean error and wider limits of agreement. A strong correlation between pathology and the CMR-based criterion standard was observed (r = 0.84, P < .001; mean error = 0.91%; limits = -7.55%-9.37%). T2W-STIR CMR sequences are accurate to determine the AAR for anterior and inferior infarctions; however, their accuracy for lateral infarctions is poor. These findings may have important implications for the design and interpretation of clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of cardioprotective therapies. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Acetaminophen use and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in a hypertensive cohort.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Rachael L; Walters, Matthew R; Morton, Ross; Touyz, Rhian M; Dominiczak, Anna F; Morrison, David S; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Meredith, Peter A; McInnes, Gordon T; Dawson, Jesse

    2015-05-01

    Recent data suggest that self-reported acetaminophen use is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and that acetaminophen causes a modest blood pressure rise. There are no randomized trials or studies using verified prescription data of this relationship. We aimed to assess the relationship between verified acetaminophen prescription data and risk of myocardial infarction or stroke in patients with hypertension. We performed a retrospective data analysis using information contained within the UK Clinical Research Practice Datalink. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios for myocardial infarction (primary end point), stroke, and any cardiovascular event (secondary end points) associated with acetaminophen use during a 10-year period. Acetaminophen exposure was a time-dependent variable. A propensity-matched design was also used to reduce potential for confounding. We included 24,496 hypertensive individuals aged ≥ 65 years. Of these, 10,878 were acetaminophen-exposed and 13,618 were not. There was no relationship between risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, or any cardiovascular event and acetaminophen exposure on adjusted analysis (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-1.27; hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-1.38; and hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.37; respectively). Results in the propensity-matched sample (n=4000 per group) and when men and women were analyzed separately were similar. High-frequency users (defined as receiving a prescription for >75% of months) were also not at increased risk. After allowance for potentially confounding variables, the use of acetaminophen was not associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction or stroke in a large cohort of hypertensive patients.

  16. Association between LDL-C and Risk of Myocardial Infarction in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Muntner, Paul; Lloyd, Anita; Manns, Braden; Klarenbach, Scott; Pannu, Neesh; James, Matthew; Hemmelgarn, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is an important marker of coronary risk in the general population, but its utility in people with CKD is unclear. We studied 836,060 adults from the Alberta Kidney Disease Network with at least one measurement of fasting LDL-C, estimated GFR (eGFR), and proteinuria between 2002 and 2009. All participants were free of stage 5 CKD at cohort entry. We followed participants from first eGFR measurement to March 31, 2009; we used validated algorithms applied to administrative data to ascertain primary outcome (hospitalization for myocardial infarction) and Cox regression to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for myocardial infarction by LDL-C categories within eGFR strata. During median follow-up of 48 months, 7762 patients were hospitalized for myocardial infarction, with incidence highest among participants with the lowest eGFR. Compared with 2.6–3.39 mmol/L (referent), the risk associated with having LDL-C above 4.9 mmol/L seemed greatest for GFR≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and least for eGFR=15–59.9 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Specifically, the adjusted HRs (95% confidence intervals) of myocardial infarction associated with LDL-C of ≥4.9 compared with 2.6–3.39 mmol/L in participants with eGFR=15–59.9, 60–89.9, and ≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were 2.06 (1.59, 2.67), 2.30 (2.00, 2.65), and 3.01 (2.46, 3.69). In conclusion, the association between higher LDL-C and risk of myocardial infarction is weaker for people with lower baseline eGFR, despite higher absolute risk of myocardial infarction. Increased LDL-C may be less useful as a marker of coronary risk among people with CKD than the general population. PMID:23687359

  17. Self-rated health and standard risk factors for myocardial infarction: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Waller, Göran; Janlert, Urban; Norberg, Margareta; Lundqvist, Robert; Forssén, Annika

    2015-02-13

    To investigate the relationship between self-rated health, adjusted for standard risk factors, and myocardial infarction. Population-based prospective cohort study. Enrolment took place between 1990 and 2004 in Västerbotten County, Sweden Every year, persons in the total population, aged 40, 50 or 60 were invited. Participation rate was 60%. The cohort consisted of 75 386 men and women. After exclusion for stroke or myocardial infarction before, or within 12 months after enrolment or death within 12 months after enrolment, 72 530 persons remained for analysis. Mean follow-up time was 13.2 years. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate HRs for the end point of first non-fatal or fatal myocardial infarction. HR were adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, body mass index, education, physical activity and self-rated health in the categories very good; pretty good; somewhat good; pretty poor or poor. In the cohort, 2062 persons were diagnosed with fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction. Poor self-rated health adjusted for sex and age was associated with the outcome with HR 2.03 (95% CI 1.45 to 2.84). All categories of self-rated health worse than very good were statistically significant and showed a dose-response relationship. In a multivariable analysis with standard risk factors (not including physical activity and education) HR was attenuated to 1.61 (95% CI 1.13 to 2.31) for poor self-rated health. All categories of self-rated health remained statistically significant. We found no interaction between self-rated health and standard risk factors except for poor self-rated health and diabetes. This study supports the use of self-rated health as a standard risk factor among others for myocardial infarction. It remains to demonstrate whether self-rated health adds predictive value for myocardial infarction in combined algorithms with standard risk factors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  18. Cardioprotective effect of linseed oil against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats: a biochemical and electrocardiographic study.

    PubMed

    Derbali, Amal; Mnafgui, Kais; Affes, Marwa; Derbali, Fatma; Hajji, Raouf; Gharsallah, Neji; Allouche, Noureddine; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Tunisian flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum) against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats by studying hypertensive and cardiac damage markers especially electrocardiographic changes and troponin T serum level. In vitro, the extracted oil showed an important inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) with an IC50 = 85.96 μg/ml. According to chemical analysis, this extract is composed essentially of alpha linolenic acid (ALA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (58.59 %). Male rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely control (C), isoproterenol (ISO), and isoproterenol-treated group with flaxseed oil (FO + ISO). Isoproterenol injection showed changes in ECG pattern, including ST-segment elevation (diagnostic of myocardial infarction), increase in the serum levels of Troponin T and cardiac injury markers (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alanine transaminase (ALT)). However, Linum oil pre-co-treatment prevented almost all the parameters isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Results of the present study proved that flaxseed oil has a significant effect by heart protection against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction through beneficial effect of the important fraction of ALA.

  19. Haematologic parameters as risk factors for cardiac infarction, in an occupational health care setting.

    PubMed

    Knottnerus, J A; Swaen, G M; Slangen, J J; Volovics, A; Durinck, J

    1988-01-01

    It is still controversial, whether moderately high haematocrit (Ht) and haemoglobin (Hb) values are risk factors for coronary heart disease. Using the computerized data-system of the Periodical Medical Examination (PME) of Phillips' International Electrical Company, a case-control study was carried out. Cases were male workers (n = 104, from 50 to 60 years of age) who had suffered a first, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and who had had a PME prior (on the average 16 months) to the occurrence of infarction. For each case two age-matched healthy controls were selected from the PME-attendancy list (= 208). For each subject information was abstracted from the PME-records about haematologic parameters and covariates (smoking, cholesterol, blood pressure, pulse-rate, weight, height, FEV5, consumption of antihypertensive agents). After dichotomizing the haematocrit and haemoglobin values at their whole sample means (0.46 l/l and 9.7 mmol/l respectively) in "low" (lower than or equal to the mean) and "high" (greater than the mean), crude odds-ratio's of 2.7 (95% CI: 1.6-4.6) and 2.1 (95% CI: 1.2-3.6) were found for Ht and Hb respectively, when comparing "high" with "low" levels. The associations between Ht and Hb, and the occurrence of myocardial infarction were still present after controlling for covariates using multiple logistic regression models, entering the continuous variables with their exact values. After adjustment, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) also appeared to be correlated with infarction. Our results confirm the hypothesis that moderately high haematocrit and--to a lesser extent--haemoglobin and MCV-values are risk factors for the occurrence of myocardial infarction.

  20. Risk of acute myocardial infarction with NSAIDs in real world use: bayesian meta-analysis of individual patient data

    PubMed Central

    Dendukuri, Nandini; Rich, Benjamin; Nadeau, Lyne; Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Garbe, Edeltraut; Brophy, James M

    2017-01-01

    Objective To characterise the determinants, time course, and risks of acute myocardial infarction associated with use of oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Design Systematic review followed by a one stage bayesian individual patient data meta-analysis. Data sources Studies from Canadian and European healthcare databases. Review methods Eligible studies were sourced from computerised drug prescription or medical databases, conducted in the general or an elderly population, documented acute myocardial infarction as specific outcome, studied selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors (including rofecoxib) and traditional NSAIDs, compared risk of acute myocardial infarction in NSAID users with non-users, allowed for time dependent analyses, and minimised effects of confounding and misclassification bias. Exposure and outcomes Drug exposure was modelled as an indicator variable incorporating the specific NSAID, its recency, duration of use, and dose. The outcome measures were the summary adjusted odds ratios of first acute myocardial infarction after study entry for each category of NSAID use at index date (date of acute myocardial infarction for cases, matched date for controls) versus non-use in the preceding year and the posterior probability of acute myocardial infarction. Results A cohort of 446 763 individuals including 61 460 with acute myocardial infarction was acquired. Taking any dose of NSAIDs for one week, one month, or more than a month was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction. With use for one to seven days the probability of increased myocardial infarction risk (posterior probability of odds ratio >1.0) was 92% for celecoxib, 97% for ibuprofen, and 99% for diclofenac, naproxen, and rofecoxib. The corresponding odds ratios (95% credible intervals) were 1.24 (0.91 to 1.82) for celecoxib, 1.48 (1.00 to 2.26) for ibuprofen, 1.50 (1.06 to 2.04) for diclofenac, 1.53 (1.07 to 2.33) for naproxen, and 1.58 (1.07 to 2

  1. Incidence of Brain Infarcts, Cognitive Change, and Risk of Dementia in the General Population: The AGES-Reykjavik Study (Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study).

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Aspelund, Thor; Kjartansson, Olafur; Gudmundsson, Elias F; Jonsdottir, Maria K; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Jonsson, Palmi V; van Buchem, Mark A; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J

    2017-09-01

    The differentiation of brain infarcts by region is important because their cause and clinical implications may differ. Information on the incidence of these lesions and association with cognition and dementia from longitudinal population studies is scarce. We investigated the incidence of infarcts in cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and overall brain regions and how prevalent and incident infarcts associate with cognitive change and incident dementia. Participants (n=2612, 41% men, mean age 74.6±4.8) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of infarcts and cognitive testing at baseline and on average 5.2 years later. Incident dementia was assessed according to the international guidelines. Twenty-one percent of the study participants developed new infarcts. The risk of incident infarcts in men was higher than the risk in women (1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.3). Persons with both incident and prevalent infarcts showed steeper cognitive decline and had almost double relative risk of incident dementia (1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.2) compared with those without infarcts. Persons with new subcortical infarcts had the highest risk of incident dementia compared with those without infarcts (2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-3.4). Men are at greater risk of developing incident brain infarcts than women. Persons with incident brain infarcts decline faster in cognition and have an increased risk of dementia compared with those free of infarcts. Incident subcortical infarcts contribute more than cortical and cerebellar infarcts to incident dementia which may indicate that infarcts of small vessel disease origin contribute more to the development of dementia than infarcts of embolic origin in larger vessels. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. [Cardiovascular risk factors in the circadian rhythm of acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    López Messa, Juan B; Garmendia Leiza, José R; Aguilar García, María D; Andrés de Llano, Jesús M; Alberola López, Carlos; Ardura Fernández, Julio

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors on the circadian rhythm of acute myocardial infarction. We analyzed a retrospective cohort of 54,249 patients from a multicenter study of acute myocardial infarction (the Spanish ARIAM study). The variables were time of onset of symptoms, age, sex, previous ischemic heart disease, coronary unit discharge status, previous stroke, familial antecedents of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, and reinfarction. To verify the presence of circadian rhythm, we developed a simple test of equality of time series based on cosinor analysis of multiple sinusoid curves. Three sinusoids (24, 12 and 8 hour periods) were used. The time of onset of pain showed a circadian rhythm (P< .01), with a peak at 10:07 am and a trough at 4:46 am. All subgroups categorized according to the presence of the variables analyzed here showed a circadian rhythm, with a sinusoid curve after adjustment. In patients with diabetes or reinfarction or who were smokers, the sinusoid curve was bimodal. Time of onset of symptoms in patients with acute myocardial infarction follows a circadian rhythm. Diabetes, smoking and reinfarction can modify the standard circadian rhythm of onset of myocardial infarction.

  3. Association between low-dose acetylsalicylic acid reinitiation and the risk of myocardial infarction or coronary heart disease death.

    PubMed

    Sáez, María E; González-Pérez, Antonio; Johansson, Saga; Himmelmann, Anders; García Rodríguez, Luis A

    2016-07-01

    In secondary cardiovascular prevention, discontinuation of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This study assessed the impact of ASA reinitiation on the risk of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease death. Patients prescribed ASA for secondary cardiovascular prevention and who had had a period of ASA discontinuation of ≥90 days in 2000-2007 were identified from The Health Improvement Network (N = 10,453). Incidence of myocardial infarction/coronary heart disease death was calculated. Survival analyses using adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were performed to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of myocardial infarction/coronary heart disease death associated with ASA use patterns after the initial period of discontinuation. Individuals who were prescribed ASA during follow-up were considered reinitiators. The incidence of myocardial infarction/coronary heart disease death was 8.90 cases per 1000 person-years. Risk of myocardial infarction/coronary heart disease death was similar for current ASA users, who had been continuously exposed since reinitiation, and patients who had not reinitiated ASA (hazard ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval 0.93-1.73). Among reinitiators, an additional period of ASA discontinuation was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction/coronary heart disease death compared with no reinitiation (current users: hazard ratio 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.90; noncurrent users: hazard ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.31-2.21). ASA reinitiation was not associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction/coronary heart disease death. This may be explained by confounding by indication/comorbidity, whereby higher-risk patients are more likely to reinitiate therapy. An additional period of ASA discontinuation among reinitiators was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction/coronary heart disease death

  4. Genetic predisposition, non-genetic risk factors and coronary infarct

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Using a genetic predisposition score (GPS), additively integrating the associations of 11 polymorphisms with coronary heart disease (CHD), we examined the consequences of joint presence of high GPS and non-genetic CHD risk factors. Methods: Within the European Prospective Investigation i...

  5. [Bleeding risk in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Benamer, H; Meftout, B; Chevalier, B

    2010-12-01

    Coronary reperfusion of acute coronary syndromes with ST segment elevation requires medical treatment involving potential thrombolysis as well as very potent anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications. In such a therapeutic setting, the risk of bleeding complications may be high and should be taken into account accordingly. An accurate definition of these bleeding complications is crucial in order to compare all currently available treatments and strategies appropriately. The heterogeneous definitions often published in the literature make any valid interpretations of the results very difficult. These bleeding complications, which affect negatively the outcome of patients undergoing treatment should be adequately anticipated in our treatment strategies. An exhaustive knowledge of the bleeding risk factors is necessary in order to adjust the treatment modalities. The occurrence of bleeding may be related to the vascular approach used for cardiac catheterization. In this respect, the superiority of the radial approach has been widely demonstrated. In addition, certain instances of bleeding are not related to the vascular approach, such as digestive and neurological bleeding which can have very severe consequences. Consequently, it is necessary to adapt treatments with heterogeneous potential for bleeding to individual bleeding risk factors, which may be quantified by scores measuring the bleeding risk. Finally, treatment combinations must often be carefully tailored to the characteristics of each individual patient. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  6. Risk of acute myocardial infarction after the death of a significant person in one's life: the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study.

    PubMed

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Maclure, Malcolm; Sherwood, Jane B; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Muller, James E; Mittleman, Murray A

    2012-01-24

    Acute psychological stress is associated with an abrupt increase in the risk of cardiovascular events. Intense grief in the days after the death of a significant person may trigger the onset of acute myocardial infarction (MI), but this relationship has not been systematically studied. We conducted a case-crossover analysis of 1985 participants from the multicenter Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study interviewed during index hospitalization for an acute MI between 1989 and 1994. We compared the observed number of deaths in the days preceding MI symptom onset with its expected frequency based on each patient's control information, defined as the occurrence of deaths in the period from 1 to 6 months before infarction. Among the 1985 subjects, 270 (13.6%) experienced the loss of a significant person in the prior 6 months, including 19 within 1 day of their MI. The incidence rate of acute MI onset was elevated 21.1-fold (95% confidence interval, 13.1-34.1) within 24 hours of the death of a significant person and declined steadily on each subsequent day. The absolute risk of MI within 1 week of the death of a significant person is 1 excess MI per 1394 exposed individuals at low (5%) 10-year MI risk and 1 per 320 among individuals at high (20%) 10-year risk. Grief over the death of a significant person was associated with an acutely increased risk of MI in the subsequent days. The impact may be greatest among individuals at high cardiovascular risk.

  7. Relation of Outbursts of Anger And Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Maclure, Malcolm; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Muller, James E; Mittleman, Murray A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between outbursts of anger and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) risk. Outbursts of anger are associated with an abrupt increase in cardiovascular events, but it remains unknown whether higher levels of anger intensity are associated with higher levels of AMI risk or whether potentially modifiable factors mitigate the short-term risk of AMI. We conducted a case-crossover analysis of 3886 participants from the multicenter Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study interviewed during index hospitalization for an AMI between 1989 and 1996. We compared the observed number and intensity of anger outbursts in the 2 hours preceding AMI symptom onset with its expected frequency based on each patient’s control information, defined as the number of anger outbursts in the past year. Among the 3886 participants in the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study, 1484 (38%) reported outbursts of anger in the past year. The incidence rate of AMI onset was elevated 2.43-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.01–2.90) within 2 hours of an outburst of anger. The association was consistently stronger with increasing intensities of anger (p-trend <0.001). In conclusion, the risk of having an AMI is >2-fold higher following outbursts of anger compared to other times, and higher intensities of anger were associated with higher relative risks. Compared to non-users, regular beta-blocker users had a lower susceptibility to heart attacks triggered by anger, suggesting that some drugs may lower the risk from each episode of anger. PMID:23642509

  8. Low-level arsenic in drinking water and risk of incident myocardial infarction: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Monrad, Maria; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Mette; Baastrup, Rikke; Hansen, Birgitte; Gammelmark, Anders; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that intake of drinking water with high levels of arsenic (>100μg/L) is associated with risk for cardiovascular diseases, but studies on lower levels of arsenic show inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to low level arsenic in drinking water and risk of myocardial infarction in Denmark. From the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrolment in 1993-1997, we identified 2707 cases of incident myocardial infarction from enrolment to end of follow-up in February 2012. Cohort participants were enrolled in the Copenhagen and Aarhus areas. We geocoded residential addresses of the cohort members and used a geographic information system to link addresses with water supply areas. Arsenic in tap water at each cohort members address from 1973 to 2012 was estimated for all cohort members. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for myocardial infarction after adjustment for lifestyle factors and educational level. Arsenic levels in drinking water at baseline addresses ranged from 0.03 to 25.34μg/L, with the highest concentrations in the Aarhus area. We found no overall association between 20-years average concentration of arsenic and risk of myocardial infarction. However, in the Aarhus area, fourth arsenic quartile (2.21-25.34μg/L) was associated with an IRR of 1.48 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-1.83) when compared with first quartile (0.05-1.83μg/L). An IRR of 1.26 (95% CI: 0.89-1.79) was found for ever (versus never) having lived at an address with 10μg/L or more arsenic in the drinking water. This study provides some support for an association between low levels of arsenic in drinking water and the risk of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prognostic Value of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Risk Score in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction (from the EPHESUS Trial).

    PubMed

    Popovic, Batric; Girerd, Nicolas; Rossignol, Patrick; Agrinier, Nelly; Camenzind, Edoardo; Fay, Renaud; Pitt, Bertram; Zannad, Faiez

    2016-11-15

    The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score remains a robust prediction tool for short-term and midterm outcome in the patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the validity of this risk score in patients with STEMI with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) remains unclear. A total of 2,854 patients with STEMI with early coronary revascularization participating in the randomized EPHESUS (Epleronone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study) trial were analyzed. TIMI risk score was calculated at baseline, and its predictive value was evaluated using C-indexes from Cox models. The increase in reclassification of other variables in addition to TIMI score was assessed using the net reclassification index. TIMI risk score had a poor predictive accuracy for all-cause mortality (C-index values at 30 days and 1 year ≤0.67) and recurrent myocardial infarction (MI; C-index values ≤0.60). Among TIMI score items, diabetes/hypertension/angina, heart rate >100 beats/min, and systolic blood pressure <100 mm Hg were inconsistently associated with survival, whereas none of the TIMI score items, aside from age, were significantly associated with MI recurrence. Using a constructed predictive model, lower LVEF, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and previous MI were significantly associated with all-cause mortality. The predictive accuracy of this model, which included LVEF and eGFR, was fair for both 30-day and 1-year all-cause mortality (C-index values ranging from 0.71 to 0.75). In conclusion, TIMI risk score demonstrates poor discrimination in predicting mortality or recurrent MI in patients with STEMI with reduced LVEF. LVEF and eGFR are major factors that should not be ignored by predictive risk scores in this population.

  10. Oxidized LDL, lipoprotein (a) and other emergent risk factors in acute myocardial infarction (FORTIAM study).

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miquel; Valle, Vicente; Arós, Fernando; Sanz, Ginés; Sala, Joan; Fiol, Miquel; Bruguera, Jordi; Elosua, Roberto; Molina, Lluís; Martí, Helena; Covas, M Isabel; Rodríguez-Llorián, Andrés; Fitó, Montserrat; Suárez-Pinilla, Miguel A; Amezaga, Rocío; Marrugat, Jaume

    2009-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) without classical risk factors, and to ascertain whether affected patients exhibit a higher prevalence of emergent risk factors and whether the presence of specific emergent risk factors influence prognosis at 6 months. The FORTIAM (Factores Ocultos de Riesgo Tras un Infarto Agudo de Miocardio) study is a multicenter cohort study that includes 1371 AMI patients who were admitted within 24 hours of symptom onset. Strict definitions were used for classical risk factors and the concentrations of the following markers were determined: lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, homocysteine and antibody to Chlamydia. The end-points observed during the 6-month follow-up were death, angina and re-infarction. The prevalence of AMI without classical risk factors was 8.0%. The absence of classical risk factors did not affect the 6-month prognosis. The only emergent risk factors independently associated with a poorer prognosis were the Lp(a) and oxLDL concentrations. Cut-points were determined using smoothing splines: 60 mg/ dL for Lp(a) and 74 U/L for oxLDL. The associated hazard ratios, adjusted for age, sex and classical risk factors, were 1.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.84 ) and 1.48 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.06), respectively. The proportion of AMI patients without classical risk factors was low and their prognosis was similar to that in other AMI patients. Both oxLDL and Lp(a) concentrations were independently associated with a poorer 6-month prognosis, irrespective of the presence of classical risk factors.

  11. Risk stratification for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Brogan, Richard A; Malkin, Christopher J; Batin, Phillip D; Simms, Alexander D; McLenachan, James M; Gale, Christopher P

    2014-08-26

    Acute coronary syndromes presenting with ST elevation are usually treated with emergency reperfusion/revascularisation therapy. In contrast current evidence and national guidelines recommend risk stratification for non ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) with the decision on revascularisation dependent on perceived clinical risk. Risk stratification for STEMI has no recommendation. Statistical risk scoring techniques in NSTEMI have been demonstrated to improve outcomes however their uptake has been poor perhaps due to questions over their discrimination and concern for application to individuals who may not have been adequately represented in clinical trials. STEMI is perceived to carry sufficient risk to warrant emergency coronary intervention [by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI)] even if this results in a delay to reperfusion with immediate thrombolysis. Immediate thrombolysis may be as effective in patients presenting early, or at low risk, but physicians are poor at assessing clinical and procedural risks and currently are not required to consider this. Inadequate data on risk stratification in STEMI inhibits the option of immediate fibrinolysis, which may be cost-effective. Currently the mode of reperfusion for STEMI defaults to emergency angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention ignoring alternative strategies. This review article examines the current risk scores and evidence base for risk stratification for STEMI patients. The requirements for an ideal STEMI risk score are discussed.

  12. Usefulness of residual ischemic myocardium within prior infarct zone for identifying patients at high risk late after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Weiss, R.M.; Clements, J.P.; Wackers, F.J.

    1987-07-01

    This study examines the prognostic implications of ischemia within the territory of a prior acute myocardial infarction (AMI) vs ischemia at a distance, which develops late after AMI. Sixty-one consecutive patients who underwent both exercise thallium-201 (TI-201) imaging and cardiac catheterization for evaluation of chest pain that developed after discharge from the hospital for AMI form the study group. Mean interval between infarction to the TI-201 study was 10 +/- 17 months. Initial and 2-hour delay TI-201 images were analyzed quantitatively to determine the presence and location (within vs outside the prior infarct zone) of TI-201 redistribution, a marker of ischemic viable myocardium. TI-201 imaging results were separated into 3 groups based on presence and location of TI-201 redistribution: no significant TI-201 redistribution was found in 16 patients; in 29, TI-201 redistribution was confined to the infarct zone; and in 16, TI-201 redistribution was outside the infarct zone. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the comparative ability of TI-201 results and other patient variables to predict cardiac events. For total cardiac events (cardiac death, recurrent nonfatal AMI, unstable angina and coronary revascularization), both the presence of any TI-201 redistribution and multivessel angiographic coronary artery disease were significant predictors. However, when coronary revascularization was excluded as an endpoint, TI-201 redistribution limited to the prior infarct zone was the only significant predictor of cardiac events. All 8 cardiac events occurred in patients with T1-201 redistribution limited to the infart zone.

  13. An Asian Validation of the TIMI Risk Score for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Selvarajah, Sharmini; Fong, Alan Yean Yip; Selvaraj, Gunavathy; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Bots, Michiel L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Risk stratification in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is important, such that the most resource intensive strategy is used to achieve the greatest clinical benefit. This is essential in developing countries with wide variation in health care facilities, scarce resources and increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to validate the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score for STEMI in a multi-ethnic developing country. Methods Data from a national, prospective, observational registry of acute coronary syndromes was used. The TIMI risk score was evaluated in 4701 patients who presented with STEMI. Model discrimination and calibration was tested in the overall population and in subgroups of patients that were at higher risk of mortality; i.e., diabetics and those with renal impairment. Results Compared to the TIMI population, this study population was younger, had more chronic conditions, more severe index events and received treatment later. The TIMI risk score was strongly associated with 30-day mortality. Discrimination was good for the overall study population (c statistic 0.785) and in the high risk subgroups; diabetics (c statistic 0.764) and renal impairment (c statistic 0.761). Calibration was good for the overall study population and diabetics, with χ2 goodness of fit test p value of 0.936 and 0.983 respectively, but poor for those with renal impairment, χ2 goodness of fit test p value of 0.006. Conclusions The TIMI risk score is valid and can be used for risk stratification of STEMI patients for better targeted treatment. PMID:22815733

  14. An Asian validation of the TIMI risk score for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, Sharmini; Fong, Alan Yean Yip; Selvaraj, Gunavathy; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Bots, Michiel L

    2012-01-01

    Risk stratification in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is important, such that the most resource intensive strategy is used to achieve the greatest clinical benefit. This is essential in developing countries with wide variation in health care facilities, scarce resources and increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to validate the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score for STEMI in a multi-ethnic developing country. Data from a national, prospective, observational registry of acute coronary syndromes was used. The TIMI risk score was evaluated in 4701 patients who presented with STEMI. Model discrimination and calibration was tested in the overall population and in subgroups of patients that were at higher risk of mortality; i.e., diabetics and those with renal impairment. Compared to the TIMI population, this study population was younger, had more chronic conditions, more severe index events and received treatment later. The TIMI risk score was strongly associated with 30-day mortality. Discrimination was good for the overall study population (c statistic 0.785) and in the high risk subgroups; diabetics (c statistic 0.764) and renal impairment (c statistic 0.761). Calibration was good for the overall study population and diabetics, with χ2 goodness of fit test p value of 0.936 and 0.983 respectively, but poor for those with renal impairment, χ2 goodness of fit test p value of 0.006. The TIMI risk score is valid and can be used for risk stratification of STEMI patients for better targeted treatment.

  15. Migraine with aura and risk of silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Gaist, David; Garde, Ellen; Blaabjerg, Morten; Nielsen, Helle H; Krøigård, Thomas; Østergaard, Kamilla; Møller, Harald S; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Madsen, Camilla G; Iversen, Pernille; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Siebner, Hartwig R; Ashina, Messoud

    2016-07-01

    A small number of population-based studies reported an association between migraine with aura and risk of silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities in females. We investigated these relations in a population-based sample of female twins. We contacted female twins ages 30-60 years identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. Based on questionnaire responses, twins were invited to participate in a telephone-based interview conducted by physicians. Headache diagnoses were established according to the International Headache Society criteria. Cases with migraine with aura, their co-twins, and unrelated migraine-free twins (controls) were invited to a brain magnetic resonance imaging scan performed at a single centre. Brain scans were assessed for the presence of infarcts, and white matter hyperintensities (visual rating scales and volumetric analyses) blinded to headache diagnoses. Comparisons were based on 172 cases, 34 co-twins, and 139 control subjects. Compared with control subjects, cases did not differ with regard to frequency of silent brain infarcts (four cases versus one control), periventricular white matter hyperintensity scores [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval): -0.1 (-0.5 to 0.2)] or deep white matter hyperintensity scores [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval): 0.1 (-0.8 to 1.1)] assessed by Scheltens' scale. Cases had a slightly higher total white matter hyperintensity volume compared with controls [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval): 0.17 (-0.08 to 0.41) cm(3)] and a similar difference was present in analyses restricted to twin pairs discordant for migraine with aura [adjusted mean difference 0.21 (-0.20 to 0.63)], but these differences did not reach statistical significance. We found no evidence of an association between silent brain infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, and migraine with aura. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  16. Perfect storm: concurrent stress and depressive symptoms increase risk of myocardial infarction or death.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Carmela; Muntner, Paul; Edmondson, Donald; Safford, Monika M; Redmond, Nicole; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Davidson, Karina W

    2015-03-01

    Depression and stress have each been found to be associated with poor prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease. A recently offered psychosocial perfect storm conceptual model hypothesizes amplified risk will occur in those with concurrent stress and depressive symptoms. We tested this hypothesis in a large sample of US adults with coronary heart disease. Participants included 4487 adults with coronary heart disease from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study, a prospective cohort study of 30,239 black and white adults. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression with the composite outcome of myocardial infarction or death and adjustment for demographic, clinical, and behavioral factors. Overall, 6.1% reported concurrent high stress and high depressive symptoms at baseline. During a median 5.95 years of follow-up, 1337 events occurred. In the first 2.5 years of follow-up, participants with concurrent high stress and high depressive symptoms had increased risk for myocardial infarction or death (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.48 [95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.02]) relative to those with low stress and low depressive symptoms. Those with low stress and high depressive symptoms (hazard ratio, 0.92 [95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.28]) or high stress and low depressive symptoms (hazard ratio, 0.86 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.29]) were not at increased risk. The association on myocardial infarction or death was not significant after the initial 2.5 years of follow-up (hazard ratio, 0.89 [95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.22]). Our results provide initial support for a psychosocial perfect storm conceptual model; the confluence of depressive symptoms and stress on medical prognosis in adults with coronary heart disease may be particularly destructive in the shorter term. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Agreement between Myocardial Infarction Patients and Their Spouses on Reporting of Data on 82 Cardiovascular Risk Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, Hedley Knewjen; Vikström, Max; Andersson, Tomas; Hallqvist, Johan; Leander, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Background The validity of exposure data collected from proxy respondents of myocardial infarction patients has scarcely been studied. We assessed the level of disagreement between myocardial infarction patients and their spouses with respect to the reporting of the patient´s cardiovascular risk exposures. Methods Within the frame of the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP), a case-control study of risk factors of myocardial infarction performed in Stockholm county 1992–1994, a subset of 327 first time myocardial infarction cases aged 45–70 who survived >28 days after the event and who co-habited with a spouse or common-law spouse (proxy) were identified between 1993-04-05 and 1993-12-31. Among these, 243 cases participated along with their respective proxy in the present study. Control individuals, matched to cases by age, sex and residential area were also included (n = 243). Data were collected using questionnaires. Using conditional logistic regression we calculated for each of 82 exposures the odds ratio based on information collected from 1) myocardial infarction cases and controls [odds ratio A] and 2) proxies and the same set of controls [odds ratio B]. Disagreement was measured by calculating the ratio between odds ratio B and odds ratio A with 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated using resampling bootstrap. Results For the vast majority of the exposures considered including diet, smoking, education, work-related stress, and family history of CVD, there was no statistically significant disagreement between myocardial infarction patients and proxies (n = 243 pairs). However, leisure time physical inactivity (proxy bias = 1.59, 95% CI 1.05-3.57) was overestimated by spouses compared to myocardial infarction patients. A few other exposures including some sleep-related problems and work-related issues also showed disagreement. Conclusions Myocardial infarction patients and their spouses similarly reported data on a wide range of exposures

  18. Myocardial infarction in women: promoting symptom recognition, early diagnosis, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zbierajewski-Eischeid, Samantha J; Loeb, Susan J

    2009-01-01

    Even with national campaigns to help increase awareness, most people do not realize that heart disease is now the leading cause of death for women. Women experiencing an acute cardiac event often do not recognize the symptoms or are misdiagnosed by healthcare providers because of atypical symptom presentation. This can lead to a significant delay in treatment and a less desirable recovery outcome. To help promote early identification of cardiac risk and cardiac events, this article highlights the range of symptom presentation in women with myocardial infarction and focuses on how advanced clinical nurses can increase nurses' and the public's understanding of this disease in women.

  19. Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia and Posterior Circulation Infarction in Patients with Isolated Vertigo with Stroke Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dao Pei; Lu, Gui Feng; Zhang, Jie Wen; Zhang, Shu Ling; Ma, Qian Kun; Yin, Suo

    2017-02-01

    We aimed in this study to investigate the prevalence of vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) in a population with isolated vertigo in association with stroke risk factors, to determine whether VAH is an independent risk factor for posterior circulation infarction (PCI). We sequentially enrolled 245 patients with isolated vertigo with at least 1 vascular risk factor, who were divided into PCI and non-PCI groups, according to present signs of acute infarction on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent magnetic resonance angiography and cervical contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography to screen for VAH. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the significant risk factors for PCI. VAH was found in 64 of 245 patients (26%). VAH (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95%confidence interval [CI] 1.17-6.23, P = .020), median stenosis of the posterior circulation (OR = 7.09, 95%CI = 2.54-19.79, P < .001), and diabetes mellitus (OR = 3.13, 95%CI 1.38-7.12, P = .006) were independent risk factors for PCI. The predominant Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment subtype in our patients with isolated vertigo with PCI complicated by VAH was mainly small-artery occlusion. Our findings suggest that VAH is an independent risk factor for PCI in patients with isolated vertigo with confirmed risk from stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical analysis and risk stratification of ventricular septal rupture following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Ying; Qiu, Hong; Qiao, Shu-Bin; Kang, Lian-Ming; Song, Lei; Zhang, Jun; Tan, Xiao-Yan; Wu, Yuan; Yang, Yue-Jin; Gao, Run-Lin; Chen, Zai-Jia

    2013-11-01

    Ventricular septal rupture (VSR) remains an infrequent but devastating complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The best time to undergo surgical repair is controversial and there is currently no risk stratification for patients with VSR to guide treatment. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical outcomes of 70 patients with VSR, to analyze the short-term prognosis factors of VSR following AMI, and to make a risk stratification for patients with VSR. A total of 70 consecutive VSR patients following AMI treated in our hospital from January 2002 to October 2010 were enrolled in this study retrospectively. The difference of clinical characteristics were observed between patients with VSR who survived ≤30 days and survived >30 days. We analyzed the short-term prognosis factors of VSR and established the short-term prognosis index of VSR (SPIV) based on the Logistic regression analysis to stratify patients with VSR. Among 12 354 patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, 70 (0.57%) patients (33 males and 37 females) were found to have VSR. The average age was (68.1±8.5) years. Fifty-four (77.1%) patients were diagnosed with an acute anterior infarction. Patients with VSR selected for surgical repair had better outcomes than patients treated conservatively; 1-year mortality 9.5% versus 87.8%, P < 0.005. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female (P = 0.013), anterior AMI (P = 0.023), non-ventricular aneurysm (P = 0.023), non-diabetes (P = 0.009), Killip class 3 or 4 (P = 0.022) and time from AMI to VSR less than 4 days (P = 0.027) were independent risk determinants for shortterm mortality. SPIV ≥9 indicates a high risk as the 30-day mortality is 77.4%; SPIV <8 indicates a low risk as the 30-day mortality is 28.6%; SPIV between 8 and 9 indicates a moderate risk. VSR remains a rare but devastating complication of AMI. The independent risk determinants for short-term mortality of VSR were female gender, anterior AMI

  1. Is impaired kidney function an independent predictor of the risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals?

    PubMed

    Lang, Sylvie; Mary-Krause, Murielle; Partisani, Marialuisa; Gilquin, Jacques; Simon, Anne; Cotte, Laurent; Boccara, Franck; Costagliola, Dominique

    2014-08-24

    We examined whether impaired kidney function is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals without pre-existing coronary artery disease. The odds ratio for impaired kidney function fell from 1.22 (95% confidence interval 0.90-1.66) to 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.69-1.41) after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and HIV-related parameters, with hypertension, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking and the CD4 T-cell nadir as most influential confounders. In this setting, no association was found between impaired kidney function and the risk of myocardial infarction.

  2. Left Upper Lung Lobectomy Is an Embolic Risk Factor for Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuya; Yahikozawa, Hiroyuki; Takamatsu, Ryota; Watanabe, Rie; Hoshi, Kenichi; Ishii, Wataru; Sato, Shunichi

    2017-09-01

    Cerebral embolism is typically caused by a cardiogenic thrombus. The patent foramen ovale is a well-known cause of paradoxical embolism. However, some idiopathic cases of stroke have been reported. Such strokes are designated as embolic stroke of undetermined sources. Among them, lung lobectomy may be a new embolic risk factor for cerebral embolism. The risk of thrombus formation is high at the pulmonary vein stump after lung lobectomy, especially in the left upper lobe. Interestingly, the risk remains several years after surgery. This condition is mostly overlooked, and reported cases of this condition are rare. Methods of early detection, prevention, and treatment have not been established. Here we report the case of a 66-year-old man who suffered a cerebral infarction 2 days after left upper lobectomy. Three-dimensional computed tomography scan clearly revealed the structural feature of the pulmonary vein stump. The stump of patients with cerebral infarction after lung lobectomy should be checked. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Longitudinal persistence with secondary prevention therapies relative to patient risk after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Supriya; Jones, Philip G.; Maddox, Thomas M.; Bradley, Steven M.; Stolker, Joshua M.; Arnold, Suzanne V.; Parashar, Susmita; Peterson, Pamela; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Spertus, John; Ho, P. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies have demonstrated that high-risk AMI patients are less likely to receive guideline-directed medications during hospitalization. It is unknown if this paradox persists following discharge. We aimed to assess if persistence with guideline-directed medications post-discharge varies by patients’ risk following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods Data were analyzed from two prospective, multicenter U.S. AMI registries. The primary outcome was persistence with all prescribed guideline-directed medications (aspirin, beta-blockers, statins, angiotensin-antagonists) at 1, 6, and 12-months post-discharge. The association between risk and medication persistence post-discharge was assessed using multivariable mixed-effect models. Results Among 6434 AMI patients discharged home, 2824 were considered low-risk, 2014 intermediate-risk and 1596 high-risk for death based upon their GRACE 6-month risk score. High-risk was associated with a lower likelihood of receiving all appropriate therapies at discharge compared with low-risk patients (RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.87–0.94). At 12-months, the rate of persistence with all prescribed therapies was 61.5%, 57.9% and 45.9% among low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients respectively. After multivariable adjustment, high-risk was associated with lower persistence with all prescribed medications (RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.82–0.92) over follow-up. Similar associations were seen for individual medications. Over the 5 years of the study, persistence with prescribed therapies post-discharge improved modestly among high-risk patients (RR 1.05; 95% CI 1.03–1.08 per year). Conclusion High-risk AMI patients have a lower likelihood of persistently taking prescribed medications post-discharge as compared with low-risk patients. Continued efforts are needed to improve the use of guideline-directed medications in high-risk patients. PMID:25801001

  4. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of myocardial infarction in men - A population-based prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bergkvist, Charlotte; Berglund, Marika; Glynn, Anders; Julin, Bettina; Wolk, Alicja; Åkesson, Agneta

    2016-03-01

    Major food contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are proposed to play a role in the etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but to date the impact of PCBs on cardiovascular health need to be explored. We assessed the association between validated food frequency questionnaire-based estimates of dietary PCB exposure and risk of myocardial infarction, ascertained through register-linkage, among 36,759 men from the population-based Swedish Cohort of Men, free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer at baseline (1997). Relative risks were adjusted for known cardiovascular risk factors, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) and methyl mercury exposure. During 12years of follow-up (433,243 person-years), we ascertained 3005 incident cases of myocardial infarction (654 fatal). Compared with the lowest quintile of dietary PCB exposure (median 113ng/day), men in the highest quintile (median 436ng/day) had multivariable-adjusted relative risks of 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-2.33; p-trend<0.001) for total and 1.97 (95% CI 1.42-2.75; p-trend<0.001) for non-fatal myocardial infarction. In mutually adjusted models, dietary PCB exposure was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, while the intake of long-chain omega-3 fish fatty acids was associated with a decreased risk. We also observed an effect modification by adiposity on the association between of dietary PCB exposure and myocardial infarction, with higher risk among lean men (p value for interaction =0.03). Exposure to PCBs via diet was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasonographically assessed carotid intima-media thickness and risk for asymptomatic cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Yamakado, M; Fukuda, I; Kiyose, H

    1998-02-01

    Cerebral infarction (CI) is still a leading cause of death in Japan. Thus, the management of risk factors for CI as primary prevention is one of the most important tasks in multiphasic health testing and services. To determine whether carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a risk for CI, ultrasonographically assessed carotid IMT was compared between normal subjects (N) and subjects with asymptomatic CI (ACI) in 243 subjects who underwent human brain dry dock. ACI was found in 68 people (28.0%). Age, body mass index, and mean blood pressure were higher in ACI than in N. Also, atherogenic index was higher in ACI than in N. Carotid IMT was significantly thicker in ACI than in N. Furthermore, incidence of atherogenic plaque in ACI was significantly higher than that in N. In conclusion, not only aging, obesity, blood pressure, and plasma lipids, but also carotid IMT may be a risk for ACI.

  6. Identification of patients at low risk of dying after acute myocardial infarction, by simple clinical and submaximal exercise test criteria.

    PubMed

    Campbell, S; A'Hern, R; Quigley, P; Vincent, R; Jewitt, D; Chamberlain, D

    1988-09-01

    A consecutive series of 559 hospital survivors of acute myocardial infarction aged less than 66 years were studied; 93 were designated prospectively as low-risk because they were suitable for early submaximal exercise testing and had none of the following clinical or exercise test 'risk factors': (1) angina for at least one month prior to infarction; (2) symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias, or (3) recurrent ischaemic pain, both after the first 24 h of infarction; (4) cardiac failure; (5) cardiomegaly; and (6) an abnormal exercise test (angina, ST-depression or poor blood pressure response). Altogether 301 patients were exercised; their mortality over a median follow-up of 2.4 years was 10.2%, versus 24.6% in the 258 patients not exercised (P = 0.0005). Absence of clinical 'risk factors' alone, in the exercised patients, identified 156 with a mortality of 5.4% versus 15.6% in the 145 with at least one clinical 'risk factor' (P = 0.004). The fully defined low-risk group comprised 93 of the former patients who had neither clinical nor exercise test 'risk factors'. None of these patients died compared with 19 of those with at least one 'risk factor' (mortality = 14.7%; P = 0.002). Their respective rates of non-fatal reinfarction were similar and never exceeded 5% per annum. Therefore, simple clinical and exercise test criteria can positively identify low-risk patients after infarction in whom secondary prevention may be inappropriate.

  7. Risk burdens of modifiable risk factors incorporating lipoprotein (a) and low serum albumin concentrations for first incident acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qin; He, Yong-Ming; Cai, Dong-Ping; Yang, Xiang-Jun; Xu, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Risk burdens of modifiable risk factors incorporating lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) and low serum albumin (LSA) concentrations for first incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) haven’t been studied previously. Cross-sectional study of 1552 cases and 6125 controls was performed for identifying the association of risk factors with first incident AMI and their corresponding population attributable risks (PARs). Modifiable risk factors incorporating LSA and Lp(a) accounted for up to 92% of PAR for first incident AMI. Effects of these risk factors were different in different sexes across different age categories. Overall, smoking and LSA were the 2 strongest risk factors, together accounting for 64% of PAR for first incident AMI. After multivariable adjustment, Lp(a) and LSA accounted for 19% and 41%, respectively, and together for more than a half (54%) of PAR for first incident AMI. Modifiable risk factors incorporating LSA and Lp(a) have accounted for an overwhelmingly large proportion of the risk of first incident AMI, indicating most first incident AMI is preventable. The knowledge of risk burdens for first incident AMI incorporating Lp (a) and LSA may be beneficial for further reducing first incident AMI from a new angle. PMID:27748452

  8. Silent Brain Infarction and Risk of Future Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ajay; Giambrone, Ashley E.; Gialdini, Gino; Finn, Caitlin; Delgado, Diana; Gutierrez, Jose; Wright, Clinton; Beiser, Alexa S.; Seshadri, Sudha; Pandya, Ankur; Kamel, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Silent brain infarction (SBI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as a subclinical risk marker for future symptomatic stroke. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the association between MRI-defined SBI and future stroke risk. Methods We searched the medical literature to identify cohort studies involving adults with MRI detection of SBI who were subsequently followed for incident clinically-defined stroke. Study data and quality assessment were recorded in duplicate with disagreements in data extraction resolved by a third reader. Strength association between MRI detected SBI and future symptomatic stroke measured by a hazard ratio (HR). Results The meta-analysis included 13 studies (14,764 subjects) with a mean follow-up ranging from 25.7 to 174 months. SBI predicted the occurrence of stroke with a random effects crude relative risk of 2.94 (95% CI 2.24–3.86, P<0.001; Q=39.65, P<0.001). In the eight studies of 10,427 subjects providing HR adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, SBI was an independent predictor of incident stroke (HR 2.08 [95% CI 1.69–2.56, P<0.001]; Q=8.99, P=0.25). In a subgroup analysis pooling 9,483 stroke-free individuals from large population-based studies, SBI was present in ~18% of participants and remained a strong predictor of future stroke (HR 2.06 [95% CI 1.64–2.59], p<0.01). Conclusions SBI is present in approximately one in five stroke-free older adults and is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of future stroke. Future studies of in-depth stroke risk evaluations and intensive prevention measures are warranted in patients with clinically unrecognized radiologically evident brain infarctions. PMID:26888534

  9. Impact of incident myocardial infarction on the risk of venous thromboembolism: the Tromsø Study.

    PubMed

    Rinde, L B; Lind, C; Småbrekke, B; Njølstad, I; Mathiesen, E B; Wilsgaard, T; Løchen, M-L; Hald, E M; Vik, A; Braekkan, S K; Hansen, J-B

    2016-06-01

    Essentials Registry-based studies indicate a link between arterial- and venous thromboembolism (VTE). We studied this association in a cohort with confounder information and validated outcomes. Myocardial infarction (MI) was associated with a 4.8-fold increased short-term risk of VTE. MI was associated with a transient increased risk of VTE, and pulmonary embolism in particular. Background Recent studies have demonstrated an association between venous thromboembolism (VTE) and arterial thrombotic diseases. Objectives To study the association between incident myocardial infarction (MI) and VTE in a prospective population-based cohort. Methods Study participants (n = 29 506) were recruited from three surveys of the Tromsø Study (conducted in 1994-1995, 2001-2002, and 2007-2008) and followed up to 2010. All incident MI and VTE events during follow-up were recorded. Cox regression models with age as the time scale and MI as a time-dependent variable were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) of VTE adjusted for sex, body mass index, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, HDL cholesterol, smoking, physical activity, and education level. Results During a median follow-up of 15.7 years, 1853 participants experienced an MI and 699 experienced a VTE. MI was associated with a 51% increased risk of VTE (HR 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.10) and a 72% increased risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) (HR 1.72; 95% CI 1.07-2.75), but not significantly associated with the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (HR 1.36; 95% CI 0.86-2.15). The highest risk estimates for PE were observed during the first 6 months after the MI (HR 8.49; 95% CI 4.00-18.77). MI explained 6.2% of the PEs in the population (population attributable risk) and 78.5% of the PE risk in MI patients (attributable risk). Conclusions Our findings indicate that MI is associated with a transient increased VTE risk, independently of traditional atherosclerotic risk factors. The risk estimates were

  10. Long-Term Clinical Outcomes according to Initial Management and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction Risk Score in Patients with Acute Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hae Chang; Jeong, Myung Ho; Chae, Shung Chull; Hur, Seung Ho; Hong, Taek Jong; Kim, Young Jo; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Rhew, Jay Young; Chae, In Ho; Cho, Myeong Chan; Bae, Jang Ho; Rha, Seung Woon; Kim, Chong Jin; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yang Soo; Yoon, Junghan; Chung, Wook Sung; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose There is still debate about the timing of revascularization in patients with acute non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). We analyzed the long-term clinical outcomes of the timing of revascularization in patients with acute NSTEMI obtained from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR). Materials and Methods 2,845 patients with acute NSTEMI (65.6 ± 12.5 years, 1,836 males) who were enrolled in KAMIR were included in the present study. The therapeutic strategy of NSTEMI was categorized into early invasive (within 48 hours, 65.8 ± 12.6 years, 856 males) and late invasive treatment (65.3 ± 12.1 years, 979 males). The initial- and long-term clinical outcomes were compared between two groups according to the level of Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score. Results There were significant differences in-hospital mortality and the incidence of major adverse cardiac events during one-year clinical follow-up between two groups (2.1% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.001, 10.0% vs. 13.5%, p = 0.004, respectively). According to the TIMI risk score, there was no significant difference of long-term clinical outcomes in patients with low to moderate TIMI risk score, but significant difference in patients with high TIMI risk score (≥ 5 points). Conclusions The old age, high Killip class, low ejection fraction, high TIMI risk score, and late invasive treatment strategy are the independent predictors for the long-term clinical outcomes in patients with NSTEMI. PMID:20046515

  11. Identification of women's coronary heart disease and risk factors prior to first myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter C; Jacobsen, Steven J; Fryer, George E; Roger, Veronique L

    2004-12-01

    To understand when women's coronary heart disease (CHD) and CHD risk factors are recognized prior to first myocardial infarction (MI). Medical record review of the 10 years prior to incident MI among women with a confirmed incident MI between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2001, to determine the timing of CHD diagnosis as well as assessment and treatment for risk factors. One hundred fifty women had incident MIs during the study period. They made 8732 ambulatory visits and had 457 hospitalizations during the period of review (mean 9.1 years, range 6.2-10 years). Average age at incident MI was 74.7 years (SD 12.6, range 38.9-99.8 years). A CHD diagnosis prior to first MI was present in 52% (n = 78) of the women but was less common in those <70 years (p = 0.001). All but 3 women had one or more modifiable risk factors identified prior to their first MI. Treatment of recognized risk factors varied from 81% (antihypertension medications) to only 28% (drug therapy for abnormal lipid levels). Having a diagnosis of CHD was associated with an increased likelihood of having identified risk factors and receiving drug treatment for identified risk factors. Women with undiagnosed CHD (48%) and those with unrecognized or untreated risk factors for CHD, especially younger women, represent missed opportunities for prevention of cardiac events.

  12. Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetic Compared With Nondiabetic First Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cano, J. Francisco; Baena-Diez, Jose M.; Franch, Josep; Vila, Joan; Tello, Susana; Sala, Joan; Elosua, Roberto; Marrugat, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term cardiovascular risk differs in type 2 diabetic patients compared with first acute myocardial infarction patients in a Mediterranean region, considering therapy, diabetes duration, and glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective population-based cohort study with 10-year follow-up was performed in 4,410 patients aged 30–74 years: 2,260 with type 2 diabetes without coronary heart disease recruited in 53 primary health care centers and 2,150 with first acute myocardial infarction without diabetes recruited in 10 hospitals. We compared coronary heart disease incidence and cardiovascular mortality rates in myocardial infarction patients and diabetic patients, including subgroups by diabetes treatment, duration, and A1C. RESULTS The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for 10-year coronary heart disease incidence and for cardiovascular mortality were significantly lower in men and women with diabetes than in myocardial infarction patients: HR 0.54 (95% CI 0.45–0.66) and 0.28 (0.21–0.37) and 0.26 (0.19–0.36) and 0.16 (0.10–0.26), respectively. All diabetic patient subgroups had significantly fewer events than myocardial infarction patients: the HR of cardiovascular mortality ranged from 0.15 (0.09–0.26) to 0.36 (0.24–0.54) and that of coronary heart disease incidence ranged from 0.34 (0.26–0.46) to 0.56 (0.43–0.72). CONCLUSIONS Lower long-term cardiovascular risk was found in type 2 diabetic and all subgroups analyzed compared with myocardial infarction patients. These results do not support equivalence in coronary disease risk for diabetic and myocardial infarction patients. PMID:20530746

  13. [Homocysteinemia as a risk factor for early myocardial infarct--a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Reis, R P; Azinheira, J; Reis, H P; Vilaverde, M M; Bordalo e Sá, A; Santos, L; Adão, M; Pina, J E; Ferreira, N C; Luís, A S

    1994-02-01

    To investigate if hyper-homocysteinemia represents an independent risk factor of early coronary disease. We studied a group of patients under 45 years old, that suffered a myocardial infarction from 3 months and 1 year before the study. The patients were matched with a group of normal controls of a check-up program, in terms of age, sex, smoking habits, presence of hypertension, obesity, (Quetelet Index), presence of diabetes, basal glycemia, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol. Later we measured to patients (Pts) and controls (Cts) the plasmatic basal homocysteinemia (B HC) and 6 hours after a methionine overload of 0.1 g/kg body weight (L HC). [table: see text] In this study hyper-homocysteinemia appears as an independent risk factor of early coronary disease. The measurement of homocysteinemia after the methionine loading test was more discriminative than the basal measurement.

  14. A Randomized Phase 2 Trial of 177Lu Radiolabeled Anti-PSMA Biochemically Monoclonal Antibody J591 in Patients with High-Risk Castrate, Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    hypothesis is that the addition of 177Lu- J591 to ketoconazole will improve time to radiographically apparent metastases in men with biochemically...endpoint will be to compare the percentage of men with metastases at 18 months receiving ketoconazole plus 177Lu-J591 vs ketoconazole plus trace...phase II trial of 177lu radiolabeled monoclonal antibody J591 (177Lu-J591) and ketoconazole in patients (pts) with high-risk castrate biochemically

  15. Correlation between the state of periodontal tissues and selected risk factors for periodontitis and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Górska, Renata; Dembowska, Elżbieta; Konopka, Tomasz P; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna; Pietruska, Małgorzata; Ganowicz, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The current level of knowledge indicates a relationship between periodontitis and diabetes and/or cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Periodontitis can be not only a risk factor for these diseases, but also a condition modifying other primary risk factors associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular complications (lipid disorders, arterial hypertension, etc.) or diabetes. The aim of the study was an analysis of the correlation between the state of periodontal tissues and selected risk factors for myocardial infarction (MI) in patients after recent myocardial infarction. The study included 417 patients (92 women, 325 men) hospitalized due to recent MI. The inclusion criteria were MI history and age below 70 years. The state of periodontal tissues (plaque index, bleeding on probing, pocket depth and clinical attachment loss, CPI index) and selected risk factors for periodontitis and CVD were recorded. An analysis of the results showed no statistically significant correlation between the depth, the number, percentage of periodontal pockets and the average clinical attachment level on one hand and BMI on the other hand. Whereas a statistically significant correlation was observed between tobacco smoking and the degree of severity of periodontal diseases measured by the average pocket depth, the number and percentage of pockets above 4 mm and the average clinical attachment loss, as well as between hypertension and the state of oral hygiene and between diabetes and the number of preserved teeth and the number of pockets above 4 mm. The degree of severity of periodontal disease can impact hypertension and diabetes, which could potentially influence the occurrence and course of CVD.

  16. Association between ESR2 genetic variants and risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Domingues-Montanari, Sophie; Subirana, Isaac; Tomás, Marta; Marrugat, Jaume; Sentí, Mariano

    2008-07-01

    Environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of complex diseases such as myocardial infarction (MI), the leading cause of death in men and women. Women develop MI approximately 10 years later than men, a difference that could be explained by the genes coding for the estrogen receptors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ESR2 gene may affect susceptibility for MI in a sex-dependent manner. A nested case-control design was used to analyze 3 polymorphisms of the ESR2 gene and their associated haplotypes in 710 myocardial infarction cases from the REGICOR (Registre Gironí del Corazón) study and 2379 controls randomly selected in a representative population of a Spanish cross-sectional study. The rs1271572 T allele was significantly more common in patients who developed MI (P < 0.001). No association was observed for rs1256049 or rs4986938. Assuming a dominant model of inheritance, the association, as determined by logistic multivariate regression after adjustment for conventional cardiac risk factors, remained statistically significant in men [odds ratio (OR) 1.65, 95% CI 1.18-2.30; P = 0.003) but not in women (P = 0.754). A very common haplotype encompassing the rs1271572 variant was also associated with the risk of MI in the overall population (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.06-1.87; P = 0.020) and in men (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.12-2.21; P = 0.009). The rs1271572 SNP T variant was associated with increased risk of MI in a Spanish population, and this association was found to be limited to men only. Sex differences in the genetic risk merit further investigation.

  17. High risk for obstructive sleep apnea in patients with acute myocardial infarction1

    PubMed Central

    Andrechuk, Carla Renata Silva; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to stratify the risk for obstructive sleep apnea in patients with acute myocardial infarction, treated at a public, tertiary, teaching hospital of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify related sociodemographic and clinical factors. Method: cross-sectional analytical study with 113 patients (mean age 59.57 years, 70.8% male). A specific questionnaire was used for the sociodemographic and clinical characterization and the Berlin Questionnaire for the stratification of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Results: the prevalence of high risk was 60.2% and the outcome of clinical worsening during hospitalization was more frequent among these patients. The factors related to high risk were body mass index over 30 kg/m2, arterial hypertension and waist circumference indicative of cardiovascular risk, while older age (60 years and over) constituted a protective factor. Conclusion: considering the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and its relation to clinical worsening, it is suggested that nurses should monitor, in their clinical practice, people at high risk for this syndrome, guiding control measures of modifiable factors and aiming to prevent the associated complications, including worsening of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26487128

  18. Risk Stratification in Older Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: Physicians' Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Feder, Shelli L.; Schulman-Green, Dena; Dodson, John A.; Geda, Mary; Williams, Kathleen; Nanna, Michael G.; Allore, Heather G.; Murphy, Terrence E.; Tinetti, Mary E.; Gill, Thomas M.; Chaudhry, Sarwat I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Risk stratification models support clinical decision making in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care. Existing models were developed using data from younger populations, potentially limiting accuracy and relevance in older adults. We describe physician-perceived risk factors, views of existing models, and preferences for future model development in older adults. Method Qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews and the constant comparative method. Results Twenty-two physicians from 14 institutions completed the interviews. Median age was 37, and median years of clinical experience was 11.5. Perceived predictors included cardiovascular, comorbid, functional, and social risk factors. Physicians viewed models as easy to use, yet neither inclusive of risk factors nor predictive of non-mortality outcomes germane to clinical decision making in older adults. Ideal models included multidimensional risk domains and operational requirements. Discussion Physicians reported limitations of available risk models when applied to older adults with AMI. New models are needed to guide AMI treatment in this population. PMID:26100619

  19. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Measures Associated With Increased Risk of Covert Brain Infarction and Worsening Leukoaraiosis in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Leung, Lester Y; Bartz, Traci M; Rice, Kenneth; Floyd, James; Psaty, Bruce; Gutierrez, Jose; Longstreth, W T; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2017-08-01

    In people without previous stroke, covert findings on serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of incident brain infarcts and worsening leukoaraiosis are associated with increased risk for ischemic stroke and dementia. We evaluated whether various measures of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate are associated with these MRI findings. In the CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study), a longitudinal cohort study of older adults, we used relative risk regression to assess the associations of mean, variability, and trend in systolic BP, diastolic BP, and heart rate measured at 4 annual clinic visits between 2 brain MRIs with incident covert brain infarction and worsening white matter grade (using a 10-point scale to characterize leukoaraiosis). We included participants who had both brain MRIs, no stroke before the follow-up MRI, and no change in antihypertensive medication status during follow-up. Among 878 eligible participants, incident covert brain infarction occurred in 15% and worsening white matter grade in 27%. Mean systolic BP was associated with increased risk for incident covert brain infarction (relative risk per 10 mm Hg, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.47), and mean diastolic BP was associated with increased risk for worsening white matter grade (relative risk per 10 mm Hg, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.69). These findings persisted in secondary and sensitivity analyses. Elevated mean systolic BP is associated with increased risk for covert brain infarction, and elevated mean diastolic BP is associated with increased risk for worsening leukoaraiosis. These findings reinforce the importance of hypertension in the development of silent cerebrovascular diseases, but the pathophysiologic relationships to BP for each may differ. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Multiparametric analysis of heart rate variability used for risk stratification among survivors of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Voss, A; Hnatkova, K; Wessel, N; Kurths, J; Sander, A; Schirdewan, A; Camm, A J; Malik, M

    1998-01-01

    A multiparametric heart rate variability analysis was performed to prove if combined heart rate variability (HRV) measures of different domains improve the result of risk stratification in patients after myocardial infarction. In this study, standard time domain, frequency domain and non-linear dynamics measures of HRV assessment were applied to 572 survivors of acute myocardial infarction. Three parameter sets each consisting of 4 parameters were applied and compared with the standard measurement of global heart rate variability HRVi. Discriminant analysis technique and t-test were performed to separate the high risk groups from the survivors. The predictive value of this approach was evaluated with receiver operator (ROC) and positive predictive accuracy (PPA) curves. Results--The discriminant analysis shows a separation of patients suffered by all cause mortality in 80% (best single parameter 74%) and sudden arrhythmic death in 86% (73%). All parameters of set 1 show a high significant difference (p < 0.001) between survivors and non-survivors based on two-tailed t-test. The specificity level of the multivariate parameter sets is at the 70% sensitivity level (ROC) about 85-90%, whereas HRVi shows maximum levels of 70%. The PPA in the all cause mortality group is at the 70% sensitivity level twice as high as the univariate HRV measure and increases to more than fourfold as high within the VT/VF group. In conclusion, in this population, the multiparametric approach with the combination of four parameters from all domains especially from NLD seems to be a better predictor of high arrhythmia risk than the standard measurement of global heart rate variability.

  1. Tuberculosis and risk of acute myocardial infarction: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    PubMed

    Huaman, M A; Kryscio, R J; Fichtenbaum, C J; Henson, D; Salt, E; Sterling, T R; Garvy, B A

    2017-05-01

    Several pathogens have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Whether this occurs with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is unclear. We assessed if tuberculosis disease increased the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We identified patients with tuberculosis index claims from a large de-identified database of ~15 million adults enrolled in a U.S. commercial insurance policy between 2008 and 2010. Tuberculosis patients were 1:1 matched to patients without tuberculosis claims using propensity scores. We compared the occurrence of index AMI claims between the tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis cohorts using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox Proportional Hazard models. Data on 2026 patients with tuberculosis and 2026 propensity-matched patients without tuberculosis were included. AMI was more frequent in the tuberculosis cohort compared with the non-tuberculosis cohort, 67 (3·3%) vs. 32 (1·6%) AMI cases, respectively, P < 0·01. Tuberculosis was associated with an increased risk of AMI (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1·98, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1·3-3·0). The results were similar when the analysis was restricted to pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted HR 2·43, 95% CI 1·5-4·1). Tuberculosis was associated with an increased risk of AMI. CVD risk assessment should be considered in tuberculosis patients. Mechanistic studies of tuberculosis and CVD are warranted.

  2. Statin use and cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients developing a first myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin Bødtker; Kulenovic, Imra; Falk, Erling

    2016-05-27

    The risk for a first myocardial infarction (MI) in people with diabetes has been shown to be as high as the risk for a new MI in non-diabetic patients with a prior MI. Consequently, risk-reducing statin therapy is recommended for nearly all patients with diabetes 40 years of age or older, regardless of cholesterol level. The purpose of this study was to assess the recommended and real-life use of statins for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in diabetic patients who develop ASCVD. In a cross-sectional multicenter study of consecutive patients without previous ASCVD hospitalized with a first MI in 2010-2012, we obtained information on diabetic status, statin use, and cardiovascular risk factors prior to MI. The study population consisted of 1622 patients with first MI (63 % men), 228 of whom had known diabetes before MI. All but three of the diabetic patients were ≥40 years of age. Diabetic patients were older (70 vs 68, p = 0.006), were more often women (43 vs 36 %, p = 0.05) and had a higher prevalence of statin use (47 vs 11 %, p < 0.001) compared with non-diabetic patients. Despite a high risk factor burden, the majority (53 %) of patients with known diabetes was not treated with statins before MI, and there was no relationship between the number of high-risk markers and statin use. Nearly all diabetic patients not treated with statins before first MI had at least one marker of very high cardiovascular risk, including hypertension (71 %), current smoking (37 %), and nephropathy (33 %). Primary prevention with statins had been initiated in less than half of diabetic patients destined for a first MI, despite the presence of one or more markers of very high cardiovascular risk in nearly all. These results highlight an urgent need for optimizing statin therapy and global risk factor control in diabetic patients.

  3. Socioeconomic status and risk of acute myocardial infarction. Population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    González-Zobl, Griselda; Grau, María; Muñoz, Miguel A; Martí, Ruth; Sanz, Héctor; Sala, Joan; Masiá, Rafael; Rohlfs, Izabella; Ramos, Rafel; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto

    2010-09-01

    Socioeconomic status is associated with cardiovascular mortality. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and its various indicators and the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and to determine whether any association found is independent of the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). Study cases were matched with controls by age, sex and year of recruitment. Cases were recruited from a hospital register and controls from cross-sectional studies of the general population. The socioeconomic status was determined from educational level and social class, as indicated by occupation. Self-reported data were collected on the presence of CVRFs. The study included 1369 cases and controls. Both educational level and social class influenced AMI risk. Among non-manual workers, there was an inverse linear relationship between educational level and AMI risk independent of CVRFs: compared with university educated individuals, the odds ratio (OR) for an AMI among those with a high school education was 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-2.3), and among those with an elementary school education, 3.88 (95% CI, 2.79-5.39). No association between educational level and AMI risk was observed in manual workers. However, the AMI risk was higher in manual workers than non-manual university educated workers: in those with an elementary school education, the increased risk (OR=2.09; 95% CI, 1.59-2.75) was independent of CVRFs. An association was found between socioeconomic status and AMI risk. The AMI risk was greatest in individuals with only an elementary school education, irrespective of CVRFs and social class, as indicated by occupation.

  4. Myocardial infarction risk and occupational categories in Kaunas 25–64 year old men

    PubMed Central

    Malinauskiene, V; Grazuleviciene, R; Nieuwenhuijsen, M; Azaraviciene, A

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the risk of a first time myocardial infarction (MI) among different occupational categories in 25–64 year old men in Kaunas, Lithuania, a country in a transition market economy. Methods: Case-control study among men aged 25–64 who were residents in Kaunas between 1997 and 2000. First time, non-fatal MI cases (n = 448) were identified from the MI hospital register (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, code I21). Controls (n = 1777) were selected and matched on age, gender, and city district of residence. Information was obtained on occupation, smoking, hypertension, psychosocial, and behavioural factors. The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) was used to code for occupational categories. The relation between MI and occupational categories was evaluated by logistic regression analysis, adjusting for a number of selected risk factors. Results: Legislators, senior officials, and managers (1st ISCO category) had a twofold increased risk for MI compared to craft and related trades workers (7th ISCO category) after adjustment for age, district, smoking, hypertension, obesity, stress, education, and employment duration. An increased risk for professionals (2nd ISCO category) and plant and machine operators and assemblers (8th ISCO category) was also observed. Employment duration in the last occupation for 20 years and more almost doubled the risk of MI in the whole population. We also found an increased risk for other traditional IHD risk factors such as smoking and arterial hypertension. Conclusions: Differences in first time MI risk among occupational categories were found. Legislators, senior officials, and managers (1st ISCO category), professionals (2nd ISCO category), and plant and machine operators and assemblers (8th ISCO category) were at an increased risk. Differences in psychosocial factors in transition market economy countries may contribute to observed results. PMID:12409533

  5. Analysis of Risk Factors for Cerebral Microinfarcts after Carotid Endarterectomy and the Relevance of Delayed Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Gwon, Jun Gyo; Cho, Yong-Pil; Kang, Dong-Wha; Han, Youngjin; Noh, Minsu

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is performed to prevent cerebral infarction, but a common side effect is cerebral microinfarcts. This study aimed to identify the variables related to the production of microinfarcts during CEA as well as determine their association with delayed postoperative infarction. Methods This was a retrospective review of data collected prospectively from 548 patients who underwent CEA. The clinical characteristics of the patients and the incidence rates and causes of microinfarcts were analyzed. Microinfarcts were diagnosed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The presence of delayed postoperative infarction was compared between microinfarct-positive and microinfarct-negative groups. Results In total, 76 (13.86%) patients were diagnosed with microinfarcts. Preoperative neurological symptoms were significantly related to the incidence of microinfarcts [odds ratio (OR)=2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.72–5.00, p<0.001]. Shunt insertion during CEA was the only significant procedure-related risk factor (OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.00–2.19, p=0.05). The presence of microinfarcts did not significantly increase the incidence of delayed postoperative infarction (p=0.204). Conclusions In the present study, risk factors for microinfarcts after CEA included preoperative symptoms and intraoperative shunt insertion. Microinfarcts were not associated with delayed postoperative infarction. PMID:27730766

  6. Serum Resistin Levels May Contribute to an Increased Risk of Acute Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Liu; Xu, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xiu-Qing; Liu, Ting; Gao, Qiu-Yan; Qian, Qing-Qiang; Sun, Bao-Liang; Yang, Ming-Feng

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between serum resistin levels and acute cerebral infarction (ACI). PubMed, SpringerLink, Wiley, EBSCO, Ovid, Web of Science, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP databases (last updated search in October 2014) were exhaustively searched, and data from the eligible studies were extracted and analyzed to assess the association between serum resistin levels and ACI. STATA software (version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) was utilized for data analysis. Ten studies including 1829 ACI patients and 1557 healthy controls were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Our major result revealed that ACI patients exhibited higher serum resistin levels compared with healthy controls. Asubgroup analysis based on ethnicity showed a significant association between serum resistin levels and ACI in Asians, but surprisingly not in Caucasians. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that serum resistin levels are associated with an increased risk of ACI.

  7. Dietary inflammatory index and risk of first myocardial infarction; a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bodén, Stina; Wennberg, Maria; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lindahl, Bernt; Andersson, Jonas; Shivappa, Nitin; Hebert, James R; Nilsson, Lena Maria

    2017-04-04

    Chronic, low-grade inflammation is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The inflammatory impact of diet can be reflected by concentrations of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream and the inflammatory potential of diet can be estimated by the dietary inflammatory index (DII(TM)), which has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk in some previous studies. We aimed to examine the association between the DII and the risk of first myocardial infarction (MI) in a population-based study with long follow-up. We conducted a prospective case-control study of 1389 verified cases of first MI and 5555 matched controls nested within the population-based cohorts of the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS), of which the largest is the ongoing Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) with nearly 100 000 participants during the study period. Median follow-up from recruitment to MI diagnosis was 6.4 years (6.2 for men and 7.2 for women). DII scores were derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered in 1986-2006. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using quartile 1 (most anti-inflammatory diet) as the reference category. For validation, general linear models were used to estimate the association between the DII scores and two inflammatory markers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in a subset (n = 605) of the study population. Male participants with the most pro-inflammatory DII scores had an increased risk of MI [ORQ4vsQ1 = 1.57 (95% CI 1.21-2.02) P trend = 0.02], which was essentially unchanged after adjustment for potential confounders, including cardiovascular risk factors [ORQ4vsQ1 = 1.50 (95% CI 1.14-1.99), P trend = 0.10]. No association was found between DII and MI in women. An increase of one DII score unit was associated with 9% higher hsCRP (95% CI 0

  8. Prior myocardial infarction is the major risk factor associated with sudden cardiac death during downhill skiing.

    PubMed

    Burtscher, M; Pachinger, O; Mittleman, M A; Ulmer, H

    2000-11-01

    More than 90% of all sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) during downhill skiing, the most popular winter sport world-wide, are attributed to men over the age of 34. However, no data exist on additional risk factors and triggers for SCD related to downhill skiing. Therefore risk factor profiles of 68 males who died from SCD during downhill skiing were compared to those of 204 matched controls. Skiers who suffered SCD had much more frequently prior myocardial infarction (MI) (41% vs. 1.5%; p<0.001), hypertension (50% vs. 17%; p<0.001), known coronary heart disease (CHD) without prior MI (9% vs. 3%; p=0.05) and were less engaged in strenuous exercise (4% vs. 15%; p<0.05) when compared to controls. Multivariate analyses even enhanced the importance of these risk factors. Downhill skiing is considered to be a serious trigger for SCD especially in skiers with prior MI but also for those with hypertension, known CHD without prior MI, or insufficient adaptation to strenuous exercise. Skiing-related increased sympathetic activity might well disturb the autonomic balance with subsequent arrhythmias and/or may increase cardiac work and platelet aggregability with possible plaque rupture and coronary thrombosis. Therefore adaptation to high intensity exercise and therapeutic interventions or abstinence from skiing in certain cases should be considered for downhill skiers at high risk.

  9. Baldness and myocardial infarction in men: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Eyal; Heiss, Gerardo; Rosamond, Wayne D; Szklo, Moyses

    2008-03-15

    Because hair loss may be a surrogate measure of androgenic activity-possibly a determinant of coronary atherosclerosis-several studies have explored the presence and magnitude of an association between male pattern baldness and myocardial infarction (MI). In particular, vertex baldness, but not frontal baldness alone, was strongly associated with incident MI in a large, hospital-based, case-control study. The authors examined these associations in a cross-sectional sample of 5,056 men aged 52-75 years, of whom 767 had a history of MI. The sample was derived from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (1987-1998). As compared with a baldness-free reference group, the estimated odds ratios for prevalent MI from a multivariable model were 1.28 (frontal baldness), 1.02 (mild vertex baldness), 1.40 (moderate vertex baldness), and 1.18 (severe vertex baldness). Other regression models have yielded similar results, including the absence of a monotonic "dose-response relation" between the extent of vertex baldness and prevalent MI. The authors also examined the relation of baldness pattern to carotid intimal-medial thickness, a measure of atherosclerosis, among those who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The estimated mean differences in carotid intimal-medial thickness between groups of men with various types of baldness and their baldness-free counterparts were all close to zero. The results of this study suggest that male pattern baldness is not a surrogate measure of an important risk factor for myocardial infarction or asymptomatic atherosclerosis.

  10. Mitral stenosis as a risk factor for embolic myocardial infarction--anticoagulation for some patients, individual treatment for all.

    PubMed

    Liang, Michael; Kelly, Damian; Puri, Aniket; Devlin, Gerard

    2011-11-01

    A 28 year-old lady with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis presented with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction secondary to angiographically confirmed right coronary artery embolus with a likely source of mitral valve stenosis origin. This patient was successfully treated medically with dual anti-platelet and 72 hours of intravenous heparin, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor and eptifibitide (Integrilin) with a repeated coronary angiogram showing complete resolution of embolus. The management of embolic myocardial infarction is discussed along with the risks of embolism in patients with mitral stenosis who remain in sinus rhythm.

  11. Risk stratification of periprocedural myocardial infarction after percutaneous coronary intervention: Analysis based on the SCAI definition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Yiping; Yin, Dong; He, Yuan; Chen, Changzhe; Song, Chenxi; Yan, Ruohua; Zhu, Chen'gang; Xu, Bo; Dou, Kefei

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the predictors of and generate a risk prediction method for periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using the new PMI definition proposed by the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI). The SCAI-defined PMI was found to be associated with worse prognosis than the PMI diagnosed by other definitions. However, few large-sample studies have attempted to predict the risk of SCAI-defined PMI. A total of 3,371 patients (3,516 selective PCIs) were included in this single-center retrospective analysis. The diagnostic criteria for PMI were set according to the SCAI definition. All clinical characteristics, coronary angiography findings and PCI procedural factors were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of PMI. To evaluate the risk of PMI, a multivariable risk score (PMI score) was constructed with incremental weights attributed to each component variable according to their estimated coefficients. PMI occurred in 108 (3.1%) of all patients. Age, multivessel treatment, at least one bifurcation treatment and total treated lesion length were independent predictors of SCAI-defined PMI. PMI scores ranged from 0 to 20. The C-statistic of PMI score was 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.66-0.76). PMI rates increased significantly from 1.96% in the non-high-risk group (PMI score < 10) to 6.26% in the high-risk group (PMI score ≥ 10) (P < 0.001). Age, multivessel treatment, at least one bifurcation treatment, and total treated lesion length are predictive of PMI. The PMI score could help identify patients at high risk of PMI after PCI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Does the varied use of NSAIDs explain the differences in the risk of myocardial infarction?

    PubMed

    van Staa, T-P; Rietbrock, S; Setakis, E; Leufkens, H G M

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) with diclofenac, ibuprofen and naproxen, taking into account the exposure patterns. Retrospective cohort study using the General Practice Research Database. Setting. UK primary care. Subjects. Patients aged 40+ years prescribed a traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The control cohort was frequency matched by disease risk score. Observational comparisons of MI rates. The study included 729,294 NSAID users and 443,047 controls. The relative rate (RR) for MI increased with cumulative and daily dose (RR = 1.05 with 0-4 prior prescriptions and RR = 1.49 with 30+; RR = 1.05 with daily dose of < 1200 mg ibuprofen and RR = 1.96 with dose of > or = 2400 mg per day; for diclofenac, the RR was 1.13 with < 150 mg per day and 2.03 with > or = 300 mg per day). Diclofenac users had higher risks of MI (RR = 1.21) than ibuprofen (RR = 1.04) or naproxen (RR = 1.03) users, but exposure varied between these drugs. Taking into account these exposure differences, it was found that the risk of MI was comparable in current and past long-term users. The patterns of hazard rates (i.e. absolute risks) of MI were similar in patients using ibuprofen, diclofenac or naproxen with similar history of NSAID use. There was no statistical difference between ibuprofen, diclofenac and ibuprofen in the linear trends for cumulative dose or daily dose. Long-term users of traditional NSAIDs have an increased risk of MI that is probably explained by the underlying disease severity. Most of the differences in MI risk between diclofenac, ibuprofen or naproxen may be explained by their varied use.

  13. Could NLRP3-Inflammasome Be a Cardiovascular Risk Biomarker in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients?

    PubMed

    Bullón, Pedro; Cano-García, Francisco J; Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roman-Malo, Lourdes; Ruiz-Salmerón, Rafael J; Quiles, José L; Navarro-Pando, José M; Battino, Maurizio; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis J; Cordero, Mario D

    2017-01-20

    Conventional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) are accepted to identify asymptomatic individuals with high risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, AMI affects many patients previously classified at low risk. New biomarkers are needed to improve risk prediction. We propose to evaluate the NLRP3-inflammasome complex as a potential conventional cardiovascular risk (CVR) indicator in healthy males and post-AMI patients and compare both groups by known CVRFs. We included 109 men with no history of cardiovascular disease (controls) and 150 AMI patients attending a cardiac rehabilitation program. AMI patients had higher mean of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference than the controls. However, high percentages of the controls had a high BMI and a waist circumference >95 cm. The controls also had higher systolic blood pressure (p > 0.001), total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, dietary nutrient, and calorific intake. Fuster BEWAT score (FBS) correlated more closely than Framingham risk score (FRS) with most CVRF, groups. However, only the FBS showed a correlation with inflammasome cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β). Several CVRFs were significantly better in AMI patients; however, this group also had higher mRNA expression of the inflammasome gene NLRP3 and lower expression of the autophagy gene MAP-LC3. The controls had high levels of CVRF, probably reflecting unhealthy lifestyle. FBS reflects the efficiency of strategies to induce lifestyle changes such as cardiac rehabilitation programs, and could provide a sensitive evaluation CVR. These results lead to the hypothesis that NLRP3-inflammasome and associated IL-1β release have potential as CVR biomarkers, particularly in post-AMI patients with otherwise low risk scores. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  14. Proton Pump Inhibitor Usage and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Ghebremariam, Yohannes T.; Iyer, Srinivasan V.; Marcus, Jake; Nead, Kevin T.; Cooke, John P.; Leeper, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes amongst clopidogrel users after an acute coronary syndrome. Recent pre-clinical results suggest that this risk might extend to subjects without any prior history of cardiovascular disease. We explore this potential risk in the general population via data-mining approaches. Methods Using a novel approach for mining clinical data for pharmacovigilance, we queried over 16 million clinical documents on 2.9 million individuals to examine whether PPI usage was associated with cardiovascular risk in the general population. Results In multiple data sources, we found gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients exposed to PPIs to have a 1.16 fold increased association (95% CI 1.09–1.24) with myocardial infarction (MI). Survival analysis in a prospective cohort found a two-fold (HR = 2.00; 95% CI 1.07–3.78; P = 0.031) increase in association with cardiovascular mortality. We found that this association exists regardless of clopidogrel use. We also found that H2 blockers, an alternate treatment for GERD, were not associated with increased cardiovascular risk; had they been in place, such pharmacovigilance algorithms could have flagged this risk as early as the year 2000. Conclusions Consistent with our pre-clinical findings that PPIs may adversely impact vascular function, our data-mining study supports the association of PPI exposure with risk for MI in the general population. These data provide an example of how a combination of experimental studies and data-mining approaches can be applied to prioritize drug safety signals for further investigation. PMID:26061035

  15. Chocolate consumption and risk of myocardial infarction: a prospective study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Åkesson, Agneta; Gigante, Bruna; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-07-01

    To examine whether chocolate consumption is associated with a reduced risk of ischaemic heart disease, we used data from a prospective study of Swedish adults and we performed a meta-analysis of available prospective data. The Swedish prospective study included 67 640 women and men from the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort who had completed a food-frequency questionnaire and were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Myocardial infarction (MI) cases were ascertained through linkage with the Swedish National Patient and Cause of Death Registers. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched from inception until 4 February 2016 to identify prospective studies on chocolate consumption and risk of ischaemic heart disease. The results from eligible studies were combined using a random-effects model. During follow-up (1998-2010), 4417 MI cases were ascertained in the Swedish study. Chocolate consumption was inversely associated with MI risk. Compared with non-consumers, the multivariable relative risk for those who consumed ≥3-4 servings/week of chocolate was 0.87 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.98; p for trend =0.04). Five prospective studies on chocolate consumption and ischaemic heart disease were identified. Together with the Swedish study, the meta-analysis included six studies with a total of 6851 ischaemic heart disease cases. The overall relative risk for the highest versus lowest category of chocolate consumption was 0.90 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.97), with little heterogeneity among studies (I(2)=24.3%). Chocolate consumption is associated with lower risk of MI and ischaemic heart disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Hypothesis-based analysis of gene-gene interactions and risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Gavin; Lluís-Ganella, Carla; Subirana, Isaac; Musameh, Muntaser D; Gonzalez, Juan Ramon; Nelson, Christopher P; Sentí, Mariano; Schwartz, Stephen M; Siscovick, David; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Melander, Olle; Salomaa, Veikko; Purcell, Shaun; Altshuler, David; Samani, Nilesh J; Kathiresan, Sekar; Elosua, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The genetic loci that have been found by genome-wide association studies to modulate risk of coronary heart disease explain only a fraction of its total variance, and gene-gene interactions have been proposed as a potential source of the remaining heritability. Given the potentially large testing burden, we sought to enrich our search space with real interactions by analyzing variants that may be more likely to interact on the basis of two distinct hypotheses: a biological hypothesis, under which MI risk is modulated by interactions between variants that are known to be relevant for its risk factors; and a statistical hypothesis, under which interacting variants individually show weak marginal association with MI. In a discovery sample of 2,967 cases of early-onset myocardial infarction (MI) and 3,075 controls from the MIGen study, we performed pair-wise SNP interaction testing using a logistic regression framework. Despite having reasonable power to detect interaction effects of plausible magnitudes, we observed no statistically significant evidence of interaction under these hypotheses, and no clear consistency between the top results in our discovery sample and those in a large validation sample of 1,766 cases of coronary heart disease and 2,938 controls from the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium. Our results do not support the existence of strong interaction effects as a common risk factor for MI. Within the scope of the hypotheses we have explored, this study places a modest upper limit on the magnitude that epistatic risk effects are likely to have at the population level (odds ratio for MI risk 1.3-2.0, depending on allele frequency and interaction model).

  17. Coffee reduces the risk of death after acute myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Oliver I; Allgar, Victoria; Wong, Kenneth Y-K

    2016-11-01

    Habitual coffee consumption is protective against coronary heart disease in women; however, it is not clear whether such cardioprotection is conferred on those who have already experienced an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Our aim was to investigate whether coffee consumption affected mortality after AMI. We carried out a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies that examined the relationship between coffee intake and mortality after an AMI. Using a defined-search strategy, electronic databases (MEDLINE and Embase) were searched for papers published between 1946 and 2015. Two eligible studies investigating post-AMI mortality risk against coffee consumption were identified and assessed using set criteria. Combined, these studies recruited a total of 3271 patients and 604 died. The hazard ratios for the following experimental groups were defined: light coffee drinkers (1-2 cups/day) versus noncoffee drinkers, heavy coffee drinkers (>2 cups/day) versus noncoffee drinkers and heavy coffee drinkers versus light coffee drinkers. A statistically significant inverse correlation was observed between coffee drinking and mortality; all three groups showed a significant reduction in risk ratio. Light coffee drinkers versus noncoffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.79 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.94, P=0.008]; heavy coffee drinkers versus noncoffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.45-0.65, P<0.00001); and heavy coffee drinkers versus light coffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.58-0.83, P<0.0001). Drinking coffee habitually following AMI was associated with a reduced risk of mortality.

  18. Risk of anxiety and depressive disorders in patients with myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hsin-Pei; Chien, Wu-Chien; Cheng, Wei-Tung; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Tzeng, Wen-Chii

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with adverse cardiovascular events after an acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, most studies focusing on anxiety or depression have used rating scales or self-report methods rather than clinical diagnosis. This study aimed to investigate the association between psychiatrist-diagnosed psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular prognosis. We sampled data from the National Health Insurance Research Database; 1396 patients with MI were recruited as the study cohort and 13,960 patients without MI were recruited as the comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the effect of MI on the risk of anxiety and depressive disorders. During the first 2 years of follow-up, patients with MI exhibited a significantly higher risk of anxiety disorders (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 5.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.61–5.54) and depressive disorders (adjusted HR = 7.23, 95% CI: 4.88–10.88) than those without MI did. Greater risk for anxiety and depressive disorders was observed among women and patients aged 45 to 64 years following an acute MI. Patients with post-MI anxiety had a 9.37-fold (95% CI: 4.45–19.70) higher risk of recurrent MI than those without MI did after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and comorbidities. This nationwide population-based cohort study provides evidence that MI increases the risk of anxiety and depressive disorders during the first 2 years post-MI, and post-MI anxiety disorders are associated with a higher risk of recurrent MI. PMID:27559951

  19. Heart healthy diet and risk of myocardial infarction and venous thromboembolism. The Tromsø Study.

    PubMed

    Hansen-Krone, Ida J; Enga, Kristin F; Njølstad, Inger; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Braekkan, Sigrid K

    2012-09-01

    Prudent dietary patterns are associated with reduced risk of arterial cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Limited data exist on the relation between diet and venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of our prospective, population based study was to investigate the association of a heart healthy diet on risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and VTE. Information on dietary habits was available in 18,062 subjects, aged 25-69, who participated in the fourth Tromsø study, 1994-1995. Dietary patterns were assessed by a slightly modified version of the validated SmartDiet score; a 13-item questionnaire producing a diet score based on the intakes of fat, fibre, fruit and vegetables. Incident events of MI (n=518) and VTE (n=172) were recorded to the end of follow-up December 31, 2005 (median follow-up 10.8 years). Cox-regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR). A healthy diet score of >27 points (upper tertile) was associated with 17% reduced risk of MI (HR: 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66-1.06), and no association with VTE (HR: 1.01; 95%CI: 0.66-1.56), compared to <24 points (lower tertile) in multivariable analysis. High intake of fish, fruit, vegetables and polyunsatured fat had a 23% reduced risk of MI (HR 0.77; 95%CI: 0.60-0.98), but no association with VTE (HR 0.95; 95%CI: 0.64-1.40). A heart healthy diet showed an even more favourable association with MI in obese subjects (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.41-0.95), but not with VTE. Our findings suggest that a heart healthy dietary pattern is associated with moderately reduced risk of MI, but not related to risk of VTE.

  20. Using decision trees to manage hospital readmission risk for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, John P; Zasadil, Scott; Keyser, Donna J; Peele, Pamela B

    2014-12-01

    To improve healthcare quality and reduce costs, the Affordable Care Act places hospitals at financial risk for excessive readmissions associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), and pneumonia (PN). Although predictive analytics is increasingly looked to as a means for measuring, comparing, and managing this risk, many modeling tools require data inputs that are not readily available and/or additional resources to yield actionable information. This article demonstrates how hospitals and clinicians can use their own structured discharge data to create decision trees that produce highly transparent, clinically relevant decision rules for better managing readmission risk associated with AMI, HF, and PN. For illustrative purposes, basic decision trees are trained and tested using publically available data from the California State Inpatient Databases and an open-source statistical package. As expected, these simple models perform less well than other more sophisticated tools, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (or AUC) of 0.612, 0.583, and 0.650, respectively, but achieve a lift of at least 1.5 or greater for higher-risk patients with any of the three conditions. More importantly, they are shown to offer substantial advantages in terms of transparency and interpretability, comprehensiveness, and adaptability. By enabling hospitals and clinicians to identify important factors associated with readmissions, target subgroups of patients at both high and low risk, and design and implement interventions that are appropriate to the risk levels observed, decision trees serve as an ideal application for addressing the challenge of reducing hospital readmissions.

  1. Asthma Status and Risk of Incident Myocardial Infarction: A population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Duk Won; Wi, Chung-Il; Kim, Eun Na; Hagan, John; Roger, Veronique; Manemann, Sheila; Lahr, Brian; Ryu, Euijung; Juhn, Young J

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of asthma status and characteristics of asthma in the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) are poorly understood. Objective We determined whether asthma and its characteristics are associated with risk of MI. Methods The study was designed as a population-based retrospective case-control study, which included all eligible incident MI cases between November 1, 2002, and May 31, 2006, and their matched controls. Asthma was ascertained using predetermined criteria. Active (current) asthma was defined as the occurrence of asthma-related episodes (asthma symptoms, use of asthma medications, unscheduled medical or emergency department visit, or hospitalization for asthma) within one year prior to MI index date. Results There were 543 eligible incident MI cases during the study period. Of the 543 MI cases, 81 (15%) had a history of asthma prior to index date of MI whereas 52 of 543 controls (10%) had such a history (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.06–2.66) adjusting for risk factors for MI and comorbid conditions (excluding chronic obstructive lung disease). While inactive asthma did not increase the risk of MI, individuals with active asthma had a higher odds of MI, compared to those without asthma (adjusted OR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.57–6.44) without controlling for COPD. After adjusting for COPD, although asthma overall was no longer statistically significant (adjusted OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 0.84–2.15), active asthma still was associated (adjusted OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.12–4.82). Conclusion Active asthma is an unrecognized risk factor for MI. Further studies are needed to assess the role of asthma control and medications in the risk of MI. PMID:27157653

  2. High-risk carotid plaques identified by CT-angiogram can predict acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, Wassim; Adib, Keenan; Natdanai, Punnanithinont; Carmona-Rubio, Andres; Karki, Roshan; Paily, Jacienta; Ahmed, Mohamed Abdel-Aal; Vakkalanka, Sujit; Madam, Narasa; Gudleski, Gregory D; Chung, Charles; Sharma, Umesh C

    2017-04-01

    Prior studies identified the incremental value of non-invasive imaging by CT-angiogram (CTA) to detect high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Due to their superficial locations, larger calibers and motion-free imaging, the carotid arteries provide the best anatomic access for the non-invasive characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. We aim to assess the ability of predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) or acute myocardial infarction (MI) based on high-risk carotid plaque features identified by CTA. We retrospectively examined carotid CTAs of 492 patients that presented with acute stroke to characterize the atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid arteries and examined development of acute MI and obstructive CAD within 12-months. Carotid lesions were defined in terms of calcifications (large or speckled), presence of low-attenuation plaques, positive remodeling, and presence of napkin ring sign. Adjusted relative risks were calculated for each plaque features. Patients with speckled (<3 mm) calcifications and/or larger calcifications on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year compared to patients without (adjusted RR of 7.51, 95%CI 1.26-73.42, P = 0.001). Patients with low-attenuation plaques on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year than patients without (adjusted RR of 2.73, 95%CI 1.19-8.50, P = 0.021). Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques also portended higher sensitivity (100 and 79.17%, respectively) for the development of acute MI. Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques can predict the risk of developing acute MI and/or obstructive CAD within 12-months. Given their high sensitivity, their absence can reliably exclude 12-month events.

  3. [Short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture following acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-ying; Qiu, Hong; Qiao, Shu-bin; Kang, Lian-ming; Song, Lei; Zhang, Jun; Tan, Xiao-yan; Ye, Shao-dong; Feng, Lei; Wu, Yuan; Wang, Guo-gan; Yang, Yue-jin; Gao, Run-lin; Chen, Zai-jia

    2013-03-01

    To analyze the short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture (VSR) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A total of 70 consecutive VSR patients following AMI hospitalized in our hospital from January 2002 to October 2010 were enrolled in this study. We compared the clinical characteristics of patients with VSR who survived ≤ 30 days (n = 39) and survived > 30 days (n = 31) post AMI. A short-term prognosis index of VSR (SPIV) was established based on the logistic regression analysis. The single factor analysis showed that the risk factors of death within 30 days of VSR patients were female, anterior AMI, Killip class 3 or 4, apical VSR and non-aneurysm (all P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that female (P = 0.013), anterior AMI (P = 0.023), non-aneurysm (P = 0.023), non-diabetes (P = 0.009), Killip class 3 or 4 (P = 0.022) and time from AMI to VSR less than 4 days (P = 0.027) were independent risk determinants for death within 30 days post VSR. Patients with SPIV ≥ 9 were associated with high risk [77.4% (24/31)] of dying within 30 days post AMI. SPIV ≤ 8 were associated with low risk as the 30 days mortality is 28.6% (8/28). Female gender, anterior AMI, non-aneurysm, non-diabetes, Killip class 3 or 4 and time from AMI to VSR less than 4 days are independent risk factors of short-term mortality of VSR.

  4. Noninvasive risk stratification after myocardial infarction: Rationale, current evidence and the need for definitive trials

    PubMed Central

    Exner, Derek V

    2009-01-01

    Despite advances in therapies for myocardial infarction (MI), death attributed to a cardiac arrest from ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) remains an important problem. The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is effective in preventing death from VT/VF, but reliably identifying which post-MI patients would benefit from an ICD remains a major challenge. Beyond the initial post-MI period, the presence of significant left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, alone or in combination with the induction of sustained VT/VF during invasive testing, is the only proven means of selecting patients for a prophylactic ICD. However, these approaches identify only a fraction of those at risk. Furthermore, most patients with significant LV dysfunction after MI have a low, near-term risk of VT/VF. Noninvasive risk stratification tools have been developed to better identify patients likely to benefit from an ICD. To date, none of these tools has been proven useful in this regard. The factors leading to a cardiac arrest are complex, and a single test is unlikely to reliably predict risk. Noninvasive assessment of cardiac structure, conduction and repolarization along with autonomic modulation appear to be useful in predicting the risk of a cardiac arrest after MI, particularly when assessed in combination. However, randomized trials assessing the efficacy of ICD therapy in patients identified as being at risk are required. Until such data are available, significant LV dysfunction alone and in combination with the induction of VT/VF during invasive testing in the nonacute post-MI period remain the only proven methods to guide prophylactic ICD therapy. PMID:19521570

  5. Summertime extreme heat events and increased risk of acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jared A; Jiang, Chengsheng; Soneja, Sutyajeet I; Mitchell, Clifford; Puett, Robin C; Sapkota, Amir

    2017-02-08

    Few studies have examined the association between exposure to extreme heat events and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or demonstrated which populations are most vulnerable to the effects of extreme heat. We defined extreme heat events as days when the daily maximum temperature (TMAX) exceeded the location- and calendar day-specific 95th percentile of the distribution of daily TMAX during the 30-year baseline period (1960-1989). We used a time-stratified case-crossover design to analyze the association between exposure to extreme heat events and risk of hospitalization for AMI in the summer months (June-August) with 0, 1, or 2 lag days. There were a total of 32,670 AMI hospitalizations during the summer months in Maryland between 2000 and 2012. Overall, extreme heat events on the day of hospitalization were associated with an increased risk of AMI (lag 0 OR=1.11; 95% CI: 1.05-1.17). Results considering lag periods immediately before hospitalization were comparable, but effect estimates varied among several population subgroups. As extreme weather events are expected to become more frequent and intense in response to our changing climate, community-specific adaptation strategies are needed to account for the differential susceptibility across ethnic subgroups and geographic areas.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 8 February 2017; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.83.

  6. Psychosocial work environment and myocardial infarction: improving risk estimation by combining two complementary job stress models in the SHEEP Study.

    PubMed

    Peter, R; Siegrist, J; Hallqvist, J; Reuterwall, C; Theorell, T

    2002-04-01

    Associations between two alternative formulations of job stress derived from the effort-reward imbalance and the job strain model and first non-fatal acute myocardial infarction were studied. Whereas the job strain model concentrates on situational (extrinsic) characteristics the effort-reward imbalance model analyses distinct person (intrinsic) characteristics in addition to situational ones. In view of these conceptual differences the hypothesis was tested that combining information from the two models improves the risk estimation of acute myocardial infarction. 951 male and female myocardial infarction cases and 1147 referents aged 45-64 years of The Stockholm Heart Epidemiology (SHEEP) case-control study underwent a clinical examination. Information on job stress and health adverse behaviours was derived from standardised questionnaires. Multivariate analysis showed moderately increased odds ratios for either model. Yet, with respect to the effort-reward imbalance model gender specific effects were found: in men the extrinsic component contributed to risk estimation, whereas this was the case with the intrinsic component in women. Controlling each job stress model for the other in order to test the independent effect of either approach did not show systematically increased odds ratios. An improved estimation of acute myocardial infarction risk resulted from combining information from the two models by defining groups characterised by simultaneous exposure to effort-reward imbalance and job strain (men: odds ratio 2.02 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.34 to 3.07); women odds ratio 2.19 (95% CI 1.11 to 4.28)). Findings show an improved risk estimation of acute myocardial infarction by combining information from the two job stress models under study. Moreover, gender specific effects of the two components of the effort-reward imbalance model were observed.

  7. Biophysical and Biochemical Screening for the Risk of Preterm Labor: An Update.

    PubMed

    Wax, Joseph R; Cartin, Angelina; Pinette, Michael G

    2016-06-01

    The heterogeneous causes of spontaneous preterm birth make prediction and prevention difficult. Recently developed biochemical and biophysical tests add significantly to clinicians' ability to evaluate and treat women at risk for spontaneous preterm birth. The primary importance of transvaginal cervical sonography and cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin lies in the high negative predictive values of the tests for preterm delivery risk. Cervical length may be useful in identifying women who are candidates for cervical cerclage or progesterone therapy for preterm birth prevention. Together, cervical length and fibronectin can be used in the triaging of women symptomatic for preterm labor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the descendants of patients after early myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Mateřánková, Markéta; Karnosová, Petra; Mlíková Seidlerová, Jitka; Filipovský, Jan; Mayer, Otto

    2017-01-01

    The cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) developing as the result of atherosclerosis are among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality within the Czech Republic and elsewhere. Genetic predisposition for cardiovascular diseases is amplified in the presence of routine risk factors which can be influenced. Our aim was to establish whether the level of the risk factors for ICHS already differs in the population of healthy descendants of the patients after early myocardial infarction, as opposed to the control group of examined individuals. We approached adult children (n = 127; age 28.7 ± 6.5 years) of the patients with early manifestation of ICHS, who were examined within the study EUROASPIRE IV. The examination of both the descendants and the control group (n = 199; age 28.9 ± 5.3 years) focused on identifying the risk factors for ICHS. Descendants presented arterial hypertension more often (18.9 vs 8.0 %, p = 0.003) and there were more smokers among them compared to the control group (37 vs 24.1 %, p = 0.01). The levels of triglycerides (1.13 vs 0.99 mmol/l, p = 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (2.7 vs 2.45 mmol/l, p = 0.01) were higher in the descendant group, HDL-cholesterol was similar in both groups (1.6 vs 1.67 mmol/l, p = 0.17). Increased fasting glycemia occurred more frequent in the descendant group (5.5 vs 1.5 %, p = 0.05). None of the examined participants met the criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Aortic stiffness was higher in the descendant group as opposed to the control group (6.2 vs 5.8 m/s, p = 0.001). The total calculated cardiovascular risk based on the SCORE system was also higher in the descendant group as compared to the control group - the current risk related to the age of 40 years: 0.35 (0.19-0.64) vs 0.20 (0.13-0.47), p < 0.0001 and the risk related to the age of 60 years: 3.35 (2.23-5.36) vs 2.40 (1.58-4.11), p < 0.0001. The population of the descendants includes, based on our results, a greater number of smokers and

  9. Risk factor profiles of stroke, myocardial infarction, and atrial fibrillation: a Japanese Multicenter Cooperative Registry.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Shibata, Yoshisato; Hirabayashi, Takayuki; Mihara, Ban; Hamashige, Naohisa; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Goto, Shinya; Origasa, Hideki; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Isozaki, Mitsuhiro; Ikeda, Yasuo

    2010-05-01

    We sought to clarify risk factor profiles and current treatment of Japanese patients with stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) using the database of the Japan Thrombosis Registry for Atrial Fibrillation, Coronary, or Cerebrovascular Events (J-TRACE). J-TRACE is a nationwide multicenter cooperative cohort of Japanese patients with MI, stroke, and NVAF. Baseline characteristics of 8087 Japanese patients (5804 male, average age 68.7 years) with history of stroke (n=3554), MI (n=2291), or NVAF (n=2242) were analyzed. History of stroke (14.7%) was more frequent than history of MI (2.6%) in patients with stroke, whereas history of stroke (6.6%) was less frequent than history of MI (7.6%) in patients with MI. In patients with NVAF, history of stroke (14.3%) was far more frequent than history of MI (3.4%). Hypertension was more frequent in stroke (74.4%) than MI (62.0%) or NVAF (57.7%), whereas hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and cigarette smoking were more prevalent in patients with MI (56.1%, 35.1%, and 33.3%, respectively) than in those with stroke (35.7%, 22.4%, and 19.7%, respectively) or NVAF (26.9%, 17.2%, and 16.1%, respectively). Alcohol consumption (34.9%) and obesity (body mass index>25) (32.8%) were most common in patients with NVAF. In all patients, nonmedication rates were higher in patients with hypercholesterolemia (29.8%) or diabetes (36.9%) than in those with hypertension (9.5%). Warfarin was used in 58.9% of patients with low-risk and 75.4% with high-risk NVAF. Risk factor profiles and their modification were not similar among patients in Japan with MI, stroke, and NVAF, although they share a high risk of thrombotic events. Copyright (c) 2010 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Substitution of meat and fish with vegetables or potatoes and risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Anne M L; Hansen, Mette D; Tjønneland, Anne; Rimm, Eric B; Schmidt, Erik B; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2016-11-01

    Red meat has been suggested to be adversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), whereas vegetable consumption has been found to be protective. The aim of this study was to investigate substitutions of red meat, poultry and fish with vegetables or potatoes for MI prevention. We followed up 29 142 women and 26 029 men in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study aged 50-64 years with no known history of MI at baseline. Diet was assessed by a validated 192-item FFQ at baseline. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for MI associated with specified food substitutions of 150 g/week. During a median follow-up of 13·6 years, we identified 656 female and 1694 male cases. Among women, the HR for MI when replacing red meat with vegetables was 0·94 (95 % CI 0·90, 0·98). Replacing fatty fish with vegetables was associated with a higher risk of MI (HR 1·23; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·45), whereas an inverse, statistically non-significant association was found for lean fish (HR 0·93; 95 % CI 0·83, 1·05). Substituting poultry with vegetables was not associated with risk of MI (HR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·90, 1·11). Findings for substitution with potatoes were similar to findings for vegetables. Among men, a similar pattern was observed, but the associations were weak and mostly statistically non-significant. This study suggests that replacing red meat with vegetables or potatoes is associated with a lower risk of MI, whereas replacing fatty fish with vegetables or potatoes is associated with a higher risk of MI.

  11. Biochemical Recurrence Prediction in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients, Following Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Noriya; Yumioka, Tetsuya; Iwamoto, Hideto; Masago, Toshihiko; Morizane, Shuichi; Honda, Masashi; Sejima, Takehiro; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Background High-risk prostate cancer treatment has been controversial. Some high-risk prostate cancer patients fail to respond to radical prostatectomy only. Thus, we aimed to investigate the predictive factors for biochemical recurrence (BCR) and identify patients who could achieve sufficient therapeutic effect by radical prostatectomy only. Methods Of 264 medical records reviewed, 141 low-intermediate-risk and 100 high-risk prostate cancer patients, excluding those who had received neoadjuvant hormone therapy, were analyzed. BCR was defined as the first increase in prostate-specific antigen levels (≥ 0.2 ng/mL), with levels not decreasing to undetectable limits, after radical prostatectomy. Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to determine the prognostic factors. We investigated the perioperative predictive factors for BCR and BCR-free survival rates, with the number of National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) high-risk factors for high-risk prostate cancer patients who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Results Multivariate analyses showed that clinical T3 was significantly associated with BCR [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.052; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26–12.99; P = 0.019]. Of the 100 patients, 77 had 1 high-risk factor and 23 had ≥ 2 high-risk factors; the 1-year BCR-free survival rate of patients with 1 high-risk factor and those with ≥ 2 high-risk factors was 94.8% and 69.6%, respectively. Patients with ≥ 2 high-risk factors were significantly associated with BCR (P = 0.002). No difference in BCR rate between patients with 1 high-risk factor and those with low- and intermediate-risk was found. Conclusion High-risk prostate cancer patients with 1 NCCN high-risk factor can be considered for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy treatment only. PMID:28070166

  12. Family history of myocardial infarction and cause-specific risk of myocardial infarction and venous thromboembolism: the Tromsø Study.

    PubMed

    Lind, Caroline; Enga, Kristin F; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Njølstad, Inger; Brækkan, Sigrid K; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2014-10-01

    A family history of myocardial infarction (FHMI) has been shown to increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The mechanism underlying the association remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to determine the risks of MI and VTE by FHMI using a cause-specific model and to explore whether atherosclerotic risk factors could explain the association between FHMI and VTE in a population-based cohort. The study included 21 624 subjects recruited from the Tromsø Study in 1994 to 1995 and 2001 to 2002. Incident MI and VTE events were registered from date of enrollment to end of follow-up, December 31, 2010. There were 1311 MIs and 428 VTEs during a median follow-up of 15.8 years. FHMI was associated with a 52% increased risk of MI (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-1.70) and a 26% increased risk of VTE (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.55) in the cause-specific Cox model. Similar results were found using the traditional Cox model. The risk estimates by status of FHMI were highest for unprovoked deep vein thrombosis (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.56), and the risk increased with increasing number of affected relatives. Modifiable atherosclerotic risk factors slightly altered the association between FHMI and MI but had a negligible effect on the association between FHMI and VTE. FHMI was associated with increased risk of both MI and VTE in a cause-specific model. Apparently, the association between FHMI and VTE applied to unprovoked deep vein thrombosis and was not explained by modifiable atherosclerotic risk factors. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Opioid use for noncancer pain and risk of myocardial infarction amongst adults.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Setoguchi, S; Cabral, H; Jick, S

    2013-05-01

    With increasing use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain comes concern about safety of this class of drugs. Opioid-induced hypogonadism, which could increase the risk for myocardial infarction (MI), has recently come to the attention of clinicians. To evaluate this concern we examined the association between opioid use for noncancer pain and risk of MI amongst adults. We conducted a nested case-control study using the UK General Practice Research Database. Amongst 1.7 million opioid users during 1990-2008, we identified 11 693 incident MI cases aged 18-80 years, and randomly selected up to four controls matched by age, gender, index date (date of onset symptoms or diagnosis of first-ever MI) and general practice via risk-set sampling. Cases and controls were required to have no cancer and no major risk factors for MI before the index date. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from conditional logistic regression. Compared with nonuse, current use of opioids was associated with a 1.28-fold (95% CI 1.19-1.37) risk of MI. Cumulative use of opioids with 11-50 (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.28-1.49) or > 50 (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11-1.40) prescriptions, was also marginally associated with increased risk of MI. The risk was particularly increased in users of morphine (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.09-2.68), meperidine (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.24-3.74) and polytherapy (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.22-1.76). Current use of any opioids and cumulative use of 11 or more prescriptions are associated with a small increased risk for MI compared to nonuse and the risk was greater in morphine, meperidine and polytherapy users. Residual confounding, particularly confounding by indication, should be considered in interpreting our results. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  14. Exome sequencing identifies rare LDLR and APOA5 alleles conferring risk for myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Do, Ron; Stitziel, Nathan O; Won, Hong-Hee; Jørgensen, Anders Berg; Duga, Stefano; Angelica Merlini, Pier; Kiezun, Adam; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Zuk, Or; Guella, Illaria; Asselta, Rosanna; Lange, Leslie A; Peloso, Gina M; Auer, Paul L; Girelli, Domenico; Martinelli, Nicola; Farlow, Deborah N; DePristo, Mark A; Roberts, Robert; Stewart, Alexander F R; Saleheen, Danish; Danesh, John; Epstein, Stephen E; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Hovingh, G Kees; Kastelein, John J; Samani, Nilesh J; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Shah, Svati H; Kraus, William E; Davies, Robert; Nikpay, Majid; Johansen, Christopher T; Wang, Jian; Hegele, Robert A; Hechter, Eliana; Marz, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E; Huang, Jie; Johnson, Andrew D; Li, Mingyao; Burke, Greg L; Gross, Myron; Liu, Yongmei; Assimes, Themistocles L; Heiss, Gerardo; Lange, Ethan M; Folsom, Aaron R; Taylor, Herman A; Olivieri, Oliviero; Hamsten, Anders; Clarke, Robert; Reilly, Dermot F; Yin, Wu; Rivas, Manuel A; Donnelly, Peter; Rossouw, Jacques E; Psaty, Bruce M; Herrington, David M; Wilson, James G; Rich, Stephen S; Bamshad, Michael J; Tracy, Russell P; Cupples, L Adrienne; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Spertus, John A; Cresci, Sharon; Hartiala, Jaana; Tang, W H Wilson; Hazen, Stanley L; Allayee, Hooman; Reiner, Alex P; Carlson, Christopher S; Kooperberg, Charles; Jackson, Rebecca D; Boerwinkle, Eric; Lander, Eric S; Schwartz, Stephen M; Siscovick, David S; McPherson, Ruth; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Watkins, Hugh; Nickerson, Deborah A; Ardissino, Diego; Sunyaev, Shamil R; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Altshuler, David; Gabriel, Stacey; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2015-02-05

    Myocardial infarction (MI), a leading cause of death around the world, displays a complex pattern of inheritance. When MI occurs early in life, genetic inheritance is a major component to risk. Previously, rare mutations in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) genes have been shown to contribute to MI risk in individual families, whereas common variants at more than 45 loci have been associated with MI risk in the population. Here we evaluate how rare mutations contribute to early-onset MI risk in the population. We sequenced the protein-coding regions of 9,793 genomes from patients with MI at an early age (≤50 years in males and ≤60 years in females) along with MI-free controls. We identified two genes in which rare coding-sequence mutations were more frequent in MI cases versus controls at exome-wide significance. At low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 4.2-fold increased risk for MI; carriers of null alleles at LDLR were at even higher risk (13-fold difference). Approximately 2% of early MI cases harbour a rare, damaging mutation in LDLR; this estimate is similar to one made more than 40 years ago using an analysis of total cholesterol. Among controls, about 1 in 217 carried an LDLR coding-sequence mutation and had plasma LDL cholesterol > 190 mg dl(-1). At apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 2.2-fold increased risk for MI. When compared with non-carriers, LDLR mutation carriers had higher plasma LDL cholesterol, whereas APOA5 mutation carriers had higher plasma triglycerides. Recent evidence has connected MI risk with coding-sequence mutations at two genes functionally related to APOA5, namely lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein C-III (refs 18, 19). Combined, these observations suggest that, as well as LDL cholesterol, disordered metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contributes to MI risk.

  15. Risks of Myocardial Infarction, Death, and Diabetes in Identical Twin Pairs With Different Body Mass Indexes.

    PubMed

    Nordström, Peter; Pedersen, Nancy L; Gustafson, Yngve; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nordström, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Observational studies have shown that obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death. The extent of genetic confounding in these associations is unclear. To compare the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), type 2 diabetes, and death in monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for body mass index (BMI). A cohort of 4046 MZ twin pairs with discordant BMIs (difference >0.01) was identified using the nationwide Swedish twin registry. The study was conducted from March 17, 1998, to January 16, 2003, with follow-up regarding incident outcomes until December 31, 2013. The combined primary end point of death or MI and the secondary end point of incident diabetes were evaluated in heavier compared with leaner twins in a co-twin control analysis using multivariable conditional logistic regression. Mean (SD) baseline age for both cohorts was 57.6 (9.5) years (range, 41.9-91.8 years). During a mean follow-up period of 12.4 (2.5) years, 203 MIs (5.0%) and 550 deaths (13.6%) occurred among heavier twins (mean [SD] BMI, 25.9 [3.6] [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]) compared with 209 MIs (5.2%) and 633 deaths (15.6%) among leaner twins (mean [SD] BMI, 23.9 [3.1]; combined multivariable adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63-0.91). Even in twin pairs with BMI discordance of 7.0 or more (mean [SE], 9.3 [0.7]), where the heavier twin had a BMI of 30.0 or more (n = 65 pairs), the risk of MI or death was not greater in heavier twins (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.15-1.18). In contrast, in the total cohort of twins, the risk of incident diabetes was greater in heavier twins (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.61-2.84). Finally, increases in BMI since 30 years before baseline were not associated with the later risk of MI or death (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89-1.05) but were associated with the risk of incident diabetes (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.26). In MZ twin pairs, higher BMI was not associated with an increased risk of MI or death but was associated

  16. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of myocardial infarction - a population-based prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bergkvist, Charlotte; Berglund, Marika; Glynn, Anders; Wolk, Alicja; Åkesson, Agneta

    2015-03-15

    Fish consumption may promote cardiovascular health. The role of major food contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) common in fatty fish, is unclear. We assessed the association between dietary PCB exposure and risk of myocardial infarction taking into account the intake of long-chain omega-3 fish fatty acids. In the prospective population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort, 33,446 middle-aged and elderly women, free from cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes at baseline (1997) were followed-up for 12 years. Validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure and intake of fish fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid; EPA-DHA) were obtained via a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. During follow-up 1386 incident cases of myocardial infarction were ascertained through register-linkage. Women in the highest quartile of dietary PCB exposure (median 286 ng/day) had a multivariable-adjusted RR of myocardial infarction of 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.45) compared to the lowest quartile (median 101 ng/day) before, and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.10-2.25) after adjusting for EPA-DHA. Stratification by low and high EPA-DHA intake, resulted in RRs 2.20 (95% CI, 1.18-4.12) and 1.73 (95% CI, 0.81-3.69), respectively comparing highest PCB tertile with lowest. The intake of dietary EPA-DHA was inversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction after but not before adjusting for dietary PCB. Exposure to PCBs was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, while some beneficial effect was associated with increasing EPA and DHA intake. To increase the net benefits of fish consumption, PCB contamination should be reduced to a minimum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Caudate infarcts.

    PubMed

    Caplan, L R; Schmahmann, J D; Kase, C S; Feldmann, E; Baquis, G; Greenberg, J P; Gorelick, P B; Helgason, C; Hier, D B

    1990-02-01

    Eighteen patients had caudate nucleus infarcts (10 left-sided; 8 right-sided). Infarcts extended into the anterior limb of the internal capsule in 9 patients, and also the anterior putamen in 5 patients. Thirteen patients had motor signs, most often a slight transient hemiparesis. Dysarthria was common (11 patients). Cognitive and behavioral abnormalities were frequent, and included abulia (10 patients), agitation and hyperactivity (7 patients), contralateral neglect (3 patients, all right caudate), and language abnormalities (2 patients, both left caudate). The majority of patients had risk factors for penetrating artery disease. Branch occlusion of Heubner's artery, or perforators from the proximal anterior or middle cerebral arteries were the posited mechanism of infarction.

  18. A feasibility study of arrhythmia risk prediction in patients with myocardial infarction and preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dongdong; Arevalo, Hermenegild J; Prakosa, Adityo; Callans, David J; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2016-12-01

    To predict arrhythmia susceptibility in myocardial infarction (MI) patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)  >35% using a personalized virtual heart simulation approach. A total of four contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets of patient hearts with MI and average LVEF of 44.0 ± 2.6% were used in this study. Because of the preserved LVEF, the patients were not indicated for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) insertion. One patient had spontaneous ventricular tachycardia (VT) prior to the MRI scan; the others had no arrhythmic events. Simulations of arrhythmia susceptibility were blind to clinical outcome. Models were constructed from patient MRI images segmented to identify myocardium, grey zone, and scar based on pixel intensity. Grey zone was modelled as having altered electrophysiology. Programmed electrical stimulation (PES) was performed to assess VT inducibility from 19 bi-ventricular sites in each heart model. Simulations successfully predicted arrhythmia risk in all four patients. For the patient with arrhythmic event, in-silico PES resulted in VT induction. Simulations correctly predicted that VT was non-inducible for the three patients with no recorded VT events. Results demonstrate that the personalized virtual heart simulation approach may provide a novel risk stratification modality to non-invasively and effectively identify patients with LVEF  >35% who could benefit from ICD implantation. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A meta-analysis of PDE-gene polymorphism and cerebral infarction risk

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Lin; Feng, Xue-Wen; Qiu, Chen-Feng; Lin, Jing; Bao, Xian-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies identified that phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) gene polymorphism might be associated with cerebral infarction or ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in human populations. However, as yet, no meta-analysis has revealed any detailed association. We retrospectively reviewed studies regarding the relationship of PDE4D gene polymorphism with ischemic stroke (IS) published during the period January 2003 to September 2012. According to the inclusion criteria, 9 of 105 initial studies were included in the subsequent analysis. The PubMed, Embase and CNKI of China were searched to identify the relevant studies. A total of 186 young patients with IS were included for the meta-analysis and 232 matched control subjects were enrolled and results were presented. The association of PDE4D gene polymorphism with IS in various populations was examined. The results suggested that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), SNP 83 in PDE4D gene was significantly related with susceptibility to IS. The meta-analysis also showed that PDE4D gene was associated with an enhanced risk of IS. The meta-analysis suggested that PDE4D SNP 87 constitutes an independent risk factor for IS development. To the best of our knowledge, the present meta-analysis reveals a number of possible associations between PDE4D gene polymorphism and IS. PMID:28587358

  20. Psychosocial Stress and Risk of Myocardial Infarction: A Case-Control Study in Belgrade (Serbia)

    PubMed Central

    Vujcic, Isidora; Vlajinac, Hristina; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Vasiljevic, Zorana; Matanovic, Dragana; Maksimovic, Jadranka; Sipetic, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate which psychosocial risk factors show the strongest association with occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) in the population of Belgrade in peacetime, after the big political changes in Serbia. Methods A case-control study was conducted involving 154 consecutive newly diagnosed patients with MI, and 308 controls matched by gender, age, and place of residence. Results According to conditional logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for conventional coronary risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for work-related stressful events, financial stress, deaths and diseases, and general stress were 3.78 (1.83-7.81), 3.80 (1.96-7.38), 1.69 (1.03-2.78), and 3.54 (2.01-6.22), respectively. Among individual stressful life events, the following were independently related to MI: death of a close family member, 2.21 (1.01-4.84); death of a close friend, 42.20 (3.70-481.29); major financial problems, 8.94 (1.83-43.63); minor financial problems, 4.74 (2.02-11.14); changes in working hours, 4.99 (1.64-15.22); and changes in working conditions, 30.94 (5.43-176.31). Conclusions During this political transition period , stress at work, financial stress, and stress in general as they impacted the population of Belgrade, Serbia were strongly associated with occurence of MI. PMID:27274168

  1. [Association between paraoxonase-1 and paraoxonase-2 polymorphisms and the risk of acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Guxens, Mònica; Tomás, Marta; Elosua, Roberto; Aldasoro, Elena; Segura, Antonio; Fiol, Miquel; Sala, Joan; Vila, Joan; Fullana, Maria; Sentí, Mariano; Vega, Gema; de la Rica, Mónica; Marrugat, Jaume

    2008-03-01

    Two particular polymorphisms, namely PON1-192 and PON2-311, in the genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and paraoxonase-2 (PON2) have been associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, previous findings have been contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the PON1-192 and PON2-311 polymorphisms and their interaction on AMI risk. This case-control study involved 746 consecutive AMI patients and 1796 control subjects without cardiovascular disease, who were randomly selected from the same population from which the patients came. All participants were recruited between 1999 and 2000 from four Spanish autonomous regions. All were assessed for the presence of PON1-192 and PON2-311 and for classical cardiovascular risk factors. Multivariate analysis was carried out using logistic regression modeling. The odds ratios (OR) of AMI for patients with the PON1-192 QQ and PON2-311 SS genotypes (who comprised 50% and 66% of the population, respectively) were 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.55) and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.04-1.50), respectively, compared with R and C allele carriers. Moreover, in patients with both QQ and SS genotypes, the adjusted OR of AMI increased to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.13-1.76). Our results indicate that the PON1-192 and PON2-311 polymorphisms were independent risk factors of AMI in our population.

  2. Multiple rare alleles at LDLR and APOA5 confer risk for early-onset myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Do, Ron; Stitziel, Nathan O.; Won, Hong-Hee; Jørgensen, Anders Berg; Duga, Stefano; Merlini, Pier Angelica; Kiezun, Adam; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Zuk, Or; Guella, Illaria; Asselta, Rosanna; Lange, Leslie A.; Peloso, Gina M.; Auer, Paul L.; Girelli, Domenico; Martinelli, Nicola; Farlow, Deborah N.; DePristo, Mark A.; Roberts, Robert; Stewart, Alexander F.R.; Saleheen, Danish; Danesh, John; Epstein, Stephen E.; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kastelein, John J.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Shah, Svati H.; Kraus, William E.; Davies, Robert; Nikpay, Majid; Johansen, Christopher T.; Wang, Jian; Hegele, Robert A.; Hechter, Eliana; Marz, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E.; Huang, Jie; Johnson, Andrew D.; Li, Mingyao; Burke, Greg L.; Gross, Myron; Liu, Yongmei; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Heiss, Gerardo; Lange, Ethan M.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Taylor, Herman A.; Olivieri, Oliviero; Hamsten, Anders; Clarke, Robert; Reilly, Dermot F.; Yin, Wu; Rivas, Manuel A.; Donnelly, Peter; Rossouw, Jacques E.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Herrington, David M.; Wilson, James G.; Rich, Stephen S.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Tracy, Russell P.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Spertus, John A.; Cresci, Sharon; Hartiala, Jaana; Tang, W.H. Wilson; Hazen, Stanley L.; Allayee, Hooman; Reiner, Alex P.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Lander, Eric S.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Siscovick, David S.; McPherson, Ruth; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Watkins, Hugh; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Ardissino, Diego; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Altshuler, David; Gabriel, Stacey; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2014-01-01

    Summary Myocardial infarction (MI), a leading cause of death around the world, displays a complex pattern of inheritance1,2. When MI occurs early in life, the role of inheritance is substantially greater1. Previously, rare mutations in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) genes have been shown to contribute to MI risk in individual families3–8 whereas common variants at more than 45 loci have been associated with MI risk in the population9–15. Here, we evaluate the contribution of rare mutations to MI risk in the population. We sequenced the protein-coding regions of 9,793 genomes from patients with MI at an early age (≤50 years in males and ≤60 years in females) along with MI-free controls. We identified two genes where rare coding-sequence mutations were more frequent in cases versus controls at exome-wide significance. At low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), carriers of rare, damaging mutations (3.1% of cases versus 1.3% of controls) were at 2.4-fold increased risk for MI; carriers of null alleles at LDLR were at even higher risk (13-fold difference). This sequence-based estimate of the proportion of early MI cases due to LDLR mutations is remarkably similar to an estimate made more than 40 years ago using total cholesterol16. At apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5), carriers of rare nonsynonymous mutations (1.4% of cases versus 0.6% of controls) were at 2.2-fold increased risk for MI. When compared with non-carriers, LDLR mutation carriers had higher plasma LDL cholesterol whereas APOA5 mutation carriers had higher plasma triglycerides. Recent evidence has connected MI risk with coding sequence mutations at two genes functionally related to APOA5, namely lipoprotein lipase15,17 and apolipoprotein C318,19. When combined, these observations suggest that, beyond LDL cholesterol, disordered metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contributes to MI risk. PMID:25487149

  3. Helicobacter pylori Infection Increase the Risk of Myocardial Infarction: A Meta-Analysis of 26 Studies Involving more than 20,000 Participants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Feng; Shi, Songli

    2015-06-01

    Myocardial infarction is a fatal cardiovascular disease and one of the most common death causes all around the world. The aim of the meta-analysis was to quantify the risk of myocardial infarction associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. A literature search was performed to identify studies published before 14 July, 2014, for relevant risk estimates. Fixed and random effect meta-analytical techniques were conducted for myocardial infarction. Twenty-six case-control studies involving 5829 myocardial infarction patients and more than 16,000 controls were included. Helicobacter pylori infection was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (OR: 2.10, 95%CI: 1.75-2.53, p = .06). We also discovered a significant association between the bacteria and risk of myocardial infarction in young people (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.41-2.66, p = .07), in elder people (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.60-2.54, p = .29), in Caucasians (OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.99-2.63, p = .12), and in Asians (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.12-2.73, p = .08). Our meta-analyses suggested a possible indication of relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of myocardial infarction. The pathogenicity might not be affected by age and race. More researches should be conducted to explore the mechanisms involved. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Posttraumatic cerebral infarction in severe traumatic brain injury: characteristics, risk factors and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengwen; Wan, Xueyan; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Lulu; Zhu, Mingxin; Zhang, Suojun; Liu, Xing; Xiao, Qungen; Gan, Chao; Li, Chaoxi; Shu, Kai; Lei, Ting

    2015-10-01

    Posttraumatic cerebral infarction (PTCI) is a severe secondary insult of traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics and risk factors of PTCI after severe TBI (sTBI) and explore possible mechanism. This retrospective study included a cohort of 339 patients with sTBI; they were divided into the PTCI and non-PTCI groups. Clinical data and follow-up charts were reviewed for comparison. The logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis to detect the risk factors of PTCI. The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and Barthel index (BI) for activities of daily living (ADL) were applied to evaluate their outcome. PTCI led to an increased mortality (43.5 % vs. 10.7 %, P < 0.001) and days of intensive care unit stay (14.3 days vs. 7.1 days, P < 0.001), decreased GOS (3.1 vs. 4.1, P < 0.001) and BI (25.0 vs. 77.9, P < 0.001). Increased infarction volume led to poor outcome assessed by GOS (r = -0.46, P < 0.0001) and BI for ADL (r = -0.36, P = 0.026) for surviving patients. Compared with non-PTCI patients, PTCI patients had a high incidence of midline shift (36.2 % vs. 20.7 %, P = 0.011) and posttraumatic vasospasm (PTV) (42.0 % vs. 27.4 %, P = 0.027). Daily prevalence of PTCI occurred in two peaks: one (73.9 %) was in the first 24 h after injury, while the other (18.8 %) was in the span of 43 to 60 h postinjury. In multivariate analysis, hyperthermia [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 3.11; P = 0.001] in the first 24 h, thrombocytopenia (OR, 27.08; P < 0.001), abnormal prothrombin time (OR, 7.66; P < 0.001) and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (OR, 2.33; P = 0.022) were independent predictors for PTCI. PTCI deteriorates the outcome of sTBI patients. Mechanical compression and hemocoagulative disturbance serve as potential mechanisms mediating this pathophysiological process. PTV may also contribute to PTCI, but its association with PTCI is weak and needs further exploration. Early

  5. Socioeconomic context in area of living and risk of myocardial infarction: results from Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP)

    PubMed Central

    Kolegard, S; Diderichsen, F; Reuterwall, C; Hallqvist, J

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: To analyse if socioeconomic characteristics in area of living affect the risk of myocardial infarction in a Swedish urban population, and to evaluate to what extent the contextual effect is confounded by the individual exposures. Design: A population based case-referent study (SHEEP). Setting: Cases (n=1631) were all incident first events of myocardial infarction during 1992–1994. The study base included all Swedish citizens aged 45–70 years, living in Stockholm metropolitan area during these years. The social context of all metropolitan parishes (n=89) was determined by routine statistics on 21 socioeconomic indicators. A factor analysis of the socioeconomic indicators resulted in three dimensions of socioeconomic deprivation, which were analysed separately as three different contextual exposures. Main results: The main characteristics of the extracted factors were; class structure, social exclusion and poverty. Among men, there were increased relative risks of similar magnitudes (1.28 to 1.33) in the more deprived areas according to all three dimensions of the socioeconomic context. However, when adjusting for individual exposures, the poverty factor had the strongest contextual impact. The contextual effects among women showed a different pattern. In comparison with women living the most affluent areas according to the class structure index, women in the rest of Stockholm metropolitan area had nearly 70% higher risk of myocardial infarction after adjustment for individual social exposures. Conclusions: The results suggest that the socioeconomic context in area of living increases the risk of myocardial infarction. The increased risk in only partially explained by individual social factors (the compositional effect). PMID:11801617

  6. Biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy in intermediate-risk group men increases with the number of risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Furubayashi, Nobuki; Negishi, Takahito; Iwai, Hidenori; Nagase, Kei; Taguchi, Kenichi; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to determine whether the number and type of risk factors are associated with biochemical recurrence-free survival after radical prostatectomy in men with D’Amico intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Between August 1998 and May 2013, 481 Japanese patients underwent antegrade radical prostatectomy. The relationships between the rate of PSA failure after radical prostatectomy and the number and type of risk factors were examined in the intermediate-risk group. Results: According to the D’Amico criteria, the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups comprised 107, 222, and 152 patients, respectively. The median follow-up period after surgery was 54.1 months. The 5-year PSA failure-free rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 96.5%, 88.9%, and 72.6%, respectively (P < 0.001). The 5-year PSA failure-free rate in the intermediate-risk group with one, two, and three intermediate risk factors was 94.9%, 88.4%, and 49.0%, respectively (P < 0.001). The difference between the high- and intermediate-risk group with three intermediate risk factors was statistically significant based on the log-rank test (P = 0.039). Conclusion: The number of intermediate risk factors is significantly associated with the PSA failure-free survival rate after radical prostatectomy in the intermediate-risk group. Patients classified into the intermediate-risk group based on all three intermediate risk factors are less likely to achieve a complete cure through surgery alone. PMID:28197033

  7. Considerable disturbances of cardiovascular risk factors in women with diabetes and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Dotevall, Annika; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Lappas, Georg; Rosengren, Annika

    2005-01-01

    To investigate to which extent differences in cardiovascular risk factors explain the increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and complication rate in women with diabetes mellitus (DM). Case-control study. We compared women with diabetes and previous MI (n=29), diabetes but no MI (n=46), prior MI but no diabetes (n=64), and healthy controls (n=125). Smoking habits, physical activity, blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio (WHR), serum lipids, plasma fibrinogen, and serum sex hormones. Despite the fact that diabetic women had similar BMI, those with a past MI, compared to diabetic women without MI, had significantly higher WHR (mean, 95% CI) [0.89 (0.87, 0.92) vs. 0.84 (0.81, 0.86) mmol/l, P=.001] and very high S-triglycerides [3.03 (2.23, 3.83) vs. 1.69, (1.39, 1.99) mmol/l, P=.001] and low HDL-cholesterol [1.09 (0.94, 1.24) vs. 1.56 (1.41, 1.71) mmol/l, P<.001], indicating pronounced metabolic disturbances. Women with MI but no diabetes had intermediate values for WHR, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol. Furthermore, women with diabetes and MI had significantly higher p-fibrinogen, were smokers, and lived a more sedentary life than the other women. Over half of all women with prior MI were on lipid-lowering therapy and tended to have nonsignificantly lower S-cholesterol than women without MI. Women with diabetes who have manifested an MI carry a very substantial cardiovascular risk factor burden, which probably explain their increased morbidity and mortality. In order to improve prognosis, studies targeted at investigating treatment modalities for these abnormalities are needed.

  8. [Combined Effect of Genetic Factors, Age, and Smoking on the Risk of Developing Myocardial Infarction].

    PubMed

    Osmak G, J; Matveeva, N A; Titov, B V; Nasibullin, T R; Mustafina, O E; Shakhnovich, R M; Kukava, N G; Ruda, M Ya; Favorova, O O

    2016-12-01

    to elaborate a complex model for myocardial infarction (MI) risk assessment considering the combined effect of genetic predisposition, age and smoking. The study included two independent samples of ethnic Russians: 325 patients with MI and 185 individuals without history of cardiovascular diseases (controls) from the Moscow region, and 220 patients and 197 controls from the Republic of Bashkortostan. Genotyping of polymorphic loci of genes CRP (rs1130864), IFNG (rs2430561), TGFB1 (rs1982073), FGB (rs1800788) and PTGS1 (rs3842787) was performed. To construct the predictive models, we used logistic regression with stepwise inclusion of variables. The predictive value was evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC) in a ROC-analysis. The factor was considered as a marker at pAUC <0.05 calculated by the method of DeLong. The marker was considered effective at AUC >0.60. Three separate genetic variants FGB rs1800788*T, TGFB1 rs1982073*TT, CRP rs1130864*TT, and biallelic combination IFNG rs2430561*A + PTGS1 rs3842787*T whose association with MI we described earlier, were used to construct the composite genetic marker (AUC=0.66 in the training and test samples) by the logistic regression method. Adding to the obtained composite genetic marker such parameters as age and smoking allowed to create a complex MI risk marker, which was characterized by the predictive value stability (AUC=0.77 in the training sample and 0.82 in the test sample). The obtained complex model for MI risk assessment was reproduced in two independent samples of Russian ethnicity individuals from different regions of Russia with different gender identities, and allowed to have a reasonable chance (about 80%) of distinguishing patients and healthy individuals.

  9. Association between quantity and duration of snowfall and risk of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Nathalie; Potter, Brian J.; Smargiassi, Audrey; Bilodeau-Bertrand, Marianne; Paris, Clément; Kosatsky, Tom

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although aggregate data suggest a link between snowfall and myocardial infarction (MI), individual risk has yet to be assessed. We evaluated the association between quantity and duration of snowfall and the risk of MI using nonaggregated administrative health data. METHODS: We used a case–crossover study design to investigate the association between snowfall and hospital admission or death due to MI in the province of Quebec, Canada, between November and April during 1981–2014. The main exposure measures were quantity (in centimetres) and duration (in hours) of snowfall by calendar day. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between daily snowfall and MI, adjusted for minimum daily temperatures. RESULTS: In all, 128 073 individual hospital admissions and 68 155 deaths due to MI were included in the analyses. The likelihood of MI was increased the day after a snowfall among men but not among women. Compared with 0 cm, 20 cm of snowfall was associated with an OR of 1.16 for hospital admission (95% CI 1.11–1.21) and 1.34 for death (95% CI 1.26–1.42) due to MI the following day among men. Corresponding ORs among women were 1.01 (95% CI 0.95–1.07) and 1.04 (95% CI 0.96–1.13). Similar but smaller associations were observed for snowfall duration (0 h v. 24 h) and MI. INTERPRETATION: Both the quantity and duration of snowfall were associated with subsequent risk of hospital admission or death due to MI, driven primarily by an effect in men. These data have implications for public health initiatives in regions with snowstorms. PMID:28202557

  10. Obesity and Risk of Biochemical Failure for Patients Receiving Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R. Spiotto, Michael T.; Kapp, Daniel S.

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: Obesity has been proposed as an independent risk factor for patients undergoing surgery or radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Using body mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity, we tested its role as a risk factor for patients receiving salvage RT after prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: Rates of subsequent biochemical relapse were examined in 90 patients who underwent salvage RT between 1984 and 2004 for biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy. Median follow-up was 3.7 years. The BMI was tested as a continuous and categorical variable (stratified as <25, 25-<30, and {>=}30 kg/m{sup 2}). Univariate and multivariate proportional hazards regression analyses were performed for clinical, pathologic, and treatment factors associated with time to relapse after salvage RT. Results: There were 40 biochemical failures after salvage RT with a median time to failure of 1.2 years. The BMI was not associated with adverse clinical, pathologic, or treatment factors. On multivariate analysis, obesity was independently significant (hazard ratio [HR], 1.2; p = 0.01), along with RT dose (HR, 0.7; p = 0.003) and pre-RT prostate-specific antigen level (HR, 1.2; p = 0.0003). Conclusions: This study is weakly suggestive that obesity may be a risk factor for salvage RT patients. Whether this results from greater biologic aggressiveness or technical inadequacies cannot be answered by this study. Given the very high failure rate observed for severely obese patients, we propose that technical difficulties with RT are at play. This hypothesis is supported by the RT literature and could be prospectively investigated. Techniques that optimize targeting, especially in obese patients, perhaps seem warranted at this time.

  11. Increased risk of posterior circulation infarcts among ischemic stroke patients with cervical spondylosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Chi; Chung, Chia-Ying; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Chang, Wei-Han; Tang, Simon FT; Pei, Yu-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical spondylosis is one of the extrinsic factors causing vertebral artery stenosis. Several case studies have reported compression of the vertebral artery induced by cervical osteophytes that has resulted in posterior circulation infarcts (POCI). However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have yet analyzed differences in the risk factors and stroke subtypes between ischemic stroke patients with cervical spondylosis and those without. Purpose In the case-controlled study reported here, we analyzed the risk factors and stroke subtypes in ischemic stroke patients with and without cervical spondylosis. Characteristics in all the recruited patients with POCI and non-POCI were further compared to extract other risk factors that could predict the occurrence of POCI. Methods and patients We filtered out ischemic stroke patients with cervical spondylosis (“Stroke+C” group) by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. We analyzed the data of 38 subjects in the Stroke+C group and 152 sex- and age-comparable ischemic stroke patients without cervical spondylosis (“Stroke−C” group). We recorded the demographic characteristics including sex and age, and stroke risk factors, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, and smoking habits. The stroke classifications were defined by the Oxford Community Stroke Project classification. All subjects were further categorized into POCI or non-POCI groups. The ultrasound findings of the vertebral arteries (extracranial and intracranial) in the Stroke+C group were also recorded. Results More patients in the Stroke+C group tended to have POCI (34.2%) than patients in the Stroke−C group (17.5%) (odds ratio [OR] =2.41, P<0.05). Furthermore, hypertension (OR=3.41, P<0.01) and cervical spondylosis (OR=2.41, P<0.05) were two independent risk factors for POCI in ischemic stroke patients. Conclusion Ischemic stroke patients with cervical spondylosis are more prone

  12. Serum Acylcarnitines and Risk of Cardiovascular Death and Acute Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Stable Angina Pectoris.

    PubMed

    Strand, Elin; Pedersen, Eva R; Svingen, Gard F T; Olsen, Thomas; Bjørndal, Bodil; Karlsson, Therese; Dierkes, Jutta; Njølstad, Pål R; Mellgren, Gunnar; Tell, Grethe S; Berge, Rolf K; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar

    2017-02-03

    Excess levels of serum acylcarnitines, which are intermediate products in metabolism, have been observed in metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it is not known whether acylcarnitines may prospectively predict risk of cardiovascular death or acute myocardial infarction in patients with stable angina pectoris. This study included 4164 patients (median age, 62 years; 72% men). Baseline serum acetyl-, octanoyl-, palmitoyl-, propionyl-, and (iso)valerylcarnitine were measured using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for quartile 4 versus quartile 1 are reported. The multivariable model included age, sex, body mass index, fasting status, current smoking, diabetes mellitus, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, creatinine, left ventricular ejection fraction, extent of coronary artery disease, study center, and intervention with folic acid or vitamin B6. During median 10.2 years of follow-up, 10.0% of the patients died of cardiovascular disease and 12.8% suffered a fatal or nonfatal acute myocardial infarction. Higher levels of the even-chained acetyl-, octanoyl-, and palmitoyl-carnitines were significantly associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular death, also after multivariable adjustments (HR [95% CI]: 1.52 [1.12, 2.06]; P=0.007; 1.73 [1.23, 2.44]; P=0.002; and 1.61 [1.18, 2.21]; P=0.003, respectively), whereas their associations with acute myocardial infarction were less consistent. Among patients with suspected stable angina pectoris, elevated serum even-chained acylcarnitines were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death and, to a lesser degree with acute myocardial infarction, independent of traditional risk factors. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00354081. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  13. A risk-adjusted definition of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Morgan, T M; Meng, M V; Cooperberg, M R; Cowan, J E; Weinberg, V; Carroll, P R; Lin, D W

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether a variable definition of biochemical recurrence (BCR) based on clincopathologic features facilitates early identification of patients likely to suffer from disease progression. The definition of BCR after radical prostatectomy (RP) bears important implications for patient counseling and management; however, there remains a significant debate regarding the appropriate definition. The study cohort consisted of 3619 men who underwent RP for localized prostate cancer from 1989 to 2007, with data abstracted from the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE) registry. Patients were stratified into three risk groups according to Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment post-Surgical (CAPRA-S) score. Three single threshold PSA cut-points for BCR were evaluated (PSA > or =0.05, > or =0.2 and > or =0.4 ng ml(-1)) as well as a variable cut-point defined by risk group. After reaching the cut-points, patients were followed for further PSA progression. The proportion of patients with BCR differed by cut-point and risk group, ranging from 7 to 37% (low risk), 22 to 58% (intermediate risk) and 60 to 86% (high risk). The positive-predictive value (PPV) for predicting further PSA progression was 49% for the PSA > or =0.05 ng ml(-1), 62% for the PSA > or =0.2 ng ml(-1), 65% for the PSA > or =0.4 ng ml(-1) and 68% for the risk-adjusted definition. Five-year progression-free survival was 39% for the risk-adjusted definition compared with 45-52% for the other definitions of BCR. These data suggest that a variable definition of BCR determined by clinicopathologic risk may improve the identification of early recurrence after RP without increasing the overdiagnosis of BCR. By using a risk-adjusted BCR definition, clinicians can better predict future PSA progression and more appropriately counsel patients regarding salvage therapies.

  14. Cardiac troponin T: from diagnosis of myocardial infarction to cardiovascular risk prediction.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Matthias; Vafaie, Mehrshad; Biener, Moritz; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac troponins (cTns) T and I are exclusively expressed at high concentrations in cardiac muscle and have emerged as the preferred biomarker in the universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI). With the recent introduction of high-sensitivity (hs) assays, diagnostic sensitivity for earlier detection of MI has substantially improved. However, lowering the diagnostic cut-off has increased the detection of myocardial injuries in various non-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) conditions, which are not related to myocardial ischemia, leading to rising difficulties in diagnosing MI in clinical situations. Several approaches, such as serial sampling and incorporation of relative or absolute δ-changes, have been proposed to overcome the limitation of decreased sensitivity for MI diagnosis with hs-cTn assays. Current consensus for rapid rule-in proposes a 20% increase within 3 or 6h when baseline cTn levels are elevated. In the case of negative baseline values, relative increases ≥50% above the 99(th) percentile were found to be adequate to improve accuracy of MI diagnosis. Besides improved diagnostic accuracy for myocardial injury, even minor cTn elevations provide important prognostic information, and increased levels of cTn are associated with adverse outcomes in both the ACS and non-ACS condition, irrespective of whether the underlying cause is an acute or chronic illness. Thus, it is highly likely that lowering the diagnostic cut-off with even more sensitive assays might improve risk stratification in both conditions.

  15. Hair cortisol and the risk for acute myocardial infarction in adult men.

    PubMed

    Pereg, David; Gow, Rachel; Mosseri, Morris; Lishner, Michael; Rieder, Michael; Van Uum, Stan; Koren, Gideon

    2011-01-01

    Acute stress is increasingly recognized as a precipitant of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the role of chronic stress in developing AMI is less clear. We have developed a method to measure cortisol in hair, which allows longitudinal assessment of cortisol levels prior to an acute event. We aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that chronic stress, as assessed by hair cortisol content, is associated with the development of AMI. A prospective case-control study included 56 patients admitted to hospital with AMI and 56 control patients, admitted to internal medicine wards for other indications. An enzyme immunoassay technique was used to measure cortisol in the most proximal 3 cm of hair, considered to represent the most recent 3 months of exposure. Median hair cortisol contents (range) were 295.3 (105.4-809.3)ng/g in AMI patients and 224.9 (76.58-949.9)ng/g in controls (p = 0.006, Mann-Whitney U-test). After controlling for other risk factors for AMI using multiple logistic regression, log-transformed hair cortisol content remained the strongest predictor (OR 17.4, 95% CI 2.15-140.5; p = 0.007). We demonstrated elevated hair cortisol concentrations in patients with AMI. This suggests that chronic stress, as assessed by increased hair cortisol in the 3 months prior to the event, may be a contributing factor for AMI.

  16. Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from acute myocardial infarction in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chang, Chih-Ching; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chiu, Hui-Fen

    2006-07-01

    Many studies have examined the association between cardiovascular disease mortality and water hardness. However, the results have not been consistent. This report examines whether calcium and magnesium in drinking water are protective against acute myocardial infarction (AMI). All eligible AMI deaths (10,094 cases) of Taiwan residents from 1994 to 2003 were compared with deaths from other causes (10,094 controls), and the levels of calcium and magnesium in drinking water of these residents were determined. Data on calcium and magnesium levels in drinking water throughout Taiwan have been obtained from the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation. The control group consisted of people who died from other causes and the controls were pair matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. The adjusted odd ratios (95% confidence interval) were 0.79 (0.73-0.86) for the group with water calcium levels between 25.1 and 42.4 mg/L and 0.71 (0.65-0.77) for the group with calcium levels of 42.6 mg/L or more. After adjustment for calcium levels in drinking water, there was no difference between the groups with different levels of magnesium. The results of the present study show that there is a significant protective effect of calcium intake from drinking water on the risk of death from AMI.

  17. Mean platelet volume and the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Verdoia, Monica; Camaro, Cyril; Barbieri, Lucia; Schaffer, Alon; Marino, Paolo; Bellomo, Giorgio; Suryapranata, Harry; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2013-05-01

    Periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) represents a relatively common complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Mean platelet volume (MPV) has been proposed as a marker for platelet activation, as larger sized platelets have been associated with higher pro-thrombotic risk. Therefore, aim of the current study was to evaluate whether MPV is associated with increased risk of PMI after PCI. We included 1056 consecutive patients undergoing PCI. We measured myonecrosis biomarkers at intervals from 6 to 48 h after PCI. Periprocedural myonecrosis was defined for troponin I increase by 3 times the ULN or by 50% if elevated at the time of the procedure. PMI was defined as CK-MB increase by 3 times the ULN or 50% if elevated at the time of the procedure. We grouped patients according to tertiles values of MPV (<10.4 fl; 10.5-11.3 fl; >11.4 fl). High MPV was associated with diabetes (p = 0.025) and higher prevalence of cerebrovascular events (p = 0.005). MPV significantly related with haemoglobin levels (p < 0.001), but inversely to platelet count (p < 0.001) and higher presence of thrombus (p = 0.03). Larger sized platelets did not increase risk of periprocedural myonecrosis (p = 0.91; OR[95% CI] = 1.04[0.90-1.2], p = 0.64) or PMI (p = 0.09; OR[95%IC] = 1.13[0.93-1.37]; p = 0.20). Subgroup analysis confirmed no impact of MPV on periprocedural MI also in high-risk subsets of patients, such as those with ACS at presentation (OR[95%CI] = 1.09 [0.87-1.38]; p = 0.44), diabetes (OR[95% CI] = 1.02[0.71-1.47], p = 0.91), female gender (OR [95% CI] = 1.15 [0.78-1.71], p = 0.48), elderly patients (age ≥ 75 years) (OR[95%CI] = 1.21[0.87-1.69], p = 0.25) or with renal failure (OR[95%CI] = 1.55[0.91-2.61], p = 0.1). This study demonstrates that MPV does not predict the risk of PMI in patients undergoing PCI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk-adjusting acute myocardial infarction mortality: are APR-DRGs the right tool?

    PubMed Central

    Romano, P. S.; Chan, B. K.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if a widely used proprietary risk-adjustment system, APR-DRGs, misadjusts for severity of illness and misclassifies provider performance. DATA SOURCES: (1) Discharge abstracts for 116,174 noninstitutionalized adults with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) admitted to nonfederal California hospitals in 1991-1993; (2) inpatient medical records for a stratified probability sample of 974 patients with AMIs admitted to 30 California hospitals between July 31, 1990 and May 31, 1991. STUDY DESIGN: Using the 1991-1993 data set, we evaluated the predictive performance of APR-DRGs Version 12. Using the 1990/1991 validation sample, we assessed the effect of assigning APR-DRGs based on different sources of ICD-9-CM data. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Trained, blinded coders reabstracted all ICD-9-CM diagnoses and procedures, and established the timing of each diagnosis. APR-DRG Risk of Mortality and Severity of Illness classes were assigned based on (1) all hospital-reported diagnoses, (2) all reabstracted diagnoses, and (3) reabstracted diagnoses present at admission. The outcome variables were 30-day mortality in the 1991-1993 data set and 30-day inpatient mortality in the 1990/1991 validation sample. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The APR-DRG Risk of Mortality class was a strong predictor of death (c = .831-.847), but was further enhanced by adding age and sex. Reabstracting diagnoses improved the apparent performance of APR-DRGs (c = .93 versus c = .87), while using only the diagnoses present at admission decreased apparent performance (c = .74). Reabstracting diagnoses had less effect on hospitals' expected mortality rates (r = .83-.85) than using diagnoses present at admission instead of all reabstracted diagnoses (r = .72-.77). There was fair agreement in classifying hospital performance based on these three sets of diagnostic data (K = 0.35-0.38). CONCUSIONS: The APR-DRG Risk of Mortality system is a powerful risk-adjustment tool, largely because it

  19. Prediction of early stroke risk in transient symptoms with infarction: relevance to the new tissue-based definition.

    PubMed

    Arsava, E Murat; Furie, Karen L; Schwamm, Lee H; Sorensen, A Gregory; Ay, Hakan

    2011-08-01

    The risk of stroke shortly after transient ischemic attack with infarction on diffusion-weighted images, also known as transient symptoms with infarction (TSI), is substantially higher than is the risk after imaging-normal transient ischemic attack. We sought to assess the utility of a Web-based recurrence risk estimator (RRE; http://www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/RRE/) originally developed for use in patients with ischemic stroke for predicting 7-day risk of stroke in patients with TSI. We calculated RRE and ABCD² scores in a retrospective series of 257 consecutive patients with TSI diagnosed by diffusion-weighted images within 24 hours of symptom onset. We defined subsequent stroke as clinical deterioration associated with new infarction spatially distinct from the index lesion. We assessed the predictive performance of each model by computing the area under receiver-operating characteristics curve. Over 7-day follow-up, 16 patients developed a recurrent stroke (6.2%). The sensitivity and specificity of an RRE score of ≥ 2 for predicting 7-day stroke risk were 87% and 73%, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78-0.92) for RRE and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.45-0.69) for ABCD² score (z-test; P<0.001). The RRE score seems to predict 7-day risk of stroke after a TSI. If further validated in larger data sets, the RRE score could be useful in identifying high-risk patients with TSI who may benefit from early intervention with targeted stroke prevention strategies.

  20. Levothyroxine Substitution in Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Mette Nygaard; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Madsen, Jesper Clausager; Faber, Jens; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Selmer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with a number of cardiovascular risk factors, yet only limited data exist on long-term outcome of levothyroxine treatment of this condition with respect to hard end-points. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine effects of levothyroxine treatment on myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality, in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Methods and Results Primary care patients aged 18 years and older that underwent thyroid function tests between 2000 and 2009 were enrolled. Participants were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism at baseline were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included a history of thyroid disease, related medication or medication affecting thyroid function. The total cohort comprised 628,953 patients of which 12,212 (1.9%) had subclinical hypothyroidism (mean age 55.2 [SD ± 18.8] years; 79.8% female). Within the first six months 2,483 (20.3%) patients claimed a prescription for levothyroxine. During a median follow-up of 5.0 (IQR: 5.2) years, 358 MI’s and 1,566 (12.8%) deaths were observed. Out of these, 766 of the deaths were cardiovascular related. No beneficial effects were found in levothyroxine treated patients on MI (IRR 1.08 [95% CI: 0.81 to 1.44]), cardiovascular death (IRR 1.02 [95% CI: 0.83 to 1.25]) or all-cause mortality (IRR 1.03 [95% CI: 0.90 to 1.19]), except in patients under the age of 65 years (IRR 0.63 [95% CI: 0.40 to 0.99]). Conclusion Levothyroxine substitution in subclinical hypothyroid patients does not indicate an association with lower mortality or decreased risk of MI. PMID:26069971

  1. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and the risk of myocardial infarction in the general population.

    PubMed

    García Rodríguez, Luis A; Varas-Lorenzo, Cristina; Maguire, Andrew; González-Pérez, Antonio

    2004-06-22

    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are reversible inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. Whether transient and incomplete COX-1 inhibition with NSAIDs other than aspirin will translate into clinical cardioprotection is unclear. Some reports suggest that concurrent aspirin and ibuprofen might be associated with lower cardioprotection than aspirin alone because of a pharmacodynamic interaction. We conducted a cohort study with a nested case-control analysis. Overall, 4975 cases of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and death from coronary heart disease (CHD) were identified (January 1997 to December 2000) in the UK. A total of 20,000 controls were randomly sampled, and frequency was matched to cases by age, sex, and calendar year. The incidence rate was 5.0 per 1000 person-years. The multivariate-adjusted OR for current NSAID use compared with nonuse was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.95 to 1.20). Treatment duration or daily dose did not change the results. The effect was similar among patients free of CHD history (1.04; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.20) and patients with previous history (1.12; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.38). Estimates for individual NSAIDs were all comparable, with no major effect on the risk of acute MI. Naproxen was associated with an OR of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.64 to 1.24). The OR of aspirin and concurrent NSAIDs use was 1.10 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.37) compared with aspirin alone. We observed the same result when analyzing ibuprofen and aspirin taken concomitantly. This study could not demonstrate any detectable risk reduction of NSAIDs on the occurrence of MI. Our results do not support the existence of a clinically meaningful interaction between aspirin and NSAIDs, including ibuprofen.

  2. Substitutions of red meat, poultry and fish and risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Anne M L; Hansen, Mette D; Tjønneland, Anne; Rimm, Eric B; Schmidt, Erik B; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2016-05-01

    Red meat has been suggested to be adversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but previous studies have rarely taken replacement foods into consideration. We aimed to investigate optimal substitutions between and within the food groups of red meat, poultry and fish for MI prevention. We followed up 55 171 women and men aged 50-64 years with no known history of MI at recruitment. Diet was assessed by a validated 192-item FFQ at baseline. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for specified food substitutions of 150 g/week. During a median follow-up time of 13·6 years, we identified 656 female and 1694 male cases. Among women, the HR for replacing red meat with fatty fish was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·89), whereas the HR for replacing red meat with lean fish was 1·00 (95 % CI 0·89, 1·14). Similarly, replacing poultry with fatty but not lean fish was inversely associated with MI: the HR was 0·81 (95 % CI 0·67, 0·98) for fatty fish and was 1·08 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·27) for lean fish. The HR for replacing lean with fatty fish was 0·75 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·94). Replacing processed with unprocessed red meat was not associated with MI. Among men, a similar pattern was found, although the associations were not statistically significant. This study suggests that replacing red meat, poultry or lean fish with fatty fish is associated with a lower risk of MI.

  3. Risk Factors for Hemorrhagic Transformation After Intravenous Thrombolysis in Acute Cerebral Infarction: A Retrospective Single-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiahong; Li, Changsong; Wan, Ting; Gu, Xiaobo; Zhu, Wenxia; Hao, Junjie; Bao, Huan; Zuo, Lian; Hu, Hui; Li, Gang

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the risk factors for hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after intravenous thrombolysis using a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) in acute cerebral infarction. Patients with acute cerebral infarction receiving r-tPA thrombolysis in Shanghai Eastern Hospital were retrospectively studied. Based on the cranial computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging examination, after the intravenous thrombolysis, the patients were divided into 2 groups: an HT group and a non-HT group. The information was collected before or after thrombolysis. A total of 162 patients were included in the analysis. The age ranged from 25 to 86 years, with an average age of 65.6 ± 10.6 years. The average time from disease onset to thrombolysis was 188 ± 53.1 minutes. Cranial computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging showed that 20 patients (12.3%) had HT after thrombolysis. Using univariate analysis, history of atrial fibrillation, positive expression of urinary protein, and high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score before thrombolysis, we found that there was a significant difference between the HT and non-HT group (P < 0.05) in the level of mean systolic pressure (MSP) 24 hours after thrombolysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that age ≥80 years, MSP ≥140 mm Hg, NIHSS score, and fibrinogen concentration before thrombolysis were risk factors for HT after thrombolysis in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Age, MSP, NIHSS score, and fibrinogen concentration before thrombolysis are risk factors for HT after thrombolysis in acute cerebral infarction. These 4 factors should be carefully taken into account before thrombolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk reduction of brain infarction during carotid endarterectomy or stenting using sonolysis - Prospective randomized study pilot data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuliha, Martin; Školoudík, David; Martin Roubec, Martin; Herzig, Roman; Procházka, Václav; Jonszta, Tomáš; Krajča, Jan; Czerný, Dan; Hrbáč, Tomáš; Otáhal, David; Langová, Kateřina

    2012-11-01

    Sonolysis is a new therapeutic option for the acceleration of arterial recanalization. The aim of this study was to confirm risk reduction of brain infarction during endarterectomy (CEA) and stenting (CAS) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) using sonolysis with continuous transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring by diagnostic 2 MHz probe, additional interest was to assess impact of new brain ischemic lesions on cognitive functions. Methods: All consecutive patients 1/ with ICA stenosis >70%, 2/ indicated to CEA or CAS, 3/ with signed informed consent, were enrolled to the prospective study during 17 months. Patients were randomized into 2 groups: Group 1 with sonolysis during intervention and Group 2 without sonolysis. Neurological examination, assessment of cognitive functions and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed before and 24 hours after intervention in all patients. Occurrence of new brain infarctions (including infarctions >0.5 cm3), and the results of Mini-Mental State Examination, Clock Drawing and Verbal Fluency tests were statistically evaluated using T-test. Results: 97 patients were included into the study. Out of the 47 patients randomized to sonolysis group (Group 1) 25 underwent CEA (Group 1a) and 22 CAS (Group 1b). Out of the 50 patients randomized to control group (Group 2), 22 underwent CEA (Group 2a) and 28 CAS (Group 2b). New ischemic brain infarctions on follow up MRI were found in 14 (29.8%) patients in Group 1-4 (16.0%) in Group 1a and 10 (45.5%) in Group 1b. In Group 2, new ischemic brain infarctions were found in 18 (36.0%) patients-6 (27.3%) in Group 2a and 12 (42.9%) in Group 2b (p>0.05 in all cases). New ischemic brain infarctions >0.5 cm3 were found in 4 (8.5 %) patients in Group 1 and in 11 (22.0 %) patients in Group 2 (p= 0.017). No significant differences were found in cognitive tests results between subgroups (p>0.05 in all tests). Conclusion: Sonolysis seems to be effective in the prevention of large ischemic

  5. Short-term mortality risk of serum potassium levels in acute heart failure following myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Krogager, Maria Lukács; Eggers-Kaas, Lotti; Aasbjerg, Kristian; Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Køber, Lars; Gislason, Gunnar; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Søgaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aims Diuretic treatment is often needed in acute heart failure following myocardial infarction (MI) and carries a risk of abnormal potassium levels. We examined the relation between different levels of potassium and mortality. Methods and results From Danish national registries we identified 2596 patients treated with loop diuretics after their first MI episode where potassium measurement was available within 3 months. All-cause mortality was examined according to seven predefined potassium levels: hypokalaemia <3.5 mmol/L, low normal potassium 3.5–3.8 mmol/L, normal potassium 3.9–4.2 mmol/L, normal potassium 4.3–4.5 mmol/L, high normal potassium 4.6–5.0 mmol/L, mild hyperkalaemia 5.1–5.5 mmol/L, and severe hyperkalaemia: >5.5 mmol/L. Follow-up was 90 days and using normal potassium 3.9–4.2 mmol/L as a reference, we estimated the risk of death with a multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard model. After 90 days, the mortality rates in the seven potassium intervals were 15.7, 13.6, 7.3, 8.1, 10.6, 15.5, and 38.3%, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted risk for death was statistically significant for patients with hypokalaemia [hazard ratio (HR): 1.91, confidence interval (95%CI): 1.14–3.19], and mild and severe hyperkalaemia (HR: 2, CI: 1.25–3.18 and HR: 5.6, CI: 3.38–9.29, respectively). Low and high normal potassium were also associated with increased mortality (HR: 1.84, CI: 1.23–2.76 and HR: 1.55, CI: 1.09–2.22, respectively). Conclusion Potassium levels outside the interval 3.9–4.5 mmol/L were associated with a substantial risk of death in patients requiring diuretic treatment after an MI. PMID:27418967

  6. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Short-Risk Stratification in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Blasco, Luisa; Sanjuan, Rafael; Carbonell, Nieves; Solís, Miguel A.; Puchades, María J.; Torregrosa, Isidro; Miguel, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Renal dysfunction is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the independent prognostic value of renal dysfunction and its incremental predictability risk after adjusting for well-known clinical factors in patients with AMI. Methods 751 consecutive patients with AMI admitted to the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) were included. Patients were grouped into 2 categories according to the baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on admission (eGFR <60 vs. eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2). C-reactive protein and white blood cell count (WBC) as well as clinical prognostic variables were assessed. The endpoint was mortality during CCU stay. The discriminatory power was estimated by the C-index. Results The patient group with an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 was older, had more cardiovascular risk factors, a lower left ventricular ejection fraction and higher cardiovascular mortality during CCU stay (13 vs. 3%). Logistic regression analysis revealed the following predictors of mortality: degree of renal impairment (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2), hazard ratio (HR) = 2.2 (95% CI 1.1–4.3; p = 0.028); WBC >11,000 × 106/l, HR = 2.3 (95% CI 1.2–4.5; p = 0.017); Killip class on admission, HR = 3.8 (95% CI 1.7–8.5; p = 0.001), and New York Heart Association Functional Classification, HR = 3.6 (95% CI 1.7–7.4; p = 0.001). The adjusted C-index was 0.78 for baseline clinical variables and 0.84 for eGFR. Conclusions In patients with AMI, decreased eGFR is an important prognostic factor for impaired cardiac function and mortality in the short-term follow-up. The eGFR may be reliably used in the risk stratification of patients with AMI. PMID:22258400

  7. Ultrasonographic features and severity scoring of periventricular hemorrhagic infarction in relation to risk factors and outcome.

    PubMed

    Bassan, Haim; Benson, Carol B; Limperopoulos, Catherine; Feldman, Henry A; Ringer, Steven A; Veracruz, Elaine; Stewart, Jane E; Soul, Janet S; Disalvo, Donald N; Volpe, Joseph J; du Plessis, Adré J

    2006-06-01

    Early diagnosis of periventricular hemorrhagic infarction in premature infants is based on bedside neonatal cranial ultrasonography. Currently, evaluation of its morphology and evolution by cranial ultrasound relies largely on data predating major advances in perinatal care and lacks a consistent classification system for determining severity of injury. The objective of this study was to examine the ultrasonographic morphology and evolution of periventricular hemorrhagic infarction in the modern NICU and to determine the value of a cranial ultrasonography-based severity score for predicting outcome. We retrospectively evaluated all cranial ultrasounds and medical records of 58 premature infants with periventricular hemorrhagic infarction. We assigned each subject a severity score based on extent of echodensity, unilateral versus bilateral, and presence or absence of midline shift. A neurologic examination was performed after 12 months adjusted age. The parenchymal echodensity of periventricular hemorrhagic infarction most often involved parietal and frontal territories and evolved into single and/or multiple cysts. One quarter of cases were bilateral, and nearly 70% were extensive. Higher severity scores were significantly associated with pulmonary hemorrhage and low bicarbonate levels and with outcomes of fatality, early neonatal seizures, and motor disability. Despite advances in perinatal medicine, periventricular hemorrhagic infarction remains an important complication of prematurity. Periventricular hemorrhagic infarction can be graded using a scoring system based on sonographic characteristics. Higher severity scores predict worse outcome. Such severity scoring could improve the clinician's ability to counsel parents regarding management decisions and early intervention strategies.

  8. Total antioxidant capacity from diet and risk of myocardial infarction: a prospective cohort of women.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Levitan, Emily B; Orsini, Nicola; Åkesson, Agneta; Morgenstern, Ralf; Mittleman, Murray A; Wolk, Alicja

    2012-10-01

    There are no previous studies investigating the effect of all dietary antioxidants in relation to myocardial infarction. The total antioxidant capacity of diet takes into account all antioxidants and synergistic effects between them. The aim of this study was to examine how total antioxidant capacity of diet and antioxidant-containing foods were associated with incident myocardial infarction among middle-aged and elderly women. In the population-based prospective Swedish Mammography Cohort of 49-83-year-old women, 32,561 were cardiovascular disease-free at baseline. Women completed a food-frequency questionnaire, and dietary total antioxidant capacity was calculated using oxygen radical absorbance capacity values. Information on myocardial infarction was identified from the Swedish Hospital Discharge and the Cause of Death registries. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models. During the follow-up (September 1997-December 2007), we identified 1114 incident cases of myocardial infarction (321,434 person-years). In multivariable-adjusted analysis, the HR for women comparing the highest quintile of dietary total antioxidant capacity to the lowest was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.67-0.97; P for trend=0.02). Servings of fruit and vegetables and whole grains were nonsignificantly inversely associated with myocardial infarction. These data suggest that dietary total antioxidant capacity, based on fruits, vegetables, coffee, and whole grains, is of importance in the prevention of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic Variants of Cytochrome b-245, Alpha Polypeptide Gene and Premature Acute Myocardial Infarction Risk in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Fatemeh; Jahani, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaedi, Hamid; Alipoor, Behnam; Fatemi, Ahmad; Tajik, Michael; Sharifi, Zohreh; Golmohammadi, Taghi; Askari, Mohammad; Azarnejad, Asaad; Alipoor, Sadegh; Valipour, Aliasghar; Mousavizadeh, Kazem

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Oxidative stress induced by superoxide anion plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) and hence acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The major source of superoxide production in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells is the NADPH oxidase complex. An essential component of this complex is p22phox, that is encoded by the cytochrome b-245, alpha polypeptide (CYBA) gene. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of CYBA variants (rs1049255 and rs4673) and premature acute myocardial infarction risk in an Iranian population. Methods The study population consisted of 158 patients under the age of 50 years, with a diagnosis of premature AMI, and 168 age-matched controls with normal coronary angiograms. Genotyping of the polymorphisms was performed by the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results There was no association between the genotypes and allele frequencies of rs4673 polymorphism and premature acute myocardial infarction (P>0.05). A significant statistical association was observed between the genotypes distribution of rs1049255 polymorphism and AMI risk (P=0.037). Furthermore, the distribution of AA+AG/GG genotypes was found to be statistically significant between the two groups (P=0.011). Conclusions Our findings indicated that rs1049255 but not rs4673 polymorphism is associated with premature AMI. PMID:28356848

  10. A search for cyclophilin-A gene (PPIA) variation and its contribution to the risk of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Palacín, M; Rodríguez, I; García-Castro, M; Ortega, F; Reguero, J R; López-Larrea, C; Morís, C; Alvarez, V; Coto, E

    2008-04-01

    Cyclophilin A is secreted by vascular smooth muscle cells in response to inflammatory stimuli, and could thus contribute to atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that the genetic variation at the cyclophilin A gene (PPIA) could affect the risk for developing atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. This study included 250 myocardial infarction patients (all male and < 60 years; 95% are smokers). All these cases had at least one atherosclerotic diseased coronary vessel. DNA was obtained from patients and from 250 healthy controls. The variation at the PPIA gene was determined in the patients through single-strand conformation analysis and direct sequencing of seven polymerase chain reaction fragments. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between patients and controls. The effect of a promoter polymorphism (-11 G/C) on gene expression was in vitro analysed with luciferase-reporter assays. We found two common polymorphisms in the PPIA promoter (-11 G/C) and the 5' non-translated (+36 G/A) regions. Cells transfected with luciferase-plasmids containing the -11 G had significantly higher luciferase activity. Genotype frequencies for these polymorphisms did not differ between patients and controls. In conclusion, we reported a functional variant in the PPIA promoter. However, the PPIA variation did not significantly contribute to the risk of suffering from myocardial infarction among patients with atherosclerotic diseased vessels.

  11. Acute myocardial infarction in early pregnancy: definition of myocardium at risk with noncontrast T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Ali N; Raman, Subha V; Cook, Stephen C

    2008-03-01

    We report a case of a 34-year-old woman who had a left anterior wall myocardial infarction develop in the first trimester of pregnancy. Despite urgent and successful revascularization, she demonstrated persistent segmental wall motion abnormalities by transthoracic echocardiography. To manage this patient safely through pregnancy with a better definition of myocardium at risk, a cardiac magnetic resonance examination was performed. This identified a large territory of acutely edematous myocardium in addition to providing accurate volumetric measurements of left ventricular size and function. Because of her gravid state, gadolinium was not administered nor was it required to delineate the region of myocardium at risk.

  12. Genetic risk factors for myocardial infarction more clearly manifest for early age of first onset.

    PubMed

    Titov, Boris V; Osmak, German J; Matveeva, Natalia A; Kukava, Nino G; Shakhnovich, Roman M; Favorov, Alexander V; Ruda, Mikhail Ya; Favorova, Olga O

    2017-07-06

    Epidemiological genetics established that heritability in determining the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is substantially greater when MI occurs early in life. However, the genetic architecture of early-onset and late-onset MI was not compared. We analyzed genotype frequencies of SNPs in/near 20 genes whose protein products are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in two groups of Russian patients with MI: the first group included patients with age of first MI onset <60 years (N = 230) and the second group with onset ≥60 years (N = 174). The control group of corresponding ethnicity consisted of 193 unrelated volunteers without cardiovascular diseases (93 individuals were over 60 years). We found that in the group of patients with age of onset <60 years, SNPs FGB rs1800788*T, TGFB1 rs1982073*T/T, ENOS rs2070744*C and CRP rs1130864*T/T were associated with risk of MI, whereas in patients with age of onset ≥60 years, only TGFB1 rs1982073*T/T was associated with risk of MI. Using APSampler software, we found composite markers associated with MI only in patients with early onset: FGB rs1800788*T + TGFB1 rs1982073*T; FGB rs1800788*T + LPL rs328*C + IL4 rs2243250*C; FGB rs1800788*T + ENOS rs2070744*C (Fisher p values of 1.4 × 10(-6) to 2.2 × 10(-5); the permutation p values of 1.1 × 10(-5) to 3.0 × 10(-4); ORs = 2.67-2.54). Alleles included in the combinations were associated with MI less significantly and with lower ORs than the combinations themselves. The result showed a substantially greater contribution of the genetic component in the development of MI if it occurs early in life, and demonstrated the usefulness of genetic testing for young people.

  13. Polymorphisms of the NOS3 gene and risk of myocardial infarction in the Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Kallel, Amani; Sbaï, Mohamed Hédi; Sediri, Yousra; Abdessalem, Salem; Mourali, Mohamed Sami; Feki, Moncef; Mechmeche, Rachid; Jemaa, Riadh; Kaabachi, Naziha

    2013-12-01

    Controversial results regarding the association of eNOS gene (NOS3) polymorphisms with myocardial infarction (MI) have been reported. This study investigated the relationship of the -786T>C (rs2070744), 894G>T (rs1799983) and 4a4b polymorphisms of the NOS3 gene with the presence of MI in the Tunisian population. In addition, we also examined the association of NOS3 gene haplotypes with MI in Tunisian subjects. A total of 303 patients with MI and 225 controls were included in the study. The 894G>T and -786T>C single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP, and 4a4b polymorphism just for PCR. There was significant linkage disequilibrium between the three NOS3 polymorphisms (p<0.0001). The genotype distribution and allele frequency of NOS3 4a4b, but not -786T>C and 894G>T, polymorphism was significantly different between MI patients and controls. The univariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association of the 4a4b polymorphism and MI according to co-dominant, dominant and recessive models (co-dominant model OR: 4.38, 95%CI: 1.24-15.41; p=0.021, dominant model OR: 1.66, 95%CI: 1.14-2.42); p=0.007, and recessive model OR: 3.85, 95%CI: 1.10-13.47; p=0.035). The multivariate analysis, adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, revealed that the NOS3 4a4a genotype was an independent predisposing factor to MI, according to the models considered. In addition, a haplotype 7 (C-T-4a), (OR=12.05, p=0.010) was a risk factor of MI after controlling for classical risk factors. These finding suggest that the 4a4b polymorphism of the NOS3 gene was associated with MI in Tunisian patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pronounced increase in risk of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in younger smokers.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Amelia; Steele, Lloyd; Fotheringham, James; Iqbal, Javaid; Sultan, Ayyaz; Teare, M Dawn; Grech, Ever D

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that smokers presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) a decade earlier than non-smokers. However, no account has been made for population smoking trends, an important deficit addressed by this study. The combination of admission data on patients with acute STEMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and demographic data supplied by the Office for National Statistics for the South Yorkshire population between 2009-2012 were analysed to generate incidence rates and rate ratios (RR) to quantify the relative risk of STEMI from smoking, overall and by age group. There were 1795 STEMI patients included of which 72.9% were male. 68 patients were excluded as they had no smoking status recorded, leaving 48.5% of the remaining population as current smokers, 27.2% ex-smokers and 24.3% never smokers. Smokers were over-represented with overall smoking prevalence in South Yorkshire calculated at 22.4%. The incidence of STEMI in smokers aged under 50, 50-65 and over 65 years was 59.7, 316.9 and 331.0 per 100 000 patient years at risk compared to 7.0, 60.9 and 106.8 for the combined group of ex- and never smokers. This gave smokers under the age of 50 years an 8.47 (95% CI 6.80 to 10.54) increase in rate compared to non-smokers of the same age, with the 50-65 and over 65 age groups having RRs of 5.20 (95% CI 4.76 to 5.69) and 3.10 (95% CI 2.67 to 3.60), respectively. Smoking was associated with an eightfold increased risk of acute STEMI in younger smokers, when compared to ex- and never smokers. Further efforts to reduce smoking in the youngest are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. [Classical risk factors for myocardial infarction and total mortality in the community--13-year follow-up of the MONICA Augsburg cohort study].

    PubMed

    Heidrich, J; Wellmann, J; Hense, H-W; Siebert, E; Liese, A D; Löwel, H; Keil, U

    2003-06-01

    The MONICA (MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) project in the region of Augsburg, Southern Germany, is the first population-based cohort study in Germany investigating the association of the risk factors hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and smoking with incident myocardial infarction and total mortality, and to assess their impact at the population level. At baseline, 1074 men and 1013 women aged 45-64 years were randomly selected from the population in the Augsburg region and extensively interviewed and examined regarding their cardiovascular risk profile. They were traced over 13 years from 1984-1997. We calculated incidence rates, hazard rate ratios, population attributable risks (PAR), and rate advancement periods (RAP) according to the three risk factors and their combinations. Among men, 107 myocardial infarctions and 204 total mortality events occurred during the study period; in women the number of total mortality cases was 102. The three classical risk factors were associated with incident myocardial infarction in men and with total mortality in men and women over a period of 13 years. Heavily smoking men had a particularly high risk of total mortality (HRR=4.2; 95% CI 2.5-7.0) and myocardial infarction (HRR=3.8; 1.9-7.6). Men with treated hypertension were at equally high risk for both total mortality (HRR=2.4; 1.5-3.7) and myocardial infarction (HRR=2.4; 1.3-4.3). In women, treated hypertension (HRR=2.5; 1.5-4.1) and hypercholesterolemia (HRR=2.0; 1.2-3.3) were most strongly related to total mortality. Regarding the association of risk factor combinations and myocardial infarction among men, the presence of all three risk factors simultaneously (HRR=7.9; 3.6-17.3) and the combination smoking/hypercholesterolemia (HRR=5.8; 3.2-10.5) were particularly hazardous. In total, the three risk factors contributed 54% of the burden of myocardial infarction in the male study population. The rate advancement periods for myocardial

  16. Hospital Strategies for Reducing Risk-Standardized Mortality Rates in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Curry, Leslie A.; Spatz, Erica S.; Herrin, Jeph; Cherlin, Emily J.; Curtis, Jeptha P.; Thompson, Jennifer W.; Ting, Henry H.; Wang, Yongfei; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite recent improvements in survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), U.S. hospitals vary 2-fold in their 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs). Nevertheless, information is limited on hospital-level factors that may be associated with RSMRs. Objective To identify hospital strategies that were associated with lower RSMRs. Design Cross-sectional survey of 537 hospitals (91% response rate) and weighted multivariate regression by using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to determine the associations between hospital strategies and hospital RSMRs. Setting Acute care hospitals with an annualized AMI volume of at least 25 patients. Participants Patients hospitalized with AMI between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2009. Measurements Hospital performance improvement strategies, characteristics, and 30-day RSMRs. Results In multivariate analysis, several hospital strategies were significantly associated with lower RSMRs and in aggregate were associated with clinically important differences in RSMRs. These strategies included holding monthly meetings to review AMI cases between hospital clinicians and staff who transported patients to the hospital (RSMR lower by 0.70 percentage points), having cardiologists always on site (lower by 0.54 percentage points), fostering an organizational environment in which clinicians are encouraged to solve problems creatively (lower by 0.84 percentage points), not cross-training nurses from intensive care units for the cardiac catheterization laboratory (lower by 0.44 percentage points), and having physician and nurse champions rather than nurse champions alone (lower by 0.88 percentage points). Fewer than 10% of hospitals reported using at least 4 of these 5 strategies. Limitation The cross-sectional design demonstrates statistical associations but cannot establish causal relationships. Conclusion Several strategies, which are currently implemented by relatively few hospitals, are

  17. Comparison of chronic kidney disease and risk for presenting with painless versus nonpainless acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Goo; Jeong, Myung Ho; Lee, Ki Hong; Park, Keun Ho; Sim, Doo Sun; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Yoon, Nam Sik; Kim, Kye Hun; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2012-09-15

    Chronic kidney disease increases the risk for developing ischemic heart disease, but it has not been well known whether it also affects the manifestation of painless acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which has important clinical implications. The aim of this study was to identify whether chronic kidney disease is associated with the presentation of painless AMI. A total of 2,656 consecutively hospitalized patients with AMI from January 2008 to February 2012 were enrolled. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using calibrated serum creatinine and the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. Patient clinical characteristics, angiographic findings, and the use of medications were reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of reduced eGFR and presentation with painless AMI. A total of 2,176 adults with painful AMI and 480 adults with painless AMI were studied, and baseline eGFR was calculated. Mean eGFR was lower in subjects with painless AMI compared to those with painful AMI. Compared to an eGFR >90 ml/min/1.73 m(2), a strong, graded, independent association was observed between reduced eGFR and presentation with painless AMI, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.65 (95% confidence interval 1.16 to 2.36) for an eGFR of 60 to 89 ml/min/1.73 m(2), 2.92 (95% confidence interval 1.89 to 4.52) for an eGFR of 45 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and 3.44 (95% confidence interval 2.20 to 5.38) for an eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m(2). In conclusion, lower eGFR was a strong, independent predictor of presentation with painless AMI versus painful AMI.

  18. Acute effects of vinegar intake on some biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose and lipids induce proportional increases in oxidative stress, which acutely trigger impairment endothelial, inflammation and increased risk of future cardiovascular events. In this research, we have investigated acute effects of vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits to see if we can find a probable protective value for it. Methods The rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1cholesterol), %1 cholesterol with 5 ml vinegar (low dose), %1 cholesterol with 10 ml vinegar (high dose). After fasting for 12-15 hours, blood samples were taken to determine baseline values. Three hours after feeding, blood samples were collected again to investigate acute effects of vinegar intake on the measured factors. Results Using high-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused significant reduce in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), total cholesterol (TC) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Consumption low-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet induced a significant decrease in fibrinogen and glucose compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. Level of serum nitrite, nitrate, triacylglycerol (TAG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A (ApoA), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were not significantly difference in low and high doses vinegar with cholesterolemic diet compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. A significant difference was observed for LDL-C, ApoB100 and TC between low and high doses vinegar. Conclusion This study suggest that vinegar, might have some acute effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis and a probable protective value can be considered for its postprandial use. PMID:20109192

  19. Risk is not flat. Comprehensive approach to multidimensional risk management in ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary angioplasty (ANIN STEMI Registry).

    PubMed

    Kruk, Mariusz; Przyłuski, Jakub; Kalińczuk, Lukasz; Pręgowski, Jerzy; Kaczmarska, Edyta; Petryka, Joanna; Kępka, Cezary; Bekta, Paweł; Chmielak, Zbigniew; Demkow, Marcin; Ciszewski, Andrzej; Karcz, Maciej; Kłopotowski, Mariusz; Witkowski, Adam; Rużyłło, Witold

    2013-01-01

    Current risk assessment concepts in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are suboptimal for guiding clinical management. To elaborate a composite risk management concept for STEMI, enhancing clinical decision making. 1995 unselected, registry patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) (mean age 60.1 years, 72.1% men) were included in the study. The independent risk markers were grouped by means of factor analysis, and the appropriate hazards were identified. In-hospital death was the primary outcome, observed in 95 (4.7%) patients. Independent predictors of mortality included age, leukocytosis, hyperglycemia, tachycardia, low blood pressure, impaired renal function, Killip > 1, anemia, and history of coronary disease. The factor analysis identified two significant clusters of risk markers: 1. age-anemia- impaired renal function, interpreted as the patient-related hazard; and 2. tachycardia-Killip > 1-hyperglycemia-leukocytosis, interpreted as the event-related (hemodynamic) hazard. The hazard levels (from low to high) were defined based on the number of respective risk markers. Patient-related hazard determined outcomes most significantly within the low hemodynamic hazard group. The dissection of the global risk into the combination of patient- and event-related (hemodynamic) hazards allows comprehensive assessment and management of several, often contradictory sources of risk in STEMI. The cohort of high-risk STEMI patients despite hemodynamically trivial infarction face the most suboptimal outcomes under the current invasive management strategy.

  20. Risk of recurrent stroke in patients with silent brain infarction in the PRoFESS Imaging Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Ralph; Weimar, Christian; Wanke, Isabel; Möller-Hartmann, Claudia; Gizewski, Elke R.; Blatchford, Jon; Hermansson, Karin; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Forsting, Michael; Sacco, Ralph L.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Warach, Steven; Diener, Hans Christoph; Diehl, Anke

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Silent brain infarctions are associated with an increased risk of stroke in healthy individuals. Risk of recurrent stroke in patients with both symptomatic and silent brain infarction (SBI) has only been investigated in patients with cardioembolic stroke in the European Atrial Fibrillation Trial. We assessed whether patients with recent non-cardioembolic stroke and SBI detected on MRI are at increased risk for recurrent stroke, other cardiovascular events, and mortality. Methods The prevalence of SBI detected on MRI was assessed in 1014 patients enrolled in the imaging substudy of the Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) trial. The primary outcome was first recurrence of stroke in patients with both symptomatic stroke and SBI in comparison with age and sex matched stroke patients without SBI. Secondary outcomes were a combined vascular endpoint, other vascular events and mortality. The two groups were compared using conditional logistic regression. Results Silent brain infarction was detected in 207 (20.4%) patients of the 1014 patients. Twenty-seven (13.0%) patients with SBI and 19 (9.2%) without SBI had a recurrent stroke (odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 2.56; p=0.24) during a mean follow-op of 2.5 years. Similarly, there was no statistically significant difference for all secondary outcome parameters between patients with SBI and matched patients without SBI. Conclusion The presence of SBI in patients with recent mild non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke could not be shown to be an independent risk factor for recurrent stroke, other vascular events, or a higher mortality. PMID:22267825

  1. Electro-mechanical characteristics of myocardial infarction border zones and ventricular arrhythmic risk: novel insights from grid-tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dennis T L; Weightman, Michael J; Baumert, Mathias; Tayeb, Hussam; Richardson, James D; Puri, Rishi; Bertaso, Angela G; Roberts-Thomson, Kurt C; Sanders, Prashanthan; Worthley, Matthew I; Worthley, Stephen G

    2012-08-01

    To investigate whether grid-tag myocardial strain evaluation can characterise 'border-zone' peri-infarct region and identify patients at risk of ventricular arrhythmia as the peri-infarct myocardial zone may represent an important contributor to ventricular arrhythmia following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Forty-five patients with STEMI underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging on days 3 and 90 following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Circumferential peak circumferential systolic strain (CS) and strain rate (CSR) were calculated from grid-tagged images. Myocardial segments were classified into 'infarct', 'border-zone', 'adjacent' and 'remote' regions by late-gadolinium enhancement distribution. The relationship between CS and CSR and these distinct myocardial regions was assessed. Ambulatory Holter monitoring was performed 14 days post myocardial infarction (MI) to estimate ventricular arrhythmia risk via evaluation of heart-rate variability (HRV). We analysed 1,222 myocardial segments. Remote and adjacent regions had near-normal parameters of CS and CSR. Border-zone regions had intermediate CS (-9.0 ± 4.6 vs -5.9 ± 7.4, P < 0.001) and CSR (-86.4 ± 33.3 vs -73.5 ± 51.4, P < 0.001) severity compared with infarct regions. Patients with 'border-zone' peri-infarct regions had reduced very-low-frequency power on HRV analysis, which is a surrogate for ventricular arrhythmia risk (P = 0.03). Grid-tagged CMR-derived myocardial strain accurately characterises the mechanical characteristics of 'border-zone' peri-infarct region. Presence of 'border-zone' peri-infarct region correlated with a surrogate marker of heightened arrhythmia risk following STEMI. • Grid-tagged cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) offers new insights into myocardial mechanical function. • Grid-tagged CMR identified different characteristics in 'border-zone' and 'adjacent' peri-infarct myocardial regions. • Reduced very-low-frequency (VLF) power

  2. Effect of β-Blockers on the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Pesaro, Antonio Eduardo; de Matos Soeiro, Alexandre; Serrano, Carlos Vicente; Giraldez, Roberto Rocha; Ladeira, Renata Teixeira; Nicolau, José Carlos

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oral β-blockers improve the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction, while atrial fibrillation worsens the prognosis of this population. The reduction of atrial fibrillation incidence in patients treated with β-blockers could at least in part explain the benefits of this drug. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of β-blockers on the incidence of atrial fibrillation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: We analyzed 1401 patients with acute myocardial infarction and evaluated the occurrence or absence of atrial fibrillation, the use of oral β-blockers and mortality during the first 24 hours. RESULTS: a) The use of β-blockers was inversely correlated with the presence of atrial fibrillation (ρ = 0.004; OR = 0.54). b) Correlations with mortality were as follows: 31.5% in patients with atrial fibrillation, 9.2% in those without atrial fibrillation (ρ < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 4.52), and 17.5% in patients not treated with β-blockers and 6.7% in those who received the drug (ρ < 0.001; OR = 0.34). c) Adjusted Models: The presence of atrial fibrillation was independently correlated with mortality (OR = 2.48, ρ = 0.002). The use of β-blockers was inversely and independently correlated with mortality (OR = 0.53; ρ = 0.002). The patients who used β-blockers showed a lower risk of atrial fibrillation (OR = 0.59; ρ = 0.029) in the adjusted model. CONCLUSION: The presence of atrial fibrillation and the absence of oral β-blockers increased in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Oral β-blockers reduced the incidence of atrial fibrillation, which might be at least partially responsible for the drug’s benefit. PMID:20360916

  3. Mechanisms underlying the lack of effect of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy on mortality in high-risk patients with recent myocardial infarction: insights from the Defibrillation in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (DINAMIT).

    PubMed

    Dorian, Paul; Hohnloser, Stefan H; Thorpe, Kevin E; Roberts, Robin S; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Gent, Michael; Connolly, Stuart J

    2010-12-21

    although implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) lower mortality in stable patients with low ejection fraction late after myocardial infarction, randomized trials of ICD versus control subjects implanted early after myocardial infarction do not show mortality benefit. Our objective was to investigate possible mechanisms underlying the lack of mortality benefit in the Defibrillation in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (DINAMIT). this is a secondary analysis of the prospective randomized clinical trial. Outpatients with recent (6 to 40 days) acute myocardial infarction, left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction <35%), and low heart rate variability were randomized to ICD (n=311) or to standard medical therapy (n=342). In a competing-risks analysis, those factors that increased the risk of arrhythmic death also increased the risk of nonarrhythmic deaths. After adjustment for these factors, receiving an ICD was associated with a decreased risk of arrhythmic death (hazard ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.15 to 0.71) but an increase in nonarrhythmic death (hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 2.80). In an adjusted time-dependent analysis, patients receiving an ICD and having appropriate ICD therapy had a 15.1% yearly hazard of mortality compared with 5.2% in ICD patients with no appropriate therapy (P<0.001). The reduction in sudden death in ICD patients was completely offset by increased nonarrhythmic deaths, which were greatest in patients receiving ICD shock therapy (hazard ratio, 6.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.8 to 12.7). in patients receiving ICDs early after myocardial infarction, those factors that are associated with arrhythmia requiring ICD therapy are also associated with a high risk of nonsudden death, negating the benefit of ICDs in this setting.

  4. Postoperative statin use and risk of biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy: Results from the SEARCH database

    PubMed Central

    Allott, Emma H.; Howard, Lauren E.; Cooperberg, Matthew R.; Kane, Christopher J.; Aronson, William J.; Terris, Martha K.; Amling, Christopher L.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective • To investigate the effect of postoperative statin use on biochemical recurrence (BCR) in PC patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) who never used statins before surgery. Patients and Methods • We conducted a retrospective analysis of 1,146 RP patients within the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database. • Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to examine differences in risk of BCR between postoperative statin users versus nonusers. • To account for varying start dates and duration of statin use during follow-up, postoperative statin use was treated as a time-dependent variable. • In secondary analysis, models were stratified by race to examine the association of postoperative statin use with BCR among black and non-black men. Results • After adjusting for clinical and pathological characteristics, postoperative statin use was significantly associated with 36% reduced risk of BCR (HR 0.64; 95%CI 0.47-0.87; p=0.004). • Postoperative statin use remained associated with reduced risk of BCR after adjusting for preoperative serum cholesterol levels. • In secondary analysis, following stratification by race, this protective association was significant in non-black (HR 0.49; 95%CI 0.32-0.75; p=0.001) but not black men (HR 0.82; 95%CI 0.53-1.28; p=0.384). Conclusion • In this retrospective cohort of men undergoing RP, postoperative statin use was significantly associated with reduced risk of BCR. • Whether the association between postoperative statin use and BCR differs by race requires further study. • Given these findings, coupled with other studies suggesting that statins may reduce risk of advanced PC, randomized controlled trials are warranted to formally test the hypothesis that statins slow PC progression. PMID:24588774

  5. The Vascular Quality Initiative Cardiac Risk Index for prediction of myocardial infarction after vascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Schanzer, Andres; Scali, Salvatore T.; Goodney, Philip P.; Eldrup-Jorgensen, Jens; Cronenwett, Jack L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to develop and to validate the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) for prediction of postoperative myocardial infarction (POMI) after vascular surgery. Methods We developed risk models for in-hospital POMI after 88,791 nonemergent operations from the VQI registry, including carotid endarterectomy (CEA; n = 45,340), infrainguinal bypass (INFRA; n = 18,054), suprainguinal bypass (SUPRA; n = 2678), endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR; n = 18,539), and open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (OAAA repair; n = 4180). Multivariable logistic regression was used to create an all-procedure and four procedure-specific risk calculators based on the derivation cohort from 2012 to 2014 (N = 61,236). Generalizability of the all-procedure model was evaluated by applying it to each procedure subtype. The models were validated using a cohort (N = 27,555) from January 2015 to February 2016. Model discrimination was measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and performance was validated by bootstrapping 5000 iterations. The VQI CRI calculator was made available on the Internet and as a free smart phone app available through QxCalculate. Results Overall POMI incidence was 1.6%, with variation by procedure type as follows: CEA, 0.8%; EVAR, 1.0%; INFRA, 2.6%; SUPRA, 3.1%; and OAAA repair, 4.3% (P < .001). Predictors of POMI in the all-procedure model included age, operation type, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes, creatinine concentration >1.8 mg/dL, stress test status, and body mass index (AUC, 0.75; 95% confidence interval =CI], 0.73-0.76). The all-procedure model demonstrated only minimally reduced accuracy when it was applied to each procedure, with the following AUCs: CEA, 0.65 (95% CI, 0.59-0.70); INFRA, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.64-0.73); EVAR, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.65-0.80); SUPRA, 0.62 (95% CI, 0.52-0.72); and OAAA, 0.63 (95% CI, 0.56-0.70). Procedure-specific models had

  6. Major life events increase the risk of stroke but not of myocardial infarction: results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Kornerup, Henriette; Osler, Merete; Boysen, Gudrun; Barefoot, John; Schnohr, Peter; Prescott, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background More attention has been paid to psychosocial conditions as possible risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the impact of accumulated major life events (MLE) on the development of CVD has received little attention. Design The aim of this study was to explore the influences of MLE on CVD risk in a large cohort study. Methods The study population consisted of 9542 randomly selected adults free of CVD examined in the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1991–1994 and followed up for CVD defined as myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke until 2001. MLE were analysed using an 11-item questionnaire and hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results During follow-up there were 443 myocardial infarctions (MI) and 350 ischaemic strokes. Financial problems in both childhood and adulthood were associated with risk of stroke with an HR of 1.71 (95% CI: 1.29–2.26) and 1.60 (1.12–2.30), respectively. Accumulation of MLE was also associated with risk of stroke with HR reaching a maximum of 1.41 (95% CI: 1.06–1.90) for more than one event in childhood and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.09–2.04) for more than one event in adulthood. MLE accumulated over a life course showed a dose–response relationship with stroke. Associations were somewhat attenuated by adjustment for vital exhaustion suggesting a mediating role, but not by adjustment for behavioural risk factors. There were no associations between MLE and MI. Conclusion In this population-based cohort study, we found that MLE conveyed a moderately increased risk of stroke partly mediated through vital exhaustion. We found no association between MLE and the risk of MI. PMID:20038841

  7. Refined ambient PM2.5 exposure surrogates and the risk of myocardial infarction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a case-crossover study design and conditional logistic regression, we compared the relative odds of transmural (full-wall) myocardial infarction (MI) calculated using exposure surrogates that account for human activity patterns and the indoor transport of ambient PM2....

  8. Refined ambient PM2.5 exposure surrogates and the risk of myocardial infarction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a case-crossover study design and conditional logistic regression, we compared the relative odds of transmural (full-wall) myocardial infarction (MI) calculated using exposure surrogates that account for human activity patterns and the indoor transport of ambient PM2....

  9. Telomeres are shorter in myocardial infarction patients compared to healthy subjects: correlation with environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Salpea, Klelia D.; Jain, Anjly; Cooper, Jackie A.; Hamsten, Anders; Sanders, Julie; Montgomery, Hugh; Neil, Andrew; Nair, Devaki; Humphries, Steve E.

    2010-01-01

    Shorter telomeres have been reported in premature myocardial infarction (MI) patients. Our work aimed at confirming the association of shorter telomere with MI in two case–control studies and in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). The HIFMECH study compared 598 white male patients (<60 years) who survived a first MI and 653 age-matched controls from North and South Europe. Additionally, from the UK, 413 coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients and two groups of 367 and 94 FH patients, of whom 145 and 17 respectively had premature CHD, were recruited. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured using a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based method. In HIFMECH, LTL was significantly shorter in subjects from the North (7.99 kb, SD 4.51) compared to the South (8.27 kb, SD 4.14; p = 0.02) and in cases (7.85 kb, SD 4.01) compared to controls (8.04 kb, SD 4.46; p = 0.04). In the CABG study, LTL was significantly shorter (6.89 kb, SD 4.14) compared to the HIFMECH UK controls (7.53, SD 5.29; p = 0.007). In both samples of FH patients, LTL was shorter in those with CHD (overall 8.68 kb, SD 4.65) compared to the non-CHD subjects (9.23 kb, SD 4.83; p = 0.012). Apart from a consistent negative correlation with age, LTL was not associated across studies with any measured CHD risk factors. The present data confirms that subjects with CHD have shorter telomeres than controls and extends this to those with monogenic and polygenic forms of CHD. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00109-010-0624-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20383691

  10. Effect of goal attainment theory based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: Randomized study.

    PubMed

    Park, Moonkyoung; Song, Rhayun; Jeong, Jin-Ok

    2017-02-24

    Effect of goal-attainment-theory-based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: randomized study BACKGROUND: The behavioral modification strategies should be explored at the time of admission to lead the maximum effect of cardiovascular risk management.

  11. [C-reactive protein as a biochemical marker of cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Montero-Alonso, Miguel A; Schmidt-Ríovalle, Jacqueline

    2013-11-01

    The first objective of this study was to analyze the metabolic profile of the population to be studied. The second one was to ascertain whether there was a significant association between the nutritional status of the subjects and the serum level of C-reactive protein. Finally, the third objective was to discover whether there was a correlation between C-reactive protein serum levels and waist to hip ratio values. The sample was composed of 1001 adolescents, 9-17 years of age, from 18 schools in the provinces of Granada and Almeria. Their nutritional status was determined by means of anthropometric evaluation. For the metabolic study, a blood sample was collected from each subject by venipuncture. An analysis was performed of C-reactive protein, basal glycemia, ceruloplasmin, glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c), basal insulin, serum levels of lipoprotein (a), and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). The biochemical study reflected a normal metabolic profile with serum levels of C-reactive protein, basal glycemia, ceruloplasmin, glycated hemoglobin, basal insulin, lipoprotein (a) and non-esterified fatty acids slightly higher in the male subjects. The results of our studied showed that there was a statistically significant association (p < 0.05; F = 3.701) between the nutritional status of the subjects and serum levels of C-reactive protein. A statistically significant association (F = 9.008; p < 0.005) was also found between serum levels of C-reactive protein and waist to hip ratio values. The C-reactive protein associated either with nutritional status or the waist to hip ratio is an effective biochemical marker of cardiovascular risk among the population of adolescents in our study. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. The association between biochemical control and cardiovascular risk factors in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, John D; Broder, Michael S; Cherepanov, Dasha; Chang, Eunice; Mamelak, Adam; Said, Qayyim; Neary, Maureen P; Bonert, Vivien

    2017-03-09

    The study aim was to estimate the proportion of acromegaly patients with various comorbidities and to determine if biochemical control was associated with reduced proportion of cardiovascular risk factors. Data were from a single-center acromegaly registry. Study patients were followed for ≥12 months after initial treatment. Study period was from first to last insulin-like growth factor-I and growth hormone tests. Of 121 patients, 55% were female. Mean age at diagnosis was 42.4 (SD: 15.0). Mean study period was 8.8 (SD: 7.2) years. Macroadenomas were observed in 93 of 106 patients (87.7%), and microadenomas in 13 (12.3%). Initial treatment was surgery in 104 patients (86%), pharmacotherapy in 16 (13.2%), and radiation therapy in 1 (0.8%). Of 120 patients, 79 (65.8%) achieved control during the study period. New onset comorbidities (reported 6 months after study start) were uncommon (<10%). Comorbidities were typically more prevalent in uncontrolled versus controlled patients-24 (58.5%) vs. 33 (41.8%) had hypertension, 17 (41.5%) vs. 20 (25.3%) had diabetes, 11 (26.8%) vs. 16 (20.3%) had sleep apnea, and 3 (7.3%) vs. 3 (3.8%) had cardiomyopathy-except for colon polyps or cancer (19.5% vs. 20.3%), left ventricular hypertrophy (9.8% vs. 11.4%), and visual defects (14.6% vs. 17.7%). A greater number of comorbidities were observed in biochemically uncontrolled patients with acromegaly compared to their controlled counterparts in this single-center registry. About a third of the patients remained uncontrolled after a mean of >8 years of treatment, demonstrating the difficulty of achieving control in some patients.

  13. Protection of Distal Embolization in High-Risk Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (PREMIAR).

    PubMed

    Cura, Fernando A; Escudero, Alejandro Garcia; Berrocal, Daniel; Mendiz, Oscar; Trivi, Marcelo S; Fernandez, Juan; Palacios, Alejandro; Albertal, Mariano; Piraino, Ruben; Riccitelli, Miguel Angel; Gruberg, Luis; Ballarino, Miguel; Milei, Jose; Baeza, Ricardo; Thierer, Jorge; Grinfeld, Liliana; Krucoff, Mitchell; O'Neill, William; Belardi, Jorge

    2007-02-01

    Distal embolization may decrease myocardial reperfusion after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Nonetheless, results of previous trials assessing the role of distal protection during primary PCI have been controversial. The Protection of Distal Embolization in High-Risk Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Trial (PREMIAR) was a prospective, randomized, controlled study designed to evaluate the role of filter-based distal protection during PCI in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction at high risk of embolic events (including only baseline Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 0 to 2 flow). The primary end point was continuous monitoring of ST-segment resolution. Secondary end points included core laboratory analysis of angiographic myocardial blush, ejection fraction measured by cardiac ultrasound, and adverse cardiac events at 6 months. From a total of 194 enrolled patients, 140 subjects were randomized to PCI with or without embolic protection, and 54 were included in a registry arm due to the presence of angiographic exclusion criteria. Baseline characteristics were comparable between arms. The rate of complete ST-segment resolution (>or=70%) at 60 minutes was similar in patients treated with or without distal protection (61.2% vs 60.3%, respectively, p = 0.85). Angiographic myocardial blush (67% vs 70.7%, p = 0.73), in-hospital ejection fraction (47.4 +/- 9.9% vs 45.3 +/- 7.3%, p = 0.29), and combined end point of death, heart failure, or reinfarction at 6 months (14.3% vs 15.7%, p = 0.81) were consistently achieved in a similar proportion in the 2 groups. In conclusion, the use of filter-based distal protection is safe and effectively retrieves debris; however, such use does not translate into an improvement of myocardial reperfusion, left ventricular performance, or clinical outcomes.

  14. Risk of Stroke and Myocardial Infarction After Herpes Zoster in Older Adults in a US Community Population.

    PubMed

    Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter C; Nagel, Maria A; Gilden, Don

    2016-01-01

    To assess the risk of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) after herpes zoster in a US community population of older adults. We performed a community cohort study (January 1, 1986, to October 1, 2011) comparing the risk of stroke and MI in 4862 adult residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, 50 years and older with and without herpes zoster and 19,433 sex- and age-matched individuals with no history of herpes zoster. Odds ratios are presented for MI and stroke at 3, 6, 12, and 36 months after index herpes zoster plus hazard ratios for long-term risk (up to 28.6 years). Individuals with herpes zoster had more risk or confounding factors for MI and stroke, suggesting that they had worse health status overall. When controlling for the multiple risk factors, those with herpes zoster were at increased risk for stroke at 3 months after herpes zoster compared with those without a history of herpes zoster (odds ratio, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.10-2.33; P=.04). The association between herpes zoster and MI at 3 months was not robust across analytic methods. Herpes zoster was not associated with an increased risk of stroke or MI at any point beyond 3 months. Herpes zoster was associated with only a short-term increased risk of stroke, which may be preventable with the prevention of herpes zoster. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction associated with factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations and blood type.

    PubMed

    Sode, Birgitte F; Allin, Kristine H; Dahl, Morten; Gyntelberg, Finn; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2013-03-19

    ABO blood type locus has been reported to be an important genetic determinant of venous and arterial thrombosis in genome-wide association studies. We tested the hypothesis that ABO blood type alone and in combination with mutations in factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A is associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction in the general population. We used data from 2 Danish studies that followed members of the general public from 1977 through 2010. We obtained the genotype of 66 001 white participants for ABO blood type, factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and population attributable risk. Our main outcome measures were venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction. The multivariable adjusted HR for venous thromboembolism was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-1.5) for non-O blood type (v. O blood type). For the factor V Leiden R506Q mutation, the adjusted HR was 2.2 (95% CI 2.0-2.5) for heterozygous participants and 7.0 (95%CI 4.8-10) for homozygous participants (v. participants without the mutation). For prothrombin G20210A, the adjusted HR was 1.5 (95%CI 1.2-1.9) for heterozygous participants and 11 (95% CI 2.8-44) for homozygous participants (v. participants without the mutation). When we combined ABO blood type and factor V Leiden R506Q or prothrombin G20210A genotype, there was a stepwise increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism (trend, p<0.001). The population attributable risk of venous thromboembolism was 20% for ABO blood type, 10% for factor V Leiden R506Q and 1% for prothrombin G20210A. Multivariable adjusted HRs for myocardial infarction by genotypes did not differ from 1.0. ABO blood type had an additive effect on the risk of venous thromboembolism when combined with factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A mutations; blood type was the most important risk factor for venous thromboembolism in the general population.

  16. Risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction associated with factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations and blood type

    PubMed Central

    Sode, Birgitte F.; Allin, Kristine H.; Dahl, Morten; Gyntelberg, Finn; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: ABO blood type locus has been reported to be an important genetic determinant of venous and arterial thrombosis in genome-wide association studies. We tested the hypothesis that ABO blood type alone and in combination with mutations in factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A is associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction in the general population. Methods: We used data from 2 Danish studies that followed members of the general public from 1977 through 2010. We obtained the genotype of 66 001 white participants for ABO blood type, factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and population attributable risk. Our main outcome measures were venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction. Results: The multivariable adjusted HR for venous thromboembolism was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–1.5) for non-O blood type (v. O blood type). For the factor V Leiden R506Q mutation, the adjusted HR was 2.2 (95% CI 2.0–2.5) for heterozygous participants and 7.0 (95%CI 4.8–10) for homozygous participants (v. participants without the mutation). For prothrombin G20210A, the adjusted HR was 1.5 (95%CI 1.2–1.9) for heterozygous participants and 11 (95% CI 2.8–44) for homozygous participants (v. participants without the mutation). When we combined ABO blood type and factor V Leiden R506Q or prothrombin G20210A genotype, there was a stepwise increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism (trend, p < 0.001). The population attributable risk of venous thromboembolism was 20% for ABO blood type, 10% for factor V Leiden R506Q and 1% for prothrombin G20210A. Multivariable adjusted HRs for myocardial infarction by genotypes did not differ from 1.0. Interpretation: ABO blood type had an additive effect on the risk of venous thromboembolism when combined with factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A mutations; blood type was the most important risk factor for venous thromboembolism in

  17. Preoperative androgen deprivation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Delayed biochemical recurrence in high-risk disease

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sumanta K.; Ruel, Nora; Voglezang, Nicholas; Chang, Mark; Wilson, Timothy G.; Jones, Jeremy O.; Yuh, Bertram

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of preoperative androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for localized prostate cancer is controversial; prospective assessments have yielded varying results. We sought to define a subset of patients with a higher likelihood of benefit from preoperative ADT. Methods An institutional database including consecutive patients receiving definitive surgery for localized prostate cancer was interrogated. Patients recorded as having received preoperative ADT were matched in a 1:2 fashion to patients who had not received prior ADT. Patients were matched on the basis of clinicopathologic characteristics, use of adjuvant treatment strategies, and duration of PSA follow-up. Time to biochemical recurrence (TTBR) was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test for the overall study population and in subsets defined by D’Amico risk. Results No significant differences in clinicopathologic characteristics were noted between recipients (n=101) and matched non-recipients (n=196) of preoperative ADT. Although not statistically significant, positive surgical margin rates, seminal vesicle invasion and extracapsular extension were less frequent in patients receiving preoperative ADT. Furthermore, a lesser incidence of perioperative complications was noted in this group (7.4% v 18.4%). No significant differences were noted in TTBR between recipients and non-recipients of preoperative ADT in the overall study population. However, amongst patients with high-risk disease, TTBR was significantly longer in those patients who had received preoperative ADT (P=0.004). Conclusions The data presented herein suggest a potential benefit with preoperative ADT in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer. Consideration should be given to enriching for this subset in preoperative studies of novel endocrine therapies. PMID:24342128

  18. Statin Medication Use and the Risk of Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Robert J.; Banez, Lionel L.; Aronson, William J.; Terris, Martha K.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Kane, Christopher J.; Presti, Joseph C.; Amling, Christopher L.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although controversial, evidence suggests statins may reduce the risk of advanced prostate cancer (PC), and recently statin use was associated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) reductions among men without PC. The authors sought to examine the association between statin use and PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS The authors examined 1319 men treated with RP from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) Database. Time to PSA recurrence was compared between users and nonusers of statin at surgery using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for multiple clinical and pathological features. RESULTS In total, 236 (18%) men were taking statins at RP. Median follow-up was 24 months for statin users and 38 for nonusers. Statin users were older (P < .001) and underwent RP more recently (P < .001). Statin users were diagnosed at lower clinical stages (P = .009) and with lower PSA levels (P = .04). However, statin users tended to have higher biopsy Gleason scores (P = .002). After adjusting for multiple clinical and pathological factors, statin use was associated with a 30% lower risk of PSA recurrence (hazard ratio “HR”, 0.70; 95% confidence interval “CI”, 0.50–0.97; P = .03), which was dose dependent (relative to no statin use; dose equivalentsimvastatin 20 mg: HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.27–0.93; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS In this cohort of men undergoing RP, statin use was associated with a dose-dependent reduction in the risk of biochemical recurrence. If confirmed in other studies, these findings suggest statins may slow PC progression after RP. PMID:20586112

  19. Risk of myocardial infarction in parents of HIV-infected Individuals: a population-based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Line D; Omland, Lars H; Pedersen, Court; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte; Jensen, Janne; Obel, Niels

    2010-06-14

    Previous studies have indicated an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in HIV infected individuals especially after start of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It is however controversial whether the increased risk of atherosclerotic disease is exclusively associated with the HIV disease and HAART or whether life-style related or genetic factors also increase the risk in this population. To establish whether the increased risk of myocardial infarction in HIV patients partly reflects an increased risk of MI in their families, we estimated the relative risk of MI in parents of HIV-infected individuals. From the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Danish Civil Registration System we identified the parents of all HIV-infected patients born in Denmark after 1952 in whom a Danish born mother was identifiable. For each HIV patient, 4 matched population controls and their parents were identified. Cumulative incidence functions were constructed to illustrate time to first MI of the parents as registered in the Danish National Hospital Registry. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated by Cox's regression analyses. Due to the confidential type of the analysed data the study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency. 2,269 mothers and 2,022 fathers of HIV patients as well as 9,076 mothers and 8,460 fathers of control subjects were identified. We observed an increased risk of MI in mothers of HIV patients (adjusted IRR, 1.31; 95% CI: 1.08-1.60). The strongest association was seen in case the offspring was infected heterosexually (adjusted IRR, 1.59; 95% CI: 1.07-2.35) or by IV drug abuse (IVD) (adjusted IRR, 1.63; 95% CI: 1.02-2.60). In fathers of HIV patients the risk of MI was only increased if the offspring was infected by IVD (adjusted IRR, 1.42; 95% CI: 1.01-2.00). Mothers of HIV-infected patients have an increased risk of MI. We presume that this stems from family related life style risk factors, some of which may also influence the risk of MI

  20. Trajectories of Risk for Specific Readmission Diagnoses after Hospitalization for Heart Failure, Acute Myocardial Infarction, or Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Krumholz, Harlan M; Hsieh, Angela; Dreyer, Rachel P; Welsh, John; Desai, Nihar R; Dharmarajan, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The risk of rehospitalization is elevated in the immediate post-discharge period and declines over time. It is not known if the extent and timing of risk vary across readmission diagnoses, suggesting that recovery and vulnerability after discharge differ by physiologic system. We compared risk trajectories for major readmission diagnoses in the year after discharge among all Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries hospitalized with heart failure (HF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), or pneumonia from 2008-2010. We estimated the daily risk of rehospitalization for 12 major readmission diagnostic categories after accounting for the competing risk of death after discharge. For each diagnostic category, we identified (1) the time required for readmission risk to peak and then decline 50% from maximum values after discharge; (2) the time required for readmission risk to approach plateau periods of minimal day-to-day change; and (3) the extent to which hospitalization risks are higher among patients recently discharged from the hospital compared with the general elderly population. Among >3,000,000 hospitalizations, the yearly rate of rehospitalization was 67.0%, 49.5%, and 55.3% after hospitalization for HF, AMI, and pneumonia, respectively. The extent and timing of risk varied by readmission diagnosis and initial admitting condition. Risk of readmission for gastrointestinal bleeding/anemia peaked particularly late after hospital discharge, occurring 10, 6, and 7 days after hospitalization for HF, AMI, and pneumonia, respectively. Risk of readmission for trauma/injury declined particularly slowly, requiring 38, 20, and 38 days to decline by 50% after hospitalization for HF, AMI, and pneumonia, respectively. Patterns of vulnerability to different conditions that cause rehospitalization vary by time after hospital discharge. This finding suggests that recovery of various physiologic systems occurs at different rates and that post-discharge interventions to minimize

  1. First myocardial infarction in patients of Indian subcontinent and European origin: comparison of risk factors, management, and long term outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Shaukat, N.; Lear, J.; Lowy, A.; Fletcher, S.; de Bono, D. P.; Woods, K. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare long term outcome after first myocardial infarction among British patients originating from the Indian subcontinent and from Europe. DESIGN: Matched pairs study. SETTING: Coronary care unit in central Leicester. SUBJECTS: 238 pairs of patients admitted during 1987-93 matched for age (within 2 years), sex, date of admission (within 3 months), type of infarction (Q/non-Q), and site of infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of angina, reinfarction, or death during follow up of 1-7 years. RESULTS: Patients of Indian subcontinent origin had a higher prevalence of diabetes (35% v 9% in patients of European origin, P < 0.001), lower prevalence of smoking (39% v 63%, P < 0.001), longer median delay from symptom onset to admission (5 hours v 3 hours, P < 0.01), and lower use of thrombolysis (50% v 66%, P < 0.001). During long term follow up (median 39 months), mortality was higher in patients of Indian subcontinent origin (unadjusted hazard ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 3.4, P = 0.002). After adjustment for smoking, history of diabetes, and thrombolysis the estimated hazard ratio fell slightly to 2.0 (1.1 to 3.6, P = 0.02). Patients of Indian subcontinent origin had almost twice the incidence of angina (54% v 29%; P < 0.001) and almost three times the risk of reinfarction during follow up (34% v 12.5% at 3 years, P < 0.001). The unadjusted hazard ratio for reinfarction in patients of Indian subcontinent origin was 2.8 (1.8 to 4.4, P < 0.001). Adjustment for smoking, history of diabetes, and thrombolysis made little difference to the hazard ratio. Coronary angiography was performed with similar frequency in the two groups; triple vessel disease was the commonest finding in patients of Indian subcontinent origin and single vessel disease the commonest in Europeans (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients of Indian subcontinent origin are at substantially higher risk of mortality and of further coronary events than Europeans after first

  2. China PEACE risk estimation tool for in-hospital death from acute myocardial infarction: an early risk classification tree for decisions about fibrinolytic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Li, Jing; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Lin, Zhenqiu; Krumholz, Harlan M; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives As the predominant approach to acute reperfusion for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in many countries, fibrinolytic therapy provides a relative risk reduction for death of ∼16% across the range of baseline risk. For patients with low baseline mortality risk, fibrinolytic therapy may therefore provide little benefit, which may be offset by the risk of major bleeding. We aimed to construct a tool to determine if it is possible to identify a low-risk group among fibrinolytic therapy-eligible patients. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The China Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events (PEACE) study includes a nationally representative retrospective sample of patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 162 hospitals. Participants 3741 patients with STEMI who were fibrinolytic-eligible but did not receive reperfusion therapy. Main outcome measures In-hospital mortality, which was defined as a composite of death occurring within hospitalisation or withdrawal from treatment due to a terminal status at discharge. Results In the study cohort, the in-hospital mortality was 14.7%. In the derivation cohort and the validation cohort, the combination of systolic blood pressure (≥100 mm Hg), age (<60 years old) and gender (male) identified one-fifth of the cohort with an average mortality rate of <3.0%. Half of this low risk group—those with non-anterior AMI—had an average in-hospital death risk of 1.5%. Conclusions Nearly, one in five patients with STEMI who are eligible for fibrinolytic therapy are at a low risk for in-hospital death. Three simple factors available at the time of presentation can identify these individuals and support decision-making about the use of fibrinolytic therapy. Trial registration number NCT01624883. PMID:27798032

  3. [Resistance risk, cross-resistance and biochemical resistance mechanism of Laodelphax striatellus to buprofezin].

    PubMed

    Mao, Xu-lian; Liu, Jin; Li, Xu-ke; Chi, Jia-jia; Liu, Yong-jie

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the resistance development law and biochemical resistance mechanism of Laodelphax striatellus to buprofezin, spraying rice seedlings was used to continuously screen resistant strains of L. striatellus and dipping rice seedlings was applied to determine the toxicity and cross-resistance of L. striatellus to insecticides. After 32-generation screening with buprofezin, L. striatellus developed 168.49 folds resistance and its reality heritability (h2) was 0.11. If the killing rate was 80%-90%, L. striatellus was expected to develop 10-fold resistance to buprofezin only after 5 to 6 generations breeding. Because the actual reality heritability of field populations was usually lower than that of the resistant strains, the production of field populations increasing with 10-fold resistance would need much longer time. The results of cross-resistance showed that resistant strain had high level cross-resistance with thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, low level cross-resistance with acetamiprid, and no cross-resistance with pymetrozine and chlorpyrifos. The activity of detoxification enzymes of different strains and the syergism of synergist were measured. The results showed that cytochrome P450 monooxygenase played a major role in the resistance of L. striatellus to buprofezin, the esterase played a minor role and the GSH-S-transferase had no effect. Therefore, L. striatellus would have high risk to develop resistance to buprofezin when used in the field and might be delayed by using pymetrozine and chlorpyrifos.

  4. Suppressive impact of anethum graveolens consumption on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Setorki, Mahbubeh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Merikhi, Alireza; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Ansari, Roya; Nasri, Hamid; Esmael, Nafiseh; Baradaran, Azar

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of Anethum graveolens (Dill) powder on postprandial lipid profile, markers of oxidation and endothelial activation when added to a fatty meal. In an experimental study, 32 rabbits were randomly designated into four diet groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (1%), high cholesterol diet plus 5% (w/w) dill powder and high cholesterol diet plus lovastatin (10 mg/kg, bw). The concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (alt), aspartate aminotransferase (ast), fibrinogen, factor VII, apolipoprotein B (ApoB), nitrite and nitrate were measured in blood samples following 15 h of fasting and 3 h after feeding. Concurrent use of A. graveolens powder or lovastatin significantly decreased ALT, TC, glucose, fibrinogen and LDL-C values in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet group (P < 0.05). Consumption of A. graveolens or lovastatin did not change factor VII, ApoB, nitrite and nitrate levels significantly in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet group. Intake of A. graveolens significantly decreased serum AST compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. A. graveolens might have some protective values against atherosclerosis and that it significantly affects some biochemical risk factors of this disease. Our findings also confirm the potential harmful effects of oxidized fats and the importance of dietary polyphenols in the meal.

  5. Suppressive Impact of Anethum Graveolens Consumption on Biochemical Risk Factors of Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Setorki, Mahbubeh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Merikhi, Alireza; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Ansari, Roya; Nasri, Hamid; Esmael, Nafiseh; Baradaran, Azar

    2013-01-01

    Background: We aimed to determine the effects of Anethum graveolens (Dill) powder on postprandial lipid profile, markers of oxidation and endothelial activation when added to a fatty meal. Methods: In an experimental study, 32 rabbits were randomly designated into four diet groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (1%), high cholesterol diet plus 5% (w/w) dill powder and high cholesterol diet plus lovastatin (10 mg/kg, bw). The concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (alt), aspartate aminotransferase (ast), fibrinogen, factor VII, apolipoprotein B (ApoB), nitrite and nitrate were measured in blood samples following 15 h of fasting and 3 h after feeding. Results: Concurrent use of A. graveolens powder or lovastatin significantly decreased ALT, TC, glucose, fibrinogen and LDL-C values in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet group (P < 0.05). Consumption of A. graveolens or lovastatin did not change factor VII, ApoB, nitrite and nitrate levels significantly in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet group. Intake of A. graveolens significantly decreased serum AST compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. Conclusions: A. graveolens might have some protective values against atherosclerosis and that it significantly affects some biochemical risk factors of this disease. Our findings also confirm the potential harmful effects of oxidized fats and the importance of dietary polyphenols in the meal. PMID:24049614

  6. Ecological risk assessment of impacted estuarine areas: integrating histological and biochemical endpoints in wild Senegalese sole.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Cátia; Martins, Marta; Costa, Maria H; Caeiro, Sandra; Costa, Pedro M

    2013-09-01

    The analysis of multiple biomarker responses is nowadays recognized as a valuable tool to circumvent potential confounding factors affecting biomonitoring studies and allows a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying exposure to natural mixtures of toxicants. For the purpose of an environmental risk assessment (ERA) in an impacted estuary in SW Europe (the Sado, Portugal), juvenile Solea senegalensis from commercial fishing areas were surveyed for histopathological liver alterations and biochemical biomarkers. Although the findings revealed moderate differences in the patterns of histopathological traits between urban/industrial- and agricultural-influenced areas within the same estuary, no significant distinction was found between the cumulative alterations in animals from the two sites. The overall level of histopathological injury was low and severe traits like neoplasms or pre-neoplastic foci were absent. While metallothionein induction and lipid peroxidation could relate to histopathological condition indices, the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes appeared to be impaired in animals collected off the estuary's heavy-industry belt (the most contaminated site), which may partially explain some degree of hepatic integrity loss. Overall, the results are consistent with low-moderate contamination of the estuary and indicate that oxidative stress is the most important factor accounting for differences between sites. The study highlights the need of integrating multiple biomarkers when multiple environmental stressors are involved and the advantages of surveying toxicity effects in field-collected, foraging, organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alteration of platelet GPVI signaling in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients demonstrated by a combination of proteomic, biochemical, and functional approaches.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Paula; Ocaranza-Sánchez, Raymundo; López-Otero, Diego; Grigorian-Shamagian, Lilian; Rosa, Isaac; Guitián, Esteban; García-Acuña, José María; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; García, Ángel

    2016-12-22

    The platelet-specific collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is critical for the formation of arterial thrombosis in vivo. We analyzed GPVI-activated platelets from ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients and matched stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) controls in order to provide novel clues on the degree of involvement of GPVI signaling in the acute event. Firstly, platelets were isolated from systemic venous blood and activated with the GPVI specific agonist CRP (collagen-related peptide). STEMI and SCAD samples were compared by a phosphoproteomics approach. Validations were by immunoblotting in systemic and intracoronary blood from independent cohorts of patients. Twenty-six differentially regulated proteins were identified when comparing CRP-activated systemic platelets from STEMI and SCAD patients, 4 of which were selected for validation studies: PLCɣ2, G6f, SLP-76, and Dok-2. Immunoblot analyses showed these four proteins had higher tyrosine phosphorylation levels in response to CRP in platelets from STEMI patients, being these levels more pronounced at the culprit site of coronary artery occlusion. Moreover, platelet aggregation studies showed a higher response to GPVI agonists in STEMI patients compared to SCAD controls. In conclusion, we show an altered activation state of GPVI signaling in STEMI patients, confirming this receptor as a promising anti-thrombotic target for myocardial infarction.

  8. Alteration of platelet GPVI signaling in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients demonstrated by a combination of proteomic, biochemical, and functional approaches

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Paula; Ocaranza-Sánchez, Raymundo; López-Otero, Diego; Grigorian-Shamagian, Lilian; Rosa, Isaac; Guitián, Esteban; García-Acuña, José María; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; García, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The platelet-specific collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is critical for the formation of arterial thrombosis in vivo. We analyzed GPVI-activated platelets from ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients and matched stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) controls in order to provide novel clues on the degree of involvement of GPVI signaling in the acute event. Firstly, platelets were isolated from systemic venous blood and activated with the GPVI specific agonist CRP (collagen-related peptide). STEMI and SCAD samples were compared by a phosphoproteomics approach. Validations were by immunoblotting in systemic and intracoronary blood from independent cohorts of patients. Twenty-six differentially regulated proteins were identified when comparing CRP-activated systemic platelets from STEMI and SCAD patients, 4 of which were selected for validation studies: PLCɣ2, G6f, SLP-76, and Dok-2. Immunoblot analyses showed these four proteins had higher tyrosine phosphorylation levels in response to CRP in platelets from STEMI patients, being these levels more pronounced at the culprit site of coronary artery occlusion. Moreover, platelet aggregation studies showed a higher response to GPVI agonists in STEMI patients compared to SCAD controls. In conclusion, we show an altered activation state of GPVI signaling in STEMI patients, confirming this receptor as a promising anti-thrombotic target for myocardial infarction. PMID:28004756

  9. Risk factors and outcome analysis after surgical management of ventricular septal rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Ming; Huang, Shu-Chien; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Wu, I-Hui; Chi, Nai-Hsin; Yu, Hsi-Yu; Hsu, Ron-Bin; Chang, Chung-I; Wang, Shoei-Shen; Chen, Yih-Sharng

    2015-05-04

    Ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is an uncommon but well-recognized mechanical complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The outcome of VSR remains poor even in the era of reperfusion therapy. We reviewed our experience with surgical repair of post-infarction VSR and analyzed outcomes in an attempt to identify prognostic factors. From October 1995 to December 2013, data from 47 consecutive patients (mean age, 68 ± 9.5 years) with post-infarction VSR who underwent surgical repair at our institute were retrospectively reviewed. The preoperative conditions, morbidity and surgical mortality were analyzed. Multivariate analysis was subsequently carried out by constructing a logistic regression model in order to identify independent predictors of postoperative mortality. Long term survival function were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 17 (36.2%) patients, intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) was used in 34 (72.3%), and six (12.8%) were supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) preoperatively. Forty-one (87.2%) patients received emergent surgical treatment. Concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in 27 (57.4%) patients. Operative mortality was 36.2% (17 of 47). The survival rate was 59.3% with concomitant CABG and 70% without concomitant CABG (p = 14). Multivariate analysis revealed that the survivors had higher preoperative left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEFs) compared with those who died (51 ± 13.7% vs. 36.6 ± 6.4% , respectively; p < 0.001) and lower European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation II (EuroSCORE II) (22.9 ± 14.9 vs. 38.3 ± 13.9, respectively; p < 0.001). The patients receiving total revascularization has long term survival benefit (p = 0.028). Post-infarction VSR remains a serious and challenging complication of AMI in the modern surgical era. The EuroSCORE II can

  10. Can Saliva Proteins Be Used to Predict the Onset of Acute Myocardial Infarction among High-Risk Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Mohd Aizat Abdul; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Ahmad, Wan Azman Wan; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2015-01-01

    Human saliva plays a pivotal role in digesting food and maintaining oral hygiene. The presence of electrolytes, mucus, glycoproteins, enzymes, antibacterial compounds, and gingival crevicular fluid in saliva ensures the optimum condition of oral cavity and general health condition. Saliva collection has been proven non-invasive, convenient, and inexpensive compared to conventional venipuncture procedure. These distinctive advantages provide a promising potential of saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Through comprehensive analysis, an array of salivary proteins and peptides may be beneficial as biomarkers in oral and systemic diseases. In this review, we discuss the utility of human salivary proteomes and tabulate the recent salivary biomarkers found in subjects with acute myocardial infarction as well as respective methods employed. In a clinical setting, since acute myocardial infarction contributes to large cases of mortality worldwide, an early intervention using these biomarkers will provide an effective solution to reduce global heart attack incidence particularly among its high-risk group of type-2 diabetes mellitus patients. The utility of salivary biomarkers will make the prediction of this cardiac event possible due to its reliability hence improve the quality of life of the patients. Current challenges in saliva collection are also addressed to improve the quality of saliva samples and produce robust biomarkers for future use in clinical applications. PMID:25897294

  11. Polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase are risk factors for perioperative acute myocardial infarction after cardiac surgery: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Viktória; Gasz, Balazs; Balatonyi, Borbala; Jaromi, Luca; Kisfali, Peter; Borsiczky, Balazs; Jancso, Gabor; Marczin, Nandor; Szabados, Sandor; Melegh, Bela; Nasri, Alotti; Roth, Elisabeth

    2014-04-01

    In the present study we explored glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms in selected patients who experienced accelerated myocardial injury following open heart surgery and compared these to a control group of patients without postoperative complications. 758 Patients were enrolled from which 132 patients were selected to genotype analysis according to exclusion criteria. Patients were divided into the following groups: Group I: control patients (n = 78) without and Group II.: study patients (n = 54) with evidence of perioperative myocardial infarction. Genotyping for GSTP1 A (Ile105Ile/Ala113Ala), B (Ile105Val/Ala113Ala) and C (Ile105Val/Ala113Val) alleles was performed by using real-time-PCR. The heterozygous AC allele was nearly three times elevated (18.5 vs. 7.7 %) in the patients who suffered postoperative myocardial infarction compared to controls. Contrary, we found allele frequency of 14.1 % for homozygous BB allele in the control group whereas no such allele combination was present in the study group. These preliminary results may suggest the protective role for the B and C alleles during myocardial oxidative stress whereas the A allele may represent predisposing risk for cellular injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  12. Risk of ventricular arrhythmia in patients with myocardial infarction and non-obstructive coronary arteries and normal ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Bière, Loïc; Niro, Marjorie; Pouliquen, Hervé; Gourraud, Jean-Baptiste; Prunier, Fabrice; Furber, Alain; Probst, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the arrhythmic determinants and prognosis of patients presenting with myocardial infarction and non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) with normal ejection fraction (EF). METHODS This is an observational analysis of 131 MINOCA patients with normal EF. Three cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) diagnosis classes were recognized according to the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) pattern: Myocardial infarction (MI) (n = 34), myocarditis (n = 47), and “no LGE” (n = 50). Ventricular events occurring during hospitalization were recorded and the entire population was followed-up at 1 year. RESULTS Ventricular arrhythmia was observed in 18 (13.8%) patients during hospitalization. The “no LGE” patients experienced fewer ventricular events than the MI and myocarditis patients [4.0% vs 26.5% and 14.9%, respectively (P = 0.013)]. There was no significant difference between the MI and myocarditis groups. On multivariate analysis, LGE transmural extent [OR = 1.52 (1.08-2.15), P = 0.017] and ST-segment elevation [OR = 4.65 (1.61-13.40), P = 0.004] were independent predictors of ventricular arrhythmic events, irrespective of the diagnosis class. Finally, no patient experienced sudden cardiac death or ventricular arrhythmia recurrence at 1-year. CONCLUSION MINOCA patients with normal EF presented no 1-year cardiovascular events, irrespective of the CMR diagnosis class. LGE transmural extent and ST segment elevation at admission are risk markers of ventricular arrhythmia during hospitalization. PMID:28400924

  13. Risk factors and therapeutic coverage at 6 years in patients with previous myocardial infarction: the CASTUO study

    PubMed Central

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Lozano Mera, Luis; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Giménez Sáez, Fernando; Garcipérez de Vargas, Francisco Javier; Castellano Vázquez, José María; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the degree of risk factor control, the clinical symptoms and the therapeutic management of patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction. Methods Cross-sectional study at 6 years of a first episode of acute myocardial infarction between 2000 and 2009, admitted at a hospital in the region of Extremadura (Spain). Of 2177 patients with this diagnosis, 1365 remained alive and therefore were included in the study. Results We conducted a person-to-person survey in 666 (48.8%) individuals and telephone survey in 437 (31.9%) individuals. The former are analysed. 130 were female (19.5%). The mean age was 67.4 years and the median time since the event was 5.8 (IQR 3.6–8.2) years. Active smokers made up 13.8%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was ≥70 mg/dL: 82%, blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg (≥140/85 in diabetics): 49.8%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL: 26%, heart rate 50–59 bpm: 60.7%, and obesity: 45.9%. Patients reported presenting angina comprised 22.4% and those with dyspnoea, 29.3%. Drug coverage was: 88.0% antiplatelet drugs, 86.5% statins, 75.6% β-blockers and 65.8% blockers of the renin-angiotensin system. Patients receiving all four types of drugs made up 41.9%, with only 3.0% having jointly controlled cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate and glycaemia. Conclusions LDL cholesterol, heart rate and blood pressure were risk factors with less control. More than 1/5 of patients had angina and more than 1/4, dyspnoea. Risk factor control and the clinical condition were far from optimal, as was drug coverage, although to a lesser degree. PMID:27127637

  14. A Simple Risk Stratification Model for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) from the Combination of Blood Examination Variables: Acute Myocardial Infarction-Kyoto Multi-Center Risk Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takeshi; Yokota, Isao; Zen, Kan; Yamano, Tetsuhiro; Shiraishi, Hirokazu; Shiraishi, Jun; Sawada, Takahisa; Kohno, Yoshio; Kitamura, Makoto; Furukawa, Keizo; Matoba, Satoaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Many mortality risk scoring tools exist among patients with ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). A risk stratification model that evaluates STEMI prognosis more simply and rapidly is preferred in clinical practice. Methods and Findings We developed a simple stratification model for blood examination by using the STEMI data of AMI-Kyoto registry in the derivation set (n = 1,060) and assessed its utility for mortality prediction in the validation set (n = 521). We selected five variables that significantly worsen in-hospital mortality: white blood cell count, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, creatinine, and blood sugar levels at >10,000/μL, <10 g/dL, >1.0 mg/dL, >1.0 mg/dL, and >200 mg/dL, respectively. In the derivation set, each of the five variables significantly worsened in-hospital mortality (p < 0.01). We developed the risk stratification model by combining laboratory variables that were scored based on each beta coefficient obtained using multivariate analysis and divided three laboratory groups. We also found a significant trend in the in-hospital mortality rate for three laboratory groups. Therefore, we assessed the utility of this model in the validation set. The prognostic discriminatory capacity of our laboratory stratification model was comparable to that of the full multivariable model (c-statistic: derivation set vs validation set, 0.81 vs 0.74). In addition, we divided all cases (n = 1,581) into three thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk index groups based on an In TIME II substudy; the cases were further subdivided based on this laboratory model. The high laboratory group had significantly high in-hospital mortality rate in each TIMI risk index group (trend of in-hospital mortality; p < 0.01). Conclusions This laboratory stratification model can predict in-hospital mortality of STEMI simply and rapidly and might be useful for predicting in-hospital mortality of STEMI by further subdividing the TIMI risk index. PMID

  15. Patterns of alcohol consumption and myocardial infarction risk: observations from 52 countries in the INTERHEART case-control study.

    PubMed

    Leong, Darryl P; Smyth, Andrew; Teo, Koon K; McKee, Martin; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Pais, Prem; Liu, Lisheng; Anand, Sonia S; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-07-29

    Although moderate alcohol use is associated with protection against myocardial infarction (MI), it is not known whether this effect is generalizable to populations worldwide. It is also uncertain whether differences in the pattern of alcohol use (and in particular heavy episodic consumption) between different regions negate any beneficial effect. We included 12 195 cases of first MI and 15 583 age- and sex-matched controls from 52 countries. Current alcohol use was associated with a reduced risk of MI (compared with nonusers: adjusted odds ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.94; P=0.001); however, the strength of this association was not uniform across different regions (region-alcohol interaction P<0.001). Heavy episodic drinking (≥6 drinks) within the preceding 24 hours was associated with an increased risk of MI (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.9; P=0.01). This risk was particularly elevated in older individuals (for age >65 years: odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-18; P=0.008). In most participants, low levels of alcohol use are associated with a moderate reduction in the risk of MI; however, the strength of this association may not be uniform across different countries. An episode of heavy drinking is associated with an increased risk of acute MI in the subsequent 24 hours, particularly in older individuals. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Risk Factors For Stroke, Myocardial Infarction, or Death Following Carotid Endarterectomy: Results From the International Carotid Stenting Study

    PubMed Central

    Doig, D.; Turner, E.L.; Dobson, J.; Featherstone, R.L.; de Borst, G.J.; Stansby, G.; Beard, J.D.; Engelter, S.T.; Richards, T.; Brown, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is standard treatment for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis but carries a risk of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death. This study investigated risk factors for these procedural complications occurring within 30 days of endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS). Methods Patients with recently symptomatic carotid stenosis >50% were randomly allocated to endarterectomy or stenting. Analysis is reported of patients in ICSS assigned to endarterectomy and limited to those in whom CEA was initiated. The occurrence of stroke, MI, or death within 30 days of the procedure was reported by investigators and adjudicated. Demographic and technical risk factors for these complications were analysed sequentially in a binomial regression analysis and subsequently in a multivariable model. Results Eight-hundred and twenty-one patients were included in the analysis. The risk of stroke, MI, or death within 30 days of CEA was 4.0%. The risk was higher in female patients (risk ratio [RR] 1.98, 95% CI 1.02–3.87, p = .05) and with increasing baseline diastolic blood pressure (dBP) (RR 1.30 per +10 mmHg, 95% CI 1.02–1.66, p = .04). Mean baseline dBP, obtained at the time of randomization in the trial, was 78 mmHg (SD 13 mmHg). In a multivariable model, only dBP remained a significant predictor. The risk was not related to the type of surgical reconstruction, anaesthetic technique, or perioperative medication regimen. Patients undergoing CEA stayed a median of 4 days before discharge, and 21.2% of events occurred on or after the day of discharge. Conclusions Increasing diastolic blood pressure was the only independent risk factor for stroke, MI, or death following CEA. Cautious attention to blood pressure control following symptoms attributable to carotid stenosis could reduce the risks associated with subsequent CEA. PMID:26460291

  17. Related factors and incidence risk of acute myocardial infarction among the people with disability: A national population-based study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Chiu, Li-Ting; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2014-11-06

    Cardiovascular disease has always been a leading cause of death worldwide. Because the mobility of people with disability is relatively decreased, their risk of cardiovascular disease is increased. This study investigated the risks and relevant factors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among people with disability. This is a retrospective cohort study based on secondary data analysis. This study focused on 798,328 people with disability who were aged 35 and above during 2002-2008 and were registered in the National Disability Registration Database; the relevant medical data from 2000 to 2011 were acquired from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A Cox proportional hazards model was adopted for analyzing the relative AMI risks among different disability types and finding latent risk factors. The results indicated that the AMI incidence rate (per 1000 patient-years) among people with disability was 2.48. Men had an AMI incidence rate of 2.68 per 1000 patient-years, which was significantly higher than that of women (2.21; p<.05). The AMI risk for people with mental disabilities was 0.76 times the risk for people with physical disabilities (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.71-0.82). The AMI risk for people with profound disabilities was 2.04 times (95% CI=1.93-2.16) the risk for people with mild disabilities. AMI risk increased with age. People with disability aged 65 and above had an AMI risk that was 5.01-6.03 times the risk for people with disability aged below 45. Disabled indigenous people had a relatively higher AMI risk (HR=1.35, 95% CI=1.19-1.52). The AMI risk for people with disability with a Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) of 4 and above was 5.89 times (95% CI=5.56-6.25) the risk for those with a CCI of 0. Compared with people with physical disabilities, people with visual impairment and people with dysfunctional primary organs had significantly higher AMI risks (HR=1.15; HR=1.66). This study found that people with disability who were male

  18. Comparison of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II risk scores in patients with acute myocardial infarction who require mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Eran, Oren; Novack, Victor; Gilutz, Harel; Zahger, Doron

    2011-02-01

    The ability to provide an accurate prognosis in an intensive care unit is of major importance. Numerous risk scores have been developed to predict hospital mortality based on demographic, physiologic, and clinical data. These scores were universally developed in general medical or surgical intensive care units. Patients admitted to a cardiac care unit differ in many aspects from those admitted to general medical intensive care units. Few patients require mechanical ventilation and prolonged intensive care. Performance of risk scores developed for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in this subgroup is unknown. We prospectively studied 51 consecutive patients who were admitted to a cardiac care unit from September 2006 to March 2008 for AMI and received mechanical ventilation for >24 hours. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction, and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk scores were calculated for each patient. Mortality rates were extrapolated based on these 3 risk scores. Twenty-two of 51 patients (43%) died in hospital. Age, mean arterial pressure, urea, albumin, hemoglobin, need for vasopressors, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were predictive of mortality. APACHE II and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events scores were higher in nonsurvivors but Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score was not predictive of mortality. APACHE II score had the highest value for area under receiver operator characteristics curve for mortality prediction. In conclusion, patients with AMI requiring mechanical ventilation have a high mortality rate. This risk is predicted by co-morbidities better than by direct cardiac parameters. Consequently, conventional AMI risk scores do not perform well in this very sick population and the APACHE II score better predicts their short-term outcome.

  19. Identification of High-Risk Patients with Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction using Strain Doppler Echocardiography: Correlation with Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Loutfi, Mohamed; Ashour, Sanaa; El-Sharkawy, Eman; El-Fawal, Sara; El-Touny, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) function is important for decision-making and risk stratification in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Many patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) have substantial infarction, but these patients often do not reveal clinical signs of instability, and they rarely fulfill criteria for acute revascularization therapy. AIM This study evaluated the potential of strain Doppler echocardiography analysis for the assessment of LV infarct size when compared with standard two-dimensional echo and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) data. METHODS Thirty patients with NSTEMI were examined using echocardiography after hospitalization for 1.8 ± 1.1 days for the assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction, wall motion score index (WMSI), and LV global longitudinal strain (GLS). Infarct size was assessed using delayed enhancement CMR 6.97 ± 3.2 days after admission as a percentage of total myocardial volume. RESULTS GLS was performed in 30 patients, and 82.9% of the LV segments were accepted for GLS analysis. Comparisons between patients with a complete set of GLS and standard echo, GLS and CMR were performed. The linear relationship demonstrated moderately strong and significant associations between GLS and ejection fraction (EF) as determined using standard echo (r = 0.452, P = 0.012), WMSI (r = 0.462, P = 0.010), and the gold standard CMR-determined EF (r = 0.57, P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to analyze the ability of GLS to evaluate infarct size. GLS was the best predictor of infarct size in a multivariate linear regression analysis (β = 1.51, P = 0.027). WMSI >1.125 and a GLS cutoff value of −11.29% identified patients with substantial infarction (≥12% of total myocardial volume measured using CMR) with accuracies of 76.7% and 80%, respectively. However, GLS remained the only independent predictor in a multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify an infarct

  20. Is the effect of job strain on myocardial infarction risk due to interaction between high psychological demands and low decision latitude? Results from Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP).

    PubMed

    Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, F; Theorell, T; Reuterwall, C; Ahlbom, A

    1998-06-01

    The objectives are to examine if the excess risk of myocardial infarction from exposure to job strain is due to interaction between high demands and low control and to analyse what role such an interaction has regarding socioeconomic differences in risk of myocardial infarction. The material is a population-based case-referent study having incident first events of myocardial infarction as outcome (SHEEP: Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program). The analysis is restricted to males 45-64 yr of age with a more detailed analysis confined to those still working at inclusion. In total, 1047 cases and 1450 referents were included in the analysis. Exposure categories of job strain were formed from self reported questionnaire information. The results show that high demands and low decision latitude interact with a synergy index of 7.5 (95% C.I.: 1.8-30.6) providing empirical support for the core mechanism of the job strain model. Manual workers are more susceptible when exposed to job strain and its components and this increased susceptibility explains about 25-50% of the relative excess risk among manual workers. Low decision latitude may also, as a causal link, explain about 30% of the socioeconomic difference in risk of myocardial infarction. The distinction between the interaction and the causal link mechanisms identifies new etiologic questions and intervention alternatives. The specific causes of the increased susceptibility among manual workers to job strain and its components seem to be an interesting and important research question.

  1. Relationship of Psychosocial Risk Factors, Certain Personality Traits and Myocardial Infarction in Indians: A Case–control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, MK; Jiloha, RC; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, GK

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: A case–control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P < 0.001). However, difference was not significant when scores of social support (P = 0.2), Presumptive Stressful Life Event (PSLE) over lifetime (P = 0.058) and subjective well-being (P = 0.987) were compared. MI was significantly associated with hyperactive (P < 0.001), dominant (P = 0.03), egoistic (P < 0.001) and introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients. PMID:22090670

  2. Early identification of individuals at high risk for cerebral infarction after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: the BEHAVIOR score

    PubMed Central

    Jabbarli, Ramazan; Reinhard, Matthias; Roelz, Roland; Shah, Mukesch; Niesen, Wolf-Dirk; Kaier, Klaus; Taschner, Christian; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Van Velthoven, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral infarction (CI) is a crucial complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) associated with poor clinical outcome. We aimed at developing an early risk score for CI based on clinical characteristics available at the onset of SAH. Out of a database containing 632 consecutive patients with SAH admitted to our institution from January 2005 to December 2012, computed tomography (CT) scans up to day 42 after ictus were evaluated for CIs. Different parameters from admission up to aneurysm treatment were collected with subsequent construction of a risk score. Seven clinical characteristics were independently associated with CI and included in the Risk score (BEHAVIOR Score, 0 to 11 points): Blood on CT scan according to Fisher grade ⩾3 (1 point), Elderly patients (age ⩾55 years, 1 point), Hunt&Hess grade ⩾4 (1 point), Acute hydrocephalus requiring external liquor drainage (1 point), Vasospasm on initial angiogram (3 points), Intracranial pressure elevation >20 mm Hg (3 points), and treatment of multiple aneurysms (‘Overtreatment', 1 point). The BEHAVIOR score showed high diagnostic accuracy with respect to the absolute risk for CI (area under curve=0.806, P<0.0001) and prediction of poor clinical outcome at discharge (P<0.0001) and after 6 months (P=0.0002). Further validation in other SAH cohorts is recommended. PMID:25920954

  3. Splenic infarction

    MedlinePlus

    Splenic infarction is the death of tissue (necrosis) in the spleen due to a blockage in blood flow. ... Common causes of splenic infarction include: Blood clots Blood diseases such as sickle cell anemia Infections such as endocarditis

  4. Metformin does not affect risk of biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy: results from the SEARCH database

    PubMed Central

    Allott, Emma H.; Abern, Michael R.; Gerber, Leah; Keto, Christopher J.; Aronson, William J.; Terris, Martha K.; Kane, Christopher J.; Amling, Christopher L.; Cooperberg, Matthew R.; Moorman, Patricia G.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Background While epidemiologic studies suggest that metformin use among diabetics may decrease prostate cancer (PC) incidence, the effect of metformin use on PC outcome is unclear. We investigated the association between pre-operative metformin use, dose and duration of use and biochemical recurrence (BCR) in PC patients with diabetes who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis within the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database of 371 PC patients with diabetes who underwent RP. Time to BCR between metformin users and non-users, and by metformin dose and duration of use was assessed using multivariable Cox proportional analysis adjusted for demographic, clinical and/or pathologic features. Time to castrate-resistant PC (CPRC), metastases and PC-specific mortality were explored as secondary outcomes using unadjusted analyses. Results Of 371 diabetic men, 156 (42%) were using metformin prior to RP. Metformin use was associated with more recent year of surgery (p<0.0001) but no clinical or pathologic characteristics. After adjustment for year of surgery, clinical and pathologic features, there were no associations between metformin use (HR 0.93; 95%CI 0.61–1.41), high metformin dose (HR 0.96; 95%CI 0.57–1.61) or duration of use (HR 1.00; 95%CI 0.99–1.02) and time to BCR. A total of 14 patients (3.8%) developed CRPC, 10 (2.7%) distant metastases and 8 (2.2%) died from PC. Unadjusted analysis suggested high metformin dose versus non-use was associated with increased risk of CRPC (HR 5.1; 95%CI 1.6–16.5), metastases (HR 4.8; 95%CI 1.2–18.5) and PC-specific mortality (HR 5.0; 95%CI 1.1–22.5). Conclusions Metformin use, dose or duration of use was not associated with BCR in this cohort of diabetic PC patients treated with RP. The suggestion that higher metformin dose was associated with increased risk of CPRC, metastases and PC-specific mortality merits testing in large prospective studies

  5. Ten-year risk of stroke in patients with previous cerebral infarction and the impact of carotid surgery in the Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial.

    PubMed

    Streifler, Jonathan Y; den Hartog, Anne G; Pan, Samuel; Pan, Hongchao; Bulbulia, Richard; Thomas, Dafydd J; Brown, Martin M; Halliday, Alison

    2016-12-01

    Silent brain infarcts are common in patients at increased risk of stroke and are associated with a poor prognosis. In patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis, similar adverse associations were claimed, but the impact of previous infarction or symptoms on the beneficial effects of carotid endarterectomy is not clear. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of prior cerebral infarction in patients enrolled in the Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial, a large trial with 10-year follow-up in which participants whose carotid stenosis had not caused symptoms for at least six months were randomly allocated either immediate or deferred carotid endarterectomy. The first Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial included 3120 patients. Of these, 2333 patients with baseline brain imaging were identified and divided into two groups irrespective of treatment assignment, 1331 with evidence of previous cerebral infarction, defined as a history of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack > 6 months prior to randomization or radiological evidence of an asymptomatic infarct (group 1) and 1002 with normal imaging and no prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (group 2). Stroke and vascular deaths were compared during follow-up, and the impact of carotid endarterectomy was observed in both groups. Baseline characteristics of patients with and without baseline brain imaging were broadly similar. Of those included in the present report, male gender and hypertension were more common in group 1, while mean ipsilateral stenosis was slightly greater in group 2. At 10 years follow-up, stroke was more common among participants with cerebral infarction before randomization (absolute risk increase 5.8% (1.8-9.8), p = 0.004), and the risk of stroke and vascular death was also higher in this group (absolute risk increase 6.9% (1.9-12.0), p = 0.007). On multivariate analysis, prior cerebral infarction was associated with a greater risk of stroke (hazard ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence

  6. The Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene T-786C Polymorphism Increases Myocardial Infarction Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Zhang, Zheng-Yi; Wei, Lian-Hua; Li, Rui; Yu, Jing

    2017-02-11

    BACKGROUND Polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene are reportedly associated with myocardial infarction (MI) risk. However, definitive evidence of this association is lacking. In this study, we investigated the potential association of eNOS gene polymorphisms with MI risk by conducting a meta-analysis of studies evaluating this association. MATERIAL AND METHODS PubMed, Web of Knowledge, ScienceDirect, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang, and Database of Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals (VIP) were searched for relevant studies. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the association of eNOS gene T-786C and 4b4a polymorphisms with MI risk. RESULTS Fifteen studies with 8,067 controls and 4,923 MI cases were included in the final meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, T-786C (rs2070744) polymorphism was associated with MI risk (p<0.05, OR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.53-1.86 for T vs. C; p<0.05, OR=2.76, 95% CI: 2.03-3.75 for TT vs. CC; p<0.05, OR=1.74, 95% CI 1.56-1.95 for TT vs. (CT + CC); p<0.05, OR=2.43, 95% CI: 1.79-3.30 for (CT + TT) vs. CC). In addition, a significant association between 4b4a VNTR polymorphism and MI risk was observed. On sub-group analyses by ethnicity, a significant increase in MI risk was observed separately for Asian and Caucasian populations for T-786C polymorphism, but not for the 4b4a polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS In this meta-analysis, T-786C polymorphism of the eNOS gene was associated with the risk of MI, especially in the Asian populations.

  7. The Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene T-786C Polymorphism Increases Myocardial Infarction Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Zhang, Zheng-Yi; Wei, Lian-Hua; Li, Rui; Yu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene are reportedly associated with myocardial infarction (MI) risk. However, definitive evidence of this association is lacking. In this study, we investigated the potential association of eNOS gene polymorphisms with MI risk by conducting a meta-analysis of studies evaluating this association. Material/Methods PubMed, Web of Knowledge, ScienceDirect, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang, and Database of Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals (VIP) were searched for relevant studies. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the association of eNOS gene T-786C and 4b4a polymorphisms with MI risk. Results Fifteen studies with 8,067 controls and 4,923 MI cases were included in the final meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, T-786C (rs2070744) polymorphism was associated with MI risk (p<0.05, OR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.53–1.86 for T vs. C; p<0.05, OR=2.76, 95% CI: 2.03–3.75 for TT vs. CC; p<0.05, OR=1.74, 95% CI 1.56–1.95 for TT vs. (CT + CC); p<0.05, OR=2.43, 95% CI: 1.79–3.30 for (CT + TT) vs. CC). In addition, a significant association between 4b4a VNTR polymorphism and MI risk was observed. On sub-group analyses by ethnicity, a significant increase in MI risk was observed separately for Asian and Caucasian populations for T-786C polymorphism, but not for the 4b4a polymorphism. Conclusions In this meta-analysis, T-786C polymorphism of the eNOS gene was associated with the risk of MI, especially in the Asian populations. PMID:28188309

  8. Physical activity levels, ownership of goods promoting sedentary behaviour and risk of myocardial infarction: results of the INTERHEART study.

    PubMed

    Held, Claes; Iqbal, Romaina; Lear, Scott A; Rosengren, Annika; Islam, Shofiqul; Mathew, James; Yusuf, Salim

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the association between occupational and leisure-time physical activity (PA), ownership of goods promoting sedentary behaviour, and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in different socio-economic populations of the world. Studies in developed countries have found low PA as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, the protective effect of occupational PA is less certain. Moreover, ownership of goods promoting sedentary behaviour may be associated with an increased risk. In INTERHEART, a case-control study of 10 043 cases of first MI and 14 217 controls who did not report previous angina or physical disability completed a questionnaire on work and leisure-time PA. Subjects whose occupation involved either light [multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.78, confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.86] or moderate (OR 0.89, CI 0.80-0.99) PA were at a lower risk of MI, whereas those who did heavy physical labour were not (OR 1.02, CI 0.88-1.19), compared with sedentary subjects. Mild exercise (OR 0.87, CI 0.81-0.93) as well as moderate or strenuous exercise (OR 0.76, CI 0.69-0.82) was protective. The effect of PA was observed across countries with low, middle, and high income. Subjects who owned both a car and a television (TV) (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.27, CI 1.05-1.54) were at higher risk of MI compared with those who owned neither. Leisure-time PA and mild-to-moderate occupational PA, but not heavy physical labour, were associated with a reduced risk, while ownership of a car and TV was associated with an increased risk of MI across all economic regions.

  9. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake, chromosome 9p21 variants, and risk of myocardial infarction in Hispanics1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yan; Li, Yanping; Huang, Tao; Cheng, Han-Ling; Campos, Hannia; Qi, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chromosome 9p21 variants are among the most robust genetic markers for coronary artery disease (CAD), and previous studies have suggested that genetic effects of this locus might be modified by dietary factors. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which are the main dietary source of added sugar, has been shown to interact with genetic factors in affecting CAD risk factors such as obesity. Objective: We aimed to test whether SSB intake modified the association between chromosome 9p21 variants and CAD risk in Hispanics living in Costa Rica. Design: The current study included 1560 incident cases of nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and 1751 population-based controls. Three independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the chromosome 9p21 locus were genotyped. SSB intake was assessed with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire and was defined as the frequency of intake of daily servings of sweetened beverages and fruit juice. Results: We showed a significant interaction between SSB intake and one of the 3 variants (i.e., rs4977574) on MI risk. The per–risk allele OR (95% CI) of rs4977574 for MI was 1.44 (1.19, 1.74) in participants with higher SSB consumption (>2 servings/d), 1.21 (1.00, 1.47) in those with average consumption (1–2 servings/d), and 0.97 (0.81, 1.16) in subjects with lower consumption (<1 serving/d; P-interaction = 0.005). A genetic risk score derived from the sum of risk alleles of the 3 SNPs also showed a significant interaction with SSB intake on MI risk (P-interaction = 0.03). Conclusion: Our data suggest that unhealthy dietary habits such as higher intake of SSBs could exacerbate the effects of chromosome 9p21 variants on CAD. PMID:26961926

  10. Mediterranean-style diet and risk of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death: the Northern Manhattan Study1234

    PubMed Central

    Gardener, Hannah; Wright, Clinton B; Gu, Yian; Demmer, Ryan T; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Elkind, Mitchell SV; Sacco, Ralph L; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    Background: A dietary pattern common in regions near the Mediterranean appears to reduce risk of all-cause mortality and ischemic heart disease. Data on blacks and Hispanics in the United States are lacking, and to our knowledge only one study has examined a Mediterranean-style diet (MeDi) in relation to stroke. Objective: In this study, we examined an MeDi in relation to vascular events. Design: The Northern Manhattan Study is a population-based cohort to determine stroke incidence and risk factors (mean ± SD age of participants: 69 ± 10 y; 64% women; 55% Hispanic, 21% white, and 24% black). Diet was assessed at baseline by using a food-frequency questionnaire in 2568 participants. A higher score on a 0–9 scale represented increased adherence to an MeDi. The relation between the MeDi score and risk of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and vascular death was assessed with Cox models, with control for sociodemographic and vascular risk factors. Results: The MeDi-score distribution was as follows: 0–2 (14%), 3 (17%), 4 (22%), 5 (22%), and 6–9 (25%). Over a mean follow-up of 9 y, 518 vascular events accrued (171 ischemic strokes, 133 MIs, and 314 vascular deaths). The MeDi score was inversely associated with risk of the composite outcome of ischemic stroke, MI, or vascular death (P-trend = 0.04) and with vascular death specifically (P-trend = 0.02). Moderate and high MeDi scores were marginally associated with decreased risk of MI. There was no association with ischemic stroke. Conclusions: Higher consumption of an MeDi was associated with decreased risk of vascular events. Results support the role of a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and olive oil in the promotion of ideal cardiovascular health. PMID:22071704

  11. The association between periodontal disease and the risk of myocardial infarction: a pooled analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuai; Song, Mingbao; Xiong, Yu; Liu, Xi; He, Yongming; Qin, Zhexue

    2017-02-01

    Several meta-analyses have indicated that periodontal disease (PD) are related to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the association between PD and myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial. Here we aimed to assess the association between PD and MI by meta-analysis of observational studies. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched through July, 2016. Observational studies including cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies reporting odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were included in the analysis. Either fixed or random-effects model were applied to evaluate the pooled risk estimates. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were also carried out to identify the sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias was assessed by the Begg's, Egger's test and funnel plot. We included 22 observational studies with 4 cohort, 6 cross-sectional and 12 case-control studies, including 129,630 participants. Patients with PD have increased risk of MI (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.59-2.57). Substantial heterogeneity in risk estimates was revealed. Subgroup analyses showed that the higher risk of MI in PD patients exists in both cross-sectional studies (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.07-2.73) and case-control studies (OR 2.93; 95% CI 1.95-4.39), and marginally in cohort studies (OR 1.18; 95% CI 0.98-1.42). Further, subgroup meta-analyses by location, PD exposure, participant number, and study quality showed that PD was significantly associated with elevated risk of MI. Our meta-analysis suggested that PD is associated with increased risk of future MI. However, the causative relation between PD and MI remains not established based on the pooled estimates from observational studies and more studies are warranted.

  12. Intake of carbohydrates compared with intake of saturated fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: importance of the glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Dethlefsen, Claus; Joensen, Albert M; Stegger, Jakob; Tjønneland, Anne; Schmidt, Erik B; Overvad, Kim

    2010-06-01

    Studies have suggested that replacing saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with carbohydrates is modestly associated with a higher risk of ischemic heart disease, whereas replacing SFAs with polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with a lower risk of ischemic heart disease. The effect of carbohydrates, however, may depend on the type consumed. By using substitution models, we aimed to investigate the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) associated with a higher energy intake from carbohydrates and a concomitant lower energy intake from SFAs. Carbohydrates with different glycemic index (GI) values were also investigated. Our prospective cohort study included 53,644 women and men free of MI at baseline. During a median of 12 y of follow-up, 1943 incident MI cases occurred. There was a nonsignificant inverse association between substitution of carbohydrates with low-GI values for SFAs and risk of MI [hazard ratio (HR) for MI per 5% increment of energy intake from carbohydrates: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.07). In contrast, there was a statistically significant positive association between substitution of carbohydrates with high-GI values for SFAs and risk of MI (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.64). There was no association for carbohydrates with medium-GI values (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.21). No effect modification by sex was observed. This study suggests that replacing SFAs with carbohydrates with low-GI values is associated with a lower risk of MI, whereas replacing SFAs with carbohydrates with high-GI values is associated with a higher risk of MI.

  13. Acute Pre-operative Infarcts and Poor Cerebrovascular Reserve are Independent Risk Factors for Severe Ischemic Complications Following Direct Extracranial-Intracranial Bypass for Moyamoya Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pulling, T. Michael; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Marks, Michael P.; Steinberg, Gary K.; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Severe ischemic changes are a rare but devastating complication following direct superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA MCA) bypass in Moyamoya patients. This study was undertaken to determine whether pre-operative MR imaging and/or cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) assessment using reference standard stable xenon enhanced computed tomography (xeCT) could predict such complications. Materials and Methods Among all adult patients receiving direct bypass at our institution between 2005 and 2010 who received a clinically interpretable xeCT examination, we identified index cases (patients with >15 ml post-operative infarcts) and control cases (patients without post-operative infarcts and without transient or permanent ischemic symptoms). Differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann Whitney test. Univariate and multivariate generalized linear model regression were employed to test predictors of post-operative infarct. Results Six index cases were identified and compared with 25 controls. Infarct size in the index cases was 95±55 ml. Four of six index cases (67%), but no control patients, had pre-operative acute infarcts. Baseline CBF was similar, but CVR was significantly lower in the index cases compared with control cases. For example, in the anterior circulation, median CVR was 0.4% (range: −38.0% to 16.6%) in index vs. 26.3% (range: −8.2% to 60.5%) in control patients (p=0.003). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of a small pre-operative infarct (regardless of location) and impaired CVR were independent, significant predictors of severe post-operative ischemic injury. Conclusion Acute infarcts and impaired CVR on pre operative imaging are independent risk factors for severe ischemic complications following STA MCA bypass in Moyamoya disease. PMID:26564435

  14. Determining risk of biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer by immunohistochemical detection of PTEN expression and Akt activation.

    PubMed

    Bedolla, Roble; Prihoda, Thomas J; Kreisberg, Jeffrey I; Malik, Shazli N; Krishnegowda, Naveen K; Troyer, Dean A; Ghosh, Paramita M

    2007-07-01

    A considerable fraction of patients who undergo radical prostatectomy as treatment for primary prostate cancer experience biochemical recurrence detected by elevated serum levels of prostate-specific antigen. In this study, we investigate whether loss of expression of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and the phosphorylated form of the cell survival protein Akt (pAkt) predicts biochemical recurrence. Expression of PTEN and pAkt was detected by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded prostate cancer tissue obtained from men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Outcome was determined by 60-month follow-up determining serum prostate-specific antigen levels. By itself, PTEN was not a good predictor of biochemical recurrence; however, in combination with pAkt, it was a better predictor of the risk of biochemical recurrence compared with pAkt alone. Ninety percent of all cases with high pAkt and negative PTEN were recurrent whereas 88.2% of those with low pAkt and positive PTEN were nonrecurrent. In addition, high Gleason scores resulted in reduced protection from decreased pAkt and increased PTEN. By univariate logistic regression, pAkt alone gives an area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of 0.82 whereas the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve for the combination of PTEN, pAkt, and Gleason based on a stepwise selection model is 0.89, indicating excellent discrimination. Our results indicate that loss of PTEN expression, together with increased Akt phosphorylation and Gleason score, is of significant predictive value for determining, at the time of prostatectomy, the risk of biochemical recurrence.

  15. Improved cognition after control of risk factors for multi-infarct dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Judd, B.W.; Tawaklna, T.; Rogers, R.L.; Mortel, K.F.

    1986-10-24

    A cohort of 52 patients (30 men and 22 women) with multi-infarct dementia (MID) has been followed up prospectively for a mean interval of 22.2 months. Clinical course has been documented by serial history taking and interviews and neurological, medical, and psychological examinations, and correlated with measurements of cerebral blood flow. The clinical course and cognitive performance have been compared with those of age-matched normal volunteers and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Patients with MID were subdivided into hypertensive and normotensive groups, and also into those displaying stabilized or improved cognition and those whose condition deteriorated. Among hypertensive patients with MID, improved cognition and clinical course correlated with control of systolic blood pressure within upper limits of normalf (135 to 150 mm Hg), but if systolic blood pressure was reduced below this level, patients with MID deteriorated. Among normotensive patients with MID, improved cognition was associated with cessation of smoking cigarettes.

  16. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Alone for Localized Prostate Cancer in Patients at Moderate or High Risk of Biochemical Recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskin, Peter; Rojas, Ana; Lowe, Gerry; Bryant, Linda; Ostler, Peter; Hughes, Rob; Milner, Jessica; Cladd, Helen

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity and biochemical control of disease in patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma treated with escalating doses per fraction of high-dose rate brachytherapy alone. Methods and Materials: A total of 197 patients were treated with 34 Gy in four fractions, 36 Gy in four fractions, 31.5 Gy in three fractions, or 26 Gy in two fractions. Median follow-up times were 60, 54, 36, and 6 months, respectively. Results: Incidence of early Grade {>=} 3 GU morbidity was 3% to 7%, and Grade 4 was 0% to 4%. During the first 12 weeks, the highest mean International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) value was 14, and between 6 months and 5 years it was 8. Grade 3 or 4 early GI morbidity was not observed. The 3-year actuarial rate of Grade 3 GU was 3% to 16%, and was 3% to 7% for strictures requiring surgery (4-year rate). An incidence of 1% Grade 3 GI events was seen at 3 years. Late Grade 4 GU or GI events were not observed. At 3 years, 99% of patients with intermediate-risk and 91% with high-risk disease were free of biochemical relapse (log-rank p = 0.02). Conclusions: There was no significant difference in urinary and rectal morbidity between schedules. Biochemical control of disease in patients with intermediate and high risk of relapse was good.

  17. Low dose oestrogen combined oral contraception and risk of pulmonary embolism, stroke, and myocardial infarction in five million French women: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dalichampt, Marie; Raguideau, Fanny; Ricordeau, Philippe; Blotière, Pierre-Olivier; Rudant, Jérémie; Alla, François; Zureik, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the risk of pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, and myocardial infarction associated with combined oral contraceptives according to dose of oestrogen (ethinylestradiol) and progestogen. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Data from the French national health insurance database linked with data from the French national hospital discharge database. Participants 4 945 088 women aged 15-49 years, living in France, with at least one reimbursement for oral contraceptives and no previous hospital admission for cancer, pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, or myocardial infarction, between July 2010 and September 2012. Main outcome measures Relative and absolute risks of first pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, and myocardial infarction. Results The cohort generated 5 443 916 women years of oral contraceptive use, and 3253 events were observed: 1800 pulmonary embolisms (33 per 100 000 women years), 1046 ischaemic strokes (19 per 100 000 women years), and 407 myocardial infarctions (7 per 100 000 women years). After adjustment for progestogen and risk factors, the relative risks for women using low dose oestrogen (20 µg v 30-40 µg) were 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.85) for pulmonary embolism, 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96) for ischaemic stroke, and 0.56 (0.39 to 0.79) for myocardial infarction. After adjustment for oestrogen dose and risk factors, desogestrel and gestodene were associated with statistically significantly higher relative risks for pulmonary embolism (2.16, 1.93 to 2.41 and 1.63, 1.34 to 1.97, respectively) compared with levonorgestrel. Levonorgestrel combined with 20 µg oestrogen was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk than levonorgestrel with 30-40 µg oestrogen for each of the three serious adverse events. Conclusions For the same dose of oestrogen, desogestrel and gestodene were associated with statistically significantly higher risks of pulmonary embolism but not arterial

  18. Assessing the Associations Between Awareness of Myocardial Infarction Symptoms, Socioeconomic Factors, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Through Regression Models.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phoebe; Mittleman, Murray A

    2016-11-18

    There are few studies that consider the association between awareness of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction (MI), socioeconomic factors (household income, sex, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment), and cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors. It is important to understand these associations because there is evidence that suggests that disparities in the awareness of MI symptoms lead to disparities in delays in receiving treatment and outcomes of patients with MI. The study was to determine if there are disparities in the awareness of different MI symptoms among different groups with respect to self-reported race, ethnicity, education, age, and income (i.e., various SES factors) in the presence/absence of modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors. We utilized the 2003-2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, a nationally representative telephone-based survey, to evaluate the relationships between five common symptoms of MI, socioeconomic factors, and four major modifiable CVD risk factors. We found that being college-educated, a higher household income, making $75,000 a year or more, being female, being non-Hispanic White, having hypertension, and exercising regularly were generally associated with a higher probability of being aware of the MI symptoms evaluated in this study. Additionally, awareness that jaw/back/neck pain and feeling weak/light-headed/faint are symptoms of MI were found to be consistently lower compared to that of other MI symptoms, ranging from 50 to 75%, across all SES factors and CVD risk factors. The findings from this study can serve as a useful guide to facilitating targeted educational efforts aimed at improving awareness of MI symptoms that may ultimately reduce disparities in the outcomes of patients at risk for MI.

  19. Consumption of filtered and boiled coffee and the risk of first acute myocardial infarction; a nested case/referent study.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, L M; Wennberg, M; Lindahl, B; Eliasson, M; Jansson, J-H; Van Guelpen, B

    2010-09-01

    In northern Sweden, consumption of both filtered and boiled coffee is common. Boiled coffee, especially popular in rural areas, is known to raise blood lipids, a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (MI). To our knowledge, only one epidemiological study, a case-control study from Sweden, has investigated boiled coffee in MI, noting an increased risk at high consumption levels in men, and no association in women. The aim of the present nested case-referent study was to relate consumption of filtered and boiled coffee to the risk of first MI. The study subjects were 375 cases (303 men, 72 women) and 1293 matched referents from the population-based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Coffee consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Risk estimates were calculated by conditional logistic regression. A statistically significant positive association was found between consumption of filtered coffee and MI risk in men [odds ratio for consumption > or = 4 times/day versus < or = 1 time/day 1.73 (95% CI 1.05-2.84)]. In women, a similar association was observed, but for boiled coffee [odds ratio 2.51 (95% CI 1.08-5.86)]. After adjustment for current smoking, postsecondary education, hypertension, and sedentary lifestyle, the results for women were no longer statistically significant. Consumption of filtered coffee was positively associated with the risk of a first MI in men. A similar tendency was observed for boiled coffee in women, but the result was not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Further investigation in a larger study is warranted. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk of anxiety and depressive disorders in patients with myocardial infarction: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hsin-Pei; Chien, Wu-Chien; Cheng, Wei-Tung; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Tzeng, Wen-Chii

    2016-08-01

    Anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with adverse cardiovascular events after an acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, most studies focusing on anxiety or depression have used rating scales or self-report methods rather than clinical diagnosis. This study aimed to investigate the association between psychiatrist-diagnosed psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular prognosis.We sampled data from the National Health Insurance Research Database; 1396 patients with MI were recruited as the study cohort and 13,960 patients without MI were recruited as the comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the effect of MI on the risk of anxiety and depressive disorders.During the first 2 years of follow-up, patients with MI exhibited a significantly higher risk of anxiety disorders (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 5.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.61-5.54) and depressive disorders (adjusted HR = 7.23, 95% CI: 4.88-10.88) than those without MI did. Greater risk for anxiety and depressive disorders was observed among women and patients aged 45 to 64 years following an acute MI. Patients with post-MI anxiety had a 9.37-fold (95% CI: 4.45-19.70) higher risk of recurrent MI than those without MI did after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and comorbidities.This nationwide population-based cohort study provides evidence that MI increases the risk of anxiety and depressive disorders during the first 2 years post-MI, and post-MI anxiety disorders are associated with a higher risk of recurrent MI.

  1. Chronic and acute anemia and extracranial internal carotid stenosis are risk factors for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Bernaudin, Françoise; Verlhac, Suzanne; Arnaud, Cécile; Kamdem, Annie; Vasile, Manuela; Kasbi, Florence; Hau, Isabelle; Madhi, Fouad; Fourmaux, Christine; Biscardi, Sandra; Epaud, Ralph; Pondarré, Corinne

    2015-03-05

    Early transcranial Doppler (TCD) screening of the Créteil sickle cell anemia (SCA)-newborn cohort, and rapid initiation of transfusion programs, resulted in successful prevention of overt strokes, but a high cumulative risk of silent cerebral infarcts (SCI) remained, suggesting that TCD screening does not identify all patients with SCA at risk for SCI. We hypothesized that episodes of hypoperfusion/hypoxia, as observed during acute chest syndromes or acute anemic events (AAE), and extracranial internal carotid artery (eICA) stenoses, detectable via submandibular Doppler sonography and cervical magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), could also be risk factors for SCI. This study includes 189 stroke-free patients with SCA from the Créteil newborn cohort (1992-2010) followed longitudinally by magnetic resonance imaging/MRA, including cervical MRA at the last assessment. All patients with abnormal TCD and/or intracranial stenoses were placed on a transfusion program. Mean follow-up was 9.9 years (range, 2.2-19.9 years; 1844 patient-years). Annual rates of clinical events were calculated. The cumulative risk for SCI was 39.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.5%-54.7%) by age 18 years, with no plateau. We confirm that baseline hemoglobin level lower than 7 g/dL before age 3 years is a highly significant predictive risk factor for SCI (hazard ratio, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.43-6.17; P = .004). Furthermore, we show that AAE rate (odds ratio, 2.64 per unit increase; 95% CI, 1.09-6.38; P = .031) and isolated eICA stenosis (odds ratio, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.18-8.70; P = .023) are significant and independent risk factors for SCI.

  2. Race-ethnic differences in the relationship between lipid profile components and risk of myocardial infarction: the Northern Manhattan Study

    PubMed Central

    Willey, Joshua Z; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Carlino, Richard F.; Moon, Yeseon Park; Paik, Myunghee C.; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Sacco, Ralph L.; DiTullio, Marco R.; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell SV

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore race-ethnic differences in the relationship between plasma lipid components and risk of incident myocardial infarction (MI). Design/Methods As part of the Northern Manhattan Study, 2738 community residents without cardiovascular disease were prospectively evaluated. Baseline fasting blood samples were collected and lipid panel components were analyzed as continuous and categorical variables. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident MI after adjusting for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Results The mean age was 68.8±10.4 years; 36.7% men, 19.9% non-Hispanic white, 24.9% non-Hispanic black, and 52.8% Hispanic (over 80% from the Caribbean). Hispanics had lower mean HDL-C, and higher TG/HDL-C. During a mean 8.9 years of follow-up there were 163 incident MIs. In the whole cohort all lipid profile components were associated with risk of MI in the expected directions. However, HDL-C (adjusted HR per 10 mg/dl increase 0.93, 95%CI 0.76–1.12) and TG/HDL-C>2 (adjusted HR 0.89, 95%CI 0.51–1.55) were not predictive of MI among Hispanics, but were predictive among non-Hispanic blacks and whites. TG/HDL-C per unit increase was associated with an 8% higher risk of MI among Hispanics (adjusted HR 1.08, 95%CI 1.04–1.12). Conclusions In Hispanics, low HDL-C and TG/HDL-C>2 were not associated with MI risk. Our data suggests that a different TG/HDL ratio cutoff may be needed among Hispanics to predict MI risk. PMID:21570518

  3. Marital status, education, and risk of acute myocardial infarction in Mainland China: the INTER-HEART study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Li, Wei; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of marital status and education on the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a large-scale case-control study in China. This study was part of the INTER-HEART China case-control study. The main outcome measure was first AMI. Incident cases of AMI and control patients with no past history of heart disease were recruited. Controls were matching by age (±5 years) and sex. Marital status was combined into 2 categories: single and not single. Education level was classified into 2 categories: 8 years or less and more than 8 years. From 1999 to 2002, we recruited 2909 cases and 2947 controls from 17 cities. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, psychosocial factors, lifestyle, other factors, and mutually for other risk factors, the odds ratio (OR) for AMI associated with being single was 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.93) overall, 1.19 (0.84-1.68; P = 0.072) in men and 2.00 (1.39-2.86; P < 0.0001) in women. The interaction of sex and marital status was statistically significant (P = 0.045). Compared with a high education level, a low education level increased the risk of AMI (1.45, 1.26-1.67); the odds ratios in men and women were 1.29 (1.09-1.52) and 1.55 (1.16-2.08), respectively. Single women with a low education level had a high risk of AMI (2.95, 1.99-4.37). Being single was consistently associated with an increased risk for AMI, particularly in women. In addition, as compared with high education level, low education level was associated with a higher risk of AMI in both men and women.

  4. Family history of myocardial infarction is an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism: the Tromsø study.

    PubMed

    Braekkan, S K; Mathiesen, E B; Njølstad, I; Wilsgaard, T; Størmer, J; Hansen, J B

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that arterial cardiovascular diseases and venous thromboembolism (VTE) share common risk factors. A family history of myocardial infarction (MI) is a strong and independent risk factor for future MI. The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of cardiovascular risk factors, including family history of MI, on the incidence of VTE in a prospective, population-based study. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors and family history of MI were registered in 21,330 subjects, aged 25-96 years, enrolled in the Tromsø study in 1994-95. First-lifetime VTE events during follow-up were registered up to 1 September 2007. There were 327 VTE events (1.40 per 1000 person-years), 138 (42%) unprovoked, during a mean of 10.9 years of follow-up. In age- and gender-adjusted analysis, age [hazard ratio (HR) per decade, 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.82-2.12], gender (men vs. women; HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55), body mass index (BMI; HR per 3 kg m(-2), 1.21; 95% CI, 1.13-1.31), and family history of MI (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04-1.65) were significantly associated with VTE. Family history of MI remained a significant risk factor for total VTE (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01-1.60) and unprovoked VTE (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.03-2.07) in multivariable analysis. Blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and smoking were not independently associated with total VTE. Family history of MI is a risk factor for both MI and VTE, and provides further evidence of a link between venous and arterial thrombosis.

  5. Cell-free hemoglobin-based blood substitutes and risk of myocardial infarction and death: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Natanson, Charles; Kern, Steven J; Lurie, Peter; Banks, Steven M; Wolfe, Sidney M

    2008-05-21

    Hemoglobin-based blood substitutes (HBBSs) are infusible oxygen-carrying liquids that have long shelf lives, have no need for refrigeration or cross-matching, and are ideal for treating hemorrhagic shock in remote settings. Some trials of HBBSs during the last decade have reported increased risks without clinical benefit. To assess the safety of HBBSs in surgical, stroke, and trauma patients. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library searches for articles using hemoglobin and blood substitutes from 1980 through March 25, 2008; reviews of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advisory committee meeting materials; and Internet searches for company press releases. Randomized controlled trials including patients aged 19 years and older receiving HBBSs therapeutically. The database searches yielded 70 trials of which 13 met these criteria; in addition, data from 2 other trials were reported in 2 press releases, and additional data were included in 1 relevant FDA review. Data on death and myocardial infarction (MI) as outcome variables. Sixteen trials involving 5 different products and 3711 patients in varied patient populations were identified. A test for heterogeneity of the results of these trials was not significant for either mortality or MI (for both, I2 = 0%, P > or = .60), and data were combined using a fixed-effects model. Overall, there was a statistically significant increase in the risk of death (164 deaths in the HBBS-treated groups and 123 deaths in the control groups; relative risk [RR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.61) and risk of MI (59 MIs in the HBBS-treated groups and 16 MIs in the control groups; RR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.67-4.40) with these HBBSs. Subgroup analysis of these trials indicated the increased risk was not restricted to a particular HBBS or clinical indication. Based on the available data, use of HBBSs is associated with a significantly increased risk of death and MI.

  6. Factor XIII-A Val34Leu polymorphism might beassociated with myocardial infarction risk: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangyun; Zou, Zhikang; Ji, Xiucai; Ni, Qingshan; Ma, Zhongli

    2014-01-01

    Although many epidemiologic studies have investigated the FXIII-A Val34Leu polymorphism and their associations with myocardial infarction (MI), definite conclusions can't be drawn. To clarify the effects of FXIII-A Val34Leu polymorphism on the risk of MI, a meta-analysis was performed. Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) till 10 August 2014. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 12 studies including 3139 MI cases and 6343 healthy controls were involved in this meta-analysis. A significantly decreased MI risk was found (adjusted OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.60-0.82, P < 0.00001). In the subgroup analysis by age, significantly decreased risks were found in the young population (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.91, P = 0.008) and old population (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.50-0.80, P = 0.0001). In the subgroup analysis by gender, significantly decreased risks were found in male (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.34-0.88, P = 0.01) and female (OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.55-0.95, P = 0.02). When we limited the meta-analysis to studies that controlled for confounders such as age, sex, BMI, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and fibrinogen, a significant association between FXIII-A Val34Leu polymorphism and MI risk remained. This meta-analysis provides the evidence that FXIII-A Val34Leu polymorphism may significant associated with the MI risk.

  7. Factor XIII-A Val34Leu polymorphism might beassociated with myocardial infarction risk: an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangyun; Zou, Zhikang; Ji, Xiucai; Ni, Qingshan; Ma, Zhongli

    2014-01-01

    Although many epidemiologic studies have investigated the FXIII-A Val34Leu polymorphism and their associations with myocardial infarction (MI), definite conclusions can’t be drawn. To clarify the effects of FXIII-A Val34Leu polymorphism on the risk of MI, a meta-analysis was performed. Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) till 10 August 2014. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 12 studies including 3139 MI cases and 6343 healthy controls were involved in this meta-analysis. A significantly decreased MI risk was found (adjusted OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.60-0.82, P < 0.00001). In the subgroup analysis by age, significantly decreased risks were found in the young population (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.91, P = 0.008) and old population (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.50-0.80, P = 0.0001). In the subgroup analysis by gender, significantly decreased risks were found in male (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.34-0.88, P = 0.01) and female (OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.55-0.95, P = 0.02). When we limited the meta-analysis to studies that controlled for confounders such as age, sex, BMI, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and fibrinogen, a significant association between FXIII-A Val34Leu polymorphism and MI risk remained. This meta-analysis provides the evidence that FXIII-A Val34Leu polymorphism may significant associated with the MI risk. PMID:25664069

  8. Association between dairy food consumption and risk of myocardial infarction in women differs by type of dairy food.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Emma; Larsson, Susanna C; Wolk, Alicja; Åkesson, Agneta

    2013-01-01

    The relation between dairy foods, particularly specific foods, and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. We examined the association between total, as well as specific, dairy food intakes and incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) in a prospective population-based cohort. We followed 33,636 women (aged 48-83 y), free from CVD, cancer, and diabetes at baseline (1997), in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Consumption of milk, cultured milk/yogurt, cheese, cream, crème fraiche, and butter was obtained from a validated self-administered FFQ at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs, adjusted for relevant CVD risk factors. MI incidence was ascertained from national registries. Over 11.6 y of follow-up, we ascertained 1392 cases of MI. When the highest quintile was compared with the lowest quintile, total dairy food intake was inversely associated with MI risk [multivariable adjusted HR: 0.77 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.95)]. Among specific dairy food products, total cheese was inversely associated [HR: 0.74 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.91)] and butter used on bread but not on cooking was positively associated [HR: 1.34 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.75)] with MI risk. Other specific dairy food products were not significantly associated with MI risk. No differences were observed between consumption of specific low-fat and high-fat dairy foods, expressed as either absolute intakes or intakes relative to the total, and MI risk. Failure to consider dairy foods as a heterogeneous group in future studies could hamper important insights of relevance for the development of dietary guidelines.

  9. Validation of the RRE-90 Scale to Predict Stroke Risk after Transient Symptoms with Infarction: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hui; Zhao, Lu; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Tan, Song; Xu, Yuming

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The risk of stroke after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) for patients with a positive diffusion-weighted image (DWI), i.e., transient symptoms with infarction (TSI), is much higher than for those with a negative DWI. The aim of this study was to validate the predictive value of a web-based recurrence risk estimator (RRE; http://www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/RRE/) of TSI. Methods Data from the prospective hospital-based TIA database of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were analyzed. The RRE and ABCD2 scores were calculated within 7 days of symptom onset. The predictive outcome was ischemic stroke occurrence at 90 days. The receiver-operating characteristics curves were plotted, and the predictive value of the two models was assessed by computing the C statistics. Results A total of 221 eligible patients were prospectively enrolled, of whom 46 (20.81%) experienced a stroke within 90 days. The 90-day stroke risk in high-risk TSI patients (RRE ≥4) was 3.406-fold greater than in those at low risk (P <0.001). The C statistic of RRE (0.681; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.592–0.771) was statistically higher than that of ABCD2 score (0.546; 95% CI, 0.454–0.638; Z = 2.115; P = 0.0344) at 90 days. Conclusion The RRE score had a higher predictive value than the ABCD2 score for assessing the 90-day risk of stroke after TSI. PMID:26394400

  10. Patient-specific assessment of left ventricular thrombogenesis risk after acute myocardial infarction: a pilot clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, L.; Khan, A.; Del Alamo, J. C.; Martinez-Legazpi, P.; Pérez Del Villar, C.; Benito, Y.; Yotti, R.; Barrio, A.; Delgado-Montero, A.; Gonzalez-Mansilla, A.; Fernandez-Avilés, F.; Bermejo, J.

    2016-11-01

    Left ventricular thrombosis (LVT) is a major complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In these patients, the benefits of chronic anticoagulation therapy need to be balanced with its pro-hemorrhagic effects. Blood stasis in the cardiac chambers, a risk factor for LVT, is not addressed in current clinical practice. We recently developed a method to quantitatively assess the blood residence time (RT) inside the left ventricle (LV) based on 2D color-Doppler velocimetry (echo-CDV). Using time-resolved blood velocity fields acquired non-invasively, we integrate a modified advection equation to map intraventricular stasis regions. Here, we present how this tool can be used to estimate the risk of LVT in patients with AMI. 73 patients with a first anterior-AMI were studied by echo-CDV and RT analysis within 72h from admission and at a 5-month follow-up. Patients who eventually develop LVT showed early abnormalities of intraventricular RT: the apical region with RT>2s was significantly larger, had a higher RT and a longer wall contact length. Thus, quantitative analysis of intraventricular flow based on echocardiography may provide subclinical markers of LV thrombosis risk to guide clinical decision making.

  11. Semi-automatic measuring of arteriovenous relation as a possible silent brain infarction risk index in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Vázquez Dorrego, X M; Manresa Domínguez, J M; Heras Tebar, A; Forés, R; Girona Marcé, A; Alzamora Sas, M T; Delgado Martínez, P; Riba-Llena, I; Ugarte Anduaga, J; Beristain Iraola, A; Barandiaran Martirena, I; Ruiz Bilbao, S M; Torán Monserrat, P

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of a semiautomatic measuring system of arteriovenous relation (RAV) from retinographic images of hypertensive patients in assessing their cardiovascular risk and silent brain ischemia (ICS) detection. Semi-automatic measurement of arterial and venous width were performed with the aid of Imedos software and conventional fundus examination from the analysis of retinal images belonging to the 976 patients integrated in the cohort Investigating Silent Strokes in Hypertensives: a magnetic resonance imaging study (ISSYS), group of hypertensive patients. All patients have been subjected to a cranial magnetic resonance imaging (RMN) to assess the presence or absence of brain silent infarct. Retinal images of 768 patients were studied. Among the clinical findings observed, association with ICS was only detected in patients with microaneurysms (OR 2.50; 95% CI: 1.05-5.98) or altered RAV (<0.666) (OR: 4.22; 95% CI: 2.56-6.96). In multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted by age and sex, only altered RAV continued demonstrating as a risk factor (OR: 3.70; 95% CI: 2.21-6.18). The results show that the semiautomatic analysis of the retinal vasculature from retinal images has the potential to be considered as an important vascular risk factor in hypertensive population. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Venous Thromboembolism; Time-Fixed versus Time-Varying Analyses. The Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    Småbrekke, Birgit; Rinde, Ludvig Balteskard; Hindberg, Kristian; Hald, Erin Mathiesen; Vik, Anders; Wilsgaard, Tom; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Njølstad, Inger; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Brækkan, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Single measurements of modifiable risk factors may underestimate associations with outcomes in cohorts. We aimed to compare risk estimates of myocardial infarction (MI) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) by atherosclerotic risk factors during long follow-up using time-fixed analyses without and with correction for regression dilution and time-varying analyses. Methods The study included 5970 subjects enrolled in the fourth survey of the Tromsø Study (1994/95). Blood pressure, lipid levels, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and smoking status were measured at baseline, and subjects still alive at the fifth (2001/02, n = 5179) and sixth (2007/08, n = 4391) survey were re-measured. Incident events of MI (n = 714) and VTE (n = 214) were recorded until December 2010. Time-fixed and time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for MI and VTE adjusted for age and sex. Results Variations in BMI, blood pressure and lipid levels were small, and did not alter the risk estimates when time-varying analyses were compared to time-fixed analyses. For MI, variables that changed considerably over time yielded the greatest changes in risk estimates (HR for smoking changed from 1.80 (95% CI 1.55–2.10) to 2.08 (95% CI 1.78–2.42)). For VTE, only BMI was associated with increased risk in both time-fixed and time-varying analysis, but the risk estimates weakened in the time-varying analysis. Correction of time-fixed HRs with Rosner´s method tended to overestimate risk estimates compared to time-varying analysis. Comment For MI and VTE, risk estimates based on baseline and repeated measures corresponded well, whereas correction for regression dilution tended to overestimate risks. PMID:27635655

  13. Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Venous Thromboembolism; Time-Fixed versus Time-Varying Analyses. The Tromsø Study.

    PubMed

    Småbrekke, Birgit; Rinde, Ludvig Balteskard; Hindberg, Kristian; Hald, Erin Mathiesen; Vik, Anders; Wilsgaard, Tom; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Njølstad, Inger; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Brækkan, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Single measurements of modifiable risk factors may underestimate associations with outcomes in cohorts. We aimed to compare risk estimates of myocardial infarction (MI) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) by atherosclerotic risk factors during long follow-up using time-fixed analyses without and with correction for regression dilution and time-varying analyses. The study included 5970 subjects enrolled in the fourth survey of the Tromsø Study (1994/95). Blood pressure, lipid levels, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and smoking status were measured at baseline, and subjects still alive at the fifth (2001/02, n = 5179) and sixth (2007/08, n = 4391) survey were re-measured. Incident events of MI (n = 714) and VTE (n = 214) were recorded until December 2010. Time-fixed and time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for MI and VTE adjusted for age and sex. Variations in BMI, blood pressure and lipid levels were small, and did not alter the risk estimates when time-varying analyses were compared to time-fixed analyses. For MI, variables that changed considerably over time yielded the greatest changes in risk estimates (HR for smoking changed from 1.80 (95% CI 1.55-2.10) to 2.08 (95% CI 1.78-2.42)). For VTE, only BMI was associated with increased risk in both time-fixed and time-varying analysis, but the risk estimates weakened in the time-varying analysis. Correction of time-fixed HRs with Rosner´s method tended to overestimate risk estimates compared to time-varying analysis. For MI and VTE, risk estimates based on baseline and repeated measures corresponded well, whereas correction for regression dilution tended to overestimate risks.

  14. Anxiety and anger immediately prior to myocardial infarction and long-term mortality: Characteristics of high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Smeijers, Loes; Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Muller, James E; Kop, Willem J; Mittleman, Murray A

    2017-02-01

    Acute high levels of anger and anxiety are associated with an elevated risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in the following two hours. MIs preceded by these acute negative emotions may also have a poor long-term prognosis, but information about high-risk patients is lacking. We examined whether young age and female sex are associated with MIs that are preceded by negative emotions and whether age and sex moderate the subsequent increased mortality risk following MI preceded by negative emotions. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study (N=2176, mean age=60.1±12.3years, 29.2% women). Anxiety and anger immediately prior to (0-2h) MI and the day before (24-26h) MI were assessed using a structured interview. Subsequent 10-year all-cause mortality was determined using the US National Death Index. Anxiety during the 0-2h pre-MI period was associated with younger age (OR=0.98,95% CI=0.96-0.99 per year) and female sex (OR=1.50,95% CI=1.11-2.02). Anger in the 0-2h pre-MI period was also associated with younger age (OR=0.95,95% CI=0.94-0.96) but not with sex (OR=0.93,95% CI=0.67-1.28). During follow-up, 580 (26.7%) patients died. Mortality rate was higher if MI occurred immediately after high anxiety, particularly in patients ≥65years (HR=1.80,95% CI=1.28-2.54) vs. younger patients (HR=0.87,95% CI=0.55-1.40; p-interaction=0.015). Other interactions with sex or anger were not significant. Patients with high anxiety or anger levels in the critical 2-hour period prior to MI are younger than those without such emotional precipitants. In addition, pre-MI anxiety is associated with an elevated 10-year mortality risk in patients aged ≥65years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk of acute myocardial infarction in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease: A nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei-Yi; Wang, Jen-Hung; Wen, Shu-Hui; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Hung, Jui-Sheng; Liu, Tso-Tsai; Orr, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease which can cause troublesome symptoms and affect quality of life. In addition to esophageal complications, GERD may also be a risk factor for extra-esophageal complications. Both GERD and coronary artery disease (CAD) can cause chest pain and frequently co-exist. However, the association between GERD and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remain unclear. The purpose of the study was to compare the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in GERD patients with an age-, gender-, and comorbidity matched population free of GERD. We also examine the association of the risk of AMI and the use of acid suppressing agents in GERD patients. Methods We identified patients with GERD from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised 54,422 newly diagnosed GERD patients; 269,572 randomly selected age-, gender-, comorbidity-matched subjects comprised the comparison cohort. Patients with any prior CAD, AMI or peripheral arterial disease were excluded. Incidence of new AMI was studied in both groups. Results A total 1,236 (0.5%) of the patients from the control group and 371 (0.7%) patients from the GERD group experienced AMI during a mean follow-up period of 3.3 years. Based on Cox proportional-hazard model analysis, GERD was independently associated with increased risk of developing AMI (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31–1.66, P < 0.001). Within the GERD group, patients who were prescribed proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for more than one year had slightly decreased the risk of developing AMI, compared with those without taking PPIs (HR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.31–1.04, P = 0.066). Conclusions This large population-based study demonstrates an association between GERD and future development of AMI, however, PPIs use only achieved marginal significance in reducing the occurrence of AMI in GERD patients. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate

  16. High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Gerona, Spain, a province with low myocardial infarction incidence. REGICOR Investigators

    PubMed Central

    Masia, R.; Pena, A.; Marrugat, J.; Sala, J.; Vila, J.; Pavesi, M.; Covas, M.; Aubo, C.; Elosua, R.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of main cardiovascular risk factors in the province of Gerona, where the incidence of myocardial infarction is known to be low. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study of prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors conducted on a large random population sample. SETTING: The province of Gerona, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand four hundred and four eligible inhabitants of Gerona aged between 25 and 74 years were randomly selected for a multi-stage sample stratified by age and sex. The following were standardly measured: lipids (total cholesterol, high density, low density, lipoprotein (a) and triglycerides), fibrinogen, basal glycaemia, arterial pressure, anthropometric variables, smoking, history of angina (Rose questionnaire), and a medical history questionnaire. Population measurements were standardised for the world population of 24 to 74 years of age. RESULTS: The participation rate was 72.7% (1748). Total mean cholesterol was 5.69 mmol/l in men and 5.61 mmol/l in women and mean high density cholesterol was 1.22 mmol/l and 1.47 mmol/l, respectively. Median lipoprotein (a) was 0.22 g/l. These three lipids increased significantly with age. Mean fibrinogen was 2.92 g/l in men and 3.09 g/l in women, and was higher in smokers. The prevalence of hypertension (systolic arterial tension > or = 140 mm Hg or diastolic > or = 90 mm Hg or drug treatment) was 31.3% in men and 27.7% in women. The proportion of male smokers was 33.8% and female smokers 22.7%. The proportion of female smokers in the 25-34 year age group exceeded that of the remaining age groups for both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Gerona is relatively high for the low myocardial infarction incidence typical of the area, although similar to that of other Spanish areas. The factors that confer sufficient protection to compensate for the effect of the prevalence of these risk factors remain to be elucidated.   PMID

  17. Angiographic validation of magnetic resonance assessment of myocardium at risk in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Buckert, Dominik; Mariyadas, Manuela; Walcher, Thomas; Rasche, Volker; Wöhrle, Jochen; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Peter

    2013-08-01

    In the setting of acute myocardial ischemia, the hypoperfused portion of the myocardium is in danger of becoming irreversibly injured. This portion is called the area at risk (AAR). It is of clinical interest to be able to estimate the AAR for further evaluation and improvement of different revascularization strategies. The Alberta Provincial Project for Outcome Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease Score (APPROACH-score) has been shown to be a jeopardy score with a good performance for angiographic assessment of the myocardium supplied by a coronary vessel, representing the AAR. Recently, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has been demonstrated to also provide good results in determining the AAR, especially in the setting of acute ST-elevation infarction patients. Therefore, the aim of our trial was to compare T2-weighted CMR imaging for assessment of AAR in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and to validate this approach against the angiographic APPROACH-score. We enrolled sixty-four patients presenting with acute NSTEMI that underwent coronary X-ray angiography within 72 h of symptom onset. Two blinded readers performed offline angiographic AAR assessment using the modified APPROACH-score, as being described elsewhere. Furthermore, with the use of a semi-automatic T2w-CMR approach, the AAR was quantified by two fully blinded readers. The resulting mean AAR determined by the modified APPROACH-score was 28.6 ± 10.0 %. The mean CMR derived AAR was 27.6 ± 12.7 %. CMR assessment tended to slightly underestimate the AAR in comparison to angiographic scoring (difference -0.09 ± 7.6 %). There is a good correlation between the AAR assessed by CMR and by angiography (r = 0.65, p < 0.001). T2-weigthed CMR is able to quantify the AAR with very good correlation to the angiographic APPROACH-score in NSTEMI patients.

  18. Echocardiographic Predictors for Left Ventricular Remodeling after Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction with Low Risk Group: Speckle Tracking Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Na, Hyun-Min; Lee, Joo Myung; Cha, Myung-Jin; Yoon, Yeonyee E.; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Yong-Jin; Sohn, Dae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to assess echocardiographic predictors of left ventricular (LV) adverse remodeling after successfully reperfused acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). LV remodeling is commonly found in STEMI patients and it may suggest adverse outcome in acute myocardial infarction. We sought to identify whether 2D strain and torsion be independent parameters for prediction of LV adverse remodeling. Methods We investigated 208 patients with low-risk STEMI patients who had follow up echocardiography at 6 or more months. After clinical assessments, all patients received revascularization according to current guideline. LV remodeling was defined as > 20% increase in end-diastolic volume (EDV) at follow up. Results During the follow-up (11.9 ± 5.3 months), 53 patients (25.5%) showed LV remodeling. In univariate analysis, EDV, end-systolic volume, deceleration time (DT), CK-MB, and global longitudinal strain (GLS) were associated with LV remodeling. In multivariate analysis, EDV [hazard ratio (HR): 0.922, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.897–0.948, p< 0.001], GLS (HR: 0.842, 95% CI: 0.728–0.974, p = 0.020), DT (HR: 0.989, 95% CI: 0.980–0.998, p = 0.023) and CK-MB (HR: 1.003, 95% CI: 1.000–1.005, p = 0.033) independently predicted LV remodeling. However, global circumferential strain, net twist, and twist or untwist rate were not associated with remodeling. Conclusion Of various parameters of speckle strain, only GLS predicted adverse remodeling in STEMI patients. PMID:27358705

  19. High prevalence of angina pectoris in Mexican-American men. A population with reduced risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, B D; Hazuda, H P; Haffner, S M; Patterson, J K; Stern, M P

    1991-08-01

    Mexican-American men experience lower rates of cardiovascular mortality and have a lower prevalence of nonfatal myocardial infarction than do non-Hispanic white men. To see if this ethnic difference exists for other cardiovascular end points, we compared the prevalence of angina pectoris, as assessed by the Rose Angina Questionnaire, between Mexican Americans (n = 3272) and non-Hispanic whites (n = 1848) examined in the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based survey of cardiovascular disease and diabetes conducted in San Antonio, Texas, between 1979 and 1988. Contrary to our expectations, angina prevalence was approximately twice as high in Mexican Americans as in non-Hispanic whites, with age-adjusted odds ratios of 2.01 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13 to 3.58; P = .02) in men and 1.84 (95% CI, 1.26 to 2.70; P = .001) in women. After controlling for age, body mass index, diabetes status, cigarette smoking, and educational level by logistic regression analysis, angina prevalence remained statistically associated with Mexican American ethnicity in men, but not women. There was little ethnic difference in the proportion of Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white subjects who reported nonspecific chest pain (chest pain not meeting the Rose criteria), suggesting that the ethnic difference in angina prevalence was not an artifact of reporting bias. This was further supported by the fact that the conventional cardiovascular risk factors were more strongly associated with angina prevalence in Mexican Americans than in non-Hispanic whites. These data suggest that Mexican-American men experience high rates of angina despite low rates of myocardial infarction. Future studies should investigate ethnic factors that may have differential effects on the various manifestations of coronary heart disease.

  20. Mortality among high-risk patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to U.S. teaching-intensive hospitals in July: a retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Sun, Eric C; Romley, John A

    2013-12-24

    Studies of whether inpatient mortality in US teaching hospitals rises in July as a result of organizational disruption and relative inexperience of new physicians (July effect) find small and mixed results, perhaps because study populations primarily include low-risk inpatients whose mortality outcomes are unlikely to exhibit a July effect. Using the US Nationwide Inpatient sample, we estimated difference-in-difference models of mortality, percutaneous coronary intervention rates, and bleeding complication rates, for high- and low-risk patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to 98 teaching-intensive and 1353 non-teaching-intensive hospitals during May and July 2002 to 2008. Among patients in the top quartile of predicted acute myocardial infarction mortality (high risk), adjusted mortality was lower in May than July in teaching-intensive hospitals (18.8% in May, 22.7% in July, P<0.01), but similar in non-teaching-intensive hospitals (22.5% in May, 22.8% in July, P=0.70). Among patients in the lowest three quartiles of predicted acute myocardial infarction mortality (low risk), adjusted mortality was similar in May and July in both teaching-intensive hospitals (2.1% in May, 1.9% in July, P=0.45) and non-teaching-intensive hospitals (2.7% in May, 2.8% in July, P=0.21). Differences in percutaneous coronary intervention and bleeding complication rates could not explain the observed July mortality effect among high risk patients. High-risk acute myocardial infarction patients experience similar mortality in teaching- and non-teaching-intensive hospitals in July, but lower mortality in teaching-intensive hospitals in May. Low-risk patients experience no such July effect in teaching-intensive hospitals.

  1. Omentin-1 and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke: Results from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort study.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Juliane; di Giuseppe, Romina; Biemann, Ronald; Wittenbecher, Clemens; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Schulze, Matthias B; Boeing, Heiner; Isermann, Berend; Weikert, Cornelia

    2016-08-01

    The recently identified adipokine omentin-1 is inversely associated with body fatness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in cross-sectional analyses. However, prospective data on the association between plasma omentin-1 levels and future risk of CVD are lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between omentin-1 and incident myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We conducted a case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort comprising a subsample of 2084 participants, including 50 CVD cases and 350 external incident CVD cases (mean follow-up of 8.2 ± 1.6 years). Prentice modified Cox regression adjusted for established CVD risk factors was used to estimate associations between omentin-1 and risk of MI and stroke, interactions were tested with cross-product terms. After multivariable adjustment, omentin-1 was not significantly associated with risk of MI (HR per doubling omentin-1:1.17; 95%-CI:0.79-1.72; p = 0.43), but with higher risk of stroke (HR per doubling omentin-1:2.22; 95%-CI:1.52-3.22; p < 0.0001). In subgroup analyses, associations between omentin-1 and stroke risk were generally stronger in lower versus higher CVD risk groups. For example, risk of stroke was stronger in participants without metabolic syndrome (HR per doubling omentin-1:2.58; 95%-CI:1.64-4.07; p < 0.0001) compared to those with metabolic syndrome (HR per doubling omentin-1:1.21; 95%-CI:0.59-2.50; p = 0.60) (p for interaction = 0.05). Similar interactions were observed when participants were classified in low or high risk groups according to waist circumference, triglyceride, hsCRP or adiponectin levels. Omentin-1 concentrations may be related to increased stroke risk. This association is stronger in metabolically healthy individuals. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Paraoxonase (PON1) and the risk for coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction in a general population of Dutch women.

    PubMed

    van Himbergen, Thomas M; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Voorbij, Hieronymus A M; van Tits, Lambertus J H; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; Peeters, Petra H M; Roest, Mark

    2008-08-01

    There is strong evidence from both animal- and in vitro-models that paraoxonase (PON1) is involved in the onset of cardiovascular disease. In humans there is no consensus on this issue and therefore we investigated the effect of PON1 genotype and activity on the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a large prospective cohort of 17,357 middle-aged women. We applied a case-cohort design using the CHD (n=211) and AMI cases (n=71) and a random sample from the baseline cohort (n=1527). A weighted Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate age- and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for the PON1 genetic variants (192Q > R and -107C > T) and tertiles of the PON1 arylesterase- and paraoxonase activities. Neither the PON1 genetic variants, nor the PON1 activities affected the incidence of CHD in general, but, an increased paraoxonase activity was associated with a higher risk of AMI: the second and third tertile HR were 1.31 and 2.07, respectively (P-trend=0.029, multivariate model). In the subgroup of never-smokers, paraoxonase activity was associated with an increased risk for AMI: the second and third tertile HR were 4.1 and 4.7, respectively (P-trend=0.009, multivariate model). Additionally, when compared to the lowest paraoxonase tertile in never-smokers, the highest paraoxonase tertile in current-smokers showed a 19.2-fold higher risk for AMI (95%CI: 5.3-69.5, P < 0.0001, multivariate model). In conclusion, this study shows that in middle-aged women paraoxonase activity was associated with an increased risk for AMI and that the risk was modified by the effects of smoking.

  3. Common variants in the haemostatic gene pathway contribute to risk of early-onset myocardial infarction in the Italian population.

    PubMed

    Guella, Ilaria; Duga, Stefano; Ardissino, Diego; Merlini, Pier Angelica; Peyvandi, Flora; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Asselta, Rosanna

    2011-10-01

    Occlusive coronary thrombus formation superimposed on an atherosclerotic plaque is the ultimate event leading to myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, haemostatic proteins may represent important players in the pathogenesis of MI. It was the objective of this study to evaluate, in a comprehensive way, the role of haemostatic gene polymorphisms in predisposition to premature MI. A total of 810 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 37 genes were assessed for association with MI in a large cohort (1,670 males, 210 females) of Italian patients who suffered from an MI event before the age of 45, and an equal number of controls. Thirty-eight SNPs selected from the literature were genotyped using the SNPlex technology, whereas genotypes for the remaining 772 SNPs were extracted from a previous genome-wide association study. Genotypes were analysed by a standard case-control analysis corrected for classical cardiovascular risk factors, and by haplotype analysis. A weighted Genetic Risk Score (GRS) was calculated. Evidence for association with MI after covariate correction was found for 35 SNPs in 12 loci: F5, PROS1, F11, ITGA2, F12, F13A1, SERPINE1, PLAT, VWF, THBD, PROCR, and F9. The weighted GRS was constructed by including the top SNP for each of the 12 associated loci. The GRS distribution was significantly different between cases and controls, and subjects in the highest quintile had a 2.69-fold increased risk for MI compared with those in the lowest quintile. Our results suggest that a GRS, based on the combined effect of several risk alleles in different haemostatic genes, is associated with an increased risk of MI.

  4. Biochemical changes in the serum of patients with chronic toxigenic mold exposures: a risk factor for multiple renal dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Ebere; Campbell, Andrew W; Vojdani, Aristo; Ehiri, John E; Akpan, Akpan I

    2003-11-03

    This paper analyzes and presents the biochemical abnormalities in the sera of patients presenting with chronic mycosis in order to investigate the relationship with the risks of multiple renal disorders. The study population (n = 10) consisted of six females and four males (mean age 36.3 years) exposed by toxic molds in their homes and offices for an average of 2.8 years. The control group comprised ten people, five males and five females (mean age 35.9 years) without any known exposures to toxic molds. Blood samples were obtained from both the patients and the controls and were processed using specific biochemical methods that included enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). There were biochemical abnormal concentrations in creatinine, uric acid, phosphorus, alkaline phosphotase, cholesterol, HDH, SGOT/AST, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, total T3, IgG and IgA immunoglobulins with significant differences between patients and controls. These abnormalities were consistent with multiple renal disorders. The major complaints of the mycosis patients were headaches, pulmonary symptoms, allergic reactions, memory loss, skin rashes, blurred vision symptoms, fatigue, and runny nose. These findings were depictive of a strong association of chronic mycosis with abnormal renal indicators. It was concluded that, although this research was a pilot investigation, based on the overall results, people exposed to chronic indoor environmental toxic molds were at risk of multiple renal complications.

  5. Subacute cardiac rubidium-82 positron emission tomography ((82)Rb-PET) to assess myocardial area at risk, final infarct size, and myocardial salvage after STEMI.

    PubMed

    Ghotbi, Adam Ali; Kjaer, Andreas; Nepper-Christensen, Lars; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov; Lønborg, Jacob Thomsen; Vejlstrup, Niels; Kyhl, Kasper; Christensen, Thomas Emil; Engstrøm, Thomas; Kelbæk, Henning; Holmvang, Lene; Bang, Lia E; Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Hasbak, Philip

    2016-10-14

    Determining infarct size and myocardial salvage in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is important when assessing the efficacy of new reperfusion strategies. We investigated whether rest (82)Rb-PET myocardial perfusion imaging can estimate area at risk, final infarct size, and myocardial salvage index when compared to cardiac SPECT and magnetic resonance (CMR). Twelve STEMI patients were injected with (99m)Tc-Sestamibi intravenously immediate prior to reperfusion. SPECT, (82)Rb-PET, and CMR imaging were performed post-reperfusion and at a 3-month follow-up. An automated algorithm determined area at risk, final infarct size, and hence myocardial salvage index. SPECT, CMR, and PET were performed 2.2 ± 0.5, 34 ± 8.5, and 32 ± 24.4 h after reperfusion, respectively. Mean (± SD) area at risk were 35.2 ± 16.6%, 34.7 ± 11.3%, and 28.1 ± 16.1% of the left ventricle (LV) in SPECT, CMR, and PET, respectively, P = 0.04 for difference. Mean final infarct size estimates were 12.3 ± 15.4%, 13.7 ± 10.4%, and 11.9 ± 14.6% of the LV in SPECT, CMR, and PET imaging, respectively, P = .72. Myocardial salvage indices were 0.64 ± 0.33 (SPECT), 0.65 ± 0.20 (CMR), and 0.63 ± 0.28 (PET), (P = .78). (82)Rb-PET underestimates area at risk in patients with STEMI when compared to SPECT and CMR. However, our findings suggest that PET imaging seems feasible when assessing the clinical important parameters of final infarct size and myocardial salvage index, although with great variability, in a selected STEMI population with large infarcts. These findings should be confirmed in a larger population.

  6. Silent embolic infarcts on computed tomography brain scans and risk of ipsilateral hemispheric events in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kakkos, Stavros K; Sabetai, Michael; Tegos, Thomas; Stevens, John; Thomas, Dafydd; Griffin, Maura; Geroulakos, George; Nicolaides, Andrew N

    2009-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that silent embolic infarcts on computed tomography (CT) brain scans can predict ipsilateral neurologic hemispheric events and stroke in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis. In a prospective multicenter natural history study, 821 patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis graded with duplex scanning who had CT brain scans were monitored every 6 months for a maximum of 8 years. Duplex scans were reported centrally, and stenosis was expressed as a percentage in relation to the normal distal internal carotid criteria used by the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trialists. CT brain scans were reported centrally by a neuroradiologist. In 146 patients (17.8%), 8 large cortical, 15 small cortical, 72 discrete subcortical, and 51 basal ganglia ipsilateral infarcts were present; these were considered likely to be embolic and were classified as such. Other infarct types, lacunes (n = 15), watershed (n = 9), and the presence of diffuse white matter changes (n = 95) were not considered to be embolic. During a mean follow-up of 44.6 months (range, 6 months-8 years), 102 ipsilateral hemispheric neurologic events (amaurosis fugax in 16, 38 transient ischemic attacks [TIAs], and 47 strokes) occurred, 138 patients died, and 24 were lost to follow-up. In 462 patients with 60% to 99% stenosis, the cumulative event-free rate at 8 years was 0.81 (2.4% annual event rate) when embolic infarcts were absent and 0.63 (4.6% annual event rate) when present (log-rank P = .032). In 359 patients with <60% stenosis, embolic infarcts were not associated with increased risk (log-rank P = .65). In patients with 60% to 99% stenosis, the cumulative stroke-free rate was 0.92 (1.0% annual stroke rate) when embolic infarcts were absent and 0.71 (3.6% annual stroke rate) when present (log-rank P = .002). In the subgroup of 216 with moderate 60% to 79% stenosis, the cumulative TIA or stroke-free rate in the absence and presence of

  7. Vital exhaustion as a risk factor of myocardial infarction: a case-control study in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bages, N; Appels, A; Falger, P R

    1999-01-01

    In this study, 32 first myocardial infarction (MI) cases and 42 healthy controls were compared with respect to vital exhaustion (VE), a state characterized by loss of energy, increased irritability, and feelings of demoralization. This state has been found to precede the onset of cardiac events. Participants also responded to questionnaires on Type A behavior, anger expression (Anger In, Anger Out, and Anger Control), and positive and negative self-concept. Results showed that VE discriminated well between MI patients and controls (Odds Ratio [OR] = 15.42, 95% confidence interval = 3.92-60.67) even when controlling for age, smoking, and exercise. The odds ratio decreased to 12.34 when controlling for socioeconomic status. Groups also differed in Anger In but not in Anger Control, Anger Out, negative or positive self-concept. Anger In was correlated to VE in all participants pointing to the relevance of withholding emotions in relation to exhaustion. Exhaustion was strongly associated with negative self-concept in the MI cases group only but significantly discriminated between cases and controls when adjusted for negative self-concept. Summarizing, the results show that, as has previously been found in other countries, in Venezuela VE is a precursor of MI.

  8. Wearable cardioverter-defibrillator use in patients perceived to be at high risk early post-myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Andrew E; Abraham, William T; Bianco, Nicole R; Kern, Karl B; Mirro, Michael; Rao, Sunil V; Rhee, Edward K; Solomon, Scott D; Szymkiewicz, Steven J

    2013-11-19

    The aim of this study was to describe usage of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) during mandated waiting periods following myocardial infarction (MI) for patients perceived to be at high risk for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Current device guidelines and insurance coverage require waiting periods of either 40 days or 3 months before implanting a cardioverter-defibrillator post-myocardial infarction (MI), depending on whether or not acute revascularization was undertaken. We assessed characteristics of and outcomes for patients who had a WCD prescribed in the first 3 months post-MI. The WCD medical order registry was searched for patients who were coded as having had a "recent MI with ejection fraction ≤35%" or given an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision 410.xx diagnostic code (acute MI), and then matched to device-recorded data. Between September 2005 and July 2011, 8,453 unique patients (age 62.7 ± 12.7 years, 73% male) matched study criteria. A total of 133 patients (1.6%) received 309 appropriate shocks. Of these patients, 91% were resuscitated from a ventricular arrhythmia. For shocked patients, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was ≤30% in 106, 30% to 35% in 17, >36% in 8, and not reported in 2 patients. Of the 38% of patients not revascularized, 84% had a LVEF ≤30%; of the 62% of patients revascularized, 77% had a LVEF ≤30%. The median time from the index MI to WCD therapy was 16 days. Of the treated patients, 75% received treatment in the first month, and 96% within the first 3 months of use. Shock success resulting in survival was 84% in nonrevascularized and 95% in revascularized patients. During the 40-day and 3-month waiting periods in patients post-MI, the WCD successfully treated SCA in 1.4%, and the risk was highest in the first month of WCD use. The WCD may benefit individual patients selected for high risk of SCA early post-MI. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation

  9. Does menopausal hormone therapy reduce myocardial infarction risk if initiated early after menopause? A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Carrasquilla, Germán D; Berglund, Anita; Gigante, Bruna; Landgren, Britt-Marie; de Faire, Ulf; Hallqvist, Johan; Leander, Karin

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to assess whether the timing of menopausal hormone therapy initiation in relation to onset of menopause and hormone therapy duration is associated with myocardial infarction risk. This study was based on the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program, a population-based case-control study including 347 postmenopausal women who had experienced a nonfatal myocardial infarction and 499 female control individuals matched for age and residential area. Odds ratios (with 95% CIs) for myocardial infarction were calculated using logistic regression. Early initiation of hormone therapy (within 10 y of onset of menopause or before age 60 y), compared with never use, was associated with an odds ratio of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.58-1.30) after adjustments for lifestyle factors, body mass index, and socioeconomic status. For late initiation of hormone therapy, the corresponding odds ratio was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.53-1.76). For hormone therapy duration of 5 years or more, compared with never use, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.35-1.18). For hormone therapy duration of less than 5 years, the odds ratio was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.63-1.48). Neither the timing of hormone therapy initiation nor the duration of therapy is significantly associated with myocardial infarction risk.

  10. Risk Factors For Stroke, Myocardial Infarction, or Death Following Carotid Endarterectomy: Results From the International Carotid Stenting Study.

    PubMed

    Doig, D; Turner, E L; Dobson, J; Featherstone, R L; de Borst, G J; Stansby, G; Beard, J D; Engelter, S T; Richards, T; Brown, M M

    2015-12-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is standard treatment for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis but carries a risk of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death. This study investigated risk factors for these procedural complications occurring within 30 days of endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS). Patients with recently symptomatic carotid stenosis >50% were randomly allocated to endarterectomy or stenting. Analysis is reported of patients in ICSS assigned to endarterectomy and limited to those in whom CEA was initiated. The occurrence of stroke, MI, or death within 30 days of the procedure was reported by investigators and adjudicated. Demographic and technical risk factors for these complications were analysed sequentially in a binomial regression analysis and subsequently in a multivariable model. Eight-hundred and twenty-one patients were included in the analysis. The risk of stroke, MI, or death within 30 days of CEA was 4.0%. The risk was higher in female patients (risk ratio [RR] 1.98, 95% CI 1.02-3.87, p = .05) and with increasing baseline diastolic blood pressure (dBP) (RR 1.30 per +10 mmHg, 95% CI 1.02-1.66, p = .04). Mean baseline dBP, obtained at the time of randomization in the trial, was 78 mmHg (SD 13 mmHg). In a multivariable model, only dBP remained a significant predictor. The risk was not related to the type of surgical reconstruction, anaesthetic technique, or perioperative medication regimen. Patients undergoing CEA stayed a median of 4 days before discharge, and 21.2% of events occurred on or after the day of discharge. Increasing diastolic blood pressure was the only independent risk factor for stroke, MI, or death following CEA. Cautious attention to blood pressure control following symptoms attributable to carotid stenosis could reduce the risks associated with subsequent CEA. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Antiepileptic drugs and the risk of ischaemic stroke and myocardial infarction: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Renoux, Christel; Dell'Aniello, Sophie; Saarela, Olli; Filion, Kristian B; Boivin, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Hepatic enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increase serum lipid levels and other atherogenic markers via the induction of cytochrome P450 and may therefore increase the risk of vascular events. We sought to assess the risk of ischaemic stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) according to AED enzymatic properties. Design Population-based cohort study with nested case–control analysis. Setting 650 general practices in the UK contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Participants A cohort of 252 407 incident AED users aged 18 or older between January 1990 and April 2013. For each case of ischaemic stroke or MI, up to 10 controls were randomly selected among the cohort members in the risk sets defined by the case and matched on age, sex, indication for AED, calendar time and duration of follow-up. Interventions Current use of enzyme-inducing and enzyme-inhibiting AEDs compared with non-inducing AEDs. Primary outcome measures Incidence rate ratios (RRs) of ischaemic stroke and MI. Results 5069 strokes and 3636 MIs were identified during follow-up. Inducing AEDs use was associated with a small increased risk of ischaemic stroke (RR=1.16, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.33) relative to non-inducing AEDs, most likely due to residual confounding. However, current use of inducing AEDs for ≥24 months was associated with a 46% increased risk of MI (RR=1.46, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.85) compared with the same duration of non-inducing AED, corresponding to a risk difference of 1.39/1000 (95% CI 0.33 to 2.45) persons per year. Current use of inhibiting AED was associated with a decreased risk of MI (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.00). Conclusions The use of enzyme-inducing AEDs was not associated with an increased risk of ischaemic stroke; a small increase of MI with prolonged use was observed. In contrast, use of inhibiting AEDs was associated with a decreased risk of MI. PMID:26270948

  12. Occupational and leisure time physical activity: risk of all-cause mortality and myocardial infarction in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn; Søgaard, Karen; Suadicani, Poul; Mortensen, Ole S; Prescott, Eva; Schnohr, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Men with low physical fitness and high occupational physical activity are recently shown to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The association between occupational physical activity with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality may also depend on leisure time physical activity. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting The Copenhagen City Heart Study. Participants 7819 men and women aged 25–66 years without a history of cardiovascular disease who attended an initial examination in the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1976–1978. Outcome measures Myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality. Occupational physical activity was defined by combining information from baseline (1976–1978) with reassessment in 1981–1983. Conventional risk factors were controlled for in Cox analyses. Results During the follow-up from 1976 to 1978 until 2010, 2888 subjects died of all-cause mortality and 787 had a first event of myocardial infarction. Overall, occupational physical activity predicted all-cause mortality and myocardial infarction in men but not in women (test for interaction p=0.02). High occupational physical activity was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality among men with low (HR 1.56; 95% CI 1.11 to 2.18) and moderate (HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.63) leisure time physical activity but not among men with high leisure time physical activity (HR 1.00; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.26) (test for interaction p=0.04). Similar but weaker tendencies were found for myocardial infarction. Among women, occupational physical activity was not associated with subsequent all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction. Conclusions The findings suggest that high occupational physical activity imposes harmful effects particularly among men with low levels of leisure time physical activity. PMID:22331387

  13. Co-occurring gland angularity in localized subgraphs: predicting biochemical recurrence in intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, George; Sparks, Rachel; Ali, Sahirzeeshan; Shih, Natalie N C; Feldman, Michael D; Spangler, Elaine; Rebbeck, Timothy; Tomaszewski, John E; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative histomorphometry (QH) refers to the application of advanced computational image analysis to reproducibly describe disease appearance on digitized histopathology images. QH thus could serve as an important complementary tool for pathologists in interrogating and interpreting cancer morphology and malignancy. In the US, annually, over 60,000 prostate cancer patients undergo radical prostatectomy treatment. Around 10,000 of these men experience biochemical recurrence within 5 years of surgery, a marker for local or distant disease recurrence. The ability to predict the risk of biochemical recurrence soon after surgery could allow for adjuvant therapies to be prescribed as necessary to improve long term treatment outcomes. The underlying hypothesis with our approach, co-occurring gland angularity (CGA), is that in benign or less aggressive prostate cancer, gland orientations within local neighborhoods are similar to each other but are more chaotically arranged in aggressive disease. By modeling the extent of the disorder, we can differentiate surgically removed prostate tissue sections from (a) benign and malignant regions and (b) more and less aggressive prostate cancer. For a cohort of 40 intermediate-risk (mostly Gleason sum 7) surgically cured prostate cancer patients where half suffered biochemical recurrence, the CGA features were able to predict biochemical recurrence with 73% accuracy. Additionally, for 80 regions of interest chosen from the 40 studies, corresponding to both normal and cancerous cases, the CGA features yielded a 99% accuracy. CGAs were shown to be statistically signicantly ([Formula: see text]) better at predicting BCR compared to state-of-the-art QH methods and postoperative prostate cancer nomograms.

  14. Myocardial infarction events and cardiovascular risk factor levels in Finnish- and Swedish-speaking populations of Finland.

    PubMed

    Lammintausta, Aino; Immonen-Räihä, Pirjo; Lehtonen, Aapo; Räihä, Ismo; Harald, Kennet; Torppa, Jorma; Airaksinen, Juhani K E; Salomaa, Veikko

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND. The Swedish-speaking minority of Finland is unique, because it has a higher socioeconomic status (SES) and longer life expectancy than the Finnish-speaking majority. We hypothesized that this minority may have a lower attack rate of coronary events and analysed whether this could be explained by their higher SES. METHODS. The population-based myocardial infarction (MI) registers recorded 4,845 MI events in Turku during 1988-1998. Individual-level indicators of SES were obtained from Statistics Finland. The population-based FINRISK surveys recorded cardiovascular risk factors and native languages of 10,432 people in 1987, 1997, and 2002. RESULTS. The age-standardized attack rate of MI was lower among the 35-64-year-old Swedish-speaking men than among Finnish-speaking men (rate ratio 0.66; 95% confidence interval 0.47-0.85) and the difference remained significant after adjustment for SES. The Swedish-speaking inhabitants had higher age-, sex-, and SES-adjusted high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lower triglycerides, body mass index, and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion. The Swedish-speaking inhabitants of Turku had lower MI morbidity and coronary mortality than the Finnish-speaking inhabitants. After controlling for SES, these differences remained significant among men, suggesting that other factors, such as differences in the risk factor profiles may also play a role.

  15. Cephalometric risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea: A pilot case-control study.

    PubMed

    Davoudmanesh, Zeinab; Bayat, Mohamad; Abbasi, Mohsen; Rakhshan, Vahid; Shariati, Mahsa

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its craniofacial anatomic risk factors might play a role in several cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction (MI). However, there are no data about cephalometric findings among OSA patients with MI. In this pilot case-control study, about 2000 individuals referred to the sleep center were evaluated according to apnea - hypopnea index (AHI) and other inclusion criteria. Included were 62 OSA male patients (AHI > 10), of whom 6 had an MI history. In both control (n = 56) and MI groups (n = 6), 18 cephalometric parameters were traced. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test. Compared with control OSA patients, OSA patients with MI showed a significantly larger tongue length (p = 0.015). The other cephalometric variables were not significantly different between the two groups. An elongated tongue might be considered a risk factor for MI in OSA patients. The role of other variables remains inconclusive and open to investigation with larger samples (determined based on pilot studies such as this report) collected in longitudinal fashion.

  16. Identifying high-risk post-infarction patients by autonomic testing - Below the tip of the iceberg.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Axel

    2017-03-18

    Despite major advances in medical therapies late mortality after myocardial infarction (MI) is still high. A substantial proportion of post-MI patients die from sudden cardiac death. Prophylactic implantable-cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy has been established for post-MI patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤35%). However, most patients who die after MI have an LVEF >35%. For this large group of patients, no specific prophylactic strategies exist. There is strong evidence that measures of cardiac autonomic dysfunction after MI provide important prognostic information in post-MI patients with preserved LVEF. Combinations of autonomic markers can identify high-risk patients after MI with LVEF >35% whose prognosis is equally worse than that of patients with LVEF ≤35%. The ongoing REFINE-ICD (NCT00673842) and SMART-MI trials (NCT02594488) test different preventive strategies in high-risk post-MI patients with cardiac autonomic dysfunction and LVEF 36-50%. While REFINE-ICD follows the traditional concept of ICD-implantation, SMART-MI uses implantable cardiac monitors with remote monitoring capabilities to sensitively detect asymptomatic, but prognostically relevant arrhythmias that could trigger specific diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

  17. Retinal vein occlusion and the risk of acute myocardial infarction development: a 12-year nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Han, John Seungsoo; Oh, Jaewon; Kim, Dong Wook; Kang, Seok-Min; Chung, Eun Jee

    2016-02-29

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the risk of developing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following retinal vein occlusion (RVO). A retrospective cohort study was performed from the National Health Insurance Service and comprised 1,025,340 random subjects who were followed from 2002 to 2013. Patients with RVO in 2002 were excluded. The RVO group was composed of patients who received an initial RVO diagnosis between January 2003 and December 2007 (n = 1677). The comparison group was selected (five patients per RVO patient; n = 8367) using propensity score matching according to sociodemographic factors and the year of enrolment. Each patient was tracked until 2013. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used. AMI developed in 7.6% of the RVO group and 5.3% of the comparison group (p < 0.001) for 7.7 median follow-up periods. RVO increased the risk of AMI development [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.52]. In the subgroup analysis, RVO patients aged <65 years and the males within this age group had an adjusted HR of 1.47 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.98) and an adjusted HR of 2.00 (95% CI 1.38 to 2.91) for AMI development, respectively. RVO was significantly associated with AMI development.

  18. [Risk of death 4 years after a 1st cerebral infarction: prospective study in Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Poni, E; Granero, R; Escobar, B

    1995-12-01

    Stroke, the 5th. cause of death in Venezuela, has been associated to cerebral infarction. However, there is little information concerning lethality factors. 33 atherothrombotic subtype stroke patients, 31 (96%) Latino and 2(4%) white, were admitted into a prospective study to analyze the role of 11 mortality risk factors for those patients. A mortality relative risk (RR) > 1.5 or < 1 (protective) was considered clinically important if 1 was excluded from the 95% confidence interval (95%CI). The Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square procedure was use to test statistical significance (p < 0.05). Mortality RR for patients age 65 and over (RR = 2.95) and 4 year mortality RR for male patients (RR = 2.04) were clinically and statistically significant. History of high blood pressure was protective (RR = 0.62) probably due to good medical control. Cumulative mortality was higher than that of comparable studies, even from the first week of follow-up, reaching 67% at the 4th year.

  19. Polymorphisms in the platelet-specific collagen receptor GP6 are associated with risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, JR; Kammerer, CM; Dorn, J; Ferrell, RE; Iacoviello, L; Trevisan, M; Donahue, RP

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Glycoprotein 6 (GP6) is a platelet-specific collagen receptor implicated in the thrombotic pathway to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but a possible genetic relationship between GP6 and AMI is poorly understood. We tested for the genetic association between AMI and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 24 loci, including GP6. Methods and Results We conducted a case-control study of AMI and GP6 in a community-based population (n=652 cases, 625 controls). We also examined men and women separately and stratified the latter by use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Among both sexes, the strongest association was for a protective missense polymorphism (rs1163662) in the GP6 gene (OR=0.70; Bonferroni-adjusted p<0.05). SNPs in GP6 were also strongly associated with AMI among women who reported ever taking HRT, but not among women who never took HRT. Haplotype analyses were consistent with the single-SNP findings. Conclusions In this sample of white non-Hispanic men and women, several SNPs in GP6 were significantly related to risk of AMI. Development of pharmacologic therapy directed towards platelet activity and thrombosis may reduce the incidence of AMI among at-risk groups. PMID:20227257

  20. Evaluation of risk factors in acute myocardial infarction patients admitted to the coronary care unit, Tripoli Medical Centre, Libya.

    PubMed

    Abduelkarem, A R; El-Shareif, H J; Sharif, S I

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in patients attending Tripoli Medical Centre, Libya. Records were reviewed for 622 patients with a mean age of 58.3 (SD 12.9) years. Diabetes mellitus (48.2%), hypertension (35.7%) and smoking (50.6%) were among the risk factors reported. There were 110 patients (17.7%) who died during hospitalization, mainly suffering cardiogenic shock (48.0%). The rate of use of thrombolytic therapy was low in patients who were female (40.4% versus 58.4% for males), older age (31.6% for those > 85 years versus 63.3% for patients < 55 years), diabetics (45.3% versus 62.0% for non-diabetic patients) and hypertensives (47.3% versus 57.8% for non-hypertensive patients). Prevention strategies should be implemented in order to improve the long-term prognosis and decrease overall morbidity and mortality from coronary artery disease in Libyan patients.

  1. Physical activity levels, sport activities, and risk of acute myocardial infarction: results of the INTERHEART study in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoru; Li, Wei; Guo, Jin; Wang, Yang; Gu, Hongqiu; Teo, Koon; Liu, Lisheng; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-02-01

    Physical activity (PA) during leisure time has been inversely associated with cardiovascular disease risk in the Western populations. We evaluated PA at work and leisure time in relation to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Chinese population. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study. The cases had first AMI (n = 2909). The controls (n = 2947) were matched to the cases in age and sex. The odds ratios (ORs) of leisure-time PA for strenuous exercise compared to mainly sedentary was 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61-0.90) and for moderate exercise it was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.85-1.08). Multivariate adjustment did not substantially alter the association. The ORs of work-related PA for heavy PA compared to mainly sedentary was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.06-1.94), for climbing and lifting was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.77-.30), and for walking was 0.90 (95%CI: 0.75-1.07). Leisure-time PA was protective for AMI risk compared to sedentary lifestyles in a population in China.

  2. A Mendelian randomization study of the effect of calcium on coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction and their risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin; Lin, Shi Lin; Schooling, C. Mary

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest calcium could have adverse effects on cardiovascular disease, although these findings are controversial. To clarify, we assessed whether people with genetically higher calcium had a higher risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI) and their risk factors. We used a two-sample Mendelian randomization study. We identified genetic variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) that independently contributed to serum calcium at genome-wide significance which we applied to large extensively genotyped studies of CAD, MI, diabetes, lipids, glycaemic traits and adiposity to obtain unconfounded estimates, with body mass index (BMI) as a control outcome. Based on 4 SNPs each 1 mg/dl increase in calcium was positively associated with CAD (odds ratio (OR) 1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–2.17), MI (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.06–2.35), LDL-cholesterol (0.21 standard deviations, 95% CI 0.01–0.4), total cholesterol (0.21 standard deviations, 95% CI 0.03-0.38) and possibly triglycerides (0.19 standard deviations, 95% CI −0.1–0.48), but was unlikely related to BMI although the estimate lacked precision. Sensitivity analysis using 13 SNPs showed a higher risk for CAD (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.14–3.08). Our findings, largely consistent with the experimental evidence, suggest higher serum calcium may increase the risk of CAD. PMID:28195141

  3. Dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and the risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Rossi, M; Praud, D; Monzio Compagnoni, M; Bellocco, R; Serafini, M; Parpinel, M; La Vecchia, C; Tavani, A

    2014-11-01

    Oxidative processes have been related to atherosclerosis, but there is scanty information on the role of dietary antioxidants in the prevention of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The relationship between non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) and the risk of nonfatal AMI was investigated in a case-control study conducted in Milan, Italy, between 1995 and 2003. Cases were 760 patients below 75 years with a first episode of AMI and controls were 682 patients admitted to hospitals for acute conditions, who completed an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire, tested for validity and reproducibility. NEAC (excluding coffee) was measured using Italian food composition tables in terms of ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). The odds ratios (OR) of AMI, and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI), were obtained by multiple logistic regression models including terms for main risk factors of AMI and total energy intake. NEAC was inversely related with the risk of AMI. The ORs for the highest quintile compared with the lowest one were 0.41 (95% CI, 0.27-0.63) for FRAP, 0.42 (95% CI, 0.27-0.65) for TEAC and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.27-0.62) for TRAP, with significant trends in risk. The inverse relationship was apparently stronger in women and in subjects aged ≥ 60 years. Our results support a favorable role of dietary NEAC in the prevention of AMI, and encourage a high consumption of fruit and vegetables and a moderate consumption of wine and whole cereals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stochastic analyses of field-scale pesticide leaching risk as influenced by spatial variability in physical and biochemical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loll, Per; Moldrup, Per

    2000-04-01

    Field-scale pesticide leaching risk assessments were performed by incorporating a numerical, one-dimensional, water and pesticide transport and fate model into the two-step stochastic modeling approach by Loll and Moldrup [1998]. The numerical model included first-order pesticide degradation, linear equilibrium adsorption, and plant uptake of water and pesticide. Simazine was used as a model pesticide, and leaching risk was expressed as the cumulative mass fraction of applied pesticide leached below 100 cm after 1 year. Spatial variability in soil physical and biochemical data, as well as measured meteorological data from an average and a relatively wet year, was considered for two Danish field sites: (1) a coarse sandy soil, with relatively small variability in hydraulic properties, and (2) a sandy loam, with large variability in hydraulic properties. The two-step stochastic modeling approach was used to investigate the relative impact of spatial variability in saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks, soil-water retention through the Campbell [974] soil-water retention parameter b, and pesticide sorption through the organic carbon content (OC). For the coarse sandy soil, field-scale spatial variability in OC was the single most important parameter influencing leaching risk, whereas for the sandy loam, Ks was found more important than OC. The relative impact of field-scale spatial variability in these parameters was found independent of the meteorological conditions, whereas the absolute level of leaching risk was highly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Assuming a linear dependency between pesticide half-life and OC, a unified approach to modeling simultaneous field-scale variability in biodegradation and adsorption was proposed. Leaching risk assessments based on this approach showed that the parts of the field with both low biological activity and low adsorption capacity contributed with a dramatic increase in leaching risk, and suggested that field

  5. Association of Vitamin B12 with Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Biochemical Markers Related to Cardiometabolic Risk in Saudi Subjects.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Rahman, Shakilur; Sabico, Shaun; Yakout, Sobhy; Wani, Kaiser; Al-Attas, Omar S; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; Tripathi, Gyanendra; McTernan, Philip G; Alokail, Majed S

    2016-09-06

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between changes in systemic vitamin B12 concentrations with pro-inflammatory cytokines, anthropometric factors and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic risk in a Saudi population. A total of 364 subjects (224 children, age: 12.99 ± 2.73 (mean ± SD) years; BMI: 20.07 ± 4.92 kg/m² and 140 adults, age: 41.87 ± 8.82 years; BMI: 31.65 ± 5.77 kg/m²) were studied. Fasting blood, anthropometric and biochemical data were collected. Serum cytokines were quantified using multiplex assay kits and B12 concentrations were measured using immunoassay analyzer. Vitamin B12 was negatively associated with TNF-α (r = -0.14, p < 0.05), insulin (r = -0.230, p < 0.01) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.252, p < 0.01) in all subjects. In children, vitamin B12 was negatively associated with serum resistin (r = -0.160, p < 0.01), insulin (r = -0.248, p < 0.01), HOMA-IR (r = -0.261, p < 0.01). In adults, vitamin B12 was negatively associated with TNF-α (r = -0.242, p < 0.01) while positively associated with resistin (r = 0.248, p < 0.01). Serum resistin was the most significant predictor for circulating vitamin B12 in all subjects (r² = -0.17, p < 0.05) and in children (r² = -0.167, p < 0.01) while HDL-cholesterol was the predictor of B12 in adults (r² = -0.78, p < 0.05). Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic risks in adults. Maintaining adequate vitamin B12 concentrations may lower inflammation-induced cardiometabolic risk in the Saudi adult population.

  6. Myocardial infarction and future risk of cancer in the general population-the Tromsø Study.

    PubMed

    Rinde, Ludvig B; Småbrekke, Birgit; Hald, Erin M; Brodin, Ellen E; Njølstad, Inger; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Wilsgaard, Tom; Brækkan, Sigrid K; Vik, Anders; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2017-03-01

    The association between myocardial infarction (MI) and future risk of incident cancer is scarcely investigated. Therefore, we aimed to study the risk of cancer after a first time MI in a large cohort recruited from a general population. Participants in a large population-based study without a previous history of MI or cancer (n = 28,763) were included and followed from baseline to date of cancer, death, migration or study end. Crude incidence rates (IRs) and hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer after MI were calculated. During a median follow-up of 15.7 years, 1747 subjects developed incident MI, and of these, 146 suffered from a subsequent cancer. In the multivariable-adjusted model (adjusted for age, sex, BMI, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, HDL cholesterol, smoking, physical activity and education level), MI patients had 46% (HR 1.46; 95% CI: 1.21-1.77) higher hazard ratio of cancer compared to those without MI. The increased cancer incidence was highest during the first 6 months after the MI, with a 2.2-fold higher HR (2.15; 95% CI: 1.29-3.58) compared with subjects without MI. After a 2-year period without higher incidence rate, MI patients displayed 60% (HR 1.60; 95% CI: 1.27-2.03) higher HR of future cancer more than 3 years after the event. The increased IRs were higher in women than men. Patients with MI had a higher short- and long-term incidence rate of cancer compared to subjects without MI. Our findings suggest that occult cancer and shared risk factors of MI and cancer may partly explain the association.

  7. Refined ambient PM2.5 exposure surrogates and the risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hodas, Natasha; Turpin, Barbara J; Lunden, Melissa M; Baxter, Lisa K; Özkaynak, Halûk; Burke, Janet; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Kostis, John B; Rich, David Q

    2013-01-01

    Using a case-crossover study design and conditional logistic regression, we compared the relative odds of transmural (full-wall) myocardial infarction (MI) calculated using exposure surrogates that account for human activity patterns and the indoor transport of ambient PM(2.5) with those calculated using central-site PM(2.5) concentrations to estimate exposure to PM(2.5) of outdoor origin (exposure to ambient PM(2.5)). Because variability in human activity and indoor PM(2.5) transport contributes exposure error in epidemiologic analyses when central-site concentrations are used as exposure surrogates, we refer to surrogates that account for this variability as "refined" surrogates. As an alternative analysis, we evaluated whether the relative odds of transmural MI associated with increases in ambient PM(2.5) is modified by residential air exchange rate (AER), a variable that influences the fraction of ambient PM(2.5) that penetrates and persists indoors. Use of refined exposure surrogates did not result in larger health effect estimates (ORs=1.10-1.11 with each interquartile range (IQR) increase), narrower confidence intervals, or better model fits compared with the analysis that used central-site PM(2.5). We did observe evidence for heterogeneity in the relative odds of transmural MI with residential AER (effect-modification), with residents of homes with higher AERs having larger ORs than homes in lower AER tertiles. For the level of exposure-estimate refinement considered here, our findings add support to the use of central-site PM(2.5) concentrations for epidemiological studies that use similar case-crossover study designs. In such designs, each subject serves as his or her own matched control. Thus, exposure error related to factors that vary spatially or across subjects should only minimally impact effect estimates. These findings also illustrate that variability in factors that influence the fraction of ambient PM(2.5) in indoor air (e.g., AER) could

  8. Risk Factors for Development of Chronic Kidney Disease following Renal Infarction: Retrospective Evaluation of Emergency Room Patients from a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen-Ling; Seak, Chen-June; Wu, Jiunn-Yih; Weng, Yi-Ming; Chen, Hang-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have analyzed factors associated with renal infarction so that patients can be provided with earlier diagnosis and treatment. However, the factors associated with development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) following renal infarction are unknown. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with a diagnosis of renal infarction based on enhanced computed tomography. All patients were admitted to a single emergency department in Taiwan from 1999 to 2008. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to assess the effect of different factors on development of CKD based on estimates of the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at admission and at 3–12 months after discharge. Results Univariate analysis indicated significantly increased risk of CKD in patients older than 50 years, with symptoms for 24 h or less before admission, lower eGFR at admission, APACHE II score greater than 7, SOFA score greater than 1, ASA score greater than 2, and SAPS II score greater than 15. Multivariate analysis indicated that only SOFA score greater than 1 was significantly and independently associated with CKD at follow-up (p<0.001). Conclusions A total of 32.5% of patients admitted for renal infarction over a ten-year period developed CKD at 3–12 months after discharge. A SOFA score greater than 1 was significantly and independently associated with development of CKD in these patients. PMID:24911965

  9. PCSK9 variant, long-chain n-3 PUFAs, and risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rican Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi; Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Tiange; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Dianjianyi; Campos, Hannia; Qi, Lu

    2017-03-22

    Background: Previous studies have indicated that the cardioprotective effects of long-chain (LC) n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may vary across various ethnic populations. Emerging evidence has suggested that the gene-environment interaction may partly explain such variations. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) was shown to have a mutually regulating relation with LC n-3 PUFAs and also to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, we hypothesized that certain PCSK9 genetic variants may modify the association between LC n-3 PUFA intake and CVD risk.Objective: We determined whether a PCSK9 variant (rs11206510), which has been identified for early onset myocardial infarction (MI), modified the association of LC n-3 PUFAs with nonfatal MI risk in Costa Rican Hispanics.Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1932 case subjects with a first nonfatal MI and 2055 population-based control subjects who were living in Costa Rica to examine potential gene-environment interactions. Two-sided P values <0.05 were considered significant.Results: We observed a significant interaction between the PCSK9 rs11206510 genotype and LC n-3 PUFA intake on nonfatal MI risk (P-interaction = 0.012). The OR of nonfatal MI was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.98) per 0.1% increase in total energy intake from LC n-3 PUFAs in protective-allele (C-allele) carriers, whereas the corresponding OR (95% CI) in non-C-allele carriers was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.10). Similar results were observed when we examined the association between docosahexaenoic acid, which is one type of LC n-3 PUFA, and nonfatal MI risk (P-interaction = 0.003).Conclusion: LC n-3 PUFA intake is associated with a lower risk of nonfatal MI in C-allele carriers of PCSK9 rs11206510 (n = 799) but not in non-C-allele carriers (n = 3188).

  10. Post-operative acute kidney injury and five-year risk of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke among elective cardiac surgical patients: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Malene Kærslund; Gammelager, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Martin Majlund; Hjortdal, Vibeke Elisabeth; Layton, J Bradley; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2013-12-12

    The prognostic impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) on long-term clinical outcomes remains controversial. We examined the five-year risk of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke after elective cardiac surgery complicated by AKI. We conducted a cohort study among adult elective cardiac surgical patients without severe chronic kidney disease and/or previous heart or renal transplant surgery using data from population-based registries. AKI was defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria as a 50% increase in serum creatinine from baseline level, acute creatinine rise of ≥26.5 μmol/L (0.3 mg/dL) within 48 hours, and/or initiation of renal replacement therapy within five days after surgery. We followed patients from the fifth post-operative day until myocardial infarction, stroke or death within five years. Five-year risk was computed by the cumulative incidence method and compared with hazards ratios (HR) from a Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusting for propensity score. A total of 287 (27.9%) of 1,030 patients developed AKI. Five-year risk of death was 26.5% (95% CI: 21.2 to 32.0) among patients with AKI and 12.1% (95% CI: 10.0 to 14.7) among patients without AKI. The corresponding adjusted HR of death was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2). Five-year risk of myocardial infarction was 5.0% (95% CI: 2.9 to 8.1) among patients with AKI and 3.3% (95% CI: 2.1 to 4.8) among patients without AKI. Five-year risk of stroke was 5.0% (95% CI: 2.8 to 7.9) among patients with AKI and 4.2% (95% CI: 2.9 to 5.8) among patients without AKI. Adjusted HRs were 1.5 (95% CI: 0.7 to 3.2) of myocardial infarction and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.5 to 1.8) of stroke. AKI, within five days after elective cardiac surgery, was associated with increased five-year mortality and a statistically insignificant increased risk of myocardial infarction. No association was seen with the risk of stroke.

  11. Cerebral infarction in the left hemisphere compared with the right hemisphere increases the risk of aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Keiichi; Koh, Hideo; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Jun; Yamakawa, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Mayumi; Miki, Takami

    2014-12-01

    Aspiration pneumonia (AP) following cerebral infarction (CI) has been considered as one of its most serious complications. Nevertheless, there are no reports on the association between the type or location of CI and the incidence of AP. In addition, the association between dysphagia, which leads to aspiration, and the type or location of CI has never been investigated. Therefore we hypothesized that the laterality of CI affects the development of both dysphagia and AP. We performed a retrospective cohort study to examine the association between the laterality of CI and the incidence of dysphagia and AP in 133 patients. AP was found in 6.0% of the group with left CI and in 0.8% of the group with right CI. A univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that left CI was a significant predictor of AP (hazard ratio, 8.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-72.59; p = 0.043). Left CI was a significant predictor of AP even after adjusting for age, sex, CI type, or presence of diabetes mellitus. In addition, although the frequency of dysphagia as the direct cause of AP did not differ according to laterality, the frequency of AP that ensued from dysphagia in the left CI group was greater than that observed in the right CI group. The group with left CI from the motor cortex to the internal capsule complicated by dysphagia exhibited a high risk of AP.

  12. Chronic Kidney Disease and Subclinical Brain Infarction Increase the Risk of Vascular Cognitive Impairment: The Sefuri Study.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hiroshi; Araki, Yuko; Takashima, Yuki; Uchino, Akira; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Hashimoto, Manabu

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the complex associations among chronic kidney disease (CKD), subclinical brain infarction (SBI), and cognitive impairment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the complex relationships among CKD, SBI, and cognitive function with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; global function) and modified Stroop test (executive function) in a population-based cohort of 560 non-demented elderly subjects. Path analysis based on SEM revealed that the direct paths from estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to SBI and from SBI to executive function were significant (β = -.10, P = .027, and β = .16, P < .001, respectively). Furthermore, the direct path from eGFR to executive function was also significant (β = -.12, P = .006), indicating that the effects of CKD on executive function are independent of SBI. The direct paths from age and education to global cognitive function were highly significant (β = -.17 and .22, respectively, P < .001), whereas the direct path from eGFR to MMSE was not significant. Our findings indicate that CKD confers a risk of vascular cognitive impairment or executive dysfunction through mechanisms dependent and independent of SBI. Treating CKD may be a potential strategy to protect against vascular cognitive impairment or executive dysfunction in healthy elderly subjects. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fatty acid desaturase gene variants, cardiovascular risk factors, and myocardial infarction in the costa rica study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has previously been linked to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to test associations between six common FADS polymorphisms (rs174556, rs3834458, rs174570, rs2524299, r...

  14. Interleukin-18 and the risk of coronary heart disease in European men: the Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction (PRIME).

    PubMed

    Blankenberg, Stefan; Luc, Gérald; Ducimetière, Pierre; Arveiler, Dominique; Ferrières, Jean; Amouyel, Philippe; Evans, Alun; Cambien, François; Tiret, Laurence

    2003-11-18

    Interleukin (IL)-18 promotes atherosclerotic plaque growth and vulnerability. It is unknown, however, whether elevations of circulating IL-18 precede the onset of coronary events in apparently healthy individuals. We evaluated the relationship between baseline plasma levels of IL-18 and the subsequent incidence of coronary events over a 5-year follow-up in the Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction (PRIME),which included 10 600 healthy European men aged 50 to 59 years at baseline. Analysis was performed in a nested case-control manner comparing 335 cases with a coronary event to 670 age-matched controls. Baseline levels of IL-18 were significantly higher in men who developed a coronary event than in controls (225.1 versus 203.9 pg/mL, P=0.005). After adjustment for most potential confounders, including C-reactive protein, IL-6, and fibrinogen, the relative risk of future coronary events associated with increasing tertiles of IL-18 was 1.65 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.40, P=0.008) in Northern Ireland, 1.29 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.73, P=0.09) in France, and 1.42 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.79, P=0.003) in both populations combined (P=0.31 for the test of homogeneity between populations). In all models, IL-18 made an independent contribution to the prediction of risk over lipids or other inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein, IL-6, or fibrinogen. Plasma IL-18 level was identified as an independent predictor of coronary events in healthy, middle-aged European men. Determination of circulating IL-18 might improve the prediction of coronary events.

  15. Failure of pindolol and metoprolol to reduce the size of non-reperfused infarcts in dogs using area at risk techniques.

    PubMed

    Lange, R; Nieminen, M S; Kloner, R A

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that long term mortality after acute myocardial infarction is reduced by chronic beta-blocker therapy, however, the mechanism is not well understood. Our objective was to determine whether the selective beta blocker, metoprolol, or the nonselective intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA)-blocker pindolol, reduce infarct size as a function of an area at risk (AR) in a permanent infarction model in dogs and which blocker is preferable in regards to myocardial function. Dogs were instrumented with ultrasonic crystals to measure regional function in nonischaemic and infarct margin segments. Left ventricular (LV) pressures, LV dP/dt and heart rate (HR) were monitored. Dogs were subjected to a 6 h LAD coronary artery occlusion and were randomised to a control (n = 9), pindolol (n = 10), and metoprolol (n = 9) group. At 30 and 90 min post occlusion saline, pindolol (3 micrograms X kg-1 and 12 micrograms X kg-1) or metoprolol (12 micrograms X kg-1 and 48 micrograms X kg-1) were given intravenously. The in vivo AR was determined by autoradiography, the in vitro AR by postmortem dye infusion and the area of necrosis by tetrazolium staining. Pindolol and metoprolol decreased LV dP/dt by 20% (P less than 0.05). Metoprolol also decreased HR by 20% (P less than 0.05) and shortening of nonischaemic segments by 12% (P less than 0.05) following the 1st and 2nd dose. Function in infarct margin segments was not changed in either group. Blood flow, measured by microspheres, was similar in the three groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Radiation Dose Predicts for Biochemical Control in Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Alice Y.; Burri, Ryan J.; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Stone, Nelson N.; Stock, Richard G.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of patient- and treatment-related factors on freedom from biochemical failure (FFbF) in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From a prospectively collected database of 2250 men treated at Mount Sinai Hospital from 1990 to 2004 with low-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer, 558 men with either one or more intermediate-risk features (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level 10-20 ng/mL, Gleason score 7, or Stage T2b) were identified who had a minimum follow-up of 24 months and postimplant CT-based dosimetric analysis. Biologically effective dose (BED) values were calculated to compare doses from different isotopes and treatment regimens. Patients were treated with brachytherapy with or without hormone therapy and/or external-beam radiotherapy. Patient- and treatment-related factors were analyzed with respect to FFbF. The median follow-up was 60 months (range, 24-167 months). Biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix definition. Univariate analyses were used to determine whether any variable was predictive of FFbF. A two-sided p value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Overall, the actuarial FFbF at 10 years was 86%. Dose (BED <150 Gy{sub 2} vs. {>=}150 Gy{sub 2}) was the only significant predictor of FFbF (p < 0.001). None of the other variables (PSA, external-beam radiotherapy, Gleason score, treatment type, hormones, stage, and number of risk factors) was found to be a statistically significant predictor of 10-year FFbF. Conclusions: Radiation dose is an important predictor of FFbF in intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Treatment should continue to be individualized according to presenting disease characteristics until results from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial 0232 become available.

  17. Predictors of biochemical failure in patients undergoing prostate whole-gland salvage cryotherapy: a novel risk stratification model.

    PubMed

    Spiess, Philippe E; Levy, David A; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Pisters, Louis L; Jones, J Stephen

    2013-08-01

    What's known on the subject? and what does the study add?: Previous studies have identified the most important prognostic factors of the likely outcomes of salvage prostate whole-gland ablation, including initial clinical stage, biopsy Gleason score, and PSA (total and doubling time). There is potential for further optimization of candidate selection for salvage cryoablation with curative intent and nadir PSA achieved after whole-gland cryotherapy may provide additional prognostic value. The study shows that the most important prognostic factors of biochemical progression-free survival for patients who have undergone whole-gland salvage prostate cryotherapy are nadir PSA achieved after therapy and pre-therapy biopsy Gleason score. Based on these two prognostic variables, we have identified risk stratification groups (low, intermediate and high) which help predict the expected outcomes of salvage whole-gland prostate cryotherapy in a given patient. This risk stratification constitutes a useful clinical tool in defining which patients maybe best suited for this local salvage treatment method. To assess the prognostic variables predicting the risk of biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) after salvage prostate whole-gland cryotherapy using the Phoenix definition of bPFS. A total of 132 patients underwent prostate whole-gland salvage cryotherapy with curative intent. No patient underwent neoadjuvant/adjuvant hormonal ablative therapy, and all had extended post-salvage prostate-specific antigen (PSA) follow-up data. Cox univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of potential predictors of bPFS were conducted. Kaplan-Meier analyses of bPFS was also performed. At a mean (range) follow-up of 4.3 (0.9-12.7) years, the median (range) post-cryotherapy nadir PSA achieved was 0.17 (0-33.9) ng/mL. On multivariate analysis, predictors of bPFS were nadir PSA post-cryotherapy and pre-salvage biopsy Gleason score (P < 0.001 and 0.009, respectively). Risk

  18. Programmed Ventricular Stimulation to Risk Stratify for Early Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation to Prevent Tachyarrhythmias following Acute Myocardial Infarction (PROTECT-ICD): Trial Protocol, Background and Significance.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Sarah; Taylor, Andrew J; Stiles, Martin; Chow, Clara; Kovoor, Pramesh

    2016-11-01

    The 'Programmed Ventricular Stimulation to Risk Stratify for Early Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation to Prevent Tachyarrhythmias following Acute Myocardial Infarction' (PROTECT-ICD) trial is an Australian-led multicentre randomised controlled trial targeting prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients who have at least moderately reduced cardiac function following a myocardial infarct (MI). The primary objective of the trial is to assess whether electrophysiological study to guide prophylactic implantation of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) early following MI (first 40 days) will lead to a significant reduction in sudden cardiac death and non-fatal arrhythmia. The secondary objective is to assess the utility of cardiac MRI (CMR) in assessing early myocardial characteristics, and its predictive value for both inducible ventricular tachycardia (VT) at EPS and SCD/ non-fatal arrhythmia at follow-up.

  19. Benefits and Risks of Extended Duration Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After PCI in Patients With and Without Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Robert W; Kereiakes, Dean J; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Windecker, Stephan; Rinaldi, Michael J; Gershlick, Anthony H; Cutlip, Donald E; Cohen, David J; Tanguay, Jean-Francois; Jacobs, Alice; Wiviott, Stephen D; Massaro, Joseph M; Iancu, Adrian C; Mauri, Laura

    2015-05-26

    The benefits and risks of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy may be different for patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) compared with more stable presentations. This study sought to assess the benefits and risks of 30 versus 12 months of dual antiplatelet therapy among patients undergoing coronary stent implantation with and without MI. The Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Study, a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, compared 30 versus 12 months of dual antiplatelet therapy after coronary stenting. The effect of continued thienopyridine on ischemic and bleeding events among patients initially presenting with versus without MI was assessed. The coprimary endpoints were definite or probable stent thrombosis and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). The primary safety endpoint was GUSTO (Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Arteries) moderate or severe bleeding. Of 11,648 randomized patients (9,961 treated with drug-eluting stents, 1,687 with bare-metal stents), 30.7% presented with MI. Between 12 and 30 months, continued thienopyridine reduced stent thrombosis compared with placebo in patients with and without MI at presentation (MI group, 0.5% vs. 1.9%, p < 0.001; no MI group, 0.4% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.001; interaction p = 0.69). The reduction in MACCE for continued thienopyridine was greater for patients with MI (3.9% vs. 6.8%; p < 0.001) compared with those with no MI (4.4% vs. 5.3%; p = 0.08; interaction p = 0.03). In both groups, continued thienopyridine reduced MI (2.2% vs. 5.2%, p < 0.001 for MI; 2.1% vs. 3.5%, p < 0.001 for no MI; interaction p = 0.15) but increased bleeding (1.9% vs. 0.8%, p = 0.005 for MI; 2.6% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.007 for no MI; interaction p = 0.21). Compared with 12 months of therapy, 30 months of dual antiplatelet therapy reduced the risk of stent thrombosis and MI in patients with and without MI, and increased bleeding. (The Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Study

  20. Is atrial fibrillation a risk factor for contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction?

    PubMed

    Ballı, Mehmet; Taşolar, Hakan; Çetin, Mustafa; Hatem, Engin; Çağlıyan, Çağlar Emre; Şeker, Taner; Çaylı, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an iatrogenic problem in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Atrial fibrillation (AF) may also contribute to impaired kidney function. Several factors may contribute to the development of CIN. In patients with STEMI, concomitant AF is associated with higher in-hospital/follow-up mortality and morbidity. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between AF and CIN developments. In this study, 650 consecutive STEMI patients treated with PPCI were enrolled. Patients with AF at admission who did not achieve a sinus rhythm during 48h after hospitalization were defined as AF patients. CIN was defined by an increase in serum creatinine by >25% or 0.5mg/dL within 72h following contrast media exposure. Our patients were divided into two groups based on whether they had AF, and although warfarin usage was different, the other parameters were similar between the groups. When our patients were grouped according to CIN development [group 1: CIN (+), group 2: CIN (-)], creatinine levels prior to PPCI (p=0.020), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) prior to PPCI (p<0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (p=0.011), AF (p<0.001), and warfarin usage (p=0.016) were different between the two groups. We also performed multivariate logistic regression analyses and found that AF [odds ratio (OR), 6.945; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.789-17.293; p<0.001], eGFR (OR, 0.973; 95% CI, 0.957-0.989; p=0.001), and LVEF (OR, 0.963; 95% CI, 0.935-0.991; p=0.010) independently predicted CIN development in patients with STEMI. The risk factors for CIN are multifactorial and identifying high-risk patients is the most important step for prevention. In addition to traditional risk factors, AF can contribute to CIN development in patients with STEMI. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypertension and the risk of acute myocardial infarction in Argentina. The Argentine Factores de Riesgo Coronario en America del Sur (FRICAS) Investigators.

    PubMed

    Ciruzzi, M; Pramparo, P; Rozlosnik, J; Zylberstjn, H; Delmonte, H; Haquim, M; Abecasis, B; de La Cruz Ojeda, J; Mele, E; La Vecchia, C; Schargrodsky, H

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between a history of hypertension and the quality of its control in routine clinical practice and the risk of acute myocardial infarction was examined in a multicenter, case-control study conducted in Argentina between November 1991 and August 1994, within the framework of the FRICAS study. The cases were 939 patients with acute myocardial infarction and without a history of ischemic heart disease. The controls were 949 subjects identified in the same centers as the cases and admitted with a wide spectrum of acute disorders unrelated to known or suspected risk factors for acute myocardial infarction. The odds ratios and the 95% confidence intervals were derived from multiple logistic regression equations, including terms for age, gender, education, social status, exercise, smoking status, cholesterolemia, history of diabetes, body mass index, and family history of myocardial infarction. The quality of hypertension control was assessed with the most recent blood pressure reading reported by the subjects. Seventy-two percent of hypertensive cases and 62.6% of hypertensive controls had a history of antihypertensive therapy by self-report, when admitted to the medical center. The adjusted odds ratio for acute myocardial infarction due to hypertension was 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 2.08-3.19). The odds ratio was 2.42 (95% confidence interval, 1.88-3.11) when hypertensives reported that their greatest systolic value was below 200 mm Hg (moderate status) and 4.12 (95% confidence interval, 2.87-5.89) when it was above 200 mm Hg (severe status). When the highest diastolic blood pressure value was below 120 mm Hg (moderate status), the risk increased to 2.48 (95% confidence intervals, 1.90-3.24) and to 4.12 (95% confidence interval, 2.83-5.99) when it was above 120 mm Hg (severe status). If the most recent systolic blood pressure was less-than-or-equal140 mm Hg, the odds ratio was 2.59 (95% confidence interval, 1.96-3.41), and it was 3.42 (95% confidence

  2. Return to Work and Risk of Subsequent Detachment From Employment After Myocardial Infarction: Insights From Danish Nationwide Registries.

    PubMed

    Smedegaard, Laerke; Numé, Anna-Karin; Charlot, Mette; Kragholm, Kristian; Gislason, Gunnar; Hansen, Peter R

    2017-10-04

    Limited data are available on return to work and subsequent detachment from employment after admission for myocardial infarction (MI). Using individual-level linkage of data from nationwide registries, we identified patients of working age (30-65 years) discharged after first-time MI in the period 1997 to 2012, who were employed before admission. To assess the cumulative incidence of return to work and detachment from employment, the Aalen Johansen estimator was used. Incidences were compared with population controls matched on age and sex. Logistic regression was applied to estimate odds ratios for associations between detachment from employment and age, sex, comorbidities, income, and education level. Of 39 296 patients of working age discharged after first-time MI, 22 394 (56.9%) were employed before admission. Within 1 year 91.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.7%-91.5%) of subjects had returned to work, but 1 year after their return 24.2% (95% CI, 23.6%-24.8%) were detached from employment and received social benefits. Detachment rates were highest in patients aged 60 to 65 and 30 to 39 years, and significantly higher in patients with MI compared with population controls. Predictors of detachment were heart failure (odds ratio 1.20 [95% CI, 1.08-1.34]), diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 1.13 [95% CI, 1.01-1.25]), and depression (odds ratio 1.77 [95% CI, 1.55-2.01]). High education level and high income favored continued employment. Despite that most patients returned to work after first-time MI, about 1 in 4 was detached from employment after 1 year. Several factors including age and lower socioeconomic status were associated with risk of detachment from employment. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. The type of oil used for cooking is associated with the risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in costa rica.

    PubMed

    Kabagambe, Edmond K; Baylin, Ana; Ascherio, Alberto; Campos, Hannia

    2005-11-01

    Palm oil and soybean oil are the 2 most widely used cooking oils in the world. Palm oil is consumed mainly in developing countries, where morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) are on the rise. Although claims about adverse or protective effects of these oils are commonly made, there are no epidemiologic studies assessing the association between these oils and cardiovascular disease endpoints. We examined whether consumption of palm oil relative to soybean oil and other unsaturated oils (predominantly sunflower) is associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in Costa Rica. The cases (n = 2111) were survivors of a first acute MI and were matched to randomly selected population controls (n = 2111). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated semiquantitative FFQ. Adipose tissue profiles of essential fatty acids were assessed to validate cooking oil intake and found to be consistent with self-reported major oils used for cooking. The data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Palm oil users were more likely to have an MI than users of soybean oil [odds ratio (OR) = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.08-1.63] or other cooking oils (OR = 1.23; CI: 0.99-1.52), but they did not differ from users of soybean oil with a high trans-fatty acid content (OR = 1.14; CI: 0.84-1.56). These data suggest that as currently used in Costa Rica, and most likely in many other developing countries, the replacement of palm oil with a polyunsaturated nonhydrogenated vegetable oil would reduce the risk of MI.

  4. Statistical study of the risk factors of myocardial infarction in the patients of district Muzaffarabad capital of Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Atif; Saleem, Azhar; Rather, Annaum; Arooj, Sheeba; Habib, Nazneen; Aziz, Wajid

    2015-05-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of mortality in the developing countries. The aim of the study was to check the association of Myocardial infarction (MI) with several factors such as smoking & smoking exposure, blood pressure, sugar & cholesterol level, stress, anxiety & lifestyle. A cross sectional community based survey was conducted involving 469 patients having one or more risk factors or having complains regarding MI & already diagnosed MI, was taken using Multistage sampling technique from Sheikh Zaid Hospital & Abbas Institute of Medical Sciences. The Chi-square test was used to check the association of different risk factors with myocardial infarction. The multivariate Logistic regression model was also applied to find out the most significant risk factors of MI. The results revealed that MI was strongly associated with following risk factors family size (p=0.04), profession of respondent (p=0.026), smoking (p=0.028) & smoking exposure (p=0.043). The finding also showed significant association of MI in study population with diastolic blood pressure (p=0.03), cholesterol (p=0.047), blood sugar (p=0.008), stress (p=0.036), anxiety (p=0.044) and lifestyle (p=0.015). The study revealed that family size, family history, smoking & its smoking exposure, cholesterol, blood sugar, diastolic blood pressure, stress and anxiety are the major contributing risk factors of MI in the community, whereas age and gender elucidated minor contributions in the development of MI.

  5. Combined effects of current-smoking and the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2*2 allele on the risk of myocardial infarction in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Morita, Kazunori; Miyazaki, Hiroko; Saruwatari, Junji; Oniki, Kentaro; Kumagae, Naoki; Tanaka, Takahiro; Kajiwara, Ayami; Otake, Koji; Ogata, Yasuhiro; Arima, Yuichiro; Hokimoto, Seiji; Ogawa, Hisao; Nakagawa, Kazuko

    2015-01-05

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) detoxifies toxic aldehydes, e.g. acetaldehyde in cigarette smoke; however, the interactive effects between smoking status and the ALDH2 genotype on coronary artery disease (CAD) have not been reported. We investigated the effects of smoking status and the ALDH2 genotype, and assessed their interactive and combined effects on the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) or stable angina (SA), including 221 MI and 175 SA subjects and 473 age- and sex-matched controls without CAD. Current-smoking and the ALDH2*2 allele additively increased the risk of MI (adjusted odds ratio 4.54, 95% confidence interval 2.25-9.15), although this combination was not associated with the risk of SA. This combination also increased the peak creatine kinase (CK) level synergistically in the acute MI (AMI) subjects. Moreover, current-smoking was found to be a significant risk factor for an increased peak CK level in the ALDH2*2 allele carriers (B 2220.2IU/L, p=0.008), but not the non-carriers. Additionally, a synergistic effect of this combination on the triglycerides levels was also found in the AMI subjects. These preliminary findings suggest that the combination of current-smoking and the inactive ALDH2*2 allele may increase the risk of MI additively and the infarct size synergistically.

  6. Association of Vitamin B12 with Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Biochemical Markers Related to Cardiometabolic Risk in Saudi Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Rahman, Shakilur; Sabico, Shaun; Yakout, Sobhy; Wani, Kaiser; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; Tripathi, Gyanendra; McTernan, Philip G.; Alokail, Majed S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine the relationship between changes in systemic vitamin B12 concentrations with pro-inflammatory cytokines, anthropometric factors and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic risk in a Saudi population. Methods: A total of 364 subjects (224 children, age: 12.99 ± 2.73 (mean ± SD) years; BMI: 20.07 ± 4.92 kg/m2 and 140 adults, age: 41.87 ± 8.82 years; BMI: 31.65 ± 5.77 kg/m2) were studied. Fasting blood, anthropometric and biochemical data were collected. Serum cytokines were quantified using multiplex assay kits and B12 concentrations were measured using immunoassay analyzer. Results: Vitamin B12 was negatively associated with TNF-α (r = −0.14, p < 0.05), insulin (r = −0.230, p < 0.01) and HOMA-IR (r = −0.252, p < 0.01) in all subjects. In children, vitamin B12 was negatively associated with serum resistin (r = −0.160, p < 0.01), insulin (r = −0.248, p < 0.01), HOMA-IR (r = −0.261, p < 0.01). In adults, vitamin B12 was negatively associated with TNF-α (r = −0.242, p < 0.01) while positively associated with resistin (r = 0.248, p < 0.01). Serum resistin was the most significant predictor for circulating vitamin B12 in all subjects (r2 = −0.17, p < 0.05) and in children (r2 = −0.167, p < 0.01) while HDL-cholesterol was the predictor of B12 in adults (r2 = −0.78, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic risks in adults. Maintaining adequate vitamin B12 concentrations may lower inflammation-induced cardiometabolic risk in the Saudi adult population. PMID:27608037

  7. [CONTRIBUTION OF LIPOPROTEIN(A) TO CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN PATIENTS UNDER 40 YEARS OF AGE AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION OR ACUTE CEREBRAL CIRCULATION DISORDER].

    PubMed

    Korneva, V A; Kuznetsova, T Yu; Novitskaya, A S; Malygin, A N; Guseva, T A; Ukhanova, E A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of lipoprotein(a) for the evaluation of cardiovascular risk in patient under 40 years of age after acute myocardial infarction or acute cerebral circulation disorder. We analysed the data from two departments of the Regional Vascular Centre for 2013-2015 including 90 case histories of patients of different age (mean 57.8 ± 3.4 yr) and studied standard risk factors, such as age, sex, smoking habits, dyslipidemia, aggravated heredity, arterial hypertension (AH), obesity. Standard examination of 7 patients under 40 years of age was supplemented by measuring lipoprotein(a) by the immunoturbodimetric method regarding the levels over 0.3 g/l as abnormally elevated. The study group was dominated by young and middle-aged men (85.2 and 84% respectively). The key risk factors were increased LDLP level (88%) and smoking (70%) in patients under the age of 40 and AH in middle-aged men (100%, p < 0.004). Arterial hypertension was also diagnosed in 59% of the younger subjects. Increased LDLP levels most frequently occurred in senior patients (90%). The group of patients under 40 yr included 15% of those having a single risk factor. In this group, 22% of the patients were at high risk calculated prior to the development of vascular events, 58% at moderate and 20% at low risk. 42.8% of the patients had elevated lipoprotein(a) levels. Based on the relative risk scoring scale, 22% of the patients under 40 years of age were at risk of myocardial infarction or cerebral circulation disorders prior to the development of vascular events. However, these patients like those of other age groups frequently had traditional risk factors, such as smoking (67.5%), AH and dyslipidemia (66.6% each). Total cholesterol was elevated only in 47.6% of the patients while LDLP and LP(a) in 92 and 42.8% respectively.

  8. Genetically elevated non-fasting triglycerides and calculated remnant cholesterol as causal risk factors for myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Anders Berg; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; West, Anders Sode; Grande, Peer; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-06-01

    Elevated non-fasting triglycerides mark elevated levels of remnant cholesterol. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we tested whether genetically increased remnant cholesterol in hypertriglyceridaemia due to genetic variation in the apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) associates with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI). We resequenced the core promoter and coding regions of APOA5 in individuals with the lowest 1% (n = 95) and highest 2% (n = 190) triglyceride levels in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS, n = 10 391). Genetic variants which differed in frequency between the two extreme triglyceride groups (c.-1131T > C, S19W, and c.*31C > T; P-value: 0.06 to <0.001), thus suggesting an effect on triglyceride levels, were genotyped in the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS), the CCHS, and the Copenhagen Ischemic Heart Disease Study (CIHDS), comprising a total of 5705 MI cases and 54 408 controls. Genotype combinations of these common variants associated with increases in non-fasting triglycerides and calculated remnant cholesterol of, respectively, up to 68% (1.10 mmol/L) and 56% (0.40 mmol/L) (P < 0.001), and with a corresponding odds ratio for MI of 1.87 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-2.81). Using APOA5 genotypes in instrumental variable analysis, the observational hazard ratio for a doubling in non-fasting triglycerides was 1.57 (1.32-2.68) compared with a causal genetic odds ratio of 1.94 (1.40-1.85) (P for comparison = 0.28). For calculated remnant cholesterol, the corresponding values were 1.67(1.38-2.02) observational and 2.23(1.48-3.35) causal (P for comparison = 0.21). These data are consistent with a causal association between elevated levels of remnant cholesterol in hypertriglyceridaemia and an increased risk of MI. Limitations include that remnants were not measured directly, and that APOA5 genetic variants may influence other lipoprotein parameters.

  9. Acute Myocardial Infarction Is a Risk Factor for New Onset Diabetes in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul Soo; Chung, Woo Baek; Choi, Yun Seok; Kim, Pum Joon; Lee, Jong Min; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Hee Yeol; Yoo, Ki Dong; Song, Ki-Ho; Chung, Wook Sung; Seung, Ki Bae; Lee, Man Young; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that acute myocardial infarction (AMI) might accelerate development of new onset diabetes in patients with coronary artery disease independent of known risk factors. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study within COACT (CathOlic medical center percutAneous Coronary inTervention) registry. From a total of 9,127 subjects, 2,036 subjects were diabetes naïve and followed up for at least one year with both index and follow-up laboratory data about diabetes. Cox proportional hazard model was used to derive hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for new onset diabetes associated with AMI in univariate and multivariate analysis after adjusting several covariates. Results The overall hazard for diabetes was higher in AMI compared to non-AMI patients (p by log rank <0.01) with HR of 1.78 and 95% CI of 1.37–2.32 in univariate analysis. This association remained significant after adjusting covariates (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.14–2.07; p<0.01). AMI was an independent predictor for higher quartile of WBC count in multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis (OR, 6.75; 95% CI, 5.53–8.22, p<0.01). In subgroup analysis, the diabetogenic effect of AMI was more prominent in the subgroup without MetS compared to MetS patients (p for interaction<0.05). Compared to the reference group of non-AMI+nonMetS, the group of AMI+non-MetS (HR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.58–3.76), non-AMI+MetS (HR, 3.42; 95% CI, 2.34–4.98) and AMI+MetS (HR, 4.12; 95% CI, 2.67–6.36) showed higher HR after adjusting covariates. However, the hazard was not different between the non-AMI+MetS and AMI+non-MetS groups. Conclusions AMI patients have a greater risk of new-onset diabetes when compared to non AMI patients, especially those with mild metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26295946

  10. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the myocardium at risk in acute reperfused myocardial infarction: comparison of T2-weighted imaging versus the circumferential endocardial extent of late gadolinium enhancement with transmural projection.

    PubMed

    Ubachs, Joey F A; Engblom, Henrik; Erlinge, David; Jovinge, Stefan; Hedström, Erik; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan

    2010-03-29

    In the situation of acute coronary occlusion, the myocardium supplied by the occluded vessel is subject to ischemia and is referred to as the myocardium at risk (MaR). Single photon emission computed tomography has previously been used for quantitative assessment of the MaR. It is, however, associated with considerable logistic challenges for employment in clinical routine. Recently, T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been introduced as a new method for assessing MaR several days after the acute event. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the endocardial extent of infarction as assessed by late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) CMR can also be used to quantify the MaR. Hence, we sought to assess the ability of endocardial extent of infarction by LGE CMR to predict MaR as compared to T2-weighted imaging. Thirty-seven patients with early reperfused first-time ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction underwent CMR imaging within the first week after percutaneous coronary intervention. The ability of endocardial extent of infarction by LGE CMR to assess MaR was evaluated using T2-weighted imaging as the reference method. MaR determined with T2-weighted imaging (34 +/- 10%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to the MaR determined with endocardial extent of infarction (23 +/- 12%). There was a weak correlation between the two methods (r2 = 0.17, p = 0.002) with a bias of -11 +/- 12%. Myocardial salvage determined with T2-weighted imaging (58 +/- 22%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to myocardial salvage determined with endocardial extent of infarction (45 +/- 23%). No MaR could be determined by endocardial extent of infarction in two patients with aborted myocardial infarction. This study demonstrated that the endocardial extent of infarction as assessed by LGE CMR underestimates MaR in comparison to T2-weighted imaging, especially in patients with early reperfusion and aborted myocardial infarction.

  11. Associated risk factors for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell anemia: low baseline hemoglobin, sex, and relative high systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    DeBaun, Michael R; Sarnaik, Sharada A; Rodeghier, Mark J; Minniti, Caterina P; Howard, Thomas H; Iyer, Rathi V; Inusa, Baba; Telfer, Paul T; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; Quinn, Charles T; Bernaudin, Françoise; Airewele, Gladstone; Woods, Gerald M; Panepinto, Julie Ann; Fuh, Beng; Kwiatkowski, Janet K; King, Allison A; Rhodes, Melissa M; Thompson, Alexis A; Heiny, Mark E; Redding-Lallinger, Rupa C; Kirkham, Fenella J; Sabio, Hernan; Gonzalez, Corina E; Saccente, Suzanne L; Kalinyak, Karen A; Strouse, John J; Fixler, Jason M; Gordon, Mae O; Miller, J Phillip; Noetzel, Michael J; Ichord, Rebecca N; Casella, James F

    2012-04-19

    The most common form of neurologic injury in sickle cell anemia (SCA) is silent cerebral infarction (SCI). In the Silent Cerebral Infarct Multi-Center Clinical Trial, we sought to identify risk factors associated with SCI. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the clinical history and baseline laboratory values and performed magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in participants with SCA (HbSS or HbSβ° thalassemia) between the ages of 5 and 15 years with no history of overt stroke or seizures. Neuroradiology and neurology committees adjudicated the presence of SCI. SCIs were diagnosed in 30.8% (251 of 814) participants who completed all evaluations and had valid data on all prespecified demographic and clinical covariates. The mean age of the participants was 9.1 years, with 413 males (50.7%). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, lower baseline hemoglobin concentration (P < .001), higher baseline systolic blood pressure (P = .018), and male sex (P = .030) were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of an SCI. Hemoglobin concentration and systolic blood pressure are risk factors for SCI in children with SCA and may be therapeutic targets for decreasing the risk of SCI. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00072761.

  12. Toll-Like Receptor 9-Activation during Onset of Myocardial Ischemia Does Not Influence Infarct Extension

    PubMed Central

    Ohm, Ingrid Kristine; Gao, Erhe; Belland Olsen, Maria; Alfsnes, Katrine; Bliksøen, Marte; Øgaard, Jonas; Ranheim, Trine; Nymo, Ståle Haugset; Holmen, Yangchen Dhondup; Aukrust, Pål; Yndestad, Arne; Vinge, Leif Erik

    2014-01-01

    Aim Myocardial infarction (MI) remains a major cause of death and disability worldwide, despite available reperfusion therapies. Inflammatory signaling is considered nodal in defining final infarct size. Activation of the innate immune receptor toll-like receptors (TLR) 9 prior to ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) reduces infarct size, but the consequence of TLR9 activation timed to the onset of ischemia is not known. Methods and Results The TLR9-agonist; CpG B was injected i.p. in C57BL/6 mice immediately after induction of ischemia (30 minutes). Final infarct size, as well as area-at-risk, was measured after 24 hours of reperfusion. CpG B injection resulted in a significant increase in circulating granulocytes and monocytes both in sham and I/R mice. Paradoxically, clear evidence of reduced cardiac infiltration of both monocytes and granulocytes could be demonstrated in I/R mice treated with CpG B (immunocytochemistry, myeloperoxidase activity and mRNA expression patterns). In addition, systemic TLR9 activation elicited significant alterations of cardiac inflammatory genes. Despite these biochemical and cellular changes, there was no difference in infarct size between vehicle and CpG B treated I/R mice. Conclusion Systemic TLR9-stimulation upon onset of ischemia and subsequent reperfusion does not alter final infarct size despite causing clear alterations of both systemic and cardiac inflammatory parameters. Our results question the clinical usefulness of TLR9 activation during cardiac I/R. PMID:25126943

  13. Toll-like receptor 9-activation during onset of myocardial ischemia does not influence infarct extension.

    PubMed

    Ohm, Ingrid Kristine; Gao, Erhe; Belland Olsen, Maria; Alfsnes, Katrine; Bliksøen, Marte; Øgaard, Jonas; Ranheim, Trine; Nymo, Ståle Haugset; Holmen, Yangchen Dhondup; Aukrust, Pål; Yndestad, Arne; Vinge, Leif Erik

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) remains a major cause of death and disability worldwide, despite available reperfusion therapies. Inflammatory signaling is considered nodal in defining final infarct size. Activation of the innate immune receptor toll-like receptors (TLR) 9 prior to ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) reduces infarct size, but the consequence of TLR9 activation timed to the onset of ischemia is not known. The TLR9-agonist; CpG B was injected i.p. in C57BL/6 mice immediately after induction of ischemia (30 minutes). Final infarct size, as well as area-at-risk, was measured after 24 hours of reperfusion. CpG B injection resulted in a significant increase in circulating granulocytes and monocytes both in sham and I/R mice. Paradoxically, clear evidence of reduced cardiac infiltration of both monocytes and granulocytes could be demonstrated in I/R mice treated with CpG B (immunocytochemistry, myeloperoxidase activity and mRNA expression patterns). In addition, systemic TLR9 activation elicited significant alterations of cardiac inflammatory genes. Despite these biochemical and cellular changes, there was no difference in infarct size between vehicle and CpG B treated I/R mice. Systemic TLR9-stimulation upon onset of ischemia and subsequent reperfusion does not alter final infarct size despite causing clear alterations of both systemic and cardiac inflammatory parameters. Our results question the clinical usefulness of TLR9 activation during cardiac I/R.

  14. [Risk factors and biochemical markers in metabolic bone disease of premature newborns].

    PubMed

    Montaner Ramón, Alicia; Fernández Espuelas, Cristina; Calmarza Calmarza, Pilar; Rite Gracia, Segundo; Oliván Del Cacho, María Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic bone disease (MBD) of prematurity is a complication of multifactorial aetiology, which has been increasing, due to progressive decrease in mortality of preterm newborns. The aim of the study was to analyze risk factors of severe MBD and its analytical markers. Retrospective study involving preterm infants less than 32 weeks gestational age and/or weight less tan 1,500 g born between january 2012 and december 2014. Comparison was made according to the presence of severe MBD. 139 patients were recruited. Mean value of 25(OH)D3 was 70.68 ± 25.20 nmol/L, being higher in patients born in spring-summer than in autumn-winter (80.94 ± 25.33 vs 61.13 ± 21.07; p = 0.000). Levels of 25(OH)D3 were similar in patients with severe MBD compared with the rest of patients (65.61 ± 26.49 vs 72.07 ± 24.89, P = 0.283). Higher levels of alkaline phosphatase (AP, IU/L ) (1314.19 ± 506.67 vs 476.56 ± 188.85; p = 0.000) were found in these patients. Cutoff point of AP 796.5 IU/L (S 95.2%, specificity 92.4%) was calculated by ROC curve. The risk factors most associated to severe EMO were restricted fetal growth, birth weight, duration of ventilation therapy and parenteral nutrition. AP levels were the best marker of severe MBD development. EMO risk increases with the number of risk factors and lower levels of 25(OH)D3. Levels of 25(OH)D3 higher than 70nmol/L appear to protect from the development of severe MBD, even in patients with multiple risk factors.

  15. Downward trend in the risk of second myocardial infarction in Sweden, 1987-2007: breakdown by socioeconomic position, gender, and country of birth.

    PubMed

    Dzayee, Dashti Ali M; Beiki, Omid; Ljung, Rickard; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-05-01

    Second myocardial infarction (SMI) is a significant health problem. There are no nationwide studies on SMI among foreign-born populations that include detailed information about country of birth. Nationwide cohort study of 331,748 men and 186,755 women aged 30-84, living in Sweden, and diagnosed with first myocardial infarction (FMI) between January 1987 and December 2007. Trends in, and risk of, SMI after day 28 of FMI association with gender, educational level, and country of birth were analysed. A hazard ratio (HR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) yielded a risk estimate of SMI among FMI patients based on the Cox proportional hazard model. Men had a higher risk of SMI than women (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.12-1.55) with a downward trend over time, regardless of country of birth (p-trend <0.0001). Low educational level increased the HR of SMI irrespective of gender or country of birth. Foreign-born men and women had a slightly increased HR than Sweden-born. Men born in India, Palestine, Uganda, Algeria, and Tunisia and women born in India, Palestine, and Lebanon had approximately a 2-fold risk. Men born in the Netherlands had the lowest risk (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.94). Foreign-born who had lived in Sweden for less than 35 years had a higher risk than those that had lived there for 35 years or longer. Although the risk of SMI continued to decrease over time, low socioeconomic position independent of country of birth and gender remained an important risk indicator deserving further attention.

  16. Lipoprotein(a) and Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Death in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings From the CRIC Study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort).

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Archna; Damrauer, Scott M; Anderson, Amanda H; Xie, Dawei; Budoff, Matthew J; Go, Alan S; He, Jiang; Lash, James P; Ojo, Akinlolu; Post, Wendy S; Rahman, Mahboob; Reilly, Muredach P; Saleheen, Danish; Townsend, Raymond R; Chen, Jinbo; Rader, Daniel J

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the effect of LPA gene variants and renal function on lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels in people with chronic kidney disease and determine the association between elevated Lp(a) and myocardial infarction and death in this setting. The CRIC Study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) is an ongoing prospective study of 3939 participants with chronic kidney disease. In 3635 CRIC participants with genotype data, carriers of the rs10455872 or rs6930542 variants had a higher median Lp(a) level (mg/dL) compared with noncarriers (73 versus 23; P<0.001 and 56 versus 22; P<0.001, respectively). The 3744 participants (55% male and 41% non-Hispanic White) with available baseline Lp(a) levels were stratified into quartiles of baseline Lp(a) (mg/dL): <9.8, 9.8 to 26.0, 26.1 to 61.3, and >61.3. There were 315 myocardial infarctions and 822 deaths during a median follow-up of 7.5 years. The second quartile had the lowest event rate. After adjusting for potential confounders and using a Cox proportional hazards model, the highest quartile of Lp(a) was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.11), death (hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.57), and the composite outcome (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.56) compared with the second quartile of Lp(a). Among adults with chronic kidney disease, elevated Lp(a) is independently associated with myocardial infarction and death. Future studies exploring pharmacological Lp(a) reduction in this population are warranted. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Manual thrombectomy efficiency in relationship to the area at risk in patients with myocardial infarction with TIMI 0-1 coronary flow: Insights from an all comers registry.

    PubMed

    Luz, André; Silveira, Inês; Brochado, Bruno; Rodrigues, Patrícia; João Sousa, Maria; Santos, Raquel; Trêpa, Maria; Santos, Mário; Silveira, João; Torres, Severo; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Carvalho, Henrique

    2017-02-13

    To review the effectiveness of manual thrombectomy (MT) in a series of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) exclusively presenting with TIMI 0-1 flow undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), in accordance to the angiographically estimated area at risk (AAR). Second, to assess major in-hospital clinical events, emphasizing neurological outcomes. The routine utilization of MT in STEMI is not recommended. However, in recent trials, a significant proportion of patients had neither large thrombus burden nor a totally occluded coronary segment, neutralizing the expected benefits of MT. In addition, the efficiency of MT to remove thrombus has rarely been addressed. Finally, MT diminished distal embolization, which has been related to mortality. In 850 consecutive STEMI-patients, MT was utilized in 525 (62%) and it was considered efficient (TIMI 2-3 flow after MT) in 445 (85%). We found a significant interaction between the AAR and the effectiveness of MT to reduce infarct size (P-interaction = 0.014). In patients having AAR ≥ 28% (n = 184), efficient MT conferred lesser infarct size compared to inefficient MT (Ln-transformed peak CK): 7.87 ± 0.86 versus 8.36 ± 0.41 IU/L, P = 0.005, with no impact for AAR <28%. Clinical outcomes including stroke between MT and PCI-only groups were not different. In comparison with the group where MT was inefficient, efficient MT may modestly reduce final infarct size without a significant clinical benefit. In comparison with PCI-only, no difference was found regarding stroke. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The effect of tobacco control measures during a period of rising cardiovascular disease risk in India: a mathematical model of myocardial infarction and stroke.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Glantz, Stanton; Bitton, Asaf; Millett, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We simulated tobacco control and pharmacological strategies for preventing cardiovascular deaths in India, the country that is expected to experience more cardiovascular deaths than any other over the next decade. A microsimulation model was developed to quantify the differential effects of various tobacco control measures and pharmacological therapies on myocardial infarction and stroke deaths stratified by age, gender, and urban/rural status for 2013 to 2022. The model incorporated population-representative data from India on multiple risk factors that affect myocardial infarction and stroke mortality, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. We also included data from India on cigarette smoking, bidi smoking, chewing tobacco, and secondhand smoke. According to the model's results, smoke-free legislation and tobacco taxation would likely be the most effective strategy among a menu of tobacco control strategies (including, as well, brief cessation advice by health care providers, mass media campaigns, and an advertising ban) for reducing myocardial infarction and stroke deaths over the next decade, while cessation advice would be expected to be the least effective strategy at the population level. In combination, these tobacco control interventions could avert 25% of myocardial infarctions and strokes (95% CI: 17%-34%) if the effects of the interventions are additive. These effects are substantially larger than would be achieved through aspirin, antihypertensive, and statin therapy under most scenarios, because of limited treatment access and adherence; nevertheless, the impacts of tobacco control policies and pharmacological interventions appear to be markedly synergistic, averting up to one-third of deaths from myocardial infarction and stroke among 20- to 79-y-olds over the next 10 y. Pharmacological therapies could also be considerably more potent with further health system improvements. Smoke

  19. The Effect of Tobacco Control Measures during a Period of Rising Cardiovascular Disease Risk in India: A Mathematical Model of Myocardial Infarction and Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sanjay; Glantz, Stanton; Bitton, Asaf; Millett, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Background We simulated tobacco control and pharmacological strategies for preventing cardiovascular deaths in India, the country that is expected to experience more cardiovascular deaths than any other over the next decade. Methods and Findings A microsimulation model was developed to quantify the differential effects of various tobacco control measures and pharmacological therapies on myocardial infarction and stroke deaths stratified by age, gender, and urban/rural status for 2013 to 2022. The model incorporated population-representative data from India on multiple risk factors that affect myocardial infarction and stroke mortality, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. We also included data from India on cigarette smoking, bidi smoking, chewing tobacco, and secondhand smoke. According to the model's results, smoke-free legislation and tobacco taxation would likely be the most effective strategy among a menu of tobacco control strategies (including, as well, brief cessation advice by health care providers, mass media campaigns, and an advertising ban) for reducing myocardial infarction and stroke deaths over the next decade, while cessation advice would be expected to be the least effective strategy at the population level. In combination, these tobacco control interventions could avert 25% of myocardial infarctions and strokes (95% CI: 17%–34%) if the effects of the interventions are additive. These effects are substantially larger than would be achieved through aspirin, antihypertensive, and statin therapy under most scenarios, because of limited treatment access and adherence; nevertheless, the impacts of tobacco control policies and pharmacological interventions appear to be markedly synergistic, averting up to one-third of deaths from myocardial infarction and stroke among 20- to 79-y-olds over the next 10 y. Pharmacological therapies could also be considerably more potent with further

  20. Racial/ethnic Differences in Clinical and Biochemical Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors in Children

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Michael; Fennoy, Ilene; Accacha, Siham; Altshuler, Lisa; Carey, Dennis E.; Holleran, Steven; Rapaport, Robert; Shelov, Steven P.; Speiser, Phyllis W.; Ten, S.; Bhangoo, Amrit; Boucher-Berry, Claudia; Espinal, Yomery; Gupta, Rishi; Hassoun, Abeer A.; Iazetti, Loretta.; Jacques, Fabien J.; Jean, Amy M.; Klein, Michelle. L.; Levine, Robert; Lowell, Barbara; Michel, Lesley; Rosenfeld, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether peri-adolescent children demonstrate the significant racial/ethnic differences in body fatness relative to BMI and in the prevalence and relationship of body composition to risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as in adults. Design and Methods We examined family history of obesity and T2DM, anthropometry, insulin sensitivity and secretory capacity, lipids, and cytokines (IL-6, CRP, TNF-α, and adiponectin) in a cohort of 994 middle school students (47% male, 53%, female; 12% African American, 14% East Asian, 13% South Asian, 9% Caucasian, 44% Hispanic, and 8% other). Results Fractional body fat content was significantly greater at any BMI among South Asians. There were racial/ethnic specific differences in lipid profiles, insulin secretory capacity, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory markers corrected for body fatness that are similar to those seen in adults. Family history of T2DM was associated with lower insulin secretory capacity while family history of obesity was more associated with insulin resistance. Conclusion Children show some of the same racial/ethnic differences in risk factors for adiposity-related co-morbidities as adults. BMI and waist circumference cutoffs to identify children at-risk for adiposity-related co-morbidities should be adjusted by racial/ethnic group as well as other variables such as birthweight and family history. PMID:23596082

  1. Racial/ethnic differences in clinical and biochemical type 2 diabetes mellitus risk factors in children.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Michael; Fennoy, Ilene; Accacha, Siham; Altshuler, Lisa; Carey, Dennis E; Holleran, Stephen; Rapaport, Robert; Shelov, Steven P; Speiser, Phyllis W; Ten, S; Bhangoo, Amrit; Boucher-Berry, Claudia; Espinal, Yomery; Gupta, Rishi; Hassoun, Abeer A; Iazetti, Loretta; Jean-Jacques, Fabienne; Jean, Amy M; Klein, Michelle L; Levine, Robet; Lowell, Barbara; Michel, Lesley; Rosenfeld, Warren

    2013-10-01

    To examine whether periadolescent children demonstrate the significant racial/ethnic differences in body fatness relative to BMI and in the prevalence and relationship of body composition to risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as in adults. Family history of obesity and T2DM, anthropometry, insulin sensitivity and secretory capacity, lipids, and cytokines (IL-6, CRP, TNF-α, and adiponectin) were examined in a cohort of 994 middle school students (47% male, 53%, female; 12% African American, 14% East Asian, 13% South Asian, 9% Caucasian, 44% Hispanic, and 8% other). Fractional body fat content was significantly greater at any BMI among South Asians. There were racial/ethnic specific differences in lipid profiles, insulin secretory capacity, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory markers corrected for body fatness that are similar to those seen in adults. Family history of T2DM was associated with lower insulin secretory capacity while family history of obesity was more associated with insulin resistance. Children show some of the same racial/ethnic differences in risk factors for adiposity-related comorbidities as adults. BMI and waist circumference cutoffs to identify children at-risk for adiposity-related comorbidities should be adjusted by racial/ethnic group as well as other variables such as birthweight and family history. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  2. Renal infarction secondary to ketamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Li; Chen, Jin-Li; Cha, Tai-Lung; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Tang, Shou-Hung; Tsao, Chih-Wei; Meng, En

    2013-07-01

    Renal infarction is an uncommon condition that resulted from inadequate perfusion of the kidney and is easily missed diagnosed due to its nonspecific clinical presentations. Major risk factors for renal infarction are atrial fibrillation, previous embolism, and ischemic and valvular heart disease. Progressive decrease in renal function or even death can occur if renal infarction is not diagnosed accurately and promptly. Ketamine abuse may cause variable urinary tract injury. However, renal infarction caused by ketamine abuse has never been reported. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of renal infarction following nasal insufflation of ketamine.

  3. Comparing patients with spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction: clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome

    PubMed Central

    Naess, Halvor; Romi, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    Background: To compare the clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome of spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction. Methods: Risk factors, concomitant diseases, neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome were registered among 28 patients with spinal cord infarction and 1075 patients with cerebral infarction admitted to the Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. Multivariate analyses were performed with location of stroke (cord or brain), neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome (both Barthel Index [BI] 1 week after symptom onset and discharge home or to other institution) as dependent variables. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that patients with spinal cord infarction were younger, more often female, and less afflicted by hypertension and cardiac disease than patients with cerebral infarction. Functional score (BI) was lower among patients with spinal cord infarctions 1 week after onset of symptoms (P < 0.001). Odds ratio for being discharged home was 5.5 for patients with spinal cord infarction compared to cerebral infarction after adjusting for BI scored 1 week after onset (P = 0.019). Conclusion: Patients with spinal cord infarction have a risk factor profile that differs significantly from that of patients with cerebral infarction, although there are some parallels to cerebral infarction caused by atherosclerosis. Patients with spinal cord infarction were more likely to be discharged home when adjusting for early functional level on multivariate analysis. PMID:21915166

  4. Comparing patients with spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction: clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Naess, Halvor; Romi, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    To compare the clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome of spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction. Risk factors, concomitant diseases, neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome were registered among 28 patients with spinal cord infarction and 1075 patients with cerebral infarction admitted to the Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. Multivariate analyses were performed with location of stroke (cord or brain), neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome (both Barthel Index [BI] 1 week after symptom onset and discharge home or to other institution) as dependent variables. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with spinal cord infarction were younger, more often female, and less afflicted by hypertension and cardiac disease than patients with cerebral infarction. Functional score (BI) was lower among patients with spinal cord infarctions 1 week after onset of symptoms (P < 0.001). Odds ratio for being discharged home was 5.5 for patients with spinal cord infarction compared to cerebral infarction after adjusting for BI scored 1 week after onset (P = 0.019). Patients with spinal cord infarction have a risk factor profile that differs significantly from that of patients with cerebral infarction, although there are some parallels to cerebral infarction caused by atherosclerosis. Patients with spinal cord infarction were more likely to be discharged home when adjusting for early functional level on multivariate analysis.

  5. Quantifying the Area at Risk in Reperfused ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Using Hybrid Cardiac Positron Emission Tomography-Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bulluck, Heerajnarain; White, Steven K; Fröhlich, Georg M; Casson, Steven G; O'Meara, Celia; Newton, Ayla; Nicholas, Jennifer; Weale, Peter; Wan, Simon M Y; Sirker, Alex; Moon, James C; Yellon, Derek M; Groves, Ashley; Menezes, Leon; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2016-03-01

    Hybrid positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance allows the advantages of magnetic resonance in tissue characterizing the myocardium to be combined with the unique metabolic insights of positron emission tomography. We hypothesized that the area of reduced myocardial glucose uptake would closely match the area at risk delineated by T2 mapping in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients. Hybrid positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for glucose uptake was performed in 21 ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients at a median of 5 days. Follow-up scans were performed in a subset of patients 12 months later. The area of reduced FDG uptake was significantly larger than the infarct size quantified by late gadolinium enhancement (37.2±11.6% versus 22.3±11.7%; P<0.001) and closely matched the area at risk by T2 mapping (37.2±11.6% versus 36.3±12.2%; P=0.10, R=0.98, bias 0.9±4.4%). On the follow-up scans, the area of reduced FDG uptake was significantly smaller in size when compared with the acute scans (19.5 [6.3%-31.8%] versus 44.0 [21.3%-55.3%]; P=0.002) and closely correlated with the areas of late gadolinium enhancement (R 0.98) with a small bias of 2.0±5.6%. An FDG uptake of ≥45% on the acute scans could predict viable myocardium on the follow-up scan. Both transmural extent of late gadolinium enhancement and FDG uptake on the acute scan performed equally well to predict segmental wall motion recovery. Hybrid positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance in the reperfused ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients showed reduced myocardial glucose uptake within the area at risk and closely matched the area at risk delineated by T2 mapping. FDG uptake, as well as transmural extent of late gadolinium enhancement, acutely can identify viable myocardial segments. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Race and Sex Differences in Post-Myocardial Infarction Angina Frequency and Risk of 1-Year Unplanned Rehospitalization.

    PubMed

    Hess, Connie N; Kaltenbach, Lisa A; Doll, Jacob A; Cohen, David J; Peterson, Eric D; Wang, Tracy Y

    2017-02-07

    Race and sex disparities in in-hospital treatment and outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) have been described, but little is known about race and sex differences in post-MI angina and long-term risk of unplanned rehospitalization. We examined race and sex differences in post-MI angina frequency and 1-year unplanned rehospitalization to identify factors associated with unplanned rehospitalization, testing for whether race and sex modify these relationships. Using TRANSLATE-ACS (Treatment With Adenosine Diphosphate Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events after Acute Coronary Syndrome) data, we examined 6-week and 1-year angina frequency and 1-year unplanned rehospitalization stratified by race and sex among MI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with unplanned rehospitalization and tested for interactions among angina frequency, race, and sex. A total of 11 595 MI patients survived to 1 year postdischarge; there were 66.6% white male patients, 24.3% white female patients, 5.3% black male patients, and 3.8% black female patients. Overall, 29.7% had angina at 6 weeks, and 20.6% had angina at 1 year postdischarge. Relative to white patients, black patients were more likely to have angina at 6 weeks (female: 44.2% versus 31.8%; male: 33.5% versus 27.1%; both P<0.0001) and 1 year (female: 49.4% versus 38.9%; male: 46.3% versus 31.1%; both P<0.0001). Rates of 1-year unplanned rehospitalization were highest among black female patients (44.1%), followed by white female patients (38.4%), black male patients (36.4%), and white male patients (30.2%, P<0.0001). In the multivariable model, 6-week angina was most strongly associated with unplanned rehospitalization (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-1.62; P<0.0001); this relationship was not modified by race or sex (adjusted 3-way Pinteraction=0.41). One

  7. Dynamic Edematous Response of the Human Heart to Myocardial Infarction: Implications for Assessing Myocardial Area at Risk and Salvage.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jiménez, Rodrigo; Barreiro-Pérez, Manuel; Martin-García, Ana; Sánchez-González, Javier; Agüero, Jaume; Galán-Arriola, Carlos; García-Prieto, Jaime; Díaz-Pelaez, Elena; Vara, Pedro; Martinez, Irene; Zamarro, Ivan; Garde, Beatriz; Sanz, Javier; Fuster, Valentin; Sánchez, Pedro L; Ibanez, Borja

    2017-10-03

    Clinical protocols aimed to characterize the post-myocardial infarction (MI) heart by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) need to be standardized to take account of dynamic biological phenomena evolving early after the index ischemic event. Here, we evaluated the time course of edema reaction in patients with ST-segment-elevation MI by CMR and assessed its implications for myocardium-at-risk (MaR) quantification both in patients and in a large-animal model. A total of 16 patients with anterior ST-segment-elevation MI successfully treated by primary angioplasty and 16 matched controls were prospectively recruited. In total, 94 clinical CMR examinations were performed: patients with ST-segment-elevation MI were serially scanned (within the first 3 hours after reperfusion and at 1, 4, 7, and 40 days), and controls were scanned only once. T2 relaxation time in the myocardium (T2 mapping) and the extent of edema on T2-weighted short-tau triple inversion-recovery (ie, CMR-MaR) were evaluated at all time points. In the experimental study, 20 pigs underwent 40-minute ischemia/reperfusion followed by serial CMR examinations at 120 minutes and 1, 4, and 7 days after reperfusion. Reference MaR was assessed by contrast-multidetector computed tomography during the index coronary occlusion. Generalized linear mixed models were used to take account of repeated measurements. In humans, T2 relaxation time in the ischemic myocardium declines significantly from early after reperfusion to 24 hours, and then increases up to day 4, reaching a plateau from which it decreases from day 7. Consequently, edema extent measured by T2-weighted short-tau triple inversion-recovery (CMR-MaR) varied with the timing of the CMR examination. These findings were confirmed in the experimental model by showing that only CMR-MaR values for day 4 and day 7 postreperfusion, coinciding with the deferred edema wave, were similar to values measured by reference contrast-multidetector computed tomography. Post

  8. Introducing Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapies for AMD Did Not Raise Risk of Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, and Death.

    PubMed

    Yashkin, Arseniy P; Hahn, Paul; Sloan, Frank A

    2016-10-01

    To assess the effect of availability of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy on mortality and hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke over a 5-year follow-up period in United States Medicare beneficiaries newly diagnosed with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 2006 compared with control groups consisting of beneficiaries (1) newly diagnosed with exudative AMD at a time when anti-VEGF therapy was not possible and (2) newly diagnosed with nonexudative AMD. Retrospective cohort study. Beneficiaries newly diagnosed with exudative and nonexudative AMD in 2000 and 2006 selected from a random longitudinal sample of Medicare 5% claims and enrollment files. Beneficiaries with a first diagnosis of exudative AMD in 2006 were the treatment group; beneficiaries newly diagnosed with exudative AMD in 2000 or nonexudative AMD in 2000 or 2006 were control groups. To deal with potential selection bias, we designed an intent-to-treat study, which controlled for nonadherence to prescribed regimens. The treatment group consisted of patients with clinically appropriate characteristics to receive anti-VEGF injections given that the therapy is available, bypassing the need to monitor whether treatment was actually received. Control groups consisted of patients with clinically appropriate characteristics but first diagnosed at a time when the therapy was unavailable (2000) and similar patients but for whom the therapy was not clinically indicated (2000, 2006). We used a Cox proportional hazard model. All-cause mortality and hospitalization for AMI and stroke during follow-up. No statistically significant changes in probabilities of death and hospitalizations for AMI and stroke within a 5-year follow-up period were identified in exudative AMD beneficiaries newly diagnosed in 2006, the beginning of widespread anti-VEGF use, compared with 2000. As an alternative to our main analysis, which excluded beneficiaries from nonexudative

  9. Predicting biochemical recurrence in patients with high-risk prostate cancer using the apparent diffusion coefficient of magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Min Young; Park, Juhyun; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Jeong, Chang Wook; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Kim, Hyeon Hoe

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging predicts the prognoses of patients with high-risk prostate cancer. Materials and Methods A total of 157 patients with high-risk prostate cancer (based on D'Amico's criteria) were included in the analysis. Patients underwent preoperative 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging within 2 months before radical prostatectomy. Those who received neoadjuvant hormone therapy (33 persons) or radiation therapy (18 persons) were excluded. The ADC of the tumor calculated from 2 b-values (0 and 1,000 s/mm2) was measured. Areas under receiver operating characteristics curves were calculated to maximize the accuracy of the ADC value. Based on the obtained cutoff value, the patients were stratified into 2 groups: Group A consisted of patients with ADC values <746×10−6 mm2/s and group B comprised those with ADC values ≥746×10−6 mm2/s. Results Group A showed higher rate of lymph positive and biochemical recurrence (BCR) rates than group B. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the BCR-free survival rate of group A was much lower than that of group B (p<0.001). On Cox proportional regression analyses, ADC group A (hazard ratio [HR], 3.238, p=0.002) and pathologic lymph node positive (HR, 2.242; p=0.009) were independent predictors of BCR. Conclusions In patients with high-risk prostate cancer, ADC value is significantly associated with BCR-free survival. Therefore, the ADC value is a useful tool for predicting the prognoses of these high-risk patients. PMID:28097263

  10. Improved Biochemical Outcomes With Statin Use in Patients With High-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmeier, Marisa A.; Katz, Matthew S.; Mak, Kimberley; Yamada, Yoshiya; Feder, David J.; Zhang Zhigang; Jia Xiaoyu; Shi Weiji; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association between 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) and biochemical and survival outcomes after high-dose radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 1711 men with clinical stage T1-T3 prostate cancer were treated with conformal RT to a median dose of 81 Gy during 1995-2007. Preradiotherapy medication data were available for 1681 patients. Three hundred eighty-two patients (23%) were taking a statin medication at diagnosis and throughout RT. Nine hundred forty-seven patients received a short-course of neoadjuvant and concurrent androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) with RT. The median follow-up was 5.9 years. Results: The 5- and 8-year PSA relapse-free survival (PRFS) rates for statin patients were 89% and 80%, compared with 83% and 74% for those not taking statins (p = 0.002). In a multivariate analysis, statin use (hazard ratio [HR]0.69, p = 0.03), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) low-risk group, and ADT use were associated with improved PRFS. Only high-risk patients in the statin group demonstrated improvement in PRFS (HR 0.52, p = 0.02). Across all groups, statin use was not associated with improved distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (p = 0.51). On multivariate analysis, lower NCCN risk group (p = 0.01) and ADT use (p = 0.005) predicted improved DMFS. Conclusions: Statin use during high-dose RT for clinically localized prostate cancer was associated with a significant improvement in PRFS in high-risk patients. These data suggest that statins have anticancer activity and possibly provide radiosensitization when used in conjunction with RT in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  11. [Migrainous infarct in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Parajuá, J L; Calles, C

    We present the case of a migrainous patient who had a cerebral infarct during a migrainous crisis. She was 26 weeks pregnant. The infarct, detected on MRI was in the right thalamic region. It presented as left hemiparesia and left hemi-hypo-estesia. Laboratory tests were normal. There was full recovery from the episode. Migraine is considered to be a risk factor per se for stroke, especially in young women. The association of migrainous ictus, which is a diagnosis by exclusion of other aetiologies, and pregnancy is rare, as is apparent on review of the subject. In the Western world, pregnancy is not considered to be a risk factor for ictus. The functional prognosis of migrainous stroke is good, with minimal risk of relapse.

  12. Leukocytes as risk markers for cardiovascular disease in adolescents: association with birth characteristics, nutritional status and biochemical tests

    PubMed Central

    do Prado, Pedro Paulo; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the correlation between the number of leukocytes and cardiovascular risks associated with birth characteristics, nutritional status and biochemical tests. Methods: Cross-sectional study developed with 475 adolescents, born between 1992 and 2001, in the municipality of Viçosa (MG). Maternal medical records were analyzed in the hospital units, and the following was recorded: birth weight and length, head circumference, chest circumference, Apgar score, gestational age. In adolescents, body mass index, skinfold thickness, body composition, blood count, biochemical tests and clinical variables were also assessed. The statistical analyses was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 and Data Analysis and Statistical Software (STATA) with Kruskal–Wallis, Mann–Whitney, chi-square or Fisher's exact tests and Linear Regression. Significance level was set at α<0.05. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of UFV for studies with human subjects. Results: Weight and birth length, head and chest circumference were higher among boys. In adolescents, the number of leukocytes was higher in individuals with excess weight and body fat and high adiposity index, waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference. Only altered triglycerides showed differences between leukocyte medians. Regardless of the anthropometric variable of the final regression model, the stage of adolescence, number of platelets, eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes were associated with the increase in leukocytes. Conclusions: The birth variables were not associated with changes in leukocyte numbers, whereas the anthropometric variables were good indicators for a higher leukocyte count, regardless of the stage of adolescence and gender. PMID:26572104

  13. [Leukocytes as risk markers for cardiovascular disease in adolescents: association with birth characteristics, nutritional status and biochemical tests].

    PubMed

    do Prado Junior, Pedro Paulo; Faria, Franciane Rocha de; Faria, Eliane Rodrigues de; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between the number of leukocytes and cardiovascular risks associated with birth characteristics, nutritional status and biochemical tests. Cross-sectional study developed with 475 adolescents, born between 1992 and 2001, in the municipality of Viçosa (MG). Maternal medical records were analyzed in the hospital units, and the following was recorded: birth weight and length, head circumference, chest circumference, Apgar score, gestational age. In adolescents, body mass index, skinfold thickness, body composition, blood count, biochemical tests and clinical variables were also assessed. The statistical analyses was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 and Data Analysis and Statistical Software (STATA) with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, chi-square or Fisher's exact tests and Linear Regression. Significance level was set at α<0.05. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of UFV for studies with human subjects. Weight and birth length, head and chest circumference were higher among boys. In adolescents, the number of leukocytes was higher in individuals with excess weight and body fat and high adiposity index, waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference. Only altered triglycerides showed differences between leukocyte medians. Regardless of the anthropometric variable of the final regression model, the stage of adolescence, number of platelets, eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes were associated with the increase in leukocytes. The birth variables were not associated with changes in leukocyte numbers, whereas the anthropometric variables were good indicators for a higher leukocyte count, regardless of the stage of adolescence and gender. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and cystatin C compared to the estimated glomerular filtration rate to predict risk in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    von Jeinsen, Beatrice; Kraus, Daniel; Palapies, Lars; Tzikas, Stergios; Zeller, Tanja; Schauer, Anne; Drechsler, Christiane; Bickel, Christoph; Baldus, Stephan; Lackner, Karl J; Münzel, Thomas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeiher, Andreas M; Keller, Till

    2017-10-15

    Impaired renal function, reflected by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or cystatin C, is a strong risk predictor in the presence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) is an early marker of acute kidney injury. uNGAL might also be a good predictor of outcome in patients with cardiovascular disease. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of uNGAL compared to eGFR and cystatin C in patients with suspected AMI. 1818 patients were enrolled with suspected AMI. Follow-up information on the combined endpoint of death or non-fatal myocardial infarction was obtained 6months after enrolment and was available in 1804 patients. 63 events (3.5%) were registered. While cystatin C and eGFR were strong risk predictors for the primary endpoint even adjusted for several variables, uNGAL was not independently associated with outcome: When applied continuously uNGAL was associated with outcome but did not remain a statistically significant predictor after several adjustments (i.e. eGFR). By adding cystatin C or uNGAL to GRACE risk score variables, only cystatin C could improve the predictive value while uNGAL showed no improvement. We could show that cystatin C is an independent risk predictor in patients with suspected AMI and cystatin C can add improvement to the commonly used GRACE risk score. In contrast uNGAL is not independently associated with outcome and seems not to add further prognostic information to GRACE risk score. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic Kidney Disease and Risk of Presenting with Acute Myocardial Infarction versus Stable Exertional Angina in Adults with Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Go, Alan S.; Bansal, Nisha; Chandra, Malini; Lathon, Phenius V.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Iribarren, Carlos; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Hlatky, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether kidney dysfunction is associated with the type of clinical presentation of coronary heart disease (CHD). Background Reduced kidney function increases risk of developing CHD, but it is not known whether it also influences the acuity of clinical presentation, which has important prognostic implications. Methods We conducted a case-control study of subjects whose first clinical presentation of CHD was either acute myocardial infarction or stable exertional angina between October 2001-December 2003. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before the incident event was estimated using calibrated serum creatinine and the abbreviated MDRD equation. Patient characteristics and use of medications were ascertained from self-report and health plan databases. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association of reduced eGFR and CHD presentation. Results We studied 803 adults with incident acute myocardial infarction and 419 adults with incident stable exertional angina who had a baseline eGFR ≤130 ml/min/1.73 m2. Mean eGFR was lower among subjects with acute myocardial infarction compared with stable angina. Compared with eGFR 90–130 ml/min/1.73 m2, we found a strong, graded independent association between reduced eGFR and presenting with acute myocardial infarction: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.36 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.86) for eGFR 60–89 ml/min/1.73 m2, OR 1.55 (0.92 to 2.62) for eGFR 45–59 ml/min/1.73 m2 and OR 3.82 (1.55 to 9.46) for eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m2 (P<0.001 for trend). Conclusion eGFR less than 45 ml/min/1.73 m2 is a strong, independent predictor of presenting with acute myocardial infarction versus stable angina as the initial manifestation of CHD. PMID:21958887

  16. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimation of the "risk region" during acute anterior or inferior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Vervaat, F E; Bouwmeester, S; van Hellemond, I E G; Wagner, G S; Gorgels, A P M

    2014-01-01

    The myocardial area at risk (MaR) is an important aspect in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It represents the myocardium at the onset of the STEMI that is ischemic and could become infarcted if no reperfusion occurs. The MaR, therefore, has clinical value because it gives an indication of the amount of myocardium that could potentially be salvaged by rapid reperfusion therapy. The most validated method for measuring the MaR is (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT, but this technique is not easily applied in the clinical setting. Another method that can be used for measuring the MaR is the standard ECG-based scoring system, Aldrich ST score, which is more easily applied. This ECG-based scoring system can be used to estimate the extent of acute ischemia for anterior or inferior left ventricular locations, by considering quantitative changes in the ST-segment. Deviations in the ST-segment baseline that occur following an acute coronary occlusion represent the ischemic changes in the transmurally ischemic myocardium. In most instances however, the ECG is not available at the very first moments of STEMI and as times passes the ischemic myocardium becomes necrotic with regression of the ST-segment deviation along with progressive changes of the QRS complex. Thus over the time course of the acute event, the Aldrich ST score would be expected to progressively underestimate the MaR, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold standard; anterior STEMI (r=0.21, p=0.32) and inferior STEMI (r=0.17, p=0.36). Another standard ECG-based scoring system is the Selvester QRS score, which can be used to estimate the final infarct size by considering the quantitative changes in the QRS complex. Therefore, additional consideration of the Selvester QRS score in the acute phase could potentially provide the "component" of infarcted myocardium that is missing when the Aldrich ST score alone is used to determine the MaR in the acute phase, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold

  17. Increased mortality risk in diabetic patients discharged from hospital with insulin therapy after an acute myocardial infarction: Data from the FAST-MI 2005 registry.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Vincent; Ferrières, Jean; Danchin, Nicolas; Puymirat, Etienne; Zeller, Marianne; Simon, Tabassome; Carrié, Didier

    2017-07-01

    Merits of insulin use for diabetes treatment in patients with advanced atherosclerosis are debated. This observational study conducted in diabetic patients after an acute myocardial infarction aimed to assess whether insulin prescription at discharge (IPD) was related to all-cause mortality during follow-up. Subjects were diabetic patients admitted in intensive- or coronary-care units for acute myocardial infarction (consecutively recruited in 223 centres in France) and discharged alive from the hospital, with or without an IPD. Vital status after five years was obtained and the relationship between insulin prescription at discharge and survival was studied. Overall, 1221 diabetic patients were discharged alive and 38% had an IPD. Factors independently related to IPD were female gender, hospitalization in a public hospital, duration of diabetes, HbA1c level, smoking, peripheral artery disease, history of coronary heart disease and Killip class. After adjustment, IPD was independently related to all-cause mortality after five years of follow-up (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.72 (1.42-2.09), p<0.001). This increased mortality in subjects with IPD was also observed in propensity matched analyses, when subjects actually treated or actually not treated with insulin at discharge were compared in two groups matched on their computed probability of having had insulin prescribed. Insulin was preferably prescribed in seriously affected patients, regarding diabetes and cardiovascular risk. However, insulin prescription at discharge was associated with increased all-cause mortality after extensive adjustments for confounders. These results suggest possible intrinsic harmful effects of insulin in high-risk diabetic patients after myocardial infarction.

  18. The adjusted Global AntiphosPholipid Syndrome Score (aGAPSS) for risk stratification in young APS patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Radin, M; Schreiber, K; Costanzo, P; Cecchi, I; Roccatello, D; Baldovino, S; Bazzan, M; Cuadrado, M J; Sciascia, S

    2017-08-01

    Young adults with acute myocardial infarction are a critical group to examine for the purpose of risk factor stratification and modification. In this study we aimed to assess the clinical utility of the adjusted Global AntiphosPholipid Syndrome Score (aGAPSS) for the risk stratification of acute myocardial infarction in a cohort of young patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The analysis included 83 consecutive APS patients (≤50years old) who presented with arterial or venous thromboembolic events. Data on cardiovascular risk factors and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) positivity were retrospectively collected. The aGAPSS was calculated by adding the points corresponding to the risk factors, based on a linear transformation derived from the ß-regression coefficient as follows: 3 for hyperlipidaemia, 1 for arterial hypertension, 5 for aCL IgG/IgM, 4 for anti-b2 glycoprotein I IgG/IgM and 4 for LA. Higher aGAPSS values were observed in patients with acute myocardial infarction when compared to the others [mean aGAPSS 11.9 (S.D. 4.15, range 4-18) Vs. mean aGAPSS 9.2 (S.D. 5.1, range 1-17); T test: p<0.05]. Significantly higher aGAPSS values were also seen in patients with acute coronary syndrome compared to patients with a history of peripheral or cerebrovascular arterial thrombotic events [mean aGAPSS 11.9 (S.D. 4.15, range 4-18) Vs. mean aGAPSS 6.7 (S.D. 5.7, range 1-17); T test: P<0.005]. The aGAPSS is based upon a quantitative score and could aid risk stratifying APS patients younger than 50years for the likelihood of developing coronary thrombotic events and may guide pharmacological treatment for high-risk patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Computational modeling of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sáez, P; Kuhl, E

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction, commonly known as heart attack, is caused by reduced blood supply and damages the heart muscle because of a lack of oxygen. Myocardial infarction initiates a cascade of biochemical and mechanical events. In the early stages, cardiomyocytes death, wall thinning, collagen degradation, and ventricular dilation are the immediate consequences of myocardial infarction. In the later stages, collagenous scar formation in the infarcted zone and hypertrophy of the non-infarcted zone are auto-regulatory mechanisms to partly correct for these events. Here we propose a computational model for the short-term adaptation after myocardial infarction using the continuum theory of multiplicative growth. Our model captures the effects of cell death initiating wall thinning, and collagen degradation initiating ventricular dilation. Our simulations agree well with clinical observations in early myocardial infarction. They represent a first step toward simulating the progression of myocardial infarction with the ultimate goal to predict the propensity toward heart failure as a function of infarct intensity, location, and size.

  20. Computational modeling of acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, P.; Kuhl, E.

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction, commonly known as heart attack, is caused by reduced blood supply and damages the heart muscle because of a lack of oxygen. Myocardial infarction initiates a cascade of biochemical and mechanical events. In the early stages, cardiomyocytes death, wall thinning, collagen degradation, and ventricular dilation are the immediate consequences of myocardial infarction. In the later stages, collagenous scar formation in the infarcted zone and hypertrophy of the non-infarcted zone are auto-regulatory mechanisms to partly correct for these events. Here we propose a computational model for the short-term adaptation after myocardial infarction using the continuum theory of multiplicative growth. Our model captures the effects of cell death initiating wall thinning, and collagen degradation initiating ventricular dilation. Our simulations agree well with clinical observations in early myocardial infarction. They represent a first step towards simulating the progression of myocardial infarction with the ultimate goal to predict the propensity toward heart failure as a function of infarct intensity, location, and size. PMID:26583449

  1. Alcohol intake modulates the effect of a polymorphism of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene on plasma high density lipoprotein and the risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Fumeron, F; Betoulle, D; Luc, G; Behague, I; Ricard, S; Poirier, O; Jemaa, R; Evans, A; Arveiler, D; Marques-Vidal, P

    1995-01-01

    A polymorphism of the CETP gene (CETP/TaqIB) with two alleles B1 (60%) and B2 (40%) has been investigated in relation to lipid variables and the risk of myocardial infarction in a large case-control study (ECTIM) of men aged 25-64. No association was observed between the polymorphism and LDL or VLDL related lipid variables. Conversely, B2 carriers had reduced levels of plasma CETP (P < 0.0001) and increased levels of HDL cholesterol (P < 0.0001) and of other HDL related lipid variables. The effects of the polymorphism on plasma CETP and HDL cholesterol were independent, suggesting the presence of at least two functional variants linked to B2. A search for these variants on the coding sequence of the CETP gene failed to identify them. The effect of B2 on plasma HDL cholesterol was absent in subjects drinking < 25 grams/d of alcohol but increased commensurably, with higher values of alcohol consumption (interaction: P < 0.0001). A similar interaction was not observed for plasma CETP. The odds-ratio for myocardial infarction of B2 homozygotes decreased from 1.0 in nondrinkers to 0.34 in those drinking 75 grams/d or more. These results provide the first demonstration of a gene-environment interaction affecting HDL cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease risk. PMID:7657837

  2. Patterns of ectopy leading to increased risk of fatal or near-fatal cardiac arrhythmia in patients with depressed left ventricular function after an acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lerma, Claudia; Gorelick, Alexander; Ghanem, Raja N; Glass, Leon; Huikuri, Heikki V

    2013-09-01

    To identify potential new markers for assessing the risk of sudden arrhythmic events based on a method that captures features of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) in relation to sinus RR intervals in Holter recordings (heartprint). Holter recordings obtained 6 weeks after acute myocardial infarction from 227 patients with reduced ventricular function (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%) were used to produce heartprints. Measured indices were: PVCs per hour, standard deviation of coupling interval (SDCI), and the number of occurrences of the most prevalent form of PVCs (SNIB). Predictive values, survival analysis, and Cox regression with adjustment for clinical variables were performed based on primary endpoint, defined as an electrocardiogram-documented fatal or near-fatal arrhythmic event, death from any cause, and cardiac death. High ectopy (PVCs per hour ≥10) was a predictor of all endpoints. Repeating forms of PVCs (SNIB ≥ 83) was a predictor of primary endpoint, hazard ratio = 3.5 (1.3-9.5), and all-cause death, hazard ratio = 2.8 (1.1-7.3), but not cardiac death. SDCI ≤ 80 ms was a predictor of all-cause death and cardiac death, but not of primary endpoint. High ectopy, prevalence of repeating forms of PVCs, and low coupling interval variability are potentially useful risk markers of fatal or near-fatal arrhythmias after myocardial infarction.

  3. Evaluation of 5-year risk of cardiovascular events in patients after acute myocardial infarction using synchronization of 0.1-Hz rhythms in cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, Anton R; Gridnev, Vladimir I; Prokhorov, Mikhail D; Karavaev, Anatoly S; Posnenkova, Olga M; Ponomarenko, Vladimir I; Bezruchko, Boris P; Shvartz, Vladimir A

    2012-07-01

    Synchronization between 0.1-Hz rhythms in cardiovascular system is deteriorated at acute myocardial infarction (AMI) leading to a disruption of natural functional couplings within the system of autonomic regulation. This study evaluates the prognostic value of autonomic regulation indices for the 5-year risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events in patients after AMI. We studied 125 patients (53 [42%] female) after AMI aged between 30 and 83 years. The period of observation was 5 years with checkpoints at the first week after AMI and after each year after AMI. We compared the prognostic value of established clinical characteristics and degree S of synchronization between 0.1-Hz rhythms in heart rate and microcirculation for evaluation of the 5-year risk of mortality and recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) in patients after AMI. Acute heart failure Killip 2-4 at AMI and S < 20% at the first week after AMI were identified as the most important factors for evaluation of the risk of 5-year mortality in patients after AMI (χ(2) = 14.2, P = 0.003). Sensitivity and specificity of low S (<20%) at the first week after AMI were 76% and 43%, respectively. For evaluation of the 5-year risk of recurrent MI index S had no advantage over established clinical characteristics. The value of S below 20% in patients with AMI is a sensitive marker of high risk of mortality during the subsequent five years. It is characterized by better prognostic value than most of established clinical characteristics. ©2012 European Society of Cardiology and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Lymphotoxin-alpha gene and risk of myocardial infarction in 6,928 cases and 2,712 controls in the ISIS case-control study.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Robert; Xu, Peng; Bennett, Derrick; Lewington, Sarah; Zondervan, Krina; Parish, Sarah; Palmer, Alison; Clark, Sarah; Cardon, Lon; Peto, Richard; Lathrop, Mark; Collins, Rory

    2006-07-01

    Lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the immune system and local inflammatory response. LTA is expressed in atherosclerotic plaques and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Polymorphisms in the gene encoding lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) on Chromosome 6p21 have been associated with susceptibility to CHD, but results in different studies appear to be conflicting. We examined the association of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the LTA gene, and their related haplotypes, with risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in the International Study of Infarct Survival (ISIS) case-control study involving 6,928 non-fatal MI cases and 2,712 unrelated controls. The seven SNPs (including the rs909253 and rs1041981 SNPs previously implicated in the risk of CHD) were in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other and contributed to six common haplotypes. Some of the haplotypes for LTA were associated with higher plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (p = 0.004) and lower concentrations of albumin (p = 0.023). However, none of the SNPs or related haplotypes were significantly associated with risk of MI. The results of the ISIS study were considered in the context of six previously published studies that had assessed this association, and this meta-analysis found no significant association with CHD risk using a recessive model and only a modest association using a dominant model (with narrow confidence intervals around these risk estimates). Overall, these studies provide reliable evidence that these common polymorphisms for the LTA gene are not strongly associated with susceptibility to coronary disease.

  5. [The prognostic stratification of the risk of sudden death and sustained ventricular tachycardia after an acute myocardial infarct: which patients should undergo programmed ventricular stimulation?].

    PubMed

    Berisso, M Z; Molini, D; Camerini, A; Mela, G S; Vecchio, C

    1994-05-01

    Programmed ventricular stimulation performed early after acute myocardial infarction allows to identify patients at risk of sudden death and sustained ventricular tachycardia with high degree of predictive accuracy. This procedure, however, because of its invasive nature, is not desirable as a screening test for large numbers of patients. Therefore, it should be performed on a smaller group of postinfarction patients preselected on the basis of noninvasive testing. The aim of the present study was to identify, early after acute myocardial infarction, any procedure among noninvasive testing, able to selected with the highest sensitivity patients at risk of sudden death and sustained ventricular tachycardia to submit to programmed ventricular stimulation. Two hundred and sixty four consecutive patients with recent myocardial infarction were evaluated and followed during a period of 12 months. In each patient 48 epidemiological, clinical and laboratory variables were evaluated. Laboratory variables were acquired between the 7th and the 12th day after the acute event. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only Killip class, the number of ventricular premature depolarizations per hour and the presence of ventricular late potentials were significantly and independently related to the occurrence of sudden death and sustained ventricular tachycardia (F = 18.7; p < 0.00001). Combinations of these variables, determined at cut off levels best discriminating two subgroups of patients at different risk of the end-point events, proved to be able to accurately predict the outcome of our patients. The presence of at least one of the following conditions: Killip class > or = 2, ventricular premature depolarizations > or = 30 per hour, ventricular late potentials allowed to identify a first subgroup of patients at risk with a sensitivity of 100% (p = 0.00007), whereas the presence, at the same time, of all the above mentioned parameters allowed to identify a second

  6. Clinical features of acute corpus callosum infarction patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li-Li; Huang, Yi-Ning; Cui, Zhi-Tang

    2014-01-01

    The clinical manifestation of acute corpus callosum (CC) infarction is lack of specificity and complex, so it is easily missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis in the early stage. The present study aims to describe the clinical features of the acute CC infarction. In this study, 25 patients with corpus callosum infarction confirmed by the brain MRI/DWI and the risk factors were summarized. Patients were classified into genu infarction (3 cases), body infarction (4cases), body and genu infarction (4 cases), body and splenium infarction (1 case), splenium infarction (13 cases) according to lesion location. Clinical manifestation and prognosis were analyzed among groups. The results indicated that CC infarction in patients with high-risk group accounted for 72%, moderate-risk group accounted for 20%, low-risk group (8%). The main risk factors are carotid intimal thickening or plaque formation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cerebral artery stenosis, and so on. The CC infarction often merged with other parts infarction, and splenium infarction had the highest incidence, the clinical symptoms in the body infarction which can appear typical signs and symptoms, but in other parts infarction which always merged many nerve defect symptoms. The body infarction prognosis is poor; the rest parts of infarction are more favorable prognosis. In conclusion, CC infarction has the highest incidence in the stroke of high-risk group; neck color Doppler and TCD examination can be found as early as possible to explore the pathogenic factors. Prognosis is usually much better by treatment according to the location and risk factors. PMID:25197390

  7. Risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing multi-vessel intervention-meta-analysis of randomized trials and risk prediction modeling study using observational data.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Saurav; Kundu, Amartya; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Sardar, Partha; Mehran, Roxana; Bashir, Riyaz; Giri, Jay; Abbott, Jinnette D

    2017-08-01

    Ascertaining risk of contrast induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing multi-vessel percutaneous coronary intervention (MV-PCI). Complete revascularization may improve outcomes in STEMI patients with multi-vessel disease. However, a practice of MV-PCI may be associated with a higher risk of CI-AKI. We aimed to evaluate the risk of CI-AKI in patients with STEMI and MV-PCI and examine the accuracy of a validated risk score. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases from inception through August 31, 2016 for randomized studies comparing CI-AKI rates with MV-PCI and infarct-related artery (IRA) only PCI during index hospitalization. A random effects model was used to estimate the risk ratio (RR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (CI). We queried the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to assess the ability of the Mehran risk score to accurately predict the incidence of CI-AKI in patients undergoing MV-PCI. Four randomized studies (N = 1,602) were included in the final analysis. The risk of CI-AKI was low and no difference was observed with MV-PCI (1.45%) compared with IRA-only (1.94%) (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.34-1.57; P = 0.57). From 2009 to 2012, excluding shock, there were 11,454 MV-PCI for STEMI patients in the NIS. The Mehran risk score accurately discriminated 78% of the patients who developed CI-AKI in this cohort (c-statistic of 0.78, P = 0.002). MV-PCI in STEMI is not associated with a higher risk of CI-AKI and the Mehran risk score can identify patients at higher risk for this complication. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Applications in environmental risk assessment of biochemical analysis on the Indian fresh water fish, Labeo rohita exposed to monocrotophos pesticide.

    PubMed

    Binukumari, S; Devi, K Anusiya; Vasanthi, J

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are widely used in modern agriculture to aid in the production of high quality food. However, some pesticides have the potential to cause serious health and environmental damage. Repeated exposure to sub-lethal doses of pesticides can cause physiological and behavioral changes in fish that reduce populations such as abandonment of nests and broods, decreased immunity to disease and increased failure to avoid predators. Monocrotophos is one of the organophosphorus pesticide used in this study. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of Monocrotophos to fish L. rohita for 96h was found to be 45.1ppm. In sublethal concentration (1/10th of LC50 96h value, 4.51ppm) fishes were exposed for 24, 48, 72, 96h and 10, 20 and 30days. Organs of fishes were sacrificed and tested for biochemical analysis. A significant decrease in protein, carbohydrate and lipids were observed throughout the study period when compared to the control. It is essential for assessing the ecological risk of these pesticides. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Green tea consumption, abdominal obesity as related factors of lacunar infarction in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Ko, S-G; Go, H; Sun, S; Lee, S; Park, W; Choi, Y; Song, Y; Hwang, G; Kim, G; Jeon, C; Park, J; Lee, K; Cha, M; Bang, O; Jung, H; Kim, N; Shin, Y-C

    2011-08-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate interaction of green tea consumption and abdominal obesity as related factors for lacunar infarction in Korean women. A hospital-based, incident case-control study. The Prevention and Managements of Stroke in Women study. Cases (n=233) of first incident lacunar infarction were enrolled and matched by age to stroke-free hospital controls (n=204). The data were collected through face-to-face interviews by well trained research assistants to assess demographic, medical, lifestyle, marital status, religions status, green tea consumptions, family history of stroke, smoking status, alcohol consumption, meat and vegetable intake frequency, and past history of hypertension. Biochemical analysis, fasting blood specimens for lipid, glucose, and cholesterol level were acquired. Compared with the non green tea consumer and obese women group, only the green tea consumption and non obese women group had a protective effect of lacunar infarction when adjusted for age, and age plus diet factors (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.09, 0.59; OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.08, 0.56 respectively), but lost their significance after adjustment for age, diet factors, vascular risk factors and full model included atherogenic index factors (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.09 to 1.01; OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.12, 1.89 respectively). The interaction of green tea consumption and non obesity have reduced risk of lacunar infarction, but not after adjustment for age, diet factors, vascular risk factors and atherogenic index. Also individually green tea consumption and abdominal obesity have failed to find an independent relationship with lacunar infarction after adjustment by all risk factors. Green tea consumption and green tea consumption with non obese group seemed to have a protective effect for lacunar infarction. In the results of our study, these results still remain controversial, and then we need further and larger study to get at the root of real causal effect of both relationships.

  10. [A scale for early assessment of risk of death and myocardial infarction during initial hospitalization of patients with acute coronary syndromes (based on data from the RECORD registry)].

    PubMed

    Érlikh, A D

    2010-01-01

    Independent predictors of death and death or myocardial infarction (MI) during initial hospitalization of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) were determined using database of Russian independent ACS registry RECORD. These predictors (admission Killip class II, ST-segment elevation 1 mm, systolic blood pressure 100 mm Hg, hemoglobin <110 g/L, age 65 years, history of diabetes) were attributed equal weight (1 point) and combined in a prognostic scale for assessment of risk of inhospital death and death or MI. The scale did not include markers of necrosis, and the most time consuming component was measurement of hemoglobin. Sensitivity and specificity of risk scores for prediction of death were 78.5%. The use of GRACE score in this group of patients gave similar results. These preliminary data require confirmation on larger populations of patients with ACS.

  11. Molecular and Functional Differences Induced in Thrombospondin-1 by the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Associated with the Risk of Premature, Familial Myocardial Infarction*

    PubMed Central

    Narizhneva, Natalya V.; Byers-Ward, Vicky J.; Quinn, Martin J.; Zidar, Frank J.; Plow, Edward F.; Topol, Eric J.; Byzova, Tatiana V.

    2006-01-01

    A serine (Ser-700) amino acid rather than an asparagine (Asn-700) at residue 700 of thrombospondin-1 has been linked to an increased risk for development of premature, familial heart attacks. We now have identified both functional and structural differences between the Ser-700 and Asn-700 thrombospondin-1 variants. The Ser-700 variant increased the rate and extent of platelet aggregation and showed increased surface expression on platelets compared with the Asn-700 variant. These differences could be ascribed to an enhanced interaction of the Ser-700 variant with fibrinogen on the platelet surface and are consistent with a prothrombotic phenotype in Ser-700 individuals. The Ser-700 variant thrombospondin-1 was conformationally more labile than the Asn-700 variant as demonstrated by increased susceptibility to proteolytic digestion and enhanced susceptibility to unfolding by denaturants. These data suggest a potential molecular and cellular basis for a genetic risk factor associated with ea