Yger, M; Zavanone, C; Abdennour, L; Koubaa, W; Clarençon, F; Dupont, S; Samson, Y
Introduction. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is becoming widely accepted as a rare cause of both ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke and should be evocated in case of thunderclap headaches associated with stroke. We present the case of a patient with ischemic stroke associated with cortical subarachnoid haemorrhage (cSAH) and reversible diffuse arteries narrowing, leading to the diagnosis of reversible vasoconstriction syndrome. Case Report. A 48-year-old woman came to the emergency department because of an unusual thunderclap headache. The computed tomography of the brain completed by CT-angiography was unremarkable. Eleven days later, she was readmitted because of a left hemianopsia. One day after her admission, she developed a sudden left hemiparesis. The brain MRI showed ischemic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobe and diffuse cSAH. The angiography showed vasoconstriction of the right anterior cerebral artery and stenosis of both middle cerebral arteries. Nimodipine treatment was initiated and vasoconstriction completely regressed on day 16 after the first headache. Conclusion. Our case shows a severe reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome where both haemorrhagic and ischemic complications were present at the same time. The history we reported shows that reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is still underrecognized, in particular in general emergency departments.
Schmidt, J Michael; Rincon, Fred; Fernandez, Andres; Resor, Charles; Kowalski, Robert G; Claassen, Jan; Connolly, E Sander; Fitzsimmons, Brian-Fred M; Mayer, Stephan A
Cerebral infarction is a common complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but usually occurs several days after onset as a complication of vasospasm or aneurysm repair. The frequency, causes, and clinical impact of acute infarction associated with the primary hemorrhage are poorly understood. We evaluated the presence of cerebral infarction on admission CT in 487 patients admitted within 3 days of SAH onset to our center between July 1996 and September 2002. Infarctions due to angiography or treatment complications were rigorously excluded. Outcome at 3 months was assessed with the modified Rankin Scale. A total of 17 patients (3%) had acute infarction on admission CT; eight had solitary and nine had multiple infarcts. Solitary infarcts usually appeared in the vascular territory distal to the ruptured aneurysm, whereas multiple infarcts tended to be territorial and symmetric. Global cerebral edema (P < 0.001), coma on presentation (P = 0.001), intraventricular hemorrhage (P = 0.002), elevated APACHE-II physiological subscores (P = 0.026) and loss of consciousness at onset (P = 0.029) were associated with early cerebral infarction. Mortality (P = 0.003) and death or moderate-to-severe disability (mRS 4-6, P = 0.01) occurred more frequently in the early cerebral infarction group. Early cerebral infarction on CT is a rare but devastating complication of acute SAH. The observed associations with coma, global cerebral edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and loss of consciousness at onset suggest that intracranial circulatory arrest may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder.
Rama-Maceiras, P; Fàbregas Julià, N; Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Hernández-Palazón, J
The high rates of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage due to spontaneous rupture of an intracranial aneurysm are mainly the result of neurologic complications. Sixty years after cerebral vasospasm was first described, this problem remains unsolved in spite of its highly adverse effect on prognosis after aneurysmatic rupture. Treatment is somewhat empirical, given that uncertainties remain in our understanding of the pathophysiology of this vascular complication, which involves structural and biochemical changes in the endothelium and smooth muscle of vessels. Vasospasm that is refractory to treatment leads to cerebral infarction. Prophylaxis, early diagnosis, and adequate treatment of neurologic complications are key elements in the management of vasospasm if neurologic damage, lengthy hospital stays, and increased use of health care resources are to be avoided. New approaches to early treatment of cerebral lesions and cortical ischemia in cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm rupture should lead to more effective, specific management.
Korbakis, Georgia; Prabhakaran, Shyam; John, Sayona; Garg, Rajeev; Conners, James J; Bleck, Thomas P; Lee, Vivien H
To investigate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection of cerebral infarction (CI) in patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). CI is a well-known complication of SAH that is typically detected on computed tomography (CT). MRI has improved sensitivity for acute CI over CT, particularly with multiple, small, or asymptomatic lesions. With IRB approval, 400 consecutive SAH patients admitted to our institution from August 2006 to March 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Traumatic SAH and secondary SAH were excluded. Data were collected on demographics, cause of SAH, Hunt Hess and World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grades, and neuroimaging results. MRIs were categorized by CI pattern as single cortical (SC), single deep (SD), multiple cortical (MC), multiple deep (MD), and multiple cortical and deep (MCD). Among 123 (30.8 %) SAH patients who underwent MRIs during their hospitalization, 64 (52 %) demonstrated acute CI. The mean time from hospital admission to MRI was 5.7 days (range 0-29 days). Among the 64 patients with MRI infarcts, MRI CI pattern was as follows: MC in 20 (31 %), MCD in 18 (28 %), SC in 16 (25 %), SD in 3 (5 %), MD in 2 (3 %), and 5 (8 %) did not have images available for review. Most infarcts detected on MRI (39/64 or 61 %) were not visible on CT. The use of MRI increases the detection of CI in SAH. Unlike CT studies, MRI-detected CI in SAH tends to involve multiple vascular territories. Studies that rely on CT may underestimate the burden of CI after SAH.
Noda, Kazuyuki; Fukae, Jiro; Fujishima, Kenji; Mori, Kentaro; Urabe, Takao; Hattori, Nobutaka; Okuma, Yasuyuki
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by acute severe headache with or without additional neurological symptoms and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction. Unruptured aneurysm has been reported in some cases with RCVS. We report a severe case of a 53-year-old woman with RCVS having an unruptured cerebral aneurysm and presenting as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome, and cerebral infarction. She was successfully treated with corticosteroids and a calcium channel blocker and the aneurysm was clipped. Her various complications are due to the responsible vasoconstriction that started distally and progressed towards proximal arteries. This case demonstrates the spectrum of presentations of RCVS, a clinically complicated condition.
Lai, C-H; Juan, Y-H; Chang, S-L; Lee, W-L; How, C-K; Hsu, T-F
Patients often present to the emergency department with loss of consciousness. The differential diagnosis of such condition may be difficult because of limited clinical information. The authors present a case of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) with initial electrocardiographic (ECG) finding mimicking ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), which was confirmed to resolve in a follow-up study. Accurate and timely diagnosis of SAH-related ST-segment elevation was important, as the therapeutic strategy for SAH is completely different from that for STEMI. If the clinicians do not have other tools for diagnosis, the follow-up ECG may help us make a most possible diagnosis.
Gavalas, M; Meisner, R; Labropoulos, N; Gasparis, A; Tassiopoulos, A
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory vascular disease that most commonly affects the renal and extracranial carotid arteries. We present 3 cases of renal infarction complicating renal artery FMD in 42-, 43-, and 46-year-old females and provide a comprehensive review of the literature on this topic. In our patients, oral anticoagulation therapy was used to treat all cases of infarction, and percutaneous angioplasty was used nonemergently in one case to treat refractory hypertension. All patients remained stable at 1-year follow-up. This is consistent with outcomes in previously published reports where conservative medical management was comparable to surgical and interventional therapies. Demographic differences may also exist in patients with renal infarction and FMD. A higher prevalence of males and a younger age at presentation have been found in these patients when compared to the general population with FMD.
Atalay, Canan; Gundogdu, Betul; Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu
Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is the most serious complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). As vagal nerves have vital roles in lung functions, vagal ischemia may have a causative role in the pathogenesis of NPE. We examined whether there was a relationship between vagal complex ischemia and lung immune complexes occupying the lymph node infarct in SAH. Thirty-two rabbits were divided into three groups: Control (n=5), SHAM (n=5) and SAH group (n=22). SAH was created by autologous blood injection into the cisterna magna and followed-up for 3 weeks. Vasospasm index (VSI) was defined as the ratio of the lung lymph node arteries (LLNA) wall section (wall ring) surface to the lumen surface. Degenerated axon numbers of vagal nerves, neuron densities of the nodose ganglion (NG) and VSIs of LLNA were compared for all groups. The mean degenerated vagal nerve axon density, neuron density of NG, and VSI of LLNA were 26±8/mm < sup > 2 < /sup > , 30±5/mm < sup > 3 < /sup > , and 0.777±0.048 in the control group; 1300±100/mm2, 720±90/mm < sup > 3 < /sup > , and 1.148±0.090 in the animals with slight vasospasm (n=12); and 7300±530/mm < sup > 2 < /sup > , 5610±810/mm3, and 1.500±0.120 in the animals with severe vasospasm (n=10), respectively. Degenerated vagal axon and NG neuron density may be a causative factor in the development of LLNA vasospasm induced lymph node infarct in SAH. Lung lymph node infarct may be an important factor in the prognosis of NPE.
Choi, Kyu-Sun; Yi, Hyeong-Joong
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by sudden-onset headache with focal neurologic deficit and prolonged but reversible multifocal narrowing of the distal cerebral arteries. Stroke, either hemorrhagic or ischemic, is a relatively frequent presentation in RCVS, but progressive manifestations of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction in a patient is seldom described. We report a rare case of a 56-year-old woman with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome consecutively presenting as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral infarction. When she complained of severe headache with subtle cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, her angiography was non-specific. But, computed tomographic angiography showed typical angiographic features of this syndrome after four days. Day 12, she suffered mental deterioration and hemiplegia due to contralateral intracerebral hematoma, and she was surgically treated. For recurrent attacks of headache, medical management with calcium channel blockers has been instituted. Normalized angiographic features were documented after 8 weeks. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome should be considered as differential diagnosis of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and repeated angiography is recommended for the diagnosis of this under-recognized syndrome.
Mathur, Arun; Nagappa, C. Venkatesh
Subarachnoid block (SAB) is an extensively used regional anesthesia technique for many surgeries. Neurological complications are rare following spinal anesthesia. We are reporting neurological complication in a patient the following appendectomy under SAB with unsuspected coagulopathy. The complication was noticed early and managed conservatively with a high dose of intravenous steroid and improved drastically in a short period. PMID:28298799
Axier, Aximujiang; Amuti, Maiwulanjiang; Guohua, Zhu; Xiaojiang, Cheng; Kadeer, Kaheerman; Xixian, Wang; Geng, Dangmurenjiafu; Maimaitili, Aisha
Introduction Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is the most common neurological complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and associated with poor functional outcome and mortality. Reports on incidence and predictors of CVS in Chinese patients with aSAH were scarce. We aimed to estimate the incidence and predictors of angiographic vasospasm (AV), symptomatic vasospasm (SV), and cerebral infarction in Chinese patients with aSAH. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 542 consecutive aSAH patients admitted to neurosurgery department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University in Urumqi city of China between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015. AV, SV and cerebral infarction were defined based on clinical data and neuroimaging findings. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of AV, SV or cerebral infarction. Results 343 (63.3%) patients fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of them, 182(53.1%) developed AV, 99 (28.9%) developed SV, and 87 (25.4%) developed cerebral infarction. A history of hypertension, poor modified Fisher grade (3–4) and poor Hunt-Hess grade (4–5) on admission were common risk factors for AV, SV and cerebral infarction. Patients from Uyghur ethnic group or other minorities were less likely to develop AV, SV or cerebral infarction, compared to those from Han ethic group after adjustment of other potential confounders. Additionally, age ≥53 years, leukocyte count ≥11× 109/L on admission and being current or former smokers were independent risk factors of cerebral infarction. Leukocyte count ≥11× 109/L on admission and aneurysm size ≥ 10 mm were independent risk factors of SV. Serum glucose level ≥7.0 mmol/L on admission was an independent risk factor of AV. Conclusion Risk factors of different definitions of CVS were diverse in Chinese patients with aSAH; however, risk factors of SV and cerebral infarction seem to be similar. We recommend
Lee, Min Hyung; Kim, Sang Uk; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Young Il; Cho, Chul Bum; Yang, Seung Ho; Kim, Il Sup; Hong, Jae Taek; Sung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Sang Won
Non-traumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage (CSAH) is a comparatively infrequent with various vascular and nonvascular causes, it rarely occurs concomitant to acute ischemic stroke. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman, visited emergency room with right side subjective weakness spontaneously. Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted images revealed an acute infarction of anterior cerebral arterial territory. Computed tomographic angiography showed a left frontal CSAH without any vascular lesions. And other laboratory studies were non-specific. We treated with dual antiplatelet drugs (cilostazole [Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. tokyo, Japan] and Aspirin [Bayer Pharma AG., Leverkusen, Germany]). She has done well for a follow-up period. (5 months) This case demonstrates the CSAH with acute infarction is rare but need to work up to identify the etiology and antiplatelet dugs are taken into account for treatments.
Karic, Tanja; Røe, Cecilie; Nordenmark, Tonje Haug; Becker, Frank; Sorteberg, Wilhelm; Sorteberg, Angelika
OBJECTIVE Early rehabilitation is effective in an array of acute neurological disorders but it is not established as part of treatment guidelines after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). This may in part be due to the fear of aggravating the development of cerebral vasospasm, which is the most feared complication of aSAH. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of early rehabilitation and mobilization on complications during the acute phase and within 90 days after aSAH. METHODS This was a prospective, interventional study that included patients with aSAH at the neuro-intermediate ward after aneurysm repair. The control group received standard treatment, whereas the early rehab group underwent early rehabilitation and mobilization in addition to standard treatment. Clinical and radiological characteristics of patients with aSAH, progression in mobilization, and treatment variables were registered. The frequency and severity of cerebral vasospasm, cerebral infarction acquired in conjunction with the aSAH, and acute and chronic hydrocephalus, as well as pulmonary and thromboembolic complications, were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS Clinical and radiological characteristics of patients with aSAH were similar between the groups. The early rehab group was mobilized beginning on the first day after aneurysm repair. The significantly quicker and higher degree of mobilization in the early rehab group did not increase complications. Clinical cerebral vasospasm was not as frequent in the early rehab group and it also tended to be less severe. Each step of mobilization achieved during the first 4 days after aneurysm repair reduced the risk of severe vasospasm by 30%. Acute and chronic hydrocephalus were similar in both groups, but there was a tendency toward earlier shunt implantation among patients in the control group. Pulmonary infections, thromboembolic events, and death before discharge or within 90 days after the ictus were similar between the 2
Iakovlev, G M; Ardashev, V N; Kats, M D; Galkina, T A
A mosaic portrait of variants of the course of myocardial infarction differing in the clinical picture of the first days of the disease was created by means of methods of Boolean algebra and electronic computers. A total of 354 patients with transmural myocardial infarction were examined., The created models allow the development of some complications of myocardial infarction to be prognosticated exact within 90%.
Rama-Maceiras, P; Fàbregas Julià, N; Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Hernández-Palazón, J
Systemic complications secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage from an aneurysm are common (40%) and the mortality attributable to them (23%) is comparable to mortality from the primary lesion, rebleeding, or vasospasm. Although nonneurologic medical complications are avoidable, they worsen the prognosis, lengthen the hospital stay, and generate additional costs. The prevention, early detection, and appropriate treatment of systemic complications will be essential for managing the individual patient's case. Treatment should cover major symptoms (headache, nausea, and dizziness) and ambient noise should be reduced, all with the aim of achieving excellence and improving the patient's perception of quality of care.
Reece, A T; O'Reilly, B; Teasdale, E; Todd, N V
A 64-year-old man had complete excision of an acoustic schwannoma via the translabyrinthine route and the mastoid cavity was packed with fat. Post-operatively there were two episodes of aseptic meningitis and CT scanning demonstrated migration of fat into the basal subarachnoid CSF spaces. This unusual complication should be recognized and differentiated from both true infective meningitis and aseptic meningitis from other causes.
Jabbarli, Ramazan; Reinhard, Matthias; Roelz, Roland; Shah, Mukesch; Niesen, Wolf-Dirk; Kaier, Klaus; Taschner, Christian; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Van Velthoven, Vera
Cerebral infarction (CI) is a crucial complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) associated with poor clinical outcome. We aimed at developing an early risk score for CI based on clinical characteristics available at the onset of SAH. Out of a database containing 632 consecutive patients with SAH admitted to our institution from January 2005 to December 2012, computed tomography (CT) scans up to day 42 after ictus were evaluated for CIs. Different parameters from admission up to aneurysm treatment were collected with subsequent construction of a risk score. Seven clinical characteristics were independently associated with CI and included in the Risk score (BEHAVIOR Score, 0 to 11 points): Blood on CT scan according to Fisher grade ⩾3 (1 point), Elderly patients (age ⩾55 years, 1 point), Hunt&Hess grade ⩾4 (1 point), Acute hydrocephalus requiring external liquor drainage (1 point), Vasospasm on initial angiogram (3 points), Intracranial pressure elevation >20 mm Hg (3 points), and treatment of multiple aneurysms (‘Overtreatment', 1 point). The BEHAVIOR score showed high diagnostic accuracy with respect to the absolute risk for CI (area under curve=0.806, P<0.0001) and prediction of poor clinical outcome at discharge (P<0.0001) and after 6 months (P=0.0002). Further validation in other SAH cohorts is recommended. PMID:25920954
Rubinger, Luc; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Ahmed, Raheel; Rutka, James; Snead, Carter; Widjaja, Elysa
There is some suggestion that microscopic infarct could be associated with invasive monitoring, but it is unclear if the microscopic infarct is also visible on imaging and associated with neurologic deficits. The aims of this study were to assess the rates of microscopic and macroscopic infarct and other major complications of pediatric epilepsy surgery, and to determine if these complications were higher following invasive monitoring. We reviewed the epilepsy surgery data from a tertiary pediatric center, and collected data on microscopic infarct on histology and macroscopic infarct on postoperative computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) done one day after surgery and major complications. Three hundred fifty-two patients underwent surgical resection and there was one death. Forty-two percent had invasive monitoring. Thirty patients (9%) had microscopic infarct. Univariable analyses showed that microscopic infarct was higher among patients with invasive monitoring relative to no invasive monitoring (20% vs. 0.5%, respectively, p < 0.001). Eighteen patients (5%) had macroscopic infarct on CT or MRI. Univariable analysis showed no significant difference in macroscopic infarct between invasive monitoring and no invasive monitoring (8% vs. 3%, respectively, p = 0.085). One patient with microscopic infarct had transient right hemiparesis, and two with both macroscopic and microscopic infarct had unexpected persistent neurologic deficits. Thirty-two major complications (9.1%) were reported, with no difference in major complications between invasive monitoring and no invasive monitoring (10% vs. 7%, p = 0.446). In the multivariable analysis, invasive monitoring increased the odds of microscopic infarct (odds ratio [OR] 15.87, p = 0.009), but not macroscopic infarct (OR 2.6, p = 0.173) or major complications (OR 1.4, p = 0.500), after adjusting for age at surgery, sex, age at seizure onset, operative type, and operative location. Microscopic infarct
Kalvin, Lindsey; Yousefzai, Rayan; Khandheria, Bijoy K.; Paterick, Timothy E.
Postmyocardial infarction ventricular septal defect is an increasingly rare mechanical complication of acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of acute myocardial infarction from right coronary artery occlusion that developed hypotension and systolic murmur 12 hours after successful percutaneous coronary intervention. Although preoperative imaging suggested a large ventricular septal defect and a pseudoaneurysm, intraoperative findings concluded a serpiginous dissection of the ventricular septum. The imaging technicalities are discussed.
Al-Mufti, Fawaz; Roh, David; Lahiri, Shouri; Meyers, Emma; Witsch, Jens; Frey, Hans-Peter; Dangayach, Neha; Falo, Cristina; Mayer, Stephan A; Agarwal, Sachin; Park, Soojin; Meyers, Philip M; Sander Connolly, E; Claassen, Jan; Michael Schmidt, J
OBJECTIVE The clinical significance of cerebral ultra-early angiographic vasospasm (UEAV), defined as cerebral arterial narrowing within the first 48 hours of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), remains poorly characterized. The authors sought to determine its frequency, predictors, and impact on functional outcome. METHODS The authors prospectively studied UEAV in a cohort of 1286 consecutively admitted patients with aSAH between August 1996 and June 2013. Admission clinical, radiographic, and acute clinical course information was documented during patient hospitalization. Functional outcome was assessed at 3 months using the modified Rankin Scale. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were generated to assess predictors of UEAV and its relationship to delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and outcome. Multiple imputation methods were used to address data lost to follow-up. RESULTS The cohort incidence rate of UEAV was 4.6%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that younger age, sentinel bleed, and poor admission clinical grade were significantly associated with UEAV. Patients with UEAV had a 2-fold increased risk of DCI (odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-3.9, p = 0.002) and cerebral infarction (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.9, p = 0.04), after adjusting for known predictors. Excluding patients who experienced sentinel bleeding did not change this effect. Patients with UEAV also had a significantly higher hazard for DCI in a multivariable model. UEAV was not found to be significantly associated with poor functional outcome (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6, p = 0.5). CONCLUSIONS UEAV may be less frequent than has been reported previously. Patients who exhibit UEAV are at higher risk for refractory DCI that results in cerebral infarction. These patients may benefit from earlier monitoring for signs of DCI and more aggressive treatment. Further study is needed to determine the long-term functional significance of UEAV.
Kofler, Mario; Schiefecker, Alois; Ferger, Boris; Beer, Ronny; Sohm, Florian; Broessner, Gregor; Hackl, Werner; Rhomberg, Paul; Lackner, Peter; Pfausler, Bettina; Thomé, Claudius; Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund
Cerebral edema and delayed cerebral infarction (DCI) are common complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and associated with poor functional outcome. Experimental data suggest that the amino acid taurine is released into the brain extracellular space secondary to cytotoxic edema and brain tissue hypoxia, and therefore may serve as a biomarker for secondary brain injury after aSAH. On the other hand, neuroprotective mechanisms of taurine treatment have been described in the experimental setting. We analyzed cerebral taurine levels using high-performance liquid chromatography in the brain extracellular fluid of 25 consecutive aSAH patients with multimodal neuromonitoring including cerebral microdialysis (CMD). Patient characteristics and clinical course were prospectively recorded. Associations with CMD-taurine levels were analyzed using generalized estimating equations with an autoregressive process to handle repeated observations within subjects. CMD-taurine levels were highest in the first days after aSAH (11.2 ± 3.2 µM/l) and significantly decreased over time (p < 0.001). Patients with brain edema on admission or during hospitalization (N = 20; 80 %) and patients developing DCI (N = 5; 20 %) had higher brain extracellular taurine levels compared to those without (Wald = 7.3, df = 1, p < 0.01; Wald = 10.1, df = 1, p = 0.001, respectively) even after adjusting for disease severity and CMD-probe location. There was no correlation between parenteral taurine supplementation and brain extracellular taurine (p = 0.6). Moreover, a significant correlation with brain extracellular glutamate (r = 0.82, p < 0.001), lactate (r = 0.56, p < 0.02), pyruvate (r = 0.39, p < 0.01), potassium (r = 0.37, p = 0.01), and lactate-to-pyruvate ratio (r = 0.24, p = 0.02) was found. Significantly higher CMD-taurine levels were found in patients with brain edema or DCI after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Its value as a
Stovell, Matthew George; Pillay, Robin
Case report. To present a previously unreported complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage and hydrocephalus after C1 lateral mass screw insertion. To inform spine specialists of this potential postoperative complication. Damage to the carotid artery, vertebral artery, hypoglossal nerve and dural tears are all recognized complications. Acute hydrocephalus as a result of subarachnoid hemorrhage is not previously reported. A 63-year-old female with a traumatic C1 ring and C2 peg fracture underwent C1-C2 fixation. During insertion of the C1 lateral mass screws there was significant hemorrhage from the C1-C2 venous plexus. Three days postoperatively, she developed headache, confusion, and became drowsy. Computed tomographic scan of the brain revealed hydrocephalus and intraventricular blood that was managed with an external ventricular drain. The case of acute hydrocephalus due to intraventricular hemorrhage from C1 lateral mass screw placement has not previously been reported. Surgeons performing the procedure should consider the diagnosis if patients display signs of raised intracranial pressure postoperatively. N/A.
Sprenker, Collin; Patel, Jaymin; Camporesi, Enrico; Vasan, Rosit; Van Loveren, Harry; Chen, Henian; Agazzi, Siviero
Common management of angionegative subarachnoid hemorrhage includes mandatory intensive care unit stay for up to 14 days with strict bedrest, constant neurologic serial examination, invasive arterial and central line monitoring, and aneurysm rupture precautions. We evaluated the frequency of neurologic and nonneurologic complications in this patient population. This was a retrospective chart review from July 2008 to 2011. Adult patients with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code for nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage who had angiograms and cranial cat scans (CTs) were evaluated as the first screening measure. Negative screening angiograms constituted our study population and were divided into 2 groups (aneurysmal or perimesencephalic) based on the CT blood pattern. Fifty-one patients met the study criteria (aneurysmal CT, n = 26; perimesencephalic CT pattern, n = 25). There were no incidences of rebleeding or mortality, and patients were discharged after a mean of 15.24 hospital days and a mean of 11 bedrest days. Seventeen patients (65%) in the aneurysmal group developed at least 1 nonneurologic complication compared with 2 patients (8%) in the perimesencephalic group (P = .001). Eleven patients in the aneurysmal group (42.3%) developed at least 1 neurologic complication compared with 1 patient (4%) in the perimesecephalic group (P = .001). Based on our results, we propose admission to the medical floor for patients with World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies score 1 to 3, perimesencephalic CT pattern, and no hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sheldrick, Russell; Tarrier, Nicholas; Berry, Elisabeth; Kincey, John
This study investigated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and illness perceptions in people who suffered the acute medical trauma of a myocardial infarction (MI) or a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The study tested hypotheses regarding changes in PTSD symptoms and illness perceptions over time, associations between PTSD and illness perceptions and cognitive predictors of PTSD. The study employed a longitudinal design and measured the illness perceptions and PTSD symptoms of an MI group (N=17) and a SAH group (N=27). Data were collected within 2 weeks of admission (T1), 6 weeks after admission (T2) and 3 months after admission (T3). Statistical analysis was undertaken to examine associations between illness perceptions and PTSD and to examine cognitive predictors of PTSD. The prevalence of PTSD within the total acute medical trauma sample was 16% at 2 weeks, 35% at 6 weeks and 16% at 3 months. Illness perception factors of identity, timeline (acute/chronic), consequences and emotional representation were strongly correlated with PTSD at all three time points. PTSD symptoms and illness perceptions were shown to have changed over time. The results also showed that several illness perception factors are significant predictors of PTSD. Both PTSD symptoms and illness perceptions changed significantly over time following an MI or SAH. Illness perception factors are significant predictors of PTSD.
Kimura, Shigeyoshi; Igarashi, Takahiro; Kotani, Akio; Katayama, Yoichi
We encountered a case of nontraumatic arterial dissection of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) which exhibited cerebral infarction and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) simultaneously, and whose symptoms were improved by conservative treatment. A 55-year-old female presenting with headache and weakness in her left leg was admitted to our hospital. CT scans on admission revealed SAH in the interhemispheric fissure and surface of the right frontal lobe, but CT scans at 3 days after onset demonstrated cerebral infarction in the medial part of the right frontal lobe. Cerebral angiography on day 6 disclosed an aneurysmal dilatation and narrowing at the right A2-A3 segment. We continued conservative therapy including blood pressure control, since there was no symptomatic deterioration. The aneurysmal dilatation disappeared and the weakness of the left leg also improved. This case indicates that conservative treatment could be an option for the management of nontraumatic arterial dissection of the ACA with simultaneous cerebral infarction and SAH.
Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Kanamaru, Hideki; Morikawa, Atsunori; Kawaguchi, Kenji
Lateral medullary infarction rarely leads to central hypoventilation syndrome (CHS). CHS is a life-threatening disorder characterized by hypoventilation during sleep. We report the first case of CHS as a complication of lateral medullary infarction after endovascular treatment. A 65-year-old man presented twice with severe headache. Computed tomography revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral angiography showed a right vertebral dissecting aneurysm involving the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. After emergent endovascular patent artery occlusion, he developed Wallenberg syndrome and experienced apnea and a conscious disturbance episode due to CHS on postoperative days 6 and 16. Intensive respiratory care including intubation, tracheostomy, mechanical ventilation, and rehabilitation prevented subsequent recurrence of apnea and the CHS resolved completely. CHS after unilateral medullary infarction involving respiratory centers tends to occur in the acute and subacute phase and may be lethal without careful respiratory management.
Mapa, Ben; Taylor, Blake E S; Appelboom, Geoffrey; Bruce, Eliza M; Claassen, Jan; Connolly, E Sander
Hyponatremia is a common metabolic disturbance after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and it may worsen outcomes. This review aims to characterize the effect of hyponatremia on morbidity and mortality after SAH. We sought to determine the prevalence of hyponatremia after SAH, including in subgroups, as well as its effect on mortality and certain outcome measures, including degree of disability and duration of hospitalization. A search of terms "hyponatremia" and "subarachnoid hemorrhage" was performed on PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and EMBASE. Studies were included if they reported prevalence of hyponatremia and if they discussed outcomes such as mortality, duration of stay, functional outcomes (e.g., Glasgow Outcomes Scale), or incidence of complications in patients with aneurysmal SAH. Two independent researchers assessed the titles and abstracts and reviewed articles for inclusion. Thirteen studies met inclusion criteria. The prevalence of at least mild hyponatremia was 859 of 2387 (36%) of patients. Hyponatremia was associated with vasospasm and duration of hospitalization, but it did not influence mortality. Hyponatremia is common after SAH, and there is evidence that it is associated with certain poorer outcomes. Larger, prospective studies are needed to assess these findings and provide further evidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lai Yiliang; Chang Weichou; Kuo Wuhsien; Huang Tienyu; Chu Hengcheng; Hsieh Tsaiyuan; Chang Weikuo
Transarterial chemoembolization has been widely used to treat unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Various complications have been reported, but they have not included acute myocardial infarction. Acute myocardial infarction results mainly from coronary artery occlusion by plaques that are vulnerable to rupture or from coronary spasm, embolization, or dissection of the coronary artery. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present a case report that describes a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent transarterial chemoembolization and died subsequently of acute myocardial infarction. To our knowledge, there has been no previous report of this complication induced by transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma. This case illustrates the need to be aware of acute myocardial infarction when transarterial chemoembolization is planned for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, especially in patients with underlying coronary artery disease.
Cremers, Charlotte H P; Vos, Pieter C; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Dankbaar, Jan Willem
Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) can be reversible or progress to cerebral infarction. In patients with a deterioration clinically diagnosed as DCI, we investigated whether CT perfusion (CTP) can distinguish between reversible ischemia and ischemia progressing to cerebral infarction. From a prospectively collected series of aSAH patients, we included those with DCI, CTP on the day of clinical deterioration, and follow-up imaging. In qualitative CTP analyses (visual assessment), we calculated positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of a perfusion deficit for infarction on follow-up imaging. In quantitative analyses, we compared perfusion values of the least perfused brain tissue between patients with and without infarction by using receiver-operator characteristic curves and calculated a threshold value with PPV and NPV for the perfusion parameter with the highest area under the curve. In qualitative analyses of 33 included patients, 15 of 17 patients (88%) with and 6 of 16 patients (38%) without infarction on follow-up imaging had a perfusion deficit during clinical deterioration (p = 0.002). Presence of a perfusion deficit had a PPV of 71% (95%CI: 48-89%) and NPV of 83% (95%CI: 52-98%) for infarction on follow-up. Quantitative analyses showed that an absolute minimal cerebral blood flow (CBF) threshold of 17.7 mL/100 g/min had a PPV of 63% (95%CI: 41-81%) and a NPV of 78% (95%CI: 40-97%) for infarction. CTP may differ between patients with DCI who develop infarction and those who do not. For this purpose, qualitative evaluation may perform marginally better than quantitative evaluation.
Fukuda, Hitoshi; Lo, Benjamin; Yamamoto, Yu; Handa, Akira; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Kurosaki, Yoshitaka; Yamagata, Sen
OBJECTIVE Plasma D-dimer levels elevate during acute stages of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and are associated with poor functional outcomes. However, the mechanism in which D-dimer elevation on admission affects functional outcomes remains unknown. The aim of this study is to clarify whether D-dimer levels on admission are correlated with systemic complications after aneurysmal SAH, and to investigate their additive predictive value on conventional risk factors for poor functional outcomes. METHODS A total of 187 patients with aneurysmal SAH were retrospectively analyzed from a single-center, observational cohort database. Correlations of plasma D-dimer levels on admission with patient characteristics, initial presentation, neurological complications, and systemic complications were identified. The authors also evaluated the additive value of D-dimer elevation on admission for poor functional outcomes by comparing predictive models with and without D-dimer. RESULTS D-dimer elevation on admission was associated with increasing age, female sex, and severity of SAH. Patients with higher D-dimer levels had increased likelihood of nosocomial infections (OR 1.22 [95% CI 1.07-1.39], p = 0.004), serum sodium disorders (OR 1.11 [95% CI 1.01-1.23], p = 0.033), and cardiopulmonary complications (OR 1.20 [95% CI 1.04-1.37], p = 0.01) on multivariable analysis. D-dimer elevation was an independent risk factor of poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale Score 3-6, OR 1.50 [95% CI 1.15-1.95], p = 0.003). A novel prediction model with D-dimer had significantly better discrimination ability for poor outcomes than conventional models without D-dimer. CONCLUSIONS Elevated D-dimer levels on admission were independently correlated with systemic complication, and had an additive value for outcome prediction on conventional risk factors after aneurysmal SAH.
Shimoda, Yoshiteru; Ohtomo, Satoru; Arai, Hiroaki; Ohtoh, Takashi; Tominaga, Teiji
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) causes cerebral infarction, typically, lacunar infarction in the basal ganglia. However, massive cerebral infarction leading to death is rare and its pathophysiology is unclear. We report a case of CM causing massive cerebellar infarction, which led to cerebral herniation and death. A 56-year-old man who suffered from dizziness and gait disturbance for one month was admitted to our hospital and subsequently diagnosed with a cerebellar infarction. He had a past medical history of hepatitis type B virus infection and hepatic failure. Although the findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imitated an arterial infarction of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, an accompanying irregular peripheral edema was observed. The ischemic lesion progressed, subsequently exerting a mass effect and leading to impaired consciousness. External and internal decompression surgeries were performed. Cryptococcus neoformans was confirmed in the surgical specimen, and the patient was diagnosed with CM. In addition, venule congestion in the parenchyma was observed with extensive fibrosis and compressed veins in the subarachnoid space. The patient died 26 days after admission. Autopsy revealed that pathological changes were localized in the cerebellum. C. neoformans can induce extensive fibrosis of the subarachnoid space, which may compress small veins mechanically inducing venule congestion and massive cerebral infarction. In such cases, the clinical course can be severe and even rapidly fatal. An atypical pattern of infarction on MRI should alert clinicians to the possibility of C. neoformans infection.
The value of echocardiography as a tool for evaluating the prognosis of patients after myocardial infarction lies in its ability to define the region and extent of ischemic damage. Additionally, echocardiography is useful in assessing and predicting postinfarction complications. Wall motion abnormalities, pericardial effusion, left ventricular thrombi, and left ventricular aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms can be detected using echocardiography. The severity of mitral regurgitation and the location of interventricular septal repture can also be assessed using echocardiography. This diagnostic tool can provide vital information regarding the appropriate clinical management of patients after myocardial infarction. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991; 18:237-42) Images PMID:15227405
Schmidt, J. Michael; Sow, Daby; Crimmins, Michael; Albers, David; Agarwal, Sachin; Claassen, Jan; Connolly, E. Sander; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Hripcsak, George; Mayer, Stephan A.
Introduction We sought to determine if monitoring heart rate variability (HRV) would enable preclinical detection of secondary complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods We studied 236 SAH patients admitted within the first 48 hours of bleed onset, discharged after SAH day 5, and had continuous electrocardiogram records available. The diagnosis and date of onset of infections and DCI events were prospectively adjudicated and documented by the clinical team. Continuous ECG was collected at 240 Hz using a high-resolution data acquisition system. The Tompkins Hamilton algorithm was used to identify R-R intervals excluding ectopic and abnormal beats. Time, frequency, and regularity domain calculations of HRV were generated over the first 48 hours of ICU admission and 24 hours prior to the onset of each patient's first complication, or SAH day 6 for control patients. Clinical prediction rules to identify infection and DCI events were developed using bootstrap aggregation and cost sensitive meta-classifiers. Results The combined infection and DCI model predicted events 24 hours prior to clinical onset with high sensitivity (87%) and moderate specificity (66%), and was more sensitive than models that predicted either infection or DCI. Models including clinical and HRV variables together substantially improved diagnostic accuracy (AUC 0.83) compared to models with only HRV variables (AUC 0.61). Conclusions Changes in HRV after SAH reflect both delayed ischemic and infectious complications. Incorporation of concurrent disease severity measures substantially improves prediction compared to using HRV alone. Further research is needed to refine and prospectively evaluate real-time bedside HRV monitoring after SAH. PMID:24610353
Reznik, Michael E; Schmidt, J Michael; Mahta, Ali; Agarwal, Sachin; Roh, David J; Park, Soojin; Frey, Hans Peter; Claassen, Jan
Agitated delirium is frequent following acute brain injury, but data are limited in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We examined incidence, risk factors, and consequences of agitation in these patients in a single-center retrospective study. We identified all patients treated with antipsychotics or dexmedetomidine from a prospective observational cohort of patients with spontaneous SAH. Agitation was confirmed by chart review. Outcomes were assessed at 12 months using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), and Lawton IADL (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living) scores. Independent predictors were identified using logistic regression. From 309 SAH patients admitted between January 2011 and December 2015, 52 (17 %) developed agitation, frequently in the first 72 h (50 %) and in patients with Hunt-Hess grades 3-4 (12 % of grades 1-2, 28 % of grades 3-4, 8 % of grade 5). There was also a significant association between agitation and a history of cocaine use or prior psychiatric diagnosis. Agitated patients were more likely to develop multiple hospital complications; and in half of these patients, complications were diagnosed within 24 h of agitation onset. Agitation was associated with IADL impairment at 12 months (Lawton >8; p = 0.03, OR 2.7, 95 % CI, 1.1-6.8) in non-comatose patients (Hunt-Hess 1-4), but not with functional outcome (mRS >3), cognitive impairment (TICS ≤30), or ICU/hospital length of stay after controlling for other predictors. Agitation occurs frequently after SAH, especially in non-comatose patients with higher clinical grades. It is associated with the development of multiple hospital complications and may have an independent impact on long-term outcomes.
Assomull, Ravi; Cannell, Timothy M; Prasad, Sanjay K
The article discusses the growing role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in both the diagnosis of myocardial infarction and its subsequent management, including the management of any resulting complications. The current roles of magnetic resonance coronary angiography and magnetic resonance perfusion are also reviewed.
Ivanidze, J; Kesavabhotla, K; Kallas, O N; Mir, D; Baradaran, H; Gupta, A; Segal, A Z; Claassen, J; Sanelli, P C
Patients with SAH are at increased risk of delayed infarction. Early detection and treatment of delayed infarction remain challenging. We assessed blood-brain barrier permeability, measured as permeability surface area product, by using CTP in patients with SAH with delayed infarction. We performed a retrospective study of patients with SAH with delayed infarction on follow-up NCCT. CTP was performed before the development of delayed infarction. CTP data were postprocessed into permeability surface area product, CBF, and MTT maps. Coregistration was performed to align the infarcted region on the follow-up NCCT with the corresponding location on the CTP maps obtained before infarction. Permeability surface area product, CBF, and MTT values were then obtained in the location of the subsequent infarction. The contralateral noninfarcted region was compared with the affected side in each patient. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were performed to determine statistical significance. Clinical data were collected at the time of CTP and at the time of follow-up NCCT. Twenty-one patients with SAH were included in the study. There was a statistically significant increase in permeability surface area product in the regions of subsequent infarction compared with the contralateral control regions (P < .0001). However, CBF and MTT values were not significantly different in these 2 regions. Subsequent follow-up NCCT demonstrated new delayed infarction in all 21 patients, at which time 38% of patients had new focal neurologic deficits. Our study reveals a statistically significant increase in permeability surface area product preceding delayed infarction in patients with SAH. Further investigation of early permeability changes in SAH may provide new insights into the prediction of delayed infarction. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
[Spontaneous dissection of the anterior cerebral artery that simultaneously presented with cerebral infarction and subarachnoid hemorrhage, successfully treated with conservative management: a case report].
Nanbara, Sho; Tsutsumi, Keisuke; Takahata, Hideaki; Fujimoto, Takashi; Kawahara, Ichiro; Ono, Tomonori; Toda, Keisuke; Baba, Hiroshi; Yonekura, Masahiro
We recently encountered a rare case of anterior cerebral artery dissection (ACAD) that accompanied fresh cerebral infarction (CI) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). An initial head CT showed a thin SAH in the interhemispheric cistern and cortical sulcus of the left frontal surface. Subsequent MRI performed 10 min after head CT scan revealed a fresh infarction in the left ACA region. MR-and digital subtraction angiograms demonstrated a dissection in the A2 portion of the left ACA with a leak of contrast media around the left A3 portion, suggesting that the bleeding occurred in a distal portion of the main dilation. Without anti-thrombotic therapy, the patient recovered without complications by blood pressure control and administration of brain-function protection therapies. We found 11 cases similar to the present case in the literature. All cases presented with lower-extremity dominant hemiparesis; however, sudden onset headache was rare. Blood pressure was not well-controlled in 4 out of the 6 known hypertensive cases. Main sites of dissection were located at the A2 portion in all cases except one A3 lesion, and extended to A3 in 2 cases. Conservative therapy led to favorable outcome in 8 cases, while 4 cases underwent surgical interventions for increasing risk of aneurysm rupture after initial observational therapies. Re-bleeding did not occur in any of the 12 cases reviewed. These data suggest that conservative treatment can be considered for an initial management of ACAD with simultaneous CI and SAH. More evidence needs to be accumulated to establish the optimal therapeutic approach for ACAD associated with CI and SAH.
Gadwalkar, S R; Bushan, S; Pramod, K; Gouda, Chandra; Kumar, P M
Complications following scorpion sting are common in India and can be fatal. Stroke following scorpion sting is a rare complication and can occur by various mechanisms such as hypertension, hypotension, DIC, myocarditis and venom-induced vasculitis. We present a rare case of extensive cerebellar infarction following scorpion sting, which has rarely been reported in medical literature. To study the clinical profile of two patients presenting with an acute onset of cerebellar symptoms following a scorpion sting. To evaluate the possible causes of the stroke and to study the relation of their symptoms to the scorpion sting. Two young women presented with a history of acute onset of dysarthria, ataxia and incoordination following scorpion sting. They did not have any known risk factors for stroke. They had cerebellar type of dysarthria and cerebellar signs on both sides along with incoordination. A CT-scan of the brain showed bilateral extensive cerebellar infarctions. They were investigated for other causes of stroke without any positive results. With treatment the patients made a gradual but complete recovery. Since there was no evidence of hypertension, hypotension, myocarditis or disseminated intravascular coagulation, we can conclude that the patients had suffered a thrombotic stroke caused by the vasculotoxic action of the scorpion venom.
Manto, Andrea; De Gennaro, Angela; Manzo, Gaetana; Serino, Antonietta; Quaranta, Gaetano; Cancella, Claudia
Summary Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be associated with acute cardiopulmonary complications, like neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) and Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy (TCM). These dysfunctions seem to result from a neurogenically induced overstimulation of the sympathetic nervous system through the brain-heart connection and often complicate poor grade aneurysmal SAH. The optimal treatment modality and timing of intervention in this clinical setting have not been established yet. Early endovascular therapy seems to be the fitting treatment in this particular group of patients, in which surgical clipping is often contraindicated due to the added risk of craniotomy. Herein we describe the case of a woman admitted to the emergency department with aneurysmal SAH complicated by NPE-TCM, in which early endovascular coiling was successfully performed. Our case, characterized by a favorable outcome, further supports the evidence that early endovascular treatment should be preferred in this peculiar clinical scenario. PMID:24976204
Manto, Andrea; De Gennaro, Angela; Manzo, Gaetana; Serino, Antonietta; Quaranta, Gaetano; Cancella, Claudia
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be associated with acute cardiopulmonary complications, like neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) and Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy (TCM). These dysfunctions seem to result from a neurogenically induced overstimulation of the sympathetic nervous system through the brain-heart connection and often complicate poor grade aneurysmal SAH. The optimal treatment modality and timing of intervention in this clinical setting have not been established yet. Early endovascular therapy seems to be the fitting treatment in this particular group of patients, in which surgical clipping is often contraindicated due to the added risk of craniotomy. Herein we describe the case of a woman admitted to the emergency department with aneurysmal SAH complicated by NPE-TCM, in which early endovascular coiling was successfully performed. Our case, characterized by a favorable outcome, further supports the evidence that early endovascular treatment should be preferred in this peculiar clinical scenario.
Ono, Hideaki; Inoue, Tomohiro; Suematsu, Shinya; Tanishima, Takeo; Tamura, Akira; Saito, Isamu; Saito, Nobuhito
Spontaneous intracranial arterial dissection (IAD) is an increasingly important cause of stroke, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and hemodynamic or thromboembolic cerebral ischemia. IAD usually occurs in the posterior circulation, and is relatively rare in the anterior circulation including the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Various surgical and endovascular methods to reduce blood flow in the dissected lesion have been proposed, but no optimum treatment has been established. An 80-year-old woman with dissection in the M1 portion of the MCA manifesting as SAH presented with repeated hemorrhage and cerebral infarction in the area of the inferior trunk of the MCA. High-flow bypass to the MCA was performed and the dissecting lesion was trapped. Prevention of repeated hemorrhage was achieved, and blood flow was preserved to the lenticulostriate artery as well as the MCA area distal to the lesion. Treatment strategy for IAD of the MCA should be planned for each patient and condition, and surgery should be performed promptly to prevent critical rebleeding given the high recurrence rate. In addition, preventing re-rupture of the IAD, and preserving important perforators around the lesion and blood flow distal to the dissection should be targeted by the treatment strategy.
Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Mbaye, Alassane; Kagambega, Larissa Justine; Dioum, Momar; Diagne-Sow, Dior; Kane, Moussa; Diack, Bouna; Kane, Abdoul
Acute myocardial infarction is a rare complication of dobutamine stress echocardiography. We describe the case of a diabetic patient who presented with an anterior myocardial infarction complicated by an acute pulmonary oedema and cardiogenic collapse during dobutamine stress echocardiography, requiring five days' hospitalisation. Coronarography could not be performed because of inadequate medical facilities.
Cerebral blood flow thresholds predicting new hypoattenuation areas due to macrovascular ischemia during the acute phase of severe and complicated aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A preliminary study.
Chieregato, A; Tanfani, A; Noto, A; Fronza, S; Cocciolo, F; Fainardi, E
Focal ischemia may affect patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and the potential evolution of cerebral infarction may greatly influence the patients' outcome. The aim of the study was to assess the values of regional cortical cerebral blood flow (rCBF) thresholds predictive for ischemia during the acute phase of SAH. In 34 patients affected by poor grade or complicated SAH, 52 pairs of Xenon-CT (Xe-CT) studies of regional CBF were analyzed, in which the follow-up Xe-CT study was obtained no later than 72 hours after the baseline study. Corresponding cortical ROIs were placed in the perimeter of the cortex on both the Xe-CT studies. A blinded, experienced neuroradiologist classified for each ROI, the development of a new hypoattenuation at the unenhanced CT images included in the follow-up Xe-CT, while another independent investigator collected rCBF levels of the ROI in the baseline Xe-CT study. New hypoattenuation developed in 3.94% of the ROIs in the paired follow-up Xe-CT studies, and these evolving ROIs were associated with a lower rCBF in baseline Xe-CT. However, the positive predictive value of rCBF levels for the development of new hypoattenuation was only moderately predictive (28.3%) for very low physiological values (5 ml/100gr/min). The results suggest that there is no absolute rCBF threshold ofischemia in severe and complicated SAH patients and that the rCBF values are only moderately predictive at levels lower than previously described.
... into the compartment surrounding the brain, the subarachnoid space and is therefore also known as a subarachnoid ... leak into the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) in the space around the brain (subarachnoid space). The pool of ...
A prospective study of acute cerebrovascular disease in the community: the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project--1981-86. 2. Incidence, case fatality rates and overall outcome at one year of cerebral infarction, primary intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhage.
Bamford, J; Sandercock, P; Dennis, M; Burn, J; Warlow, C
The age and sex specific incidence rates for cerebral infarction, primary intracerebral haemorrhage and subarachnoid haemorrhage in a population of approximately 105,000 are presented. Over four years 675 patients with a first-ever stroke were registered with the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project. The pathological diagnosis was confirmed by computerised tomography (CT) scan, necropsy or lumbar puncture (cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage only) in 78% of cases and a further 17% were diagnosed according to the Guy's Hospital Stroke Diagnostic Score. The proportion of all first-ever strokes by pathological type was: cerebral infarction 81% (95% confidence interval 78-84), primary intracerebral haemorrhage 10% (8-12), subarachnoid haemorrhage 5% (3-7) and uncertain type 5% (3-7). These proportions are similar to other community-based studies. The overall 30 day case fatality rate was 19% (16-22), that for cerebral infarction being 10% (7-13), primary intracerebral haemorrhage 50% (38-62) and subarachnoid haemorrhage 46% (29-63). One year post stroke 23% (19-27) with cerebral infarction were dead and 65% (60-70) of survivors were functionally independent. The figures for primary intracerebral haemorrhage were 62% (43-81) dead and 68% (50-86) of survivors functionally independent and for subarachnoid haemorrhage were 48% (24-72) dead and 76% (56-96) of survivors functionally independent. There are important differences between these rates and those from other sources possibly due to more complete case ascertainment in our study. Nevertheless, the generally more optimistic early prognosis in our study, particularly for cases of cerebral infarction, has important implications for the planning of clinical trials and for the expected impact that any treatment might have on the general population. PMID:2303826
Matsubara, Noriaki; Miyachi, Shigeru; Okamaoto, Takeshi; Izumi, Takashi; Asai, Takumi; Yamanouchi, Takashi; Ota, Keisuke; Oda, Keiko; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko
Spinal cord infarction is an unusual complication of intracranial neuroendovascular intervention. The authors report on two cases involving spinal cord infarction after endovascular coil embolization for large basilar-tip aneurysms. Each aneurysm was sufficiently embolized by the stent/balloon combination-assisted technique or double catheter technique. However, postoperatively, patients presented neurological symptoms without cranial nerve manifestation. MRI revealed multiple infarctions at the cervical spinal cord. In both cases, larger-sized guiding catheters were used for an adjunctive technique. Therefore, guiding catheters had been wedged in the vertebral artery (VA). The wedge of the VA and flow restriction may have caused thromboemboli and/or hemodynamic insufficiency of the spinal branches from the VA (radiculomedullary artery), resulting in spinal cord infarction. Spinal cord infarction should be taken into consideration as a complication of endovascular intervention for lesions of the posterior circulation.
Chebbi, Wafa; Jerbi, Saida; Klii, Rym; Alaya, Wafa; Mestiri, Sarra; Zantour, Baha; Sfar, Mohamed Habib
Diabetic muscle infarction (DMI) is a rare complication of long-standing poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. We herein describe the case of a 56-year-old man with a 10-year history of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus with multiple microvascular and macrovascular complications who presented with the sudden onset of left thigh pain and swelling. MRI suggested muscle infarction. A muscle biopsy demonstrated coagulation necrosis in the skeletal muscle with inflammation and infarction in the walls of small blood vessels. Physicians should consider DMI in the differential diagnosis of patients with diabetes who present with painful, swollen muscles without systemic signs of infection.
Cornejo, Rodrigo; Romero, Carlos; Ugalde, Diego; Bustos, Patricio; Diaz, Gonzalo; Galvez, Ricardo; Llanos, Osvaldo; Tobar, Eduardo
We report the successful treatment of two patients with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage complicated by severe respiratory failure and refractory septic shock using simultaneous prone position ventilation and high-volume hemofiltration. These rescue therapies allowed the patients to overcome the critical situation without associated complications and with no detrimental effects on the intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Prone position ventilation is now an accepted therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, and high-volume hemofiltration is a non-conventional hemodynamic support that has several potential mechanisms for improving septic shock. In this manuscript, we briefly review these therapies and the related evidence. When other conventional treatments are insufficient for providing safe limits of oxygenation and perfusion as part of basic neuroprotective care in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, these rescue therapies should be considered on a case-by-case basis by an experienced critical care team. PMID:25028955
Milhous, J Gerrit-Jan; Heijmen, Robin H; Ball, Egbert T; Plokker, H W Thijs
Herein is described the case of a 79-year-old woman who underwent elective aortic valve replacement. The procedure was complicated by a particulate embolism into the left anterior descending artery leading to a myocardial infarction, complicated by ventricular septal rupture. Subsequently, the patient was reoperated on and the septal defect closed successfully, with an uneventful recovery.
Jeon, Byung Chan; Oh, Hyung Suk; Kim, Young Soo; Chun, Bong Kwon
A 41-yr-old man was admitted with acute headache, neck stiffness, and febrile sensation. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed pleocytosis, an increased protein level and, a decreased glucose concentration. No organisms were observed on a culture study. An imaging study revealed pituitary macroadenoma with hemorrhage. On the 7th day of the attack, confusion, dysarthria, and right-sided facial paralysis and hemiparesis were noted. Cerebral infarction on the left basal ganglia was confirmed. Neurologic deficits gradually improved after removal of the tumor by endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal approach. It is likely that the pituitary apoplexy, aseptic chemical meningitis, and cerebral infarction are associated with each other. This rare case can serve as a prime example to clarify the chemical characteristics of pituitary apoplexy. PMID:18162729
Bul'on, V V; Khnychenko, L K; Sapronov, N S; Kovalenko, A L; Alekseeva, L E
The possibility of using a combined preparation cytoflavine was studied on rats with myocardial infarction induced by coronary artery occlusion. The drug produces a positive action upon the energy exchange and the lipid peroxidation process and normalizes functioning of the system of antioxidant protection of the ischemized myocardium. Cytoflavine treatment led to a more favorable course of ischemic and necrotic processes and optimum organization of the necrosis zones.
Curcio Ruigómez, A; Martín Jiménez, J; Wilhelmi Ayza, M; Soria Delgado, J L
We present a case of double post acute myocardial infarction complication: ventricular septal defect and acute and severe mitral insufficiency. As a consequence of the delay in the diagnosis, the patient developed pulmonary hypertension with values at the systemic level. The patient underwent surgery in order to close the ventricular septal defect and aneurysmectomy, resulting in posterior regression of mitral insufficiency and pulmonary circuit values became normal. The ethology, diagnosis, evolution and treatment of this exceptional association of acute post myocardial infarction complications are discussed.
Chen, Yu-Wei; Sim, Ming-Ming; Smith, Eric E
Diagnostic and interventional percutaneous coronary catheterization is associated with stroke. Many of such strokes are asymptomatic, but some are devastating. Once the diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction is confirmed, thrombolytic therapy should be administrated within the time window of 3 hours. We report a 61-year-old woman who suffered from an acute cerebral infarction during diagnostic cardiac catheterization for unstable angina, which manifested as sudden onset of global aphasia, right hemiplegia and gaze preponderance to the left side. Computed tomography of the head performed immediately after recognition of the symptoms showed a hyperdense middle cerebral artery (MCA) sign. Following prompt recognition and diagnosis, intravenous thrombolytic therapy was administered 2 hours after symptom onset. The patient had a favorable outcome. Initially, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 21, and 24 hours later it improved to 9. The hyperdense MCA lesion had resolved on the 24-hour follow-up scan. This case illustrates the clinical benefit of thrombolytic therapy in the setting of acute stroke associated with cardiac catheterization.
Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael; Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Gutiérrez-Paternina, Juan José
acute otitis media is a frequent disease in the pediatric age. About 2 % of all cases develop intracranial complications such as meningitis. The cerebral infarction originates meningitis and usually occurs in the venous system. The presence of a cerebral artery infarction secondary to acute otitis media is a rare cause described in the literature. a girl of 12 months who presented a febrile syndrome due to acute otitis media and mental confusion. On physical examination, she appeared sleepy with anisocoria, mydriasis in the right eye and left hemiparesis. The computed tomography examination showed extensive cerebral artery infarction. The patient's parents refused the proposed surgical treatment and the girl died 48 hours later. regardless of the current technological advances, the clinical prognosis of cerebral infarction associated with acute otitis media is bad. The focused neurological signs and progressive clinical deterioration should raise suspicion that antimicrobial therapy is not effective.
Pakhrova, O A; Kudriashova, M V; Grineva, M R; Mishina, I E
The sampling of 60 patients with acute myocardium infarction underwent a complex study of hemoreologic indicators with purpose to establish predictors of development of early complications of diseases to substantiate additions to algorithm of examination and to differentiate treatment regimens. It is established that under acute myocardium infarction the blood viscosity increases on low velocity of shifting and plasma. Also, the process of aggregation of erythrocytes increases and number of normocytes decreases without significant alterations of blood viscosity on high velocity of shift and capacity of erythrocytes to be distorted. At the same time, the mentioned above alterations in patients with acute myocardium infarction does not result in decreasing of effectiveness oftransportation of oxygen to tissues. Against the background of development the hemoreologic disorders have more apparent character and result in progressive decreasing of tissue perfusion. The most significant prognostic indicator concerning complications of acute myocardium infarction is a time parameter of increment of aggregation of erythrocytes surpassing 2.80 in 89% of patients with complications. The expedience of inclusion of detection of reologic blood indicators fir their subsequent correction in the complex of examination ofpatients with acute myocardium infarction.
Jenny, Benjamin E; Almanaseer, Yassar
Infective endocarditis complicated by abscess formation and coronary artery compression is a rare clinical event with a high mortality rate, and diagnosis requires a heightened degree of suspicion. We present the clinical, angiographic, and echocardiographic features of a 73-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea and was found to have right coronary artery compression that was secondary to abscess formation resulting from diffuse infectious endocarditis. We discuss the patient's case and briefly review the relevant medical literature. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of abscess formation involving a native aortic valve and the right coronary artery.
Serpytis, Pranas; Kibarskis, Aleksandras; Katkus, Rimgaudas; Samalavicius, Robertas; Glaveskaite, Sigita; Rackauskas, Gediminas
Therapeutic hypothermia is method used to improve the neurological status of patients who are at risk of ischaemia after myocardial infarction. We report a case of a 28-year-old woman who suffered acute myocardial infarction complicated by ventricular fibrillation. The patient was successfully resuscitated. Invasive and non-invasive medical treatment was applied including therapeutic hypothermia. Success was achieved due to adequate public reaction, fast transportation, blood vessel revascularization and application of therapeutic hypothermia. The patient was successfully discharged after one week of treatment, and just minor changes in heart function were present. PMID:24570755
Morishita, Takashi; Okun, Michael S; Burdick, Adam; Jacobson, Charles E; Foote, Kelly D
Despite numerous reports on the morbidity and mortality of deep brain stimulation (DBS), cerebral venous infarction has rarely been reported. We present four cases of venous infarct secondary to DBS surgery. The diagnosis of venous infarction was based on 1) delayed onset of new neurologic deficits on postoperative day 1 or 2; 2) significant edema surrounding the superficial aspect of the implanted lead, with or without subcortical hemorrhage on CT scan. Four cases (0.8% per lead, 1.3% per patient) of symptomatic cerebral venous infarction were identified out of 500 DBS lead implantation procedures between July 2002 and August 2009. All four patients had Parkinson's disease. Their DBS leads were implanted in the subthalamic nucleus (n = 2), and the globus pallidus internus (n = 2). Retrospective review of the targeting confirmed that the planned trajectory passed within 3 mm of a cortical vein in two cases for which contrast-enhanced preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was available. In the other two cases, contrasted targeting images were not obtained preoperatively. Cerebral venous infarction is a potentially avoidable, but serious complication. To minimize its incidence, we propose the use of high-resolution, contrast-enhanced, T1-weighted MR images to delineate cerebral venous anatomy, along with careful stereotactic planning of the lead trajectory to avoid injury to venous structures. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.
Bareiss, P; Eisenmann, B; Class, J J; Pasquali, J L; Sauder, P; Kieny, R; Warter, J
The authors report the case of a 53 year old patient who required operation on the 5th day after postero-inferior myocardical infarction for a poorly tolerated perforation of the ventricular septum. In discussing this case, they recall that the results for surgical repair of septal perforations complicating myocardial infarction are poorer when the infarction is posterior than when it is anterior. They suggest that this difference in prognosis is in large part due to the customary use in postero-inferior infarcts, of the right transventricular approach, which does not allow the infarct to be resected at the same time as the septum is closed. They finish by recommending the systematic use of a diaphragmatic approach to the left ventricle, including resection of the infarct, for all cases of septal perforations with posterior infarction in which surgery is necessary.
Bucknall, C; Darley, C; Flax, J; Vincent, R; Chamberlain, D
Vasculitis developed in six of 253 patients treated with intravenous anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex (APSAC) after acute myocardial infarction. All patients recovered spontaneously with no evidence of renal impairment and no long term sequelae. Although leucocytoclastic vasculitis and serum sickness have been reported after streptokinase treatment, such allergic reactions have not been described as a complication of other thrombolytic agents. Images Figure PMID:2963655
Mishra, Ankita; Depaz, Hector; Ahmed, Leaque
Obesity is becoming a global health burden along with its comorbidities. It imposes tremendous financial burden and health costs worldwide. Surgery has emerged as the definitive treatment option for morbidly obese patients with comorbidities. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is performed now more than ever making it imperative for physicians and surgeons to recognize both the common and the uncommon risks and complications associated with it. In this report we describe a rare early life-threatening postoperative complication following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. From our extensive review of literature, there is no existing report of acute pancreatitis with splenic infarction postsleeve gastrectomy to this date. PMID:28487807
... snapping feeling in the head. Other symptoms: Decreased consciousness and alertness Eye discomfort in bright light ( photophobia ) ... time, the outlook is much worse. Changes in consciousness and alertness due to a subarachnoid hemorrhage may ...
Im, Chami; Park, Hyung Sub; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Taeseung
Spontaneous renal artery dissection (SRAD) is a rare disease entity. The diagnosis is usually delayed because clinical presentation is non-specific. We report three cases of symptomatic SRAD complicated by renal infarction which occurred in previously healthy middle-aged male patients. They visited the hospital due to acute abdominal or flank pain. They had no specific underlying disease or trauma history. The laboratory tests and physical examination were normal. They were not suspected of having SRAD initially, but computed tomography (CT) revealed dissection of the renal artery with distal hypoperfusion leading to renal infarction. They were treated conservatively with anticoagulation and/or antiplatelets for 6 months. They had a 6-month regular follow-up with CT, where resolution was confirmed in one patient and all patients remained asymptomatic. These cases emphasize the importance of clinical suspicion of SRAD in previously healthy patients who complain of abdominal pain without specific findings on initial investigation. PMID:28042561
Acute myocardial infarction is one of the 10 leading reasons for admission to adult critical care units. In-hospital mortality for this condition has remained static in recent years, and this is related primarily to the development of cardiogenic shock. Recent advances in reperfusion therapies have had little impact on the mortality of cardiogenic shock. This may be attributable to the underutilization of life support technology that may assist or completely supplant the patient's own cardiac output until adequate myocardial recovery is established or long-term therapy can be initiated. Clinicians working in the intensive care environment are increasingly likely to be exposed to these technologies. The purpose of this review is to outline the various techniques of mechanical circulatory support and discuss the latest evidence for their use in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. PMID:21067535
Teeninga, Nynke; Willemze, Annemieke J; Emonts, Marieke; Appel, Inge M
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection can cause temporary acquired protein S or C deficiency via cross reacting antibodies and consequently inducing a hypercoagulable state. A 6-year-old girl with a history of congenital cardiac disease was seen at an Emergency Department with acute chest pain, dyspnoea and fever, seven days after developing chicken pox. Diagnostic tests revealed massive infarction of the spleen, and a protein S and C deficiency. In addition, blood cultures revealed a Lancefield group A β-haemolytic streptococcus (GABHS). The patient recovered fully after treatment with low molecular weight heparin and antibiotics. In this patient, septic emboli caused splenic infarction. Thromboembolic complications should be suspected in children with VZV who present with acute symptoms, in particular if bacterial superinfection is found.
Radosavljević-Radovanović, Mina; Radovanović, Nebojsa; Arandjelović, Aleksandra; Mitrović, Predrag; Usćumlić, Ana; Stanković, Goran
Ventricular septal rupture (VSR) in the acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a rare but very serious complication, still associated with high mortality, despite significant improvements in pharmacological and surgical treatment. Therefore, hybrid approaches are introduced as new therapeutical options. We present an urgent hybrid approach, consisting of the initial percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the infarct-related artery, followed by immediate surgical closure of the ventricular septal rupture, for treatment of high risk, hemodynamically unstable female patient with AMI caused by one-vessel disease and complicated by VSR and cardiogenic shock. Since the operative risk was also very high (EUROSCORE II 37%), this therapeutic decision was based on the assumption that preoperative PCI could promptly establish blood flow and thereby lessen the risks, duration and complexity of urgent cardiosurgical intervention, performed on the same day. This approach proved to be successful and the patient was discharged from the hospital on the fifteenth postoperative day in stable condition. In selected cases, with high operative risk and unstable hemodynamic state due to AMI complicated by VSR, urgent hybrid approach consisting of the initial PCI followed by surgical closure of VSR may represent an acceptable treatment option and contribute to the treatment of this complex group of patients.
French, John K; Hellkamp, Anne S; Armstrong, Paul W; Cohen, Eric; Kleiman, Neil S; O'Connor, Christopher M; Holmes, David R; Hochman, Judith S; Granger, Christopher B; Mahaffey, Kenneth W
A decrease in mechanical complications after ST-elevation myocardial infarction may have contributed to improved survival rates associated with reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Mechanical complications occurred in 52 of 5,745 patients (0.91%) in the largest reported randomized trial in which primary PCI was the reperfusion strategy. The frequencies were 0.52% (30) for cardiac free-wall rupture (tamponade), 0.17% (10) for ventricular septal rupture, and 0.26% (15) for papillary muscle rupture (3 patients had 2 complications). Ninety-day survival rates were 37% (11) for cardiac free-wall rupture, 20% (2) for ventricular septal rupture, and 73.3% (11) for papillary muscle rupture. These mechanical complications occurred at a median of 23.5 hours (interquartile range 5.0 to 76.8) after symptom onset and were associated with 44% (23 of 52) survival through 90 days, which accounted for 11% of the 90-day mortality. Factors associated with mechanical complications were older age, female gender, Q waves, presence of radiologic pulmonary edema, and increased prerandomization troponin levels. In conclusion, rates of mechanical complications are lower with primary PCI than those previously reported after fibrinolytic therapy.
Chang, Melody M.; Raval, Ronak N.; Southerland, Jessie J.; Adewumi, Dare A.; Bahjri, Khaled A.; Samuel, Rajeev K.; Woods, Rafeek O.; Ajayi, Olaide O.; Lee, Bryan S.; Hsu, Frank P. K.; Applegate II, Richard L.; Dorotta, Ihab R.
Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages are frequently complicated by hypertension and neurogenic myocardial stunning. Beta blockers may be used for management of these complications. We sought to investigate sympathetic nervous system modulation by beta blockers and their effect on radiographic vasospasm, delayed cerebral infarction, discharge destination and death. Methods: Retrospective chart review of 218 adults admitted to the ICU between 8/2004 and 9/2010 was performed. Groups were identified relevant to beta blockade: 77 were never beta blocked (No/No), 123 received post-admission beta blockers (No/Yes), and 18 were continued on their home beta blockers (Yes/Yes). Records were analyzed for baseline characteristics and the development of vasospasm, delayed cerebral infarction, discharge destination and death, expressed as adjusted odds ratio. Results: Of the 218 patients 145 patients developed vasospasm, 47 consequently infarcted, and 53 died or required care in a long-term facility. When compared to No/No patients, No/Yes patients had significantly increased vasospasm (OR 2.11 (1.06-4.16)). However, these patients also had significantly fewer deaths or need for long term care (OR 0.17 (0.05-0.64)), with decreased tendency for infarcts (OR 0.70 (0.32-1.55)). When compared to No/No patients, Yes/Yes patients demonstrated a trend toward increased vasospasm (OR 1.61 (0.50-5.29)) that led to infarction (OR 1.51 (0.44-5.13)), but with decreased mortality or need for long term care in a facility (OR 0.13 (0.01-1.30)). Conclusion: Post-admission beta blockade in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients was associated with increased incidence of vasospasm. However, despite the increased occurrence of vasospasm, beta blockers were associated with improved discharge characteristics and fewer deaths. PMID:28217182
Sharon, Low Y Y; Wai Hoe, N G
Burr-hole drainage of chronic subdural hematomas are routine operative procedures done by neurosurgical residents. Common postoperative complications include acute epidural and/or subdural bleeding, tension pneumocephalus, intracranial hematomas and ischemic cerebral infarction. We report an interesting post-operative complication of a 'subarachnoid cyst' after burr-hole evacuation of a chronic subdural hematoma. The authors hypothesize that the 'cyst' is likely secondary to the splitting of the adjacent neomembrane within its arachnoid-brain interface by iatrogenic irrigation of the subdural space. Over time, this 'cyst' develops into an area of gliosis which eventually causes long-term scar epilepsy in the patient. As far as we are aware, this is the first complication of such a 'subarachnoid cyst' post burr-hole drainage reported in the literature.
Su, Wenrong; Wang, Shuguang; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jungang; Chen, Yanbo; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Aiyuan
We reported three cases of ventricular septal rupture (VSR) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI), focusing on the causes, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. These three cases were diagnosed based on the findings of electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and blood myocardial markers, and were treated with conservative methods. These three cases were female, and all had history of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. In one case with age over 70, AMI was related to percutaneous coronary intervention of left anterior descending branch, and the stenosis of LAD resulted in AMI and subsequently VSR occurred, the patient’s condition worsened rapidly and the patient died after. Only one of the three cases survived the VSR. We concluded that the prognosis of VSR complicating AMI is associated with the causes, age, sex and comorbidities, and the prevention is critically important.
Srivastava, Mukta C.; Reed, Robert M.; Tewelde, Semhar Z.; Gupta, Anuj; McCurdy, Michael T.
Cardiac dysfunction is a common complication of sepsis in individuals with preexisting coronary disease and portends a poor prognosis when progressing to ischemic cardiogenic shock. In this setting, maximal medical therapy in isolation is often inadequate to maintain cardiac output for patients who are poor candidates for immediate revascularization. Furthermore, the use of vasopressors and inotropes increases myocardial demand and may lead to further injury. Percutaneous ventricular assist devices provide a viable option for management of severe shock with multiorgan failure. The Impella is one of several novel mechanical support systems that can effectively augment cardiac output while reducing myocardial demand and serve as a bridge to recovery from severe hemodynamic compromise. This case report describes the successful utilization of the Impella 2.5 in a patient with baseline profound anemia and coronary artery disease (CAD) presenting in combined distributive and cardiogenic shock associated with a type 2 myocardial infarction complicating sepsis. PMID:28261505
Su, Wenrong; Wang, Shuguang; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jungang; Chen, Yanbo; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Aiyuan
We reported three cases of ventricular septal rupture (VSR) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI), focusing on the causes, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. These three cases were diagnosed based on the findings of electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and blood myocardial markers, and were treated with conservative methods. These three cases were female, and all had history of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. In one case with age over 70, AMI was related to percutaneous coronary intervention of left anterior descending branch, and the stenosis of LAD resulted in AMI and subsequently VSR occurred, the patient's condition worsened rapidly and the patient died after. Only one of the three cases survived the VSR. We concluded that the prognosis of VSR complicating AMI is associated with the causes, age, sex and comorbidities, and the prevention is critically important.
Kakadiya, Jagdish; Mulani, Haresh; Shah, Nehal
Present study was designed to evaluate effect Hesperidin on Cardiovascular Complication in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in normal and Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide induced in diabetic rats. Hesperidin (100 mg/kg, p.o) was administered for 28 days in rats injected with single dose of Streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.p, STZ) and Nicotinamide (110 mg/kg, i.p, NIC) and after isoproterenol (200 mg/kg, s.c.) induced myocardial infarction in rats on 29th and 30th day. At the end of experimental period (i.e. on the day 31) serum and heart tissues sample were collected, and glucose, HbA1c and Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG) and High density lipoprotein (HDL) and cholesterol ester synthetase (CES), lecithin Cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), systolic and diastolic blood pressure were find out. Administration of STZ–NIC in rats showed a significant (p<0.001) increased in the levels of serum glucose, glycosylated heamoglobin (HbA1c), Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG) and Low density lipoprotein (LDL) whereas the levels of High density lipoprotein (HDL) were found to be non significant but significant (p<0.001) increased in the level of heart tissues CES and significant (p<0.001, p<0.01) decreased LCAT and LPL, significantly (p<0.01) increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure as compared to respective control groups. Treatment with Hesperidin significantly (P<0.05) decreased HbA1c, glucose, CES level and significantly (P<0.01) decreased LDL, TC, TG, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and significant (P<0.01) increased LCAT and LPL level but no significantly change HDL in compared to diabetic control group. We concluded that HES (100 mg/kg) is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and reduced cardiac complication in experimentally induced myocardial infarction diabetic rats. PMID:24825971
Chen, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Chen; Meng, Qing-Tao; Peng, Yong; Chen, Mao
Abstract Rationale: Ventricular double rupture (VDR) is a rare but lethal mechanical complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The early identification and timely treatment of VDR remain challenging problems. We present a case of AMI with VDR and briefly review the characteristics and prognosis of this life-threatening disease. Patient concerns and Diagnoses: A 77-year-old male presented to our hospital with a 4-day history of severe dizziness, mild chest tightness, and dyspnea. An inferior AMI was diagnosed. Interventions and Outcomes: On the second hospital day, hypotension and a new cardiac murmur was found. The emergency echocardiographic study disclosed a ventricular septal defect. Soon after that the patient suddenly died of ventricular free-wall rupture. Lessons: In patients with AMI complicated by a septal perforation in the apical region, close to the septum-free wall junction, special attention should be paid to the great risk of VDR. Other high risk factors included advanced age, delayed reperfusion, and inferior infarction. Sufficient evaluation of the risk factors, close monitoring of vital signs, early identification of the specific symptoms, and timely treatment are the key points for the effective prediction and prevention of VDR. PMID:28033290
Chiriac, A; Poeată, I; Baldauf, J; Schroeder, H W
Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is a neurosurgical emergency characterized by the extravasation of blood into the spaces covering the central nervous system that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The leading cause of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, which accounts for about 80 percent of cases and has a high rate of death and complications. The management of aneurysmal SAH has changed significantly over the past few years. This change is mostly due to the demonstration of the superiority of early diagnosis, surgical clipping or endovascular embolization of ruptured aneurysms. This superiority derives from the relative safety of early aneurysm occlusion and the major threat of early rebleeding (approximately 25% in three weeks after SAH).
Asakura, T; Hoshino, M; Ajioka, M; Sakai, K; Yasuura, K; Matsuura, A
A 58-year-old man who suffered from acute myocardial infarction complicated with left ventricular rupture and subacute pericardial tamponade was reported. On admission, echocardiography strongly suspected presence of intrapericardial fluid. And immediate pericardiocentesis proved left ventricular free wall rupture (LVFWR). Coronary angiography with the support of IABP revealed occlusion of LAD (# 8). Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was performed with partial success. After pericardiotomy, the hemodynamic state was improved, however, 2 hours later, his blood pressure fell down to 40 mmHg suddenly. Emergent operation (re-mediastinumotomy+ ) was performed under the suspicion of left ventricular blowout rupture with the direct closure of the perforated site with 4 woven Dacron pledgets at bedside in ICU. The patient ran an uneventful postoperative course and is now doing well. Clinical and therapeutic features of LVFWR were discussed.
Sarmento, Stephanno Gomes Pereira; Santana, Eduardo Feliz Martins; Campanharo, Felipe Favorette; Machado, Flavia Ribeiro; Moron, Antonio Fernandes
HELLP syndrome is a complication of severe forms of preeclampsia and occurs mainly in the third trimester of pregnancy. In extreme cases, it may evolve unfavorably and substantially increase maternal mortality. We present the case of an 18-year-old pregnant woman who was admitted to our emergency service in her 31st week, presenting with headache, visual disturbances, and epigastralgia, with progression to a severe condition of HELLP syndrome followed by posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and hepatic infarction. We highlight the approach taken towards this patient and the case management, in which, in addition to the imaging examinations routinely available, we also used the sidestream dark field (SDF) technique to evaluate the systemic microcirculation. PMID:25485160
Boroomand, K.; Armstrong, P. W.
In a 53-year-old man with ventricular pre-excitation (normal PR interval, QRS interval of 0.12 seconds and delta-waves) acute inferior wall myocardial infarction was complicated by, successively, first-degree atrioventricular block, second-degree atrioventricular block (Wenckebach type) and complete heart block. The QRS pattern of pre-excitation was preserved throughout these events. The classification of ventricular pre-excitation is reviewed and the correlation between the various electrocardiographic patterns (the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and its variants and the Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome) and the anomalous conduction pathways of Kent, James and Mahaim are discussed. In this case the best possible explanation for preservation of pre-excitation during complete heart block was the existence of accessory fibres of Mahaim. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:679113
Notas, K; Tegos, T; Orologas, A
Background Cerebral thromboembolism is a rare, but well-recognized complication of angiographic procedures. Peduncular hallucinosis (PH) is a form of complex visual hallucinations usually associated with lesions in the midbrain and thalamus. Case presentation We report the case of a 79-years-old male patient with internuclear ophthalmoplegia and vivid lilliputian visual hallucinations (peduncular hallucinations), caused by a pontine infarction following coronary artery catheterization. The patient was started on quetiapine treatment with good results and tolerance. In the next three months, the medication has been discontinued, and the patient is without symptomatology thereafter. Conclusion An understanding of how different pathologies may produce complex visual hallucinations can lead to an appropriate treatment, depending on the site and the nature of the lesion. Furthermore, cerebral embolism due to any angiographic procedure, although rare, should always be taken into consideration, upon any neurological manifestation, visual hallucinations included. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (3): 268-269. PMID:27418790
Suzuki, Makoto; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Miyachi, Hideki; Yamashita, Jun; Yamasaki, Masao; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Nagao, Ken; Tomoike, Hitonobu; Takayama, Morimasa
Optimal coronary reflow is the critical key issue to ameliorate clinical outcomes in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (Shock-STEMI). We investigated our hypothesis that pre-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedural coronary thrombectomy may provide clinical advantages to attempt optimal coronary reflow in patients with Shock-STEMI. Of 7,650 patients with acute myocardial infarction registered in the Tokyo CCU Network Scientific Council from January 2009 to December 2011, a total of 180 consecutive patients (144 men, 68 ± 13 years) with Shock-STEMI who showed pre-PCI procedural Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow grade 0 (absent initial coronary flow) were recruited. Achievements of post-PCI procedural Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow grade 3 (optimal coronary reflow) and also in-hospital mortality were evaluated in those in accordance with and without coronary thrombectomy. Coronary thrombectomy was performed in 128 patients with Shock-STEMI (71% of all). Overall in-hospital mortality was 41% and that in anterior Shock-STEMI with a necessity of mechanical circulatory support increased by 59% (i.e., profound shock). Coronary thrombectomy did not affect any improvements in the achievement of optimal coronary reflow (65% vs 58%, p = 0.368) and in-hospital mortality (42% vs 37%, p = 0.484) in these patients. Even when focused on 76 patients with profound shock, neither an achievement of optimal coronary reflow (56% vs 47%, p = 0.518) nor in-hospital mortality (58% vs 65%, p = 0.601) were different between with and without coronary thrombectomy. Multivariate logistic analysis did not demonstrate any association of coronary thrombectomy (p = 0.798), left main Shock-STEMI (p = 0.258), and use of mechanical circulatory support (p = 0.119) except a concentration of hemoglobin (for each 1 g/dl increase, odds ratio 1.247, 95% confidence interval 1.035 to 1.531, p = 0.019) with optimal
Coelho, Luís Guilherme Bastos Silva Aguiar; Costa, José Manuel Dias; Silva, Elsa Irene Peixoto Azevedo
Objective To compare the clinical evolution of perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage and non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods The study was conducted retrospectively in a tertiary hospital center in the north region of Portugal. Included patients had no identifiable cause for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Several epidemiologic, clinical and imaging aspects were statistically analyzed, taking into account the differences in perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage and non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Results Sixty-two patients met the inclusion criteria (46.8% - perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage; 53.2% - non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage). Demographic and clinical background characteristics were similar in both groups. Complications were more frequent in patients with non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage - 84.8% of the patients had at least one complication versus 48.3% in perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Vasospasm, infection and hydrocephaly were the most common complications (each was detected more frequently in the non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage group than in perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage group). Two patients died, both had a non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. The median inpatient time was longer in the non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage group (21 versus 14 days). No incidents of rebleeding were reported during the follow-up period (mean time of 15 ± 10.3 months). Conclusion Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage and non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage are two different entities that have different clinical outcomes, namely in terms of complication rate and median inpatient time. The management of these patients should respect this difference to improve treatment and optimize health care resources. PMID:27410409
Molsidomine for the prevention of vasospasm-related delayed ischemic neurological deficits and delayed brain infarction and the improvement of clinical outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a single-center clinical observational study.
Ehlert, Angelika; Schmidt, Christoph; Wölfer, Johannes; Manthei, Gerd; Jacobs, Andreas H; Brüning, Roland; Heindel, Walter; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Stummer, Walter; Pluta, Ryszard M; Hesselmann, Volker
OBJECT Delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DINDs) and cerebral vasospasm (CVS) are responsible fora poor outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), most likely because of a decreased availability of nitric oxide (NO) in the cerebral microcirculation. In this study, the authors examined the effects of treatment with the NO donor molsidomine with regard to decreasing the incidence of spasm-related delayed brain infarctions and improving clinical outcome in patients with SAH. METHODS Seventy-four patients with spontaneous aneurysmal SAH were included in this post hoc analysis. Twenty-nine patients with SAH and proven CVS received molsidomine in addition to oral or intravenous nimodipine. Control groups consisted of 25 SAH patients with proven vasospasm and 20 SAH patients without. These patients received nimodipine therapy alone. Cranial computed tomography (CCT) before and after treatment was analyzed for CVS-related infarcts. A modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (mNIHSS) and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were used to assess outcomes at a 3-month clinical follow-up. RESULTS Four of the 29 (13.8%) patients receiving molsidomine plus nimodipine and 22 of the 45 (48%) patients receiving nimodipine therapy alone developed vasospasm-associated brain infarcts (p < 0.01). Follow-up revealed a median mNIHSS score of 3.0 and a median mRS score of 2.5 in the molsidomine group compared with scores of 11.5 and 5.0, respectively, in the nimodipine group with CVS (p < 0.001). One patient in the molsidomine treatment group died, and 12 patients in the standard care group died (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In this post hoc analysis, patients with CVS who were treated with intravenous molsidomine had a significant improvement in clinical outcome and less cerebral infarction. Molsidomine offers a promising therapeutic option in patients with severe SAH and CVS and should be assessed in a prospective study.
Pfeffer, Marc A; McMurray, John J V; Velazquez, Eric J; Rouleau, Jean-Lucien; Køber, Lars; Maggioni, Aldo P; Solomon, Scott D; Swedberg, Karl; Van de Werf, Frans; White, Harvey; Leimberger, Jeffrey D; Henis, Marc; Edwards, Susan; Zelenkofske, Steven; Sellers, Mary Ann; Califf, Robert M
Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors such as captopril reduce mortality and cardiovascular morbidity among patients with myocardial infarction complicated by left ventricular systolic dysfunction, heart failure, or both. In a double-blind trial, we compared the effect of the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan, the ACE inhibitor captopril, and the combination of the two on mortality in this population of patients. Patients receiving conventional therapy were randomly assigned, 0.5 to 10 days after acute myocardial infarction, to additional therapy with valsartan (4909 patients), valsartan plus captopril (4885 patients), or captopril (4909 patients). The primary end point was death from any cause. During a median follow-up of 24.7 months, 979 patients in the valsartan group died, as did 941 patients in the valsartan-and-captopril group and 958 patients in the captopril group (hazard ratio in the valsartan group as compared with the captopril group, 1.00; 97.5 percent confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.11; P=0.98; hazard ratio in the valsartan-and-captopril group as compared with the captopril group, 0.98; 97.5 percent confidence interval, 0.89 to 1.09; P=0.73). The upper limit of the one-sided 97.5 percent confidence interval for the comparison of the valsartan group with the captopril group was within the prespecified margin for noninferiority with regard to mortality (P=0.004) and with regard to the composite end point of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events (P<0.001). The valsartan-and-captopril group had the most drug-related adverse events. With monotherapy, hypotension and renal dysfunction were more common in the valsartan group, and cough, rash, and taste disturbance were more common in the captopril group. Valsartan is as effective as captopril in patients who are at high risk for cardiovascular events after myocardial infarction. Combining valsartan with captopril increased the rate of adverse events without improving survival. Copyright 2003
Arbel, Yaron; Mass, Ronen; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Khoury, Shafik; Margolis, Gilad; Sadeh, Ben; Flint, Nir; Ben-Shoshan, Jeremy; Finn, Talya; Keren, Gad; Shacham, Yacov
Positive fluid balance has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients admitted to general intensive care units. We analysed the relationship between a positive fluid balance and its persistence over time in terms of in-hospital outcomes among ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients complicated by cardiogenic shock. We retrospectively studied fluid intake and output for 96 hours following hospital admission in 48 consecutive adult patients with STEMI complicated by cardiogenic shock, all undergoing primary angioplasty. Daily and accumulated fluid balance was registered at up to 96 hours following admission. The cohort was stratified into two groups based on the presence or absence of positive fluid balance on day 4. Patients' records were assessed for in-hospital adverse outcomes, as well as 30-day all-cause mortality. A positive fluid balance was present in 19/48 patients (40%). Patients with positive fluid balance were older and more likely to be treated by intra-aortic balloon counter-pulsation and antibiotics. These patients were more likely to develop acute kidney injury and to need new intubation and were less likely to have renal function recovery as well as successful weaning from mechanical ventilation ( p < 0.05 for all). Patients with positive fluid balance had higher 30-day mortality (68% vs. 10%; p < 0.001). In a multivariate Cox regression model, for every 1-L increase in positive fluid balance, the adjusted risk for 30-day mortality increased by 24% (hazard ratio: 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.42; p = 0.003). A positive fluid balance was strongly associated with higher 30-day mortality in STEMI complicated by cardiogenic shock.
Daras, M; Tuchman, A J; Koppel, B S; Samkoff, L M; Weitzner, I; Marc, J
Use of cocaine in the USA, has reached epidemic proportions since 1983, when "crack" was introduced, its higher potency compared with cocaine HCl has been associated with a tremendous increase in the incidence of strokes. This study reports our experience with 55 cases of neurovascular events (25 ischemic and 30 hemorrhagic) related to cocaine use in 54 patients. Only 15 patients had other risk factors for stroke. Twenty six patients smoked "crack", 10 snorted cocaine and 12 injected it intravenously. Strokes occurred within 3 h of cocaine use in 15 patients with infarcts and 17 with hemorrhages. Ten infarcts occurred after an overnight binge. Of the hemorrhage group 9 were subarachnoid, 16 intracerebral (8 basal ganglia, 7 hemispheric and one brain stem) and 5 intraventricular. Computerized tomography (CT) showed an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, as well as one of the vein of Galen. Four aneurysms and 3 AVMs were identified on angiography. CT revealed 15 infarcts; it was normal in 7 patients with pure motor hemiparesis and in 3 with findings consistent with anterior spinal artery infarction. Several mechanisms may be responsible for the cerebrovascular complications. A sudden rise in systemic arterial pressure may cause hemorrhages, frequently in association with an underlying aneurysm or AVM. Vasospasm, arteritis, myocardial infarction with cardiac arrhythmias and increased platelet aggregation may provoke infarcts.
Jobs, Alexander; Eitel, Charlotte; Pöss, Janine; Desch, Steffen; Thiele, Holger; Eitel, Ingo
Pericardial effusion (PE) is a common complication following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the frequency and prognostic relevance of PE complicating STEMI are unknown. Aim of this study was to investigate the exact incidence, infarct characteristics, and the prognostic impact of moderate-to-large PEs detected by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with acute reperfused STEMI. In total, 780 patients with STEMI reperfused by angioplasty (<12 hours after symptom onset) were enrolled in this CMR study at 8 centers. CMR was completed in median 3 days after infarction using a standardized protocol. Central core laboratory-masked analysis for the presence of moderate-to-large PE was performed. The primary clinical end point was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) defined as composite of all-cause death, reinfarction, and new congestive heart failure within 12 months after the index event. A moderate-to-large PE was detected in 183 patients (24%). Patients with moderate-to-large PEs had significantly larger infarcts, less myocardial salvage, a larger extent of microvascular obstruction, higher incidence of intramyocardial hemorrhage, and more pronounced left ventricular dysfunction (p <0.001 for all). Significant predictors of a moderate-to-large PE were age, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow before percutaneous coronary intervention, and infarct size. MACE rates were significantly higher in the PE group (p = 0.003) and a moderate-to-large PE was identified as a significant independent predictor for MACE (hazard ratio 3.12, 95% confidence interval 1.49 to 6.81; p = 0.003) together with Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction risk score and left ventricular ejection fraction. In conclusion, a moderate-to-large PE complicating STEMI is a common finding (almost 25%) and related to more severe infarcts with subsequent significantly increased MACE rates during 1-year follow-up. Consequently, a moderate-to-large PE
Abdel-Hadi, O.; Greenstone, M. A.; Hartley, R. B.; Kidner, P. H.
A 29-year-old man with previous Henoch-Schönlein disease presented with multiple systemic emboli and a myocardial infarction. Subsequent investigation by angiography showed normal coronary arteries. This appears to be the first reported case of Henoch-Schönlein disease and myocardial infarction probably due to coronary vasculitis. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7301688
Kellner, P; Stoevesandt, D; Soukup, J; Bucher, M; Raspé, C
Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a severe and acute life-threatening cerebrovascular disease. Approximately 80% of all acute non-traumatic SAHs are the result of a ruptured cerebrovascular aneurysm. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment a high morbidity and mortality still exists. Apart from the primary cerebral damage there are also secondary complications, such as vasospasm, rebleeding, hydrocephalus, cerebral edema or hydrocephalus. For an appropriate therapy an understanding of the extensive pathophysiology, the options in diagnostics and therapy and the complications of the disease are essential. Anesthesiologists are decisively involved in the therapy of the primary and secondary damages and subsequently in the outcome as well. This article provides an overview of the perioperative and intensive care management of patients with SAH.
Chia, Daniel; Penkoff, Peter; Stanowski, Matthew; Beattie, Kieran; Wang, Audrey C.
Epididymo-orchitis is a common diagnosis in men presenting with unilateral testicular pain. It can be of an infectious or non-infectious aetiology. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations do not reliably differentiate testicular infarction secondary to epididymo-orchitis from uncomplicated epididymo-orchitis. Definitive diagnosis is usually made by ultrasound. Misdiagnosis and under-treatment can lead to poor outcome, such as infarction and loss of the affected testis. We present an uncommon case of epididymo-orchitis resulting in testicular infarction and rupture despite normal initial investigations. PMID:27165751
While a delayed intracerebral hemorrhage at the site of a ventricular catheter has occasionally been reported in literature, a delayed hemorrhage caused by venous infarction secondary to ventriculoperitoneal shunting has not been previously reported. In the present case, a 68-year-old woman underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting through a frontal burr hole, and developed a hemorrhagic transformation of venous infarction on the second postoperative day. This massive venous infarction was caused by bipolar coagulation and occlusion of a large paramedian cortical vein in association with atresia of the rostral superior sagittal sinus. Thus, to eliminate the risk of postoperative venous infarction, technical precautions to avoid damaging surface vessels in a burr hole are required under loupe magnification in ventriculoperitoneal shunting. PMID:21113365
Lee, Wonae; Park, Heeyoon; Lee, Gilho
Herein, we reported a case of testicular infarction in a patient with Klebsiella oxytoca induced acute epididymitis. Acute left epididymitis progressed into testicular infarction requiring orchiectomy in spite of antibiotics treatment. Ordinary urine cultures did not reveal any specific organism, suggesting viable but noncultureable state. We amplified a bacterial 16S ribosomal subunit gene from the urine and orchiectomized samples, and we found K. oxytoca infections from both of them.
Taheri, Leila; Boroujeni, Ali Zargham; Kargar Jahromi, Marzieh; Charkhandaz, Maryam; Hojat, Mohsen
Emergency treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction is very important. Streptokinase in Iran is often as the only clot-busting medication is used. The purpose of using streptokinase medication is to revive the ischemic heart tissue, although has dangerous complications too. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of streptokinase on reperfusion after acute myocardial infarction and its complications, has been designed and conducted. This is an Ex-post facto study. The study population included patients who suffer from acute myocardial infarction. The sample size was 300 patients, and 2 groups were matched, in variables of age, sex, underlying disease, frequencies and area of MI. Data collection did by researcher making questionnaire, that accept face and content validity by 10 expert researcher, the reliability was conducted with Spearman's test (r=0.85) by Test-retest method. Data analysis did by SPSS software: V 12. Mean of EF in SK group was (46.15±8.11) and in control group was (43.11±12.57). Significant relationship was seen between SK, arrhythmia occurring and improve EF reperfusion by chi-square test (p=0.028), (p=0.020).The most arrhythmia in SK group was Ventricular Tachycardia (20.7%). Significant statistical relation between SK and mortality were found by Chi-square test (p=0.001). But a meaningful statistical relation was not found between SK and pulmonary edema incidence (p=0.071). Nurses of CCU should be aware about SK complications such as hypotension, bleeding and arrhythmias. Proposed compare SK and tissue plasminogen drug in reperfusion and complications effect.
Taheri, Leila; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Jahromi, Marzieh Kargar; Charkhandaz, Maryam; Hojat, Mohsen
Introduction: Emergency treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction is very important. Streptokinase in Iran is often as the only clot-busting medication is used. The purpose of using streptokinase medication is to revive the ischemic heart tissue, although has dangerous complications too. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of streptokinase on reperfusion after acute myocardial infarction and its complications, has been designed and conducted. Materials and Methods: This is an Ex-post facto study. The study population included patients who suffer from acute myocardial infarction. The sample size was 300 patients, and 2 groups were matched, in variables of age, sex, underlying disease, frequencies and area of MI. Data collection did by researcher making questionnaire, that accept face and content validity by 10 expert researcher, the reliability was conducted with Spearman’s test (r=0.85) by Test-retest method. Data analysis did by SPSS software: V 12. Findings: Mean of EF in SK group was (46.15±8.11) and in control group was (43.11±12.57). Significant relationship was seen between SK, arrhythmia occurring and improve EF reperfusion by chi-square test (p=0.028), (p=0.020). The most arrhythmia in SK group was Ventricular Tachycardia (20.7%). Significant statistical relation between SK and mortality were found by Chi-square test (p=0.001). But a meaningful statistical relation was not found between SK and pulmonary edema incidence (p=0.071). Conclusions: Nurses of CCU should be aware about SK complications such as hypotension, bleeding and arrhythmias. Proposed compare SK and tissue plasminogen drug in reperfusion and complications effect. PMID:25946921
Lai, Vincent; Hau, K C; Lau, H Y; Chan, W C
Well-documented potential cardiovascular complications associated with the use of contrast media include bradycardia, hypotension, arrhythmia, and conduction disturbances. Rupture of the myocardium after acute myocardial infarction is a known cause of death, but has yet to be recognised as a potential complication of the use of a bolus injection of contrast medium. On the contrary, contrast-enhanced computed tomographic studies have been performed widely for the diagnosis and evaluation of myocardial infarction. We report a case of complicated myocardial rupture after a single bolus injection of contrast medium during a computed tomographic study in an elderly woman with acute myocardial infarction, which led to cardiac tamponade and rapid death. Although rare, this should alert us to the need for cautious use of contrast medium in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Kim, Chang Seong; Kim, Min Jee; Kang, Yong Un; Choi, Joon Seok; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Ahn, Young-Keun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Soo Wan
The clinical course and medical treatment of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are not well established, especially in patients with concomitant renal dysfunction. We performed a retrospective analysis of the prospective Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry to assess the medical treatments and clinical outcomes of patients with CHF (Killip classes II or III) complicated by AMI, in the presence or absence of renal dysfunction. Of 13,498 patients with AMI, 2769 (20.5%) had CHF on admission. Compared to CHF patients with preserved renal function, in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiac events were increased both at 1 month and at 1 year after discharge in patients with renal dysfunction (1154; 41.7%). Postdischarge use of aspirin, betablockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor blockers and statins significantly reduced the 1-year mortality rate for CHF patients with renal dysfunction; such reduction was not observed for those without renal dysfunction, except in the case of aspirin. Patients with CHF complicating AMI, which is accompanied by renal dysfunction, are at higher risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes than patients without renal dysfunction. However, they receive fewer medications proven to reduce mortality rates.
Unai, Shinya; Tanaka, Daizo; Ruggiero, Nicholas; Hirose, Hitoshi; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in our institution resulted in near total mortality prior to the establishment of an algorithm-based program in July 2010. We hypothesized that an algorithm-based ECMO program improves the outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated with cardiogenic shock. Between March 2003 and July 2013, 29 patients underwent emergent catheterization for acute myocardial infarction due to left main or proximal left anterior descending artery occlusion complicated with cardiogenic shock (defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg despite multiple inotropes, with or without intra-aortic balloon pump, lactic acidosis). Of 29 patients, 15 patients were treated before July 2010 (Group 1, old program), and 14 patients were treated after July 2010 (Group 2, new program). There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics, including age, sex, coronary risk factors, and left ventricular ejection fraction between the two groups. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation prior to ECMO was performed in two cases (13%) in Group 1 and four cases (29%) in Group 2. ECMO support was performed in one case (6.7%) in Group 1 and six cases (43%) in Group 2. The 30-day survival of Group 1 versus Group 2 was 40 versus 79% (P = 0.03), and 1-year survival rate was 20 versus 56% (P = 0.01). The survival rate for patients who underwent ECMO was 0% in Group 1 versus 83% in Group 2 (P = 0.09). In Group 2, the mean duration on ECMO was 9.8 ± 5.9 days. Of the six patients who required ECMO in Group 2, 100% were successfully weaned off ECMO or were bridged to ventricular assist device implantation. Initiation of an algorithm-based ECMO program improved the outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.
Abboud, M R; Jackson, S M; Barredo, J; Holden, K R; Cure, J; Laver, J
A boy with sickle cell anemia underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT). He was normal on neurological examination, but had radiologic evidence of an old left frontal lobe infarct, multiple cerebral vascular stenoses and moyamoya collaterals. After BMT he developed seizures with extension of the infarct and subarachnoid hemorrhage. One year later angiography revealed worsening stenosis of the M1 segments of both middle cerebral arteries. At that time an increase in von Willebrand's factor with decreased large molecular weight multimers (LvWF) was observed. We speculate that LvWF dependent, shear-induced platelet aggregation, together with endothelial damage may have contributed to the development of neurologic complications in this patient.
Siu, Timothy L T; Bannan, Paul; Stokes, Bryant A R
Occipital lobe infarction secondary to tentorial herniation is a rare but well-recognized complication of posterior cerebral artery interruption during acute hydrocephalus; however, a similar event in which tonsillar herniation leads to symptomatic occlusion of the anterior spinal arteries (ASAs) has not been reported. The authors present the case of a third ventricular colloid cyst in a previously healthy 24-year-old man who presented with symptoms and signs of critically raised intracranial pressure. He subsequently survived the ictus of insults following emergency external cerebrospinal fluid drainage and definitive resection of the colloid cyst, but he sustained occipital lobe and spinal cord infarction despite the absence of systematic hypotension. The presence of watershed cervicothoracic cord infarction on magnetic resonance imaging suggested that the most likely causes were compromise of ASAs during the period of acute hydrocephalus and the accompanying downward brain herniation. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report to provide evidence that acute hydrocephalus may lead to ASA syndrome.
Murray, N; Lyons, J; Chappell, M
Twenty days after a streptokinase infusion given for myocardial infarction, a patient developed a group G streptococcal throat infection. Thirteen days later he presented with a serum sickness type illness and progressive renal failure. Renal biopsy showed crescentic glomerulonephritis. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3790385
Turner, B.; Wills, A.
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy is being increasingly used in a wide range of neurological conditions. However, treatment is expensive and side effects may be severe. A patient with Miller Fisher syndrome who developed cortical blindness as a consequence of occipital infarction precipitated by IVIg is reported on. PMID:10811710
Lantigua, Hector; Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago; Schmidt, J Michael; Lee, Kiwon; Badjatia, Neeraj; Agarwal, Sachin; Claassen, Jan; Connolly, E Sander; Mayer, Stephan A
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating form of stroke. Causes and mechanisms of in-hospital death after SAH in the modern era of neurocritical care remain incompletely understood. We studied 1200 consecutive SAH patients prospectively enrolled in the Columbia University SAH Outcomes Project between July 1996 and January 2009. Analysis was performed to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality. In-hospital mortality was 18% (216/1200): 3% for Hunt-Hess grade 1 or 2, 9% for grade 3, 24% for grade 4, and 71% for grade 5. The most common adjudicated primary causes of death or neurological devastation leading to withdrawal of support were direct effects of the primary hemorrhage (55%), aneurysm rebleeding (17%), and medical complications (15%). Among those who died, brain death was declared in 42%, 50% were do-not-resuscitate at the time of cardiac death (86% of whom had life support actively withdrawn), and 8% died despite full support. Admission predictors of mortality were age, loss of consciousness at ictus, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, large aneurysm size, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) physiologic subscore, and Modified Fisher Scale score. Hospital complications that further increased the risk of dying in multivariable analysis included rebleeding, global cerebral edema, hypernatremia, clinical signs of brain stem herniation, hypotension of less than 90 mm Hg treated with pressors, pulmonary edema, myocardial ischemia, and hepatic failure. Delayed cerebral ischemia, defined as deterioration or infarction from vasospasm, did not predict mortality. Strategies directed toward minimizing early brain injury and aneurysm rebleeding, along with prevention and treatment of medical complication, hold the best promise for further reducing mortality after SAH.
Koh, K. S.; Danzinger, R. G.
Massive intestinal infarction due to occlusion of the celiac, superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric arteries occurred in two young women, one of who subsequently died. Both were smokers. They had ingested oral contraceptives for 5 and 8 years, respectively, but this therapy could not be proven to be a causative factor in their ischemic bowel disease; although such an association is uncommon, it should be considered in young women with abdominal pain. Images FIG. 1 PMID:837318
Fellner, Barbara; Rohla, Miklos; Jarai, Rudolf; Smetana, Peter; Freynhofer, Matthias K; Egger, Florian; Zorn, Gerlinde; Weiss, Thomas W; Huber, Kurt; Geppert, Alexander
In patients with severe sepsis, low levels of activated protein C are associated with high morbidity and mortality. In an observational study we investigated whether patients with cardiogenic shock have decreased circulatory levels of activated protein C, and if these are associated with increased mortality. We measured serum activated protein C and interleukin-6 levels in 43 patients with cardiogenic shock following acute myocardial infarction and in 15 control patients with uncomplicated myocardial infarction at days 0-5 and 7 after the onset of shock/myocardial infarction. Activated protein C levels were significantly lower in patients with cardiogenic shock compared to controls. In cardiogenic shock patients, there was no difference in activated protein C levels at baseline, whereas activated protein C levels significantly declined in 28-day non-survivors at day 2, compared with 28-day survivors. Lower levels of activated protein C were associated with a higher degree of vasopressor need, whereas there was no significant association with multiple organ failure in the first days. Regarding the inflammatory response, a strong inverse correlation was observed between interleukin-6 and activated protein C levels. Patients with cardiogenic shock who did not survive up to 28 days showed a decline in activated protein C levels during the course of the disease, which was inversely correlated with interleukin-6. This study underlines sustained inflammatory mechanisms in the development and persistence of cardiogenic shock, highlighting a potential effect of anti-inflammatory interventions early during cardiogenic shock.
Huang, Shih-Ming; Huang, Shu-Chien; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Wu, I-Hui; Chi, Nai-Hsin; Yu, Hsi-Yu; Hsu, Ron-Bin; Chang, Chung-I; Wang, Shoei-Shen; Chen, Yih-Sharng
Ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is an uncommon but well-recognized mechanical complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The outcome of VSR remains poor even in the era of reperfusion therapy. We reviewed our experience with surgical repair of post-infarction VSR and analyzed outcomes in an attempt to identify prognostic factors. From October 1995 to December 2013, data from 47 consecutive patients (mean age, 68 ± 9.5 years) with post-infarction VSR who underwent surgical repair at our institute were retrospectively reviewed. The preoperative conditions, morbidity and surgical mortality were analyzed. Multivariate analysis was subsequently carried out by constructing a logistic regression model in order to identify independent predictors of postoperative mortality. Long term survival function were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 17 (36.2%) patients, intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) was used in 34 (72.3%), and six (12.8%) were supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) preoperatively. Forty-one (87.2%) patients received emergent surgical treatment. Concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in 27 (57.4%) patients. Operative mortality was 36.2% (17 of 47). The survival rate was 59.3% with concomitant CABG and 70% without concomitant CABG (p = 14). Multivariate analysis revealed that the survivors had higher preoperative left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEFs) compared with those who died (51 ± 13.7% vs. 36.6 ± 6.4% , respectively; p < 0.001) and lower European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation II (EuroSCORE II) (22.9 ± 14.9 vs. 38.3 ± 13.9, respectively; p < 0.001). The patients receiving total revascularization has long term survival benefit (p = 0.028). Post-infarction VSR remains a serious and challenging complication of AMI in the modern surgical era. The EuroSCORE II can
Indraratna, Praveen; Alexopoulos, Chris; Celermajer, David; Alford, Kevin
A 28-year-old male was admitted to hospital with an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. This was in the context of recreational abuse of nitrous oxide. The prevalence of nitrous oxide use in Australia has not been formally quantified, however it is the second most commonly used recreational drug in the United Kingdom. Nitrous oxide has previously been shown to increase serum homocysteine levels. This patient was discovered to have an elevated homocysteine level at baseline, which was further increased after nitrous oxide consumption. Homocysteine has been linked to endothelial dysfunction and coronary atherosclerosis and this case report highlights one of the dangers of recreational abuse of nitrous oxide.
Differential Clinical Implications of High-Degree Atrioventricular Block Complicating ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction according to the Location of Infarction in the Era of Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Kim, Kyung Hwan; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Wan
Background and Objectives The clinical implication of high-degree (second- and third-degree) atrioventricular block (HAVB) complicating ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is ripe for investigation in this era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to address the incidence, predictors and prognosis of HAVB according to the location of infarct in STEMI patients treated with primary PCI. Subjects and Methods A total of 16536 STEMI patients (anterior infarction: n=9354, inferior infarction: n=7692) treated with primary PCI were enrolled from a multicenter registry. We compared in-hospital mortality between patients with HAVB and those without HAVB with anterior or inferior infarction, separately. Multivariate analyses were performed to unearth predictors of HAVB and to identify whether HAVB is independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Results STEMI patients with HAVB showed higher in-hospital mortality than those without HAVB in both anterior (hazard ratio [HR]=9.821, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.946-19.503, p<0.001) and inferior infarction (HR=2.819, 95% CI: 2.076-3.827, p<0.001). In multivariate analyses, HAVB was associated with increased in-hospital mortality in anterior myocardial infarction (HR=19.264, 95% CI: 5.804-63.936, p<0.001). However, HAVB in inferior infarction was not an independent predictor of increased in-hospital mortality (HR=1.014, 95% CI: 0.547-1.985, p=0.901). Conclusion In this era of primary PCI, the prognostic impact of HAVB is different according to the location of infarction. Because of recent improvements in reperfusion strategy, the negative prognostic impact of HAVB in inferior STEMI is no longer prominent. PMID:27275168
Ciraci, Saliha; Ozcan, Alper; Ozdemir, Mustafa M; Chiang, Samuel C C; Tesi, Bianca; Ozdemir, Akif M; Karakukcu, Musa; Patiroglu, Turkan; Acipayam, Can; Doganay, Selim; Gumus, Hakan; Unal, Ekrem
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a fatal disease affecting infants and very young children. Central nervous system involvement of HLH can cause catastrophic results. We present a case with cranial involvement of familial HLH type 4 who showed diffuse infiltration of white matter complicated with intracranial thrombosis. A 5-year-old girl from a consanguineous couple presented with fever and pancytopenia, and was referred to our hematology unit. Examination revealed fever, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. Ultrasound examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly and free intra-abdominal fluid. HLH was revealed on bone marrow aspiration biopsy. Defective natural killer and T lymphocyte cytotoxicity using degranulation tests was determined. In the genetic analysis, syntaxin gene mutation was found. On T2-weighted and T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffuse hyperintense signal changes of cerebral white matter, indicating white matter demyelination, were observed. A second brain MRI showed an acute infarct involving the left temporooccipital region. Immunosuppressive therapy according to the HLH 2004 protocol was started. The infarct resolved but white matter lesions were stable on the brain MRI that was performed 1 month later. Brain MRI taken 4 months after the first examination showed stable cerebral white matter lesions, but hyperintense signal changes appeared in the cerebellar white matter and were regarded as progression. The patient died because of infection despite immunosuppressive therapy. Physicians managing patients with HLH must be vigilant about the possibility of central nervous system involvement including stroke.
Giglioli, Cristina; Margheri, Massimo; Valente, Serafina; Comeglio, Marco; Lazzeri, Chiara; Chechi, Tania; Armentano, Corinna; Romano, Salvatore Mario; Falai, Massimiliano; Gensini, Gian Franco
BACKGROUND At the Istituto di Clinica Medica Generale e Cardiologia (Florence, Italy), the widespread use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has markedly changed the hospital course of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). These patients are typically transferred to the coronary care unit (CCU) only after primary PCI, whereas during the thrombolytic era, patients were first admitted to CCU before reperfusion. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS The incidence, timing and setting of complications from symptom onset to hospital discharge in 689 consecutive AMI patients undergoing PCI were evaluated. RESULTS Ventricular fibrillation occurred in 11% of patients, and most episodes (94.7%) occurred before or during PCI. Of all patients, 6.3% developed complete atrioventricular block (CAVB), and in 86.3% of these cases, the CAVB occurred before or during PCI; in 94.5%, a CAVB resolution occurred in the catheterization laboratory (CL). Thirty-one patients (4.5%) had impending shock on admission to the CL. Cardiogenic shock developed in 29 patients (4.2%), mostly in the prehospital phase or in the CL. Only four patients (less than 1%) developed cardiogenic shock later during their hospital course. Similarly, circulatory and ventilatory support, as well as temporary pacing and cardiac defibrillation, were used mostly in the prehospital phase or in the CL. During the CCU stay, 45 patients (6.5%) had hemorrhagic or vascular complications, and the incidence of post-PCI ischemia and early reocclusion of the culprit vessel were low (2.1% and 0.6%, respectively). Thus, cardiac complications usually associated with AMI were observed mainly before hospital admission or in the CL during the reopening of the target vessel. These complications were rarely observed after a successful PCI. CONCLUSIONS For AMI patients, the CL is not only the site of PCI, it is also where most life-threatening cardiac complications are observed and treated. PMID:17036099
Orsini, Jose; Blaak, Christa; Rajayer, Salil; Gurung, Vikash; Tam, Eric; Morante, Joaquin; Shamian, Ben; Malik, Ryan
Recreational substance use and misuse constitute a major public health issue. The annual rate of recreational drug overdose-related deaths is increasing exponentially, making unintentional overdose as the leading cause of injury-related deaths in the United States. Marijuana is the most widely used recreational illicit drug, with approximately 200 million users worldwide. Although it is generally regarded as having low acute toxicity, heavy marijuana usage has been associated with life-threatening consequences. Marijuana is increasingly becoming legal in the United States for both medical and recreational use. Although the most commonly seen adverse effects resulting from its consumption are typically associated with neurobehavioral and gastrointestinal symptoms, cases of severe toxicity involving the cardiovascular system have been reported. In this report, the authors describe a case of cannabis-associated ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction leading to a prolonged cardiac arrest. PMID:27609717
Tsai, Tsung-Neng; Yang, Shih-Ping; Tsao, Tien-Ping; Huang, Kuo-An; Cheng, Shu-Meng
A 53-year-old man experienced persistent chest pain followed by slight shortness of breath after being hit in the chest by a stranger. Chest X-ray study showed no rib fractures but electrocardiography indicated acute anterior wall myocardial infarction. Echocardiography revealed akinesia in both the interventricular septum and anterior left ventricular wall. Emergency cardiac catheterization demonstrated total occlusion of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery, 9 h after the event. He was successfully treated with coronary angioplasty and stenting procedures. However, poor left ventricular function was observed 3 months after the event despite medications. We conclude that evaluation for possible myocardial injury should be considered soon after blunt chest trauma for early treatment to improve prognosis.
Komarov, F I; Ol'binskaia, L I; Kun, I S; Ostrovskaia, V I; Bobkov, V V
An instrumental and roentgenological examination was conducted in 164 patients who had survived myocardial infarction 1 to 10 years before the examination and having been free of any clinically manifest signs of congestive heart failure. The investigation included a study of the inotropic and pump function of the myocardium of the left ventricle, the electric and mechanical activity of the left atrium, the pulmonary haemodynamics under bicycle tests of growing power, and under identical conditions after premedication with cardiac glycosides (0.00036 mg/kg of body weight of Strophanthin K). Proceeding from the study of the readaptation of the circulation system and its transit to the initial stage of cardiac insufficiency the authors developed criteria of the onset of therapy for latent cardiac failure in patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis.
Orsini, Jose; Blaak, Christa; Rajayer, Salil; Gurung, Vikash; Tam, Eric; Morante, Joaquin; Shamian, Ben; Malik, Ryan
Recreational substance use and misuse constitute a major public health issue. The annual rate of recreational drug overdose-related deaths is increasing exponentially, making unintentional overdose as the leading cause of injury-related deaths in the United States. Marijuana is the most widely used recreational illicit drug, with approximately 200 million users worldwide. Although it is generally regarded as having low acute toxicity, heavy marijuana usage has been associated with life-threatening consequences. Marijuana is increasingly becoming legal in the United States for both medical and recreational use. Although the most commonly seen adverse effects resulting from its consumption are typically associated with neurobehavioral and gastrointestinal symptoms, cases of severe toxicity involving the cardiovascular system have been reported. In this report, the authors describe a case of cannabis-associated ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction leading to a prolonged cardiac arrest.
Sommargren, Claire E
Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a serious neurological disorder that is often complicated by the occurrence of electrocardiographic abnormalities unexplained by preexisting cardiac conditions. These morphological waveform changes and arrhythmias often are unrecognized or misinterpreted, potentially placing patients at risk for inappropriate management. Many previous investigations were retrospective and relied on data collected in an unsystematic manner. More recent studies that included use of serial electrocardiograms and Holter recordings have provided new insight into the high prevalence of electrocardiographic changes in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Research on the prevalence, duration, and clinical significance of these electrocardiographic abnormalities and on associated factors and etiological theories is reviewed.
Pulling, T. Michael; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Marks, Michael P.; Steinberg, Gary K.; Zaharchuk, Greg
Background and Purpose Severe ischemic changes are a rare but devastating complication following direct superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA MCA) bypass in Moyamoya patients. This study was undertaken to determine whether pre-operative MR imaging and/or cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) assessment using reference standard stable xenon enhanced computed tomography (xeCT) could predict such complications. Materials and Methods Among all adult patients receiving direct bypass at our institution between 2005 and 2010 who received a clinically interpretable xeCT examination, we identified index cases (patients with >15 ml post-operative infarcts) and control cases (patients without post-operative infarcts and without transient or permanent ischemic symptoms). Differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann Whitney test. Univariate and multivariate generalized linear model regression were employed to test predictors of post-operative infarct. Results Six index cases were identified and compared with 25 controls. Infarct size in the index cases was 95±55 ml. Four of six index cases (67%), but no control patients, had pre-operative acute infarcts. Baseline CBF was similar, but CVR was significantly lower in the index cases compared with control cases. For example, in the anterior circulation, median CVR was 0.4% (range: −38.0% to 16.6%) in index vs. 26.3% (range: −8.2% to 60.5%) in control patients (p=0.003). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of a small pre-operative infarct (regardless of location) and impaired CVR were independent, significant predictors of severe post-operative ischemic injury. Conclusion Acute infarcts and impaired CVR on pre operative imaging are independent risk factors for severe ischemic complications following STA MCA bypass in Moyamoya disease. PMID:26564435
Diringer, Michael N.
Objective Acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a complex multifaceted disorder that plays out over days to weeks. Many SAH patients are seriously ill and require a prolonged ICU stay. Cardiopulmonary complications are common. The management of SAH patients focuses on the anticipation, prevention and management of these secondary complications. Data Sources Source data were obtained from a PubMed search of the medical literature. Data Synthesis and Conclusion The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is a sudden devastating event with immediate neurologic and cardiac consequences that require stabilization to allow for early diagnostic angiography. Early complications include rebleeding, hydrocephalus, and seizures. Early repair of the aneurysm (within 1-3 days) should take place by surgical or endovascular means. Over the first 1-2 weeks after hemorrhage, patients are at risk for delayed ischemic deficits due to vasospasm, autoregulatory failure and intravascular volume contraction. Delayed ischemia is treated with combinations of volume expansion, induced hypertension, augmentation of cardiac output, angioplasty and intra-arterial vasodilators. Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a complex disease with a prolonged course that can be particularly challenging and rewarding to the intensivist. PMID:19114880
Rayhan, Md Abdur Rob; He, Yong-Ming; Yang, Xiang-Jun; Zhou, Bing-Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Hai-Feng; Du, Xiao-Jiao; Qian, Yun-Xia
Silent myocardial infarction followed by ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is a rare phenomenon. In the absence of a timely diagnosis and surgical correction, the short term mortality of such patients is greater than 90%. We present one such unique case of a patient with an asymptomatic myocardial infarction complicated by VSR, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic bronchitis. Unfortunately, this possibly life-threatening condition had been misdiagnosed for more than one month after initial medical contact. Lack of typical symptoms of chest pain and chronic bronchitis is primarily responsible for this long-time misdiagnosis. We want to emphasize the importance of systematic diagnostic work-up, high vigilance for possibility of VSR complicating myocardial infarction in aged patients with diabetes and chronic bronchitis, which may mislead doctors' judgments and put patients at high risk.
Tang, Rui; Tian, Xiaodong; Xie, Xuehai; Yang, Yinmo
Abstract The clinical symptoms of pylephlebitis caused by acute appendicitis are varied and atypical, which leads to delayed diagnosis and poor outcomes. Here, we report a case of intestinal necrosis caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins as a complication of acute appendicitis after appendectomy. The patient had acute abdominal pain with tenderness and melena on the 3rd day after appendectomy for the treatment of gangrenous appendicitis. He was diagnosed with intestinal infarction caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins based on enhanced CT and diagnostic abdominal paracentesis. The patient was treated by bowel excision anastomosis and thrombectomy. After postoperative antibiotic and anticoagulation treatments, the patient recovered well and was discharged 22 days after the 2nd operation. A follow-up CT scan showed no recurrence of portomesenteric veins thrombosis 3 months later. Thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins is a rare but fatal complication of acute appendicitis. For all the cases with acute abdominal pain, the possibility of thrombophlebitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Once pylephlebitis is suspected, enhanced CT scan is helpful for early diagnosis, and sufficient control of inflammation as well as anticoagulant therapy should be performed. PMID:26091450
Oualim, Sara; Elharda, Charafeddine Ait; Benzeroual, Dounia; Hattaoui, Mustapha El
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a rare complication. The diagnosis is difficult and can mimic by clinical and radiological features other diagnosis as pneumopathy. We herein report the case of a 63-year-old female admitted to the hospital for ST elevation myocardial infarction. The patient underwent PCI and received dual antiplatelet therapy. Four days later, she developed dyspnea, hemoptysis and fever. Clinical, radiological and biological findings oriented to a pneumopathy and the patient received the treatment for it. Later and because of the non improvement, a thoracic computed tomography was performed and revealed patchy areas of ground-glass opacity consistent with a diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage. The combination therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel was therefore the most likely cause. Although the dual antiplatelet combination reduces systemic ischemic events after PCI, it is associated with increased risk of nonfatal and sometimes fatal bleeding. Hence the necessity of close and careful observation to watch for possible fatal complications. PMID:28154663
Caramelo, C; López de Mendoza, D; Ríos, F; Corrales, M; Urbano, J; Ramos, A; Pérez Calvo, C
Major complications derived from the use of cocaine have been described, alter nasal or intravenous administration of the drug. These complications are related to vascular spasm and secondary organ damage. We present the case of an intestinal cocaine packer--in slang, "mule"--, who suffered massive absorption of the drug, resulting n bowel, liver and renal ischemia. This situation, previously undescribe in the literature, ended in kidney rupture. An attempt of embolization, was unsatisfactory, and nephrectomy was finally required. The patient recovered uneventfully, with progressive renal functional improvement. This case, albeit quite exceptional, is illustrative of several of the renal actions of cocaine, and reveals the effects of absorption of cocaine at the intestinal level.
Liebelt, Jared J; Yang, Yuanquan; DeRose, Joseph J; Taub, Cynthia C
Ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is a rare but devastating complication after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). While the incidence has decreased, the mortality rate from VSR has remained extremely high. The use of mechanical circulatory support with intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and extracorporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be useful in providing hemodynamic stability and time for myocardial scarring. However, the optimal timing for surgical repair remains an enigma. Retrospective analysis of 14 consecutive patients diagnosed with VSR after AMI at Montefiore Medical Center between January 2009 and June 2015. A chart review was performed with analysis of baseline characteristics, hemodynamics, imaging, percutaneous interventions, surgical timing, and outcomes. The survival group had a higher systolic BP (145 vs 98, p<0.01), higher MAP (96 vs 76, p=0.03), and lower HR (75 vs 104, p=0.05). Overall surgical timing was 6.5 ± 3.7 days after indexed myocardial infarction with a significant difference between survivors and non-survivors (9.8 vs 4.3, p=0.01). The number of pre-operative days using IABP was longer in survivors (6.5 vs 3.2, p=0.36) as was post-operative ECMO use (4.5 vs 2 days, p=0.35). The overall 30-day mortality was 71.4% with a 60% surgical mortality rate. Hemodynamics at the time of presentation and a delayed surgical approach of at least 9 days showed significant association with improved survival. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was more common in non-survivors. The use of IABP in the pre-operative period and post-operative ECMO use likely provide a survival benefit. PMID:27073732
Packer, Rebecca A; Bergman, Robert L; Coates, Joan R; Essman, Stephanie C; Weis, Kevin; O'Brien, Dennis P; Johnson, Gayle C
Intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage is a rare but serious complication of lumbar puncture in humans. Possible sequelae include increased intracranial pressure, cerebral vasospasm, or mass effect, which can result in dysfunction or brain herniation. We describe two dogs that developed intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage following lumbar myelography. In both dogs, myelography was performed by lumbar injection of iohexol (Omnipaque). Both the dogs underwent uneventful ventral decompressive surgery for disk herniation; however, the dogs failed to recover consciousness or spontaneous respiration following anesthesia. Neurologic assessment in both dogs postoperatively suggested loss of brain stem function, and the dogs were euthanized. There was diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage and leptomeningeal hemorrhage throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, brain stem, and ventrum of brain. No evidence of infectious or inflammatory etiology was identified. The diagnosis for cause of brain death was acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. Our findings suggest that fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a potential complication of lumbar myelography in dogs. The cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage is not known, but may be due to traumatic lumbar tap or idiosyncratic response to contrast medium. Subsequent brain death may be a result of mass effect and increased intracranial pressure, cerebral vasospasm, or interaction between subarachnoid hemorrhage and contrast medium.
Husebye, Trygve; Eritsland, Jan; Arnesen, Harald; Bjørnerheim, Reidar; Mangschau, Arild; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Andersen, Geir Øystein
Background No data from controlled trials exists regarding the inflammatory response in patients with de novo heart failure (HF) complicating ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and a possible role in the recovery of contractile function. We therefore explored the time course and possible associations between levels of inflammatory markers and recovery of impaired left ventricular function as well as levosimendan treatment in STEMI patients in a substudy of the LEvosimendan in Acute heart Failure following myocardial infarction (LEAF) trial. Methods A total of 61 patients developing HF within 48 hours after a primary PCI-treated STEMI were randomised double-blind to a 25 hours infusion of levosimendan or placebo. Levels of IL-6, CRP, sIL-6R, sgp130, MCP-1, IL-8, MMP-9, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and TNF-α were measured at inclusion (median 22 h, interquartile range (IQR) 14, 29 after PCI), on day 1, day 2, day 5 and 6 weeks. Improvement in left ventricular function was evaluated as change in wall motion score index (WMSI) by echocardiography. Results Only circulating levels of IL-8 at inclusion were associated with change in WMSI from baseline to 6 weeks, r = ÷0.41 (p = 0.002). No association, however, was found between IL-8 and WMSI at inclusion or peak troponin T. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in change in WMSI from inclusion to 6 weeks between patients with IL-8 levels below, compared to above median value, ÷0.44 (IQR÷0.57, ÷0.19) vs. ÷0.07 (IQR÷0.27, 0.07), respectively (p<0.0001). Levosimendan did not affect the levels of inflammary markers compared to control. Conclusion High levels of IL-8 in STEMI patients complicated with HF were associated with less improvement in left ventricular function during the first 6 weeks after PCI, suggesting a possible role of IL-8 in the reperfusion-related injury of post-ischemic myocardium. Further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00324766
Santos, Gabriela A; Petersen, Nils; Zamani, Amir A; Du, Rose; LaRose, Sarah; Monk, Andrew; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Tan, Can Ozan
To understand the physiologic basis of impaired cerebral autoregulation in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and its relationship to neurologic outcomes. The cohort included 121 patients with nontraumatic SAH admitted to a neurointensive critical care unit from March 2010 to May 2015. Vasospasm was ascertained from digital subtraction angiography and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) was defined as new cerebral infarction on high-resolution CT. Cerebral blood flow and beat-by-beat pressure were recorded daily on days 2-4 after admission. Autoregulatory capacity was quantified from pressure flow relation via projection pursuit regression. The main outcome was early alterations in autoregulatory mechanisms as they relate to vasospasm and DCI. Forty-three patients developed only vasospasm, 9 only DCI, and 14 both. Autoregulatory capacity correctly predicted DCI in 86% of training cohort patients, generalizing to 80% of the patients who were not included in the original model. Patients who developed DCI had a distinct autoregulatory profile compared to patients who did not develop secondary complications or those who developed only vasospasm. The rate of decrease in flow was significantly steeper in response to transient reductions in pressure. The rate of increase in flow was markedly lower, suggesting a diminished ability to increase flow despite transient increases in pressure. The extent and nature of impairment in autoregulation accurately predicts neurologic complications on an individual patient level, and suggests potentially differential impairments in underlying physiologic mechanisms. A better understanding of these can lead to targeted interventions to mitigate neurologic morbidity. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
Santos, Gabriela A.; Petersen, Nils; Zamani, Amir A.; Du, Rose; LaRose, Sarah; Monk, Andrew; Sorond, Farzaneh A.
Objective: To understand the physiologic basis of impaired cerebral autoregulation in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and its relationship to neurologic outcomes. Methods: The cohort included 121 patients with nontraumatic SAH admitted to a neurointensive critical care unit from March 2010 to May 2015. Vasospasm was ascertained from digital subtraction angiography and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) was defined as new cerebral infarction on high-resolution CT. Cerebral blood flow and beat-by-beat pressure were recorded daily on days 2–4 after admission. Autoregulatory capacity was quantified from pressure flow relation via projection pursuit regression. The main outcome was early alterations in autoregulatory mechanisms as they relate to vasospasm and DCI. Results: Forty-three patients developed only vasospasm, 9 only DCI, and 14 both. Autoregulatory capacity correctly predicted DCI in 86% of training cohort patients, generalizing to 80% of the patients who were not included in the original model. Patients who developed DCI had a distinct autoregulatory profile compared to patients who did not develop secondary complications or those who developed only vasospasm. The rate of decrease in flow was significantly steeper in response to transient reductions in pressure. The rate of increase in flow was markedly lower, suggesting a diminished ability to increase flow despite transient increases in pressure. Conclusions: The extent and nature of impairment in autoregulation accurately predicts neurologic complications on an individual patient level, and suggests potentially differential impairments in underlying physiologic mechanisms. A better understanding of these can lead to targeted interventions to mitigate neurologic morbidity. PMID:27164675
Kolte, Dhaval; Khera, Sahil; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Mujib, Marjan; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Sule, Sachin; Jain, Diwakar; Gotsis, William; Ahmed, Ali; Frishman, William H.; Fonarow, Gregg C.
Background Limited information is available on the contemporary and potentially changing trends in the incidence, management, and outcomes of cardiogenic shock complicating ST‐elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods and Results We queried the 2003–2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases to identify all patients ≥40 years of age with STEMI and cardiogenic shock. Overall and age‐, sex‐, and race/ethnicity‐specific trends in incidence of cardiogenic shock, early mechanical revascularization, and intra‐aortic balloon pump use, and inhospital mortality were analyzed. From 2003 to 2010, among 1 990 486 patients aged ≥40 years with STEMI, 157 892 (7.9%) had cardiogenic shock. The overall incidence rate of cardiogenic shock in patients with STEMI increased from 6.5% in 2003 to 10.1% in 2010 (Ptrend<0.001). There was an increase in early mechanical revascularization (30.4% to 50.7%, Ptrend<0.001) and intra‐aortic balloon pump use (44.8% to 53.7%, Ptrend<0.001) in these patients over the 8‐year period. Inhospital mortality decreased significantly, from 44.6% to 33.8% (Ptrend<0.001; adjusted OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.75), whereas the average total hospital cost increased from $35 892 to $45 625 (Ptrend<0.001) during the study period. There was no change in the average length of stay (Ptrend=0.394). These temporal trends were similar in patients <75 and ≥75 years of age, men and women, and across each racial/ethnic group. Conclusions The incidence of cardiogenic shock complicating STEMI has increased during the past 8 years together with increased use of early mechanical revascularization and intra‐aortic balloon pumps. There has been a concomitant decrease in risk‐adjusted inhospital mortality, but an increase in total hospital costs during this period. PMID:24419737
Larsen, Karen Kjær
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a severe life event that is accompanied by an increased risk of depression. Mounting evidence suggests that post-MI depression is associated with adverse outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear, and no previous studies have examined whether the mental burden of MI is so heavy that it increases the risk of suicide. Although post-MI depression is common and burdensome, the condition remains under-recognised and under-treated. The development of new strategies to improve the quality of care for people with post-MI depression requires thorough understanding of the mechanisms that influence the prognosis as well as knowledge of the present care provided. The purpose of this PhD thesis is accordingly subdivided into four specific aims: 1. To estimate the prevalence of depression in people with MI after three months, and to estimate the provided hospital-based psychosocial rehabilitation (Paper I); 2. To examine GPs' practice of screening for depression in people with MI, and to analyse whether the screening rate varied among subgroups of people with a particularly high risk of post-MI depression (Paper II); 3. To examine the association between post-MI depression and new cardiovascular events or death, taking potential mediators into account (Paper III); 4. To examine the association between MI and suicide (Paper IV). Two different study designs were employed: a population-based cohort study using data obtained from registers and questionnaires sent to MI patients and their GPs (Paper I-III); a nationwide population-based matched case-control study using data obtained from registers (Paper IV). Three months after having suffered MI, about one fifth of the patients in our study had depression according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Upwards of half of the patients had participated in some rehabilitation, thirty per cent had participated in psychosocial support and three per cent
Alcalá-Cerra, G; Paternina-Caicedo, Á; Díaz-Becerra, C; Moscote-Salazar, L R; Gutiérrez-Paternina, J J; Niño-Hernández, L M
External lumbar drainage is a promising measure for the prevention of delayed aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage-related ischemic complications. Controlled studies evaluating the effects of external lumbar drainage in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were included. Primary outcomes were: new cerebral infarctions and severe disability. Secondary outcomes were: clinical deterioration due to delayed cerebral ischemia, mortality, and the need of definitive ventricular shunting. Results were presented as pooled relative risks, with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A total of 6 controlled studies were included. Pooled relative risks were: new cerebral infarctions, 0.48 (95% CI: 0.32-0.72); severe disability, 0.5 (95% CI: 0.29-0.85); delayed cerebral ischemia-related clinical deterioration, 0.46 (95% CI: 0.34-0.63); mortality, 0.71 (95% CI: 0.24-2.06), and need of definitive ventricular shunting, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.51-1.24). Assessment of heterogeneity only revealed statistically significant indexes for the analysis of severe disability (I(2)=70% and P=.01). External lumbar drainage was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the risk of delayed cerebral ischemia-related complications (cerebral infarctions and clinical deterioration), as well as the risk of severe disability; however, it was not translated in a lower mortality. Nevertheless, it is not prudent to provide definitive recommendations at this time because of the qualitative and quantitative heterogeneity among included studies. More randomized controlled trials with more homogeneous outcomes and definitions are needed to clarify its impact in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Liu, Yu; Gu, Xudong; Huang, Fang; Fang, Fang; Zhao, Yusheng; Qian, Xiaoming; Wan, Wenhui
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can be complicated by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), but the exact influence of MODS on AMI remains unclear. This was a retrospective study of 6674 Chinese patients with AMI. The impact of MODS was assessed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Using the occurrence of MODS as the outcome, a prediction model was developed using the factors identified by logistic regression analysis and analyzed using receiving operator characteristic curves. Of 6674 patients with AMI, 83 (1.2%) progressed to MODS. MODS independently predicted the risk of 30-day in-hospital mortality [hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.7-3.2; P<0.001]. Advanced age [odds ratio (OR), 2.76; 95% CI, 1.26-6.03; P=0.011 for age 65-74 years; OR, 4.85; 95% CI, 2.96-7.93; P<0.001 for age ≥75 years), pneumonia (OR, 4.27; 95% CI, 2.68-6.81; P<0.001), and chronic renal failure (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.09-4.01; P=0.027) were associated independently with MODS. The area under the receiving operator characteristic curve for the predictive model was 0.802, indicating a good predictive value. MODS can predict the worst severity of AMI. Using common clinical variables, it is possible to identify patients with AMI who are at high risk of MODS. Additional studies are necessary to confirm this model.
Oyetayo, Ola O; Slicker, Kipp; De La Rosa, Lisa; Lane, Wesley; Langsjoen, Dane; Patel, Chhaya; Brough, Kevin; Michel, Jeffrey; Chiles, Christopher
Current guidelines recommend triple antithrombotic therapy (TT) consisting of warfarin, aspirin, and a P2Y12 inhibitor following an anterior ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated by extensive wall motion abnormalities. This recommendation, however, is based on data collected before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) became the standard of care for the treatment of STEMI. We designed a retrospective study of patients who received PCI for anterior STEMI over an 8-year period to compare rates of thromboembolic and bleeding events between patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and those receiving TT, including warfarin. Patients were included if the predischarge echocardiogram showed extensive wall motion abnormality and an ejection fraction ≤35%. Patients with known left ventricular thrombus were excluded. A total of 124 patients met the criteria, with 80 patients in the DAPT group and 44 in the TT group. The median age was 58 years in the TT group and 64 years in the DAPT group (P < 0.04), with an average ejection fraction of 31%. Thromboembolic events occurred in 4 patients (5%) in the DAPT group compared with 3 patients (6.8%) in the TT group (P = 0.70). Bleeding occurred in 2 patients in the DAPT group and 4 patients in the TT group (2.5% in DAPT vs. 9.1% in TT group, P = 0.18). No differences in rates of clinical embolism or left ventricular thrombus were found. Our data support recent findings that warfarin may not be indicated for patients following PCI for anterior STEMI, even when significant wall motion abnormalities and reduced ejection fraction ≤35% are present.
Oyetayo, Ola O.; Slicker, Kipp; De La Rosa, Lisa; Lane, Wesley; Langsjoen, Dane; Patel, Chhaya; Brough, Kevin; Chiles, Christopher
Current guidelines recommend triple antithrombotic therapy (TT) consisting of warfarin, aspirin, and a P2Y12 inhibitor following an anterior ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated by extensive wall motion abnormalities. This recommendation, however, is based on data collected before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) became the standard of care for the treatment of STEMI. We designed a retrospective study of patients who received PCI for anterior STEMI over an 8-year period to compare rates of thromboembolic and bleeding events between patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and those receiving TT, including warfarin. Patients were included if the predischarge echocardiogram showed extensive wall motion abnormality and an ejection fraction ≤35%. Patients with known left ventricular thrombus were excluded. A total of 124 patients met the criteria, with 80 patients in the DAPT group and 44 in the TT group. The median age was 58 years in the TT group and 64 years in the DAPT group (P < 0.04), with an average ejection fraction of 31%. Thromboembolic events occurred in 4 patients (5%) in the DAPT group compared with 3 patients (6.8%) in the TT group (P = 0.70). Bleeding occurred in 2 patients in the DAPT group and 4 patients in the TT group (2.5% in DAPT vs. 9.1% in TT group, P = 0.18). No differences in rates of clinical embolism or left ventricular thrombus were found. Our data support recent findings that warfarin may not be indicated for patients following PCI for anterior STEMI, even when significant wall motion abnormalities and reduced ejection fraction ≤35% are present. PMID:26424937
Prondzinsky, Roland; Unverzagt, Susanne; Russ, Martin; Lemm, Henning; Swyter, Michael; Wegener, Nikolas; Buerke, Ute; Raaz, Uwe; Ebelt, Henning; Schlitt, Axel; Heinroth, Konstantin; Haerting, Johannes; Werdan, Karl; Buerke, Michael
We conducted the IABP Cardiogenic Shock Trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT00469248) as a prospective, randomized, monocentric clinical trial to determine the hemodynamic effects of additional intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) treatment and its effects on severity of disease in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS). Intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation is recommended in patients with CS complicating myocardial infarction. However, there are only limited randomized controlled trial data available supporting the efficacy of IABP following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and its impact on hemodynamic parameters in patients with CS. Percutaneous coronary intervention of infarct-related artery was performed in 40 patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by CS, within 12 h of onset of hemodynamic instability. Serial hemodynamic parameters were determined over the next 4 days and compared in patients receiving medical treatment alone with those treated with additional intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation. There were no significant differences among severity of disease (i.e., Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score) initially and no differences among both groups for disease improvement. We observed significant temporal improvements of cardiac output (4.8 ± 0.5 to 6.0 ± 0.5 L/min), systemic vascular resistance (926 ± 73 to 769 ± 101 dyn · s(-1) · cm(-5)), and the prognosis-validated cardiac power output (0.78 ± 0.06 to 1.01 ± 0.2 W) within the IABP group. However, there were no significant differences between the IABP group and the medical-alone group. Additional IABP treatment did not result in a significant hemodynamic improvement compared with medical therapy alone in a randomized prospective trial in patients with CS following PCI. Therefore, the use and recommendation for IABP treatment in CS remain unclear.
Shen, Junyi; Zhao, Zhiming; Shang, Wei; Liu, Chunli; Zhang, Beibei; Zhao, Lingjie; Cai, Hui
Diabetic cerebral infarction is with poorer prognosis and high rates of mortality. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) has a wide variety of therapeutic values for central nervous system (CNS) diseases for the neuron protective effects. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts Rg1 in reaching the CNS. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of Rg1 nanoparticle (PHRO, fabricated with γ-PGA, L-PAE (H), Rg1, and OX26 antibody), targeting transferrin receptor, on the diabetes rats complicated with diabetic cerebral infarction in vitro and in vivo. Dynamic light scattering analysis shows the average particle size of PHRO was 79±18 nm and the polydispersity index =0.18. The transmission electron microscope images showed that all NPs were spherical in shape with diameters of 89±23 nm. PHRO released Rg1 with sustained release manner and could promote the migration of cerebrovascular endothelial cells and tube formation and even penetrated the BBB in vitro. PHRO could penetrate the BBB with high concentration in brain tissue to reduce the cerebral infarction volume and promote neuronal recovery in vivo. PHRO was promising to be a clinical treatment of diabetes mellitus with cerebral infarction.
Lee, Myung-Ki; Kim, Woo-Jae; Kim, Ho-Sang; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Yun-Suk
Development of a communication between the spinal subarachnoid space and the pleural space after thoracic spine surgery is uncommon. Subarachnoid pleural fistula (SAPF), a distressing condition, involves cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Here we report an unusual case of SAPF, occurring after thoracic spine surgery, that was further complicated by pneumocephalus and pneumorrhachis postthoracentesis, which was performed for unilateral pleural effusion. PMID:27799999
Gibelin, P; Ferrari, E; Tiger, F; Morand, P
Left ventricular failure is a common complication of the acute phase of myocardial infarction. The most appropriate current treatment, when an increase in preload is the predominant or sole feature, involves nitroglycerin by infusion combined in varying degrees with diuretics. The aim of this study was to assess the value of maintenance treatment following intravenous nitroglycerin based upon a long acting nitrate derivative designed to achieve a hemodynamic result. Twenty patients with a mean age of 62 and with left ventricular failure during the acute phase of a myocardial infarction were studied. They were all treated with IV nitroglycerin using an automatic pump syringe. Pulmonary artery diastolic pressure, cardiac output, blood pressure and heart rate were measured hourly for six hours then every 6 hours. When PADP fell to below 18 mmHg, maintenance treatment with placebo or long acting nitroglycerin was given double-blind (10 patients were given long acting nitroglycerin and 10 patients the placebo). Pulmonary artery pressures, blood pressure and heart rate were measured every 2 hours for 8 hours, then at 12 and 24 hours. No significant difference was found in heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output nor PADP (10 +/- 3.5 mmHg cf. 12 +/- 2.8 mmHg; NS) between the two groups. In total, maintenance treatment with long acting nitrate derivatives following IV nitroglycerin for hemodynamic purposes in patients with an acute myocardial infarction complicated by regressive cardiac failure would no appear to be necessary.
Yoo, Yeon Pyo; Kang, Ki-Woon; Yoon, Hyeon Soo; Myung, Jin Cheol; Choi, Yu Jeong; Kim, Won Ho; Park, Sang Hyun; Jung, Kyung Tae; Jeong, Myung Ho
Objective To investigate the clinical outcomes of an invasive strategy for elderly (aged ≥ 75 years) patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS). Methods Data on 366 of 409 elderly CS patients from a total of 6,132 acute STEMI cases enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry between January 2008 and June 2011, were collected and analyzed. In-hospital deaths and the 1-month and 1-year survival rates free from major adverse cardiac events (MACE; defined as all cause death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization) were reported for the patients who had undergone invasive (n = 310) and conservative (n = 56) treatment strategies. Results The baseline clinical characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. There were fewer in-hospital deaths in the invasive treatment strategy group (23.5% vs. 46.4%, P < 0.001). In addition, the 1-year MACE-free survival rate after invasive treatment was significantly lower compared with the conservative treatment (51% vs. 66%, P = 0.001). Conclusions In elderly patients with acute STEMI complicated by CS, the outcomes of invasive strategy are similar to those in younger patients at the 1-year follow-up. PMID:24133510
Marcì, Marcello; Savatteri, Paolino; Pizzuto, Antonino; Giammona, Giuseppe; Renda, Baldassare; Lojacono, Francesca; Sanfilippo, Nicola
It is well known that cardiopulmonary complications are often associated to subarachnoid haemorrhage. For appropriate therapeutic managing it is very important to distinguish acute coronary syndrome from neurogenic myocardial injury, which is a reversible condition. Furthermore, because the hearts of brain dead patients may be utilized for therapeutic purpose, it has became of importance to rule out erroneous diagnosis of cardiac ischemia in order to avoid rejection of hearts potential suitable for transplantation.We present a report of two female patients affected by cardiac complications caused by aneurismal subarachnoid haemorrhage admitted to our neurosurgical intensive care department.
Kranthi, Sannepaneni; Sahu, Barada P.; Aniruddh, Purohit
Context: Poor grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is usually associated with unfavorable outcomes and optimal management is deemed complicated. Most centres follow an expectant management strategy or a less aggressive approach till patients improve to good clinical grades. This approach has been associated with higher mortality and morbidity. However, not all patients with poor clinical condition fare badly. Identification and early aggressive management of this select group of patients may lead to favorable outcomes. Settings and Design: Prospective non-randomized study. Materials and Methods: We prospectively analyzed 19 cases presented in WFNS grade 4 and 5 and factors affecting their outcome at a tertiary care centre in south India. This study was aimed at identifying those few poor grade patients who are probable candidates for a good outcome. Statistical Analysis Used: All the variables were analyzed for possible correlations with the SPSS version 13 software. The Chi-square test with a P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Of 19 cases, 13 were operated and good outcome was seen in 53.8% of the patients who underwent surgery and aggressive management. All 7 patients who were managed conservatively died. 15.8% of the patients had low density changes (P = 0.625). Absence of such changes was associated with a good long term outcome (P = 0.004). 9 patients had intraventricular hemorrhage at presentation and 5 patients having hydrocephalus underwent extra-ventricular drainage. Statistically significant factors precluding good outcome were the presence of infarcts and thick SAH in the cisterns. Conclusions: Poor grade (WFNS 4 and 5) SAH patients with or without ICH, IVH, if operated within 3 days can give rise to favorable outcome in around 50%. However, presence of patchy infarcts associated with thick subarachnoid blood (Fisher grade 3) precludes long term survival or meaningful recovery. Hence, aggressive management is unlikely to alter the
Okamoto, Masashi; Amano, Tomonori; Matsuoka, Shunzo; Hirai, Hideki; Masuda, Kazunori; Nakajima, Kanta; Sueyoshi, Atsushi
A 52-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with a sudden onset of severe chest pains. His electrocardiogram revealed ST-segment elevation suggestive of acute myocardial infarction. Emergency coronary angiography showed subtotal occlusion of left main trunk (LMT) with delayed coronary flow. Because intravascular ultrasound revealed a large intimal flap, we diagnosed aortic dissection involving the LMT. After stenting of the LMT, the patient underwent surgical repair of the aortic dissection. Although it is difficult to obtain a correct diagnosis of aortic dissection complicated with myocardial ischemia, we succeeded in diagnosing this rare condition by use of a intravascular ultrasound.
Gupta, Rahul; Sharma, Arun; Vaishya, Richa; Tandon, Monica
Cerebral ischemic complications after pituitary surgery are not frequently reported. These vascular complications may be related to (1) direct trauma to the vessel wall, (2) compression of the internal carotid artery (ICA) due to pituitary apoplexy, (3) vasospasm secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage or vasoactive tumor extract, or (4) hypothalamic injury. We describe two cases where major vessel infarcts occurred after removal of pituitary tumor. One case has repeated episodes of thrombembolism probably due to a internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection triggered by minor intraoperative ICA injury during transsphenoidal excision. The other cases had a late-onset cerebral ischemia due vasospasm of middle cerebral artery after transcranial excision of a large pituitary tumor. Both patients had a long hospital stay and were managed successfully with anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs, aggressive supportive care in the intensive care unit, and rehabilitation. These cases highlight two different mechanisms of infarcts after pituitary surgery. The first case highlights the importance of ICA evaluation before surgery in elderly patients with risk factors, such as chronic smoking, hypertension, and atherosclerotic disease. Even minimal manipulation of the ICA can generate a cascade of thrombembolic events in such patients. The second case highlights the importance of observing the patient of a highly vascular giant pituitary adenoma in the hospital for a longer than usual time. Delayed vasospasm can occur like in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and have a good outcome if detected early and managed judiciously. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Fazio, Richard M; Chen, Ioana; Somal, Navjot
A 44-year-old woman presented with progressively worsening neurological symptoms of 1 week duration. Physical examination revealed absent reflexes of the lower extremities and proximal muscle weakness, bilaterally. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electrophysiological studies were consistent with the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and the patient was started on intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. Along with positive neurological findings, rheumatological work up revealed elevated antinuclear antibody titres, positive double-stranded DNA and anti-Smith antibodies. These results, in conjunction with positive clinical findings, confirmed an underlying diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The patient's hospital course was complicated by an episode of severe left upper quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tachycardia and elevated inflammatory markers. CT scan of the abdomen revealed a splenic infarct following completion of IVIg infusion, making this a contributor to thrombus formation in the setting of an already thrombophilic state, and a rare complication of an approved method of treatment.
Bagheri, Amin; Sahebpour, Alireza Aalam; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad
Inguinal hernia with acute appendicitis known as Amyand's hernia is uncommon. It may clinically manifest as acute scrotum, inguinal lymphadenitis, or strangulated hernia. The presentation of Amyand's hernia with acute scrotum has been rarely described. Also, the manifestation of infarcted omentum in the inguinal hernia has been described in one case previously. However, the coexistence of perforated appendix with infarcted omentum in the hernia sac which manifests acute scrotum has not been described previously. Herein, we described a case of a 5-year-old boy, admitted with right tense, painful, and erythematous scrotum in the emergency room. The diagnosis of herniated appendicitis was performed preoperatively by ultrasound. Moreover, the ischemic omentum was confirmed during surgery. PMID:25785221
Haynes, H R; Visca, A; Renowden, S; Malcolm, G
A case of thrombus formation occurring within a dilation of the dural venous sinuses following aneurysmal sub-arachnoid haemorrhage is presented. Acute neurological deterioration accompanied propagation of the thrombus. The patient was anticoagulated on day 5 post-SAH with no haemorrhagic complications and made a full recovery. The optimum time to commence anticoagulation is not clear and is discussed.
Marder, Carrie P; Narla, Vinod; Fink, James R; Tozer Fink, Kathleen R
Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) typically prompts a search for an underlying ruptured saccular aneurysm, which is the most common nontraumatic cause. Depending on the clinical presentation and pattern of SAH, the differential diagnosis may include a diverse group of causes other than aneurysm rupture. For the purposes of this review, we classify SAH into three main patterns, defined by the distribution of blood on unenhanced CT: diffuse, perimesencephalic, and convexal. The epicenter of the hemorrhage further refines the differential diagnosis and guides subsequent imaging. Additionally, we review multiple clinical conditions that can simulate the appearance of SAH on CT or MRI, an imaging artifact known as pseudo-SAH.
Raya, Amanda K; Diringer, Michael N
Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial aneurysm rupture presents with sudden severe headache. Initial treatment focuses on airway management, blood pressure control, and extraventricular drain for hydrocephalus. After identifying the aneurysm, they may be clipped surgically or endovascularly coiled. Nimodipine is administered to maintain a euvolemic state and prevent delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Patients may receive anticonvulsants. Monitoring includes serial neurologic assessments, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography perfusion, and angiographic studies. Treatment includes augmentation of blood pressure and cardiac output, cerebral angioplasty, and intra-arterial infusions of vasodilators. Although early mortality is high, about one half of survivors recover with little disability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Strom, Jordan B; McCabe, James M; Waldo, Stephen W; Pinto, Duane S; Kennedy, Kevin F; Feldman, Dmitriy N; Yeh, Robert W
In 2010, New York State began excluding selected patients with cardiac arrest and coma from publicly reported mortality statistics after percutaneous coronary intervention. We evaluated the effects of this exclusion on rates of coronary angiography, revascularization, and mortality among patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest. Using statewide hospitalization files, we identified discharges for acute myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest January 2003 to December 2013 in New York and several comparator states. A difference-in-differences approach was used to evaluate the likelihood of coronary angiography, revascularization, and in-hospital mortality before and after 2010. A total of 26 379 patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest (5619 in New York) were included. Of these, 17 141 (65%) underwent coronary angiography, 12 183 (46.2%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, and 2832 (10.7%) underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Before 2010, patients with cardiac arrest in New York were less likely to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention compared with referent states (adjusted relative risk, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.85; P<0.001). This relationship was unchanged after the policy change (adjusted relative risk, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.89; interaction P=0.359). Adjusted risks of in-hospital mortality between New York and comparator states after 2010 were also similar (adjusted relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.02; P=0.152 for post- versus pre-2010 in New York; adjusted relative risk, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.92; P<0.001 for comparator states; interaction P=0.103). Exclusion of selected cardiac arrest cases from public reporting was not associated with changes in rates of percutaneous coronary intervention or in-hospital mortality in New York. Rates of revascularization in New York for cardiac arrest patients were lower throughout. © 2017 American
Jang, Woo-Youl; Lee, Jung-Kil; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Kwak, Hyung-Jun; Joo, Sung-Pil; Kim, In-Young; Kim, Jae-Hyoo; Kim, Soo-Han
This report describes a 66-year-old man who presented with progressive paraparesis after a fall. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an acute spinal hematoma at T11-12 with spinal cord compression. The patient underwent an emergency left T11-12 hemilaminectomy. The hematoma was subarachnoid and the source of bleeding was an injured radicular vein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of traumatic spinal subarachnoid hematoma. We discuss the possible mechanism and our case illustrates an injured radicular vein can be a source of traumatic spinal subarachnoid hematoma.
He, Dong-Fang; Ren, Yan-Ping; Liu, Mei-Yan
Background: Our previous studies have demonstrated that the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-HT 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) in serum and platelet were associated with depression and myocardial infarction (MI), and pretreatment with ginseng fruit saponins (GFS) before MI and depression had an effect on the 5-HT system. In this study, the effects of GFS on the 5-HT system in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with MI, depression, and MI + depression were evaluated. Methods: A total of eighty SD rats were allocated to four groups: MI, depression, MI + depression, and control groups (n = 20 in each group). Each group included two subgroups (n = 10 in each subgroup): Saline treatment subgroup and GFS treatment subgroup. The levels of 5-HT, 5-HT2AR, and serotonin transporter (SERT) were quantified in serum, platelet lysate, and brain tissue through the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, respectively. Results: Compared with those in the saline treatment subgroups, the levels of 5-HT in serum and platelet lysate statistically significantly increased in the GFS treatment subgroups of MI, depression, and MI + depression groups (serum: all P = 0.000; platelet lysate: P = 0.002, 0.000, 0.000, respectively). However, the 5-HT levels in brain homogenate significantly decreased in the GFS treatment subgroups compared with those in the saline treatment subgroups in MI and depression groups (P = 0.025 and 0.044 respectively), and no significant difference was observed between saline and GFS treatment subgroups in MI + depression group (P = 0.663). Compared with that in GFS treatment subgroup of control group, the 5-HT2AR levels in the platelet lysate significantly decreased in GFS treatment subgroups of MI, depression, and MI + depression groups (all P = 0.000). Compared to those in the saline treatment subgroups, the serum SERT levels significantly decreased in the GFS treatment subgroups in MI, depression, and MI + depression groups (P = 0.009, 0.038, and P = 0
He, Dong-Fang; Ren, Yan-Ping; Liu, Mei-Yan
Our previous studies have demonstrated that the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-HT 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) in serum and platelet were associated with depression and myocardial infarction (MI), and pretreatment with ginseng fruit saponins (GFS) before MI and depression had an effect on the 5-HT system. In this study, the effects of GFS on the 5-HT system in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with MI, depression, and MI + depression were evaluated. A total of eighty SD rats were allocated to four groups: MI, depression, MI + depression, and control groups (n = 20 in each group). Each group included two subgroups (n = 10 in each subgroup): Saline treatment subgroup and GFS treatment subgroup. The levels of 5-HT, 5-HT2AR, and serotonin transporter (SERT) were quantified in serum, platelet lysate, and brain tissue through the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, respectively. Compared with those in the saline treatment subgroups, the levels of 5-HT in serum and platelet lysate statistically significantly increased in the GFS treatment subgroups of MI, depression, and MI + depression groups (serum: all P = 0.000; platelet lysate: P = 0.002, 0.000, 0.000, respectively). However, the 5-HT levels in brain homogenate significantly decreased in the GFS treatment subgroups compared with those in the saline treatment subgroups in MI and depression groups (P = 0.025 and 0.044 respectively), and no significant difference was observed between saline and GFS treatment subgroups in MI + depression group (P = 0.663). Compared with that in GFS treatment subgroup of control group, the 5-HT2AR levels in the platelet lysate significantly decreased in GFS treatment subgroups of MI, depression, and MI + depression groups (all P = 0.000). Compared to those in the saline treatment subgroups, the serum SERT levels significantly decreased in the GFS treatment subgroups in MI, depression, and MI + depression groups (P = 0.009, 0.038, and P = 0.001, respectively), while the SERT levels
Kumar, Basant; Agrawal, Navin; Patra, Soumya; Manjunath, C N
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) constitutes a heterogeneous group of immune-mediated peripheral neuropathic disorders that can be triggered by a variety of antecedent events. Clinical symptoms are thought to result from streptokinase antibody-mediated damage to the local blood–nerve barrier. We report the case of a 50-year-old man with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction who developed GBS as a manifestation of autoimmune hypersensitivity reaction to the drug 17 days after thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase. The patient was treated with a 5-day course of intravenous γ globulin and his symptoms improved and there was no residual deficit. The case forms a reminder of the autoimmune complications of non-fibrin specific agents that can sometimes be catastrophic and require persistent and vigilant in-hospital and immediate postdischarge follow-up and immediate management. PMID:24099761
Morillon-Lutun, Sophie; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Mewton, Nathan; Farhat, Fadi; Bresson, Didier; Girerd, Nicolas; Desebbe, Olivier; Henaine, Roland; Kirkorian, Gilbert; Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Eric
Recent studies have shown that the decrease in ventricular septal rupture (VSR) incidence after acute myocardial infarction is related to the improvement of reperfusion strategies. Our main objective was to explore the influence of therapeutic management changes on post-infarct VSR patient outcomes in a single reference center over a period of 30 years. We analyzed therapeutic management strategies and mortality rates in 228 patients with VSR after acute myocardial infarction admitted from 1981 to 2010. Patients were classified in 3 successive decades. There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics of patients with VSR at admission among those decades. Overall, surgery was performed in 159 patients (71.9%), primary transcatheter VSR closure was attempted in 5 patients (2.2%), and 64 patients (27.6%) were managed medically. Independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were VSR surgical repair (odds ratio [OR] 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1 to 0.7, p = 0.008), cardiogenic shock (OR 6.06, 95% CI 2.8 to 13.1, p <0.0001), and Killip class on admission (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.1 to 9.9, p = 0.02). We found a significant 1-year mortality reduction between the first and second decades (hazard ratio 0.48, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.80; p = 0.005), with no significant change in the last decade (p = 0.2). This change was related to a systematic referral to surgical repair and shorter delays to VSR surgery (5.2 ± 6.3 vs 1.9 ± 3.2 days from first to second decade; p = 0.012). In conclusion, surgical repair remains the only significant efficient therapy to reduce mortality in patients with VSR (p <10(-3)). In-hospital prognosis remains disappointing. This contrasts with the favorable long-term outcome of patients who survive the perioperative period and are discharged from hospital. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hassan, Ali; Ahmad, Bakhtiar; Ahmed, Zahoor; Al-Quliti, Khalid W.
Ruptured cerebral aneurysm is the most common cause of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Rarely cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) may present initially as acute SAH, and clinically mimics aneurysmal bleed. We report 2 cases of CVST who presented with severe headache associated with neck pain and focal seizures. Non-contrast brain CT showed SAH, involving the sulci of the convexity of hemisphere (cSAH) without involving the basal cisterns. Both patients received treatment with anticoagulants and improved. Awareness of this unusual presentation of CVST is important for early diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the inclusion of vascular neuroimaging like MRI with venography or CT venography in the diagnostic workup of SAH, especially in a patient with strong clinical suspicion of CVST or in a patient where neuroimaging showed cSAH. PMID:25630784
Yu, Hang; Yao, Fang; Li, Yue; Li, Jian; Cui, Quan-Cai
POEMS syndrome is a rare hematological disorder associated with plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes. Castleman disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder that can be present in POEMS patients, which can be defined as Castleman disease variant of POEMS syndrome. Herein, we described a 24-year-old male patient diagnosed with this syndrome and also suffered from multiple cerebral infarctions. This patient showed no evidence of monoclonal gammopathy and failed to have electromyography examined. The final diagnosis was established with the help of the axillary lymph node biopsy. As a rare case of POEMS syndrome without evidence fulfilling the major mandatory diagnostic criteria and with cerebrovascular involvement, its characteristics was discussed with a brief literature review in order to facilitate further understanding of the POEMS syndrome. PMID:26722578
Yu, Hang; Yao, Fang; Li, Yue; Li, Jian; Cui, Quan-Cai
POEMS syndrome is a rare hematological disorder associated with plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes. Castleman disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder that can be present in POEMS patients, which can be defined as Castleman disease variant of POEMS syndrome. Herein, we described a 24-year-old male patient diagnosed with this syndrome and also suffered from multiple cerebral infarctions. This patient showed no evidence of monoclonal gammopathy and failed to have electromyography examined. The final diagnosis was established with the help of the axillary lymph node biopsy. As a rare case of POEMS syndrome without evidence fulfilling the major mandatory diagnostic criteria and with cerebrovascular involvement, its characteristics was discussed with a brief literature review in order to facilitate further understanding of the POEMS syndrome.
Guppy, Kern H; Silverthorn, James W; Akins, Paul T
Intrathecal spinal catheters (lumbar drains) are indicated for several medical and surgical conditions. In neurosurgical procedures, they are used to reduce intracranial and intrathecal pressures by diverting CSF. They have also been placed for therapeutic access to administer drugs, and more recently, vascular surgeons have used them to improve spinal cord perfusion during the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Insertion of these lumbar drains is not without attendant complications. One complication is the shearing of the distal end of the catheter with a resultant retained fragment. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the migration of a retained lumbar drain that sheared off during its removal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rostral migration of a retained intrathecal catheter causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors review the literature on retained intrathecal spinal catheters, and their findings support either early removal of easily accessible catheters or close monitoring with serial imaging.
Pitt, Bertram; Ahmed, Ali; Love, Thomas E.; Krum, Henry; Nicolau, Jose; Silva Cardoso, José; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Aschermann, Michael; Corbalán, Ramon; Solomon, Henry; Shi, Harry; Zannad, Faiez
In the Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (n=6632), eplerenone-associated reduction in all-cause mortality was significantly greater in those with a history of hypertension (Hx-HTN). There were 4007 patients with Hx-HTN (eplerenone: n=1983) and 2625 patients without Hx-HTN (eplerenone: n=1336). Propensity scores for eplerenone use, separately calculated for patients with and without Hx-HTN, were used to assemble matched cohorts of 1838 and 1176 pairs of patients. In patients with Hx-HTN, all-cause mortality occurred in 18% of patients treated with placebo (rate, 1430/10 000 person-years) and 14% of patients treated with eplerenone (rate, 1058/10 000 person-years) during 2350 and 2457 years of follow-up, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59 to 0.85; P<0.0001). Composite end point of cardiovascular hospitalization or cardiovascular mortality occurred in 33% of placebo-treated patients (3029/10 000 person-years) and 28% of eplerenone-treated patients (2438/10 000 person-years) with Hx-HTN (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.94; P=0.003). In patients without Hx-HTN, eplerenone reduced heart failure hospitalization (HR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.97; P=0.028) but had no effect on mortality (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.72 to 1.15; P=0.435) or on the composite end point (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.10; P=0.331). Eplerenone should, therefore, be prescribed to all of the post–acute myocardial infarction patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and heart failure regardless of Hx-HTN. PMID:18559720
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome. PMID:25272066
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome.
Imanishi, M; Sakai, T; Nishimura, A; Konobu, T; Nishio, K; Murao, Y; Tabuse, H; Miyamoto, S; Sakaki, T; Nagaike, C; Hatake, K; Itou, H
The number of stimulant-drug addicts has recently been on the rise again, and they are being increasingly encountered in the emergency room. There are also frequent reports of cerebrovascular disorders complicating drug toxicity. These cerebrovascular disorders have included subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracranial hematoma, and a few cases of cerebral infarction. Here, we report the case of a 37-year-old male with drug toxicity, consciousness disorder, and hyperthermia. He was in a coma with a temperature of 43.1 degrees C and blood pressure of 58/35 mmHg when brought to our hospital. His condition worse rapidly deteriorated, and he died the same day. Cerebral infarction caused by gram-positive bacillus embolism, not necrotizing angiitis, was found at autopsy. Because drug addicts, especially stimulant-drug addicts, tend to inject themselves drug under unsanitary conditions, the possibility of this type of complication is always present. This is the first such case ever reported, and is therefore regarded as a rare complication of stimulant-drug intoxication.
Nakaoka, Mitsuo; Ohbayashi, Naohiko; Yahara, Kaita; Nabika, Shinya
Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has a fatal complication of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) associated with cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS), i.e. brain hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although SAH accounts for a small percentage of these patients, it is difficult to make a differential diagnosis of this syndrome from CHS without ICH because the clinical presentations resemble each other. Furthermore, not only does the cause of SAH following CAS remain unclear but also the role of controlling postoperative blood pressure is not detected in preventing ICH after CAS. Herein, we report a case of SAH following CAS and review previous literature to discuss the mechanism and the management of this fatal complication. A 78-year-old woman with a history of arteriosclerotic obliteration and myocardial infarction was referred to our department for intervention to asymptomatic severe stenosis of the right internal carotid artery. We performed CAS under local anesthesia. Although her blood pressure was controlled to normotension during the procedure, the patient complained of headache following predilation. Postoperative emergent non-contrast computed tomography revealed SAH with leakage of contrast medium occupying the right sylvian fissure. We continued strict blood pressure control, and the patient was discharged without any neurological deficit. A well-opened lumen of the stent was recognized three months later at the outpatient visit. Strict control of intraoperative and postoperative blood pressure may improve the outcome of SAH following CAS though the role in preventing ICH after CAS is unclear. PMID:26184053
Zhang, Shihong; Wang, Lichun; Liu, Ming; Wu, Bo
Delayed cerebral ischaemia is a significant contributor to poor outcome (death or disability) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Tirilazad is considered to have neuroprotective properties in animal models of acute cerebral ischaemia. To assess the efficacy and safety of tirilazad in patients with aneurysmal SAH. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched October 2009); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2009); MEDLINE (1966 to October 2009); EMBASE (1980 to October 2009); and the Stroke Trials Directory, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, and the National Institute of Health Clinical Trials Database (searched October 2009). We handsearched 10 Chinese journals, searched the reference lists of relevant publications, and contacted the manufacturers of tirilazad. Randomised trials of tirilazad started within four days of SAH onset, compared with placebo or open control in patients with aneurysmal SAH documented by angiography and computerised tomography (CT) scan or cerebrospinal fluid examination, or both. We extracted data relating to case fatality, poor outcome (death, vegetative state, or severe disability), delayed cerebral ischaemia (or symptomatic vasospasm), cerebral infarction and adverse events of treatments. We pooled the data using the Peto fixed-effect method for dichotomous data. We included five double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving 3821 patients; there was no significant heterogeneity. Oral or intravenous nimodipine was used routinely as a background treatment in both groups in all trials. There was no significant difference between the two groups at the end of follow up for the primary outcome, death (odds ratio (OR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 1.06), or in poor outcome (death, vegetative state or severe disability) (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.21). During the treatment period, fewer patients
Barbarash, Olga; Gruzdeva, Olga; Belik, Ekaterina; Dyleva, Yulia; Karetnikova, Victoria
Introduction On average, 19–23% of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is newly diagnosed in a significant number of patients. Both classic carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism may be promising diagnostic markers for insulin resistance in acute coronary syndrome. Material and methods Two hundred patients (130 males and 70 females aged 61.4 ±1.12 years) with ST-segment elevation MI were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups based on manifestations of diabetes: (1) 171 patients without diabetes within 1 year after MI; and (2) 29 patients with manifestations of diabetes. The control group comprised 33 people without diseases of the cardiovascular system and diabetes and was matched by age and gender with patients. Results In patients with an imbalanced adipokine state during the acute phase of MI, we noted an increased concentration of free fatty acids (p > 0.05) and reduced ghrelin levels (p > 0.05) and activation of the proinflammatory and thrombotic potentials of blood plasma. Patients who developed diabetes 1 year after MI showed hospital stays with more pronounced changes in the study parameters. Conclusions The most informative biochemical parameters associated with the development of diabetes at 1 year after MI were adiponectin, retinol protein, ghrelin, tumor necrosis factor α, and plasminogen activator inhibitor. PMID:28261283
Tang, Rui; Tian, Xiaodong; Xie, Xuehai; Yang, Yinmo
The clinical symptoms of pylephlebitis caused by acute appendicitis are varied and atypical, which leads to delayed diagnosis and poor outcomes. Here, we report a case of intestinal necrosis caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins as a complication of acute appendicitis after appendectomy. The patient had acute abdominal pain with tenderness and melena on the 3rd day after appendectomy for the treatment of gangrenous appendicitis. He was diagnosed with intestinal infarction caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins based on enhanced CT and diagnostic abdominal paracentesis. The patient was treated by bowel excision anastomosis and thrombectomy. After postoperative antibiotic and anticoagulation treatments, the patient recovered well and was discharged 22 days after the 2nd operation. A follow-up CT scan showed no recurrence of portomesenteric veins thrombosis 3 months later. Thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins is a rare but fatal complication of acute appendicitis. For all the cases with acute abdominal pain, the possibility of thrombophlebitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Once pylephlebitis is suspected, enhanced CT scan is helpful for early diagnosis, and sufficient control of inflammation as well as anticoagulant therapy should be performed.
Liu, Hong-wei; Pan, Wei; Wang, Lan-feng; Sun, Yan-ming; Li, Zhu-qin; Wang, Zhong-hua
Cardiac arrest is one of the most serious complications of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), especially in the out-of-hospital patients. There is no general consensus as to whether percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is effective in treating ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients complicated by out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). In our study, we evaluated the efficacy of PCI in treating STEMI patients complicated by OHCA through observing their clinical conditions in hospital; including total mortality, adverse cardiac events, stroke, acute renal failure, and gastrointestinal bleeding events. A total of 1827 STEMI patients were enrolled in this study, where 81 were STEMI with OHCA. Between the patients with and without OHCA, and the OHCA patients with and without PCI, we compared the clinical characteristics during hospitalization, including total mortality and incidences of adverse cardiac events, and stroke. Compared to the patients without OHCA, the OHCA patients had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) and a faster heart rate (P < 0.05), and a higher percentage of Killip class IV or Glasgow coma scale (GCS) ≤ 7 on admission (P < 0.001). And the in-hospital mortality was higher in the OHCA patients (55.6% vs. 2.4%, P < 0.001). Comparing the OHCA patients without PCI to the patients with PCI, there was no obvious difference of heart rate, blood pressure or the percentage of Killip class IV and GCS ≤ 7 on admission, but the incidences of cardiogenic shock, stroke were significantly lower in the with-PCI group during hospitalization (P < 0.001, P < 0.05). And the in-hospital mortality of the OHCA patients receiving PCI was significantly lower (36.7% vs. 84.3%, P < 0.001). During hospitalization, the incidence of adverse events and mortality are higher in the STEMI with OHCA patients, comparing with the STEMI without OHCA. Emergency PCI reduces the incidence of adverse events and decreases mortality during
Barthélémy, Olivier; Silvain, Johanne; Brieger, David; Mercadier, Anne; Lancar, Remi; Bellemain-Appaix, Anne; Beygui, Farzin; Collet, Jean Philippe; Costagliola, Dominique; Montalescot, Gilles
We evaluated the incidence, types, and prognostic impact of bleeding complications in a non-selected patient population with ongoing STEMI treated with aggressive antithrombotic treatment and routine radial primary PCI. Bleeding complications remain frequent and deleterious in primary PCI through femoral approach. STEMI patients (n = 671) were evaluated for bleeding complications using a web-based registry (e-PARIS). In-hospital bleeding was adjudicated using the TIMI definition. In this non-selected, high risk population, 6.1% had cardiogenic shock on admission, 3.9% out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Radial access (88%) was the default strategy as was abciximab (78%). Clopidogrel loading dose ranged from 300 to 900 mg. Pre-hospital fibrinolysis was rare (7.1%). Hemodynamic support devices (IABP, ECMO, Tandem Heart) were needed in 7.0%. In-hospital TIMI Major and TIMI Major/minor bleedings occurred in 2.5 and 5.7% of the population, respectively. In-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were 5.5 and 8.2%, respectively. Patients with in-hospital TIMI Major/minor bleeding had a higher 1-year mortality rate (31.6% vs. 3.8%, P < 0.001). The most frequent bleeding site was gastro-intestinal. Radial access was a strong predictor of survival (OR 0.33; 95%CI 0.17-0.56; P = 0.002). In the setting of radial primary PCI, the rates and types of bleeding complications are somewhat different from those observed with femoral primary PCI. The gastro-intestinal tract has become the most frequent site of bleeding after radial primary PCI. The use of radial access appears independently associated with survival. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tachibana, Toshiya; Moriyama, Tokuhide; Maruo, Keishi; Inoue, Shinichi; Arizumi, Fumihiro; Yoshiya, Shinichi
The authors report a case of adhesive arachnoiditis (AA) and arachnoid cyst successfully treated by subarachnoid to subarachnoid bypass (S-S bypass). Arachnoid cysts or syringes sometimes compress the spinal cord and cause compressive myelopathy that requires surgical treatment. However, surgical treatment for AA is challenging. A 57-year-old woman developed leg pain and gait disturbance. A dorsal arachnoid cyst compressed the spinal cord at T7-9, the spinal cord was swollen, and a small syrinx was present at T9-10. An S-S bypass was performed from T6-7 to T11-12. The patient's gait disturbance resolved immediately after surgery. Two years later, a small arachnoid cyst developed. However, there was no neurological deterioration. The myelopathy associated with thoracic spinal AA, subarachnoid cyst, and syrinx improved after S-S bypass.
Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Melo, Teresa P; Canhão, Patrícia; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José Manuel
Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5%) cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2%) were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases), aerobics (2 cases), cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007). In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1%) or 2 (88.9%) at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation.
Filipce, Venko; Caparoski, Aleksandar
Vasospasm and re-bleeding after subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysm are devastating complication that can severely affect the outcome of the patients. We are presenting a series of total number of 224 patients treated and operated at our Department due to subarachnoid hemorrhage, out of which certain number developed vasospasm and re-bleeding. We are evaluating the effect of these complications on the outcome of the patients according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale at the day of discharge. In our experience both vasospasm and ReSAH can significantly influence the outcome of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysm.
Introduction Non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage is characterized by an accumulation of a limited amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage, predominantly around the midbrain, and a lack of blood in the brain parenchyma or ventricular system. It represents 5% of all spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage cases. In spite of extensive investigation, understanding of the mechanisms leading to perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remains incompletely defined. A growing body of evidence has supported a familial predisposition for non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case presentation A 39-year-old Caucasian man presented with sudden onset headache associated with diplopia. His computed tomography scan revealed perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. A cerebral angiogram showed no apparent source of bleeding. He was treated conservatively and discharged after 1 week without any neurological deficits. The older brother of the first case, a 44-year-old Caucasian man, presented 1.5 years later with acute onset of headache and his computed tomography scan also showed perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. He was discharged home with normal neurological examination 1 week later. Follow-up angiograms did not reveal any source of bleeding in either patient. Conclusions We report the cases of two siblings with perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, which may further suggest a familial predisposition of non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and may also point out the possible higher risk of perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the first-degree relatives of patients with perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:25416614
Li, Chao; Che, Li-He; Ji, Tie-Feng; Shi, Lei; Yu, Jin-Lu
This study aims to explore the effects of the TLR4 signaling pathway on the apoptosis of neuronal cells in rats with diabetes mellitus complicated with cerebral infarction (DMCI). A DMCI model was established with 40 Sprague Dawley rats, which were assigned into blank, sham, DM + middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and DM + MCAO + TAK242 groups. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured. A TUNEL assay was applied for detecting cell apoptosis, and Western blotting was used for detecting the expression of TLR4, TNF-α, IL-1β and apoptosis-related proteins. Compared with the blank and sham groups, there was an increase in cell apoptosis, expression of Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, TNF-α, IL-1β and TLR4 proteins and MDA content and a decrease in SOD activity in the DM + MCAO and DM + MCAO + TAK242 groups. Compared with those in the DM + MCAO group, rats in the DM + MCAO + TAK242 group exhibited an increase in SOD activity and a decrease in cell apoptosis, expression of Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, TNF-α, IL-1β and TLR4 proteins and MDA content. Inhibition of the TLR4 signaling pathway reduces neuronal cell apoptosis and nerve injury to protect the brain. PMID:28272417
Zheng, Vera Zhiyuan; Wong, George Kwok Chu
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an important cause of stroke mortality and morbidity, especially in the young stroke population. Recent evidences indicate that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in both early brain injury and the delayed brain deterioration after SAH, including cellular and molecular components. Cerebral vasospasm (CV) can lead to death after SAH and independently correlated with poor outcome. Neuroinflammation is evidenced to contribute to the etiology of vasospasm. Besides, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) commonly occurs in the SAH patients, with the presence of non-infectious fever and systematic complications. In this review, we summarize the evidences that indicate the prominent role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of SAH. That may provide the potential implications on diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
de Oliveira, Jean G; Beck, Jürgen; Ulrich, Christian; Rathert, Julian; Raabe, Andreas; Seifert, Volker
Cerebral vasospasm is one of the most important complications of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The effect of aneurysm occlusion technique on incidence of vasospasm is not exactly known. The objective was to analyze surgical clipping versus endovascular coiling on the incidence of cerebral vasospasm and its consequences. Using the MEDLINE PubMed (1966-present) database, all English-language manuscripts comparing patients treated by surgical clipping with patients treated by endovascular coiling, regarding vasospasm incidence after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, were analyzed. Data extracted from eligible studies included the following outcome measures: incidence of total vasospasm, symptomatic vasospasm, ischemic infarct vasospasm-induced and delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND). A pooled estimate of the effect size was computed and the test of heterogeneity between studies was carried out using The Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager software, RevMan 4.2. Nine manuscripts that fulfilled the eligibility criteria were included and analyzed. The studies differed substantially with respect to design and methodological quality. The overall results showed no significant difference between clipping and coiling regarding to outcome measures. According to the available data, there is no significant difference between the types of technique used for aneurysm occlusion (clipping or coiling) on the risk of cerebral vasospasm development and its consequences.
Liu, Hongju; Xu, Xiaoli
Simvastatin might be beneficial to the patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, the results remained controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of simvastatin for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of simvastatin versus placebo on aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. The primary outcomes were delayed ischaemic deficit and delayed cerebral infarction. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effect model. Six RCTs involving 1053 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with control intervention, simvastatin intervention had no influence on delayed ischaemic deficit (RR=0.99; 95% CI=0.78 to 1.27; P=0.96), delayed cerebral infarction (RR=1.17; 95% CI=0.60 to 2.29; P=0.65), mRS≤2 (RR=0.97; 95% CI=0.87 to 1.09; P=0.61), vasospasm (RR=0.79; 95% CI=0.49 to 1.29; P=0.35), ICU stay (Std. mean difference=0.04; 95% CI=-0.54 to 0.63; P=0.88), hospital stay (Std. mean difference=0.01; 95% CI=-0.13 to 0.14; P=0.90) and mortality (RR=0.71; 95% CI=0.25 to 2.05; P=0.53) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Compared to control intervention, simvastatin intervention was found to have no influence on delayed ischaemic deficit, delayed cerebral infarction, mRS≤2, vasospasm, ICU stay, hospital stay, and mortality in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bauer, Timm; Zeymer, Uwe; Hochadel, Matthias; Möllmann, Helge; Weidinger, Franz; Zahn, Ralf; Nef, Holger M; Hamm, Christian W; Marco, Jean; Gitt, Anselm K
The value of multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (MV-PCI) in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) and multivessel disease (MVD) is still unclear because randomized controlled trials are missing. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the impact of MV-PCI on in-hospital outcomes of patients with MVD presenting with CS: 336 patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by CS and ≥70% stenoses in ≥2 major epicardial vessels were included in this analysis of the Euro Heart Survey PCI registry. Patients undergoing MV-PCI (n = 82, 24%) were compared to those with single-vessel PCI (n = 254, 76%). The rate of 3-vessel disease (60% vs 57%, p = 0.63) was similar in the 2 cohorts. Presentation with resuscitation (48 vs 46%, p = 0.76) and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (83 vs 87%, p = 0.31) was frequent in patients with MV-PCI and single-vessel PCI. Patients with ventilation were more likely to receive MV-PCI (30% vs 19%, p = 0.05). There was a tendency toward a higher hospital mortality in patients with MV-PCI (48.8% vs 37.4%, p = 0.07). After adjustment for confounding variables, no significant difference for in-hospital mortality (odd ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72 to 2.28) could be observed between the 2 groups. Age (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.77), 3-vessel disease (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.03), ventilation (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.59 to 5.68), and previous resuscitation (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.39) were independent predictors of hospital death. In conclusion, MV-PCI is currently used in only 1/4 of patients with CS and MVD. An additional nonculprit PCI was not associated with a survival benefit in these high risk patients.
Chen, Sheng; Li, Qian; Wu, Haijian; Krafft, Paul R.; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, John H.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating neurological disorder. Patients with aneurysmal SAH develop secondary complications that are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Aside from secondary neurological injuries, SAH has been associated with nonneurologic medical complications, such as neurocardiogenic injury, neurogenic pulmonary edema, hyperglycemia, and electrolyte imbalance, of which cardiac and pulmonary complications are most common. The related mechanisms include activation of the sympathetic nervous system, release of catecholamines and other hormones, and inflammatory responses. Extracerebral complications are directly related to the severity of SAH-induced brain injury and indicate the clinical outcome in patients. This review provides an overview of the extracerebral complications after SAH. We also aim to describe the manifestations, underlying mechanisms, and the effects of those extracerebral complications on outcome following SAH. PMID:25110700
Kim, Tae Jin; Koh, Eun Jung
Very rarely, spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SSAH) can occur without any direct spinal injury in patients with traumatic intracranial SAH. A-59-year-old male with traumatic intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) presented with pain and numbness in his buttock and thigh two days after trauma. Pain and numbness rapidly worsened and perianal numbness and voiding difficulty began on the next day. Magnetic resonance imaging showed intraspinal hemorrhage in the lumbosacral region. The cauda equina was displaced and compressed. Emergent laminectomy and drainage of hemorrhage were performed and SSAH was found intraoperatively. The symptoms were relieved immediately after the surgery. Patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage who present with delayed pain or neurological deficits should be evaluated for intraspinal hemorrhage promptly, even when the patients had no history of direct spinal injury and had no apparent symptoms related to the spinal injury in the initial period of trauma. PMID:27857928
Chaudhary, Sujata; Salhotra, Rashmi
Pregnancy-induced hypertension constitutes a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing nations and it complicates about 6-8% of pregnancies. Severe preeclampsia poses a dilemma for the anesthesiologist especially in emergency situations where caesarean deliveries are planned for uninvestigated or partially investigated parturients. This article is aimed to review the literature with regards to the type of anesthesia for such situations. A thorough search of literature was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, and Google to retrieve the articles. Studies on parturients with severe preeclampsia, undergoing caesarean section, were included in this article. There is growing evidence to support the use of subarachnoid block in such situations when the platelet counts are >80,000 mm(-3). Better hemodynamic stability with the use of low-dose local anesthetic along with additives and better neonatal outcomes has been found with the use of subarachnoid block when compared to general anesthesia.
Burns, R.J.; Gladstone, P.J.; Tremblay, P.C.; Feindel, C.M.; Salter, D.R.; Lipton, I.H.; Ogilvie, R.R.; David, T.E.
The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicating coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has previously been based on concordance of electrocardiographic, enzymatic and scintigraphic criteria. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PPi) single-photon emission computed tomography now enables detection of AMI with high sensitivity and specificity. Using this technique, perioperative AMI was detected in 12 of 58 patients (21%) undergoing successful elective CABG for stable angina pectoris. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the predictive value of preoperative (New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction and use of beta blockers) and intraoperative (number of grafts constructed, use of internal mammary anastomoses, use of sequential saphenous vein grafts, smallest grafted distal vessel lumen caliber and aortic cross-clamp time) variables. Preoperative New York Association class (p = 0.04) and smallest grafted distal vessel lumen caliber (p = 0.03) were significant multivariate predictors of perioperative AMI. Only 1 perioperative patient with AMI (and 1 pyrophosphate-negative patient) developed new Q waves. Serum creatine kinase-MB was higher in patients with AMI by repeated measures analysis of variance (p = 0.0003). Five AMIs occurred in myocardial segments revascularized using sequential saphenous vein grafts, and 7 in segments perfused by significantly stenosed epicardial vessels with distal lumen diameter and perfusion territory considered too small to warrant CABG. At 6-month follow-up, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 0.61 to 0.65 in Tc-PPI-negative patients (p = 0.01), but not in perioperative patients with AMI.
Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan
Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Kong, Woo Keun; Hong, Seung-Koan
Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232
El Otmani, H; Moutaouakil, F; Fadel, H; Slassi, I
Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is a relatively rare disease, typically secondary to a ruptured aneurysm. We report the case of a 23-year-old patient who developed a subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by extensive cerebral venous thrombosis due to a factor V Leiden mutation. Cerebral venous thrombosis is an uncommon etiology of subarachnoid hemorrhage. This raises diagnostic difficulties and a therapeutic dilemma regarding the use of anticoagulants. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Maekawa, Hidetsugu; Hadeishi, Hiromu
A 67-year-old woman was admitted with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and a 12-lead ECG showed ST segment elevation. Transthoracic echocardiography confirmed akinesis of the left ventricular mid-apical segment, with an ejection fraction of 26%, features characteristic of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Five days later, we identified thrombus in the apex of the left ventricle. Sixteen days after onset, the thrombus had disappeared and wall motion improved (ejection fraction 58%) without evidence of cardioembolism. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a cause of cardiac dysfunction after stroke, including SAH. It is characterised by transiently depressed contractile function of the left mid and apical ventricle, without obstructive coronary artery disease. Clinicians should suspect takotsubo cardiomyopathy in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage who have an ECG abnormality. Echocardiography is needed to detect the distinctive regional wall motion abnormality. Despite its severity in the acute phase, takotsubo cardiomyopathy is self-limiting and its management is conservative.
Garge, Shaileshkumar S.; Vyas, Pooja D.; Modi, Pranav D.; Ghatge, Sharad
Cerebral vasculitis secondary to Crohn's disease (CD) seems to be a very rare phenomenon. We report a 39-year-old male who presented with headache, vomiting, and left-sided weakness in the known case of CD. Cross-sectional imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging,) showed right gangliocapsular acute infarct with supraclinoid cistern subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Cerebral digital substraction angiography (DSA) showed dilatation and narrowing of right distal internal carotid artery (ICA). Left ICA was chronically occluded. His inflammatory markers were significantly raised. Imaging features are suggestive of cerebral vasculitis. Arterial and venous infarcts due to thrombosis are known in CD. Our case presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in supraclinoid cistern due to rupture of tiny aneurysm of perforator arteries causing SAH and infarction in right basal ganglia. Patient was treated conservatively with immunosuppression along with medical management of SAH. PMID:25506170
Shin, Sang-Ha; Hwang, Byeong-Wook; Lee, Sang-Jin; Lee, Sang-Ho
A case report. To describe a patient with a primary extensive spinal subarachnoid cysticercosis that was successfully treated with a combination of surgical removal and albendazole. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. It is mostly intracranial, but primary cysticercosis, although rare, can occur in the spinal canal. Neurological morbidity can occur if NCC is not properly treated; therefore, NCC should be considered as a lesion of primary nerve compression, which occurs within spinal canal as well as cranial cavity. A 48-year-old male patient presented with an 18-month history of progressive lower limb weakness and urinary incontinence. Contrast-enhanced lumbar magnetic resonance image showed multiple intradural and extramedullary masses and cysts from T12 to S1. A cervicothoracic magnetic resonance image revealed whole cervical and upper thoracic involvement. The patient was treated with a combination of surgical removal and orally administered albendazole. A histopathological examination confirmed cysticercosis. After the treatment, cysticercosis had disappeared on follow-up. The patient's motor weakness in the lower limbs and urinary function were improved. Spinal subarachnoid cysticercosis can occur via direct hematogenous dissemination from a gastrointestinal tract. The primary spinal cysticercosis can be dropped distantly in the spinal cavity by cerebrospinal fluid circulation like intracranial cysticercosis, and extensive spinal subarachnoid cysticercosis can be successfully treated with a combination of surgical removal and cysticidal drugs.
Tu, C J; Liu, J S; Song, D G; Zhen, G; Luo, H M; Liu, W G; Dong, X Q
This study was designed to evaluate whether the maximum thickness of subarachnoid blood is an independent prognostic marker of mortality after traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage. Multivariate analysis showed the maximum thickness of subarachnoid blood was an independent predictor of death versus survival 1 month after injury and was inversely associated with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that maximum thickness of subarachnoid blood > 6.7 mm immediately after non-surgical resuscitation predicted 1-month mortality with 83.9% sensitivity and 67.1% specificity; its predictive value was similar to that of the GCS score. Addition of maximum thickness of subarachnoid blood to the GCS score did not significantly improve predictive performance. Hence, the maximum thickness of subarachnoid blood is a new independent prognostic marker of mortality and might become an additional, valuable tool for risk stratification and decision making in the acute phase of traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage.
Fogelholm, R; Karli, P
Two patients sustained an ischemic brain stem infarction during medical examination and treatment. The first patient lost consciousness and the spontaneous respiration ceased during X-ray examination of the cervical spine when the neck was hyperextended. After some minutes he regained conciousness but was found to be tetraplegic, and the patient deceased 4 months later. The angiogram revealed thrombosis of the basilar artery. The other patient had profuse nosebleed and was treated with posterior tamponation during which she sat for about 10 min with the neck hyperextended. Some hours after this procedure symptoms and signs of lateral caudal brain stem infarction emerged.
Brown, W.H.; Stothert, J.C. Jr.
Traumatic subarachnoid-pleural fistulas are rare. The authors found nine cases reported since 1959. Seven have been secondary to trauma and two following thoracotomy. One patient's death is thought to be directly related to the fistula. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients with a pleural effusion and associated vertebral trauma. The diagnosis can usually be confirmed with contrast or radioisotopic myelography. Successful closure of the fistula will usually occur spontaneously with closed tube drainage and antibiotics; occasionally, thoracotomy is necessary to close the rent in the dura.
Tanaka, Tomotaka; Uno, Hisakazu; Miyashita, Kotaro; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki
Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome is a condition featuring hyponatremia and dehydration caused by head injury, operation on the brain, subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumor and so on. However, there are a few reports of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome caused by cerebral infarction. We describe a patient with cerebral infarction who developed cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in the course of hemorrhagic transformation. A 79-year-old Japanese woman with hypertension and arrhythmia was admitted to our hospital for mild consciousness disturbance, conjugate deviation to right, left unilateral spatial neglect and left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a broad ischemic change in right middle cerebral arterial territory. She was diagnosed as cardiogenic cerebral embolism because atrial fibrillation was detected on electrocardiogram on admission. She showed hyponatremia accompanied by polyuria complicated at the same time with the development of hemorrhagic transformation on day 14 after admission. Based on her hypovolemic hyponatremia, she was evaluated as not having syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone but cerebral salt-wasting syndrome. She fortunately recovered with proper fluid replacement and electrolyte management. This is a rare case of cerebral infarction and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in the course of hemorrhagic transformation. It may be difficult to distinguish cerebral salt-wasting syndrome from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, however, an accurate assessment is needed to reveal the diagnosis of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome because the recommended fluid management is opposite in the two conditions.
Oh, Min Seok; Kwon, Jee Eun; Kim, Kyung Jun; Jo, Joon Hwan; Min, Yun Ju; Byun, Jun Soo; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kim, Sang Wook; Kim, Tae Ho
We report a patient who developed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) just after coronary angiography (CAG) with non-ionic contrast media (CM) and minimal dose of heparin. The 55-year-old man had a history of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction that had been treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and was admitted for a follow-up CAG. The CAG was performed by the transradial approach, using 1000 U of unfractionated heparin for the luminal coating and 70 mL of iodixanol. At the end of CAG, he complained of nausea and rapidly became stuporous. Brain CT showed a diffusely increased Hounsfield unit (HU) in the cisternal space, similar to leakage of CM. The maximal HU was 65 in the cisternal space. No vascular malformations were detected on cerebral angiography. The patient partially recovered his mental status and motor weakness after 2 days. Two weeks later, subacute SAH was evident on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was discharged after 28 days.
SATOMI, Junichiro; HADEISHI, Hiromu; YOSHIDA, Yasuji; SUZUKI, Akifumi; NAGAHIRO, Shinji
Patients with poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are likely to die due to irreversible acute-stage primary brain damage. However, the mechanism(s) and pathology responsible for their high mortality rate remain unclear. We report our findings on the brains of individuals who died in the acute stage of SAH. An autopsy was performed on the brains of 11 SAH patients (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade 5) who died within 3 days of admission and who did not receive respiratory assistance. All brains were free of intracranial hematoma and hydrocephalus; all harbored ruptured aneurysms. In all brains, multiple infarcts with perifocal edema were scattered throughout the cortex and subcortical white matter of the whole brain. Infarcts with a patchy – were more often seen than infarcts with a wedge-shaped pattern. Microscopic examination revealed multiple areas with cytotoxic edema and neuronal death indicative of acute ischemic changes. Edema and congestion were more obvious in areas where the subarachnoid clot tightly adhered to the pia mater. Pathologically, the brains of deceased patients with acute poor-grade SAH were characterized by edema and multifocal infarcts spread throughout the whole brain; they were thought to be attributable to venous ischemia. Diffuse disturbance in venous drainage attributable to an abrupt increase in the intracranial pressure and focal disturbances due to tight adhesion of the subarachnoid clot to the pia mater, may contribute strongly to irreversible brain damage in the acute stage of SAH. PMID:27357086
A retrospective study was made of 50 consecutive patients with spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage for which no cause was found, looking for evidence of delayed cerebral ischaemia particularly during the first 2 weeks after the bleed. Twenty-three patients had blood visible on the CT scan but only 4-6% developed delayed ischaemia, all of whom made a good recovery. The low incidence of this complication in this group of patients suggests that subarachnoid blood is not a sufficient cause for delayed ischaemia. PMID:3981169
Yasar Tekelioglu, Umit; Demirhan, Abdullah; Akkaya, Akcan; Gurel, Kamil; Ocak, Tarik; Duran, Arif; Kocoglu, Hasan
We report a case of a 33-year-old woman who developed severe brain edema and pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at 36-hour follow-up after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation for anaphylactic shock as a result of a bee sting. The patient died on the sixth day of the follow-up due to multiple organ failure and brain herniation. Our case suggests that the SAH-like findings on computed tomography scanning were not a new complication ("real" SAH) arising from the bee sting; rather, it was a pseudo-SAH related to prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation).
Hamilton, Jason C.; Korn-Naveh, Lauren; Crago, Elizabeth A.
Patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) often present with more than just neurological compromise. A wide spectrum of complicating cardiopulmonary abnormalities have been documented in patients with acute SAH, presenting additional challenges to the healthcare providers who attempt to treat and stabilize these patients. The patients described in this article presented with both acute aneurysmal SAH and cardiopulmonary compromise. Education and further research on this connection is needed to provide optimal care and outcomes for this vulnerable population. Nurses play a key role in balancing the critical and diverse needs of patients presenting with these symptoms. PMID:18856247
Pickup, Michael J; Pollanen, Michael S
We describe two previously unreported associations in four cases. The first two cases demonstrate an association between segmental mediolytic arteriopathy and vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The second two cases illustrate an association between vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. In case 1, there was acute subarachnoid hemorrhage and mesenteric artery dissection. In case 2, there was an acute mesenteric artery dissection with intestinal infarction. In both cases 1 and 2, segmental mediolytic arteriopathy was found in the vertebral arteries. Cases 3 and 4 were sudden deaths from traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage with intracranial vertebral artery rupture. Genetic testing in all four cases revealed point mutations in the type 3 procollagen gene (COL3A1), as observed in vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Based on the first two cases, we propose that segmental mediolytic arteriopathy may be a marker for this disease. We further suggest that vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome may be related to the pathogenesis of traumatic vertebral artery injury, in some cases. We recommend that cases of segmental mediolytic arteriopathy and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage undergo genetic testing for COL3A1 mutations.
Durnford, A; Dunbar, J; Galea, J; Bulters, D; Nicoll, J A R; Boche, D; Galea, I
Rapid and effective clearance of cell-free haemoglobin after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is important to prevent vasospasm and neurotoxicity and improve long-term outcome. Haemoglobin is avidly bound by haptoglobin, and the complex is cleared by CD163 expressed on the membrane surface of macrophages. We studied the kinetics of haemoglobin and haptoglobin in cerebrospinal fluid after SAH. We show that haemoglobin levels rise gradually after SAH. Haptoglobin levels rise acutely with aneurysmal rupture as a result of injection of blood into the subarachnoid space. Although levels decline as haemoglobin scavenging occurs, complete depletion of haptoglobin does not occur and levels start rising again, indicating saturation of CD163 sites available for haptoglobin-haemoglobin clearance. In a preliminary neuropathological study we demonstrate that meningeal CD163 expression is upregulated after SAH, in keeping with a proinflammatory state. However, loss of CD163 occurs in meningeal areas with overlying blood compared with areas without overlying blood. Becauses ADAM17 is the enzyme responsible for shedding membrane-bound CD163, its inhibition may be a potential therapeutic strategy after SAH.
Lo, Benjamin W Y; Macdonald, R Loch; Baker, Andrew; Levine, Mitchell A H
The novel clinical prediction approach of Bayesian neural networks with fuzzy logic inferences is created and applied to derive prognostic decision rules in cerebral aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The approach of Bayesian neural networks with fuzzy logic inferences was applied to data from five trials of Tirilazad for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (3551 patients). Bayesian meta-analyses of observational studies on aSAH prognostic factors gave generalizable posterior distributions of population mean log odd ratios (ORs). Similar trends were noted in Bayesian and linear regression ORs. Significant outcome predictors include normal motor response, cerebral infarction, history of myocardial infarction, cerebral edema, history of diabetes mellitus, fever on day 8, prior subarachnoid hemorrhage, admission angiographic vasospasm, neurological grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, ruptured aneurysm size, history of hypertension, vasospasm day, age and mean arterial pressure. Heteroscedasticity was present in the nontransformed dataset. Artificial neural networks found nonlinear relationships with 11 hidden variables in 1 layer, using the multilayer perceptron model. Fuzzy logic decision rules (centroid defuzzification technique) denoted cut-off points for poor prognosis at greater than 2.5 clusters. This aSAH prognostic system makes use of existing knowledge, recognizes unknown areas, incorporates one's clinical reasoning, and compensates for uncertainty in prognostication.
Dhar, Rajat; Zazulia, Allyson R; Derdeyn, Colin P; Diringer, Michael N
Impaired oxygen delivery due to reduced cerebral blood flow is the hallmark of delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Since anemia reduces arterial oxygen content, it further threatens oxygen delivery increasing the risk of cerebral infarction. Thus, subarachnoid hemorrhage may constitute an important exception to current restrictive transfusion practices, wherein raising hemoglobin could reduce the risk of ischemia in a critically hypoperfused organ. In this physiologic proof-of-principle study, we determined whether transfusion could augment cerebral oxygen delivery, particularly in vulnerable brain regions, across a broad range of hemoglobin values. Prospective study measuring cerebral blood flow and oxygen extraction fraction using O-PET. Vulnerable brain regions were defined as those with baseline oxygen delivery less than 4.5 mL/100 g/min. PET facility located within the Neurology/Neurosurgery ICU. Fifty-two patients at risk for delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage with hemoglobin 7-13 g/dL. Transfusion of one unit of RBCs over 1 hour. Baseline hemoglobin was 9.7 g/dL (range, 6.9-12.9), and cerebral blood flow was 43 ± 11 mL/100 g/min. After transfusion, hemoglobin rose from 9.6 ± 1.4 to 10.8 ± 1.4 g/dL (12%; p < 0.001) and oxygen delivery from 5.0 (interquartile range, 4.4-6.6) to 5.5 mL/100 g/min (interquartile range, 4.8-7.0) (10%; p = 0.001); the response was comparable across the range of hemoglobin values. In vulnerable brain regions, transfusion resulted in a greater (16%) rise in oxygen delivery associated with reduction in oxygen extraction fraction, independent of Hgb level (p = 0.002 vs normal regions). This study demonstrates that RBC transfusion improves cerebral oxygen delivery globally and particularly to vulnerable regions in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients at risk for delayed cerebral ischemia across a wide range of hemoglobin values and suggests that
Cruz, Juan Pablo; Sarma, Dipanka; Noel de Tilly, Lyne
To evaluate the yield of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and repeated follow-up imaging in patients with initial pattern of perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (PSAH) and negative computed tomography angiography (CTA) in excluding an underlying aneurysm. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all nontraumatic SAH who underwent a DSA between January 2006 and January 2010 and selected those with a PSAH pattern on CT done within 72 h from ictus. All CTAs were performed with a 64-section multidetector row CT scanner, and findings were compared with DSA and to follow-up imaging. Forty-nine patients with initial PSAH pattern and negative CTA who underwent subsequent DSA were identified. Six patients were excluded because CTA was not available in hospitals or 72 h after ictus. Only one patient (2.4%) had a false negative CTA with a 1-mm left ICA aneurysm seen on DSA, considered not to be the source of hemorrhage. An average of 2.0 ± 1.2 follow-up exams per patient (range 0-5) revealed no source of bleeding. One patient had a procedure-related transient complication, but evolved with no sequels. In patients with PSAH, CTA is reliable for ruling out an underlying aneurysm. DSA and, especially, further follow-up imaging have no increased diagnostic yield compared to initial negative CTA.
Kerro, Ali; Woods, Timothy; Chang, Jason J
"Stunned myocardium," characterized by reversible left ventricular dysfunction, was first described via animal models using transient coronary artery occlusion. However, this phenomenon has also been noted with neurologic pathologies and collectively been labeled "neurogenic stunned myocardium" (NSM). Neurogenic stunned myocardium resulting from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a challenging pathology due to its diagnostic uncertainty. Traditional diagnostic criteria for NSM after SAH focus on electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities and troponemia. However, tremendous heterogeneity still exists. Traditional pathophysiological mechanisms for NSM encompassed hypothalamic and myocardial perivascular lesions. More recently, research on pathophysiology has centered on myocardial microvascular dysfunction and genetic polymorphisms. Catecholamine surging as a mechanism has also gained attention with particular focus placed on the role of adrenergic blockade in both the prehospital and acute settings. Management remains largely supportive with case reports acknowledging the utility of inotropes such as dobutamine and milrinone and intra-aortic balloon pump when NSM is accompanied by cardiogenic shock. Neurogenic stunned myocardium that follows SAH can result in many complications such as arrhythmias, pulmonary edema, and prolonged intubation, which can negatively impact long-term recovery from SAH and increase morbidity and mortality. This necessitates the need to accurately diagnose and treat NSM.
Callacondo, D.; Garcia, H.H.; Gonzales, I.; Escalante, D.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C.W.; Gonzalez, Armando; Lopez, Maria T.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Martinez, Manuel; Alvarado, Manuel; Porras, Miguel; Saavedra, Herbert; Rodriguez, Silvia; Verastegui, Manuela; Mayta, Holger; Herrera, Genaro; Lescano, Andres G.; Zimic, Mirko; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Diaz, Andre
Objective: To determine the frequency of spinal neurocysticercosis (NCC) in patients with basal subarachnoid NCC compared with that in individuals with viable limited intraparenchymal NCC (≤20 live cysts in the brain). Methods: We performed a prospective observational case-control study of patients with NCC involving the basal cisterns or patients with only limited intraparenchymal NCC. All patients underwent MRI examinations of the brain and the entire spinal cord to assess spinal involvement. Results: Twenty-seven patients with limited intraparenchymal NCC, and 28 patients with basal subarachnoid NCC were included in the study. Spinal involvement was found in 17 patients with basal subarachnoid NCC and in only one patient with limited intraparenchymal NCC (odds ratio 40.18, 95% confidence interval 4.74–340.31; p < 0.0001). All patients had extramedullary (intradural) spinal NCC, and the lumbosacral region was the most frequently involved (89%). Patients with extensive spinal NCC more frequently had ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement (7 of 7 vs 3 of 11; p = 0.004) and tended to have a longer duration of neurologic symptoms than those with regional involvement (72 months vs 24 months; p = 0.062). Conclusions: The spinal subarachnoid space is commonly involved in patients with basal subarachnoid NCC, compared with those with only intraparenchymal brain cysts. Spinal cord involvement probably explains serious late complications including chronic meningitis and gait disorders that were described before the introduction of antiparasitic therapy. MRI of the spine should be performed in basal subarachnoid disease to document spinal involvement, prevent complications, and monitor for recurrent disease. PMID:22517102
Takeda, Shigeki; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Miyakawa, Teruo; Onda, Kiyoshi; Hinokuma, Kaoru; Ikuta, Fusahiro; Arai, Hiroyuki
Six autopsy cases of subcortical hematoma caused by CAA were examined to elucidate the primary site of hemorrhage. Immunohistochemistry for amyloid beta-protein (A beta) revealed extensive CAA in the intrasulcal meningeal vessels rather than in the cerebral cortical vessels. All of the examined cases had multiple hematomas in the subarachnoid space, mainly in the cerebral sulci, as well as intracerebral hematomas. Each intracerebral hematoma was connected to the subarachnoid hematomas at the depth of cerebral sulci or through the lateral side of the cortex. There was no debris of the cerebral cortical tissue in the subarachnoid hematomas. In case 2, another solitary subarachnoid hematoma, which was not connected to any intracerebral hematoma, was seen. In all of these subarachnoid hematomas, many ruptured A beta-immunopositive arteries were observed. These ruptured arteries did not accompany any debris of the brain tissue, some of them were large in diameter (250-300 microm), and several of them were far from the cerebral cortex. Therefore, it was considered that they were not cortical arteries but meningeal arteries. Within the cerebral cortex, there were only a few ruptured arteries associated with small hemorrhages. There were no ruptured vessels within the intracerebral hematomas. There was a strong suggestion that all of the subarachnoid hematomas, including the solitary one in case 2, originated from the rupture of the meningeal arteries. The present study indicates that in some cases of subcortical hematoma caused by CAA, the primary hemorrhage occurs in the subarachnoid space, in particular the cerebral sulci, because of rupture of multiple meningeal arteries. Infarction occurs subsequently in the cortex around the hematoma, the hematoma penetrates into the brain parenchyma, and finally, a subcortical hematoma is formed.
Splenic infarction is the death of tissue (necrosis) in the spleen due to a blockage in blood flow. ... Common causes of splenic infarction include: Blood clots Blood diseases such as sickle cell anemia Infections such as endocarditis
Weintraub, William S; Zhang, Zefeng; Mahoney, Elizabeth M; Kolm, Paul; Spertus, John A; Caro, Jaime; Ishak, Jack; Goldberg, Robert; Tooley, Joseph; Willke, Richard; Pitt, Bertram
In the Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS), aldosterone blockade with eplerenone decreased mortality in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure after acute myocardial infarction. The present study was performed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of eplerenone compared with placebo in these patients. A total of 6632 patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure after acute myocardial infarction were randomized to eplerenone or placebo and followed up for a mean of 16 months. The coprimary end points were all-cause mortality and the composite of cardiovascular mortality/cardiovascular hospitalization. The evaluation of resource use included hospitalizations, outpatient services, and medications. Eplerenone was priced at the average wholesale price, 3.60 dollars per day. Survival beyond the trial period was estimated from data from the Framingham Heart Study, the Saskatchewan Health database, and the Worcester Heart Attack Registry. The incremental cost-effectiveness of eplerenone in cost per life-year and quality-adjusted life-year gained compared with placebo was estimated. The number of life-years gained with eplerenone was 0.1014 based on Framingham (95% CI, 0.0306 to 0.1740), 0.0636 with Saskatchewan (95% CI, 0.0229 to 0.1038), and 0.1337 with Worcester (95% CI, 0.0438 to 0.2252) data. Cost was 1391 dollars higher over the trial period in the eplerenone arm (95% CI, 656 to 2165) because of drug cost. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was 13,718 dollars per life-year gained with Framingham (96.7% under 50,000 dollars per life-year gained), 21,876 dollars with Saskatchewan, and 10,402 dollars with Worcester. Eplerenone compared with placebo in the treatment of heart failure after acute myocardial infarction is effective in reducing mortality and is cost-effective in increasing years of life by commonly used criteria.
Doshi, R.; Neil-Dwyer, G.
The hypothalamus and myocardium of 12 patients who had died after a subarachnoid haemorrhage, and of six patients who had died from other intracranial pathology were examined. Only in the patients who had died from subarachnoid haemorrhage were histological lesions found in both the hypothalamus and myocardium. The possible significance of these findings is discussed with particular reference to the sympathetic nervous system. Images PMID:925706
Liu, Kuan-Liang; Lee, Hsin-Fu; Chou, Shing-Hsien; Lin, Yen-Chen; Lin, Chia-Pin; Wang, Chun-Li; Chang, Chi-Jen; Hsu, Lung-An
Large epidemiologic studies have associated gouty arthritis with the risk of coronary heart disease. However, there has been a lack of information regarding the outcomes for patients who have gout attacks during hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction. We reviewed the data of 444 consecutive patients who were admitted to our hospital between 2005 and 2008 due to acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The clinical outcomes were compared between patients with gout attack and those without. Of the 444, 48 patients with acute STEMI developed acute gouty arthritis during hospitalization. The multivariate analysis identified prior history of gout and estimated glomerular filtration rate as independent risk factors of gout attack for patients with acute STEMI (odds ratio (OR) 21.02, 95 % CI 2.96-149.26, p = 0.002; OR 0.92, 95 % CI 0.86-0.99, p = 0.035, respectively). The in-hospital mortality and duration of hospital stay did not differ significantly between the gouty group and the non-gouty group (controls). During a mean follow-up of 49 ± 28 months, all-cause mortality and stroke were similar for both groups. Multivariate Cox regression showed that gout attack was independently associated with short- and long-term adverse non-fatal cardiac events (hazard ratio (HR) 1.88, 95 % CI 1.09-3.24, p = 0.024; HR 1.82, 95 % CI 1.09-3.03, p = 0.022, respectively). Gout attack among patients hospitalized due to acute STEMI was independently associated with short-term and long-term rates of adverse non-fatal cardiac events.
Cárdenas, Graciela; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Fleury, Agnes; Sciutto, Edda; Luis Soto-Hernández, José
The cerebrovascular complications in neurocysticercosis (NC) are uncommon. However, their pathophysiology remains unknown, but may be likely related to chronic inflammatory processes in the subarachnoid space (basal meningitis). Alterations of inflammatory cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid and sera correlate with vasospasm in SAH; these inflammatory mediators in NC may induce aneurysm formation. A 7-year retrospective study in a neurological referral center (Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía), showed 3 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) among the 267 NC patients admitted during the study period. The clinical status, cerebrospinal fluid parameters, and clinical outcome were retrieved to compare them with previous NC-related SAH reported patients. Six of 15 patients showed aneurysm. These aneurysms were found within foci of inflammation and fibrosis surrounding the parasites. We found that, in contrast with the ominous prognosis of SAH for ruptured congenital aneurysm, cases associated with NC may have a more benign course. However with limited clinical information provided by previous reports, we only propose a possible direct relationship between chronic inflammation and NC as an inference because of the limited evidence available.
Cohen-Solal, A; Himbert, D; Guéret, P; Gourgon, R
Cardiac failure is the principal medium-term complication of myocardial infarction. Changes in left ventricular geometry are observed after infarction, called ventricular remodeling, which, though compensatory initially, cause ventricular failure in the long-term. Experimental and clinical studies suggest that early treatment by coronary recanalisation, trinitrin and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors may prevent or limit the expansion and left ventricular dilatation after infarction, so improving ventricular function, and, at least in the animal, reduce mortality. Large scale trials with converting enzyme inhibitors are currently under way to determine the effects of this new therapeutic option. It would seem possible at present, independently of any reduction in the size of the infarction, to reduce or delay left ventricular dysfunction by interfering with the natural process of dilatation and ventricular modeling after infarction.
Ulrich, Christian T; Fung, Christian; Vatter, Hartmut; Setzer, Matthias; Gueresir, Erdem; Seifert, Volker; Beck, Juergen; Raabe, Andreas
Vasospastic brain infarction is a devastating complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Using a probe for invasive monitoring of brain tissue oxygenation or blood flow is highly focal and may miss the site of cerebral vasospasm (CVS). Probe placement is based on the assumption that the spasm will occur either at the dependent vessel territory of the parent artery of the ruptured aneurysm or at the artery exposed to the focal thick blood clot. We investigated the likelihood of a focal monitoring sensor being placed in vasospasm or infarction territory on a hypothetical basis. From our database we retrospectively selected consecutive SAH patients with angiographically proven (day 7-14) severe CVS (narrowing of vessel lumen >50%). Depending on the aneurysm location we applied a standard protocol of probe placement to detect the most probable site of severe CVS or infarction. We analyzed whether the placement was congruent with existing CVS/infarction. We analyzed 100 patients after SAH caused by aneurysms located in the following locations: MCA (n = 14), ICA (n = 30), A1CA (n = 4), AcoA or A2CA (n = 33), and VBA (n = 19). Sensor location corresponded with CVS territory in 93% of MCA, 87% of ICA, 76% of AcoA or A2CA, but only 50% of A1CA and 42% of VBA aneurysms. The focal probe was located inside the infarction territory in 95% of ICA, 89% of MCA, 78% of ACoA or A2CA, 50% of A1CA and 23% of VBA aneurysms. The probability that a single focal probe will be situated in the territory of severe CVS and infarction varies. It seems to be reasonably accurate for MCA and ICA aneurysms, but not for ACA or VBA aneurysms.
Ulrich, Christian T.; Fung, Christian; Vatter, Hartmut; Setzer, Matthias; Gueresir, Erdem; Seifert, Volker; Beck, Juergen; Raabe, Andreas
Introduction Vasospastic brain infarction is a devastating complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Using a probe for invasive monitoring of brain tissue oxygenation or blood flow is highly focal and may miss the site of cerebral vasospasm (CVS). Probe placement is based on the assumption that the spasm will occur either at the dependent vessel territory of the parent artery of the ruptured aneurysm or at the artery exposed to the focal thick blood clot. We investigated the likelihood of a focal monitoring sensor being placed in vasospasm or infarction territory on a hypothetical basis. Methods From our database we retrospectively selected consecutive SAH patients with angiographically proven (day 7–14) severe CVS (narrowing of vessel lumen >50%). Depending on the aneurysm location we applied a standard protocol of probe placement to detect the most probable site of severe CVS or infarction. We analyzed whether the placement was congruent with existing CVS/infarction. Results We analyzed 100 patients after SAH caused by aneurysms located in the following locations: MCA (n = 14), ICA (n = 30), A1CA (n = 4), AcoA or A2CA (n = 33), and VBA (n = 19). Sensor location corresponded with CVS territory in 93% of MCA, 87% of ICA, 76% of AcoA or A2CA, but only 50% of A1CA and 42% of VBA aneurysms. The focal probe was located inside the infarction territory in 95% of ICA, 89% of MCA, 78% of ACoA or A2CA, 50% of A1CA and 23% of VBA aneurysms. Conclusion The probability that a single focal probe will be situated in the territory of severe CVS and infarction varies. It seems to be reasonably accurate for MCA and ICA aneurysms, but not for ACA or VBA aneurysms. PMID:23658768
Sangra, Meharpal S; Teasdale, Evelyn; Siddiqui, Mohammed A; Lindsay, Kenneth W
The cause of perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remains unknown. We describe a patient in whom jugular venous occlusion preceded the occurrence of perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. This finding supports the theory that the source of the hemorrhage is venous in origin. A 25-year-old man presented with sudden onset of headache after his head was held in a headlock during a playful fight 48 hours before the ictus. His computed tomographic (CT) scan on admission demonstrated a perimesencephalic pattern of subarachnoid hemorrhage. CT angiography excluded the presence of an underlying aneurysm or vascular malformation but showed bilateral jugular venous obstruction with hematoma surrounding the right internal jugular vein. Magnetic resonance imaging and a 4-vessel cerebral angiogram confirmed the CT angiographic findings. The patient was observed as an inpatient and had no complication of his hemorrhage. Follow-up at 5 months with CT angiography showed resolution of his neck hematoma and reopening of his internal jugular veins. The presence of acute jugular venous occlusion as a cause of perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage supports a venous origin of hemorrhage.
Dennis, G. C.; Welch, B.; Cole, A. N.; Mendoza, R.; Morgan, J.; Epps, J.; Bernard, E.; St Louis, P.
The clinical outcome of patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage is complicated by delayed cerebral ischemia and contributing factors such as hypertension. To observe the impact of hypertension and delayed cerebral ischemia on the outcome of a predominantly African-American cohort following subarachnoid hemorrhage, both retrospective (n = 42) and prospective (n = 21) studies were conducted. In the total pool (n = 63), the mean age was 49.7 years (range: 17 to 80) with a preponderance of female patients (70%). Aneurysm formation was significant in the region of the posterior communicating artery. Of the patients reviewed, 73.8% had preexisting hypertension and 45.9% developed delayed cerebral ischemia. Approximately 89% of the patients who suffered from delayed cerebral ischemia had hypertension. Results failed to display any significant beneficial association between the use of the calcium channel blocker nimodipine and delayed cerebral ischemia. Use of the antifibrinolytic drug aminocaproic acid demonstrated a worse patient outcome. It is not recommended that aminocaproic acid be used in this population. Subsequently, due to the proportional occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia in hypertensive patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage, it is suggested that prophylactic surgical management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms be considered in hypertensive patients. Further study is needed to discern the association between hypertension, delayed cerebral ischemia, and stroke in patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:9046763
Comparison of In-Hospital Mortality, Length of Stay, Postprocedural Complications, and Cost of Single-Vessel Versus Multivessel Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Hemodynamically Stable Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (from Nationwide Inpatient Sample [2006 to 2012]).
Panaich, Sidakpal S; Arora, Shilpkumar; Patel, Nilay; Schreiber, Theodore; Patel, Nileshkumar J; Pandya, Bhavi; Gupta, Vishal; Grines, Cindy L; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Badheka, Apurva O
The primary objective of our study was to evaluate the in-hospital outcomes in terms of mortality, procedural complications, hospitalization costs, and length of stay (LOS) after multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (MVPCI) in hemodynamically stable patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The study cohort was derived from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, years 2006 to 2012. Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) performed during STEMI were identified using appropriate International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnostic and procedural codes. Patients in cardiogenic shock were excluded. Hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression models were used for categorical dependent variables such as in-hospital mortality and composite of in-hospital mortality and complications, and hierarchical mixed-effects linear regression models were used for continuous dependent variables such as cost of hospitalization and LOS. We identified 106,317 (weighted n = 525,161) single-vessel PCI and 15,282 (weighted n = 74,543) MVPCIs. MVPCI (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval [CI], p value) was not associated with significant increase in in-hospital mortality (0.99, 0.85 to 1.15, 0.863) but predicted a higher composite end point of in-hospital mortality and postprocedural complications (1.09, 1.02 to 1.17, 0.013) compared to single-vessel PCI. MVPCI was also predictive of longer LOS (LOS +0.19 days, 95% CI +0.14 to +0.23 days, p <0.001) and higher hospitalization costs (cost +$4,445, 95% CI +$4,128 to +$4,762, p <0.001). MVPCI performed during STEMI in hemodynamically stable patients is associated with no increase in in-hospital mortality but a higher rate of postprocedural complications and longer LOS and greater hospitalization costs compared to single-vessel PCI.
Welin, L; Vedin, A; Wilhelmsson, C
Among 1809 patients with myocardial infarction, 60 (3.3%) later developed a postmyocardial infarction syndrome. These 60 patients were compared with controls with myocardial infarction but without postmyocardial infarction syndrome. Cases with postmyocardial infarction syndrome had larger and more complicated infarcts than control subjects. Five year cumulative mortality was higher among cases (26%) than among control subjects (18%) but this difference was not statistically significant. Corticosteroid treatment did not adversely affect the prognosis of the postmyocardial infarction syndrome, which we conclude is mainly determined by the severity of the underlying coronary heart disease. PMID:6882603
Kneyber, M C J; Rinkel, G J E; Ramos, L M P; Tulleken, C A F; Braun, K P J
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to a ruptured saccular aneurysm is uncommon in children. Pediatric traumatic aneurysms have been reported relatively frequently, tending to bleed after an interval of weeks after head injury. The authors describe three children with acute SAH after head injury caused by intracranial dissecting aneurysms. When head trauma in children is complicated by SAH in basal cisterns, dissecting aneurysms should be considered and treated, because rebleeding may occur.
Nagata, Kosei; Tanaka, Yuji; Kanai, Hiroyuki; Oshima, Yasushi
Spinal cord infarction followed by minor trauma in pediatric patients is rare and causes serious paralysis. Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) is a possible diagnosis and there have been no consecutive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports. Here, we report a case of an acute complete paraplegia with spinal cord infarction and longitudinal spinal cord signal change following minor trauma in an 8-year-old girl. An 8-year-old girl presented to our hospital emergency services with total paraplegia 2 h after she hit her back and neck after doing a handstand and falling down. She completely lost pain, temperature sensation, and a sense of vibration below her bilateral anterior thighs. Four hours later on MRI, the T2-weighted sequence showed no spinal cord compression or signal change in vertebral bodies. The patient was treated with rehabilitation after complete bed rest. A week after the trauma, the T2-weighted sequence indicated longitudinal extension of the lesion between T11 and C6 vertebral level with ring-shaped signal change. In addition, the diffusion-weighted MRI showed increased signal below C6 vertebral level. Two weeks after the trauma, we performed the T2 star sequence images, which showed minor bleeding at T11 vertebral area and spinal cord edema below C6. Four weeks after the trauma, MRI showed minor lesion at C6 vertebral level, but spinal cord atrophy was observed at T11 vertebral level without disc signal change. Thirteen weeks after the trauma, her cervical spinal cord became almost intact and severe atrophy of the spinal cord at T11 vertebral level. At 1 year following her injury, complete paraplegia remained with sensory loss below T11 level. Her clinical presentation, lack of evidence for other plausible diagnosis, and consecutive MRI findings made FCE at T11 vertebral level with pencil-shaped softening the most likely diagnosis. In addition, consecutive cervical MRI indicated minor cervical spinal cord injury. This Grand Round case highlights
Rosenberg, G A; Herz, D A; Leeds, N; Strully, K
Two patients with Meckel's Cave meningiomas were initially hospitalized as a result of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Four-vessel angiography was necessary to exclude other causes of bleeding while demonstrating these lesions. Apoplectic presentation in both cases led to early diagnosis and successful surgical therapy. A review of the literature reveals subarachnoid hemorrhage to be a rarity in association with meningiomas. The two patients currently reported are believed to be the only examples on record of hemorrhagic meningiomas arising from the region of Meckel's Cave.
Vinas, F C; Dujovny, M; Fandino, R; Chavez, V
The understanding of the anatomy of the subarachnoid cisterns and trabecular membranes is of paramount importance in the surgical treatment of pathology of the posterior fossa. Aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and some tumors should be approached through the subarachnoid space. The subarachnoid cisterns provide natural pathways to approach neurovascular and cranial nerve structures. The microsurgical anatomy of the infratentorial subarachnoid cisterns was studied in twenty adult brains, using the 'immersion technique'. Air was injected into the subarachnoid cisterns and brains were dissected under the operative microscope. Six main compartmental trabecular membranes were identified in the infratentorial level. They divide the subarachnoid space into six cisterns. Cisternal divisions and the disposition of the trabecular membranes were closely related to the vascular divisional patterns of the principal arteries. Thorough knowledge of the microsurgical anatomy of the subarachnoid space will aid neurosurgeons during the surgical approach of many vascular and tumoral lesions located in the posterior fossa.
Luo, Jinqi; Reis, Cesar; Manaenko, Anatol
Hydrocephalus (HCP) is a common complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. In this review, we summarize the advanced research on HCP and discuss the understanding of the molecular originators of HCP and the development of diagnoses and remedies of HCP after SAH. It has been reported that inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, and oxidative stress are the important causes of HCP, and well-known molecules including transforming growth factor, matrix metalloproteinases, and iron terminally lead to fibrosis and blockage of HCP. Potential medicines for HCP are still in preclinical status, and surgery is the most prevalent and efficient therapy, despite respective risks of different surgical methods, including lamina terminalis fenestration, ventricle-peritoneal shunting, and lumbar-peritoneal shunting. HCP remains an ailment that cannot be ignored and even with various solutions the medical community is still trying to understand and settle why and how it develops and accordingly improve the prognosis of these patients with HCP. PMID:28373987
Sanchez-Larsen, Alvaro; Monteagudo, Maria; Lozano-Setien, Elena; Garcia-Garcia, Jorge
Neurocysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic disease of the central nervous system. It is caused by the larvae of Taenia solium, which can affect different anatomical sites. In Spain there is an increasing prevalence mainly due to immigration from endemic areas. The extraparenchymal forms are less common, but more serious because they usually develop complications. Neuroimaging plays a major role in the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease, supported by serology and a compatible clinical and epidemiological context. First-line treatments are cysticidal drugs such as albendazole and praziquantel, usually coadministered with corticosteroids, and in some cases surgery is indicated. We here report a case of neurocysticercosis with simultaneous intraventricular and giant racemose subarachnoid involvement. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Puymirat, Étienne; Aissaoui, Nadia; Silvain, Johanne; Bonello, Laurent; Cuisset, Thomas; Motreff, Pascal; Bataille, Vincent; Durand, Eric; Cottin, Yves; Simon, Tabassome; Danchin, Nicolas
Recent clinical studies suggest that low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) could be an effective and safe alternative to unfractionated heparin (UFH) for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To assess the impact of anticoagulant choice (LMWV vs UFH) on bleeding, the need for blood transfusion and 3-year clinical outcomes in AMI patients from the FAST-MI registry. FAST-MI was a nationwide registry compiled in France over 1 month in 2005, which included consecutive AMI patients admitted to an intensive care unit less than 48 hours from symptom onset in 223 participating centres. A total of 2854 patients treated with heparins were included. The risks of major bleeding or transfusion (3.0% vs 7.0%) and in-hospital death (3.2% vs 9.2%) were lower with LMWH compared with UFH, a difference that persisted after multivariable adjustment (odds ratio [OR] 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.76 and OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.37-0.76, respectively). Three-year survival, and stroke and reinfarction-free survival risks were also higher with LMWH compared with UFH (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.73, 95% CI 0.61-0.87 and HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.62-0.85, respectively). In two cohorts of patients matched on propensity score for receiving LMWH and with similar baseline characteristics (834 patients per group), major bleeding and transfusion rates were lower while the 3-year survival rate was signiﬁcantly higher in patients receiving LMWH. Our data suggest that the use of LMWH in AMI patients may have a better benefit/risk profile than UFH, in terms of bleeding, need for transfusion and long-term survival. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Islam, Mohammad S.; Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Mukhaini, Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Abdullah; El-Deeb, Mohammad; Rahman, Said Abdul; Al-Riyami, Mohammed B.
Objectives Cardiogenic shock (CS) is still the leading cause of in-hospital mortality in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study was to determine the in-hospital mortality and clinical outcome in AMI patients presenting with CS in a tertiary hospital in Oman. Methods This retrospective observational study included patients admitted to the cardiology department between January 2013 and December 2014. A purposive sampling technique was used, and 63 AMI patients with CS admitted to (36.5%) or transferred from a regional hospital (63.5%) were selected for the study. Results Of 63 patients, 73% (n = 46) were Omani and 27% (n = 17) were expatriates: 79% were male and 21% were female. The mean age of patients was 60±12 years. The highest incidence of CS (30%) was observed in the 51–60 year age group. Diabetes mellitus (43%) and hypertension (40%) were the predominant risk factors. Ninety-two percent of patients had ST-elevation MI, 58.7% patients were thrombolysed, and 8% had non-ST-elevation MI. Three-quarters (75%) of CS patients had severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (defined as ejection fraction <30%). Coronary angiogram showed single vessel disease in 17%, double vessel disease in 40%, and triple vessel disease in 32% and left main disease in 11%. The majority of the patients (93.6%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), among them 23 (36.5%) underwent primary PCI. In-hospital mortality was 52.4% in this study. Conclusions CS in AMI patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Oman have high in-hospital mortality despite the majority undergoing PCI. Even though the in-hospital mortality is comparable to other studies and registries, there is an urgent need to determine the causes and find any remedies to provide better care for such patients, specifically concentrating on the early transfer of patients from regional hospitals for early PCI. PMID:26814946
Palot, M; Visseaux, H; Botmans, C; Pire, J C
Epidural analgesia (EA) is the best technique to obtain pain relief during labour. But the needle, the catheter and the local anaesthetics (LA) are 3 reasons to cause maternal complications. In France we do not know the exact number of EA performed every year and it is very difficult to appreciate the incidence of maternal complications. Therefore, it is necessary to know it and try to reduce the incidence of some of them. Maternal complications after EA are classically: 1. caused by catheter or needle: massive subarachnoid injection, toxic intravenous injection with convulsions and/or cardiac arrest; 2. secondary to infectious problems: meningitis or epidural abscess; 3. due to LA with the very rare anaphylactoid reactions; 4. due to prolonged neurologic complications with epidural and subdural haematomas, subarachnoid cysts or arachnoiditis. These complications are rare: 1/4,700 in the largest series of literature, involving more than 500,000 EA. In France, we tried to quantify maternal complications among nearly 300,000 EA performed over a period of 5 years. The overall incidence of serious complications was 1/4,005 EA. The most frequent are accidental dural puncture (1/156), massive subarachnoid injections (1/8,010) and convulsions (1/9,011). The incidence of these 3 complications must be reduced by better training, material or attention during bolus injection of LA.
Johnston, S. D.; Robinson, T. J.
Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage is associated with a uniquely severe headache of acute onset. Classical cases are readily identified as such, although this is not always the case. Four cases who were admitted to a district general hospital within a 3-month period are presented, because they demonstrate a variety of presentations, management options, and outcomes. PMID:10320890
Kertzscher, Ulrich; Schneider, Torsten; Goubergrits, Leonid; Affeld, Klaus; Hänggi, Daniel; Spuler, Andreas
Background Cerebral arterial vasospasm leads to delayed cerebral ischemia and constitutes the major delayed complication following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral vasospasm can be reduced by increased blood clearance from the subarachnoid space. Clinical pilot studies allow the hypothesis that the clearance of subarachnoid blood is facilitated by means of head shaking. A major obstacle for meaningful clinical studies is the lack of data on appropriate parameters of head shaking. Our in vitro study aims to provide these essential parameters. Methodology/Principal Findings A model of the basal cerebral cistern was derived from human magnetic resonance imaging data. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was simulated by addition of dyed experimental blood to transparent experimental cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filling the model of the basal cerebral cistern. Effects of various head positions and head motion settings (shaking angle amplitudes and shaking frequencies) on blood clearance were investigated using the quantitative dye washout method. Blood washout can be divided into two phases: Blood/CSF mixing and clearance. The major effect of shaking consists in better mixing of blood and CSF thereby increasing clearance rate. Without shaking, blood/CSF mixing and blood clearance in the basal cerebral cistern are hampered by differences in density and viscosity of blood and CSF. Blood clearance increases with decreased shaking frequency and with increased shaking angle amplitude. Head shaking facilitates clearance by varying the direction of gravitational force. Conclusions/Significance From this in vitro study can be inferred that patient or head shaking with large shaking angles at low frequency is a promising therapeutic strategy to increase blood clearance from the subarachnoid space. PMID:22870243
Thanabalasundaram, Gopiga; Hernández-Durán, Silvia; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele; Ogilvy, Christopher S
Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is a well-recognized and potentially fatal complication of carotid revascularization. However, the occurrence of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as a manifestation of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome post-carotid endarterectomy is uncommon. We report a case of a patient who presented with headache following carotid endarterectomy for a critically occluded common carotid artery. This progressed to deteriorating consciousness and seizures. Investigations revealed a left cortical non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a rare post-operative complication of carotid endarterectomy. Immediate management with aggressive blood pressure control is key to prevent permanent neurological deficits. Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) after carotid revascularization procedures is an uncommon and potentially fatal complication. Pathophysiologically it is attributed to impaired autoregulatory mechanisms and results in disruption of cerebral hemodynamics with increased regional cerebral blood flow (Cardiol Rev 20:84-89, 2012; J Vasc Surg 49:1060-1068, 2009). The condition is characterized by throbbing ipsilateral frontotemporal or periorbital headache. Other symptoms include vomiting, confusion, macular edema, focal motor seizures with frequent secondary generalization, focal neurological deficits, and intraparenchymal or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (Lancet Neurol 4:877-888, 2005). The incidence of CHS varies from 0.2% to 18.9% after carotid endarterectomy (CEA), with a typical reported incidence of less than 3% in larger studies (Cardiol Rev 20:84-89, 2012; Neurosurg 107:1130-1136, 2007). Uncontrolled hypertension, an arterially isolated cerebral hemisphere, and contralateral carotid occlusion are the main risk factors (Lancet Neurol 4:877-888, 2005; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 83:543-550, 2012). We present a case of non-aneurysmal SAH after CEA, with focus on its presentation, risk factors
Naidech, Andrew M; Shaibani, Ali; Garg, Rajeev K; Duran, Isis M; Liebling, Storm M; Bassin, Sarice L; Bendok, Bernard R; Bernstein, Richard A; Batjer, H Hunt; Alberts, Mark J
In patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), higher hemoglobin (HGB) has been associated with better outcomes, but packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions with worse outcomes. We performed a prospective pilot trial of goal HGB after SAH. Forty-four patients with SAH and high risk for vasospasm were randomized to goal HGB concentration of at least 10 or 11.5 g/dl. We obtained blinded clinical outcomes at 14 days (NIH Stroke Scale and modified Rankin Scale, mRS), 28 days (mRS), and 3 months (mRS), and blinded interpretation of brain MRI for cerebral infarction at 14 days. This trial is registered at www.stroketrials.org. Forty-four patients were randomized. Patients with goal HGB 11.5 g/dl received more PRBC units per transfusion [1 (1-2) vs. 1 (1-1), P < 0.001] and more total PRBC units [3 (2-4) vs. 2 (1-3), P = 0.045]. Prospectively defined safety endpoints were not different between groups. HGB concentration was different between study groups from day 4 onwards. The number of cerebral infarctions on MRI (6 of 20 vs. 9 of 22), NIH Stroke Scale scores at 14 days [1 (0-9.75) vs. 2 (0-16)], and rates of independence on the mRS at 14 days (65% vs. 44%) and 28 days (80% vs. 67%) were similar, but favored higher goal HGB (P > 0.1 for all). Higher goal hemoglobin in patients with SAH seems to be safe and feasible. A phase III trial of goal HGB after SAH is warranted.
Mutoh, Tomoko; Mutoh, Tatsushi; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yukiko; Tsuru, Yoshiharu; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Taki, Yasuyuki
Early brain injury/ischemia (EBI) is a serious complication early after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that contributes to development of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). This study aimed to determine the role of inotropic cardiac support using milrinone (MIL) on restoring acute cerebral hypoperfusion attributable to EBI and improving outcomes after experimental SAH. Forty-three male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to either sham surgery (SAH-sham), SAH induced by endovascular perforation plus postconditioning with 2% isoflurane (Control), or SAH plus isoflurane combined with MIL with and without hypoxia-inducible factor inhibitor (HIF-I) pretreatment. Cardiac output (CO) during intravenous MIL infusion (0.25-0.75 μg/kg/min) between 1.5 and 2.5h after SAH induction was monitored with Doppler-echocardiography. MRI-continuous arterial spin labeling was used for quantitative CBF measurements. Neurobehavioral function was assessed daily by neurological score and open field test. DCI was analyzed 3 days later by determining infarction on MRI. Mild reduction of cardiac output (CO) and global cerebral blood flow (CBF) depression were notable early after SAH. MIL increased CO in a dose-dependent manner (P <0.001), which was accompanied by improved hypoperfusion, incidence of DCI and functional recovery than Control (P <0.05). The neuroprotective effects afforded by MIL or Control were attenuated by HIF inhibition (P <0.05). These results suggest that MIL improves acute hypoperfusion by its inotropic effect, leading to neurobehavioral improvement in mice after severe SAH, in which HIF may be acting as a critical mediator. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Snyder, R D; Stovring, J; Cushing, A H; Davis, L E; Hardy, T L
Forty-nine children with complicated bacterial meningitis were studied. Thirteen had abnormalities on computed tomography compatible with the diagnosis of brain infarction; one had a brain biopsy with the histological appearance of infarction. Factors exist in childhood bacterial meningitis which are associated with the development of brain infraction.
Albano, Beatrice; Del Sette, Massimo; Roccatagliata, Luca; Gandolfo, Carlo; Primavera, Alberto
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS) comprise a group of disorders characterized by prolonged, but reversible vasoconstriction of the cerebral arteries, usually associated with acute-onset, severe, recurrent headaches, with or without additional neurological signs and symptoms. Various complications of this condition have been observed, such as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhages (cSAH), intracerebral hemorrhages, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy, ischaemic strokes and transient ischaemic attacks. It is important to include RCVS in thunderclap headache differential diagnosis and among non-aneurismatic subarachnoid hemorrhage causes. In the past years, thanks to the major diffusion of new diagnostic tools such as magnetic resonance, computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography, RCVS have been demonstrated to be more frequent than previously thought. We report an illustrative case of a woman affected by a small cSAH, associated to RCVS, after elective triplet cesarean delivery. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cSAH associated to RCVS after a triplet pregnancy.
Fu, Fang-Wang; Rao, Jie; Zheng, Yuan-Yuan; Song, Liang; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Qi-Hui; Yang, Jian-Guang; Ke, Jiang-Qiong; Zheng, Guo-Qing
Abstract Rationale: Perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (PNSAH) is characterized by a pattern of extravasated blood restricted to the perimesencephalic cisterns, normal angiographic findings, and an excellent prognosis with an uneventful course and low risks of complication. The precise etiology of bleeding in patients with PNSAH has not yet been established. The most common hypothesis is that PNSAH is venous in origin. Intracranial venous hypertension has been considered as the pivotal factor in the pathogenesis of PNSAH. The underlying venous pathology such as straight sinus stenosis, jugular vein occlusion may contribute to PNSAH. We describe a patient in whom transverse sinus thrombosis preceded intracranial venous hypertension and PNSAH. These findings supported that the source of the subarachnoid hemorrhage is venous in origin. Patient concerns and diagnoses: A 45-year-old right-handed man was admitted to the hospital with a sudden onset of severe headache associated with nausea, vomiting, and mild photophobia for 6 hours. The patient was fully conscious and totally alert. An emergency brain computed tomography (CT) revealed an acute subarachnoid hemorrhage restricted to the perimesencephalic cisterns. CT angiography revealed no evidence of an intracranial aneurysm or underlying vascular malformation. Digital subtraction angiography of arterial and capillary phases confirmed the CT angiographic findings. Assessment of the venous phase demonstrated right transverse sinus thrombosis. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). Lumbar puncture revealed an opening pressure of 360 mmH2O, suggestive of intracranial venous hypertension. Grave disease was diagnosed by endocrinological investigation. Interventions: Low-molecular-weight heparin, followed by oral warfarin, was initiated immediately as the treatment for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and PNSAH. Outcomes: The patient discharged
Qian, Cong; Yu, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingyin; Gu, Chi; Wang, Lin; Chen, Gao; Dai, Yuying
Abstract Background and objectives: Vasospasm-related injury such as delayed ischemic neurological defect (DIND) or cerebral infarction is an important prognostic factor for aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage can achieve a better outcome in aneurismal SAH patients after coiling or clipping remains the subject of debate. Here, we report a meta-analysis of the related available literature to assess the effect of continuous CSF drainage on clinical outcomes in patients with aneurismal SAH. Methods: Case-control studies regarding the association between aneurismal SAH and CSF drainage were systematically identified through online databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier Science Direct, and Springer Link). Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined for the eligible studies. The fixed-effects model was performed when homogeneity was indicated. Alternatively, the random-effects model was utilized. Results: This meta-analysis included 11 studies. Continuous CSF drainage obviously improved patients’ long-term outcome (odds ratio [OR] of 2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37–5.98, P < 0.01). CSF drainage also reduced angiographic vasospasm (OR of 0.35, 95% CI, 0.23–0.51, P < 0.01), symptomatic vasospasm (OR of 0.32, 95% CI, 0.32–0.43, P < 0.01), and DIND (OR of 0.48, 95% CI, 0.25–0.91, P = 0.03), but there was no significant difference between the CSF drainage group and the no CSF drainage group on shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (SDHC) prevention (OR of 1.04, 95% CI, 0.52–2.07, P = 0.91). Further analysis on lumbar drainage (LD) and external ventricular drainage (EVD) indicated that LD had a better outcome (OR of 3.11, 95% CI, 1.18–8.23, P = 0.02), whereas no significant difference in vasospasm-related injury was detected between the groups (OR of 1.13, 95% CI, 0.54–2.37, P = 0.75). Conclusion: Continuous CSF drainage is an effective treatment for aneurismal SAH patients; lumbar drainage
Kolawole, I K; Bolaji, B O
The use of subarachnoid block has become an established and reliable method of providing anaesthesia for lower abdominal and lower limb surgery. Unfortunately, it remains largely unappealing to a large number of our patients who sometimes associate it with paralysis. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency and safety of subarachnoid block for lower abdominal and lower limb surgery in the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. This prospective study was carried out between January 1998 and August 2000 the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. One hundred and ten (110) consenting adult patients had subarachnoid block for lower abdominal and lower limb surgery over a period of two years and eight months Patients were assessed in the theatre as well as in the postanaesthetic recovery room and daily in the ward for five days. All complications related to anaesthesia were recorded and analysed. There were 75 (68%) male and 35 (32%) female patients. Ninety-six (87%) were elective and 14 (13%) were emergency cases. The specialty distribution of cases included 66 (60%) patients for Orthopaedic surgery, 16 (14.5%) for General Surgery and 13 (11.8%) for Urology. Intravenous ketamine and pentazocine were used to supplement anaesthesia in 12 (11%) of cases due to varying degrees of discomfort experienced by the patients. There was no case of total failure. Intra-operative complications included hypotension in 9(8.18%) patients which responded to saline infusion in 5 and vasoconstrictor in 4 cases, hypertension in 9 (8.18%) patients which responded to reassurance and midazolam sedation, and a brief episode of shivering in 9 (8.18%) patients treated by additional drape cover. The incidence of post-spinal headache was 2.7% in this study. Subarachnoid block still remains a very effective and safe anaesthetic technique for lower abdominal and lower limb surgery. The technique is cheap and effort should be made to increase patient awareness and its
Sierra, J J; Malillos, M
Intracraneal bleeding is a rare complication after raquis surgery. It is believed to occur as a drop in the intracraneal pressure after a loss of CSF secondary to an iatrogenic dural tear. We report a patient who after surgery for lumbar stenosis presented a subarachnoid haemorrhage, an intraparenchymal haematoma, and a subdural haematoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature with such complications after this type of surgery. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
THE WORST HEADACHE OF LIFE: EVALUATION OF NONTRAUMATIC SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE . 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ SHERMAN PAUL M 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...one primary cause (2). There are approximately 30,000 cases of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage in the United States each year (2, 3). The classic...presentation of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is an acute onset, severe headache which reaches its maximum intensity within minutes, often
Macdonald, Robert Loch; Leung, Ming; Tice, Tom
Tice and colleagues pioneered site-specific, sustained-release drug delivery to the brain almost 30 years ago. Currently there is one drug approved for use in this manner. Clinical trials in subarachnoid hemorrhage have led to approval of nimodipine for oral and intravenous use, but other drugs, such as clazosentan, hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and magnesium, have not shown consistent clinical efficacy. We propose that intracranial delivery of drugs such as nimodipine, formulated in sustained-release preparations, are good candidates for improving outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage because they can be administered to patients that are already undergoing surgery and who have a self-limited condition from which full recovery is possible.
Wei, Helen S; Reitz, Katherine M; Kang, Hongyi; Takano, Takahiro; Vates, G Edward; Nedergaard, Maiken
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remains one of the more devastating forms of stroke due in large part to delayed cerebral ischemia that appears days to weeks following the initial hemorrhage. Therapies exclusively targeting large caliber arterial vasospasm have fallen short, and thus we asked whether capillary dysfunction contributes to delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Using a mouse model of subarachnoid hemorrhage and two-photon microscopy we showed capillary dysfunction unrelated to upstream arterial constriction. Subarachnoid hemorrhage decreased RBC velocity by 30%, decreased capillary pulsatility by 50%, and increased length of non-perfusing capillaries by 15%. This was accompanied by severe brain hypoxia and neuronal loss. Hyaluronidase, an enzyme that alters capillary blood flow by removing the luminal glycocalyx, returned RBC velocity and pulsatility to normal. Hyaluronidase also reversed brain hypoxia and prevented neuron loss typically seen after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Thus, subarachnoid hemorrhage causes specific changes in capillary RBC flow independent of arterial spasm, and hyaluronidase treatment that normalizes capillary blood flow can prevent brain hypoxia and injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Prevention or treatment of capillary dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage may reduce the incidence or severity of subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:26661183
Pereira, Julio Leonardo Barbosa; de Albuquerque, Lucas Alverne Freitas; Dellaretti, Marcos; de Carvalho, Gervásio Teles Cardoso; Jr, Gerival Vieira; Brochado, Vitor Michelstaedter; Drummond, Austen Venâncio; de Morais, Joyce Espeschit; Ferreira, Leticia Maia; Miranda, Paulo Augusto Carvalho; de Sousa, Atos Alves
OBJECTIVE: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage puts patients at high risk for the development of pituitary insufficiency. We evaluated the incidence of pituitary dysfunction in these patients and its correlation with clinical outcome. METHODS: Pituitary function was tested in 66 consecutive patients in the first 15 days after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The following were measured in all patients: thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, total testosterone (in males), estradiol (in females), prolactin, serum cortisol, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone and insulin growth factor. RESULTS: The endocrine assessment was made at a mean of 7.4 days (standard deviation ±6.6) after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Forty-four (66.7%) female and 22 (33.3%) male patients were evaluated. Thirty-nine patients (59.1%) had some type of pituitary dysfunction. Follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone deficiency was the most frequent disorder (34.8%), followed by growth hormone/insulin growth factor (28.7%), adrenocorticotropic hormone (18.1%) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (9%). Seventeen (25.7%) patients showed deficiencies in more than one axis. A greater incidence of hormone deficiency was observed in patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤13 (t test, p = 0.008), Hunt-Hess grade ≥4 (t test, p<0.001), or Fisher grade 4 (t test, p = 0.039). Hormone deficiency was not significantly associated (p>0.05) with increased hospitalization or clinical outcome. CONCLUSION: Pituitary dysfunction was identified in a substantial portion of patients with previous aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, but no association was found between this dysfunction and poor clinical outcome. PMID:23778478
Albertine, Paul; Borofsky, Samuel; Brown, Derek; Patel, Smita; Lee, Woojin; Caputy, Anthony; Taheri, M Reza
With advancing technology, the sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) for the detection of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) continues to improve. Increased resolution has allowed for the detection of hemorrhage that is limited to one or two images of the CT exam. At our institution, all patients with a SAH require intensive care unit (ICU) admission, regardless of size. It was our hypothesis that patients with small subarachnoid hemorrhage experience favorable outcomes, and may not require the intensive monitoring offered in the ICU. This retrospective study evaluated 62 patients between 2011 and 2014 who presented to our Level I trauma center emergency room for acute traumatic injuries, and found to have subarachnoid hemorrhages on CT examination. The grade of subarachnoid hemorrhage was determined using previously utilized scoring systems, such as the Fisher, Modified Fisher, and Claassen grading systems. Electronic medical records were used to evaluate for medical decline, neurological decline, neurosurgical intervention, and overall hospital course. Admitting co-morbidities were noted, as were the presence of patient intoxication and use of anticoagulants. Patient outcomes were based on discharge summaries upon which the neurological status of the patient was assessed. Each patient was given a score based on the Glasgow outcome scale. The clinical and imaging profile of 62 patients with traumatic SAH were studied. Of the 62 patients, 0 % underwent neurosurgical intervention, 6.5 % had calvarial fractures, 25.8 % had additional intracranial hemorrhages, 27.4 % of the patients had significant co-morbidities, and 1.6 % of the patients expired. Patients with low-grade tSAH spent less time in the ICU, demonstrated neurological and medical stability during hospitalization. None of the patients with low-grade SAH experienced seizure during their admission. In our study, patients with low-grade tSAH demonstrated favorable clinical outcomes. This suggests
Dasenbrock, Hormuzdiyar H; Angriman, Frederico; Smith, Timothy R; Gormley, William B; Frerichs, Kai U; Aziz-Sultan, M Ali; Du, Rose
The goal of this nationwide study is to evaluate the suitability of readmission as a quality indicator in the aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) population. Patients with aneurysmal SAH were extracted from the Nationwide Readmission Database (2013). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was used to evaluate predictors of a 30-day readmission, and multivariable linear regression was used to analyze the association of hospital readmission rates with hospital mortality rates. Predictors screened included patient demographics, comorbidities, severity of SAH, complications from the SAH hospitalization, and hospital characteristics. The 30-day readmission rate was 10.2% (n=346) among the 3387 patients evaluated, and the most common reasons for readmission were neurological, hydrocephalus, infectious, and venous thromboembolic complications. Greater number of comorbidities, increased severity of SAH, and discharge disposition other than to home were independent predictors of readmission (P≤0.03). Although hydrocephalus during the SAH hospitalization was associated with readmission for the same diagnosis, other readmissions were not associated with having sustained the same complication during the SAH hospitalization. Hospital mortality rate was inversely associated with hospital SAH volume (P=0.03) but not significantly associated with hospital readmission rate; hospital SAH volume was also not associated with SAH readmissions. In this national analysis, readmission was primarily attributable to new medical complications in patients with greater comorbidities and severity of SAH rather than exacerbation of complications from the SAH hospitalization. Additionally, hospital readmission rates did not correlate with other established quality metrics. Therefore, readmission may be a suboptimal quality indicator in the SAH population. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Caplan, L R; Schmahmann, J D; Kase, C S; Feldmann, E; Baquis, G; Greenberg, J P; Gorelick, P B; Helgason, C; Hier, D B
Eighteen patients had caudate nucleus infarcts (10 left-sided; 8 right-sided). Infarcts extended into the anterior limb of the internal capsule in 9 patients, and also the anterior putamen in 5 patients. Thirteen patients had motor signs, most often a slight transient hemiparesis. Dysarthria was common (11 patients). Cognitive and behavioral abnormalities were frequent, and included abulia (10 patients), agitation and hyperactivity (7 patients), contralateral neglect (3 patients, all right caudate), and language abnormalities (2 patients, both left caudate). The majority of patients had risk factors for penetrating artery disease. Branch occlusion of Heubner's artery, or perforators from the proximal anterior or middle cerebral arteries were the posited mechanism of infarction.
Badui, E; Estañol, B; Garcia-Rubi, D
Although it is well known that a myocardial and a cerebral infarction may be coincident, the nature of this association is not clear. The problem is further complicated because the myocardial infarction may be silent. This is a report of 3 patients with cerebral infarct in whom a silent recent myocardial infarction was found. All patients with cerebrovascular disease should be screened for a possible myocardial lesion.
Choi, H. Alex; Edwards, Nancy; Chang, Tiffany; Sladen, Robert N.
Despite significant regional and risk factor-related variations, the overall mortality rate in patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains high. Compared to ischemic stroke, which is typically irreversible, hemorrhagic stroke tends to carry a higher mortality, but patients who do survive have less disability. Technologies to monitor and treat complications of SAH have advanced considerably in recent years, but good long-term functional outcome still depends on prompt diagnosis, early aggressive management, and avoidance of premature withdrawal of support. Endovascular procedures and open craniotomy to secure a ruptured aneurysm represent some of the numerous critical steps required to achieve the best possible result. In this review, we have attempted to provide a contemporary, evidence-based outline of the perioperative critical care management of patients with SAH. This is a challenging and potentially fatal disease with a wide spectrum of severity and complications and an often protracted course. The dynamic nature of this illness, especially in its most severe forms, requires considerable flexibility in clinician management, especially given the panoply of available treatment modalities. Judicious hemodynamic monitoring and adaptive therapy are essential to respond to the fluctuating nature of cerebral vasospasm and the varying oxygen demands of the injured brain that may readily induce acute or delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:25237442
Fujii, Mutsumi; Takasato, Yoshio; Masaoka, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Yoshihisa; Hayakawa, Takanori; Honma, Masato
Seven hundred and fifty five cases of acute non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage were admitted to the department of neurosurgery of our hospital from July, 1995 to March, 2004. In 555 patients cerebral angiography was conducted but initial angiography was negative in 30 patients. Except 10 general condition poor patients, in 20 initial angiogram-negative patients were undergone repeated angiography. The cause of SAH could not be demonstrated in 13 cases. The SAH in perimesencephalic and non-perimesencephalic cisturns was seen in 7 and 6 cases, respectively. Occipital and/or neck pain on admission was statistically more common among patients with perimesencephalic SAH than those with non-perimesencephalic SAH (p = 0.029), and the prognosis of perimesencephalic SAH was good. We conclude that repeat angiography should not be recommended in patients with perimesencephalic SAH. Patients with non-perimesencephalic SAH had a higher rate of complication. In the non-perimesencephalic group, 3 patients developed hydrocephalus and 3 patients had vasospasm, which were found by repeated angiography. Therefore, repeated angiography is recommended for better clinical outcome by early detection and management of serious complications in this group of patients.
... may lead to delayed ischemic deficit and cerebral infarction if left untreated. Besides the damage done by ... should be performed immediately to rule out hydrocephalus , infarction , or rebleeding. Vasospasm can decrease cerebral perfusion to ...
de la Espriella-Juan, R; Valls-Serral, A; Trejo-Velasco, B; Berenguer-Jofresa, A; Fabregat-Andrés, Ó; Perdomo-Londoño, D; Albiach-Montañana, C; Vilar-Herrero, J V; Sanmiguel-Cervera, D; Rumiz-Gonzalez, E; Morell-Cabedo, S
To analyze the use and impact of the intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) upon the 30-day mortality rate and short-term clinical outcome of non-selected patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (acute STEMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS). A single-center retrospective case-control study was carried out. Coronary Care Unit. Data were collected from 825 consecutive patients with acute STEMI admitted to a Coronary Care Unit from January 2009 to August 2015. Seventy-three patients with CS upon admission subjected to emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were finally included in the analysis and were stratified according to IABP use (44 patients receiving IABP). Cardiovascular history, hemodynamic situation upon admission, angiographic and procedural characteristics, and variables derived from admission to the Coronary Care Unit. Cumulative 30-day mortality was similar in the patients subjected to IABP and in those who received conventional medical therapy only (29.5% and 27.6%, respectively; HR with IABP 1.10, 95% CI 0.38-3.11; p=0.85). Similarly, no significant differences were found in terms of the short-term clinical outcome between the groups: time on mechanical ventilation, days to hemodynamic stabilization, vasoactive drug requirements and stay in the Coronary Care Unit. Poorer renal function (HR 3.9, 95% CI 1.4-10.6; p=0.008), known peripheral artery disease (HR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-9.1; p=0.019) and a history of diabetes mellitus (HR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2-8.1; p=0.018) were the only variables independently associated to increased 30-day mortality. In our "real life" experience, IABP does not modify 30-day mortality or the short-term clinical outcome in patients presenting STEMI complicated with CS and subjected to emergency percutaneous coronary revascularization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Oda, Shinri; Shimoda, Masami; Hoshikawa, Kaori; Osada, Takahiro; Yoshiyama, Michitsura; Matsumae, Mitsunori
Patients with non-traumatic, non-aneurysmal, and non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) tend to have clots circumscribed along the cortical convexity, a condition referred to as acute cortical SAH. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a potential cause of cortical SAH. The study tried to establish the diagnosis and management of cortical SAH caused by CVT. Retrospective review of 145 patients with non-traumatic SAH identified 15 patients with no ruptured aneurysm. Clinical features were investigated with a specific focus on patients with SAH caused by CVT. Eight of the 15 patients had perimesencephalic SAH, and 7 had cortical SAH. SAH caused by CVT was diagnosed in 4 of the 7 patients with cortical SAH. The cortical SAH involved the unilateral convexity or sylvian cistern and spared the basal cistern on computed tomography in all 4 patients. CVT occurred in the transverse sinus and cortical vein (1 patient), insular vein (1 patient), and cortical vein (2 patients). Identification of thrombosed veins or sinuses was established directly by T(2)*-weighted and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the acute stage and diffusion-weighted and T(1)-weighted MR imaging in the subacute stage. All patients had cortical swelling without findings of venous hemorrhagic infarction on T(2)*-weighted MR imaging. None of the 4 patients received active treatment, and all had favorable outcomes. CVT in patients with non-traumatic cortical SAH should be first excluded as a potential hemorrhagic cause by MR imaging for thrombosed veins or sinuses before initiating antifibrinolytic therapy.
Kreiter, Kurt T; Rosengart, Axel J; Claassen, Jan; Fitzsimmons, Brian F; Peery, Shelley; Du, Y Evelyn; Connolly, E Sander; Mayer, Stephan A
Cognitive impairment is widely considered the main cause of disability and handicap after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The impact of depression on recovery after SAH remains poorly defined. We sought to determine the frequency of post-SAH depression, identify risk factors for its development, and evaluate the impact of depression on quality of life (QOL) during the first year of recovery. We prospectively studied 216 of 534 SAH patients treated between July 1996 and December 2001 with complete one-year follow-up data. Depression was evaluated with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, cognitive status with the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), and QOL with the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) 3 and 12 months after SAH. Depressed mood occurred in 47% of patients during the first year of recovery; 26% were depressed at both 3 and 12 months. Non-white ethnicity predicted early (3 month) and late (12 month) depressions; early depression was also predicted by previously-diagnosed depression, cigarette smoking, and cerebral infarction, whereas late depression was predicted by prior social isolation and lack of medical insurance. Depression was associated with inferior QOL in all domains of the SIP, and changes in depression status were associated with striking parallel changes in QOL, disability, and cognitive function during the first year of recovery. CES-D scores accounted for over 60% of the explained variance in SIP total scores, whereas TICS performance accounted for no more than 6%. Depression affects nearly half of SAH patients during the first year of recovery, and is associated with poor QOL. Systematic screening and early treatment for depression are promising strategies for improving outcome after SAH. © 2013.
Kreiter, Kurt T; Mayer, Stephan A; Howard, George; Knappertz, Volker; Ilodigwe, Don; Sloan, Michael A; Macdonald, R Loch
Clinical trials for prevention of vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) seldom have improved overall outcome; one reason may be inadequate sample size. We used data from the tirilizad trials and the Columbia University subarachnoid hemorrhage outcomes project to estimate sample sizes for clinical trials for reduction of vasospasm after SAH, assuming trials must show effect on 90-day patient-centered outcome. Sample size calculations were based on different definitions of vasospasm, enrichment strategies, sensitivity of short- and long-term outcome instruments for reflecting vasospasm-related morbidity, different event rates of vasospasm, calculation of effect size of vasospasm on outcome instruments, and different treatment effect sizes. Sensitivity analysis was performed for variable event rates of vasospasm for a given treatment effect size. Sample size tables were constructed for different rates of vasospasm and outcome instruments for a given treatment effect size. Vasospasm occurred in 12% to 30% of patients. Symptomatic deterioration and infarction from vasospasm exhibited the strongest relationship to mortality and morbidity after SAH. Enriching for vasospasm by selection of patients with thick SAH slightly decreased sample sizes. Assuming beta=0.80, alpha=0.05 (2-tailed) and treatment effect size of 50%, total sample size exceeds 5000 patients to demonstrate efficacy on 3-month patient-centered outcome (modified Rankin Scale). Clinical trials targeting vasospasm and using traditional patient-centered outcome require very high sample sizes and will therefore be costly, time-consuming, and impractical. This will hinder development of new treatment strategies.
Eden, S V.; Meurer, W J.; Sánchez, B N.; Lisabeth, L D.; Smith, M A.; Brown, D L.; Morgenstern, L B.
Background: Mexican Americans (MAs) comprise the largest component of the largest minority group within the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic and gender differences in the epidemiology, presentation, and outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a representative United States community. Targeted public health interventions are dependent on accurate assessments of groups at highest disease risk. Methods: All patients with nontraumatic SAH older than 44 years were prospectively identified from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2006, as part of the Brain Attack Surveillance In Corpus Christi project, an urban population-based study in southeast Texas. Risk ratios for cumulative SAH incidence comparing MAs with non Hispanic whites (NHWs) and women with men were calculated. Descriptive statistics for other clinical and demographic variables were computed overall, by gender, and by ethnicity. Results: A total of 107 patients had a SAH during the time period (7-year cumulative incidence: 11/10,000); of these, 43 were NHW (40% of cases vs 53% of the population) and 64 were MA (60% of cases vs 48% of the population). The overall age-adjusted risk ratio for SAH in MAs compared with NHWs was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.13, 2.47), and in women compared to men was 1.74 (95% CI 1.16, 2.62). Overall in-hospital mortality was 32.2%. No ethnic difference was observed for discharge disability or in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Subarachnoid hemorrhage disproportionately affects Mexican Americans and women. Public health interventions should target these groups to reduce the impact of this severe disease. GLOSSARY BASIC = Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi; GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale; ICD = International Classification of Diseases; ICH = intracerebral hemorrhage; MA = Mexican American; mRS = modified Rankin Scale; NHW = non-Hispanic white; SAH = subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:18550859
More younger people are affected by subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) than by any other form of stroke, and fatality rates are high (van Gijn et al 2007). Classic signs and symptoms include sudden onset of 'thunderclap' headache but patients can present with atypical symptoms such as neck stiffness. For patients who survive SAH, the psychosocial consequences can be devastating and can affect their families or carers. This article describes the management of one patient who attended an emergency department with atypical symptoms of SAH, and discusses the incidence of, investigations into, and treatment for SAH.
Kim, Bum-Joon; Choi, Jong-Il; Ha, Sung-Kon; Lim, Dong-Jun; Kim, Sang-Dae
A 4-year-old boy was admitted with acute onset of hemiplegia of the right side that was secondary to a traffic accident. Initial computed tomography revealed a traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, and follow-up computed tomography showed a more localized hematoma of the left sylvian cistern. After a few days of conservative treatment, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cerebral infarction of the left lenticulostriate territory, even though magnetic resonance angiography showed preserved middle cerebral artery flow. Thus, we realized that the hematoma of the sylvian cistern was the so-called dense middle cerebral artery sign. This case of posttraumatic infarction suggested the importance of meticulous investigations and clinical correlations of imaging studies in pediatric patients with head injuries. © The Author(s) 2013.
Nakajima, Hanako; Okada, Hiroshi; Hirose, Kazuki; Murakami, Toru; Shiotsu, Yayoi; Kadono, Mayuko; Inoue, Mamoru; Hasegawa, Goji
Hyponatremia is a common finding after subarachnoid hemorrhaging (SAH) and can be caused by either cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Distinguishing between these two entities can be difficult because they have similar manifestations, including hyponatremia, serum hypo-osmolality, and high urine osmolality. We herein report the case of a 60-year-old man who suffered from SAH complicated by hyponatremia. During his initial hospitalization, he was diagnosed with CSWS. He was readmitted one week later with hyponatremia and was diagnosed with SIADH. This is the first report of SAH causing CSWS followed by SIADH. These two different sources of hyponatremia require different treatments.
Tam, Alan K H; Kapadia, Anish; Ilodigwe, Don; Li, Zeyu; Schweizer, Tom A; Macdonald, R Loch
Atrophy in specific brain areas correlates with poor neuropsychological outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Few studies have compared global atrophy in SAH with outcome. The authors examined the relationship between global brain atrophy, clinical factors, and outcome after SAH. This study was a post hoc exploratory analysis of the Clazosentan to Overcome Neurological Ischemia and Infarction Occurring After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (CONSCIOUS-1) trial, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 413 patients with aneurysmal SAH. Patients with infarctions or areas of encephalomalacia on CT, and those with large clip/coil artifacts, were excluded. The 97 remaining patients underwent CT at baseline and 6 weeks, which was analyzed using voxel-based volumetric measurements. The percentage difference in volume between time points was compared against clinical variables. The relationship with clinical outcome was modeled using univariate and multivariate analysis. Older age, male sex, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) during intensive care stay were significantly associated with brain atrophy. Greater brain atrophy was significantly associated with poor outcome on the modified Rankin scale (mRS), severity of deficits on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), worse executive functioning, and lower EuroQol Group-5D (EQ-5D) score. Adjusted for confounders, brain atrophy was not significantly associated with Mini-Mental State Examination and Functional Status Examination scores. Brain atrophy was not associated with angiographic vasospasm or delayed ischemic neurological deficit. Worse mRS score, NIHSS score, executive functioning, and EQ-5D scores were associated with greater brain atrophy and older age, male sex, and SIRS burden. These data suggest outcome is associated with factors that cause global brain injury independent of focal brain injury.
Macdonald, R Loch; Cusimano, Michael D; Etminan, Nima; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Ilodigwe, Don; Jaja, Blessing; Lantigua, Hector; Le Roux, Peter; Lo, Benjamin; Louffat-Olivares, Ada; Mayer, Stephan; Molyneux, Andrew; Quinn, Audrey; Schweizer, Tom A; Schenk, Thomas; Spears, Julian; Todd, Michael; Torner, James; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Wong, George K C
The outcome of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has improved slowly over the past 25 years. This improvement may be due to early aneurysm repair by endovascular or open means, use of nimodipine, and better critical care management. Despite this improvement, mortality remains at about 40%, and many survivors have permanent neurologic, cognitive, and neuropsychologic deficits. Randomized clinical trials have tested pharmacologic therapies, but few have been successful. There are numerous explanations for the failure of these trials, including ineffective interventions, inadequate sample size, treatment side effects, and insensitive or inappropriate outcome measures. Outcome often is evaluated on a good-bad dichotomous scale that was developed for traumatic brain injury 40 years ago. To address these issues, we established the Subarachnoid Hemorrhage International Trialists (SAHIT) data repository. The primary aim of the SAHIT data repository is to provide a unique resource for prognostic analysis and for studies aimed at optimizing the design and analysis of phase III trials in aneurysmal SAH. With this aim in mind, we convened a multinational investigator meeting to explore merging individual patient data from multiple clinical trials and observational databases of patients with SAH and to create an agreement under which such a group of investigators could submit data and collaborate. We welcome collaboration with other investigators.
Thunderclap headache is a sudden and severe headache that can occur after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention and hospitalization. Patients with thunderclap headache often undergo a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) scan to ascertain SAH bleeding and, if the scan is negative, then undergo a lumbar puncture to look for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) red blood cells (RBCs), which would be consistent with an aneurysmal leak. If the initial CT is negative and CSF is positive for RBCs, patients are usually admitted to the hospital for evaluation of intracranial aneurysm. We encountered a patient with thunderclap headache whose initial head CT was negative for SAH and whose CSF tested positive for RBCs. The patient was referred to our center for evaluation and management of aneurysmal SAH. However, on careful review of the patient’s medical history, serum laboratory values, and spinal fluid values, the patient was diagnosed with Ehrlichia chaffeensis meningitis. While Ehrlichia meningitis is rare, it is important to recognize the clinical clues that could help avoid formal cerebral angiography, a costly and potentially unnecessary procedure. We present how this case represented a cognitive framing bias and anchoring heuristic as well as steps that medical providers can use to prevent such cognitive errors in diagnosis. PMID:27053985
Park, Soojeong; Yang, Narae
Objective Removal of blood from subarachnoid space with a lumbar drainage (LD) may decrease development of cerebral vasospasm. We evaluated the effectiveness of a LD for a clinical vasospasm and outcomes after clipping of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods Between July 2008 and July 2013, 234 patients were included in this study. The LD group consisted of 126 patients, 108 patients in the non LD group. We investigated outcomes as follow : 1) clinical vasospasm, 2) angioplasty, 3) cerebral infarction, 4) Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) score at discharge, 5) GOS score at 6-month follow-up, and 6) mortality. Results Clinical vasospasm occurred in 19% of the LD group and 42% of the non LD group (p<0.001). Angioplasty was performed in 17% of the LD group and 38% of the non LD group (p=0.001). Cerebral infarctions were detected in 29% and 54% of each group respectively (p<0.001). The proportion of GOS score 5 at 6 month follow-up in the LD group was 69%, and it was 58% in the non LD group (p=0.001). Mortality rate showed 5% and 10% in each group respectively. But, there was no difference in shunt between the two groups. Conclusion LD after aneurysmal SAH shows marked reduction of clinical vasospasm and need for angioplasty. With this technique we have shown favorable GOS score at 6 month follow-up. PMID:25810855
Attia, Mohammed Sabri; Loch Macdonald, R
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains one of the most morbid subtypes of stroke around the world and has been the focus of hemorrhagic stroke research for longer than five decades. Animal models have been instrumental in shaping the progress and advancement of SAH research, particularly models that allow for transgenic manipulation. The anterior circulation mouse model provides the research community with a rodent model that depicts very similar clinical findings of SAH; from the location of the hemorrhages to the secondary complications that arise after the hemorrhagic insult. The model allows for the recreation of clinically relevant findings such as large vessel vasospasm, oxidative stress, microcirculatory spasm and microthrombosis, and delayed neuronal injury - all of which appear in human cases of SAH. The model is also not technically demanding, is highly reproducible, and allows for an array of transgenic manipulation, which is essential for mechanistic investigations of the pathogenesis of SAH. The anterior circulation mouse model of SAH is one of a few models that are currently used in mice, and provides the research community with a relatively easy, reliable, and clinically relevant model of SAH - one that could be effectively be used to test for early brain injury (EBI) and delayed neurological injury after SAH.
Sehba, Fatima A.; Pluta, Ryszard M.
The discovery of tissue plasminogen activator to treat acute stroke is a success story of research on preventing brain injury following transient cerebral ischemia (TGI). That this discovery depended upon development of embolic animal model reiterates that proper stroke modeling is the key to develop new treatments. In contrast to TGI, despite extensive research, prevention or treatment of brain injury following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has not been achieved. A lack of adequate aSAH disease model may have contributed to this failure. TGI is an important component of aSAH and shares mechanism of injury with it. We hypothesized that modifying aSAH model using experience acquired from TGI modeling may facilitate development of treatment for aSAH and its complications. This review focuses on similarities and dissimilarities between TGI and aSAH, discusses the existing TGI and aSAH animal models, and presents a modified aSAH model which effectively mimics the disease and has a potential of becoming a better resource for studying the brain injury mechanisms and developing a treatment. PMID:23878760
Boviatsis, Efstathios J; Kouyialis, Andreas T; Papatheodorou, George; Gavra, Maro; Korfias, Stefanos; Sakas, Damianos E
We report the case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with severe neurologic complications after envenomation by a viper snake. A computed tomography (CE) scan revealed multiple brain hemorrhagic infarcts. Conservative treatment in this case proved to be sufficient and repetitive CT scans displayed a complete resolution of the radiologic findings. Possible mechanisms for the cerebral infarctions are discussed. The mechanism of infarctions in this case was believed to be the vasomotor and coagulation disorders caused by the toxins present in the snake's venom and was one of the reasons that led to conservative treatment.
Lovelock, C.E.; Rinkel, G.J.E.; Rothwell, P.M.
Background: Treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has changed substantially over the last 25 years but there is a lack of reliable population-based data on whether case-fatality or functional outcomes have improved. Methods: We determined changes in the standardized incidence and outcome of SAH in the same population between 1981 and 1986 (Oxford Community Stroke Project) and 2002 and 2008 (Oxford Vascular Study). In a meta-analysis with other population-based studies, we used linear regression to determine time trends in outcome. Results: There were no reductions in incidence of SAH (RR = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48–1.29, p = 0.34) and in 30-day case-fatality (RR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.39–1.13, p = 0.14) in the Oxford Vascular Study vs Oxford Community Stroke Project, but there was a decrease in overall mortality (RR = 0.47, 0.23–0.97, p = 0.04). Following adjustment for age and baseline SAH severity, patients surviving to hospital had reduced risk of death or dependency (modified Rankin score > 3) at 12 months in the Oxford Vascular Study (RR = 0.51, 0.29–0.88, p = 0.01). Among 32 studies covering 39 study periods from 1980 to 2005, 7 studied time trends within single populations. Unadjusted case-fatality fell by 0.9% per annum (0.3–1.5, p = 0.007) in a meta-analysis of data from all studies, and by 0.9% per annum (0.2–1.6%, p = 0.01) within the 7 population studies. Conclusion: Mortality due to subarachnoid hemorrhage fell by about 50% in our study population over the last 2 decades, due mainly to improved outcomes in cases surviving to reach hospital. This improvement is consistent with a significant decrease in case-fatality over the last 25 years in our pooled analysis of other similar population-based studies. GLOSSARY CI = confidence interval; mRS = modified Rankin score; OCSP = Oxford Community Stroke Project; OXVASC = Oxford Vascular Study; SAH = subarachnoid hemorrhage; WFNS = World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies
Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Fàbregas Julià, N; Rama-Maceiras, P; Hernández-Palazón, J; Rubio Romero, R; Carmona Aurioles, J
Cerebrovascular disease, whether ischemic or hemorrhagic, is a worldwide problem, representing personal tragedy, great social and economic consequences, and a heavy burden on the health care system. Estimated to be responsible for up to 10% of mortality in industrialized countries, cerebrovascular disease also affects individuals who are still in the workforce, with consequent loss of productive years. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a type of cerebrovascular accident that leads to around 5% of all strokes. SAH is most often due to trauma but may also be spontaneous, in which case the cause may be a ruptured intracranial aneurysm (80%) or arteriovenous malformation or any other abnormality of the blood or vessels (20%). Although both the diagnosis and treatment of aneurysmal SAH has improved in recent years, related morbidity and mortality remains high: 50% of patients die from the initial hemorrhage or later complications. If patients whose brain function is permanently damaged are added to the count, the percentage of cases leading to severe consequences rises to 70%. The burden of care of patients who are left incapacitated by SAH falls to the family or to private and public institutions. The economic cost is considerable and the loss of quality of life for both the patient and the family is great. Given the magnitude of this problem, the provision of adequate prophylaxis is essential; also needed are organizational models that aim to reduce mortality as well as related complications. Aneurysmal SAH is a condition which must be approached in a coordinated, multidisciplinary way both during the acute phase and throughout rehabilitation in order to lower the risk of unwanted outcomes.
Moscovici, Samuel; Fraifeld, Shifra; Ramirez-de-Noriega, Fernando; Rosenthal, Guy; Leker, Ronen R; Itshayek, Eyal; Cohen, José E
We aimed to compare the presentation, management, and clinical course in patients with perimesencephalic and nonperimesencephalic (aneurysmal) bleeding patterns on noncontrast CT, but negative initial 4-vessel digital subtraction angiography (DSA). We retrospectively reviewed clinical and imaging data for 280 patients presenting with spontaneous SAH admitted between 2005 and 2011. We identified 56 patients (20%) with SAH diagnosed on high resolution head CT performed within 48 hours of admission, and negative initial DSA, and divided them into perimesencephalic and non-perimesencephalic groups based on hemorrhage patterns. Patients with traumatic subarachnoid bleeding and those with initial positive DSA were excluded from this analysis. Perimesencephalic SAH was seen in 25 patients (45%); non-perimesencephalic bleeding patterns were seen in 31 (55%). All patients with perimesencephalic SAH presented with Hunt and Hess (HH) I, versus 45% HH I and 55% HH II-IV in those with non-perimecenphalic SAH. All patients with perimesencephalic SAH achieved modified Rankin score (mRS) 0 at discharge and 6-month follow-up, compared with 45% mRS 0 at discharge and 68% at 6-month follow-up in non-perimesencephalic SAH. Patients with perimesencephalic SAH presented a uniformly uncomplicated clinical course. Among non-perimesencephalic SAH patients there were 19 neurological/neurosurgical and 10 medical complications, two small aneurysms diagnosed at follow-up DSA, and one death. In this series, perimesencephalic SAH was associated with good clinical grades, consistently negative initial and follow-up angiograms, and an excellent prognosis. In contrast, non-perimesencephalic SAH was associated with a worse clinical presentation, higher complication rates, higher rates of true aneurysm detection on follow-up angiogram, and a poorer outcome.
Mahajan, Varun Vijay; Dogra, Vikas; Pargal, Iesha; Singh, Navtej
Hypoglycemia is a common complication of treatment of diabetes mellitus. The potential neurological complications of hypoglycemia as seizures and coma are well-recognized entities. A hypoglycemic episode is a risk factor for a patient with diabetes to have cardiovascular complications. Myocardial ischemia and infarction are known to occur in the setting of hypoglycemia. In view of the potential association of the two, the diabetic patients should undergo a routine ECG in such circumstances.
Mark, Dustin G; Pines, Jesse M
Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is one of the most elusive diagnoses in emergency medicine; it is a potentially lethal disease that is often considered and rarely found. The current practice as determined by the American College of Emergency Physicians 1996 Clinical Policy on Headache is a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) followed by diagnostic lumbar puncture (LP) to exclude subarachnoid hemorrhage. Whereas the guideline does not consider pretest probability of subarachnoid hemorrhage in determining which patients require LP after negative head CT, patients' acceptance of LP, technical aspects of performing a LP in patients with nonideal anatomy, and risks associated with LP must all be considered when choosing to proceed with invasive testing. This article outlines the use of current testing modalities including CT, magnetic resonance imaging, angiography and LP to provide an up-to-date understanding of diagnostic testing for subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Nussey, S. S.; Ang, V. T.; Jenkins, J. S.
We describe a 30 year old man who developed chronic adipsic hypernatraemia and hypothermia following a subarachnoid haemorrhage from an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Anterior pituitary function tests were normal. Hypothermia was demonstrated over 4 years with loss of the ability to control heat conservation despite body temperatures as low as 30 degrees C. He failed to experience thirst despite plasma sodium concentrations of up to 187 nmol/l and plasma osmolalities of up to 397 mOsm/kg. The slope of the plasma vasopressin-plasma osmolality curve indicated loss of the osmoreceptor. There was an absent vasopressin response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia but a normal response to apomorphine. The apomorphine-stimulated immunoreactive vasopressin was shown to behave identically to the synthetic peptide on HPLC and was bioactive. PMID:3774677
Sørensen, Preben; Jørgensen, Jesper
A case of acute subdural haematoma from an intracranial aneurysm is presented. Although the patient presented with isolated subdural haematoma, the clinical signs were consistent with the classical signs of subarachnoid haemorrhage including thunderclap headache. An aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery was the origin of the bleeding, and no subarachnoid blood was identified during operation. Rupture of a sacculate aneurysm should be suspected in patients with non-traumatic acute subdural haematoma.
Vidal, Marion; Strzelecki, Antoine; Houadec, Mireille; Krikken, Isabelle Ranz; Danielli, Antoine; Souza Neto, Edmundo Pereira de
Subarachnoid haematoma after spinal anaesthesia is known to be very rare. In the majority of these cases, spinal anaesthesia was difficult to perform and/or unsuccessful; other risk factors included antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy, and direct spinal cord trauma. We report a case of subarachnoid haematoma after spinal anaesthesia in a young patient without risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Swayze, C R; Skerman, J H; Walker, E B; Sholte, F G
Meperidine is an opioid agonist with known weak local anesthetic properties. To determine the efficacy of subarachnoid meperidine as a labor and delivery analgesic, 20 term parturients were given 10 mg meperidine via continuous spinal catheter. Visual analog pain scores on a ten-point scale and patient satisfaction scores on a four-point scale were measured before and after establishment of the block and one hour after maximum block was achieved. Time to pain relief and return of pain was recorded. Additional doses of 7 mg meperidine were given subarachnoid via the catheter when patients requested additional analgesia. Follow-up assessment 24 hours postpartum was used to determine overall patient satisfaction. Visual analog pain scale scores (mean +/- SD) were 8.57 +/- 1.43 before block, 0.62 +/- 0.89 immediately after block, and 0.33 +/- 0.57 at one hour after block (p less than 0.0001). Patient satisfaction scale scores (mean +/- SD) were 0.83 +/- 0.88 before block, 3.90 +/- 0.37 immediately after block, and 3.85 +/- 0.31 at one hour after block (p less than 0.0001). At follow-up, 14 of 18 patients rated satisfaction as excellent, with the remaining 4 rating it as good. Expulsive efforts were excellent in 14, good in 3, and fair in 1; 2 patients had cesarean sections. Mean time to onset of pain relief was 3.9 minutes (range, 2-12), with analgesia lasting a mean of 83 minutes (range, 38-180). Two patients developed slight motor block. Side effects appeared insidiously and are similar to those observed with other neuraxial opioids.
Gnirs, Kirsten; Ruel, Yannick; Blot, Stephane; Begon, Dominique; Rault, Delphine; Delisle, Françoise; Boulouha, Lilia; Colle, Marie-Anne; Carozzo, Claude; Moissonnier, Pierre
Thirteen dogs, including 6 Rottweiler dogs, exhibiting clinical signs of spinal cord dysfunction and myelographically confirmed subarachnoid space enlargement were investigated. To characterize the lesions and to get a better understanding of their pathogenesis, different imaging techniques were used in association with explorative surgical procedures (12 dogs) and histopathologic techniques (5 dogs). All subjects underwent preoperative myelography, five of which were examined by computed tomography (CT) scanning and one by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow measurement (velocimetry). Most animals were <12 months old (7/13 dogs) and Rottweilers were over-represented (6/13 dogs). The lesions were mainly located dorsally with respect to the spinal cord (10/13 dogs) and in the cranial cervical area (8/13 dogs). MRI suggested spinal cord deviation with signs of ventral leptomeningeal adhesion opposite the enlarged space. In one dog, velocimetry confirmed that the "cyst" was freely communicating with the surrounding CSF space. Surgical investigation confirmed leptomeninges-induced ventral adhesion in 4/5 dogs. Follow-up studies, carried out from 6 months to 2.5 years postoperatively, showed there was full recovery in 8/13 dogs. This study suggests that the compression of the spinal cord is possibly not caused by a cyst. Adhesion resulting from a combination of microtrauma and chronic inflammatory processes induces a secondary enlargement of the subarachnoid space and may be a significant causative factor in spinal cord compression and dysfunction. The over-representation of Rottweilers and the young age of the animals in the study suggest a possible genetic predisposition and an inherited etiology.
Hatle, L; Bathen, J; Rokseth, R
Of 32 patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by sinoatrial disease, 23 survived. All 23 had inferior infarction. During follow-up lasting 4 to 6 years only one patient developed severe chronic sinoatrial disease (sick sinus syndrome) necessitating permanent pacemaker treatment; twelve others died during this time. In 2 of them death was sudden 5 and 6 months after infarction. Atrial pacing studies in 7 of the 11 patients still alive showed no gross abnormalities. A review of 71 patients with chronic sinoatrial disease treated with a permanent pacemaker revealed only 5 with previous documented infarction. The present data suggest that sinus node dysfunction in patients surviving acute infarction is most often only temporary as is atrioventricular block. Occasionally, however, severe chronic sinoatrial disease requiring a permanent pacemaker may develop later, and this course of events is most likely to occur in those patients who had additional complications during the acute infarct. PMID:1267985
Topaz, On; Luxenberg, Michael; Schumacher, Audrey
Patients who sustain complicated acute myocardial infarction in whom thrombolytic agents either fail or are contraindicated often need mechanical revascularization other than PTCA. In 24 patients with acute infarction complicated by continuous chest pain and ischemia who either received lytics or with contraindication to lytics, a holmium:YAG laser (Eclipse Surgical Technologies, Palo Alto, CA) was utilized for thrombolysis and plaque ablation. Clinical success was achieved in 23/24 patients, with 23 patients (94%) surviving the acute infarction. Holmium:YAG laser is very effective and safe in thrombolysis and revascularization in this complicated clinical setting.
Tongsong, Theera; Puntachai, Pongsun; Tongprasert, Fuanglada; Srisupundit, Kasemsri; Luewan, Suchaya; Traisrisilp, Kuntharee
The purpose of this series was to describe sonographic features of an isolated widened fetal subarachnoid space with a thin cerebral mantle and possible associations. Between January 2004 and December 2013, fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of a widened subarachnoid space were prospectively recruited and followed. Histories of medical and familial diseases, as well as other demographic data such as drug exposure and lifestyles, were assessed and prospectively recorded. The women were investigated for possible associated factors. Ten pregnant women were recruited. Their fetuses showed various degrees of a widened subarachnoid space, ranging from 5 to 20 mm. Nearly all were diagnosed in the second half of pregnancy. Four cases had normal brain structures documented at midpregnancy anomaly screening. Only 1 case had a prenatal diagnosis of a widened subarachnoid space at 20 weeks' gestation. Two fetuses had exposure to alcohol in utero; 2 were proven to have cytomegalovirus infection; 1 had subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to maternal use of warfarin; and 1 had a diagnosis of lissencephaly. Only 1 case in this series had normal postnatal development. A prenatal series of fetal widened subarachnoid spaces with possible associated factors is described. Although such relationships were not fully proven, they should be index cases for future studies.
Liebenberg, W; Worth, R; Firth, G; Olney, J; Norris, J
Background: The natural history of untreated aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage carries a dismal prognosis. Case fatalities range between 32% and 67%. Treatment with either surgical clipping or endovascular coiling is highly successful at preventing re-bleeding and yet the diagnosis is still missed. Methods: Based on the national guidelines for analysis of cerebrospinal fluid for bilirubin in suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage and a review of other available literature this study has compiled guidance in making the diagnosis. Conclusion: In patients presenting with a suspected non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage, computed tomography within 12 hours will reliably show 98% of subarachnoid haemorrhage. In patients who present after 12 hours with a negative computed tomogram, formal cerebrospinal fluid spectophotometry will detect subarachnoid haemorrhage for the next two weeks with a reliability of 96%. Between the early diagnosis with the aid of computed tomography and the later diagnosis with the added benefit of spectophotometry in the period where computed tomograms become less reliable, it should be possible to diagnose most cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage correctly. PMID:15998826
Qian, Cong; Yu, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingyin; Gu, Chi; Wang, Lin; Chen, Gao; Dai, Yuying
Vasospasm-related injury such as delayed ischemic neurological defect (DIND) or cerebral infarction is an important prognostic factor for aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage can achieve a better outcome in aneurismal SAH patients after coiling or clipping remains the subject of debate. Here, we report a meta-analysis of the related available literature to assess the effect of continuous CSF drainage on clinical outcomes in patients with aneurismal SAH. Case-control studies regarding the association between aneurismal SAH and CSF drainage were systematically identified through online databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier Science Direct, and Springer Link). Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined for the eligible studies. The fixed-effects model was performed when homogeneity was indicated. Alternatively, the random-effects model was utilized. This meta-analysis included 11 studies. Continuous CSF drainage obviously improved patients' long-term outcome (odds ratio [OR] of 2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-5.98, P < 0.01). CSF drainage also reduced angiographic vasospasm (OR of 0.35, 95% CI, 0.23-0.51, P < 0.01), symptomatic vasospasm (OR of 0.32, 95% CI, 0.32-0.43, P < 0.01), and DIND (OR of 0.48, 95% CI, 0.25-0.91, P = 0.03), but there was no significant difference between the CSF drainage group and the no CSF drainage group on shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (SDHC) prevention (OR of 1.04, 95% CI, 0.52-2.07, P = 0.91). Further analysis on lumbar drainage (LD) and external ventricular drainage (EVD) indicated that LD had a better outcome (OR of 3.11, 95% CI, 1.18-8.23, P = 0.02), whereas no significant difference in vasospasm-related injury was detected between the groups (OR of 1.13, 95% CI, 0.54-2.37, P = 0.75). Continuous CSF drainage is an effective treatment for aneurismal SAH patients; lumbar drainage showed lower complications, but more well-designed studies are required to verify
Geng, Liming; Ma, Fei; Liu, Yun; Mu, Yanchun; Zou, Zhongmin
BACKGROUND Delayed cerebral vasospasm (DCVS) following aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a leading cause of poor prognosis and death in SAH patients. Effective management to reduce DCVS is needed. A prospective controlled trial was conducted to determine if massive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) replacement (CR) could reduce DCVS occurrence and improve the clinical outcome after aneurysmal SAH treated with endovascular coiling. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients treated with endovascular coiling after aneurysmal SAH were randomly divided into a control group receiving regular therapy alone (C group, n=42) and a CSF replacement group receiving an additional massive CSF replacement with saline (CR group, n=45). CSF examination, head CT, DCVS occurrence, cerebral infarction incidence, Glasgow Outcome Scale prognostic score, and 1-month mortality were recorded. RESULTS The occurrence of DCVS was 30.9% in the C group and 4.4% in the CR group (P<0.005). The cerebral infarction incidences in the C and CR groups were 19.0% and 2.2% (P<0.05), respectively, 1 month after the treatments. Mortality was not significantly different between the 2 groups during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS Massive CR after embolization surgery for aneurysmal SAH can significantly reduce DCVS occurrence and effectively improve the outcomes.
Parviz, Yasir; Vijayan, Sethumadhavan; Lavi, Shahar
Advances in medical and interventional therapy over the last few decades have revolutionized the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Despite the ability to restore epicardial coronary artery patency promptly through percutaneous coronary intervention, tissue level damage may continue. The reported 30-day mortality after all acute coronary syndromes is 2 to 3%, and around 5% following myocardial infarction. Post-infarct complications such as heart failure continue to be a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Inadequate microvascular reperfusion leads to worse clinical outcomes and potentially strategies to reduce infarct size during periods of ischemia-reperfusion can improve outcomes. Many strategies have been tested, but no single strategy alone has shown a consistent result or benefit in large scale randomised clinical trials. Herein, we review the historical efforts, current strategies, and potential novel concepts that may improve myocardial protection and reduce infarct size.
Ayling, Oliver G S; Ibrahim, George M; Drake, Brian; Torner, James C; Macdonald, R Loch
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, with better outcomes reported following endovascular coiling compared with neurosurgical clipping of the aneurysm. The authors evaluated the contribution of perioperative complications and neurological decline to patient outcomes after both aneurysm-securing procedures. A post hoc analysis of perioperative complications from the Clazosentan to Overcome Neurological iSChemia and Infarction Occurring after Subarachnoid hemorrhage (CONSCIOUS-1) study was performed. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores for patients who underwent neurosurgical clipping and endovascular coiling were analyzed preoperatively and each day following the procedure. Complications associated with a decline in postoperative GCS scores were identified for both cohorts. Because patients were not randomized to the aneurysm-securing procedures, propensity-score matching was performed to balance selected covariates between the 2 cohorts. Using a multivariate logistic regression, the authors evaluated whether a perioperative decline in GCS scores was associated with long-term outcomes on the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (eGOS). Among all enrolled subjects, as well as the propensity-matched cohort, patients who underwent clipping had a significantly greater decline in their GCS scores postoperatively than patients who underwent coiling (p = 0.0024). Multivariate analysis revealed that intraoperative hypertension (p = 0.011) and intraoperative induction of hypotension (p = 0.0044) were associated with a decline in GCS scores for patients undergoing clipping. Perioperative thromboembolism was associated with postoperative GCS decline for patients undergoing coiling (p = 0.03). On multivariate logistic regression, postoperative neurological deterioration was strongly associated with a poor eGOS score at 3 months (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.78-0.95, p = 0.0032). Neurosurgical clipping following aSAH is associated with a
Gilmore, Emily; Choi, H Alex; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Claassen, Jan
Convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures frequently complicate acute brain injury particularly central nervous system hemorrhages and both have been associated with poor outcome. No randomized controlled trials have been conducted to guide decisions on seizure prophylaxis or treatment. The magnitude of additional injury from nonconvulsive seizures remains controversial and some argue that these epileptiform patterns primarily represent surrogate markers of severely injured brain. The deleterious effects of seizures on brain recovering from a recent injury have to be weighed against the deleterious effects of antiepileptic medications when making decisions on prophylaxis and treatment. Currently seizure prophylaxis is not generally recommended for patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). However, short-term prophylaxis (during the acute critical illness) is commonly instituted for patients in whom seizures would likely lead to additional injury such as herniation or rebleeding. ICH or aSAH patients with seizures at the onset of their hemorrhage, patients with ICH in close proximity to the cortical surface, and aSAH patients with a poor clinical grade (poor neurologic examination and/or thick cisternal blood) are at high risk of seizures, especially nonconvulsive, and are frequently kept on short-term prophylaxis. Convulsive seizures occur in 7% to 17% of patients with spontaneous ICH and in between 6% and 26% of those with aneurysmal aSAH. These should be treated as soon as possible regardless of the underlying causative factors. Nonconvulsive seizures are seen in about 20% of patients with ICH and in 8% to 18% of those with aSAH. It is controversial how aggressively to treat nonconvulsive seizures. Convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures are frequent after central nervous system hemorrhage and treatment is controversial, particularly for nonconvulsive seizures. Randomized controlled trials need to be
Shannon, Norman; Kendall, Brian; Thomas, DGT; Baker, H
The investigation and surgical closure of a subarachnoid pleural fistula following direct trauma to the dorsal spinal theca and spinal cord are described and a review of the literature on spinal subarachnoid-pleural fistula is presented. Images PMID:7086458
Dreier, Jens P; Woitzik, Johannes; Fabricius, Martin; Bhatia, Robin; Major, Sebastian; Drenckhahn, Chistoph; Lehmann, Thomas-Nicolas; Sarrafzadeh, Asita; Willumsen, Lisette; Hartings, Jed A; Sakowitz, Oliver W; Seemann, Jörg H; Thieme, Anja; Lauritzen, Martin; Strong, Anthony J
Progressive ischaemic damage in animals is associated with spreading mass depolarizations of neurons and astrocytes, detected as spreading negative slow voltage variations. Speculation on whether spreading depolarizations occur in human ischaemic stroke has continued for the past 60 years. Therefore, we performed a prospective multicentre study assessing incidence and timing of spreading depolarizations and delayed ischaemic neurological deficit (DIND) in patients with major subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) requiring aneurysm surgery. Spreading depolarizations were recorded by electrocorticography with a subdural electrode strip placed on cerebral cortex for up to 10 days. A total of 2110 h recording time was analysed. The clinical state was monitored every 6 h. Delayed infarcts after SAH were verified by serial CT scans and/or MRI. Electrocorticography revealed 298 spreading depolarizations in 13 of the 18 patients (72%). A clinical DIND was observed in seven patients 7.8 days (7.3, 8.2) after SAH. DIND was time-locked to a sequence of recurrent spreading depolarizations in every single case (positive and negative predictive values: 86 and 100%, respectively). In four patients delayed infarcts developed in the recording area. As in the ischaemic penumbra of animals, delayed infarction was preceded by progressive prolongation of the electrocorticographic depression periods associated with spreading depolarizations to >60 min in each case. This study demonstrates that spreading depolarizations have a high incidence in major SAH and occur in ischaemic stroke. Repeated spreading depolarizations with prolonged depression periods are an early indicator of delayed ischaemic brain damage after SAH. In view of experimental evidence and the present clinical results, we suggest that spreading depolarizations with prolonged depressions are a promising target for treatment development in SAH and ischaemic stroke.
Obata, Yoshiki; Takeda, Junichi; Sato, Yohei; Ishikura, Hiroyasu; Matsui, Toru; Isotani, Eiji
OBJECT Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often accompanied by pulmonary complications, which may lead to poor outcomes and death. This study investigated the incidence and cause of pulmonary edema in patients with SAH by using hemodynamic monitoring with PiCCO-plus pulse contour analysis. METHODS A total of 204 patients with SAH were included in a multicenter prospective cohort study to investigate hemodynamic changes after surgical clipping or coil embolization of ruptured cerebral aneurysms by using a PiCCO-plus device. Changes in various hemodynamic parameters after SAH were analyzed statistically. RESULTS Fifty-two patients (25.5%) developed pulmonary edema. Patients with pulmonary edema (PE group) were significantly older than those without pulmonary edema (non-PE group) (p = 0.017). The mean extravascular lung water index was significantly higher in the PE group than in the non-PE group throughout the study period. The pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) was significantly higher in the PE group than in the non-PE group on Day 6 (p = 0.029) and Day 10 (p = 0.011). The cardiac index of the PE group was significantly decreased biphasically on Days 2 and 10 compared with that of the non-PE group. In the early phase (Days 1-5 after SAH), the daily water balance of the PE group was slightly positive. In the delayed phase (Days 6-14 after SAH), the serum C-reactive protein level and the global end-diastolic volume index were significantly higher in the PE group than in the non-PE group, whereas the PVPI tended to be higher in the PE group. CONCLUSIONS Pulmonary edema that occurs in the early and delayed phases after SAH is caused by cardiac failure and inflammatory (i.e., noncardiogenic) conditions, respectively. Measurement of the extravascular lung water index, cardiac index, and PVPI by PiCCO-plus monitoring is useful for identifying pulmonary edema in patients with SAH.
Morris, Paul Graham; Wilson, J T Lindsay; Dunn, Laurence
Relatively little attention has been paid to emotional outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study assessed levels of anxiety and depression among SAH survivors and related these to clinical indices. Seventy SAH patients from a consecutive series of neurosurgical admissions participated in semistructured assessments of functional outcome; 52 of the patients also returned standardized measures of emotional outcome. These data were compared with clinical indices collected during the initial hospital admission. Moderate to severe levels of anxiety were present in approximately 40% of patients 16 months after hemorrhage, with approximately 20% experiencing moderate to severe levels of depression. Although anxiety was more likely to be reported at interview by those with an SAH of Fisher Grade 4, the standardized measures of anxiety and depression were not associated with severity of hemorrhage or any other clinical variables. Both anxiety and depression were significantly associated with outcome indices such as return to work and engagement in social activities. Anxiety is a significant and lasting problem for approximately 40% of survivors of SAH. It is suggested that measures taken to prevent or treat such anxiety among survivors of SAH may serve to significantly improve functional outcome.
Roth, C; Ferbert, A
Worldwide there are differences in the procedure of determining brain death. An irreversible loss of all brain functions, including cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem is mandatory for the diagnosis of brain death in Germany. On the basis of a case report some important aspects of the new recommendations of the German guidelines are discussed. We present the case of a 41-year old patient who was admitted to our clinic due to acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Angiography revealed an aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The patient was comatose without any brainstem reflexes and showed apnoea. However, on day 3, EEG showed alpha activity as a sign of residual cortical function. We diagnosed an isolated brainstem death. The next day EEG was isoelectric and brain death was confirmed. The diagnosis of isolated brainstem death does not allow a confirmation of death in Germany. Our case presents a primary infratentorial brain damage mandating additional confirmatory tests. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Kutlubaev, Mansur A; Barugh, Amanda J; Mead, Gillian E
Fatigue is common and debilitating symptom in many neurological disorders and it has been reported in patients after non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). We undertook a systematic review to identify and critically appraise all published studies that have reported frequency, severity and time course of fatigue after SAH, the factors associated with its development and the impact of fatigue on patients' life after SAH. We searched Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, AMED, PubMed and included in the review all studies published in English, recruiting at least 10 patients (> 18 years old) after SAH, which reported fatigue. We identified 13 studies (total number of subjects 737) meeting our inclusion criteria. The frequency of fatigue ranged from 31 to 90%. Fatigue remained common even several years after the ictus. According to some studies fatigue after SAH was associated with sleep disturbances, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, cognitive and physical impairment, but these could not explain all cases of fatigue. Fatigue reduces quality of life and life satisfaction in patients after SAH. Fatigue is common after SAH and seems to persist. Further research is needed to clarify its time course and identify factors associated with its development. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vermeulen, M; Hasan, D; Blijenberg, B G; Hijdra, A; van Gijn, J
Recently it was contended that it is bloodstained cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that is important in the diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and not xanthochromia, and also that a normal CT scan and the absence of xanthochromia in the CSF do not exclude a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. The CSF findings were therefore reviewed of 111 patients with a proven SAH. All patients had xanthochromia of the CSF. Lumbar punctures were performed between 12 hours and one week after the ictus. Xanthochromia was still present in all (41) patients after 1 week, in all (32) patients after 2 weeks, in 20 of 22 patients after three weeks and in 10 of 14 patients after four weeks. In six years we identified only 12 patients with sudden headache, normal CT, bloodstained CSF, and no xanthochromia. Angiography was carried out in three and was negative. All 12 patients survived without disability and were not re-admitted with a SAH (mean follow up 4 years). It is concluded that it is still xanthochromia that is important in the diagnosis of SAH and not bloodstained CSF. Furthermore a normal CT scan and the absence of xanthochromia do exclude a ruptured aneurysm, provided xanthochromia is investigated by spectrophotometry and lumbar puncture is carried out between 12 hours and 2 weeks after the ictus. PMID:2769274
Mitchell, P; Gregson, B A; Hope, T; Mendelow, A D
Surgeons are increasingly placed under pressure to accept publication of their results and to abide by recommendations to change practice which others derive. Considerable concern exists about misinterpretation of such data. The issue is well illustrated by this study. Data on outcome following treatment for subarachnoid haemorrhage were prospectively collected from 1993-1998 in two centres in the British Isles: Newcastle and Nottingham. Initial examination of this data suggest a substantial difference in the performance favouring Nottingham over Newcastle. The odds of a poor outcome was 1:1.86 in Newcastle compared with 1:4.26 in Nottingham giving an odds ratio of 2.3 in favour of Nottingham and this difference was highly significant with p<0.00001. On a more detailed examination taking account of confounding variables, this difference disappeared entirely. Newcastle was able to operate a less selective admissions policy than Nottingham because of the deficiency of beds at the latter unit. A summary of these results has been published elsewhere. These results illustrate the dangers of applying statistical tools developed for simpler situations such as industrial process control to complex medical problems. We conclude that comprehensive and accurate data on all factors likely to influence the outcome for a particular treatment should be collected as an absolute prerequisite to any judgments being made on apparent statistical differences between the performances of differing units.
Rinkel, Gabriel J E
Outcome of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (ASAH) has improved, but is still poor. After the introduction of endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms, much attention has been given to indications for and advances in endovascular and microneurosurgical techniques to occlude aneurysms, but management of patients with ASAH encompasses much more than occluding the aneurysm. This review describes recent advances in diagnosis and general management of ASAH and in knowledge and medical treatment of delayed cerebral ischaemia and rebleeding. In patients with a head computed tomography scan performed less than 6 h after headache onset and reported negative by a staff radiologist, lumbar puncture can be withheld. Patients with ASAH should preferably be treated in a tertiary care centre that treats more than 100 ASAH patients per year. Currently, the only treatment strategy to reduce the risk of delayed cerebral ischaemia remains nimodipine; there is no place for statins or magnesium sulphate, nor for lumbar drainage. Hypervolaemia and induced hypertension may be less beneficial than presumed, and further trials are urgently needed. Very early and short treatment with antifibrinolytic drugs may also be beneficial, but data from ongoing trials should be awaited before this treatment strategy can be implemented.
Avdagic, Selma Sijercic; Brkic, Harun; Avdagic, Harun; Smajic, Jasmina; Hodzic, Samir
Background: One of the complications aneurysms subarachnoid hemorrhage is the development of vasospasm, which is the leading cause of disability and death from ruptured cerebral aneurysm. Aim: To evaluate the significance of previous comorbidities on early outcome of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of a cerebral aneurysm in the prevention of vasospasm. Patients and methods: The study had prospective character in which included 50 patients, whose diagnosed with SAH caused by the rupture of a brain aneurysm in the period from 2011to 2013. Two groups of patients were formed. Group I: patients in addition to the standard initial treatment and “3H therapy” administered nimodipine at a dose of 15-30 mg / kg bw / h (3-10 ml) for the duration of the initial treatment. Group II: patients in addition to the standard initial treatment and “3H therapy” administered with MgSO4 at a dose of 12 grams in 500 ml of 0.9% NaCl / 24 h during the initial treatment. Results: Two-thirds of the patients (68%) from both groups had a good outcome measured with values according to GOS scales, GOS IV and V. The poorer outcome, GOS III had 20% patients, the GOS II was at 2% and GOS I within 10% of patients. If we analyze the impact of comorbidity on the outcome, it shows that there is a significant relationship between the presence of comorbidity and outcomes. The patients without comorbidity (83.30%) had a good outcome (GOS IV and V), the same outcome was observed (59.4%) with comorbidities, which has a statistically significant difference (p = 0.04). Patients without diabetes (32%) had a good outcome (GOS IV and V), while the percentage of patients with diabetes less frequent (2%) with a good outcome, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.009). Conclusion: The outcome of treatment 30 days after the subarachnoid hemorrhage analyzed values WFNS and GOS, is not dependent on the method of prevention and treatment of vasospasm. Most concomitant diseases in
Thomé, Claudius; Schubert, Gerrit A; Schilling, Lothar
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains a very prevalent challenge in neurosurgery associated with a high morbidity and mortality due to the lack of specific treatment modalities. The prognosis of SAH patients depends primarily on three factors: (i) the severity of the initial bleed, (ii) the endovascular or neurosurgical procedure to occlude the aneurysm and (iii) the occurrence of late sequelae, namely delayed ischemic neurological deficits due to cerebral vasospasm. While neurosurgeons and interventionalists have put significant efforts in minimizing periprocedural complications and a multitude of investigators have been devoted to the research on chronic vasospasm, the acute phase of SAH has not been studied in comparable detail. In various experimental studies during the past decade, hypothermia has been shown to reduce neuronal damage after ischemia, traumatic brain injury and other cerebrovascular diseases. Clinically, only some of these encouraging results could be reproduced. This review analyses results of studies on the effects of hypothermia on SAH with special respect to the acute phase in an experimental setting. Based on the available data, some considerations for the application of mild to moderate hypothermia in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage are given.
Alfieri, Alex; Gazzeri, Roberto; Pircher, Martina; Unterhuber, Vera; Schwarz, Andreas
Patients generally have a good prognosis and develop only occasional neurological complications after nontraumatic, nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This prospective long-term study investigated the normal return to work of patients who had experienced nontraumatic nonaneurysmal SAH. From June 2001 to June 2004, all patients presenting with nonaneurysmal nontraumatic SAH were asked to participate in this study. The population was divided in two groups: perimesencephalic (pSAH) and nonperimesencephalic pattern (npSAH). All patients underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests and completed psychological questionnaires assessing their general cognitive and language functions, memory and construction ability, attention, anxiety and depression, and quality of life. The patients were interviewed at the hospital, and neuropsychological assessments were conducted regularly for 7 years. The cognitive assessment after 7 years revealed a statistically significant difference between the pSAH and npSAH groups with respect to the activation and elaboration speed of attention as well as long-term non-verbal memory. Nine patients could not return to their former jobs after nonaneurysmal SAH. Although nontraumatic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is typically a pathology with an excellent prognosis, there is evidence that this event may influence working life for a long time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Austin, James W.; Afshar, Mehdi
Abstract Subarachnoid inflammation following spinal cord injury (SCI) can lead to the formation of localized subarachnoid scarring and the development of post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS). While PTS is a devastating complication of SCI, its relative rarity (occurring symptomatically in about 5% of clinical cases), and lack of fundamental physiological insights, have led us to examine an animal model of traumatic SCI with induced arachnoiditis. We hypothesized that arachnoiditis associated with SCI would potentiate early parenchymal pathophysiology. To test this theory, we examined early spatial pathophysiology in four groups: (1) sham (non-injured controls), (2) arachnoiditis (intrathecal injection of kaolin), (3) SCI (35-g clip contusion/compression injury), and (4) PTS (intrathecal kaolin+SCI). Overall, there was greater parenchymal inflammation and scarring in the PTS group relative to the SCI group. This was demonstrated by significant increases in cytokine (IL-1α and IL-1β) and chemokine (MCP-1, GRO/KC, and MIP-1α) production, MPO activity, blood–spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability, and MMP-9 activity. However, parenchymal inflammatory mediator production (acute IL-1α and IL-1β, subacute chemokines), BSCB permeability, and fibrous scarring in the PTS group were larger than the sum of the SCI group and arachnoiditis group combined, suggesting that arachnoiditis does indeed potentiate parenchymal pathophysiology. Accordingly, these findings suggest that the development of arachnoiditis associated with SCI can lead to an exacerbation of the parenchymal injury, potentially impacting the outcome of this devastating condition. PMID:22655536
Yan, Hui; Chen, Yujie; Li, Lingyong; Jiang, Jiaode; Wu, Guangyong; Zuo, Yuchun; Zhang, John H; Feng, Hua; Yan, Xiaoxin; Liu, Fei
Chronic hydrocephalus is one of the severe complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, there is no efficient treatment for the prevention of chronic hydrocephalus, partially due to poor understanding of underlying pathogenesis, subarachnoid fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1) is a potent fibrogenic factor implicated in wide range of fibrotic diseases. To investigate whether decorin, a natural antagonist for TGF-β1, protects against subarachnoid fibrosis and chronic hydrocephalus after SAH, two-hemorrhage-injection SAH model was conducted in 6-week-old rats. Recombinant human decorin(rhDecorin) (30ug/2ul) was administered before blood injection and on the 10th day after SAH. TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), collagen I and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide were assessed via western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunoassay and immunofluorescence. And neurobehavioral tests and Morris water maze were employed to evaluate long-term neurological functions after SAH. We found that SAH induced heightened activation of TGF-β1/Smad/CTGF axis, presenting as a two peak response of TGF-β1 in cerebrospinal fluid, elevation of TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3, CTGF, collagen I in brain parenchyma and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide in cerebrospinal fluid, and increased lateral ventricle index. rhDecorin treatment effectively inhibited up-regulation of TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3, CTGF, collagen I and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide after SAH. Moreover, rhDecorin treatment significantly reduced lateral ventricular index and incidence of chronic hydrocephalus after SAH. Importantly, rhDecorin improved neurocognitive deficits after SAH. In conclusion, rhDecorin suppresses extracellular matrix accumulation and following subarachnoid fibrosis via inhibiting TGF-β1/Smad/CTGF pathway, preventing development of hydrocephalus and attenuating long-term neurocognitive defects after SAH.
Kühn, Anna Luisa; Balami, Joyce Saleh; Grunwald, Iris Quasar
Cerebral vasospasm is a common and serious complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Despite the improvements in treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH), cerebral vasospasm complicating aSAH has remained the main cause of morbidity and mortality. Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH)-induced vasospasm is a complex entity caused by vasculopathy, impaired autoregulation, and hypovolaemia, causing a regional reduction of cerebral brain perfusion which can then induce ischaemia. Cerebral vasospasm can present either asymptomatically detected only radiologically or symptomatically (delayed ischaemic neurologic deficit). The various diagnostic approaches include the use of transcranial doppler, digital subtraction angiography and multimodal computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) techniques. Although digital subtraction angiography is usually the gold standard for the diagnosis of cerebral vasospam, transcranial doppler is commonly the first-screening method for the detection of cerebral vasospam. The treatment of subarachnoid haemorrhage -induced vasospasm include the use of both medical and endovascular therapy. The aim of this review is to discuss the various current therapeutic options and future perspective measures for reducing cerebral vasospasm induced stroke after SAH.
Dodds, A J; Boyd, M J; Allen, J; Bennett, E D; Flute, P T; Dormandy, J A
Haemorrheological variables were studied in 43 patients after acute myocardial infarction. Red cell deformability, by a filtration method, was significantly lower within 12 hours of infarction than subsequently. This drop was greater in the presence of haemodynamic complications. Blood viscosity, particularly when adjusted to a standard haematocrit, rose in the week after infarction, as did plasma viscosity and plasma fibrinogen. Haematocrit, however, fell over this period. These changes could increase myocardial ischaemia and lead to extension of the area of infarction. PMID:7437189
Kaloostian, Paul; Westhout, Franklin; Taylor, Chris L
The authors report the first retrospective analysis of all reported cases of death from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the state of New Mexico from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2007. Data were obtained from the New Mexico Vital Records and Health Statistics Department in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The incidence of death from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the state of New Mexico is 2.96/100,000 people per year. Each cultural subgroup and various risk factors in these patients were further analyzed. This report represents the first documented review of death from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the state of New Mexico. There was a lower incidence in New Mexico compared with the national average. Cultural breakdowns and associated epidemiological factors are discussed.
Sung, Tony H T; Leung, Warren K W; Lai, Bill M H; Khoo, Jennifer L S
Isolated spinal artery aneurysm is a rare lesion which could be accountable for spontaneous spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage. We describe the case of a 74-year-old man presenting with sudden onset of chest pain radiating to the neck and back, with subsequent headache and confusion. Initial computed tomography aortogram revealed incidental finding of subtle acute spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage. A set of computed tomography scans of the brain showed further acute intracranial subarachnoid haemorrhage with posterior predominance, small amount of intraventricular haemorrhage, and absence of intracranial vascular lesions. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a thrombosed intradural spinal aneurysm with surrounding sentinel clot, which was trapped and excised during surgical exploration. High level of clinical alertness is required in order not to miss this rare but detrimental entity. Its relevant aetiopathological features and implications for clinical management are discussed.
Liu, Junhui; Chen, Qianxue
Vasospasm is one of the most common complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.Statins have been proven to be effective to reduce the incidence of vasospasm both in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage and several clinical trials before. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy of statins for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We made strict search strategies to select the randomized controlled trial and observational studies published up to December 20th 2014. Outcomes of interest were cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcome. Data analyses of RCTs and observational studies were made separately. Finally six randomized clinical trial and eight observational studies were included in this meta-analysis. There were in total 1031 patients in six RCTs with 504 patients received statins and 527 patients in placebo group. 561 patients with statins compared with 1579 patients in no statin-use group were finally included in 8 observational studies. Outcomes included in this meta-analysis (cerebral vasospasm, DIC and poor outcome) all indicated no statistical significance between two groups both in RCTs and observational studies. No benefits of statins-use for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were observed in both RCTs and observational studies, which was quite different from the results of several previous meta-analysis. PMID:26221259
Anderson, Brian; Sabat, Shyamsunder; Agarwal, Amit; Thamburaj, Krishnamoorthy
Aneurysmal rupture accounts for the majority of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Increasingly recognized is the occurrence of nontraumatic convexity SAH unaccounted for by aneurysmal rupture. These presentations require consideration of rare but clinically significant sources of SAH. We report a patient presenting with prolonged mild headaches and acute onset of seizure like activity found to have diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage and extensive dural venous sinus thrombosis involving the superior sagittal sinus and right transverse-sigmoid sinuses. There are few reported cases of SAH secondary to dural sinus thrombosis; however most of these are convexity hemorrhage. Sinus thrombosis presenting as diffuse SAH is extremely rare, as is showcased in this report.
Long, Brit; Koyfman, Alex
Headache is a common chief complaint in emergency departments, accounting for 2% of visits, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a life-threating cause of headache. This deadly disease is most commonly due to aneurysmal rupture. Various approaches exist for diagnosis, with recent studies evaluating these approaches. A great deal of controversy exists about the optimal diagnosis strategy for SAH. This article in the Best Clinical Practice Series seeks to educate emergency physicians on the recent literature in the diagnosis of SAH and provide an evidence-based approach. Various diagnostic strategies exist, including use of noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) alone, CT/lumbar puncture (LP) in combination, CT/CT angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiography. The use of clinical decision rules has also been espoused, and several contemporary studies have evaluated cerebrospinal fluid results of red blood cell count and xanthochromia in the diagnosis of SAH. Recent literature supports that a negative head CT done within 6 h of headache onset places the patient at a < 1% risk for SAH. With the complex literature, a shared decision-making model should be followed with options, risks, and benefits discussed with the patient. Literature support exists for all of the diagnostic strategies. The American College of Emergency Physicians Clinical Policy supports CT and LP for definitive diagnosis. Risk stratification and a shared decision-making model with the patient should be followed, and a negative head CT within 6 h of headache onset places patient at a risk of < 1% for having SAH. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Tujjar, Omar; Belloni, Ilaria; Hougardy, Jean-Michel; Scolletta, Sabino; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Creteur, Jacques; Taccone, Fabio S
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients and may contribute to poor outcome. Few data are available on the incidence and impact of AKI in patients suffering from nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We reviewed all patients admitted to our Department of Intensive Care with SAH over a 3-year period. Exclusion criteria were time from SAH symptoms to intensive care unit (ICU) admission >96 hours and ICU stay <48 hours. AKI was defined as sustained oligoanuria (urine output <0.5 mL/kg/h for 24 h) or an increase in plasma creatinine (≥0.3 mg/dL or a 1.5-fold increase from baseline level within 48 h). Neurological status was assessed at day 28 using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) (from 1=death to 5=good recovery; favorable outcome=GOS 4 to 5). Of 243 patients admitted for SAH during the study period, 202 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria (median age 56 y, 78 male). Twenty-five patients (12%) developed AKI, a median of 8 (4 to 10) days after admission. Independent predictors of AKI were development of clinical vasospasm, and treatment with vancomycin. AKI was more frequent in ICU nonsurvivors than in survivors (11/50 vs. 14/152, P=0.03), and in patients with an unfavorable neurological outcome than in other patients (17/93 vs. 8/109, P=0.03). Nevertheless, in multivariable regression analysis, AKI was not an independent predictor of outcome. AKI occurred in >10% of patients after SAH. These patients had more severe neurological impairment and needed more aggressive ICU therapy; AKI did not significantly influence outcome.
Carvi y Nievas, Mario Nazareno; Archavlis, Eleftherios
To analyze the management and outcome of patients presenting with atypical causes of intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We performed a review of our last 820 nontraumatic-SAH patients and analyzed the management and outcome of patients where the SAH origin was not a ruptured aneurysm. The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was used to assess outcome 3 months after event. Thirty-two patients had atypical causes of SAH. In 15 patients with Hunt and Hess (H&H) scores from 1 to 3 without focal neurological deficit (FND), 8 perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal SAH, 4 blood coagulation disorders, 1 sinus thrombosis, 1 vasculitis, and 1 unknown-origin-SAH (UOS) were diagnosed. Fourteen (93%) of these 15 patients were conservatively treated. In 17 patients with H&H scores from 3 to 5 and FND, 8 tumors, 1 cavernoma, 1 sinus thrombosis, 1 arteriovenous malformation, 1 blood coagulation disorders, 2 UOS, and 3 dural fistulas were diagnosed. Fifteen (88%) of these 17 patients were interventionally treated. The neurological condition 3 months later was good (GOS 4 and 5) in 12 of the 15 cases (80%) admitted with low-H&H scores, as well as in 13 of the 17 cases (76%) admitted with high-H&H scores. Three patients died and four developed a severe disability. Patients presenting with atypical causes of SAH and high-H&H scores at admission are likely to harbor an intracranial organic process producing the bleeding. Despite this poor initial condition, their 3-month outcome can be similar to those of patients with low-H&H scores if the origin of the bleeding is properly treated.
Saracen, A; Kotwica, Z; Woźniak-Kosek, A; Kasprzak, P
Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is observed in cerebral injuries and has an impact on treatment results, being a predictor of fatal prognosis. In this study we retrospectively reviewed medical records of 250 consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) for the frequency and treatment results of NPE. The following factors were taken under consideration: clinical status, aneurysm location, presence of NPE, intracranial pressure (ICP), and mortality. All patients had plain- and angio-computer tomography performed. NPE developed most frequently in case of the aneurysm located in the anterior communicating artery. The patients with grades I-III of SAH, according to the World Federation of Neurosurgeons staging, were immediately operated on, while those with poor grades IV and V had only an ICP sensor's implantation procedure performed. A hundred and eighty five patients (74.4 %) were admitted with grades I to III and 32 patients (12.8 %) were with grade IV and V each. NPE was not observed in SAH patients with grade I to III, but it developed in nine patients with grade IV and 11 patients with grade V. Of the 20 patients with NPE, 19 died. Of the 44 poor grade patients (grades IV-V) without NPE, 20 died. All poor grade patients had elevated ICP in a range of 24-56 mmHg. The patients with NPE had a greater ICP than those without NPE. Gender and age had no influence on the occurrence of NPE. We conclude that the development of neurogenic pulmonary edema in SAH patients with poor grades is a fatal prognostic as it about doubles the death rate to almost hundred percent.
Lindbohm, Joni Valdemar; Kaprio, Jaakko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Korja, Miikka
Women are at higher risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) than men for unknown reasons. Also cumulative effects of smoking have been neglected among prospective studies. We studied associations between smoking habits and SAH and interactions between known SAH risk factors in a prospective population-based study. The population-based FINRISK study cohort of 65 521 individuals was followed up for 1.38 million person-years. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to calculate hazard ratios and evaluated additive and multiplicative interactions between study variables, with all analyses adjusted for known SAH risk factors. During follow-up, we identified 492 SAHs (266 women). Smoking had a linear dose-dependent and cumulative association with risk for SAH in both sexes. Women smoking >20 cigarettes per day had a hazard ratio of 8.35 (95% confidence interval, 3.86-18.06) compared with a hazard ratio of 2.76 (95% confidence interval, 1.68-4.52) in men in the same cigarettes per day group. Hazard ratios differed by sex in all cigarettes per day and pack-year categories; this association was stronger in women in all categories (P=0.01). When an adjusted model included interaction terms between sex and cigarettes per day or pack-years, female sex was no longer an independent SAH risk factor. Former smokers had a markedly decreased risk for SAH in both sexes when compared with current smokers. Smoking has a dose-dependent and cumulative association with SAH risk, and this risk is highest in female heavy smokers. Vulnerability to smoking seems to explain in part the increased SAH risk in women. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Wang, Qiang-Ping; Ma, Jun-Peng; Zhou, Zhang-Ming; Yang, Min; You, Chao
Several studies have investigated the incidence and risk factors of hydrocephalus after decompressive craniectomy (DC) for malignant hemispheric cerebral infarction. However, the results are controversial. Therefore, the following is a retrospective cohort study to determine the incidence and risk factors of hydrocephalus after DC for malignant hemispheric cerebral infarction. From January 2004 to June 2014, patients at two medical centres in south-west China, who underwent DC for malignant hemispheric cerebral infarction, were included. The patients' clinical and radiologic findings were retrospectively reviewed. A chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression model were used to identify the risk factors. A total of 128 patients were included in the study. The incidence of ventriculomegaly and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus were 42.2% (54/128) and 14.8% (19/128), respectively. Lower preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and presence of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were factors significantly associated with the development of post-operative hydrocephalus after DC. Cerebral infarction patients receiving DC have a moderate tendency to suffer from post-operative hydrocephalus. A poor GCS score and the presence of SAH were significantly associated with the development of hydrocephalus after DC.
Jaja, Blessing N R; Lingsma, Hester; Schweizer, Tom A; Thorpe, Kevin E; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Macdonald, R Loch
The literature has conflicting reports about the prognostic value of premorbid hypertension and neurological status in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of premorbid hypertension and neurological status in the SAH International Trialists repository. Patient-level meta-analyses were conducted to investigate univariate associations between premorbid hypertension (6 studies; n = 7249), admission neurological status measured on the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) scale (10 studies; n = 10,869), and 3-month Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score. Multivariable analyses were performed to sequentially adjust for the effects of age, CT clot burden, aneurysm location, aneurysm size, and modality of aneurysm repair. Prognostic associations were estimated across the ordered categories of the GOS using proportional odds models. Nagelkerke's R(2) statistic was used to quantify the added prognostic value of hypertension and neurological status beyond those of the adjustment factors. Premorbid hypertension was independently associated with poor outcome, with an unadjusted pooled odds ratio (OR) of 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-2.00) and an adjusted OR of 1.38 (95% CI 1.25-1.53). Patients with a premorbid history of hypertension had higher rates of cardiovascular and renal comorbidities, poorer neurological status (p ≤ 0.001), and higher odds of neurological complications including cerebral infarctions, hydrocephalus, rebleeding, and delayed ischemic neurological deficits. Worsening neurological status was strongly independently associated with poor outcome, including WFNS Grades II (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.68-2.03), III (OR 3.85, 95% CI 3.32-4.47), IV (OR 5.58, 95% CI 4.91-6.35), and V (OR 14.18, 95% CI 12.20-16.49). Neurological status had substantial added predictive value greater than the combined value of other prognostic factors (R(2) increase > 10%), while the added predictive value of
Sen, Jon; Belli, Antonio; Albon, Helen; Morgan, Laleh; Petzold, Axel; Kitchen, Neil
Cerebral vasospasm is a recognised but poorly understood complication for many patients who have aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and can lead to delayed ischaemic neurological deficit (stroke). Morbidity and mortality rates for vasospasm are high despite improvements in management. Since the middle of the 1970s, much has been written about the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. Hypervolaemia, hypertension, and haemodilution (triple-H) therapy in an intensive-care setting has been shown in some studies to improve outcome and is an accepted means of treatment, although a randomised controlled trial has never been undertaken. In this review, the rationale for this approach will be discussed, alongside new thoughts and future prospects for the management of this complex disorder.
Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Vermeulen, Marinus; van Gijn, Jan; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Wijdicks, Eelco F; Muizelaar, J Paul; Mendelow, A David; Juvela, Seppo; Yonas, Howard; Terbrugge, Karel G; Macdonald, R Loch; Diringer, Michael N; Broderick, Joseph P; Dreier, Jens P; Roos, Yvo B W E M
In clinical trials and observational studies there is considerable inconsistency in the use of definitions to describe delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A major cause for this inconsistency is the combining of radiographic evidence of vasospasm with clinical features of cerebral ischemia, although multiple factors may contribute to DCI. The second issue is the variability and overlap of terms used to describe each phenomenon. This makes comparisons among studies difficult. An international ad hoc panel of experts involved in subarachnoid hemorrhage research developed and proposed a definition of DCI to be used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and observational studies. We used a consensus-building approach. It is proposed that in observational studies and clinical trials aiming to investigate strategies to prevent DCI, the 2 main outcome measures should be: (1) cerebral infarction identified on CT or MRI or proven at autopsy, after exclusion of procedure-related infarctions; and (2) functional outcome. Secondary outcome measure should be clinical deterioration caused by DCI, after exclusion of other potential causes of clinical deterioration. Vasospasm on angiography or transcranial Doppler can also be used as an outcome measure to investigate proof of concept but should be interpreted in conjunction with DCI or functional outcome. The proposed measures reflect the most relevant morphological and clinical features of DCI without regard to pathogenesis to be used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and observational studies.
Brice, Alejandro E.; Brice, Roanne G.; Wallace, Sarah E.
Subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs) are a serious medical emergency, as 30% to 50% of all SAHs can result in death. Personal accounts and case studies are an important aspect of evidence-based practice. This first article of two presents a review of AB's (patient) condition immediately following an SAH in the intensive care and immediately post…
Brice, Alejandro E.; Brice, Roanne G.; Wallace, Sarah E.
Subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs) are a serious medical emergency, as 30% to 50% of all SAHs can result in death. Personal accounts and case studies are an important aspect of evidence-based practice. This first article of two presents a review of AB's (patient) condition immediately following an SAH in the intensive care and immediately post…
Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Logsdon, Aric F.; Manoranjan, Branavan; Turner, Ryan C.; McConnell, Evan; Vates, George Edward; Huber, Jason D.; Rosen, Charles L.; Simard, J. Marc
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can lead to devastating outcomes including vasospasm, cognitive decline, and even death. Currently, treatment options are limited for this potentially life threatening injury. Recent evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in injury expansion and brain damage. Red blood cell breakdown products can lead to the release of inflammatory cytokines that trigger vasospasm and tissue injury. Preclinical models have been used successfully to improve understanding about neuroinflammation following aneurysmal rupture. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of how neuroinflammation relates to secondary outcomes such as vasospasm after aneurysmal rupture and to critically discuss pharmaceutical agents that warrant further investigation for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage. We provide a concise overview of the neuroinflammatory pathways that are upregulated following aneurysmal rupture and how these pathways correlate to long-term outcomes. Treatment of aneurysm rupture is limited and few pharmaceutical drugs are available. Through improved understanding of biochemical mechanisms of injury, novel treatment solutions are being developed that target neuroinflammation. In the final sections of this review, we highlight a few of these novel treatment approaches and emphasize why targeting neuroinflammation following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may improve patient care. We encourage ongoing research into the pathophysiology of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, especially in regards to neuroinflammatory cascades and the translation to randomized clinical trials. PMID:27049383
Brice, Roanne G.; Brice, Alejandro
This second article of a two-part case study focuses on the experiences of a patient and his spouse (caregiver) when a neurological trauma occurs. It is the personal account when A.B. survived a vertebral artery aneurysm and hemorrhage resulting in a subarachnoid hemorrhage. It is also an in-depth post-trauma account from two speech-language…
Holsgrove, D T; Kitchen, W J; Dulhanty, L; Holland, J P; Patel, H C
Intracranial hypertension can occur following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). It can be treated with decompressive craniectomy (DC) with the aim of reducing intracranial pressure, increasing cerebral perfusion and reducing further morbidity and mortality. We studied the outcome of patients undergoing DC following SAH at our institution, to ascertain whether the use of this treatment can be rationalized.
Brice, Roanne G.; Brice, Alejandro
This second article of a two-part case study focuses on the experiences of a patient and his spouse (caregiver) when a neurological trauma occurs. It is the personal account when A.B. survived a vertebral artery aneurysm and hemorrhage resulting in a subarachnoid hemorrhage. It is also an in-depth post-trauma account from two speech-language…
Miller, F.J. Jr.; Mineau, D.E.
A thorough account is given of the complications of embolization techniques in nonneurovascular areas, including hepatic infarction, renal and splenic abscess formation. Infarction of the urinary bladder, gallbladder, stomach, and bowel are discussed. Suggestions are offered to prevent complications from embolization where possible. Specific agents for embolization are detailed and their relative merits are compared; ethyl alcohol has recently gained popularity for treating esophageal varices and infarcting renal tumors. Care is advocated when using alcohol in the renal arteries; employing this agent is currently contraindicated in the celiac and mesenteric arteries. Coils and balloon systems are also described along with their potential complications.
Bajaj, Gitanjali; Nicholas, Richard; Pandey, Tarun; Montgomery, Corey; Jambhekar, Kedar; Ram, Roopa
Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare, often unrecognized complication seen in patients with poorly controlled Diabetes Mellitus. The diagnosis is often missed and leads to unnecessary invasive investigations and inappropriate treatment. The patients usually present with unilateral thigh pain and swelling. MRI typically demonstrates diffuse swelling and increased T2 signal intensity within the affected muscles. The condition is self-limiting and is treated conservatively with bed rest and analgesics. Recurrences have been reported in the same or contralateral limb. We report a case of diabetic muscle infarction with spontaneous resolution of symptoms and imaging abnormality with recurrence on the contralateral side.
Puymirat, Etienne; Aïssaoui, Nadia; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Chaib, Aurès; Bonnet, Jean-Louis; Bataille, Vincent; Drouet, Elodie; Mulak, Geneviève; Ferrières, Jean; Blanchard, Didier; Simon, Tabassome; Danchin, Nicolas
There are limited data on the safety and efficacy of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We aimed to compare LMWH with unfractioned heparin (UFH) in the management of AMI in elderly patients. FAST-MI is a nationwide registry carried out over a 1-month period in 2005, including consecutive patients with AMI admitted to intensive care unit <48 h from symptom onset in 223 participating centers. We assessed the impact of LMWH on bleeding, the need for blood transfusion and one-year survival in elderly patients (≥ 75 years). 963 patients treated with heparin were included (mean age 82 ± 5 years; 51% women; 42.5% ST-elevation myocardial infarction). Major bleeding (2.4% vs. 6.1%, P=0.004) and blood transfusions (4.6% vs. 9.7%, P=0.002) were significantly less frequent with LMWH compared with the UFH, a difference that persisted after multivariate adjustment (OR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.20-0.83 and OR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.28-0.85, respectively). One-year survival and stroke and reinfarction-free survival were also significantly higher with LMWH compared with UFH (OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.50-0.85 and OR=0.71, 95% CI: 0.56-0.91, respectively). In two cohorts of patients matched on a propensity score for getting LMWH and with similar baseline characteristics (328 patients per group), major bleeding and transfusion were significantly lower while one-year survival was significantly higher in patients receiving LMWH. The present data show that in elderly patients admitted for AMI, use of LMWH is associated with less bleeding, less need for transfusion, and higher survival, compared with the use of UFH. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taufique, Zahrah; May, Teresa; Meyers, Emma; Falo, Cristina; Mayer, Stephan A; Agarwal, Sachin; Park, Soojin; Connolly, E Sander; Claassen, Jan; Schmidt, J Michael
Risk factors for poor quality of life (QOL) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remain poorly described. To identify the frequency and predictors of poor QOL 1 year after SAH. We studied 1-year QOL in a prospectively collected cohort of 1181 consecutively admitted SAH survivors between July 1996 and May 2013. Patient clinical, radiographic, surgical, and acute clinical course information was recorded. Reduced QOL (overall, physical, and psychosocial) at 1 year was assessed with the Sickness Impact Profile and defined as 2 SD below population-based normative Sickness Impact Profile values. Logistic regression leveraging multiple imputation to handle missing data was used to evaluate reduced QOL. Poor overall QOL was observed in 35% of patients. Multivariable analysis revealed that nonwhite ethnicity, high school education or less, history of depression, poor clinical grade (Hunt-Hess Grade ≥3), and delayed infarction were predictors of poor overall and psychosocial QOL. Poor physical QOL was additionally associated with older age, hydrocephalus, pneumonia, and sepsis. At 1 year, patients with poor QOL had increased difficulty concentrating, cognitive dysfunction, depression, and reduced activities of daily living. More than 91% of patients with poor QOL failed to fully return to work. These patients frequently received physical rehabilitation, but few received cognitive rehabilitation or emotional-behavioral support. Reduced QOL affects as many as one-third of SAH survivors 1 year after SAH. Delayed infarction is the most important in-hospital modifiable factor that affects QOL. Increased attention to cognitive and emotional difficulties after hospital discharge may help patients achieve greater QOL.
Simard, J. Marc; Aldrich, E. Francois; Schreibman, David; James, Robert F.; Polifka, Adam; Beaty, Narlin
Object Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) predisposes to delayed neurological deficits, including stroke and cognitive and neuropsychological abnormalities. Heparin is a pleiotropic drug that antagonizes many of the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in secondary brain injury after aSAH. Methods The authors performed a retrospective analysis in 86 consecutive patients with Fisher Grade 3 aSAH due to rupture of a supratentorial aneurysm who presented within 36 hours and were treated by surgical clipping within 48 hours of their ictus. Forty-three patients were managed postoperatively with a low-dose intravenous heparin infusion (Maryland low-dose intravenous heparin infusion protocol: 8 U/kg/hr progressing over 36 hours to 10 U/kg/hr) beginning 12 hours after surgery and continuing until Day 14 after the ictus. Forty-three control patients received conventional subcutaneous heparin twice daily as deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. Results Patients in the 2 groups were balanced in terms of baseline characteristics. In the heparin group, activated partial thromboplastin times were normal to mildly elevated; no clinically significant hemorrhages or instances of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia or deep vein thrombosis were encountered. In the control group, the incidence of clinical vasospasm requiring rescue therapy (induced hypertension, selective intraarterial verapamil, and angioplasty) was 20 (47%) of 43 patients, and 9 (21%) of 43 patients experienced a delayed infarct on CT scanning. In the heparin group, the incidence of clinical vasospasm requiring rescue therapy was 9% (4 of 43, p = 0.0002), and no patient suffered a delayed infarct (p = 0.003). Conclusions In patients with Fisher Grade 3 aSAH whose aneurysm is secured, postprocedure use of a low-dose intravenous heparin infusion may be safe and beneficial. PMID:24032706
Wong, George Kwok Chu; Lam, Sandy Wai; Ngai, Karine; Wong, Adrian; Siu, Deyond; Poon, Wai Sang; Mok, Vincent
Background Cognitive domain deficits can occur after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) though few studies systemically evaluate its impact on 1-year outcomes. Objective We aimed to evaluate the pattern and functional outcome impact of cognitive domain deficits in aSAH patients at 1 year. Methods We carried out a prospective observational study in Hong Kong, during which, 168 aSAH patients (aged 21–75 years and had been admitted within 96 h of ictus) were recruited over a 26-month period. The cognitive function was assessed by a domain-specific neuropsychological assessment battery at 1 year after ictus. The current study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov of the US National Institutes of Health (NCT01038193). Results Prevalence of individual domain deficits varied between 7% to 15%, and 13% had two or more domain deficits. After adjusting for abbreviated National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and Geriatric Depressive Scale scores, unfavourable outcome (Modified Rankin Scale 3–5) and dependent instrumental activity of daily living (Lawton Instrumental Activity of Daily Living<15) were significantly associated with two or more domain deficits and number of cognitive domain deficits at 1 year. Two or more domain deficits was independently associated with age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.2; p<0.001) and delayed cerebral infarction (OR, 6.1; 95% CI 1.1 to 33.5; p=0.036), after adjustment for years of school education. Interpretation In patients with aSAH, cognitive domain deficits worsened functional outcomes at 1 year. Delayed cerebral infarction was an independent risk factor for two or more domain deficits at 1 year. PMID:23606736
Kummer, Terrance T; Magnoni, Sandra; MacDonald, Christine L; Dikranian, Krikor; Milner, Eric; Sorrell, James; Conte, Valeria; Benetatos, Joey J; Zipfel, Gregory J; Brody, David L
The great majority of acute brain injury results from trauma or from disorders of the cerebrovasculature, i.e. ischaemic stroke or haemorrhage. These injuries are characterized by an initial insult that triggers a cascade of injurious cellular processes. The nature of these processes in spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage is poorly understood. Subarachnoid haemorrhage, a particularly deadly form of intracranial haemorrhage, shares key pathophysiological features with traumatic brain injury including exposure to a sudden pressure pulse. Here we provide evidence that axonal injury, a signature characteristic of traumatic brain injury, is also a prominent feature of experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage. Using histological markers of membrane disruption and cytoskeletal injury validated in analyses of traumatic brain injury, we show that axonal injury also occurs following subarachnoid haemorrhage in an animal model. Consistent with the higher prevalence of global as opposed to focal deficits after subarachnoid haemorrhage and traumatic brain injury in humans, axonal injury in this model is observed in a multifocal pattern not limited to the immediate vicinity of the ruptured artery. Ultrastructural analysis further reveals characteristic axonal membrane and cytoskeletal changes similar to those associated with traumatic axonal injury. Diffusion tensor imaging, a translational imaging technique previously validated in traumatic axonal injury, from these same specimens demonstrates decrements in anisotropy that correlate with histological axonal injury and functional outcomes. These radiological indicators identify a fibre orientation-dependent gradient of axonal injury consistent with a barotraumatic mechanism. Although traumatic and haemorrhagic acute brain injury are generally considered separately, these data suggest that a signature pathology of traumatic brain injury-axonal injury-is also a functionally significant feature of subarachnoid haemorrhage, raising
Magnoni, Sandra; MacDonald, Christine L.; Dikranian, Krikor; Milner, Eric; Sorrell, James; Conte, Valeria; Benetatos, Joey J.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Brody, David L.
The great majority of acute brain injury results from trauma or from disorders of the cerebrovasculature, i.e. ischaemic stroke or haemorrhage. These injuries are characterized by an initial insult that triggers a cascade of injurious cellular processes. The nature of these processes in spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage is poorly understood. Subarachnoid haemorrhage, a particularly deadly form of intracranial haemorrhage, shares key pathophysiological features with traumatic brain injury including exposure to a sudden pressure pulse. Here we provide evidence that axonal injury, a signature characteristic of traumatic brain injury, is also a prominent feature of experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage. Using histological markers of membrane disruption and cytoskeletal injury validated in analyses of traumatic brain injury, we show that axonal injury also occurs following subarachnoid haemorrhage in an animal model. Consistent with the higher prevalence of global as opposed to focal deficits after subarachnoid haemorrhage and traumatic brain injury in humans, axonal injury in this model is observed in a multifocal pattern not limited to the immediate vicinity of the ruptured artery. Ultrastructural analysis further reveals characteristic axonal membrane and cytoskeletal changes similar to those associated with traumatic axonal injury. Diffusion tensor imaging, a translational imaging technique previously validated in traumatic axonal injury, from these same specimens demonstrates decrements in anisotropy that correlate with histological axonal injury and functional outcomes. These radiological indicators identify a fibre orientation-dependent gradient of axonal injury consistent with a barotraumatic mechanism. Although traumatic and haemorrhagic acute brain injury are generally considered separately, these data suggest that a signature pathology of traumatic brain injury—axonal injury—is also a functionally significant feature of subarachnoid haemorrhage
Kumar, S; Goddeau, R P; Selim, M H; Thomas, A; Schlaug, G; Alhazzani, A; Searls, D E; Caplan, L R
To identify patterns of clinical presentation, imaging findings, and etiologies in a cohort of hospitalized patients with localized nontraumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with atraumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage were identified using International Classification of Diseases-9 code from 460 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage evaluated at our institution over a course of 5 years. Retrospective review of patient medical records, neuroimaging studies, and follow-up data was performed. There were 16 women and 13 men between the ages of 29 and 87 years. Two common patterns of presentations were observed. The most frequent presenting symptom in patients < or =60 years (n = 16) was a severe headache (n = 12; 75%) of abrupt onset (n = 9; 56%) with arterial narrowing on conventional angiograms in 4 patients; 10 (p = 0.003) were presumptively diagnosed with a primary vasoconstriction syndrome. Patients >60 years (n = 13) usually had temporary sensory or motor symptoms (n = 7; 54%); brain MRI scans in these patients showed evidence of leukoaraiosis and/or hemispheric microbleeds and superficial siderosis (n = 9; 69%), compatible with amyloid angiopathy (n = 10; p < 0.0001). In a small group of patients, the presentation was more varied and included lethargy, fever, and confusion. Four patients older than 60 years had recurrent intracerebral hemorrhages in the follow-up period with 2 fatalities. Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage is an important subtype of nonaneurysmal subarachnoid bleeding with diverse etiologies, though a reversible vasoconstriction syndrome appears to be a common cause in patients 60 years or younger whereas amyloid angiopathy is frequent in patients over 60. These observations require confirmation in future studies.
Rowland, Matthew J; Garry, Payashi; Westbrook, Jon; Corkill, Rufus; Antoniades, Chrystalina A; Pattinson, Kyle T S
OBJECTIVE Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) causing cerebral infarction remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Early brain injury in the first 72 hours following rupture is likely to play a key role in the pathophysiology underlying DCI but remains difficult to quantify objectively. Current diagnostic modalities are based on the concept of vasoconstriction causing cerebral ischemia and infarction and are either invasive or have a steep learning curve and user variability. The authors sought to determine whether saccadic eye movements are impaired following aSAH and whether this measurement in the acute period is associated with the likelihood of developing DCI. METHODS As part of a prospective, observational cohort study, 24 male and female patients (mean age 53 years old, range 31-70 years old) were recruited. Inclusion criteria included presentation with World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) Grades 1 or 2 ("good grade") aSAH on admission and endovascular treatment within 72 hours of aneurysmal rupture. DCI and DCI-related cerebral infarction were defined according to consensus guidelines. Saccadometry data were collected at 3 time points in patients: in the first 72 hours, between Days 5 and 10, and at 3 months after aSAH. Data from 10 healthy controls was collected on 1 occasion for comparison. RESULTS Age-adjusted saccadic latency in patients was significantly prolonged in the first 72 hours following aSAH when compared with controls (188.7 msec [95% CI 176.9-202.2 msec] vs 160.7 msec [95% CI 145.6-179.4 msec], respectively; p = 0.0054, t-test). By 3 months after aSAH, there was no significant difference in median saccadic latency compared with controls (188.7 msec [95% CI 176.9-202.2 msec] vs 180.0 msec [95% CI 165.1-197.8 msec], respectively; p = 0.4175, t-test). Patients diagnosed with cerebral infarction due to DCI had a significantly higher age-adjusted saccadic latency in the
Fox, M W; Harms, R W; Davis, D H
Many neurologic disorders, such as eclampsia, pseudotumor cerebri, stroke, obstetric nerve palsies, subarachnoid hemorrhage, pituitary tumors, and choriocarcinoma, can develop in the pregnant patient. Maternal mortality from eclampsia, which ranges from 0 to 14%, can be due to intracerebral hemorrhage, pulmonary edema, disseminated intravascular coagulation, abruptio placentae, or failure of the liver or kidneys. Associated fetal mortality ranges from 10 to 28% and is directly related to decreased placental perfusion. Pseudotumor cerebri can be associated with serious visual complications; thus, the therapeutic goal is to prevent loss of vision. The risk of stroke in the pregnant patient is 13 times the risk in the nonpregnant patient of the same age. The major causes of stroke in pregnant patients are arterial occlusion and cerebral venous thrombosis. Lumbar disk prolapse is common in pregnant patients, and lumbosacral plexus injuries can occur during labor or delivery. In addition, peripheral nerve compression or entrapment syndromes are thought to be caused by the retention of fluid during pregnancy. The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage during pregnancy is 1 in every 10,000 patients, a rate 5 times higher than in nonpregnant women. Because of a proliferation of prolactin-secreting cells, the pituitary gland can enlarge dramatically during pregnancy, a change that can disclose a previously unknown tumor or cause a known pituitary tumor to become symptomatic. The incidence of choriocarcinoma is 1 in 50,000 full-term pregnancies but 1 in 30 molar pregnancies. This malignant tumor has a high rate of cerebral metastatic lesions. In addition to these disorders that develop during pregnancy, the pregnant state can affect numerous preexisting neurologic conditions, including epilepsy, headaches, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, spinal cord injury, and brain tumors. We discuss advice for patients with such conditions who wish to become pregnant, recommendations
Whiting, Jobyna; Reavey-Cantwell, John; Velat, Gregory; Fautheree, Gregory; Firment, Christopher; Lewis, Stephen; Hoh, Brian
Angiogram-negative subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) accounts for 15% of nontraumatic SAH and has been reported with low morbidity and mortality rates. We report on a large series of patients with angiogram-negative SAH who experienced an atypical nonbenign clinical course. Between December 2001 and November 2006, 95 patients with spontaneous nonaneurysmal SAH and negative initial angiographic evaluation were treated at the University of Florida. The authors retrospectively reviewed the patients' medical records and radiological images to determine associated morbidity and mortality. Aneurysms were found in 6 of the 95 patients on follow-up imaging after an initial negative angiogram (6.3% false negative rate); these patients were excluded leaving 89 patients as the study group. Hydrocephalus necessitating temporary CSF diversion developed in 22 of these patients (25%); 12 (13%) ultimately required permanent CSF diversion. Clinically significant vasospasm developed in 4 patients (4%), and 2 (2%) had cerebral infarctions. Three patients (3%) died. The authors' experience with a large series of angiogram-negative SAH patients who had an atypical nonbenign clinical course associated with hydrocephalus, vasospasm, stroke, and mortality differs significantly from previously published case series of angiogram-negative SAH.
Yang, Lijun; Wang, Feng; Han, Haie; Yang, Liang; Zhang, Gengshen; Fan, Zhenzeng
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a life-threatening disease that causes high morbidity and mortality. Pirfenidone is a SAH drug that prevents secondary bleeding and cerebral infarction. To improve its therapeutic efficacy, this study aimed to employ a functionalized graphene oxide nanosheet (FGO) as a drug carrier loading pirfenidone to treat SAH. The graphene oxide nanosheet was introduced with transcription activator peptide (Tat), followed by functionalization with methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) and loading with pirfenidone. The pirfenidone-loaded FGO (pirfenidone-FGO) exhibits better treatment efficacy than the single pirfenidone due to more effective loading and controlled release of the drug in tissue. The introduction of Tat and mPEG onto GO nanosheet contributes to the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and the stability in blood circulation of the drug. At lower pH values, the highly efficient release of the drug from the pirfenidone-FGO exerts effective treatment to acidic inflammatory lesion after severe SAH. Besides its treatment function, FGO is also shown as a strong near infrared absorbing material which can be applied in photoacoustic imaging, allowing rapid real-time monitoring with deep resolution of brain tissues after SAH. The treatment efficacy of pirfenidone-FGO for central nervous system injuries is further demonstrated by hematoxylin and eosin staining of coronal brain slices, as well as measurements of brain water content and blood-brain barrier permeability. Our study supports the potential of FGO in clinical application in treatment of SAH.
Genonceaux, Sandrine; Cosnard, Guy; Van De Wyngaert, Françoise; Hantson, Philippe
A 46-year-old woman presented with tetraplegia contrasting with a relatively preserved consciousness following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Multiple ischemic lesions were detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in the absence of vasospasm or signs of increased intracranial pressure. During the weeks before SAH, the patient had repeatedly used a nasal decongestant containing phenylephrine. After coiling of the aneurysm harboured by the right posterior cerebral artery, symptomatic vasospasm developed in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery and required aggressive therapy by intra-arterial infusion of milrinone followed by continuous intravenous administration. Follow-up MRI did not reveal new ischemic lesions. Echocardiography had demonstrated the presence of a patent foramen ovale. At 3 months follow-up, a major motor deficit persisted with akinetic mutism. The mechanisms of multiple early infarction following aneurysmal SAH are still debated, as vasospasm is usually not seen on the first imaging. Among precipitating factors of microvascular vasospasm, vasoactive substances like phenylephrine, may play a significant role.
Nichols, Linda Jayne; Gall, Seana; Stirling, Christine
An aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) carries a high disability burden. The true impact of rurality as a predictor of outcome severity is unknown. Our aim is to clarify the relationship between the proposed explanations of regional and rural health disparities linked to severity of outcome following an aSAH. An initial literature search identified limited data directly linking geographical location, rurality, rural vulnerability, and aSAH. A further search noting parallels with ischemic stroke and acute myocardial infarct literature presented a number of diverse and interrelated predictors. This a priori knowledge informed the development of a conceptual framework that proposes the relationship between rurality and severity of outcome following an aSAH utilizing structural equation modeling. The presented conceptual framework explores a number of system, environmental, and modifiable risk factors. Socioeconomic characteristics, modifiable risk factors, and timely treatment that were identified as predictors of severity of outcome following an aSAH and within each of these defined predictors a number of contributing specific individual predictors are proposed. There are considerable gaps in the current knowledge pertaining to the impact of rurality on the severity of outcome following an aSAH. Absent from the literature is any investigation of the cumulative impact and multiplicity of risk factors associated with rurality. The proposed conceptual framework hypothesizes a number of relationships between both individual level and system level predictors, acknowledging that intervening predictors may mediate the effect of one variable on another.
Nichols, Linda Jayne; Gall, Seana; Stirling, Christine
An aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) carries a high disability burden. The true impact of rurality as a predictor of outcome severity is unknown. Our aim is to clarify the relationship between the proposed explanations of regional and rural health disparities linked to severity of outcome following an aSAH. An initial literature search identified limited data directly linking geographical location, rurality, rural vulnerability, and aSAH. A further search noting parallels with ischemic stroke and acute myocardial infarct literature presented a number of diverse and interrelated predictors. This a priori knowledge informed the development of a conceptual framework that proposes the relationship between rurality and severity of outcome following an aSAH utilizing structural equation modeling. The presented conceptual framework explores a number of system, environmental, and modifiable risk factors. Socioeconomic characteristics, modifiable risk factors, and timely treatment that were identified as predictors of severity of outcome following an aSAH and within each of these defined predictors a number of contributing specific individual predictors are proposed. There are considerable gaps in the current knowledge pertaining to the impact of rurality on the severity of outcome following an aSAH. Absent from the literature is any investigation of the cumulative impact and multiplicity of risk factors associated with rurality. The proposed conceptual framework hypothesizes a number of relationships between both individual level and system level predictors, acknowledging that intervening predictors may mediate the effect of one variable on another. PMID:27695237
Wang, Kuo-Chuan; Tang, Sung-Chun; Lee, Jing-Er; Li, Yu-I; Huang, Yi-Shuian; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Tu, Yong-Kwang
We aim to determine the cerebrospinal fluid levels of high mobility group box 1 in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients and to investigate the involvement of the receptor for advanced glycation end products and high mobility group box 1 in the pathogenesis of post-subarachnoid hemorrhage neuronal death. The study included 40 patients (mean age, 59 ± 19 years) with Fisher's grade ≥ III aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected on the seventh day post-hemorrhage. Receptor for advanced glycation end products expression was examined in rat brain tissue following subarachnoid hemorrhage and in cultured neurons exposed to post-subarachnoid hemorrhage cerebrospinal fluid. Therapeutic effects of the recombinant soluble form of RAGE on subarachnoid hemorrhage models were also investigated. The results indicated that a higher level of cerebrospinal fluid high mobility group box 1 was independently associated with unfavorable outcome at three months post-subarachnoid hemorrhage (OR = 1.061, 95% CI: 1.005-1.121). Expression of RAGE increased in post-subarachnoid hemorrhage rat brain cells and in cultured neuron with stimulation of post-subarachnoid hemorrhage cerebrospinal fluid. Administration of recombinant soluble form of RAGE significantly reduced the number of positive TUNEL staining cells in subarachnoid hemorrhage rat and improved cell viability in post-subarachnoid hemorrhage cerebrospinal fluid-treated cultured neurons. Thus, the level of cerebrospinal fluid high mobility group box 1 can be a prognostic indicator for patients with Fisher's grade ≥ III aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and that treatment with soluble form of RAGE is a novel approach for subarachnoid hemorrhage.
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Vinod, K.V.; Kaaviya, R.; Arpita, Bhaumik
Artery of Percheron (AOP) occlusion is a rare cause of ischemic stroke characterized by bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts, with or without mesencephalic infarction. Clinically it presents with mental state disturbances, hypersomnolence, aphasia/dysarthria, amnesia and ocular movement disorders, including vertical gaze palsy. Here, we report a case of cardioembolic AOP infarction in a 37-year-old woman with rheumatic mitral valvular stenosis. This case is being reported to highlight the interesting clinical and neuroimaging features of this rare condition, and the differential diagnosis of AOP infarction on imaging have been discussed. PMID:27647964
Alsancak, Y; Sezenöz, B; Duran, M; Unlu, S; Turkoglu, S; Yalcın, R
Coronary artery anomalies are rare and mostly silent in clinical practice. First manifestation of this congenital abnormality can be devastating as syncope, acute coronary syndrome, and sudden cardiac death. Herein we report a case with coronary artery anomaly complicated with ST segment myocardial infarction in both inferior and anterior walls simultaneously diagnosed during primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
McAlpine, H M; Morton, J J; Leckie, B; Rumley, A; Gillen, G; Dargie, H J
The extent of neuroendocrine activation, its time course, and relation to left ventricular dysfunction and arrhythmias were investigated in 78 consecutive patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. High concentrations of arginine vasopressin were found within six hours of symptoms, even in the absence of myocardial infarction (n = 18). Plasma catecholamine concentrations also were highest on admission, whereas renin and angiotensin II concentrations rose progressively over the first three days, not only in those with heart failure but also in patients with no clinical complications. Heart failure, ventricular tachycardia, and deaths were associated with extensive myocardial infarction, low left ventricular ejection fraction, and persistently high concentrations of catecholamines, renin, and angiotensin II up to 10 days after admission, whereas in uncomplicated cases concentrations had already returned to normal. PMID:3415870
Chaudhry, Nauman S; Johnson, Jeremiah N; Morcos, Jacques J
Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt malfunctions are common and can result in significant consequences for patients. Despite the prevalence of breast augmentation surgery and breast surgery for other pathologies, few breast related VP shunt complications have been reported. A 54-year-old woman with hydrocephalus post-subarachnoid hemorrhage returned 1 month after VP shunt placement complaining of painful unilateral breast enlargement. After investigation, it was determined that the distal VP shunt catheter had migrated from the peritoneal cavity into the breast and wrapped around her breast implant. The breast enlargement was the result of cerebrospinal fluid retention. We detail this unusual case and review all breast related VP shunt complications reported in the literature. To avoid breast related complications related to VP shunt procedures, it is important to illicit pre-procedural history regarding breast implants, evade indwelling implants during catheter tunneling and carefully securing the abdominal catheter to prevent retrograde catheter migration to the breast.
Guo, Jia; Shi, Zhenghong; Yang, Kehu; Tian, Jin Hui; Jiang, Lei
A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition where blood leaks out of blood vessels over the surface of the brain. Delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) and the related feature of vasospasm, where patients experience a delayed deterioration, have long been recognized as the leading potentially treatable cause of death and disability in patients with SAH. Endothelin is a potent, long-lasting endogenous vasoconstrictor that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DIND. Therefore, endothelin receptor antagonists (ETAs) have emerged as a promising therapeutic option for SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm. To assess the efficacy and tolerability of ETAs for SAH. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (December 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1950 to December 2011), EMBASE (1946 to December 2011) and the Chinese Biomedical Database (1978 to December 2011). In an effort to identify further published, unpublished and ongoing trials we searched additional Chinese databases, ongoing trials registers, Google Scholar and Medical Matrix, handsearched journals, scanned reference lists, and contacted researchers and pharmaceutical companies. We only included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared an ETA with placebo for SAH in adult (18 years of age or older) patients who met the diagnostic criteria for SAH based on clinical symptoms, with confirmation on computerized tomography scan results or angiography. Two review authors independently selected RCTs according to the inclusion criteria. We resolved disagreements by discussion with a third review author. Two review authors independently selected relevant articles and assessed their eligibility according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. We resolved disagreements by discussion with a third review author. We used the random-effects model and expressed the results as
Koyanagi, Masaomi; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Lo, Benjamin; Uezato, Minami; Kurosaki, Yoshitaka; Sadamasa, Nobutake; Handa, Akira; Chin, Masaki; Yamagata, Sen
OBJECTIVE Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is an important complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Although intrathecal milrinone injection via lumbar catheter to prevent DCI has been previously reported to be safe and feasible, its effectiveness remains unknown. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether intrathecal milrinone injection treatment after aSAH significantly reduced the incidence of DCI. METHODS The prospectively maintained aSAH database was used to identify patients treated between January 2010 and December 2015. The cohort included 274 patients, with group assignment based on treatment with intrathecal milrinone injection or not. A propensity score model was generated for each patient group, incorporating relevant patient variables. RESULTS After propensity score matching, 99 patients treated with intrathecal milrinone injection and 99 without treatment were matched on the basis of similarities in their demographic and clinical characteristics. There were significantly fewer DCI events (4% vs 14%, p = 0.024) in patients treated with intrathecal milrinone injection compared with those treated without it. However, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups with respect to their 90-day functional outcomes (46% vs 36%, p = 0.31). The likelihood of chronic secondary hydrocephalus, meningitis, and congestive heart failure as complications of intrathecal milrinone injection therapy was also similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS In propensity score-matched groups, the intrathecal administration of milrinone via lumbar catheter showed significant reduction of DCI following aSAH, without an associated increase in complications.
Carron, M; Innocente, F; Veronese, S; Miotto, D; Pilati, P; Rossi, C R; Ori, C
Loco-regional antiblastic perfusion with circulatory block (stop-flow perfusion, SFP) is a procedure designed to treat solid tumors of the limb and pelvis in an advanced stage, like melanoma, sarcoma of the soft tissues and colon-rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate if subarachnoid anesthesia could represent a safe and suitable anesthetic technique for this procedure. Thirty SFP procedures were performed in the angiographic room, 15 for the treatment of lower-limb neoplasias and 15 for pelvic neoplasias. The patients (ASA I-III) had a mean age of 59.1 years (range: 19-81 years). The patients were given different dosages of bupivacaine (range: 10-20 mg) in hyperbaric solution at the concentration of 0.5% and 1% by lumbar subarachnoid injection at different levels (from T12-L1 to L3-L4). Standard monitoring was set up (ECG, pulse-oximetry, and non-invasive artery pressure). The use of any anesthetic and analgesic drug, eventually used in the intra- or postoperative period, was recorded. The lumbar puncture was approached at L1-L2 and L2-L3 levels in 80% of the cases. Doses of bupivacaine between 12 mg and 14 mg were administered in 2/3 of the cases. Bupivacaine was formulated in hyperbaric solution and administered at a concentration of 0.5% (8 patients) or 1% (22 patients). Complica-tions related to the anesthetic technique were absent. Intraoperative pain control was almost complete with one exception, when the procedure lasted unusually long. Pain control was satisfying immediately after the procedure as well: only in 3 cases were non-opiod analgesics administered within the first 6 h. Spinal subarachnoid anesthesia has proven to be an effective, safe, and easy-to-manage technique for carrying out SFP procedure in a non-conventional environment such as an angiographic room. It was free of serious side effects and well tolerated even in patients in poor general conditions.
Pappas, Anthony C; Koide, Masayo; Wellman, George C
Physiologically, neurovascular coupling (NVC) matches focal increases in neuronal activity with local arteriolar dilation. Astrocytes participate in NVC by sensing increased neurotransmission and releasing vasoactive agents (e.g., K(+)) from perivascular endfeet surrounding parenchymal arterioles. Previously, we demonstrated an increase in the amplitude of spontaneous Ca(2+) events in astrocyte endfeet and inversion of NVC from vasodilation to vasoconstriction in brain slices obtained from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model rats. However, the role of spontaneous astrocyte Ca(2+) signaling in determining the polarity of the NVC response remains unclear. Here, we used two-photon imaging of Fluo-4-loaded rat brain slices to determine whether altered endfoot Ca(2+) signaling underlies SAH-induced inversion of NVC. We report a time-dependent emergence of endfoot high-amplitude Ca(2+) signals (eHACSs) after SAH that were not observed in endfeet from unoperated animals. Furthermore, the percentage of endfeet with eHACSs varied with time and paralleled the development of inversion of NVC. Endfeet with eHACSs were present only around arterioles exhibiting inversion of NVC. Importantly, depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores using cyclopiazonic acid abolished SAH-induced eHACSs and restored arteriolar dilation in SAH brain slices to two mediators of NVC (a rise in endfoot Ca(2+) and elevation of extracellular K(+)). These data indicate a causal link between SAH-induced eHACSs and inversion of NVC. Ultrastructural examination using transmission electron microscopy indicated that a similar proportion of endfeet exhibiting eHACSs also exhibited asymmetrical enlargement. Our results demonstrate that subarachnoid blood causes a delayed increase in the amplitude of spontaneous intracellular Ca(2+) release events leading to inversion of NVC. Significance statement: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)--strokes involving cerebral aneurysm rupture and release of blood onto the
Norrving, Bo; Hydén, Dag
Studies with MRI and non-invasive vascular imaging have modified previous conceptions on clinical spectrum and causes of different types of brain stem infarcts. Wallenberg's syndrome caused by lateral medullary infarction (LMI) often presents with patterns of sensory loss different from the "classical" crossed type. LMI carries a risk for respiratory and cardiovascular complications in the acute phase, warranting close patient monitoring. Medial medullary infarcts often present with a lacunar syndrome mimicking capsular or pontine small vessel disease. Cerebellar infarcts are most often caused by cardiac embolism. Isolated vertigo may be the only presenting symptom. Neurosurgical intervention of expansive cerebellar infarcts may be life-saving. Clinical features of progressive multifocal brain-stem symptoms are often suggestive of basilar artery occlusion. CT-angiography is a useful initial diagnostic tool. Based on observational studies, intraarterial thrombolysis is used in selected patients with basilar artery occlusion, but further studies are needed to define treatment criteria more precisely.
Kalra, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Jagat Jyoti; Venkataraman, Subramanium; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Shaikh, Shehla; Saboo, Banshi; Das, Ashok Kumar; Ramachandran, Ambady
Hypoglycemia is an important complication of glucose-lowering therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Attempts made at intensive glycemic control invariably increases the risk of hypoglycemia. A six-fold increase in deaths due to diabetes has been attributed to patients experiencing severe hypoglycemia in comparison to those not experiencing severe hypoglycemia Repeated episodes of hypoglycemia can lead to impairment of the counter-regulatory system with the potential for development of hypoglycemia unawareness. The short- and long-term complications of diabetes related hypoglycemia include precipitation of acute cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, neurocognitive dysfunction, retinal cell death and loss of vision in addition to health-related quality of life issues pertaining to sleep, driving, employment, recreational activities involving exercise and travel. There is an urgent need to examine the clinical spectrum and burden of hypoglycemia so that adequate control measures can be implemented against this neglected life-threatening complication. Early recognition of hypoglycemia risk factors, self-monitoring of blood glucose, selection of appropriate treatment regimens with minimal or no risk of hypoglycemia and appropriate educational programs for healthcare professionals and patients with diabetes are the major ways forward to maintain good glycemic control, minimize the risk of hypoglycemia and thereby prevent long-term complications. PMID:24083163
Jaja, Blessing N R; Attalla, Daniel; Macdonald, R Loch; Schweizer, Tom A; Cusimano, Michael D; Etminan, Nima; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Johnston, S Claiborne; Le Roux, Peter; Lo, Benjamin; Louffat-Olivares, Ada; Mayer, Stephan; Molyneux, Andrew; Noble, Adam; Quinn, Audrey; Schenk, Thomas; Spears, Julian; Singh, Jeffrey; Todd, Michael; Torner, James; Tseng, Ming; van den Bergh, William; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Wong, George K C
Researchers and other stakeholders continue to express concern about the failure of randomized clinical trials (RCT) in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) to show efficacy of new treatments. Pooled data may be particularly useful to generate hypotheses about causes of poor outcomes and reasons for failure of RCT in SAH, and strategies to improve them. Investigators conducting SAH research collaborated to share data with the intent to develop a large repository of pooled individual patient data for exploratory analysis and testing of new hypotheses relevant to improved trial design and analysis in SAH. This repository currently contains information on 11,443 SAH patients from 14 clinical databases, of which 9 are datasets of recent RCTs and 5 are datasets of prospective observational studies and hospital registries. Most patients were managed in the last 15 years. Data validation and quality checks have been conducted and are satisfactory. Data is available on demographic, clinical, neuroimaging, and laboratory results and various outcome measures. We have compiled the largest known dataset of patients with SAH. The SAHIT repository may be an important resource for advancing clinical research in SAH and will benefit from contributions of additional datasets.
Takeuchi, Hayato; Iwamoto, Kazuhide; Mukai, Mao; Fujita, Tomoaki; Tsujino, Hitoshi; Iwamoto, Yoshihiro
Pathological laughing, one subgroup of psuedobulbar affect, is known as laughter inappropriate to the patient's external circumstances and unrelated to the patient's internal emotional state. The authors present the case of a 76-year-old woman with no significant medical history who experienced pathological laughing after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to rupture of an aneurysm, which was successfully treated with craniotomy for aneurysm clipping. In the acute stage after the operation she suffered from severe vasospasm and resulting middle cerebral artery territory infarction and conscious disturbance. As she regained consciousness she was afflicted by pathological laughing 6 months after the onset of SAH. Her involuntary laughter was inappropriate to the situation and was incongruent with the emotional state, and she could not control by herself. Finally the diagnosis of pathological laughing was made and treatment with sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), effectively cured the symptoms. Her pathological laughing was estimated to be consequence of infarction in the right prefrontal cortex and/or corona radiata, resulting from vasospasm. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of pathological laughing after aneurysmal SAH. The authors offer insight into the pathophysiology of this rare phenomenon. Effectiveness of sertraline would widen the treatment modality against pathological laughing.
Larsen, Carl C; Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob; Nielsen, Jørn D; Astrup, Jens
Aneurysmal rebleeding poses a serious risk in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Studies have shown that antifibrinolytic therapy with tranexamic acid has a dramatic effect on the rate of rebleeding. Therefore, changes in the fibrinolytic system could be hypothesized. We have used an experimental SAH rat model to demonstrate serial changes in the haemostatic system as evaluated by Thromboelastography (TEG). In the SAH group, a shorter reaction time (R-time) and higher maximum amplitude (MA) were observed. In the saline group, only a shorter R-time was observed. The study has shown that a hypercoagulable state is present immediately after experimental SAH is induced as determined by TEG. The reduction in R-time and rise in MA observed in the SAH group indicate that blood in the subarachnoid space is necessary to accomplish a full systemic coagulation response. This abnormality in coagulation profile seems to be a response to the acute traumatic event caused by induction of SAH.
Anderson, Brian; Sabat, Shyamsunder; Agarwal, Amit; Thamburaj, Krishnamoorthy
Summary Background Aneurysmal rupture accounts for the majority of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Increasingly recognized is the occurrence of nontraumatic convexity SAH unaccounted for by aneurysmal rupture. Case Report These presentations require consideration of rare but clinically significant sources of SAH. We report a patient presenting with prolonged mild headaches and acute onset of seizure like activity found to have diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage and extensive dural venous sinus thrombosis involving the superior sagittal sinus and right transverse-sigmoid sinuses. Conclusions There are few reported cases of SAH secondary to dural sinus thrombosis; however most of these are convexity hemorrhage. Sinus thrombosis presenting as diffuse SAH is extremely rare, as is showcased in this report. PMID:26097524
Choi, Jae Young; Cha, Seung Heon; Cho, Won Ho; Ko, Jun Kyeung
The authors describe a case of communicating hydrocephalus accompanied by an arachnoid cyst in an aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 69-year-old female was referred to our clinic due to the sudden onset of a headache. A head computed tomography scan demonstrated an arachnoid cyst in the right middle fossa with a mass effect and diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography then revealed a left internal carotid-posterior communicating artery aneurysm. The neck of the aneurysm was clipped successfully and the post-operative period was uneventful. However, two months after discharge, the patient reported that her mental status had declined over previous weeks. A cranial computed tomography scan revealed an interval increase in the size of the ventricle and arachnoid cyst causing a midline shift. Simultaneous navigation guided ventriculoperitoneal shunt and cystoperitoneal shunt placement resulted in remarkable radiological and clinical improvements.
Cerase, A; Tarantino, A; Muzii, V F; Vittori, C; Venturi, C
Pituitary apoplexy is a potentially life-threatening acute or subacute clinical syndrome occurring from enlargement of the pituitary gland, and pituitary insufficiency, from hemorrhage or ischemia from an unknown pituitary lesion, most frequently being a non-functioning macroadenoma. A close, and multidisciplinary management is required. The purpose of this case report is to increase awareness to pituitary apoplexy presentation and management by reporting clinical features and neuroradiological findings observed in a 70-year-old patient with an unknown pituitary lesion. He presented with pituitary apoplexy and brain ischemia at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. MR angiography (MRA) showed diffuse vasospasm of anterior and posterior circulation. Both MRI and cytochemical examination of the cerebrospinal fluid ruled out subarachnoid hemorrhage. Due to concomitant diseases, and absence of visual deficit, the management was conservative by medical and substitutive therapy, without surgery. Clinical follow-up showed clearcut improvement, and this was consistent with MRI and MRA evidence of vasospasm regression, and clearcut pituitary lesion shrinkage. Pituitary lesions with hemorrhagic infarction presenting with pituitary apoplexy may be associated with vasospasm and brain ischemia at diagnosis, also in the absence of subarachnoid hemorrhage. A correct MR evaluation of patients with PA should include DWI, ADC maps, and MRA. Notably, early diagnosis of PA-associated vasospasm and cerebral ischemia avoids the possibility of their detection only after neurosurgery.
Koeth, Oliver; Zeymer, Uwe; Schiele, Rudolf; Zahn, Ralf
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is usually characterized by transient left ventricular apical ballooning. Due to the clinical symptoms which include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes, and elevated myocardial markers, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is frequently mimicking ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the absence of a significant coronary artery disease. Otherwise an acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery can produce a typical Takotsubo contraction pattern. ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is frequently associated with emotional stress, but to date no cases of STEMI triggering TCM have been reported. We describe a case of a female patient with inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by TCM. PMID:20811565
Gómez-Jaume, A; González-Hermosillo, J A; Iturralde, P; Romero, L; Colín, L; Villarreal, A
Two cases of myocardial infarction immediately following a normal stress testing, are described. The incidence and possible pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed. In one of the patients it was difficult to establish the pathophysiological mechanism which was the cause of the ischemic event. In the other, the coronary arteriography revealed only minimal obstructive disease. Therefore, coronary vasospasm with thrombus formation as a cause of the infarction ia an interesting speculative possibility in view of the angiographic findings. Acute myocardial infarction after a normal electrocardiographic response to maximal exercise testing is extremely rare, and the precise pathophysiologic mechanism that leads to his complication is not clear.
Li, Yu-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qian; Li, Yuan-Xin; Feng, Quan-Zhou; Zhu, Ping
Acute myocardial infarction complicated by bleeding colon tumor is problematic with regard to management, and appropriate balance of antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy and hemostasis or surgery is crucial for effective treatment. Here, we present a case of concomitant acute myocardial infarction and bleeding tumor in the transverse colon, and share our experience of successfully balancing anticoagulation therapy and hemostasis. PMID:26937182
Tewari, Anurag; Dhawan, Ira; Mahendru, Vidhi; Katyal, Sunil; Singh, Avtar; Garg, Shuchita
Context: Under regional anesthesia, geriatric patients are prone to shivering induced perioperative complications that Anesthesiologists should prevent rather than treat. Aim: We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of oral tramadol 50 mg to prevent the perioperative shivering after transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) surgery under subarachnoid blockade (SAB). Shivering is usually overlooked in patients undergoing urological surgery under spinal anesthesia and may result in morbidity, prolonged hospital stay and increased financial burden. Use of prophylactic measures to reduce shivering in geriatric patients who undergo urological procedures could circumvent this. Oral formulation of tramadol is a universally available cost-effective drug with the minimal side-effects. Settings and Design: Prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Patients and Methods: A total of 80 patients who were scheduled for TURP surgery under subarachnoid block were randomly selected. Group I and II (n = 40 each) received oral tramadol 50 mg and placebo tablet respectively. After achieving subarachnoid block, the shivering, body temperature (tympanic membrane, axillary and forehead), hemodynamic parameters and arterial saturation were recorded at regular intervals. Statistical Analysis Used: T-test, analysis of variance test, Z-test and Fisher exact test were utilized while Statistical Product and Service Solutions, IBM, Chicago (SPSS statistics (version 16.0)), software was used for analysis. Results: Incidence of shivering was significantly less in patients who received tramadol (7.5% vs. 40%; P < 0.01). The use of tramadol was associated with clinically inconsequential side-effects. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of oral tramadol 50 mg is effective as a prophylactic agent to reduce the incidence, severity and duration of perioperative shivering in patients undergoing TURP surgery under SAB. PMID:24665233
Kalb, Samuel; Fakhran, Saeed; Dean, Bruce; Ross, Jeffrey; Porter, Randall W; Kakarla, Udaya K; Ruggieri, Paul; Theodore, Nicholas
To report five patients who underwent cervical decompressive surgeries and developed persistent postoperative neurologic deficits compatible with spinal cord infarctions and evaluate causes for these rare complications. The clinical courses and imaging studies of five patients were retrospectively analyzed. Imaging findings, types of surgeries, vascular compromise or risk factors, hypotensive episodes, intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials, concomitant brain infarctions, and clinical degree and radiographic extent of spinal cord infarction were studied. The presence of spinal cord infarction was determined by clinical course and imaging evaluation. All five patients had antecedent cervical cord region vascular compromise or generalized vascular risk factors. Four patients developed hypotensive episodes, two intraoperatively and two postoperatively. None of the four patients with hypotensive episodes had imaging or clinical evidence of concomitant brain infarctions. Neuroimaging evaluation of spinal cord infarction after decompressive surgery is done to exclude spinal cord compression, to ensure adequate surgical decompression, and to confirm infarction by imaging. Antecedent, unrecognized preoperative vascular compromise may be a significant contributor to spinal cord infarction by itself or in combination with hypotension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pretto, Pericles; Martins, Gerez Fernandes; Biscaro, Andressa; Kruczan, Dany David; Jessen, Barbara
Introduction Perioperative myocardial infarction adversely affects the prognosis of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft and its diagnosis was hampered by numerous difficulties, because the pathophysiology is different from the traditional instability atherosclerotic and the clinical difficulty to be characterized. Objective To identify the frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction and its outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Methods Retrospective cohort study performed in a tertiary hospital specialized in cardiology, from May 01, 2011 to April 30, 2012, which included all records containing coronary artery bypass graft records. To confirm the diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction criteria, the Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction was used. Results We analyzed 116 cases. Perioperative myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 28 patients (24.1%). Number of grafts and use and cardiopulmonary bypass time were associated with this diagnosis and the mean age was significantly higher in this group. The diagnostic criteria elevated troponin I, which was positive in 99.1% of cases regardless of diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction. No significant difference was found between length of hospital stay and intensive care unit in patients with and without this complication, however patients with perioperative myocardial infarction progressed with worse left ventricular function and more death cases. Conclusion The frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction found in this study was considered high and as a consequence the same observed average higher troponin I, more cases of worsening left ventricular function and death. PMID:25859867
Janion, Marianna; Janion-Sadowska, Agnieszka
Pregnancy-associated myocardial infarction is rare but potentially fatal. Clinical course is different from nonpregnant patients. As it is predominantly non-atherosclerotic in origin, optimal treatment is not unequivocally established. Common anterior wall involvement results in developing of heart failure and its complications. There is a high risk of coronary artery dissection during percutaneous interventions. Pharmacological treatment, beneficial for mother, may be harmful for fetus. Long term prognosis is unclear.
July, Julius; As'ad, Suryani; Suhadi, Budhianto; Islam, Andi Asadul
One of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage complication is delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND). It is postulated that cortisol dynamics might be associated with the severity of this complication. The goal of the study is to investigate whether the peak of morning serum cortisol levels are associated with the severity of its complication during the course of the disease. This is a prospective cohort study conducted from January 2009 to June 2011, at our institution. The study follows a consecutive cohort of patients for 14 days after the aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Serum cortisols, cortisol binding globulin, adenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured pre operatively and then on post operative days (POD) 2, 4, 7, and 10. Blood was drawn to coincide with peak cortisol levels between 08.00-09.00 hours. Neurological examinations were conducted at least twice daily and patient outcome were graded according to modified Ranklin Scale. DIND was defined by a decrease in the Glasgow Coma Scale of two or more points compared to the status on POD 1. All the results were analyzed using statistical software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v61; SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the relationship between the variables. Thirty six consecutive patients are collected, but only 28 patients (12 M and 16 F) were eligible for the cohort analysis. Average patient age is 50.75 years old (50.75±12.27), and more than 50% (15/28) arrived with World Federation of Neurologic Surgeons grade 3 or better. Elevated total cortisol levels of more than 24 mg/dl on day 2, 4, and 10 were associated with DIND, and the most significant being on day 4 (P=0.011). These patients also had a higher grade on the modified Ranklin scale of disability. This study shows that the elevated levels of morning total cortisol in the serum are associated with the onset of DIND during the disease course, and it's also associated with bad outcomes.
July, Julius; As’ad, Suryani; Suhadi, Budhianto; Islam, Andi Asadul
Context: One of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage complication is delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND). It is postulated that cortisol dynamics might be associated with the severity of this complication. Aims: The goal of the study is to investigate whether the peak of morning serum cortisol levels are associated with the severity of its complication during the course of the disease. Settings and Design: This is a prospective cohort study conducted from January 2009 to June 2011, at our institution. Materials and Methods: The study follows a consecutive cohort of patients for 14 days after the aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Serum cortisols, cortisol binding globulin, adenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured pre operatively and then on post operative days (POD) 2, 4, 7, and 10. Blood was drawn to coincide with peak cortisol levels between 08.00-09.00 hours. Neurological examinations were conducted at least twice daily and patient outcome were graded according to modified Ranklin Scale. DIND was defined by a decrease in the Glasgow Coma Scale of two or more points compared to the status on POD 1. Statistical Analysis: All the results were analyzed using statistical software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v61; SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the relationship between the variables. Results: Thirty six consecutive patients are collected, but only 28 patients (12 M and 16 F) were eligible for the cohort analysis. Average patient age is 50.75 years old (50.75±12.27), and more than 50% (15/28) arrived with World Federation of Neurologic Surgeons grade 3 or better. Elevated total cortisol levels of more than 24 mg/dl on day 2, 4, and 10 were associated with DIND, and the most significant being on day 4 (P=0.011). These patients also had a higher grade on the modified Ranklin scale of disability. Conclusions: This study shows that the elevated levels of morning total cortisol in the serum are
Macmillan, C S A; Grant, I S; Andrews, P J D
Cardiac injury and pulmonary oedema occurring after acute neurological injury have been recognised for more than a century. Catecholamines, released in massive quantities due to hypothalamic stress from subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), result in specific myocardial lesions and hydrostatic pressure injury to the pulmonary capillaries causing neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPO). The acute, reversible cardiac injury ranges from hypokinesis with a normal cardiac index, to low output cardiac failure. Some patients exhibit both catastrophic cardiac failure and NPO, while others exhibit signs of either one or other, or have subclinical evidence of the same. Hypoxia and hypotension are two of the most important insults which influence outcome after acute brain injury. However, despite this, little attention has hitherto been devoted to prevention and reversal of these potentially catastrophic medical complications which occur in patients with SAH. It is not clear which patients with SAH will develop important cardiac and respiratory complications. An active approach to investigation and organ support could provide a window of opportunity to intervene before significant hypoxia and hypotension develop, potentially reducing adverse consequences for the long-term neurological status of the patient. Indeed, there is an argument for all SAH patients to have echocardiography and continuous monitoring of respiratory rate, pulse oximetry, blood pressure and electrocardiogram. In the event of cardio-respiratory compromise developing i.e. cardiogenic shock and/or NPO, full investigation, attentive monitoring and appropriate intervention are required immediately to optimise cardiorespiratory function and allow subsequent definitive management of the SAH.
Neurologic disturbances including encephalopathy, seizures, and focal deficits complicate the course 10-30% of patients undergoing organ or stem cell transplantation. While much or this morbidity is multifactorial and often associated with extra-cerebral dysfunction (e.g., graft dysfunction, metabolic derangements), immunosuppressive drugs also contribute significantly. This can either be through direct toxicity (e.g., posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome from calcineurin inhibitors such as tacrolimus in the acute postoperative period) or by facilitating opportunistic infections in the months after transplantation. Other neurologic syndromes such as akinetic mutism and osmotic demyelination may also occur. While much of this neurologic dysfunction may be reversible if related to metabolic factors or drug toxicity (and the etiology is recognized and reversed), cases of multifocal cerebral infarction, hemorrhage, or infection may have poor outcomes. As transplant patients survive longer, delayed infections (such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy) and post-transplant malignancies are increasingly reported.
Suzuki, A.; Matsushima, H.; Satoh, A.; Hayashi, H.; Sotobata, I.
A cohort of 76 patients with acute myocardial infarction was studied with infarct-avid scan, radionuclide ventriculography, and thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Infarct area, left ventricular ejection fraction, and defect score were calculated as radionuclide indices of the extent of myocardial infarction. The correlation was studied between these indices and cardiac events (death, congestive heart failure, postinfarction angina, and recurrence of myocardial infarction) in the first postinfarction year. High-risk patients (nonsurvivors and patients who developed heart failure) had a larger infarct area, a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and a larger defect score than the others. Univariate linear discriminant analysis was done to determine the optimal threshold of these parameters for distinguishing high-risk patients from others. Radionuclide parameters obtained in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction were useful for detecting both patients with grave complications and those with poor late prognosis during a mean follow-up period of 2.6 years.
Bana, A; Yadava, O P; Ghadiok, R; Selot, N
One hundred and twenty-three patients had coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) within 30 days of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from May 1992 to November 1997. Commonest infarct was anterior transmural (61.8%) and commonest indication of surgery was post-infarct persistent or recurrent angina (69.1%). Ten patients were operated within 48 h and 36 between 48 h to 2 weeks of having MI. Out of these, nine patients were having infarct extension and cardiogenic shock at the time of surgery. Pre-operatively fourteen patients were on inotropes of which six also had intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) support. All patients had complete revascularisation with 3.8+/-1.2 distal anastomoses per patient. By multivariate analysis, we found that independent predictors of post-operative morbidity [inotropes >48 h, use of IABP, ventilation >24 h, ICU stay >5 days] and complications [re-exploration, arrhythmias, pulmonary complications, wound infection, cerebrovascular accident (CVA)] were left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <30%, Q-wave MI, surgery <48 h after AMI, presence of pre-operative cardiogenic shock and age >60 years (P < or = 0.01). Mortality at 30 days was 3.3%. LVEF <30%, Q-wave MI, surgery <48 h after AMI, presence of pre-operative cardiogenic shock and age >60 years were found to be independent predictors of 30 days mortality (P < or = 0.01). Ninety patients were followed up for a mean duration of 33 months (1 to 65 months). There were three late deaths and five patients developed recurrence of angina. To conclude, CABG can be carried out with low risk following AMI in stable patients for post-infarct angina. Patients who undergo urgent or emergent surgery and who have pre-operative cardiogenic shock, IABP, poor left ventricular functions, age >60 years and Q-wave MI are at increased risk.
Richling, B; Takacs, F
Studies on the influence of substances on the central nervous system and on the function of the blood-CSF-barrier made long-term cannulation of the CSF compartment interesting. This study was to test, whether a permanent CSF-drainage from any point of the subarachnoid space was possible with modified "tissue cages" (Guyton 1963). For that purpose a steel wire cage and a teflon cage were implanted subarachnoidally into beagle dogs. The two cages stopped draining on the second and on the third day respectively. Histological examination showed, that, because of the strong reaction of animal tissue to implanted material, direct cannulation of the CSF compartment does not seem feasible. In the second part the "Manuilov-system" was modified. An indwelling guiding tube was implanted and fixed with a horseshoe shaped plate to the occipital bone. Puncture can be made on the awake dog without local anaesthetic and produces samples of 1.5 to 2.0 ml CSF for up to 30 days without complications.
de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; de Azevedo, Daniel Silva; de Azevedo, Milena Krajnyk; de Carvalho Nogueira, Ricardo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson
Subarachnoid hemorrhage is frequently associated with poor prognoses. Three different hemodynamic phases were identified during subarachnoid hemorrhage: oligemia, hyperemia, and vasospasm. Each phase is associated with brain metabolic changes. In this review, we correlated the hemodynamic phases with brain metabolism and potential treatment options in the hopes of improving patient prognoses. PMID:26109948
... In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; ... al. Complicated grief and related bereavement issues for DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety. 2011;28:103. Coping ...
Kuriyama, N; Yamamoto, Y; Akiguchi, I; Oiwa, K; Nakajima, K
We reported a 67-year-old woman with bilateral caudate head infarcts. She developed sudden mutism followed by abulia. She was admitted to our hospital 2 months after ictus for further examination. She showed prominent abulia and was inactive, slow and apathetic. Spontaneous activity and speech, immediate response to queries, spontaneous word recall and attention and persistence to complex programs were disturbed. Apparent motor disturbance, gait disturbance, motor aphasia, apraxia and remote memory disturbance were not identified. She seemed to be depressed but not sad. Brain CT and MRI revealed bilateral caudate head hemorrhagic infarcts including bilateral anterior internal capsules, in which the left lesion was more extensive than right one and involved the part of the left putamen. These infarct locations were thought to be supplied by the area around the medial striate artery including Heubner's arteries and the A1 perforator. Digital subtraction angiography showed asymptomatic right internal carotid artery occlusion. She bad had hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation and also had a left atrium with a large diameter. The infarcts were thought to be caused by cardioembolic occlusion to the distal portion of the left internal carotid artery. Although some variations of vasculature at the anterior communicating artery might contribute to bilateral medial striate artery infarcts, we could not demonstrate such abnormalities by angiography. Bilateral caudate head infarcts involving the anterior internal capsule may cause prominent abulia. The patient did not improve by drug and rehabilitation therapy and died suddenly a year after discharge.
Takemori, Toshiyuki; Kakutani, Kenichiro; Maeno, Koichiro; Akisue, Toshihiro; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Nishida, Kotaro
Symptomatic perineural cysts are rare. Resection and closure of such cysts sometimes results in postoperative neurological deficits and they can recur. We report two cases of symptomatic perineural cysts treated with subarachnoid shunts. Case 1: A 62-year-old woman presented with bladder dysfunction. We identified a cyst communicating with the subarachnoid space adjacent to the S2 nerve root and implanted a subarachnoid shunt. Seven years after this surgery, her bladder dysfunction had not recurred. Case 2: A 35-year-old woman had low back pain, radiculopathy and bladder dysfunction. We identified a cyst adjacent to the S1 nerve root and implanted a subarachnoid shunt. Her low back pain and radiculopathy improved immediately and she experienced neither postoperative neurological deficits nor recurrence. Cyst-subarachnoid shunts are a useful treatment option for symptomatic perineural cysts.
Acute onset of digital ischemia and infarction is an unusual complication in patients undergoing hemodialysis. This is a report of a patient on regular hemodialysis who presented with acute distal extremity ischemia, progressing to digital infarction and on evaluation was found to have thrombosis of brachial arteriovenous fistula with embolization to the distal arteries causing digital artery occlusion.
Rivero Rodríguez, D; Scherle Matamoros, C; Fernández Cúe, L; Miranda Hernández, J L; Pernas Sánchez, Y; Pérez Nellar, J
This study evaluates care-related sociodemographic, clinical, and imaging factors and influences associated with outcome at discharge in patients with aneurismal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Retrospective cohort study in 334 patients treated at Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras in Havana, Cuba between October 2005 and June 2014. Logistic regression analysis determined that the following factors were associated with higher risk of poor outcome: age older than 65 years (OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.79-5.7, P=.031), female sex (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.22-3.84, P=.0067), systolic hypertension (OR 4.82, 95% CI 2.27-9.8, P=.0001), and hyperglycaemia at admission (OR 3.93, 95% CI 2.10-7.53, P=.0003). Certain complications were also associated with poor prognosis, including respiratory infection (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.27-5.85, P=.0085), electrolyte disturbances (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.33-8.28, P=.0073), hydrocephalus (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.05-4.63, P=.0039), rebleeding (OR 16.50, 95% CI 8.24-41.24, P=.0000), symptomatic vasospasm (OR 19.00, 95% CI 8.86-41.24, P=.0000), cerebral ischaemia (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.87-7.80, P=.000) and multiplex rebleeding (OR 6.69, 95% CI 1.35-36.39, P=.0019). Grades of iii and iv on the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.12-3.91, P=.0021) and Fisher scales (OR 5.18, 95% CI 2.65-10.29, P=.0008) were also related to poor outcome. Outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage was related to age, sex, clinical status at admission to the stroke unit, imaging findings according to the Fisher scale, blood pressure, glycaemia and such complications as electrolyte disturbances, hydrocephalus, rebleeding, and multiplex rebleeding. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Suwatcharangkoon, Sureerat; Meyers, Emma; Falo, Cristina; Schmidt, J Michael; Agarwal, Sachin; Claassen, Jan; Mayer, Stephan A
Loss of consciousness (LOC) is a common presenting symptom of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that is presumed to result from transient intracranial circulatory arrest. To clarify the association between LOC at onset of SAH, complications while in the hospital, and long-term outcome after SAH. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 1460 consecutively treated patients with spontaneous SAH who were part of a prospective observational cohort study at a large urban academic medical center (the Columbia University SAH Outcomes Project or SHOP). Patients were enrolled between August 6, 1996, and July 23, 2012. Analysis was conducted from December 1, 2013, to February 28, 2015. Loss of consciousness at onset was identified by structured interview of the patient and first responders. Patients (80.5%) were observed for up to 1 year to assess functional recovery. Modified Rankin scale scores were assigned based on telephone or in-person interviews of the patient, family members, or caregivers. Complications while in the hospital were predefined and adjudicated by the study team. Five hundred ninety patients (40.4%) reported LOC at onset of SAH. Loss of consciousness was associated with poor clinical grade, more subarachnoid and intraventricular blood seen on admission computed tomographic scan, and a higher frequency of global cerebral edema (P < .001). Loss of consciousness was also associated with more prehospital tonic-clonic activity (22.7% vs 4.2%; P < .001) and cardiopulmonary arrest (9.7% vs 0.5%, P < .001) vs patients who did not experience LOC. In multivariable analysis, death or severe disability at 12 months was independently associated with LOC after adjusting for established risk factors for poor outcome, including poor admission clinical grade (adjusted odds ratio, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.38-2.72; P < .001). There was no association between LOC at onset and delayed cerebral ischemia or aneurysm rebleeding. Loss of consciousness at symptom onset is an
Talavera, J O; Wacher, N H; Laredo, F; Halabe, J; Rosales, V; Madrazo, I; Lifshitz, A
Clinical diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is frequently misdiagnosed with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or cerebral infarction (CI), which delays appropriate referral. This study was undertaken to create a clinical index to select, among stroke patients, those with the highest probability of having a SAH. Clinical data of patients with acute stroke were evaluated with the X2 and the Fisher exact test; a p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Significant variables were included in a "log-lineal regression analysis" where those with an odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence limits not including the unit were considered to construct an index using the odds ratio coefficient (C). The results indicated that of 197 records which were included, 22 cases of SAH and 175 of ICH or CI were demonstrated. Kappa coefficients for observer variation in clinical data retrieval was 0.91. After "log-lineal regression analysis" was carried out the following variables were significant: neck stiffness (C = 3, OR = 21); lack of focal neurologic signs (C = 2, OR = 6.88); and age < or = 60 years (C = 1.5, OR = 4.35). A fourth variable, seizures (C = 1, OR = 3.25), was marginally significant (p = 0.07), but added predictive value to the index. The positive predictive values of the sum of the coefficients were: 0 = 0%; 1-2 = 3%; 2.5-3.5 = 21%; 4-5 = 40%; 6.5 = 75%; 7.5 = 100%. In conclusion, when a stroke patient shows neck stiffness, or any combination of young age, lack of focal neurologic signs or seizures (a score > or = 2.5, the index has a 91% sensitivity and 82% specificity), he/she must be referred to a tertiary care center.
Bittel, Brennen; Husmann, Kathrin
Introduction: We present a case report in a patient with severe, recurrent, thunderclap with computed tomography (CT) evidence of subarachnoid blood and negative work-up for aneurysm. This case is an example of Call-Fleming syndrome with subarachnoid hemorrhage in which transcranial Doppler (TCD) was used for monitoring of cerebral vasoconstriction when angiography did not evidence vasoconstriction. We will review Call-Fleming syndrome and the utility of transcranial doppler imaging to assess cerebral vasoconstriction. Methods: A review of the current literature regarding diagnostics, treatment, and morbidity in Call-Fleming (reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome) as well as a review of the data using transcranial color-coded sonography and transcranial doppler imaging to assess vasospasm in these cases. Results: The patient underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) and venography (CTV), catheter angiography, lumbar puncture, and vasculitis work-up which were all negative. His magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed T2 weighted and fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyper-intensities in the posterior frontal lobes as well as subarachnoid blood along bilateral occipital convexities. TCDs were obtained which showed elevated mean velocities. Conclusion: The use of bedside transcranial doppler imaging is a non-invasive means of assessing vasospasm in Call-Fleming syndrome; even in cases where angiography is negative. Determining the degree of vasospasm based on the data in subarachnoid hemorrhage, we are able to predict a patient’s risk of complications related to vasospasm including reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy and ischemic events. PMID:22518264
Nieuwkamp, Dennis J; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Algra, Ale; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Bots, Michiel L
The increased mortality rates of survivors of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage have been attributed to an increased risk of cardiovascular events in a registry study in Sweden. Swedish registries have however not been validated for subarachnoid haemorrhage and Scandinavian incidences of cardiovascular disease differ from that in Western European countries. We assessed risks of vascular disease and death in subarachnoid haemorrhage survivors in the Netherlands. From the Dutch hospital discharge register, we identified all patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage admission between 1997 and 2008. We determined the accuracy of coding of the diagnosis subarachnoid haemorrhage for patients admitted to our centre. Conditional on survival of three-months after the subarachnoid haemorrhage, we calculated standardized incidence and mortality ratios for fatal or nonfatal vascular diseases, vascular death, and all-cause death. Cumulative risks were estimated with survival analysis. The diagnosis of nontraumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage was correct in 95·4% of 1472 patients. Of 11,263 admitted subarachnoid haemorrhage patients, 6999 survived more than three-months. During follow-up (mean 5·1 years), 874 (12·5%) died. The risks of death were 3·3% within one-year, 11·3% within five-years, and 21·5% within 10 years. The standardized mortality ratio was 3·4 (95% confidence interval: 3·1 to 3·7) for vascular death and 2·2 (95% confidence interval: 2·1 to 2·3) for all-cause death. The standardized incidence ratio for fatal or nonfatal vascular diseases was 2·7 (95% confidence interval: 2·6 to 2·8). Dutch hospital discharge and cause of death registries are a valid source of data for subarachnoid haemorrhage, and show that the increased mortality rate in subarachnoid haemorrhage survivors is explained by increased risks for vascular diseases and death. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.
Badjatia, Neeraj; Seres, David; Carpenter, Amanda; Schmidt, J Michael; Lee, Kiwon; Mayer, Stephan A; Claassen, Jan; Connolly, E Sander; Elkind, Mitchell S
The purpose of this study was to understand factors related to increases in serum free fatty acid (FFA) levels and association with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage. We performed serial measurement of systemic oxygen consumption by indirect calorimetry and FFA levels by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in the first 14 days after ictus in 50 consecutive patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Multivariable generalized estimating equation models identified associations with FFA levels in the first 14 days after SAH and Cox proportional hazards model used to identified associations with time to DCI. There were 187 measurements in 50 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (mean age, 56±14 years old; 66% women) with a median Hunt-Hess score of 3. Adjusting for Hunt-Hess grade and daily caloric intake, n-6 and n-3 FFA levels were both associated with oxygen consumption and the modified Fisher score. Fourteen (28%) patients developed DCI on median postbleed Day 7. The modified Fisher score (P=0.01), mean n-6:n-3 FFA ratio (P=0.02), and mean oxygen consumption level (P=0.04) were higher in patients who developed DCI. In a Cox proportional hazards model, the mean n-6:n-3 FFA ratio (P<0.001), younger age (P=0.05), and modified Fisher scale (P=0.004) were associated with time to DCI. Injury severity and oxygen consumption hypermetabolism are associated with higher n-FFA levels and an increased n-6:n-3 FFA ratio is associated with DCI. This may indicate a role for interventions that modulate both oxygen consumption and FFA levels to reduce the occurrence of DCI.
Mao, David Qiyuan; Addess, Daniel; Valsamis, Helen
Report a case of cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) and discuss its management. A 66-year-old woman presents with acute onset left arm numbness and weakness. Initial head CT shows small hyperdensity in sulci typical for cSAH. Extensive workup with MRI, lumbar puncture and blood tests is performed. No signs of infection, vascular malformations, thrombosis or cancer are found. At outpatient follow-up, she is diagnosed with cSAH secondary to amyloid angiopathy. She is treated with gabapentin. Diagnosis of cSAH is challenging given its subtle findings, and management is empiric as there are only a few case series in literature.
Ulrich, C T; Beck, J; Seifert, V; Marquardt, G
Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) due to spinal ependymoma is very rare. We report a 37 year old man who presented with typical clinical signs of SAH. Lumbar puncture confirmed SAH but cerebral angiography was negative, and further diagnostic work-up revealed an ependymoma of the conus medullaris as the source of the haemorrhage. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted. Only 17 patients with spontaneous SAH due to a spinal ependymoma have been reported since 1958. However, in cases of SAH and negative diagnostic findings for cerebral aneurysms or malformations, this aetiology should be considered and work-up of the spinal axis completed.
Hrabovsky, S L; Welty, T K; Coulehan, J L
While some Indian tribes have low rates of acute myocardial infarction, Northern Plains Indians, including the Sioux, have rates of morbidity and mortality from acute myocardial infarction higher than those reported for the United States population in general. In a review of diagnosed cases of acute myocardial infarction over a 3-year period in 2 hospitals serving predominantly Sioux Indians, 8% of cases were found misclassified, and 22% failed to meet rigorous diagnostic criteria, although the patients did indeed have ischemic heart disease. Patients had high frequencies of complications and risk factors and a fatality rate of 16% within a month of admission. Sudden deaths likely due to ischemic heart disease but in persons not diagnosed as having acute myocardial infarction by chart review occurred 3 times more frequently than deaths occurring within a month of clinical diagnosis.
In vivo increased sensitivity to heparin has been demonstrated in patients following an acute myocardial infarction. An intravenous injection of 10,000 units of heparin was given to each of 18 patients with recent myocardial infarction in order to compare them with 17 patients who were not suffering from any acute illness. The changes in whole blood clotting time, recalcified plasma clotting time and prothrombin time were greater and more prolonged in the patients with recent myocardial infarction. Of the three tests, the one-stage prothrombin time provided the simplest and the most precise measurement of heparin sensitivity. The reason for this was not clear: it is possible that it is related to shock and congestive heart failure which were complications of the clinical course following myocardial infarction. PMID:14216140
Rios, Elisabete; Mancio, Jennifer; Rodrigues-Pereira, Pedro; Magalhães, Domingos; Bartosch, Carla
The clinical and autopsy findings of a 66-year-old man with myocardial infarction complicated by reperfusion injury are described, highlighting the presence of large myocardium calcium deposits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beadell, Noah C; Thompson, Eric M; Delashaw, Johnny B; Cetas, Justin S
The objective of this study was to retrospectively look at methamphetamine (MA) use in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) to determine if MA use affects clinical presentation and outcomes after aneurysmal SAH. A retrospective review of patients admitted to the Oregon Health & Science University neurosurgical service with aneurysmal SAH during the past 6 years was undertaken. Variables analyzed included MA use, age, sex, cigarette use, Hunt and Hess grade, Fisher grade, admission blood pressure, aneurysm characteristics, occurrence of vasospasm, hospital length of stay (LOS), cerebral infarction, aneurysm treatment, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score. Data differences between MA users and nonusers were statistically analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A separate comparison with randomly selected age-matched nonuser controls was also performed. Twenty-eight (7%) of 374 patients with aneurysmal SAH were identified as MA users. Methamphetamine users were younger than nonusers (45.2 vs 55.9 years, respectively; p <0.001). Despite a younger age, MA users had significantly higher Hunt and Hess grades than nonusers (3.0 vs 2.5, respectively; p <0.020) and age-matched controls (3.0 vs 2.0, respectively; p <0.001). Earliest available mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in MA users (122.1 vs 109.7, respectively; p = 0.005) than all nonusers but not age-matched controls. Methamphetamine users had significantly higher vasospasm rates than nonusers (92.9% vs 71.1%, respectively; p = 0.008) but similar rates as age-matched controls (92.9% vs 89.3%, respectively; p = 0.500). Glasgow Outcome Scale score did not differ significantly between users and nonusers (3 vs 4, respectively; p = 0.170), but users had significantly lower GOS scores than age-matched controls (3 vs 5, respectively; p <0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the LOS between users and nonusers (18 days vs 16 days, respectively; p = 0
Madhuvan, H S; Krishnamurthy, Ajoy; Prakash, P; Shariff, Shameem
Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare complication of diabetes. It is seen more in Type 1 DM than Type 2 DM, but in both it is associated with longer duration of diabetes, poor glycemic control with or without microvascular complications. We present a case report of a 47 year diabetic male, who presented with sudden onset of painful swelling of the left thigh muscles (vastus group). The patient had microvascular complications of diabetes. Apart for mild elevation of CPK and LDH other investigations were normal. MRI findings of left thigh showed T2 hyperintensities in the involved muscles which established the diagnosis. Muscle biopsy revealed necrosis of the muscle fibres, presence of inflammatory cell infiltrates and hyalinization of the blood vessels with luminal narrowing which is characteristic of diabetic muscle infarction. The patient was treated with immobilization, analgesics and adequate blood sugar control. This case highlights the rarity of finding vascular changes as well as the poor prognosis and the occurrence of fatal complications in near future.
Maslehaty, Homajoun; Barth, Harald; Petridis, Athanassios K; Doukas, Alexandros; Maximilian Mehdorn, Hubertus
The aim of this study was to work out the special features of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) of unknown origin in respect of diagnostic evaluation, clinical course, and outcome in a large cohort of patients. We reviewed the data of 179 patients with SAH of unknown origin during 1991 and 2008. The differentiation between perimesencephalic (PM-SAH) and non-perimesencephalic SAH (NON-PM-SAH) was done under consideration of the bleeding pattern on CT scanning. Among 1226 treated patients with spontaneous SAH over a time period of 17 years, a bleeding source remained undetected on first digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) in 179 patients (16.7%)--47 PM-SAH (26.3%) and 132 NON-PM-SAH (73.7%). The clinical signs of patients with PM-SAH were less marked compared to those with NON-PM-SAH, equally to the Hunt and Hess grade. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR angiography had 100% negative findings for non-aneurismal bleeding sources in all patients. Second DSA revealed a bleeding source in the NON-PM group in 10.8%. The clinical course of the patients with NON-PM-SAH showed a significantly higher rate of complications and a mortality of about 10%. The outcome was excellent in the PM group, in contrast to a fatal course in 13 cases in the NON-PM group. PM-SAH imposed with a mild clinical course and an excellent outcome, without severe complications. In contrast to this, NON-PM-SAH has a significant higher rate of dreaded complications and mortality. It is crucial to make an exact diagnosis of PM-SAH, considering CT scanning during the first 24 hours after occurrence of symptoms and the radiological features.
Rivero Rodríguez, Dannys; Scherle Matamoros, Claudio; Cúe, Leda Fernández; Miranda Hernández, Jose Luis; Pernas Sánchez, Yanelis; Pérez Nellar, Jesús
Methods. “Ameijeiras Brother's” and “Cmdt. Manuel Fajardo” Hospitals enrolled 64 patients (multicentre retrospective cohort) with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and rebleeding. The patients were admitted to the Stroke Unit (SU) between January 1, 2006, and December 1, 2013. Demographic, clinical, and radiological variables were examined in logistic regression to evaluate independent factors for increasing the risk of death. Results. Patients with systolic blood pressure >160 mmHg (P = 0.02), serum glucose >7 mmol/L (P = 0.02), aneurysm location in artery communicant anterior (P = 0.03), and black/mixed race (P = 0.008) were significant related to death in univariate analysis. Risk factors (HTA, smoke, alcohol consumption, and DM), complication, multiplex rebleeding and stage of WFNS, and Fisher's scale were not related to mortality. Patients with three or more complications had a higher mortality rate (P = 0.002). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that race (black/mixed, P = 0.00, OR 4.62, and 95% IC 1.40–16.26), systolic blood pressure (>160 mmHg, P = 0.05, OR 2.54, and 95% IC 1.01–3.13), and serum glucose (>7.0 mmol/L, P = 0.05, OR 1.82, and 95% IC 1.27–2.67) were independent risk factors for death. Conclusions. The black/mixed race, SBP, and serum glucose were independent predictors of mortality. Three or more complications were associated with increasing the probability to death. Further investigation is necessary to validate these findings. PMID:25722889
Smart, F W; Husserl, F E
Acute or short-term complications following the use of flow-directed balloon-tipped catheters are well recognized. Long-term sequelae are rarely reported. We report herein an early complication of pulmonary arterial rupture with infarction followed by the delayed development of a pulmonary arterial aneurysm.
Fernández Valadez, E; García y Otero, J M; Escobar, G P; Frutos Rangel, E; Zúñiga Sedano, J; García García, R; Verduzco Bazavilvazo, S; López Aranda, J; López Ruiz, J
Ventricular dysfunction is the most common cause of in-hospital death in patients with acute myocardial infarction. When cardiogenic shock is manifested the mortality is very high. Seven patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction were treated with emergency coronary angioplasty. Four patients required cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 2 intraaortic balloon pump support and one femoro-femoral bypass pump support during the coronary angioplasty. The angiography success rate was 86%. Two patients died, one in the catheterization laboratory and the other one 24 hours later. The hospital mortality was 29%. Of the patients who survived 4 are in functional class I and one in functional class II (NYHA). Coronary angioplasty therapy in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction plays a decisive role in the reduction of mortality.
Sinha, Archana; Lewis, O'Dene; Kumar, Rajan; Yeruva, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi; Curry, Bryan H
Amphetamine abuse is a global problem. The cardiotoxic manifestations like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or arrhythmia related to misuse of amphetamine and its synthetic derivatives have been documented but are rather rare. Amphetamine-related AMI is even rarer. We report two cases of men who came to emergency department (ED) with chest pain, palpitation, or seizure and were subsequently found to have myocardial infarction associated with the use of amphetamines. It is crucial that, with increase in amphetamine abuse, clinicians are aware of this potentially dire complication. Patients with low to intermediate risk for coronary artery disease with atypical presentation may benefit from obtaining detailed substance abuse history and urine drug screen if deemed necessary.
Jamal, Nasiruddin; Rajhy, Mubina; Bapumia, Mustaafa
An individual experiencing dyspnoea or syncope at high altitude is commonly diagnosed to have high-altitude pulmonary edema or cerebral edema. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is generally not considered in the differential diagnosis. There have been very rare cases of AMI reported only from Mount Everest. We report a case of painless ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) that occurred while climbing Mount Kilimanjaro. A 51-year-old man suffered dyspnoea and loss of consciousness near the mountain peak, at about 5600 m. At a nearby hospital, he was treated as a case of high-altitude pulmonary edema. ECG was not obtained. Two days after the incident, he presented to our institution with continued symptoms of dyspnoea, light-headedness and weakness, but no pain. He was found to have inferior wall and right ventricular STEMI complicated by complete heart block. He was successfully managed with coronary angioplasty, with good recovery. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Lewis, O'Dene; Kumar, Rajan; Yeruva, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi; Curry, Bryan H.
Amphetamine abuse is a global problem. The cardiotoxic manifestations like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or arrhythmia related to misuse of amphetamine and its synthetic derivatives have been documented but are rather rare. Amphetamine-related AMI is even rarer. We report two cases of men who came to emergency department (ED) with chest pain, palpitation, or seizure and were subsequently found to have myocardial infarction associated with the use of amphetamines. It is crucial that, with increase in amphetamine abuse, clinicians are aware of this potentially dire complication. Patients with low to intermediate risk for coronary artery disease with atypical presentation may benefit from obtaining detailed substance abuse history and urine drug screen if deemed necessary. PMID:26998366
Liu, Yan; Jolly, Suneil; Pokala, Krishna
Paroxysmal sympathetic storming (PSS) is a rare disorder characterized by acute onset of nonstimulated tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, hyperthermia, external posturing, and diaphoresis. It is most frequently associated with severe traumatic brain injuries and has been reported in intracranial tumors, hydrocephalous, severe hypoxic brain injury, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Although excessive release of catecholamine and therefore increased sympathetic activities have been reported in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), there is no descriptive report of PSS primarily caused by spontaneous SAH up to date. Here, we report a case of prolonged PSS in a patient with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and consequent vasospasm. The sympathetic storming started shortly after patient was rewarmed from hypothermia protocol and symptoms responded to Labetalol, but intermittent recurrence did not resolve until 3 weeks later with treatment involving Midazolam, Fentanyl, Dexmedetomidine, Propofol, Bromocriptine, and minimizing frequency of neurological and vital checks. In conclusion, prolonged sympathetic storming can also be caused by spontaneous SAH. In this case, vasospasm might be a precipitating factor. Paralytics and hypothermia could mask the manifestations of PSS. The treatment of the refractory case will need both timely adjustment of medications and minimization of exogenous stressors or stimuli.
Wu, Z; Li, Shaowu; Lei, J; An, D; Haacke, E M
SWI is an MR imaging technique that is very sensitive to hemorrhage. Our goal was to compare SWI and CT to determine if SWI can show traumatic SAH in different parts of the subarachnoid space. Twenty acute TBI patients identified by CT with SAH underwent MR imaging scans. Two neuroradiologists analyzed the CT and SWI data to decide whether there were SAHs in 8 anatomical parts of the subarachnoid space. Fifty-five areas with SAH were identified by both CT and SWI. Ten areas were identified by CT only and 13 by SWI only. SAH was recognized on SWI by its very dark signal intensity surrounded by CSF signal intensity in the sulci or cisterns. Compared with the smooth-looking veins, SAH tended to have a rough boundary and inhomogeneous signal intensity. In many instances, blood in the sulcus left an area of signal intensity loss that had a "triangle" shape. SWI showed 5 more cases of intraventricular hemorrhage than did CT. SAH can be recognized by SWI through its signal intensity and unique morphology. SWI can provide complementary information to CT in terms of small amounts of SAH and hemorrhage inside the ventricles.
Han, Sang Myung; Wan, Hoyee; Kudo, Gen; Foltz, Warren D; Vines, Douglass C; Green, David E; Zoerle, Tommaso; Tariq, Asma; Brathwaite, Shakira; D'Abbondanza, Josephine; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch
Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) frequently have deficits in learning and memory that may or may not be associated with detectable brain lesions. We examined mediators of long-term potentiation after SAH in rats to determine what processes might be involved. There was a reduction in synapses in the dendritic layer of the CA1 region on transmission electron microscopy as well as reduced colocalization of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and synaptophysin. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced staining for GluR1 and calmodulin kinase 2 and increased staining for GluR2. Myelin basic protein staining was decreased as well. There was no detectable neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B, TUNEL, or activated caspase-3 staining. Vasospasm of the large arteries of the circle of Willis was mild to moderate in severity. Nitric oxide was increased and superoxide anion radical was decreased in hippocampal tissue. Cerebral blood flow, measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebral glucose metabolism, measured by positron emission tomography, were no different in SAH compared with control groups. The results suggest that the etiology of loss of LTP after SAH is not cerebral ischemia but may be mediated by effects of subarachnoid blood such as oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:24064494
Bray, David P; Ellis, Jason A; Lavine, Sean D; Meyers, Philip M; Connolly, E Sander
Antiplatelet medication use is associated with worsened outcome after angiogram-negative subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It has been hypothesized that these worsened outcomes may be the result of an association between antiplatelet medication use and increased hemorrhage volumes after angiogram-negative SAH. To test this hypothesis, we performed volumetric analysis of computed tomography (CT)-defined hemorrhage after angiogram-negative SAH. This was a retrospective analysis of patients presenting with nontraumatic, angiogram-negative SAH in the Columbia University Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Outcomes database between 2000 and 2013. SAH volumes on admission head CT scans were measured using the MIPAV software package, version 7.20 in a semiautomated fashion. A total of 108 presenting CT scans from patients with angiogram-negative SAH were analyzed. The mean hemorrhage volume was 14.3 mL in the patients with a history of antiplatelet medication use, compared with 6.8 mL in those with no history of antiplatelet use. This difference was found to be significant (P = 0.0029). Antiplatelet medication use is associated with increased SAH volumes in patients with angiogram-negative SAH. Increased hemorrhage volumes may contribute to poor outcomes in this patient population. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm this association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Støverud, K H; Langtangen, H P; Haughton, V; Mardal, K-A
According to some theories, obstruction of CSF flow produces a pressure drop in the subarachnoid space in accordance with the Bernoulli theorem that explains the development of syringomyelia below the obstruction. However, Bernoulli's principle applies to inviscid stationary flow unlike CSF flow. Therefore, we performed a series of computational experiments to investigate the relationship between pressure drop, flow velocities, and obstructions under physiologic conditions. We created geometric models with dimensions approximating the spinal subarachnoid space with varying degrees of obstruction. Pressures and velocities for constant and oscillatory flow of a viscid fluid were calculated with the Navier-Stokes equations. Pressure and velocity along the length of the models were also calculated by the Bernoulli equation and compared with the results from the Navier-Stokes equations. In the models, fluid velocities and pressure gradients were approximately inversely proportional to the percentage of the channel that remained open. Pressure gradients increased minimally with 35% obstruction and with factors 1.4, 2.2 and 5.0 respectively with 60, 75 and 85% obstruction. Bernoulli's law underestimated pressure changes by at least a factor 2 and predicted a pressure increase downstream of the obstruction, which does not occur. For oscillatory flow the phase difference between pressure maxima and velocity maxima changed with the degree of obstruction. Inertia and viscosity which are not factored into the Bernoulli equation affect CSF flow. Obstruction of CSF flow in the cervical spinal canal increases pressure gradients and velocities and decreases the phase lag between pressure and velocity.
Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Egea-Guerrero, Juan José; Ruiz de Azúa-López, Zaida; Murillo-Cabezas, Francisco
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a neurologic emergency caused by a brain aneurysm burst, resulting in a bleeding into the subarachnoid space. Its incidence is estimated between 4 and 28/10,000 inhabitants and it is the main cause of sudden death from stroke. The prognosis of patients with SAH is directly related to neurological status on admission, to the magnitude of the initial bleeding, as well as to the development of cerebral vasospasm (CVS). Numerous researchers have studied the role of different biomarkers in CVS development. These biomarkers form part of the metabolic cascade that is triggered as a result of the SAH. Hence, among these metabolites we found biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation biomarkers, indicators of brain damage, and markers of vascular pathology. However, to the author knowledge, none of these biomarkers has been demonstrated as a useful tool for predicting neither CVS development nor outcome after SAH. In order to reach success on future researches, firstly it should be stated which pathophysiological process is mainly responsible for CVS development. Once this process has been determined, the temporal course of this pathophysiologic cascade should be characterized, and then, perform further studies on biomarkers already analyzed, as well as on new biomarkers not yet studied in the SAH pathology, focusing attention on the temporal course of the diverse metabolites and the sampling time for its quantification.
Støverud, K.H.; Langtangen, H.P.; Haughton, V.; Mardal, K-A.
According to some theories, obstruction of CSF flow produces a pressure drop in the subarachnoid space in accordance with the Bernoulli theorem that explains the development of syringomyelia below the obstruction. However, Bernoulli's principle applies to inviscid stationary flow unlike CSF flow. Therefore, we performed a series of computational experiments to investigate the relationship between pressure drop, flow velocities, and obstructions under physiologic conditions. We created geometric models with dimensions approximating the spinal subarachnoid space with varying degrees of obstruction. Pressures and velocities for constant and oscillatory flow of a viscid fluid were calculated with the Navier-Stokes equations. Pressure and velocity along the length of the models were also calculated by the Bernoulli equation and compared with the results from the Navier-Stokes equations. In the models, fluid velocities and pressure gradients were approximately inversely proportional to the percentage of the channel that remained open. Pressure gradients increased minimally with 35% obstruction and with factors 1.4, 2.2 and 5.0 respectively with 60, 75 and 85% obstruction. Bernoulli's law underestimated pressure changes by at least a factor 2 and predicted a pressure increase downstream of the obstruction, which does not occur. For oscillatory flow the phase difference between pressure maxima and velocity maxima changed with the degree of obstruction. Inertia and viscosity which are not factored into the Bernoulli equation affect CSF flow. Obstruction of CSF flow in the cervical spinal canal increases pressure gradients and velocities and decreases the phase lag between pressure and velocity. PMID:23859246
Perry, Jeffrey J; Alyahya, Bader; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Bullard, Michael J; Émond, Marcel; Sutherland, Jane; Worster, Andrew; Hohl, Corinne; Lee, Jacques S; Eisenhauer, Mary A; Pauls, Merril; Lesiuk, Howard; Wells, George A; Stiell, Ian G
To describe the findings in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with acute headache that could distinguish subarachnoid hemorrhage from the effects of a traumatic lumbar puncture. A substudy of a prospective multicenter cohort study. 12 Canadian academic emergency departments, from November 2000 to December 2009. Alert patients aged over 15 with an acute non-traumatic headache who underwent lumbar puncture to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage requiring intervention or resulting in death. Of the 1739 patients enrolled, 641 (36.9%) had abnormal results on cerebrospinal fluid analysis with >1 × 10(6)/L red blood cells in the final tube of cerebrospinal fluid and/or xanthochromia in one or more tubes. There were 15 (0.9%) patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage based on abnormal results of a lumbar puncture. The presence of fewer than 2000 × 10(6)/L red blood cells in addition to no xanthochromia excluded the diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, with a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval 74.7% to 100%) and specificity of 91.2% (88.6% to 93.3%). No xanthochromia and red blood cell count <2000 × 10(6)/L reasonably excludes the diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Most patients with acute headache who meet this cut off will need no further investigations and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage can be excluded as a cause of their headache. © Perry et al 2015.
Alyahya, Bader; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Bullard, Michael J; Émond, Marcel; Sutherland, Jane; Worster, Andrew; Hohl, Corinne; Lee, Jacques S; Eisenhauer, Mary A; Pauls, Merril; Lesiuk, Howard; Wells, George A; Stiell, Ian G
Objectives To describe the findings in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with acute headache that could distinguish subarachnoid hemorrhage from the effects of a traumatic lumbar puncture. Design A substudy of a prospective multicenter cohort study. Setting 12 Canadian academic emergency departments, from November 2000 to December 2009. Participants Alert patients aged over 15 with an acute non-traumatic headache who underwent lumbar puncture to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage. Main outcome measure Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage requiring intervention or resulting in death. Results Of the 1739 patients enrolled, 641 (36.9%) had abnormal results on cerebrospinal fluid analysis with >1×106/L red blood cells in the final tube of cerebrospinal fluid and/or xanthochromia in one or more tubes. There were 15 (0.9%) patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage based on abnormal results of a lumbar puncture. The presence of fewer than 2000×106/L red blood cells in addition to no xanthochromia excluded the diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, with a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval 74.7% to 100%) and specificity of 91.2% (88.6% to 93.3%). Conclusion No xanthochromia and red blood cell count <2000×106/L reasonably excludes the diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Most patients with acute headache who meet this cut off will need no further investigations and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage can be excluded as a cause of their headache. PMID:25694274
Lapa, Sriramya; Luger, Sebastian; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud; Henke, Christian; Wagner, Marlies; Foerch, Christian
Little is known about the frequency and the clinical characteristics of neurogenic dysphagia in pontine strokes. In this study, we sought to identify predictors for dysphagia in a cohort of patients with isolated pontine infarctions. We included all patients admitted to our department between 2008 and 2014 having an acute (<48 hours after symptom onset) ischemic stroke in the pons, as documented by means of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Precise infarct localization was stratified according to established vascular territories. The presence of dysphagia was the primary end point of the study and was assessed by a Speech-Language Pathologist according to defined criteria. The study recruited 59 patients, 14 with and 45 without dysphagia. Median (interquartile range) stroke severity (in terms of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale values) was higher in the dysphagic group as compared with patients without dysphagia (8.5 [6-12] versus 2 [1-5]; P<0.001). Infarct localization in the upper part of the pons (78.6% versus 33.3%; P=0.004) and in the anterolateral vascular territory (78.6% versus 31.1%; P=0.002) occurred more often in the dysphagic group. In a multivariate model, age, infarct volume, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale value were independent predictors of dysphagia. Dysphagia occurs frequently in patients with isolated pontine infarctions. Clinical and imaging predictors of dysphagia may help to provide optimal screening, to prevent complications and to improve long-term prognosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Feld, Shara I.; Cobian, Alexander G.; Tevis, Sarah E.; Kennedy, Gregory D.; Craven, Mark W.
Post-operative complications have a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality; these impacts are exacerbated when patients experience multiple complications. However, the task of modeling the temporal sequencing of complications has not been previously addressed. We present an approach based on Markov chain models for characterizing the temporal evolution of post-operative complications represented in the American College of Surgeons National Surgery Quality Improvement Program database. Our work demonstrates that the models have significant predictive value. In particular, an inhomogenous Markov chain model effectively predicts the development of serious complications (coma longer than a day, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, septic shock, renal failure, pneumonia) and interventional complications (unplanned re-intubation, longer than 2 days on a ventilator and bleeding transfusion). PMID:28269851
Lannes, Marcelo; Teitelbaum, Jeanne; del Pilar Cortés, Maria; Cardoso, Mauro; Angle, Mark
For the treatment of cerebral vasospasm, current therapies have focused on increasing blood flow through blood pressure augmentation, hypervolemia, the use of intra-arterial vasodilators, and angioplasty of proximal cerebral vessels. Through a large case series, we present our experience of treating cerebral vasospasm with a protocol based on maintenance of homeostasis (correction of electrolyte and glucose disturbances, prevention and treatment of hyperthermia, replacement of fluid losses), and the use of intravenous milrinone to improve microcirculation (the Montreal Neurological Hospital protocol). Our objective is to describe the use milrinone in our practice and the neurological outcomes associated with this approach. Large case series based on the review of all patients diagnosed with delayed ischemic neurologic deficits after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage between April 1999 and April 2006. 88 patients were followed for a mean time of 44.6 months. An intravenous milrinone infusion was used for a mean of 9.8 days without any significant side effects. No medical complications associated with this protocol were observed. There were five deaths; of the surviving patients, 48.9 % were able to go back to their previous baseline and 75 % had a good functional outcome (modified Rankin scale ≤ 2). A protocol using intravenous milrinone, and the maintenance of homeostasis is simple to use and requires less intensive monitoring and resources than the standard triple H therapy. Despite the obvious limitations of this study's design, we believe that it would be now appropriate to proceed with formal prospective studies of this protocol.
Shinoda, Narihide; Hirai, Osamu; Mikami, Kazuyuki; Bando, Toshiaki; Shimo, Daisuke; Kuroyama, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Masato; Itoh, Tomoo; Kuramoto, Yoji; Ueno, Yasushi
Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is not yet well known in the neurosurgical field, even though it has become an increasingly recognized pathology in arterial dissection. A case of SAM presented as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to a dissecting aneurysm of the left intracranial vertebral artery (VA), which extended from the proximal VA union to the distal portion of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The lesion was successfully embolized by an endovascular technique. However, subsequent intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to rupture of a fusiform aneurysm of the middle colic artery prompted surgical treatments. The features of the extirpated visceral vascular lesion were compatible with the diagnosis of SAM based on histopathologic examinations. It is very important that SAM is recognized as a systemic disease that affects the central nervous system, visceral arteries, and coronary arteries. The possibility of SAM should always be considered, particularly in patients with ruptured VA dissection-which is nowadays treated by endovascular techniques-since concomitantly involved visceral arteries may cause unexpected hemorrhagic complications other than SAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Limbrick, David D; Behdad, Amir; Derdeyn, Colin P; Custer, Phillip L; Zipfel, Gregory J; Santiago, Paul
Traumatic, nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is common after closed head injury and most often results from ruptured cortical microvessels. Here, the authors present the case of a 60-year-old woman who fell and struck her head, causing traumatic enucleation and avulsion of both the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery. The arterial avulsion caused a Fisher Grade 3 SAH. During her stay in the intensive care unit, hydrocephalus and vasospasm developed, clinical conditions commonly observed after aneurysmal SAH. Epileptiform activity also developed, although this may have been related to concurrent Pantoea agglomerans ventriculitis. It is reasonable to suggest that intracerebral arterial avulsion with profuse arterial bleeding may be more likely than traditional traumatic SAH to result in clinical events similar to that of aneurysmal SAH. Special consideration should be given to the acute care of patients with intracranial arterial avulsions (conservative management vs surgical exploration or endovascular treatment), as well as long-term follow-up for vascular or other neurosurgical complications.
Kao, Lily; Al-Lawati, Zahraa; Vavao, Joli; Steinberg, Gary K; Katznelson, Laurence
Hyponatremia is a frequent complication following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and is commonly attributed either to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW). The object of this study is to elucidate the clinical demographics and sequelae of hyponatremia due to CSW in subjects with aneurysmal SAH. Retrospective chart review of patients >18 years with aneurysmal SAH admitted between January 2004 and July 2007 was performed. Subjects with moderate to severe hyponatremia (serum sodium <130 mmol l(-1)) were divided into groups consistent with CSW and SIADH based on urine output, fluid balance, natriuresis, and response to saline infusion. Clinical demographics were compared. Of 316 subjects identified, hyponatremia (serum sodium <135 mmol l(-1)) was detected in 187 (59.2%) subjects and moderate to severe hyponatremia in 48 (15.2%). Of the latter group, 35.4% were categorized with SIADH and 22.9% with CSW. Compared to eunatremic subjects, hyponatremia was associated with significantly longer hospital stay (15.7 +/- 1.9 vs. 9.6 +/- 1.1 days, p < 0.001). Subjects with CSW had similar mortality and duration of hospital stay vs. those with SIADH. Though less common than SIADH, CSW was detected in approximately 23% of patients with history of aneurysmal SAH and was not clearly associated with enhanced morbidity and mortality compared to subjects with SIADH. Further studies regarding the pathogenesis and management, along with the medical consequences, of CSW are important.
Mezzadri, Juan; Abbati, Santiago Gonzalez; Jalon, Pablo
The physiopathology of Tarlov or perineural cyst (PC) symptoms is unknown, but probably its filling and distention with spinal cerebrospinal fluid makes them symptomatic. The objective of this study is to describe the endoscope-assisted obliteration of the communication between PCs and the spinal subarachnoid space (SSS). From 2007 to 2011, four male and two female patients (median age: 45 years) with PCs were treated. They complained of lumbar, sciatic, and/or perineal pain. Physical examination was normal. The diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All the cysts were located in the midline between S1 and S3. An endoscope-assisted obliteration between PC and SSS was performed. The outcome was evaluated clinically with the Odom scale and radiologically with an MRI. After a median follow-up of 25.83 months, the outcome was excellent (four cases), good (one case), and poor (one case). There were no complications. The postoperative MRI showed size and signal intensity changes in all PCs reflecting their exclusion from the SSS. The endoscope-assisted obliteration of the communication between PCs and the SSS is a simple technique that rendered excellent to good results in 83% of the cases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Ishizaka, Shunsuke; Hayashi, Kentaro; Otsuka, Munehiro; Fukuda, Shuji; Tsunoda, Keishi; Ushijima, Ryujiro; Kitagawa, Naoki; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Nagata, Izumi
A 66-year-old woman with primary Sjogren syndrome developed syringomyelia following two episodes of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to the rupture of basilar artery aneurysms. Gait disturbance and abnormal sensation with pain over the foot and abdomen appeared 3 years after the last SAH. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a syringomyelia throughout the thoracic cord, from the T2 to T11 levels. In addition, the thoracic cord was compressed by multiple arachnoid cysts in the ventral side of spinal cord. Computed tomography myelography revealed complete block of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow at the T7 level. Surgery for microlysis of the adhesions and restoration of the CSF flow pathway was performed. Postoperatively, leg motor function slowly improved and she could walk unaided. However, abdominal paresthesia was persisted. Postoperative MR imaging revealed diminished size of the syrinxes. We should recognize syringomyelia and arachnoid cysts due to adhesive arachnoiditis as a late complication of SAH. Microlysis of the adhesions focusing on the lesion thought to be the cause of the symptoms is one of the choices to treat massive syringomyelia and arachnoid cysts associated with arachnoiditis following SAH.
Gangemi, Michelangelo; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; Di Somma, Alberto; Mazzucco, Grazia Marina; Bono, Paolo Sebastiano; Ghetti, Giovanni; Zambon, Giampaolo
Background Chronic shunt-dependent hydrocephalus is a complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Its incidence and risk factors have been described while the hydrocephalus onset in terms of days after treatment (microsurgical or endovascular) has not been yet analyzed. Materials and Methods 45 patients, treated for aSAH in 4 Italian Neurosurgical Departments, were retrospectively analyzed. It was calculated the time that elapses between treatment and hydrocephalus onset in 36 patients. Results Of the 45 shunted patients, 15 (33.3%) were included in the microsurgical group (group A) and 30 (66.6%) were in the endovascular one (group B). There was no difference of the hydrocephalus onset between the two groups (24,1 days, group A vs. 27,7 days, group B). The presence of intracerebral hematoma (ICH) caused a delay in the hydrocephalus onset after endovascular treatment in terms of 11,5 days compared to microsurgical group as well the absence of vasospasm determined a delay of 13,7 days (not statistically significant). Conclusion No difference in terms of hydrocephalus onset after microsurgical or endovascular treatment has been demonstrated. Only the presence of ICH or the absence of vasospasm can cause a slight delay in the time of hydrocephalus onset in the endovascular series (not statistically significant). Long-term follow-up studies involving higher numbers of subjects are needed to better demonstrate this issue. PMID:24809036
Grasso, Giovanni; Alafaci, Concetta; Macdonald, R. Loch
Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) accounts for 5% of strokes and carries a poor prognosis. It affects around 6 cases per 100,000 patient years occurring at a relatively young age. Methods: Common risk factors are the same as for stroke, and only in a minority of the cases, genetic factors can be found. The overall mortality ranges from 32% to 67%, with 10–20% of patients with long-term dependence due to brain damage. An explosive headache is the most common reported symptom, although a wide spectrum of clinical disturbances can be the presenting symptoms. Brain computed tomography (CT) allow the diagnosis of SAH. The subsequent CT angiography (CTA) or digital subtraction angiography (DSA) can detect vascular malformations such as aneurysms. Non-aneurysmal SAH is observed in 10% of the cases. In patients surviving the initial aneurysmal bleeding, re-hemorrhage and acute hydrocephalus can affect the prognosis. Results: Although occlusion of an aneurysm by surgical clipping or endovascular procedure effectively prevents rebleeding, cerebral vasospasm and the resulting cerebral ischemia occurring after SAH are still responsible for the considerable morbidity and mortality related to such a pathology. A significant amount of experimental and clinical research has been conducted to find ways in preventing these complications without sound results. Conclusions: Even though no single pharmacological agent or treatment protocol has been identified, the main therapeutic interventions remain ineffective and limited to the manipulation of systemic blood pressure, alteration of blood volume or viscosity, and control of arterial dioxide tension. PMID:28217390
Otani, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Koji; Kawauchi, Satoshi; Inoue, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kyoichi; Kiriyama, Hideki; Sakane, Kosuke; Maekawa, Kiyoaki; Date, Isao; Matsumoto, Kengo
Although most patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy have a favorable outcome, complications are not uncommon. Recent studies have reported an increase in incidence of cardioembolic complications; however, the association between takotsubo cardiomyopathy and stroke, in particular thromboembolic cerebral infarction, remains unclear. We reported a 44-year-old woman who had a cerebral infarction resulting from takotsubo cardiomyopathy. She had felt chest discomfort a few days prior to infarction, and later developed left hemiparesis. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed acute infarction in the right insular cortex and occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery at the M2 segment. Echocardiogram revealed a takotsubo-like shape in the motion of the left ventricular wall, and coronary angiography showed neither coronary stenosis nor occlusion. Cerebral infarction resulting from takotsubo cardiomyopathy was diagnosed and treatment with anticoagulant was started. MRI on the eighth day after hospitalization showed recanalization of the right middle cerebral artery and no new ischemic lesions. The findings of the 19 previously published cases who had cerebral infarction resulting from takotsubo cardiomyopathy were also reviewed and showed the median interval between takotsubo cardiomyopathy and cerebral infarction was approximately 1 week and cardiac thrombus was detected in 9 of 19 patients. We revealed that thromboembolic events occurred later than other complications of takotsubo cardiomyopathy and longer observation might be required due to possible cardiogenic cerebral infarction. Anticoagulant therapy is recommended for patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy with cardiac thrombus or a large area of akinetic left ventricle.
Otani, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Koji; Kawauchi, Satoshi; Inoue, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kyoichi; Kiriyama, Hideki; Sakane, Kosuke; Maekawa, Kiyoaki; Date, Isao; Matsumoto, Kengo
Although most patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy have a favorable outcome, complications are not uncommon. Recent studies have reported an increase in incidence of cardioembolic complications; however, the association between takotsubo cardiomyopathy and stroke, in particular thromboembolic cerebral infarction, remains unclear. We reported a 44-year-old woman who had a cerebral infarction resulting from takotsubo cardiomyopathy. She had felt chest discomfort a few days prior to infarction, and later developed left hemiparesis. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed acute infarction in the right insular cortex and occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery at the M2 segment. Echocardiogram revealed a takotsubo-like shape in the motion of the left ventricular wall, and coronary angiography showed neither coronary stenosis nor occlusion. Cerebral infarction resulting from takotsubo cardiomyopathy was diagnosed and treatment with anticoagulant was started. MRI on the eighth day after hospitalization showed recanalization of the right middle cerebral artery and no new ischemic lesions. The findings of the 19 previously published cases who had cerebral infarction resulting from takotsubo cardiomyopathy were also reviewed and showed the median interval between takotsubo cardiomyopathy and cerebral infarction was approximately 1 week and cardiac thrombus was detected in 9 of 19 patients. We revealed that thromboembolic events occurred later than other complications of takotsubo cardiomyopathy and longer observation might be required due to possible cardiogenic cerebral infarction. Anticoagulant therapy is recommended for patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy with cardiac thrombus or a large area of akinetic left ventricle. PMID:28664012
Thirteen patients with confusional state and cerebral infarction were studied. Seven patients had optic pathway alterations. On computed tomographic scan, 2 patients had multiple infarctions and 10 had single infarctions, predominantly located in the temporo-occipital associative cortex. One patient had a normal scan. Reduction of 'selective attention', 'release' hallucinations, amnesic syndrome and secondary individual adjustment could explain the confusional state. PMID:2608563
Wysoczanski, Mariusz; Rachko, Maurice; Bergmann, Steven R
Anabolic-androgenic steroids are used worldwide to help athletes gain muscle mass and strength. Their use and abuse is associated with numerous side effects, including acute myocardial infarction (MI). We report a case of MI in a young 31-year-old bodybuilder. Because of the serious cardiovascular complications of anabolic steroids, physicians should be aware of their abuse and consequences.
Abdul Rashid, Anna Misyail; Md Noh, Mohamad Syafeeq Faeez
Non-traumatic, spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs in approximately 85% of cases where there is a ruptured saccular aneurysm. An additional 10% of cases arise from non-aneurysmal peri-mesencephalic hemorrhages. We report a rare case of a young female, with underlying Evans syndrome, who was initially thought to have non-hemorrhagic stroke, eventually diagnosed having isolated non-traumatic, non-aneurysmal convexal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Spontaneous non-traumatic, non-aneurysmal convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a rare entity - of which there are multiple possible etiologies.
Chen, Gang; Hu, Tong; Li, Qi; Li, Jianke; Jia, Yang; Wang, Zhong
Synaptosomal-associated protein-25 is an important factor for synaptic functions and cognition. In this study, subarachnoid hemorrhage models with spatial learning disorder were established through a blood injection into the chiasmatic cistern. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis results showed that synaptosomal-associated protein-25 expression in the temporal lobe, hippocampus, and cerebellum significantly lower at days 1 and 3 following subarachnoid morrhage. Our findings indicate that synaptosomal-associated protein-25 expression was down-regulated in the rat brain after subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:25206580
Fogelholm, R; Murros, K
Smoking habits were analysed in 114 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage, less than 70 years old, obtained from an epidemiological study. One control, matched for age, sex, and domicile, was selected for each patient. Current cigarette smokers were significantly more prevalent among cases than controls, and the relative risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage compared with non-smokers was 2.7 in men and 3.0 in women. The so called metastatic emphysema theory with increased elastolytic activity in the serum of smokers is proposed as biochemical basis for the increased risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage. PMID:3819759
Todd, Michael M; Hindman, Bradley J; Clarke, William R; Torner, James C; Weeks, Julie B; Bayman, Emine O; Shi, Qian; Spofford, Christina M
We examined the incidence of perioperative fever and its relationship to outcome among patients enrolled in the Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysm Surgery Trial. One thousand patients with initial World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grades of I to III undergoing clipping of intracranial aneurysms after subarachnoid hemorrhage were randomized to intraoperative normothermia (36 degrees C-37 degrees C) or hypothermia (32.5 degrees C-33.5 degrees C). Fever (> or =38.5 degrees C) and other complications (including infections) occurring between admission and discharge (or death) were recorded. Functional and neuropsychologic outcomes were assessed 3 months postoperatively. The primary outcome variable for the trial was dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale (good outcome versus all others). Fever was reported in 41% of patients. In 97% of these, fever occurred in the postoperative period. The median time from surgery to first fever was 3 days. All measures of outcome were worse in patients who developed fever, even in those without infections or who were World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grade I. Logistic regression analyses were performed to adjust for differences in preoperative factors (e.g., age, Fisher grade, initial neurological status). This demonstrated that fever continued to be significantly associated with most outcome measures, even when infection was added to the model. An alternative stepwise model selection process including all fever-related measures from the preoperative and intraoperative period (e.g., hydrocephalus, duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss) resulted in the loss of significance for dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale, but significant associations between fever and several other outcome measures remained. After adding postoperative delayed ischemic neurological deficits to the model, only worsened National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, Barthel Activities of Daily Living index, and discharge destination
Malinova, Vesna; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Voit, Martin; Suntheim, Patricia; Rohde, Veit; Mielke, Dorothee
The impact of age on the incidence of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a matter of ongoing discussion. The aim of this study was to identify age groups with a higher risk for developing vasospasm, delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND), or delayed infarction (DI) and to identify a cut-off age for a better risk stratification. We defined six age groups (<30, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and >70 years). ROC analysis was performed to determine a cutoff age with the highest positive predictive value (PPV) for developing vasospasm, defined as a blood-flow-velocity-increase >120 cm/s in transcranial-Doppler-sonography (TCD). Multivariate binary-logistic-regression-analysis was then performed to evaluate differences in the incidence of cerebral vasospasm, DIND, and DI among the different age groups. A total of 753 patients were included in the study. The highest incidence (70 %) of TCD-vasospasm was found in patients between 30 and 39 years of age. The cutoff age with the highest PPV (65 %) for developing TCD-vasospasm was 38 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that age <38 years (OR 3.6; CI 95 % 2.1-6.1; p < 0.001) best predicted vasospasm, followed by the need for cerebrospinal fluid drainage (OR 1.5; CI 95 % 1.0-2.3; p = 0.04). However, lower age did not correlate with higher rates of DIND or infarcts. The overall vasospasm-incidence after aSAH is age-dependent and highest in the age group <38 years. Surprisingly, the higher incidence in the younger age group does not translate into a higher rate of DIND/DI. This finding may hint towards age-related biological factors influencing the association between arterial narrowing and cerebral ischemia.
Yanamoto, H; Kikuchi, H; Sato, M; Shimizu, Y; Yoneda, S; Okamoto, S
The therapeutic effect of the synthetic serine protease inhibitor, FUT-175, on cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was investigated. Twenty-three patients with severe SAH who were admitted between February and July 1990 and who underwent surgery within 48 hours of the initial aneurysmal rupture were treated with an intravenous administration of FUT-175 soon after the operation. The patients were divided randomly into three groups, each receiving a different dose of FUT-175 (Group A, 20 mg every 12 hours for 4 days; Group B, 20 mg every 6 hours for 4 days, Group C, 40 mg every 6 hours for 4 days). The results were compared with another group of twenty-two patients with severe SAH who were admitted before February 1990 and received equivalent treatment, except they were not treated with FUT-175. In 64% of all the patients treated with FUT-175 (Groups A, B, C), and in 85% of those treated with higher doses of FUT-175 (Groups B and C), there was no spasm or only mild vasospasm on the angiogram. The incidence of a delayed ischemic neurological deficit significantly decreased from 55% in the control group to 13% in all patients treated with FUT-175 and to 7% in the patients treated with higher doses (P less than 0.05). The incidence of cerebral infarction resulting from vasospasm significantly decreased from 43% in the control group to 9% in patients treated with FUT-175. In the patients treated with higher doses of FUT-175 (Groups B and C), none developed cerebral infarction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Nakagawa, Ichiro; Yokoyama, Shohei; Omoto, Koji; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Yamada, Shuichi; Yokota, Hiroshi; Motoyama, Yasushi; Park, Young-Su; Nakase, Hiroyuki
Occurrence of cerebral vasospasm after onset of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a critical factor determining clinical prognosis. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, both ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3FA), can suppress cerebral vasospasm, and docosahexaenoic acid can relax vessel vasoconstriction and have neuroprotective effects. We investigated whether administration of ω-3FA prevented cerebral vasospasm occurrence and improved clinical outcomes after aneurysmal SAH. From 2012 to 2015, 100 consecutive patients with aneurysmal SAH were divided into 2 periods. Between 2012 and 2013 (control period), 45 patients received standard management. Between 2014 and 2015 (ω-3FA period), 55 patients were prospectively treated with additional ω-3FA. Occurrence of cerebral vasospasm, occurrence of cerebral infarction caused by vasospasm, and modified Rankin Scale scores at 30 days and 90 days after onset of SAH for each period were evaluated and compared. The frequency of angiographic cerebral vasospasm in the ω-3FA period was significantly lower than in the control period (12 patients vs. 23 patients, P = 0.004). The frequency of new infarction caused by vasospasm in the ω-3FA period was also significantly lower than in the control period (5 patients vs. 14 patients, P = 0.011). There was a significant difference in modified Rankin Scale scores at 90 days after onset of SAH between the groups (P = 0.031). No adverse events were associated with ω-3FA administration. Administration of ω-3FA after aneurysmal SAH may reduce the frequency of cerebral vasospasm and may improve clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Preventive effect of continuous cisternal irrigation with magnesium sulfate solution on angiographic cerebral vasospasms associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages: a randomized controlled trial.
Yamamoto, Takuji; Mori, Kentaro; Esaki, Takanori; Nakao, Yasuaki; Tokugawa, Joji; Watanabe, Mitsuya
cardiovascular complications such as bradycardia or hypotension were observed in any of the patients. However, bradypnea was noted among patients in the Mg group. The Mg group had a significantly better CV grade than the control group (p < 0.05). Compared with the patients in the Mg group, those in the control group had a significantly elevated blood flow velocity in the MCA. Both groups were similar in the incidences of cerebral infarction, and the 2 groups also did not significantly differ in clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Continuous cisternal irrigation with MgSO4 solution starting on Day 4 and continuing to Day 14 significantly inhibited CV in patients with aneurysmal SAH without severe cardiovascular complications. However, this improvement in CV neither reduced the incidence of delayed cerebral ischemia nor improved the functional outcomes in patients with SAH.
Silasi, Gergely; Colbourne, Frederick
The endovascular perforation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a commonly used model in rats as it is performed without a craniotomy and accurately mimics the physiological effects of SAH in humans. The long-term behavioural profile of the model, however, has not been characterized. Given that humans often have cognitive deficits following SAH, we set out to characterize the behavioural profile as well as the spontaneous temperature changes of rats following intraluminal perforation. Rats were pre-trained on three motor tasks (tapered beam, limb-use asymmetry and the horizontal ladder tasks) prior to receiving a SAH. The animals were then assessed on post-surgical days 3, 7, 14 and 21 on these tasks. At the completion of motor testing, the rats were assessed on a moving platform version of the Morris water task. Despite significant mortality (33%), SAH did not result in lasting motor deficits on any of the tasks examined. However, the SAH group did show a minor cognitive impairment in the Morris water task. In addition, SAH produced a slight, but significant elevation in body temperature (vs. sham operated rats) despite an acute decrease in general home cage activity. The majority of the animals did not have any observable infarcts and the SAH did not significantly affect cortical thickness. In summary, the endovascular perforation model of SAH results in no lasting motor deficits and only minor cognitive impairment in survivors, which alone would be difficult to evaluate in neuroprotection or rehabilitation studies.
Mukamal, K J; Muller, J E; Maclure, M; Sherwood, J B; Mittleman, M A
The onset of acute myocardial infarction varies by time of day, with a peak in the morning and a trough at night. Whether infarct-related complications differ by the timing of the infarction is unknown. In the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study, we performed chart reviews and face-to-face interviews with 3625 patients with acute myocardial infarction. We assessed the time of onset of symptoms, the presence of ventricular tachycardia or congestive heart failure, and peak creatine kinase levels (in 1043 patients). We found significant circadian variation in the risk of congestive heart failure (P =.001). The risk dropped from 17% for infarctions that began between 6 PM and midnight to 10% for infarctions that began between 6 AM and noon. Adjustment for differences in the time from symptom onset to presentation for care and use of thrombolytic agents did not change the results. We found no circadian variation in the risk of ventricular tachycardia or in peak creatine kinase levels. The risk of congestive heart failure is highest among infarctions that begin at night. Further research may clarify whether this reflects differences in the pathophysiologic characteristics of infarction or the quality of medical care provided for daytime and nighttime infarctions.
Ripa Saldías, L; Guarch Troyas, R; Hualde Alfaro, A; de Pablo Cárdenas, A; Ruiz Ramo, M; Pinós Paul, M
We report the case of a 47 years old man previously diagnosed of left hidrocele. After having a recent mild left testicular pain, an ultrasonografic study revealed a solid hipoecoic testicular lesion rounded by a big hidrocele, suggesting a testicular neoplasm. Radical inguinal orchiectomy was made and pathologic study showed segmental testicular infarction. No malignancy was found. We review the literature of the topic.
Song, Jian-Ping; Ni, Wei; Gu, Yu-Xiang; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Liang; Xu, Bin; Leng, Bin; Tian, Yan-Long; Mao, Ying
Nontraumatic spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with a high mortality. This study was conducted to investigate the epidemiological features of nontraumatic spontaneous SAH in China. From January 2006 to December 2008, the clinical data of patients with nontraumatic SAH from 32 major neurosurgical centers of China were evaluated. Emergent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed for the diagnosis of SAH sources in the acute stage of SAH (≤3 days). The results and complications of emergent DSA were analyzed. Repeated DSA or computed tomography angiography (CTA) was suggested 2 weeks later if initial angiographic result was negative. A total of 2562 patients were enrolled, including 81.4% of aneurysmal SAH and 18.6% of nonaneurysmal SAH. The total complication rate of emergent DSA was 3.9% without any mortality. Among the patients with aneurysmal SAH, 321 cases (15.4%) had multiple aneurysms, and a total of 2435 aneurysms were detected. The aneurysms mostly originated from the anterior communicating artery (30.1%), posterior communicating artery (28.7%), and middle cerebral artery (15.9%). Among the nonaneurysmal SAH cases, 76.5% (n = 365) had negative initial DSA, including 62 cases with peri-mesencephalic nonaneurysmal SAH (PNSAH). Repeated DSA or CTA was performed in 252 patients with negative initial DSA, including 45 PNSAH cases. Among them, the repeated angiographic results remained negative in 45 PNSAH cases, but 28 (13.5%) intracranial aneurysms were detected in the remaining 207 cases. In addition, brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM, 7.5%), Moyamoya disease (7.3%), stenosis or sclerosis of the cerebral artery (2.7%), and dural arteriovenous fistula or carotid cavernous fistula (2.3%) were the major causes of nonaneurysmal SAH. DSA can be performed safely for pathological diagnosis in the acute stage of SAH. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms, AVM, and Moyamoya disease are the major causes of SAH detected by emergent DSA in
Song, Jian-Ping; Ni, Wei; Gu, Yu-Xiang; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Liang; Xu, Bin; Leng, Bin; Tian, Yan-Long; Mao, Ying
Background: Nontraumatic spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with a high mortality. This study was conducted to investigate the epidemiological features of nontraumatic spontaneous SAH in China. Methods: From January 2006 to December 2008, the clinical data of patients with nontraumatic SAH from 32 major neurosurgical centers of China were evaluated. Emergent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed for the diagnosis of SAH sources in the acute stage of SAH (≤3 days). The results and complications of emergent DSA were analyzed. Repeated DSA or computed tomography angiography (CTA) was suggested 2 weeks later if initial angiographic result was negative. Results: A total of 2562 patients were enrolled, including 81.4% of aneurysmal SAH and 18.6% of nonaneurysmal SAH. The total complication rate of emergent DSA was 3.9% without any mortality. Among the patients with aneurysmal SAH, 321 cases (15.4%) had multiple aneurysms, and a total of 2435 aneurysms were detected. The aneurysms mostly originated from the anterior communicating artery (30.1%), posterior communicating artery (28.7%), and middle cerebral artery (15.9%). Among the nonaneurysmal SAH cases, 76.5% (n = 365) had negative initial DSA, including 62 cases with peri-mesencephalic nonaneurysmal SAH (PNSAH). Repeated DSA or CTA was performed in 252 patients with negative initial DSA, including 45 PNSAH cases. Among them, the repeated angiographic results remained negative in 45 PNSAH cases, but 28 (13.5%) intracranial aneurysms were detected in the remaining 207 cases. In addition, brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM, 7.5%), Moyamoya disease (7.3%), stenosis or sclerosis of the cerebral artery (2.7%), and dural arteriovenous fistula or carotid cavernous fistula (2.3%) were the major causes of nonaneurysmal SAH. Conclusions: DSA can be performed safely for pathological diagnosis in the acute stage of SAH. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms, AVM, and Moyamoya disease are the major
Bihorac, Azra; Ozrazgat-Baslanti, Tezcan; Mahanna, Elizabeth; Malik, Seemab; White, Peggy; Sorensen, Matthew; Fahy, Brenda G; Petersen, John W
Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SCM) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) includes predominant apical or basal regional left ventricular dysfunction (RLVD) with concomitant changes in electrocardiogram or increase in cardiac enzymes. We hypothesized that difference in outcome is associated with the type of RLVD after SAH. We studied a single-center retrospective cohort of SAH patients hospitalized between 2000 and 2010 with follow-up until 2013. We classified patients who had an echocardiogram for clinically indicated reasons according to the predominate location of RLVD as classic SCM-apical form and variant SCM-basal form. A Cox proportional hazard model and logistic regression were used to estimate the risk for death and hospital complications associated with different RLVD after adjustment for propensity to undergo echocardiography given clinical characteristics on admission. Among 715 SAH patients, 28% (200/715) had an echocardiogram for clinical evidence of cardiac dysfunction during hospitalization, the most common being acute left ventricular dysfunction, suspected acute ischemic event, changes in electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes, and arrhythmia. SCM was present in 59 patients (8% of all cohort and 30% of patients with echocardiogram, respectively) with similar distribution of SCM-basal (25/59) and SCM-apical forms (34/59). SAH patients who had an echocardiogram for clinically indicated reasons had a significantly decreased risk-adjusted long-term survival compared with those without an echocardiogram, regardless of the presence of RLVD. SCM-basal form was associated with cardiac complications (odds ratio, 6.1; 99% confidence interval, 1.8-20.2) and severe sepsis (odds ratio, 5.3; 99% confidence interval, 1.6-17.2). SAH patients with echocardiogram for a clinically indicated reason have a decreased long-term survival, regardless of the presence of RLVD. The association between severe sepsis and SCM-basal warrants future studies to determine their
Loomba, Rohit S; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Buelow, Matthew; Nijhawan, Karan; Gupta, Navdeep; Alla, Venkata; Arora, Rohit R
Children born with congenital malformations of the heart are increasingly surviving into adulthood. This population of patients possesses lesion-specific complication risks while still being at risk for common illnesses. Bodily isomerism or heterotaxy, is a unique clinical entity associated with congenital malformations of the heart which further increases the risk for future cardiovascular complications. We aimed to investigate the frequency of myocardial infarction in adults with bodily isomerism. We utilized the 2012 iteration of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to identify adult inpatient admissions associated with acute myocardial infarction in patients with isomerism. Data regarding demographics, comorbidities and various procedures were collected and compared between those with and without isomerism. A total of 6,907,109 admissions were analyzed with a total of 172,394 admissions being associated with an initial encounter for acute myocardial infarction. The frequency of myocardial infarction did not differ between those with and without isomerism and was roughly 2% in both groups. Similarly, the number of procedures and in-hospital mortality did not differ between the two groups. The frequency and short-term prognosis of acute myocardial infarction is similar in patients with and without isomerism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Inoue, Katsuji; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Kawakami, Hideo; Koyama, Yasushi; Nishimura, Kazuhisa; Ito, Taketoshi
A 76-year-old man with chest pain was admitted to hospital where electrocardiography (ECG) showed ST-segment elevation in leads V1-4, indicative of acute anterior myocardial infarction. ST-segment elevation was also present in the right precordial leads V4R-6R. Emergency coronary angiography revealed that the left coronary artery was dominant and did not have significant stenosis. Aortography showed ostial occlusion of the right coronary artery (RCA). Left ventriculography showed normal function and right ventriculography showed a dilated right ventricle and severe hypokinesis of the right ventricular free wall. Conservative treatment was selected because the patient's symptoms soon ameliorated and his hemodynamics was stable. 99mTc-pyrophosphate and 201Tl dual single-photon emission computed tomography showed uptake of 99mTc-pyrophosphate in only the right ventricular free wall, but no uptake of 99mTc-pyrophosphate and no perfusion defect of 201Tl in the left ventricle. The peak creatine kinase (CK) and CK-MB were 1,381 IU/L and 127 IU/L, respectively. His natural course was favorable and the chest pain disappeared under medication. Two months after the onset, the ECG showed poor R progression in leads V1-4 indicating an old anterior infarction. Coronary angiography confirmed the ostial stenosis of the hypoplastic RCA. This was a case of pure right ventricular free wall infarction because of the occlusion of the ostium of the hypoplastic RCA, but not of the right ventricular branch. Because the electrocardiographic findings resemble those of an acute anterior infarction, it is important to consider pure right ventricular infarction in the differential diagnosis.
Park, Cheongsoo; Park, Eun-Hye; Chang, Kiyuk; Hong, Kwan Soo
Scoring of myocardial infarction (MI) disease extent in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images has been generally presented in terms of area-based infarct size. However, gradual thinning of the infarcted wall and compensatory hypertrophy of the noninfarcted remote wall during left ventricular (LV) remodeling after MI complicate the accuracy of infarct size measurement. In this study, we measured and compared infarct sizes in mice on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images using area-, length-, and radial sector-based methods.MI was induced by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery (n = 6). LGE images were acquired 30 minutes after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA-BMA. Percentages of infarct size (%Area, %Length, and %Sector) on the LGE images were calculated and compared with histological findings.Infarct sizes obtained by an area-based approach were smaller than those obtained by other measurements. The area-based approach underestimated infarct size compared with the length-based approach. Most infarct sizes measured by each method demonstrated a similar trend, with maximum values determined by sector-based measurements using a mean + SD threshold. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients indicated that the 3 measurements were strongly correlated (P < 0.05) to each other. Significant differences and trends were observed between sector-based infarct sizes with different thresholds when 16 or more sectors were used.In conclusion, our study demonstrated that methods used for the histological calculation of infarct size could be applied to CMR analysis. Moreover, our results showed a similar trend to histological assessment. Sector-based CMR approaches can be useful for infarct size measurement.
Thallium-201 scintigraphy provides a sensitive and reliable method of detecting acute myocardial infarction and ischemia when imaging is performed with understanding of the temporal characteristics and accuracy of the technique. The results of scintigraphy are related to the time interval between onset of symptoms and time of imaging. During the first 6 hr after chest pain almost all patients with acute myocardial infarction and approximately 50% of the patients with unstable angina will demonstrate /sup 201/TI pefusion defects. Delayed imaging at 2-4 hr will permit distinction between ischemia and infarction. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, the size of the perfusion defect accurately reflects the extent of the infarcted and/or jeopardized myocardium, which may be used for prognostic stratification. In view of the characteristics of /sup 201/TI scintigraphy, the most practical application of this technique is in patients in whom myocardial infarction has to be ruled out, and for early recognition of patients at high risk for complications.
Nakau, Reiko; Nomura, Motohiro; Kida, Shinya; Yamashita, Junkoh; Kinoshita, Akira; Nitta, Hisashi; Muramatsu, Naoki
A 59-year-old woman with type IIA von Willebrand's disease (VWD) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Computed tomography showed SAH in the right sylvian fissure and intracranial hemorrhage in the right temporal lobe. Angiography demonstrated an aneurysm at the bifurcation of the right middle cerebral artery. Neck clipping was performed on the 3rd day after the onset with intra- and postoperative administration of factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrate. No excessive bleeding occurred. Patients with prolonged bleeding time should be screened for VWD before surgery. This is a rare case of VWD presenting with SAH secondary to ruptured intracranial aneurysm. The clinical characteristics and the management of SAH in a patient with VWD are discussed.
Mao, David Qiyuan; Addess, Daniel; Valsamis, Helen
Aim: Report a case of cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) and discuss its management. Patient & methods: A 66-year-old woman presents with acute onset left arm numbness and weakness. Initial head CT shows small hyperdensity in sulci typical for cSAH. Extensive workup with MRI, lumbar puncture and blood tests is performed. No signs of infection, vascular malformations, thrombosis or cancer are found. At outpatient follow-up, she is diagnosed with cSAH secondary to amyloid angiopathy. She is treated with gabapentin. Results & conclusion: Diagnosis of cSAH is challenging given its subtle findings, and management is empiric as there are only a few case series in literature. PMID:28757807
Alexander, Mathew; Patil, Anil Kumar B.; Mathew, Vivek; Sivadasan, Ajith; Chacko, Geeta; Mani, Sunithi E.
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) usually manifests as cerebral hemorrhage, especially as nontraumatic hemorrhages in normotensive elderly patients. Other manifestations are subarachnoid (SAH), subdural, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and superficial hemosiderosis. A 52-year-old hypertensive woman presented with recurrent neurological deficits over a period of 2 years. Her serial brain magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans showed recurrent SAH hemorrhage, and also intracerebral, IVH and spinal hemorrhage, with superficial siderosis. Cerebral angiograms were normal. Right frontal lobe biopsy showed features of CAA. CAA can present with unexplained recurrent SAH hemorrhage, and may be the initial and prominent finding in the course of disease in addition to superficial cortical siderosis and intracerebal and spinal hemorrhages. PMID:23661974
Alexander, Mathew; Patil, Anil Kumar B; Mathew, Vivek; Sivadasan, Ajith; Chacko, Geeta; Mani, Sunithi E
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) usually manifests as cerebral hemorrhage, especially as nontraumatic hemorrhages in normotensive elderly patients. Other manifestations are subarachnoid (SAH), subdural, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and superficial hemosiderosis. A 52-year-old hypertensive woman presented with recurrent neurological deficits over a period of 2 years. Her serial brain magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans showed recurrent SAH hemorrhage, and also intracerebral, IVH and spinal hemorrhage, with superficial siderosis. Cerebral angiograms were normal. Right frontal lobe biopsy showed features of CAA. CAA can present with unexplained recurrent SAH hemorrhage, and may be the initial and prominent finding in the course of disease in addition to superficial cortical siderosis and intracerebal and spinal hemorrhages.
Pahl, Felix Hendrik; Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes de; Rotta, José Marcus
Aging is a major risk factor for poor outcome in patients with ruptured or unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IA) submitted to treatment. It impairs several physiologic patterns related to cerebrovascular hemodynamics and homeostasis. Evaluate clinical, radiological patterns and prognostic factors of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients according to age. Three hundred and eighty nine patients with aneurismal SAH from a Brazilian tertiary institution (Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo) were consecutively evaluated from 2002 to 2012 according to Fisher and Hunt Hess classifications and Glasgow Outcome Scale. There was statistically significant association of age with impaired clinical, radiological presentation and outcomes in cases of SAH. Natural course of SAH is worse in elderly patients and thus, proper recognition of the profile of such patients and their outcome is necessary to propose standard treatment.
Jeon, Hyojin; Ai, Jinglu; Sabri, Mohamed; Tariq, Asma; Shang, Xueyuan; Chen, Gang; Macdonald, R Loch
About 50% of humans with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) die and many survivors have neurological and neurobehavioral dysfunction. Animal studies usually focused on cerebral vasospasm and sometimes neuronal injury. The difference in endpoints may contribute to lack of translation of treatments effective in animals to humans. We reviewed prior animal studies of SAH to determine what neurological and neurobehavioral endpoints had been used, whether they differentiated between appropriate controls and animals with SAH, whether treatment effects were reported and whether they correlated with vasospasm. Only a few studies in rats examined learning and memory. It is concluded that more studies are needed to fully characterize neurobehavioral performance in animals with SAH and assess effects of treatment. PMID:19706182
Palade, C.; Ciurea, Alexandru V.; Nica, D. A.; Savu, R.; Moisa, Horatiu Alexandru
Programmed cell death is crucial for the correct development of the organism and the clearance of harmful cells like tumor cells or autoreactive immune cells. Apoptosis is initiated by the activation of cell death receptors and in most cases it is associated with the activation of the cysteine proteases, which lead to apoptotic cell death. Cells shrink, chromatin clumps and forms a large, sharply demarcated, crescent-shaped or round mass; the nucleus condenses, apoptotic bodies are formed and eventually dead cells are engulfed by a neighboring cell or cleared by phagocytosis. The authors have summarized the most important data concerning apoptosis in subarachnoid hemorrhage that have been issued in the medical literature in the last 20 years. PMID:24049554
Marsot-Dupuch, K; Djouhri, H; Meyer, B; Pharaboz, C; Tran Ba Huy, P
The purpose of this article is to describe, with 5 clinical cases, the physiological communications between the inner ear and the subarachnoid spaces (SAS) and present the imaging features with regard to. Therefore we briefly illustrate abnormal communications between SAS and perilymphatic fluids in certain cochlear and internal acoustic meatus (IAM) malformations and their consequences. Imaging features may depict diffusion pathway of bacterial meningitis to membranous labyrinth via the cochlear aqueduct or via the IAM. Rarely, in some patients referred for cochleovestibular symptoms, imaging features may display skull base tumors involving the area of cochlear or vestibular aqueduct aperture. Therefore, in patients referred for cochleovestibular symptoms, MR and CT study should carefully scrutinise not only the IAM but also the aperture of the cochlear and the vestibular aqueducts and the cerebellopontine meninges.
Glenn, A M; Shaw, P J; Howe, J W; Bates, D
Retinal migraine is not uncommon, but permanent sequelae in the anterior visual pathway are rare. We describe the case of a young woman in whom blindness developed over a six-year period due to recurrent episodes of migraine-related occlusions of a branch retinal artery. Images PMID:1540572
Migdal, Victoria L; Wu, W Kelly; Long, Drew; McNaughton, Candace D; Ward, Michael J; Self, Wesley H
The objective of the study is to compare the risks and benefits of lumbar puncture (LP) to evaluate for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after a normal head computed tomographic (CT) scan. This was an observational study of adult emergency department patients at a single hospital who presented with headache and underwent LP after a normal head CT to evaluate for SAH. Lumbar puncture results classified as indicating a SAH included xanthochromia in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or red blood cells in the final tube of CSF with an aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation on cerebral angiography. An LP-related complication was defined as hospitalization or a return visit due to symptoms attributed to the LP. Proportions of the study patients who had SAH diagnosed by LP and who experienced an LP-related complication were compared. The study included 302 patients, including 2 (0.66%) who were diagnosed with SAH based on LP (number needed to diagnose, 151); both of these patients had a known intracranial aneurysm. Eighteen (5.96%) patients experienced an LP-related complication (P < .01 compared with number with SAH diagnosed; number needed to harm, 17). Complications included 12 patients with low-pressure headaches, 4 with pain at the LP site, and 2 with contaminated CSF cultures. The yield of LP for diagnosing SAH in adults with nontraumatic headache after a normal head CT was very low. The severity of LP-related complications was low, but complications were more common than SAH diagnoses. Lumbar puncture may not be advisable after a normal head CT to evaluate for SAH, particularly in patients with low-risk clinical features for SAH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Migdal, Victoria L.; Wu, W. Kelly; Long, Drew; McNaughton, Candace D.; Ward, Michael J.; Self, Wesley H.
Objective To compare the risks and benefits of lumbar puncture (LP) to evaluate for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after a normal head computed tomography (CT) scan. Methods This was an observational study of adult emergency department (ED) patients at a single hospital who presented with headache and underwent LP after a normal head CT to evaluate for SAH. LP results classified as indicating a SAH included: xanthochromia in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); or red blood cells in the final tube of CSF with an aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation on cerebral angiography. An LP-related complication was defined as hospitalization or a return visit due to symptoms attributed to the LP. Proportions of the study patients who had SAH diagnosed by LP and who experienced an LP-related complication were compared. Results The study included 302 patients, including 2 (0.66%) who were diagnosed with SAH based on LP (number-needed-to diagnose: 151); both of these patients had a known intracranial aneurysm. Eighteen (5.96%) patients experienced a LP-related complication (p<0.01 compared to number with SAH diagnosed; number-needed-to-harm: 17). Complications included 12 patients with low-pressure headaches, 4 with pain at the LP site, and 2 with contaminated CSF cultures. Conclusion The yield of LP for diagnosing SAH in adults with nontraumatic headache after a normal head CT was very low. The severity of LP-related complications was low, but complications were more common than SAH diagnoses. LP may not be advisable after a normal head CT to evaluate for SAH, particularly in patients with low-risk clinical features for SAH. PMID:26189054
Mikulecký, Miroslav; Strestík, Jaroslav
In the course of occurrence of cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoidal hemorrhage episodes, periodicities resembling those found in the solar and geomagnetic activity were observed by Kovác and Mikulecký in 2005. To investigate putative relationships between two indices of solar activity and one index of geomagnetic activity on one side and the occurrence of cerebral infarction on the other. In addition to the 192 monthly cases out of 6100 new cases of cerebral infarction that occurred between January 1989 and December 2004, monthly averages for Wolf numbers, solar flares index and Ap index were included in the analysis. The cross-correlation between each cosmo-geophysical variable on the one hand and the number of new cases of the disease on the other was computed. The quadratic regression with the chosen time delay was also studied using, separately, the Wolf numbers, solar flares and Ap index as the explanatory variable and the number of cases of cerebral infarction as the responding variable. Significantly negative correlation coefficients between the monthly means of the Wolf numbers, of solar flares and of Ap index on the one hand and monthly numbers of new cases of the disease on the other were found for the delays between -6 and +17 months. The cross-regression results for the delay of +5 months (infarction delayed after each cosmo-geophysical variable by 5 months) displayed a linear decrease except for the Wolf numbers where the parabolic decrease of cases was significant. An increased intensity of the studied cosmo-geophysical parameters appears to be significantly connected with decreased occurrence of cerebral infarctions, and vice versa. This effect seems to last up to 17 months. The results are supported by a few similar findings in the literature. Putative cosmo-biomedical connections warrant further study to verify them in larger samples and longer time scales. If confirmed, their mechanisms should be elucidated.
Suhara, S; Wong, A S H; Wong, J O L
A 27-year-old patient presented with severe headache and seizures about a month after the initial head trauma. Computed tomography (CT) brain scan revealed acute subdural bleed continuous into the interhemispheric region, with no subarachnoid haemorrhage. This was due to rupture of a traumatic pericallosal artery aneurysm. This represents a rare case of traumatic pericallosal artery aneurysm presenting with subdural haematoma without subarachnoid haemorrhage.
Rudas, G; Varga, E; Méder, U; Pataki, M; Taylor, G A
The role of subarachnoid blood and secondary, sterile inflammation in the pathogenesis of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) is not well understood. The aims of this study were to study the frequency and rate of spread of blood into the spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) and to evaluate the relationship of this finding and PHH. Nine premature babies with major intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, grade 3 or higher), and ten premature infants with minor ICH (grade 1) or no evidence of ICH (control group) were identified and underwent serial cranial and spinal sonography at the time of initial diagnosis, 12-24 h after the ICH and weekly thereafter for at least 9 weeks. Sagittal and axial scans of the thoracolumbar spine were obtained and evaluated for the presence of echogenic debris in the dorsal SSS. Six additional patients who had cranial and spinal sonography died within the 1st week of life and underwent post-mortem examinations. The SSS was echo-free (normal) in all cases at the time of initial sonographic diagnosis of ICH. Within 24 h, all babies with major ICH had developed increased echogenicity of the cervical and thoracic SSS. Echogenicity of the SSS decreased gradually over several weeks. Although transient ventricular dilatation was present in every patient, only one patient had rapidly progressive PHH requiring shunt placement. Transient cysts of the cervicothoracic subarachnoid space were identified in two patients 6-7 weeks after ICH. The subarachnoid space remained echo-free in all control infants At autopsy, all four infants with echogenic spinal debris had blood or blood products in the spinal subarachnoid space, whereas two infants with echo-free spinal images did not. Spread of blood from the ventricular system into the spinal subarachnoid space after ICH is common and can be seen within 24 h of initial ICH. Subarachnoid blood is associated with post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation and transient spinal subarachnoid cyst formation.
Nogueira, Ariel B.; Esteves Veiga, José C.; Teixeira, Manoel J.
BACKGROUND: Stroke, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The mortality rate of poor-grade SAH ranges from 34% to 52%. In an attempt to improve SAH outcomes, clinical research on multimodality monitoring has been performed, as has basic science research on inflammation and neuroregeneration (which can occur due to injury-induced neurogenesis). Nevertheless, the current literature does not focus on the integrated study of these fields. Multimodality monitoring corresponds to physiological data obtained during clinical management by both noninvasive and invasive methods. Regarding inflammation and neuroregeneration, evidence suggests that, in all types of stroke, a proinflammatory phase and an anti-inflammatory phase occur consecutively; these phases affect neurogenesis, which is also influenced by other pathophysiological features of stroke, such as ischemia, seizures, and spreading depression. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether injury-induced neurogenesis is a prognostic factor in poor-grade SAH that can be monitored and modulated. METHODS: We propose a protocol for multimodality monitoring-guided hypothermia in poor-grade SAH in which cellular and molecular markers of inflammation and neuroregeneration can be monitored in parallel with clinical and multimodal data. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: This study may reveal correlations between markers of inflammation and neurogenesis in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, based on clinical and multimodality monitoring parameters. DISCUSSION: This protocol has the potential to lead to new therapies for acute, diffuse, and severe brain diseases. ABBREVIATIONS: BBB, blood-brain barrier CPP, cerebral perfusion pressure EEG, electroencephalography ICP, intracranial pressure IL, interleukin MCA, middle cerebral artery SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage SD, spreading depression SGZ, subgranular zone SVZ, subventricular zone TCD, transcranial Doppler PMID:25050583
Takahashi, Masataka; Zhang, Zhen-Du; Macdonald, R Loch
Sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation activates perivascular vasodilatory nerves in the ipsilateral anterior circle of Willis. This experiment tested whether stimulation of the ganglion could reverse vasospasm and improve cerebral perfusion after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in monkeys. Thirteen cynomolgus monkeys underwent baseline angiography followed by creation of SAH by placement of autologous blood against the right intradural internal carotid artery, the middle cerebral artery (MCA), and the anterior cerebral artery. Seven days later, angiography was repeated, and the right sphenopalatine ganglion was exposed microsurgically. Angiography was repeated 15 minutes after exposure of the ganglion. The ganglion was stimulated electrically 3 times, and angiography was repeated during and 15 and 30 minutes after stimulation. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was monitored using laser Doppler flowmetry, and intracranial pressure (ICP) was measured throughout. The protocol was repeated again. Evans blue was injected and the animals were killed. The brains were removed for analysis of water and Evans blue content and histology. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was associated with significant vasospasm of the ipsilateral major cerebral arteries (23% ± 10% to 39% ± 4%; p < 0.05, paired t-tests). Exposure of the ganglion and sham stimulation had no significant effects on arterial diameters, ICP, or CBF (4 monkeys, ANOVA and paired t-tests). Sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation dilated the ipsilateral extracranial and intracranial internal carotid artery, MCA, and anterior cerebral artery compared with the contralateral arteries (9 monkeys, 7% ± 9% to 15% ± 19%; p < 0.05, ANOVA). There was a significant increase in ipsilateral CBF. Stimulation had no effect on ICP or brain histology. Brain water content did not increase but Evans blue content was significantly elevated in the MCA territory of the stimulated hemisphere. Sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation decreased vasospasm and increased
Blanche, P; Toulon, P; de La Blanchardière, A; Sicard, D
Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) appear to have a high risk of ischaemic cerebral events. We observed two cases of cerebral infarction in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the first case, a 38-year-old homosexual with no cardiovascular risk other than smoking presented with rapidly progressive hemiparesia. Brain CT-scan visualized two infarcts in the territory of the right sylvian artery and the arteriography an occlusion of the internal carotid artery. In the second, a 37-year-old homosexual, hospitalization was required for a left-sided pure sensitive epilepsy seizure. There was no cardiovascular risk other than smoking. Magnetic resonance imaging showed parietal ischaemia and thrombus in the left atrium without atrial hypertrophy was seen at transoesophageal echocardiography. In both cases, there was no evidence of endocarditis, dissection of the neck vessels or disseminated intravascular coagulation nor of associated viral or bacterial infectious complication of AIDS. Angiographic findings eliminated cerebral vascularitis. Among the perturbed haemostasis factors previously reported in HIV+ patients, we observed free proteins S deficiency (68 and 43%) and heparin cofactor II deficiency (54 and 40%). Serum albumin was 33 and 32 g/l respectively. Outcome was favourable in both cases with anticoagulant therapy. These coagulation anomalies would not appear sufficient to explain cerebral infarction. Other mechanisms including immune complexed deposition, direct HIV toxicity for endothelial cells or the effect of cytokines on smooth muscles fibres and fibroblasts are probably more important causal factors.
Nazareth, Marilyn; Ghoshal, Pabitra; Namshikar, Viraj; Gaude, Yogesh
Context: This study was undertaken in 100 patients scheduled for lower limb orthopaedic surgeries. Aim: The objective of this study was to study the effect of addition of intrathecal fentanyl to bupivacaine clonidine mixture on the quality of subarachnoid block and compare it with intrathecal bupivacaine clonidine mixture without fentanyl. Settings and Design: In this prospective and double blind randomized controlled study, one hundred patients, between 20-40 years of age, of either sex, weighing between 40-65 Kg, measuring more than 150 cm in height, of ASA Grade I and II who were undergoing orthopaedic lower limb surgeries were selected in order to study the quality of subarachnoid block and post-operative analgesia produced by a combination of bupivacaine clonidine and fentanyl in comparison with bupivacaine clonidine. Materials and Methods: The patients were randomly divided in two groups of 50 each: Group BC: 2.4 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (12 mg) + 0.2 ml (30 μg) clonidine + 0.4 ml of 0.9% NaCl. Group BCF: 2.4 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (12 mg) + 0.2 ml (30 μg) clonidine + 0.4 ml (20 μg) of fentanyl. The total volume of solution in both the groups was 3.0 ml. The quality of subarachnoid block and post-operative analgesia were studied. Statistical Analysis Used: The data thus obtained was statistically analysed using the following tests: Unpaired student's t-test. Average % change in data over baseline values to detect trends. A ‘P’ value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was no significant difference in duration of sensory and motor blockade in group BCF compared to BC. The duration of analgesia as assessed by, either VAS score of >5 or demand of additional analgesia was > 524.6 ± 32.21 mins in group BC and > 774.4 ± 59.59 mins in group BCF. This prolongation of duration of analgesia in group BCF compared to group BC has statistical significance. Blood pressure and heart rate changes were not
Rudas, G; Almássy, Z; Papp, B; Varga, E; Méder, U; Taylor, G A
Our purpose was to evaluate the frequency and clinical significance of echogenic debris in the spinal subarachnoid space of neonates at risk for progressive ventricular dilatation. Spinal sonography was performed on 15 neonates with severe intracranial hemorrhage (n = 10) or bacterial meningitis (n = 5). Spinal sonography also was performed on 16 control neonates. Images were analyzed for the presence and location of echogeric debris within the thoracolumbar subarachnoid space. Lumbar punctures were performed on all 31 neonates, and CSF was analyzed for cell count and protein content. Ten of 15 neonates required ventricular drainage procedures. Progressive ventricular dilatation occurred in 11 of 15 neonates with intracranial hemorrhage or meningitis. Echogenic debris was present in the thoracolumbar subarachnoid space on spinal sonography in every neonate with progressive ventricular dilatation compared with none of the 16 control neonates (p < .0001 by chi-square analysis). In addition, the 11 neonates with echogenic subarachnoid space had significantly higher protein and RBC contents in the lumbar CSF (p < .04). Echogenic subarachnoid space revealed by sonography is associated with progressive ventricular dilatation after severe intracranial hemorrhage or bacterial meningitis and is caused by high protein and RBC contents in the subarachnoid space. This finding may be helpful in identifying neonates who will not benefit from serial lumbar punctures for treatment of hydrocephalus.
Cerejo, Russell; John, Seby; Grabowski, Matthew; Bauer, Andrew; Chaudhry, Burhan; Toth, Gabor; Hui, Ferdinand; Bain, Mark
Cryptogenic intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage accounts for approximately 15% of all subarachnoid hemorrhage cases. Diagnostic workup after negative cerebral digital subtraction angiogram typically includes magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cervical spine for arteriovenous malformations, tumors, and fistulae. Only a few cases of thoracolumbar spinal vascular malformations have been associated with intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case series and review of the literature. We found 3 patients at our institution who had nontraumatic, nonaneurysmal intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage with isolated spinal vascular malformation in the thoracolumbar region. Including our 3 cases, we found a total of 15 similar cases in the literature. Most of the patients were younger, most having concurrent spinal cord symptoms of radiculopathy (27%), myelopathy (20%), or bladder bowel involvement (20%). Most of the spinal vascular malformations were intramedullary or conus medullaris type. Locations of intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage were mostly isolated to the perimesencephalic area and posterior fossa. In younger populations presenting with nonaneurysmal intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage and symptoms related to the spinal cord, evaluation for thoracolumbar spinal vascular malformations must be included in the initial workup. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tholance, Yannick; Barcelos, Gleicy; Dailler, Frederic; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Renaud, Bernard
The functional outcome of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage is difficult to predict at the individual level. The monitoring of brain energy metabolism has proven to be useful in improving the pathophysiological understanding of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Nonetheless, brain energy monitoring has not yet clearly been included in official guidelines for the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, likely because previous studies compared only biological data between two groups of patients (unfavorable vs favorable outcomes) and did not determine decision thresholds that could be useful in clinical practice. Therefore, this Viewpoint discusses recent findings suggesting that monitoring biomarkers of brain energy metabolism at the level of individuals can be used to predict the outcomes of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Indeed, by taking into account specific neurochemical patterns obtained by local or global monitoring of brain energy metabolism, it may become possible to predict routinely, and with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, the individual outcomes of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Moreover, combining both local and global monitoring improves the overall performance of individual outcome prediction. Such a combined neurochemical monitoring approach may become, after prospective clinical validation, an important component in the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients to adapt individualized therapeutic interventions.
Kobayashi, S.; Satoh, A.; Koguchi, Y.; Wada, M.; Tokunaga, H.; Miyata, A.; Nakamura, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Yagishita, T.
Summary It is apparent that subarachnoid clots play an important role in the development of delayed vasospasm that is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in patients with acutely ruptured cerebral aneurysm. The purpose of this study is to compare the clearance of subarachnoid clots in the acute stage after the treatment with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDC) and after treatment with direct surgery. Forty-nine patients were treated by GDC embolization within four days of the ictus. After GDC embolization, adjunctive therapies, such as ventricular and/or spinal drainage (67%), intrathecal administration of urokinase (41%), continuous cisternal irrigation (16%), and external decompression (16%), were performed. Seventy-four surgically treated patients were subsequently treated by continuous cisternal irrigation with mock-CSF containing ascorbic acid for ten days. The clearance of subarachnoid clots was assessed by the Hounsfield number serial changes on the CT scans taken on days 0, 4, 7,10 after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The incidence of symptomatic vasospasm was lower in the GDC group (6%) than in the surgery group (12%). The clearance of subarachnoid clots from both the basal cistern and the Sylvian fissure was more rapid in the GDC cases than in the surgery cases in the first four days. Intrathecal administration of urokinase accelerated the clearance significantly. GDC embolization followed by intrathecal administration of thrombolytic agents accelerates the reduction of subarachnoid clots and favorably acts to prevent delayed vasospasm. PMID:20663379
Toomela, Aaro; Pulver, Aleksander; Tomberg, Tiiu; Orasson, Anu; Tikk, Arvo; Asser, Toomas
To analyse factors related to subjective non-cognitive and cognitive complaints in patients with spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage. Twenty-seven patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage and 27 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls. A battery of cognitive tests measuring visuo-spatial abilities, verbal abilities, and fine-motor skill, Brief Social Support Questionnaire, and Life Orientation Scale were individually presented to all participants. Cognitive complaints were related to low social support but not to cognitive performance. Complaints about headaches and dizziness were also related to decreased cognitive performance. Above-normal optimistic life-orientation was related to the absence of complaints in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Healthy participants were best discriminated from patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage by less satisfactory social support system and decreased fine motor skills in the latter group. Change in social support network may be an important resource for increasing quality of life in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage not only through help provided by supporters but also indirectly, through increasing subjective well-being. The absence of subjective complaints in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage is not necessarily related to better objective condition but rather to inadequately optimistic life orientation.
Vieira Marques, F; Montenegro Sá, F; Lapa, T; Simões, I
Cardiovascular complications, in particular perioperative myocardial infarctions, are central contributors to morbidity and mortality after non-cardiac surgery. We present a case of a 41-year-old male, smoker and dyslipidemic, who underwent bimaxillary orthognathic jaw surgery with the development of an acute coronary syndrome in the immediate postoperative period. We managed to early diagnose the myocardial infarction and promptly performed a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, resulting in a positive outcome. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kolár, M; Nohejlová, K
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) of CNS is acute life-threating condition. In addition to its well understood sequential increase in intracranial pressure and decreased cerebral perfusion pressure, there is also early and late vasoconstriction. Mechanism of vasoconstriction is complex and one of important roles play changes in the amount of nitric oxide (NO). Present work overviews known pathogenesis of non-traumatic SAH, with stress on NO regulation of cerebral blood flow and its changes during SAH. It also describes mechanisms of early and late brain damage following subarachnoid hemorrhage. We discuss possible pharmacological prevention of the damage and laboratory models of nontraumatic SAH.
The author argues that erotic transference-countertransference dynamics present particular complexities when they develop between gender constellations other than male analyst and female patient. She addresses the dynamics of a complicated erotic transference in concert with an aversive countertransference response as it evolved between a female analyst and female patient. The intense erotic transference that developed defied classification as either maternallerotic or oedipallerotic, and instead included both features in a rapidly shifting process that was difficult to address analytically. The analyst's confused, often aversive, response to her patient's erotic wishes ultimately revealed a subtle re-enactment involving split-off and erotised experiences of emotional penetration and scrutiny. When these issues were addressed, the erotic transference dissolved, and the analyst's experience of her patient shifted rather dramatically. It is suggested that complex erotic transference sometimes contains within it evidence of previously repressed object experiences that were not primarily sexual in nature.
Jabbarli, Ramazan; Shah, Mukesch; Taschner, Christian; Kaier, Klaus; Hippchen, Beate; Van Velthoven, Vera
CT-angiography gains an increasing role in the initial diagnosis of patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the implementation of CT-angiography does not always exclude the necessity of conventional angiography. Our objective was to determine the practical utility and cost-effectiveness of CT-angiography. All patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage admitted to our university hospital after implementation of CT-angiography between June 1, 2011 and June 30, 2012 were retrospectively analyzed in regard to factors of treatment flow, radiation exposure, harms of contrast medium loading, and diagnostic costs. A control group of the same size was assembled from previously admitted SAH patients, who did not undergo pretreatment CT-angiography. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. The final analysis consisted of 93 patients in each group. Of 93 patients with pretreatment CT-angiography, 74 had to undergo conventional angiography for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes. CT-angiography had significant impact on the reduction of collective effective radiation dose by 4.419 mSv per person (p = 0.0002) and was not associated with additional harms. Despite the significantly earlier detection of aneurysms with CT-angiography (p < 0.0001), there were no significant differences in the timing of aneurysm repair and duration of ICU and general hospital stay. There was an increase of diagnostic costs-the cost-effectiveness analysis showed, however, that benefits of CT-angiography in respect to radiation exposure and risk of conventional angiography-related complications justify the additional costs of CT-angiography. Although the implementation of CT-angiography in SAH diagnosis cannot completely replace conventional angiography, it can be approved in regard to radiation hygiene and cost-effectiveness.
Boersma, Eric; Mercado, Nestor; Poldermans, Don; Gardien, Martin; Vos, Jeroen; Simoons, Maarten L
Acute myocardial infarction is a common disease with serious consequences in mortality, morbidity, and cost to the society. Coronary atherosclerosis plays a pivotal part as the underlying substrate in many patients. In addition, a new definition of myocardial infarction has recently been introduced that has major implications from the epidemiological, societal, and patient points of view. The advent of coronary-care units and the results of randomised clinical trials on reperfusion therapy, lytic or percutaneous coronary intervention, and chronic medical treatment with various pharmacological agents have substantially changed the therapeutic approach, decreased in-hospital mortality, and improved the long-term outlook in survivors of the acute phase. New treatments will continue to emerge, but the greatest challenge will be to effectively implement preventive actions in all high-risk individuals and to expand delivery of acute treatment in a timely fashion for all eligible patients.
Parajuá, J L; Calles, C
We present the case of a migrainous patient who had a cerebral infarct during a migrainous crisis. She was 26 weeks pregnant. The infarct, detected on MRI was in the right thalamic region. It presented as left hemiparesia and left hemi-hypo-estesia. Laboratory tests were normal. There was full recovery from the episode. Migraine is considered to be a risk factor per se for stroke, especially in young women. The association of migrainous ictus, which is a diagnosis by exclusion of other aetiologies, and pregnancy is rare, as is apparent on review of the subject. In the Western world, pregnancy is not considered to be a risk factor for ictus. The functional prognosis of migrainous stroke is good, with minimal risk of relapse.
Sheahan, Patrick; Crotty, Paul L; Hamilton, Sam; Colreavy, Michael; McShane, Donald
Angiomatous nasal polyps are a rarely reported subtype of inflammatory sinonasal polyps that are characterized by extensive vascular proliferation and ectasia. Compromise of their vascular supply may occasionally lead to infarction, resulting in clinical, radiological and pathological features that simulate a neoplastic process. In the present paper, the salient characteristics of this unusual entity are described. The clinical, radiological and pathological features of two patients with infarcted angiomatous nasal polyps are presented. Grossly, the polyps had an unusual inhomogenous appearance and texture and were associated with a foul odor. CT findings included bony expansion and destruction. MRI findings included markedly inhomogenous contrast enhancement on T1-weighted images. Histopathologically, both cases showed abundant vascular ectasia, with widespread intraluminal thrombosis and necrosis. Recanalization and reparative changes were also present. Angiomatous nasal polyps are poorly documented in the literature. Although entirely benign, they may simulate neoplastic processes, thus awareness of their existence is of considerable importance.
Aínsa Laguna, D; Pons Morales, S; Muñoz Tormo-Figueres, A; Vega Senra, M I; Otero Reigada, M C
Pott's puffy tumor is a rare complication of frontal sinusitis characterized by swelling and edema in the brow due to a subperiosteal abscess associated with frontal osteomyelitis. Added complications are cellulitis by extension to the orbit and intracranial infection by posterior extension, with high risk of meningitis, intracranial abscess, and venous sinus thrombosis. Early diagnosis and aggressive medical or surgical treatment are essential for optimal recovery of affected patients. In the antibiotic age it is extremely rare, with very few cases described in the recent literature. A case is presented of a Pott inflammatory tumor in a 7 year-old boy, as a complication of acute pansinusitis who presented with front preseptal swelling and intracranial involvement with thrombosis of ophthalmic and superior orbital veins and frontal epidural abscess extending to the subarachnoid space. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Soriano-Giménez, Víctor; Ruiz de Angulo-Martín, David; Munítiz-Ruiz, Vicente; Ortiz-Escandell, María de Los Ángeles; Martínez-de Haro, Luisa Fernanda; Parrilla-Paricio, Pascual
Laparoscopic gastrectomy has emerged in recent years as an effective technique for the treatment of morbid obesity due to low mortality morbidity rates. Its complications include dehiscence suture line, and others such as splenic infarction. We discuss a case of splenic infarction after laparoscopic gastrectomy. 45 year old male with a BMI of 37.8 kg/m(2), diabetes-II for 15 years, the last five in treatment with insulin, a fasting blood glucose around 140mg/dl, HbA1c of 7.3mg/dl and microangiopathy diabetic nephropathy. The patient underwent a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and he was discharged from hospital 48hours later. 1 month later he presented at the hospital for epigastric pain and fever up to 40° C. An intra abdominal abscess was detected and there was no leakage. The spleen was normal. He was treated with radiological drainage. 9 months later the patient consulted again due to epigastric pain in upper left quadrant, associated with low-grade fever. Thoraco-abdominal CT images compatible with splenic infarction. Currently patient remains asymptomatic one year after surgery. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is one of the most popular procedures of bariatric surgery. Less common complications include abscess and the splenic infarction. Usually patients are asymptomatic, but sometimes cause fever and pain. Initial treatment should be conservative. Only in selected cases, would splenectomy be indicated. Splenic infarction is usually an early complication, but we should keep it in mind as a long term complication for patients with persistent fever and abdominal pain after laparoscopic gastrectomy. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Dhar, Rajat; Zazulia, Allyson R; Videen, Tom O; Zipfel, Gregory J; Derdeyn, Colin P; Diringer, Michael N
Background Anemia is common after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and may exacerbate the reduction in oxygen delivery (DO2) underlying delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). The association between lower hemoglobin and worse outcome, including more cerebral infarcts, supports a role for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion to correct anemia. However, the cerebral response to transfusion remains uncertain, as higher hemoglobin may increase viscosity and further impair cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the setting of vasospasm. Methods Eight patients with aneurysmal SAH and hemoglobin < 10 g/dl were studied with 15O-PET before and after transfusion of 1 unit of RBCs. Paired t-tests were used to analyze the change in global and regional CBF, oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and oxygen metabolism (CMRO2) after transfusion. DO2 was calculated from CBF and arterial oxygen content (CaO2). CBF, CMRO2 and DO2 are reported in ml/100g/min. Results Transfusion resulted in a 15% rise in hemoglobin (8.7±0.8 to 10.0±1.0 g/dl) and CaO2 (11.8±1.0 to 13.6±1.1 ml/dL, both p < 0.001). Global CBF remained stable (40.5±8.1 to 41.6±9.9), resulting in an 18% rise in DO2 from 4.8±1.1 to 5.7±1.4 (p = 0.017). This was associated with a fall in OEF from 0.49±0.11 to 0.41±0.11 (p = 0.11) and stable CMRO2. Rise in DO2 was greater (28%) in regions with oligemia (low DO2 and OEF≥0.5) at baseline, but was attenuated (10%) within territories exhibiting angiographic vasospasm, where CBF fell 7%. Conclusions Transfusion of RBCs to anemic patients with SAH resulted in a significant rise in cerebral DO2 without lowering global CBF. This was associated with reduced OEF, which may improve tolerance of vulnerable brain regions to further impairments of CBF. Further studies are needed to confirm the benefit of transfusion on DCI and balance this against potential systemic and cerebral risks. PMID:19628806
Laborda, Alicia; Tejero, Carlos; Fredes, Arturo; Cebrian, Luis; Guelbenzu, Santiago; Gregorio, Miguel Angel de
Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is the treatment of choice for massive hemoptysis with rare complications that generally are mild and transient. There are few references in the medical literature with acute cerebral embolization as a complication of BAE. We report a case of intracranial posterior territory infarctions as a complication BAE in a patient with hemoptysis due to bronchiectasis.
Foster, M. E.; Powell, D. E. B.
The fact that oral contraceptives may predispose to thrombosis is not disputed, although its frequency is still debated. Any reliable assessment of the prevalence of this complication must in the main depend on careful statistical studies of well controlled groups, because the isolated case may well be coincidental when conditions such as coronary thrombosis, cerebral thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism are not extreme rarities in adult women. However, occasionally the clinical and pathological findings are so striking that they afford compelling evidence. The patient to be described presented with clinical features of pancreatitis that did not initially suggest an association with oral contraception. A hitherto undescribed state of multiple infarcts was found at post-mortem. This also illustrates the way in which the official figures for thrombotic complications can be underestimated. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:1197171
Singh, A K; Gervais, D A; Lee, P; Westra, S; Hahn, P F; Novelline, R A; Mueller, P R
The aim of this study is to describe contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) features of acute omental infarction and to study the evolutionary changes on follow-up CT imaging. Fifteen cases of omental infarction were evaluated for their initial CT imaging features. The imaging features evaluated included size of the fatty lesion, location, peripheral rim, and relation to colon. CT findings were correlated with etiology, clinical presentation, and leukocytosis. Follow-up CT images were available in eight patients and the imaging features were studied. Eight omental infarcts were of unknown etiology and seven were secondary to abdominal surgery. In 53% of patients (eight of 15), the location of the omental infarct was in the right lower, mid, or upper quadrants. These eight right-side infarcts occurred in six patients with primary omental infarcts. In 13 of 14 patients who underwent CT within 15 days of onset of omental infarct, the margin of the lesion was ill defined. Primary omental (n = 8) infarcts were seen in younger patients (p = 0.02) and were larger on CT (p = 0.02) compared with secondary omental infarcts. CT findings evolved from an ill-defined, heterogeneous fat-density lesion to a well-defined, heterogeneous fat-density lesion with a peripheral hyperdense rim in all six secondary omental infarctions for which acute stage and follow-up CT images were available for interpretation. There is a significant difference in the age distribution and CT findings in terms of size of the omental infarction between primary and secondary etiologies. On follow-up CT, secondary omental infarcts progressively shrank and developed a well-defined, hyperdense rim around a fatty core.
Intestinal necrosis; Ischemic bowel - small intestine; Dead bowel - small intestine; Dead gut - small intestine; Infarcted bowel - small intestine; Atherosclerosis - small intestine; Hardening of the arteries - small intestine
Ghonim, Hesham T.; Shah, Sumedh S.; Thompson, John W.; Ambekar, Sudheer; Peterson, Eric C.; Elhammady, Mohamed Samy
BACKGROUND Despite advances in the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage, a considerable proportion of patients are still left with severe and disabling long-term consequences. Unfortunately, there are limited therapeutic options to counteract the sequelae following the initial insult. The role of stem cells has been studied in the treatment of various diseases. The goal of this study was to provide a literature review regarding the potential advantages of stem-cell therapy to counteract or minimize the sequelae of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS PubMed, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov searches were conducted to incorporate pertinent studies that discussed stem cell use in the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Included articles were subjected to data extraction for the synthesis of the efficacy of stem-cell therapy. RESULTS Four preclinical studies with 181 animal model subjects (44 mice, 137 rats) were incorporated in our review. Endovascular punctures (65%) and blood injections in subarachnoid spaces (17%) were used to induce hemorrhage models. Stem cells were administered intravenously (3.0 × 106 cells) or intranasally (1.5 × 106 cells). According to literature, mesenchymal cell therapy significantly (p<0.05) induces stem-cell migration to lesion sites, decreases associated neural apoptosis and inflammation, improves ultrastructural integrity of cerebral tissue, and aids in improving sensorimotor function post subarachnoid hemorrhage. CONCLUSION Stem cells, particularly mesenchymal stem cells, have shown promising cellular, morphological, and functional benefits in animal models suffering from induced subarachnoid hemorrhages. However, further studies are warranted to elucidate the full effects of stem-cell therapy for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:26958151
Arboix, Adrià; García-Eroles, Luis; Sellarés, Núria; Raga, Agnès; Oliveres, Montserrat; Massons, Joan
Background Little is known about clinical features and prognosis of patients with ischaemic stroke caused by infarction in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). This single centre, retrospective study was conducted with the following objectives: a) to describe the clinical characteristics and short-term outcome of stroke patients with ACA infarction as compared with that of patients with ischaemic stroke due to middle cerebral artery (MCA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) infarctions, and b) to identify predictors of ACA stroke. Methods Fifty-one patients with ACA stroke were included in the "Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona Stroke Registry" during a period of 19 years (1986–2004). Data from stroke patients are entered in the stroke registry following a standardized protocol with 161 items regarding demographics, risk factors, clinical features, laboratory and neuroimaging data, complications and outcome. The characteristics of these 51 patients with ACA stroke were compared with those of the 1355 patients with MCA infarctions and 232 patients with PCA infarctions included in the registry. Results Infarctions of the ACA accounted for 1.3% of all cases of stroke (n = 3808) and 1.8% of cerebral infarctions (n = 2704). Stroke subtypes included cardioembolic infarction in 45.1% of patients, atherothrombotic infarction in 29.4%, lacunar infarct in 11.8%, infarct of unknown cause in 11.8% and infarction of unusual aetiology in 2%. In-hospital mortality was 7.8% (n = 4). Only 5 (9.8%) patients were symptom-free at hospital discharge. Speech disturbances (odds ratio [OR] = 0.48) and altered consciousness (OR = 0.31) were independent variables of ACA stroke in comparison with MCA infarction, whereas limb weakness (OR = 9.11), cardioembolism as stroke mechanism (OR = 2.49) and sensory deficit (OR = 0.35) were independent variables associated with ACA stroke in comparison with PCA infarction. Conclusion Cardioembolism is the main cause of brain infarction
Arauz, A; López, M; Cantú, C; Barinagarrementeria, F
Nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) accounts for 15% to 20% of all the cases of SAH. Its prognosis may vary from complete recovery to different and serious complications. We describe a series of cases with nonaneurysmal SAHs, their clinical and tomographic characteristics and causes as well as long term prognosis. 50 patients diagnosed of SAH and two negative brain angiographies for aneurysm were followed-up for an average period of 62 months. The demographic data of importance, vascular risk factors, were recorded. They were evaluated during the acute phase with the Hunt and Hess clinical scale and Fisher topographic scale. The distribution of the hemorrhage was listed as absent, perimesencephalic, focal, ventricular or diffuse. Presence of rebleeding, death and the functional course, measured by the Rankin modified scale, were recorded during the follow-up. According to this scale, Rankin of 0 to 2 was considered as a favorable prognosis. This series represents 8.6 of all the SAH cases in our hospital. In 6 cases (12%), there was a causal relationship between the use of sympathicomimetic drugs and the development of SAH. In 80% of them, it was not possible to document the cause of the hemorrhage, while difference causes )cerebral venous thrombosis in 4 [8%], spontaneous dissection of the vertebral artery in 2 [4%], vasculitis secondary to neurocystecerosis in 2 [4%], cavernous angioma in 1 [2%] and spinal arteriovenous malformation in 1) were found. Rebleeding did not occur in any of the cases and only one patient died. In 45 patients (90%), the final functional prognosis was good (Rankin 0-2). We found no significant differences between the tomographic pattern of the hemorrhage, initial clinical condition and long term prognosis. Our findings show a low frequency of nonaneurysmal SAH in our population and a diversity of causes greater than those reported by other series. The good functional prognosis in these cases was confirmed.
Otite, Fadar; Mink, Susanne; Tan, Can Ozan; Puri, Ajit; Zamani, Amir A; Mehregan, Aujan; Chou, Sherry; Orzell, Susannah; Purkayastha, Sushmita; Du, Rose; Sorond, Farzaneh A
Cerebral autoregulation may be impaired in the early days after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cerebral autoregulation and angiographic vasospasm (aVSP) and radiographic delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in patients with SAH. Sixty-eight patients (54±13 years) with a diagnosis of nontraumatic SAH were studied. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was assessed using transfer function analysis (phase and gain) of the spontaneous blood pressure and blood flow velocity oscillations on days 2 to 4 post-SAH. aVSP was diagnosed using a 4-vessel conventional angiogram. DCI was diagnosed from CT. Decision tree models were used to identify optimal cut-off points for clinical and physiological predictors of aVSP and DCI. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to develop and validate a risk scoring tool for each outcome. Sixty-two percent of patients developed aVSP, and 19% developed DCI. Patients with aVSP had higher transfer function gain (1.06±0.33 versus 0.89±0.30; P=0.04) and patients with DCI had lower transfer function phase (17.5±39.6 versus 38.3±18.2; P=0.03) compared with those who did not develop either. Multivariable scoring tools using transfer function gain>0.98 and phase<12.5 were strongly predictive of aVSP (92% positive predictive value; 77% negative predictive value; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.92) and DCI (80% positive predictive value; 91% negative predictive value; area under the curve, 0.94), respectively. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation is impaired in the early days after SAH. Including autoregulation as part of the initial clinical and radiographic assessment may enhance our ability to identify patients at a high risk for developing secondary complications after SAH.
Ellis, Jason A; McDowell, Michael M; Mayer, Stephan A; Lavine, Sean D; Meyers, Philip M; Connolly, E Sander
The use of antiplatelet medications has greatly expanded and this has been associated with an increased rate of complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The influence of antiplatelet medications on outcomes after non-aneurysmal SAH is unknown. To analyze the frequency and impact on outcome of antiplatelet medication use among patients with angiogram-negative SAH. An analysis of patients within the Columbia University SAH Outcomes Project database was performed. All patients who underwent catheter cerebral angiography after presenting with nontraumatic SAH between 1996 and 2013 were included. Outcomes were assessed by using the modified Rankin Scale. A total of 1351 patients underwent catheter angiography for evaluation of SAH. Of these, 173 (13%) were designated angiogram-negative. The fraction of patients presenting with angiogram-negative SAH as well as the frequency of antiplatelet use among these patients significantly increased during the study period. Antiplatelet use was more commonly associated with angiogram-negative SAH than with angiogram-positive SAH (27% vs 14%, P = .001). At 14 days after presentation, poor outcome was significantly more frequent among patients who took antiplatelet agents than among those who did not (38% vs 20%, P = .017). This effect was also seen after multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 2.58; P = .034), although no difference was observed by 12 months (P > .05). Antiplatelet medication use is associated with poor early, but not late, outcomes after angiogram-negative SAH. Corresponding increased rates of antiplatelet medication use and angiogram-negative SAH may be related. Additional studies are needed to confirm this association.
Claassen, Jan; Bateman, Brian T; Willey, Joshua Z; Inati, Sarah; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Mayer, Stephan A; Sacco, Ralph L; Schumacher, H Christian
To identify the frequency of and impact on outcome of generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) among patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a database of admissions to nonfederal United States hospitals between 1994 and 2002, for this study. From this database, we identified all adult patients with nontraumatic SAH who were admitted through the emergency department. Independent predictors of GCSE and mortality were identified using multivariate logistic regression. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to determine whether GCSE was independently associated with increased cost and/or duration of hospitalization. Among the 29,998 patients hospitalized with nontraumatic SAH, GCSE was reported to occur in 0.2% of patients (N = 73 patients). GCSE occurred more frequently among those in the youngest tertiale (49 years old or younger; odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-5.1), those with renal disease (odds ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-8.8), and those who did not undergo a neurosurgical procedure involving a craniotomy (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.8). GCSE was independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality (48% versus 33% of patients; odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.4; P = 0.002) and longer (9 versus 7 days; P = 0.016) and more expensive (US $39,677 versus US $26,686; P = 0.007) hospitalizations. GCSE rarely complicates SAH; however, it is associated with increased patient mortality, length of hospital stay, and cost. GCSE occurs more frequently in young patients, those with a history of renal disease, and patients who do not undergo a craniotomy.
Kim, Sang Yong; Kim, Seong Min; Park, Moon Sun; Kim, Han Kyu; Park, Ki Seok
Objective The purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness and safety of nicardipine infusion for controlling blood pressure in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods We prospectively evaluated 52 patients with SAH and treated with nicardipine infusion for blood pressure control in a 29 months period. The mean blood pressure of pre-injection, bolus injection and continuous injection period were compared. This study evaluated the effectiveness of nicardipine for each Fisher grade, for different dose of continuous nicardipine infusion, and for the subgroups of systolic blood pressure. Results The blood pressure measurement showed that the mean systolic blood pressure / diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) in continuous injection period (120.9/63.0 mmHg) was significantly lower than pre-injection period (145.6/80.3 mmHg) and bolus injection period (134.2/71.3 mmHg), and these were statistically significant (p < 0.001). In each subgroups of Fisher grade and different dose, SBP/DBP also decreased after the use of nicardipine. These were statistically significant (p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in effectiveness between subgroups (p > 0.05). Furthermore, controlling blood pressure was more effective when injecting higher dose of nicardipine in higher SBP group rather than injecting lower dose in lower SBP group, and it also was statistically significant (p < 0.05). During the infusion, hypotension and cardiogenic problems were transiently combined in five cases. However, patients recovered without any complications. Conclusion Nicardipine is an effective and safe agent for controlling acutely elevated blood pressure after SAH. A more systemic study with larger patients population will provide significant results and will bring solid evidence on effectiveness of nicardipine in SAH. PMID:23210033
Launcelott, Zoë A; Palmisano, Mathew P; Stefanacci, Joseph D; Whitney, Beth L
A 5-year-old 35.8-kg (78.8-lb) neutered male Labrador Retriever was evaluated for chronic nasal discharge associated with a fungal infection. The dog had previously been prescribed antimicrobials and antifungal treatment, but owner compliance was lacking. Bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, mild ulceration of the left nasal commissure, and hyperkeratosis of the dorsal nasal planum were present. Computed tomography revealed destruction of the intranasal structures, focal lysis of the cribriform plate, and invasion of a soft-tissue mass into the frontal cortex. Rhinoscopy revealed a large pale mass in the caudal aspect of the right nasal passage; a biopsy sample was consistent with Aspergillus sp on histologic evaluation. Initial treatment included medical management with an antifungal agent. Approximately 3 months later, a large fungal granuloma in the right frontal sinus was removed and debridement was performed via dorsal rhinotomy. One month after surgery, the dog was evaluated for signs of cervical pain and altered mentation. An MRI and CSF analysis were performed; diagnoses of ventricular pneumocephalus, subarachnoid pneumorrhachis, and meningoencephalitis were made. Management included oxygen therapy and administration of antimicrobials, analgesics, and antifungal medications. On follow-up 9 months after initial evaluation, neurologic deficits were reportedly resolved, and the dog was doing well. This report emphasizes the importance of prompt, appropriate treatment of fungal rhinitis in dogs. Although rare, pneumocephalus and pneumorrhachis should be included as differential diagnoses for neurologic signs following treatment for this condition. In this dog, the complications were not considered severe and improved over time with supportive care.
Kang, Peter; Raya, Amanda; Zipfel, Gregory J; Dhar, Rajat
Hydrocephalus requiring external ventricular drain (EVD) or shunt placement commonly complicates aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but its frequency is not as well known for nonaneurysmal SAH (NA-SAH). Those with diffuse bleeding may have greater risk of hydrocephalus compared to those with a perimesencephalic pattern. We evaluated the frequency of hydrocephalus in NA-SAH and whether imaging factors could predict the need for EVD and shunting. We collected admission clinical and imaging variables for 105 NA-SAH patients, including bicaudate index (BI), Hijdra sum score (HSS), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) score, modified Fisher scale (mFS), and bleeding pattern. Hydrocephalus was categorized as acute (need for EVD) or chronic (shunt). We applied logistic regression to determine whether hydrocephalus risk was independently related to bleeding pattern or mediated through blood volume or ventriculomegaly. Acute hydrocephalus was seen in 26 (25%) patients but was more common with diffuse (15/28, 54%) versus perimesencephalic (10/59, 17%, p < 0.001) bleeding. Patients developing acute hydrocephalus had worse clinical grade and higher BI, HSS, and IVH scores. Adjusting the relationship between hydrocephalus and diffuse bleeding for HSS (but not BI) nullified this association. Nine (35%) patients requiring EVD eventually required shunting for chronic hydrocephalus, which was associated with greater blood burden but not poor clinical grade. Acute hydrocephalus occurs in one-quarter of NA-SAH patients. The greater risk in diffuse bleeding appears to be mediated by greater cisternal blood volume but not by greater ventriculomegaly. Imaging characteristics may aid in anticipatory management of hydrocephalus in NA-SAH.
Foreman, Paul M; Chua, Michelle; Harrigan, Mark R; Fisher, Winfield S; Vyas, Nilesh A; Lipsky, Robert H; Walters, Beverly C; Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Griessenauer, Christoph J
OBJECTIVE Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a recognized complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) that contributes to poor outcome. This study seeks to determine the effect of nosocomial infection on the incidence of DCI and patient outcome. METHODS An exploratory analysis was performed on 156 patients with aSAH enrolled in the Cerebral Aneurysm Renin Angiotensin System study. Clinical and radiographic data were analyzed with univariate analysis to detect risk factors for the development of DCI and poor outcome. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors of DCI. RESULTS One hundred fifty-three patients with aSAH were included. DCI was identified in 32 patients (20.9%). Nosocomial infection (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-11.2, p = 0.04), ventriculitis (OR 25.3, 95% CI 1.39-458.7, p = 0.03), aneurysm re-rupture (OR 7.55, 95% CI 1.02-55.7, p = 0.05), and clinical vasospasm (OR 43.4, 95% CI 13.1-143.4, p < 0.01) were independently associated with the development of DCI. Diagnosis of nosocomial infection preceded the diagnosis of DCI in 15 (71.4%) of 21 patients. Patients diagnosed with nosocomial infection experienced significantly worse outcomes as measured by the modified Rankin Scale score at discharge and 1 year (p < 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Nosocomial infection is independently associated with DCI. This association is hypothesized to be partly causative through the exacerbation of systemic inflammation leading to thrombosis and subsequent ischemia.
Kuwabara, Kazuaki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Matsuda, Shinya; Ishikawa, Koichi B; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Fujimori, Kenji
Post-procedure hemodynamic management for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is controversial because of the paucity of studied patients. Using a Japanese administrative database, we tested whether increased albumin, catecholamine, and volumes of fluid administered between the procedure and the 4th post-procedure day would be associated with outcomes of mortality, consciousness deterioration at discharge and re-intubation between the 5th and 14th post-procedure days. Across 550 hospitals, 5,400 patients were identified who received clipping, wrapping and endovascular coiling within 48 h after admission in 2010. Patient characteristics and the administration of albumin, catecholamine, and volume of fluid normalized by body weight were analyzed among the groups and categorized according to the presence of albumin and catecholamine administered between the procedure and the 4th post-procedure day. The association of early hemodynamic management with outcomes was measured using logistic regression models, through controlling for the preference of early administration of albumin and catecholamine. For the patients, 9.3 % received albumin only, 14.4 % catecholamine only, and 4.9 % both between the procedure and the 4th post-procedure day, while 16.5 % received albumin or catecholamine on other days. Variation in albumin and catecholamine administration was observed. Higher normalized fluid volume, commenced before the 4th post-procedure day, was associated with increased mortality and re-intubation (although with decreased complications), and vice versa between the 4th and 14th post-procedure days. Catecholamine administration was associated with worsened outcomes. Hypervolemic and hypertensive therapies commenced before the 4th post-procedure day require further research to determine whether their associations with outcomes in this administrative data base are causal or not.
Background Cardiac complications are often developed after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and may cause sudden death of the patient. There are reports in the literature addressing ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as an early and useful marker in the diagnosis of ischemic heart events. The aim of this study is to evaluate serum IMA by using the albumin cobalt binding (ACB) test in the first, second, and seventh days of experimental SAH in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups each consisting of seven animals. These were classified as control group, 1st, 2nd and 7th day SAH groups. SAH was done by transclival basilar artery puncture. Blood samples were collected under anesthesia from the left ventricles of the heart using the cardiac puncture method for IMA measurement. Histopathological examinations were performed on the heart and lung tissues. Albumin with by colorimetric, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined on an automatic analyser using the enzymatic method. IMA using by ACB test was detected with spectrophotometer. Results Serum IMA (p = 0.044) in seventh day of SAH were higher compared to the control group. Total injury scores of heart and lung tissue, also myocytolysis at day 7 were significantly higher than control group (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001), day 1 (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001) and day 2 (p = 0.001, p = 0.007, p = 0.001). A positive correlation between IMA - myocytolysis (r = 0.48, p = 0.008), and between IMA – heart tissue total injury score (r = 0.41, p = 0.029) was found. Conclusion The results revealed that increased serum IMA may be related to myocardial stress after SAH. PMID:24564759
Izumihara, Akifumi; Shimoji, Takashi; Uesugi, Masashi; Fujisawa, Hirosuke; Suzuko, Michiyasu; Ie, Tomoji
The aim of this study was to analyze epidemiological and clinical data of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the Yaeyama islands, an isolated subtropical region of Japan. A total of 94 patients (31 men and 63 women, mean age 57.3 years) were diagnosed as having non-traumatic SAH during a 13-year period from 1989 to 2002. The age-and sex-adjusted annual incidence rate of SAH was 17.4 per 100,000 population. The incidence of SAH was the highest in August. Seventy-nine patients were hospitalized within 24 hours after onset of SAH. Seventeen patients were transferred by helicopter. The Hunt and Kosnik grade was I in 29 patients (30.9%). The CT Fisher group was 3 in 42 patients (44.7%). Ruptured aneurysm was detected in 78 patients (saccular type in 70 patients, small size in 49 patients, and internal carotid artery in 28 patients). Rebleeding occurred in 20 patients (21.3%). Symptomatic vasospasm occurred in 26 patients (27.7%). Acute and chronic hydrocephalus occurred in 25 (26.6%) and 22 (23.4%) patients respectively. A total of 120 neurosurgical operations were performed in 70 patients (operation for ruptured aneurysm in 62, early operation in 39). A total of 42 operative complications occurred in 29 patients. Fifty-one patients (54.3%) had a good outcome. The number of full-time neurosurgeons did not influence the performance of neurosurgical operation and outcome. In conclusion, epidemiologically, the high incidence of SAH in August is unusual. Patients with aneurysmal SAH in the Yaeyama islands have common clinical characteristics and undergo standard neurosurgical treatment.
Background Hyponatremia occurring as a result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a common complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The efficacy and safety of urea as treatment for SIADH-induced hyponatremia has not been reported in this population. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of all patients admitted to our department for nontraumatic SAH between January 2003 and December 2008 (n = 368). All patients with SIADH-induced hyponatremia (plasma sodium < 135 mEq/L, urine sodium > 20 mEq/L, and osmolality > 200 mOsm/kg; absence of overt dehydration or hypovolemia; no peripheral edema or renal failure; no history of adrenal or thyroid disease) routinely received urea per os when hyponatremia was associated with clinical deterioration or remained less than 130 mEq/L despite saline solution administration. Results Forty-two patients developed SIADH and were treated with urea. Urea was started after a median of 7 (IQR, 5–10) days and given orally at doses of 15–30 g tid or qid for a median of 5 (IQR, 3–7) days. The median plasma sodium increase over the first day of treatment was 3 (IQR, 1–6) mEq/L. Hyponatremia was corrected in all patients, with median times to Na+ >130 and >135 mEq/L of 1 (IQR, 1–2) and 3 (IQR, 2–4) days, respectively. Urea was well tolerated, and no adverse effects were reported. Conclusions Oral urea is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for SIADH-induced hyponatremia in SAH patients. PMID:22647340
Introduction Pulmonary edema (PED) is a severe complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). PED is often treated with diuretics and a reduction in fluid intake, but this may cause intravascular volume depletion, which is associated with secondary ischemia after SAH. We prospectively studied intravascular volume in SAH patients with and without PED. Methods Circulating blood volume (CBV) was determined daily during the first 10 days after SAH by means of pulse dye densitometry. CBV of 60-80 ml/kg was considered normal. PED was diagnosed from clinical signs and characteristic bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on the chest radiograph. We compared CBV, cardiac index, and fluid balance between